Science.gov

Sample records for accepted scientific methods

  1. Behavioral genetics: scientific and social acceptance.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, David R

    2003-01-01

    Human behavioral genetics can be broadly defined as the attempt to characterize and define the genetic or hereditary basis for human behavior. Examination of the history of these scientific enterprises reveals episodes of controversy, and an apparent distinction between scientific and social acceptance of the genetic nature of such complex behaviors. This essay will review the history and methodology of behavioral genetics research, including a more detailed look at case histories involving behavioral genetic research for aggressive behavior and alcoholism. It includes a discussion of the scientific versus social qualities of the acceptance of behavioral genetics research, as well as the development of a general model for scientific acceptance involving the researchers, the scientific literature, the scientific peer group, the mainstream media, and the public at large. From this model follows a discussion of the means and complications by which behavioral genetics research may be accepted by society, and an analysis of how future studies might be conducted.

  2. WWW: The Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  3. Projecting the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uthe, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the gas laws are an excellent vehicle for introducing the steps of the scientific method. Students can use balloons and a simple apparatus to observe changes in various gas parameters, develop ideas about the changes they see, collect numerical data, test their ideas, derive simple equations for the relationships, and use the…

  4. Students' Alternative Conceptions and Scientifically Acceptable Conceptions about Gravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, David

    2001-01-01

    Identifies students' conceptions that could be categorized as scientifically acceptable and investigates the nature of any possible relationship between these concepts. Investigates 6th and 10th grade students' ideas on whether gravity acted upon a series of moving or non-moving objects in everyday situations. (Contains 41 references.) (Author/YDS)

  5. [Demonstrating patient safety requires acceptance of a broader scientific palette].

    PubMed

    Leistikow, I

    2017-01-01

    It is high time the medical community recognised that patient-safety research can be assessed using other scientific methods than the traditional medical ones. There is often a fundamental mismatch between the methodology of patient-safety research and the methodology used to assess the quality of this research. One example is research into the reliability and validity of record review as a method for detecting adverse events. This type of research is based on logical positivism, while record review itself is based on social constructivism. Record review does not lead to "one truth": adverse events are not measured on the basis of the records themselves, but by weighing the probability of certain situations being classifiable as adverse events. Healthcare should welcome behavioural and social sciences to its scientific palette. Restricting ourselves to the randomised control trial paradigm is short-sighted and dangerous; it deprives patients of much-needed improvements in safety.

  6. Can Scientific Method Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of changes in science education and scientific literacy is presented in the form of a dialog between the author and his alter ego. Structure of science, myths, facts, methods, and critical rationality are considered. Suggests that scientific principles once considered basic and unchanging are giving way to critical thinking. (DH)

  7. Cholera and the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach to teaching the scientific method where an outbreak of cholera within the school is simulated. Students act like epidemiologists in an attempt to track down the source of the contamination. (PR)

  8. Scientific Productivity and Idea Acceptance in Nobel Laureates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charyton, Christine; DeDios, Samantha Lynn; Nygren, Thomas Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how new ideas become accepted for Nobel laureates in science. Archival data were collected for 204 Nobel laureates from 1980 to 2009 in physics, chemistry, and medicine or physiology. Acceptance was evaluated for Nobel laureates by Prize area and three key publications in the Nobel laureates' publishing careers: (a) first…

  9. Acceptance criteria for method equivalency assessments.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Marion J; Borman, Phil J

    2009-12-15

    Quality by design (ICH-Topic Q8) requires that process control strategy requirements are met and maintained. The challenging task of setting appropriate acceptance criteria for assessment of method equivalence is a critical component of satisfying these requirements. The use of these criteria will support changes made to methods across the product lifecycle. A method equivalence assessment is required when a change is made to a method which may pose a risk to its ability to monitor the quality of the process. Establishing appropriate acceptance criteria are a vital, but not clearly understood, prerequisite to deciding the appropriate design/sample size of the equivalency study. A number of approaches are proposed in the literature for setting acceptance criteria for equivalence which address different purposes. This perspective discusses those purposes and then provides more details on setting acceptance criteria based on patient and producer risk, e.g., tolerance interval approach and the consideration of method or process capability. Applying these to a drug substance assay method for batch release illustrates that, for the equivalence assessment to be meaningful, a clear understanding and appraisal of the control requirements of the method is needed. Rather than a single exact algorithm, the analyst's judgment on a number of aspects is required in deciding the appropriate acceptance criteria.

  10. Biology, Philosophy, and Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, L.

    1985-01-01

    The limits of falsification are discussed and the historically based models of science described by Lakatos and Kuhn are shown to offer greater insights into the practice of science. The theory of natural selection is used to relate biology to philosophy and scientific method. (Author/JN)

  11. The Changing Face of Scientific Discourse: Analysis of Genomic and Proteomic Database Usage and Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cecelia

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the growth in use and acceptance of Web-based genomic and proteomic databases (GPD) in scholarly communication. Confirms the role of GPD in the scientific literature cycle, suggests GPD are a storage and retrieval mechanism for molecular biology information, and recommends that existing models of scientific communication be updated to…

  12. Darwin and the scientific method

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    There is a contradiction between Darwin's methodology and how he described it for public consumption. Darwin claimed that he proceeded “on true Baconian [inductive] principles and without any theory collected facts on a wholesale scale.” He also wrote, “How odd it is that anyone should not see that all observation must be for or against some view if it is to be of any service!” The scientific method includes 2 episodes. The first consists of formulating hypotheses; the second consists of experimentally testing them. What differentiates science from other knowledge is the second episode: subjecting hypotheses to empirical testing by observing whether or not predictions derived from a hypothesis are the case in relevant observations and experiments. A hypothesis is scientific only if it is consistent with some but not other possible states of affairs not yet observed, so that it is subject to the possibility of falsification by reference to experience. Darwin occupies an exalted place in the history of Western thought, deservedly receiving credit for the theory of evolution. In The Origin of Species, he laid out the evidence demonstrating the evolution of organisms. More important yet is that he discovered natural selection, the process that accounts for the adaptations of organisms and their complexity and diversification. Natural selection and other causal processes of evolution are investigated by formulating and testing hypotheses. Darwin advanced hypotheses in multiple fields, including geology, plant morphology and physiology, psychology, and evolution, and subjected them to severe empirical tests. PMID:19528662

  13. The Dogma of "The" Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wivagg, Dan; Allchin, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Points out major problems with the scientific method as a model for learning about methodology in science and suggests teaching about the scientists' toolbox to remedy problems with the conventional scientific method. (KHR)

  14. Conceptual Change in Psychology Students' Acceptance of the Scientific Foundation of the Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsel, Eric; Ashley, Aaron; Baird, Todd; Johnston, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Two studies explored conceptual change in undergraduate psychology students' acceptance of the scientific foundations of the discipline. In Study 1, Introductory Psychology students completed the Psychology as Science questionnaire (PAS) at the beginning and end of the semester and did so from their own (Self Condition) and their instructors'…

  15. The pivotal role of perceived scientific consensus in acceptance of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Gignac, Gilles E.; Vaughan, Samuel

    2013-04-01

    Although most experts agree that CO2 emissions are causing anthropogenic global warming (AGW), public concern has been declining. One reason for this decline is the `manufacture of doubt' by political and vested interests, which often challenge the existence of the scientific consensus. The role of perceived consensus in shaping public opinion is therefore of considerable interest: in particular, it is unknown whether consensus determines people's beliefs causally. It is also unclear whether perception of consensus can override people's `worldviews', which are known to foster rejection of AGW. Study 1 shows that acceptance of several scientific propositions--from HIV/AIDS to AGW--is captured by a common factor that is correlated with another factor that captures perceived scientific consensus. Study 2 reveals a causal role of perceived consensus by showing that acceptance of AGW increases when consensus is highlighted. Consensus information also neutralizes the effect of worldview.

  16. "The Scientific Method" as Myth and Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    "The Scientific Method" as it has been portrayed in popular and introductory contexts has been declared a myth. The variation that one finds in introductory presentations of "The Scientific Method" is explained by the fact that there is no canonical account among historians and philosophers of science. What, in particular, is…

  17. The Scientific Method: Is It Still Useful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Scott B.; James, Linda

    2004-01-01

    While the scientific method is a logical, orderly way to solve a problem or answer a question, it is not a magical formula that is too complicated for nonscientists to comprehend (Keeton and Gould 1986). The scientific method may include a variety of steps, processes, and definitions. It should not be seen as a single series of steps, with no…

  18. The Scientific Method Used in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altes, Agustin Salvat; Merce, Magda Medir

    1988-01-01

    Shows the difficulties of understanding the hypothesis a posteriori. Describes a scientific method containing phenomenologic, hypothetic, and theoretic phases. Provides the results of an experiment on simple pendulum oscillation by using this method. (YP)

  19. ESP: Teaching "Scientific Method" by Counterexample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    Offers a course description of an introductory course in physics for nonscientists. The history of research into extrasensory perception is used as evidence of the scientific method. Lecture demonstrations are discussed. (Author/CP)

  20. Scientific method, adversarial system, and technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A basic framework is provided for the consideration of the purposes and techniques of scientific method and adversarial systems. Similarities and differences in these two techniques of inquiry are considered with reference to their relevance in the performance of assessments.

  1. The Scientific Method in a Cup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Bradley W.; More, M. B.

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes an inexpensive hands-on activity that invites students to investigate an intriguing mystery and so discover for themselves the essence of the scientific method. When a spoon is tapped against the bottom of a mug of freshly made hot chocolate, a tone of constantly rising pitch is heard. Students’ reactions to this “hot chocolate effect” illustrate how the scientific method may be constructed from the common sense and curiosity present in us all.

  2. Computational Simulations and the Scientific Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Bil; Wood, Bill

    2005-01-01

    As scientific simulation software becomes more complicated, the scientific-software implementor's need for component tests from new model developers becomes more crucial. The community's ability to follow the basic premise of the Scientific Method requires independently repeatable experiments, and model innovators are in the best position to create these test fixtures. Scientific software developers also need to quickly judge the value of the new model, i.e., its cost-to-benefit ratio in terms of gains provided by the new model and implementation risks such as cost, time, and quality. This paper asks two questions. The first is whether other scientific software developers would find published component tests useful, and the second is whether model innovators think publishing test fixtures is a feasible approach.

  3. An Abductive Theory of Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    A broad theory of scientific method is sketched that has particular relevance for the behavioral sciences. This theory of method assembles a complex of specific strategies and methods that are used in the detection of empirical phenomena and the subsequent construction of explanatory theories. A characterization of the nature of phenomena is…

  4. Classroom Critters and the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneidel, Sally

    This resource book presents 37 behavioral experiments that can be performed with commonly-found classroom animals including hamsters, gerbils, mice, goldfish, guppies, anolis lizards, kittens, and puppies. Each experiment explores the five steps of the scientific method: (1) Question; (2) Hypothesis; (3) Methods; (4) Result; and (5) Conclusion.…

  5. Methods of Scientific Research: Teaching Scientific Creativity at Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Dennis; Ford, K. E. Saavik

    2016-01-01

    We present a scaling-up plan for AstroComNYC's Methods of Scientific Research (MSR), a course designed to improve undergraduate students' understanding of science practices. The course format and goals, notably the open-ended, hands-on, investigative nature of the curriculum are reviewed. We discuss how the course's interactive pedagogical techniques empower students to learn creativity within the context of experimental design and control of variables thinking. To date the course has been offered to a limited numbers of students in specific programs. The goals of broadly implementing MSR is to reach more students and early in their education—with the specific purpose of supporting and improving retention of students pursuing STEM careers. However, we also discuss challenges in preserving the effectiveness of the teaching and learning experience at scale.

  6. The Scientific Method - Critical and Creative Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, John; Scarlise, Randall

    2011-10-01

    The ``scientific method'' is not just for scientists! Combined with critical thinking, the scientific method can enable students to distinguish credible sources of information from nonsense and become intelligent consumers of information. Professors John Cotton and Randall Scalise illustrate these principles using a series of examples and demonstrations that is enlightening, educational, and entertaining. This lecture/demonstration features highlights from their course (whose unofficial title is ``debunking pseudoscience'' ) which enables students to detect pseudoscience in its many guises: paranormal phenomena, free-energy devices, alternative medicine, and many others.

  7. Salt Crystals: Exploring the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John; Villanueva, Roy

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students apply the scientific method as they explore each step of crystal growing. Students select variables, record daily observations, and participate in discussions about the differences in crystal formation. Crystal recipe and procedures are provided. (DDR)

  8. Highlighting the Scientific Method through Mathematics Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGalliard, William A., Jr.

    This paper argues that the introduction of the scientific method in the very rich environments of the natural sciences or human sciences may disguise the process and create difficulties for students because of the multiplicity of variables involved, whereas the variables present in a mathematical context can be readily manipulated and their…

  9. Heisenberg: Paralleling Scientific and Historical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofield, Calla

    2007-04-01

    Werner Heisenberg is an important historical subject within the physics community partly because his actions as a human being are discussed nearly as often as his work as a physicist. But does the scientific community establish it's historical ideas with the same methods and standards as it's scientific conclusions? I interviewed Heisenberg's son, Jochen Heisenberg, a professor of physics at UNH. Despite a great amount of literature on Werner Heisenberg, only one historian has interviewed Jochen about his father and few have interviewed Werner's wife. Nature is mysterious and unpredictable, but it doesn't lie or distort like humans, and we believe it can give ``honest'' results. But are we keeping the same standards with history that we do with science? Are we holding historians to these standards and if not, is it up to scientists to not only be keepers of scientific understanding, but historical understanding as well? Shouldn't we record history by using the scientific method, by weighing the best sources of data differently than the less reliable, and are we right to be as stubborn about changing our views on history as we are about changing our views on nature?

  10. The Invention and Discovery of the Neutrino: Elusive Reality and the Nature of Scientific Acceptance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchley, Charles Edward

    The history of the neutrino hypothesis from its invention in 1930 to its physical confirmation in 1956 exemplifies the roles played by theory and experiment in the acceptance of scientific knowledge. The initial impetus for its introduction concerned beta decay and the problems associated with nuclear statistics and the conservation of energy. Despite its unusual properties and the lack of observational certification, physicists tentatively accepted the idea of the neutrino in the late 1930s. This acceptance was based primarily on its use in Fermi's theory of beta decay and on the absence of viable alternative explanations. The 1940s and 1950s witnessed a steady increase in experimental attempts to define, detect, and confirm the existence of the neutrino. At the same time, theorists expanded the usefulness of the neutrino into other areas of physics, even attempting to use its unusual nature to unify electromagnetism, nuclear forces, and gravitation. As its theoretical necessity became more ingrained in physics, experimenters worked even harder to unveil this elusive particle. The neutrino resisted empirical disclosure, however, until developments in instrumentation and the evolution of Big Science after World War II made its detection possible by a rare process called inverse beta decay. Experimental and theoretical approaches toward verifying the neutrino's existence in the two-and-a-half decades after its invention closely paralleled other conceptual changes occurring in physics. These changes involved the nature of fundamental definitions used by physicists as well as changes in the way physical reality was defined for a fundamental particle. In summary, the maturation of the neutrino concept from theoretical necessity to empirical certainty reflects the way new ideas are debated and evaluated by the physics community.

  11. Chaos Theory: A Scientific Basis for Alternative Research Methods in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peca, Kathy

    This paper has three purposes. First, it places in scientific perspective the growing acceptance in educational administration research of alternative methods to empiricism by an explication of chaos theory and its assumptions. Second, it demonstrates that chaos theory provides a scientific basis for investigation of complex qualitative variables…

  12. [Validation and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods for toxicity evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    For regulatory acceptance of alternative methods (AMs) to animal toxicity tests, their reproducibility and relevance should be determined by intra- and inter-laboratory validation. Appropriate procedures of the validation and regulatory acceptance of AMs were recommended by OECD in 1996. According to those principles, several in vitro methods like skin corrosivity tests and phototoxicity tests were evaluated and accepted by ECVAM (European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods), ICCVAM (The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods), and OECD. Because of the difficulties in conducting inter-laboratory validation and relatively short period remained until EU's ban of animal experiments for safety evaluation of cosmetics, ECVAM and ICCVAM have recently started cooperation in validation and evaluation of AMs. It is also necessary to establish JaCVAM (Japanese Center for the Validation of AM) to contribute the issue and for the evaluation of new toxicity tests originated in Japan.

  13. The scientific method is dead--long live the (new) scientific method.

    PubMed

    Satava, Richard M

    2005-06-01

    The scientific method has been the mainstay of scientific inquiry and clinical practice for nearly a century. A new methodology has been emerging from the scientific (nonmedical) community: the introduction of modeling and simulation as an integral part of the scientific process. Thus, after the hypothesis is proposed and an experiment is designed, modern scientists perform numerous simulations of the experiment. An iterative optimization of the design of the experiment is performed on the computer and is seen in virtual prototyping and virtual testing and evaluation. After this iterative step, when the best design has been refined, the actual experiment is conducted in the laboratory. The value is that the modeling and simulation step saves time and money for conducting the live experiment. The practice of medicine should look to the tools being used by the rest of the scientific community and consider adopting and adapting those new principles.

  14. A New Model for Inquiry: Is the Scientific Method Dead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, William S.

    2004-01-01

    There has been renewed discussion of the scientific method, with many voices arguing that it presents a very limited or even wholly incorrect image of the way science is really done. At the same time, the idea of a scientific method is pervasive. This article identifies the scientific method as a simple model for the process of scientific inquiry.…

  15. Clinical practice is not applied scientific method.

    PubMed

    Cox, K

    1995-08-01

    Practice is often described as applied science, but real life is far too complex and interactive to be handled by analytical scientific methods. The limitations of usefulness of scientific method in clinical practice result from many factors. The complexity of the large number of ill-defined variables at many levels of the problem. Scientific method focuses on one variable at a time across a hundred identical animals to extract a single, generalizable 'proof' or piece of 'truth'. Clinical practice deals with a hundred variables at one time within one animal from among a clientele of non-identical animals in order to optimize a mix of outcomes intended to satisfy that particular animal's current needs and desires. Interdependence among the variables. Most factors in the illness, the disease, the patient and the setting are interdependent, and cannot be sufficiently isolated to allow their separate study. Practice as a human transaction involving at least two people is too complex to be analysed one factor at a time when the interaction stimulates unpredictable responses. Ambiguous data. Words have many usages. People not only assign different interpretations to the same words, they assign different 'meanings', especially according to the threat or hope they may imply. The perceptual data gleaned from physical examination may be difficult to specify exactly or to confirm objectively. The accuracy and precision of investigational data and their reporting can be low, and are frequently unknown. Differing goals between science and practice. Science strives for exact points of propositional knowledge, verifiable by logical argument using objective data and repetition of the experiment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Using Science Teaching Case Narratives to Evaluate the Level of Acceptance of Scientific Inquiry Teaching in Preservice Elementary Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagler, Ron

    2010-03-01

    The National Science Education Standards have outlined flexible processes children perform when engaging in scientific inquiry. Cases narratives are a common component of many university science education courses but rarely are they used as a tool to evaluate the preservice teachers within these courses. This article describes the construction of a positive and negative science teaching case narrative. These case narratives can be used to evaluate the level of acceptance of scientific inquiry teaching in preservice elementary teachers.

  17. Epidemiologic methods in analysis of scientific issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdreich, Linda S.

    2003-10-01

    Studies of human populations provide much of the information that is used to evaluate compensation cases for hearing loss, including rates of hearing loss by age, and dose-response relationships. The reference data used to make decisions regarding workman's compensation is based on epidemiologic studies of cohorts of workers exposed to various noise levels. Epidemiology and its methods can be used in other ways in the courtroom; to assess the merits of a complaint, to support Daubert criteria, and to explain scientific issues to the trier of fact, generally a layperson. Using examples other than occupational noise induced hearing loss, these methods will be applied to respond to a complaint that hearing loss followed exposure to a sudden noise, a medication, or an occupational chemical, and thus was caused by said exposure. The standard criteria for assessing the weight of the evidence, and epidemiologic criteria for causality show the limits of such anecdotal data and incorporate quantitative and temporal issues. Reports of clusters of cases are also intuitively convincing to juries. Epidemiologic methods provide a scientific approach to assess whether rates of the outcome are indeed increased, and the extent to which increased rates provide evidence for causality.

  18. Applying the Scientific Method of Cybersecurity Research

    SciTech Connect

    Tardiff, Mark F.; Bonheyo, George T.; Cort, Katherine A.; Edgar, Thomas W.; Hess, Nancy J.; Hutton, William J.; Miller, Erin A.; Nowak, Kathleen E.; Oehmen, Christopher S.; Purvine, Emilie AH; Schenter, Gregory K.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2016-09-15

    The cyber environment has rapidly evolved from a curiosity to an essential component of the contemporary world. As the cyber environment has expanded and become more complex, so have the nature of adversaries and styles of attacks. Today, cyber incidents are an expected part of life. As a result, cybersecurity research emerged to address adversarial attacks interfering with or preventing normal cyber activities. Historical response to cybersecurity attacks is heavily skewed to tactical responses with an emphasis on rapid recovery. While threat mitigation is important and can be time critical, a knowledge gap exists with respect to developing the science of cybersecurity. Such a science will enable the development and testing of theories that lead to understanding the broad sweep of cyber threats and the ability to assess trade-offs in sustaining network missions while mitigating attacks. The Asymmetric Resilient Cybersecurity Initiative at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multi-year, multi-million dollar investment to develop approaches for shifting the advantage to the defender and sustaining the operability of systems under attack. The initiative established a Science Council to focus attention on the research process for cybersecurity. The Council shares science practices, critiques research plans, and aids in documenting and reporting reproducible research results. The Council members represent ecology, economics, statistics, physics, computational chemistry, microbiology and genetics, and geochemistry. This paper reports the initial work of the Science Council to implement the scientific method in cybersecurity research. The second section describes the scientific method. The third section in this paper discusses scientific practices for cybersecurity research. Section four describes initial impacts of applying the science practices to cybersecurity research.

  19. Leveraging Transcultural Enrollments to Enhance Application of the Scientific Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudin, M.

    2013-12-01

    Continued growth of transcultural academic programs presents an opportunity for all of the students involved to improve utilization of the scientific method. Our own business success depends on how effectively we apply the scientific method, and so it is unsurprising that our hiring programs focus on three broad areas of capability among applicants which are strongly related to the scientific method. These are 1) ability to continually learn up-to-date earth science concepts, 2) ability to effectively and succinctly communicate in the English language, both oral and written, and 3) ability to employ behaviors that are advantageous with respect to the various phases of the scientific method. This third area is often the most difficult to develop, because neither so-called Western nor Eastern cultures encourage a suite of behaviors that are ideally suited. Generally, the acceptance of candidates into academic programs, together with subsequent high performance evidenced by grades, is a highly valid measure of continuous learning capability. Certainly, students for whom English is not a native language face additional challenges, but succinct and effective communication is an art which requires practice and development, regardless of native language. The ability to communicate in English is crucial, since it is today's lingua franca for both science and commerce globally. Therefore, we strongly support the use of frequent English written assignments and oral presentations as an integral part of all scientific academic programs. There is no question but that this poses additional work for faculty; nevertheless it is a key ingredient to the optimal development of students. No one culture has a monopoly with respect to behaviors that promote effective leveraging of the scientific method. For instance, the growing complexity of experimental protocols argues for a high degree of interdependent effort, which is more often associated with so-called Eastern than Western

  20. The Large-Scale Structure of Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosso, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The standard textbook description of the nature of science describes the proposal, testing, and acceptance of a theoretical idea almost entirely in isolation from other theories. The resulting model of science is a kind of piecemeal empiricism that misses the important network structure of scientific knowledge. Only the large-scale description of…

  1. Harnessing the power of big data: infusing the scientific method with machine learning to transform ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most efforts to harness the power of big data for ecology and environmental sciences focus on data and metadata sharing, standardization, and accuracy. However, many scientists have not accepted the data deluge as an integral part of their research because the current scientific method is not scalab...

  2. The Scientific Method and Scientific Inquiry: Tensions in Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Xiaowei; Coffey, Janet E.; Elby, Andy; Levin, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Typically, the scientific method in science classrooms takes the form of discrete, ordered steps meant to guide students' inquiry. In this paper, we examine how focusing on the scientific method as discrete steps affects students' inquiry and teachers' perceptions thereof. To do so, we study a ninth-grade environmental science class in which…

  3. Presenting Global Warming and Evolution as Public Health Issues to Encourage Acceptance of Scientific Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Shawn K.; McArthur, Laurence B.; Mabry, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence supporting anthropogenic global warming and evolution by natural selection is considerable, the public does not embrace these concepts. The current study explores the hypothesis that individuals will become more receptive to scientific viewpoints if evidence for evolution and implications of global warming are presented as issues…

  4. Teaching the Scientific Method in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Grace

    2010-01-01

    Many undergraduates can tell you what the scientific method means but just a little probing reveals a rather shallow understanding as well as a number of misconceptions about the method. The purpose of this paper is to indicate why such misconceptions occur and to point out some implications and suggestions for teaching the scientific method in…

  5. Feasibility and acceptability of alternate methods of postnatal data collection.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey A; Friedrich, Christa; Fahrenwald, Nancy; Specker, Bonny

    2014-05-01

    This study was done in preparation for the launch of the National Children's Study (NCS) main study. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility (completion rates and completeness of data), acceptability, staff time and cost-effectiveness of three methods of data collection for the postnatal 3- and 9-month questionnaires completed as part of NCS protocol. Eligible NCS participants who were scheduled to complete a postnatal questionnaire at three and nine months were randomly assigned to receive either: (a) telephone data collection (b) web-based data collection, or (c) self-administered (mailed) questionnaires. Event completion rates and satisfaction across the three data collection methods were compared and the influence of socio-demographic factors on completion rates and satisfaction rates was examined. Cost data were compared to data for completion and satisfaction for each of the delivery methods. Completion rates and satisfaction did not differ significantly by method, but completeness of data did, with odds of data completeness higher among web than phone (p < 0.001) or mail (p < 0.001). Costs were highest for the phone, followed by mail and web methods (p < 0.001). No significant differences in participant time (i.e. burden) across the three data collection methods were seen. Mail and phone data collection were the least complete of the three methods and were the most expensive. Mailed data collection was neither complete nor exceptionally economical. Web-based data collection was the least costly and provided the most complete data. Participants without web access could complete the questionnaire over the phone.

  6. On the Existence and Uniqueness of the Scientific Method.

    PubMed

    Wagensberg, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate utility of science is widely agreed upon: the comprehension of reality. But there is much controversy about what scientific understanding actually means, and how we should proceed in order to gain new scientific understanding. Is there a method for acquiring new scientific knowledge? Is this method unique and universal? There has been no shortage of proposals, but neither has there been a shortage of skeptics about these proposals. This article proffers for discussion a potential scientific method that aspires to be unique and universal and is rooted in the recent and ancient history of scientific thinking. Curiously, conclusions can be inferred from this scientific method that also concern education and the transmission of science to others.

  7. The Crossroads between Biology and Mathematics: The Scientific Method as the Basics of Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsai, Istvan; Kampis, George

    2010-01-01

    Biology is changing and becoming more quantitative. Research is creating new challenges that need to be addressed in education as well. New educational initiatives focus on combining laboratory procedures with mathematical skills, yet it seems that most curricula center on a single relationship between scientific knowledge and scientific method:…

  8. Regulatory Acceptance of Alternative Methods in the Development and Approval of Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Beken, Sonja; Kasper, Peter; van der Laan, Jan-Willem

    Animal studies may be carried out to support first administration of a new medicinal product to either humans or the target animal species, or before performing clinical trials in even larger populations, or before marketing authorisation, or to control quality during production. Ethical and animal welfare considerations require that animal use is limited as much as possible. Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes unambiguously fosters the application of the principle of the 3Rs when considering the choice of methods to be used.As such, today, the 3Rs are embedded in the relevant regulatory guidance both at the European (European Medicines Agency (EMA)) and (Veterinary) International Conference on Harmonization ((V)ICH) levels. With respect to non-clinical testing requirements for human medicinal products, reduction and replacement of animal testing has been achieved by the regulatory acceptance of new in vitro methods, either as pivotal, supportive or exploratory mechanistic studies. Whilst replacement of animal studies remains the ultimate goal, approaches aimed at reducing or refining animal studies have also been routinely implemented in regulatory guidelines, where applicable. The chapter provides an overview of the implementation of 3Rs in the drafting of non-clinical testing guidelines for human medicinal products at the level of the ICH. In addition, the revision of the ICH S2 guideline on genotoxicity testing and data interpretation for pharmaceuticals intended for human use is discussed as a case study.In October 2010, the EMA established a Joint ad hoc Expert Group (JEG 3Rs) with the mandate to improve and foster the application of 3Rs principles to the regulatory testing of medicinal products throughout their lifecycle. As such, a Guideline on regulatory acceptance of 3R testing approaches was drafted that defines regulatory acceptance and provides guidance on the scientific and technical criteria for regulatory

  9. Adherence to Scientific Method while Advancing Exposure Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paul Lioy was simultaneously a staunch adherent to the scientific method and an innovator of new ways to conduct science, particularly related to human exposure. Current challenges to science and the application of the scientific method are presented as they relate the approaches...

  10. How the Television Show "Mythbusters" Communicates the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavrel, Erik; Sharpsteen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The importance of understanding and internalizing the scientific method can hardly be exaggerated. Unfortunately, it is all too common for high school--and even university--students to graduate with only a partial or oversimplified understanding of what the scientific method is and how to actually employ it. Help in remedying this situation may…

  11. Survey of methods for improving operator acceptance of computerized aids

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, P. R.; Kisner, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room.

  12. An Improved Colonoscopy Preparation Method and its Acceptability by Patients

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The author presents an improved method of preparation for colonoscopy that involved no dietary limitation on the patient until the day of the examination and that was shown by a randomized questionnaire evaluation to earn good patient tolerance and acceptance. Patients were given 10 mg of cisapride and 75 mg of sodium picosulfate before sleep on the day preceding the examination, and 50 g of magnesium citrate powder (MP) in 1,200 mL lukewarm water before the examination. It was divided into 600-mL portions and ingested slowly during two 30-minute periods. Ninety-five percent of patients classified the taste of a magnesium citrate powder laxative as palatable in the questionnaire given immediately after the procedure. Concerning the quantity, 79.4% replied that it was tolerable, 17.3% considered it somewhat excessive, and 3.3% replied that it was barely tolerable. No patient classified it as intolerable. Symptoms after taking laxatives and lukewarm water such as abdominal pain, nausea and abdominal fullness were observed in 3.8%, 4.4% and 5.6%, respectively, whereas there were no symptoms in 79% of patients. Body weight and serum K level showed a tendency to decrease, whereas the serum Mg level showed an increase before and after colonoscopy. The quality of colonic cleansing evaluated by colonoscopy was excellent, good, or fair in a total of 93.3%. No adverse effects were observed. It was concluded that this method is a clinically beneficial and well-tolerated preparation for colonic examinations. PMID:18493356

  13. Acceptance of mixed scientific and clinical activities in a sub-speciality urology meeting.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Noor N P; El Howairis, Mohammed El Fatih; Durner, Leopold; Harry, Damiete; Kachrilas, Stefanos; Rodgers, Allen L; Hakenberg, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    Basic urolithiasis research into the causes for stone formation has been stagnating for a long time. Emergence of effective stone treatment modalities has shifted the public and clinicians' focus away from basic research towards symptomatic treatment solutions. This has occurred in spite of urolithiasis being a highly recurrent disease with an enormous socio-economic impact warranting a prophylactic and recurrence-preventing approach. An integrated, multidisciplinary translational platform has been developed in the form of urolithiasis meetings bringing together urologists, radiologists, nephrologists, basic scientists, dieticians and other stake holders interested in stone disease, for an exchange of knowledge, mutual education and understanding, and professional networking. Traditionally, such combined meetings are split into sessions addressing the specific interests of clinicians and scientists. At the recent Experts in Stone Disease Symposium we devised and implemented a program which mixed clinical and basic science activities throughout. We interviewed delegates between sessions regarding their acceptance of this novel concept using a standardized questionnaire. Sessions were well-attended, alleviating our initial anxiety that delegates would not appreciate a "no-choice" program. Of the 74 delegates who were interviewed, 60 (81%) were urologists, and 14 (19%) were non-urologists such as nephrologists, dieticians, and students. This is representative of the overall distribution of delegates at the conference. 71% felt that a closer co-operation and understanding between clinicians and scientists will ultimately benefit both groups, as well as patients; 95% found the mixed session approach beneficial, with half appreciating it as very good and innovative; 94% believed that they had derived useful learnings from the "other side"; 94% found that such mixed sessions are useful for their future work and understanding of the urolithiasis field as a whole; 94

  14. Simulation methods for advanced scientific computing

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, T.E.; Carlson, J.A.; Forster, R.A.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of the project was to create effective new algorithms for solving N-body problems by computer simulation. The authors concentrated on developing advanced classical and quantum Monte Carlo techniques. For simulations of phase transitions in classical systems, they produced a framework generalizing the famous Swendsen-Wang cluster algorithms for Ising and Potts models. For spin-glass-like problems, they demonstrated the effectiveness of an extension of the multicanonical method for the two-dimensional, random bond Ising model. For quantum mechanical systems, they generated a new method to compute the ground-state energy of systems of interacting electrons. They also improved methods to compute excited states when the diffusion quantum Monte Carlo method is used and to compute longer time dynamics when the stationary phase quantum Monte Carlo method is used.

  15. Using History To Teach Scientific Method: The Case of Argon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giunta, Carmen J.

    1998-01-01

    Explains the goals of a course to teach non-science majors how scientists think. Approaches science primarily as a way of knowing rather than as a body of knowledge and conveys the scientific method as an empirical endeavor. (DDR)

  16. Realizing Scientific Methods for Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Manz, David O.; Edgar, Thomas W.; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2012-07-18

    There is little doubt among cyber security researchers about the lack of scientic rigor that underlies much of the liter-ature. The issues are manifold and are well documented. Further complicating the problem is insufficient scientic methods to address these issues. Cyber security melds man and machine: we inherit the challenges of computer science, sociology, psychology, and many other elds and create new ones where these elds interface. In this paper we detail a partial list of challenges imposed by rigorous science and survey how other sciences have tackled them, in the hope of applying a similar approach to cyber security science. This paper is by no means comprehensive: its purpose is to foster discussion in the community on how we can improve rigor in cyber security science.

  17. Visual Display of Scientific Studies, Methods, and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltus, R. W.; Fedi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The need for efficient and effective communication of scientific ideas becomes more urgent each year.A growing number of societal and economic issues are tied to matters of science - e.g., climate change, natural resource availability, and public health. Societal and political debate should be grounded in a general understanding of scientific work in relevant fields. It is difficult for many participants in these debates to access science directly because the formal method for scientific documentation and dissemination is the journal paper, generally written for a highly technical and specialized audience. Journal papers are very effective and important for documentation of scientific results and are essential to the requirements of science to produce citable and repeatable results. However, journal papers are not effective at providing a quick and intuitive summary useful for public debate. Just as quantitative data are generally best viewed in graphic form, we propose that scientific studies also can benefit from visual summary and display. We explore the use of existing methods for diagramming logical connections and dependencies, such as Venn diagrams, mind maps, flow charts, etc., for rapidly and intuitively communicating the methods and results of scientific studies. We also discuss a method, specifically tailored to summarizing scientific papers that we introduced last year at AGU. Our method diagrams the relative importance and connections between data, methods/models, results/ideas, and implications/importance using a single-page format with connected elements in these four categories. Within each category (e.g., data) the spatial location of individual elements (e.g., seismic, topographic, gravity) indicates relative novelty (e.g., are these new data?) and importance (e.g., how critical are these data to the results of the paper?). The goal is to find ways to rapidly and intuitively share both the results and the process of science, both for communication

  18. Scientific Methods and Values: Time, Space and Spirit--Keys to Scientific Literacy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonebarger, Bill

    This booklet considers scientific methods and values from three aspects; time, space, and spirit. Time refers to a sense of history; space refers to geography; and spirit refers to life and thought. Several chapters on the history and values of science, a time line related to the concepts, a map of the important geography related to these…

  19. The Myth of "Scientific Method" in Contemporary Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbottom, Darrell Patrick; Aiston, Sarah Jane

    2006-01-01

    Whether educational research should employ the "scientific method" has been a recurring issue in its history. Hence, textbooks on research methods continue to perpetuate the idea that research students ought to choose between competing camps: "positivist" or "interpretivist". In reference to one of the most widely referred to educational research…

  20. Nuclear energy acceptance and potential role to meet future energy demand. Which technical/scientific achievements are needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Roland

    2012-06-19

    25 years after Chernobyl, the Fukushima disaster has changed the perspectives of nuclear power. The disaster has shed a negative light on the independence, reliability and rigor of the national nuclear regulator and plant operator and the usefulness of the international IAEA guidelines on nuclear safety. It has become clear that, in the light of the most severe earthquake in the history of Japan, the plants at Fukushima Daiichi were not adequately protected against tsunamis. Nuclear acceptance has suffered enormously and has changed the perspectives of nuclear energy dramatically in countries that have a very risk-sensitive population, Germany is an example. The paper analyses the reactions in major countries and the expected impact on future deployment of reactors and on R and D activities. On the positive side, the disaster has demonstrated a remarkable robustness of most of the 14 reactors closest to the epicentre of the Tohoku Seaquake although not designed to an event of level 9.0. Public acceptance can only be regained with a rigorous and worldwide approach towards inherent reactor safety and design objectives that limit the impact of severe accidents to the plant itself (like many of the new Gen III reactors). A widespread release of radioactivity and the evacuation (temporary or permanent) of the population up to 30 km around a facility are simply not acceptable. Several countries have announced to request more stringent international standards for reactor safety. The IAEA should take this move forward and intensify and strengthen the different peer review mission schemes. The safety guidelines and peer reviews should in fact become legally binding for IAEA members. The paper gives examples of the new safety features developed over the last 20 years and which yield much safer reactors with lesser burden to the environment under severe accident conditions. The compatibility of these safety systems with the current concepts for fusion-fission hybrids, which

  1. Nuclear energy acceptance and potential role to meet future energy demand. Which technical/scientific achievements are needed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenkel, Roland

    2012-06-01

    25 years after Chernobyl, the Fukushima disaster has changed the perspectives of nuclear power. The disaster has shed a negative light on the independence, reliability and rigor of the national nuclear regulator and plant operator and the usefulness of the international IAEA guidelines on nuclear safety. It has become clear that, in the light of the most severe earthquake in the history of Japan, the plants at Fukushima Daiichi were not adequately protected against tsunamis. Nuclear acceptance has suffered enormously and has changed the perspectives of nuclear energy dramatically in countries that have a very risk-sensitive population, Germany is an example. The paper analyses the reactions in major countries and the expected impact on future deployment of reactors and on R&D activities. On the positive side, the disaster has demonstrated a remarkable robustness of most of the 14 reactors closest to the epicentre of the Tohoku Seaquake although not designed to an event of level 9.0. Public acceptance can only be regained with a rigorous and worldwide approach towards inherent reactor safety and design objectives that limit the impact of severe accidents to the plant itself (like many of the new Gen III reactors). A widespread release of radioactivity and the evacuation (temporary or permanent) of the population up to 30 km around a facility are simply not acceptable. Several countries have announced to request more stringent international standards for reactor safety. The IAEA should take this move forward and intensify and strengthen the different peer review mission schemes. The safety guidelines and peer reviews should in fact become legally binding for IAEA members. The paper gives examples of the new safety features developed over the last 20 years and which yield much safer reactors with lesser burden to the environment under severe accident conditions. The compatibility of these safety systems with the current concepts for fusion-fission hybrids, which have

  2. Qualitative methods to ensure acceptability of behavioral and social interventions to the target population

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces qualitative methods for assessing the acceptability of an intervention. Acceptability refers to determining how well an intervention will be received by the target population and the extent to which the new intervention or its components might meet the needs of the target population and organizational setting. In this paper, we focus on two common qualitative methods for conducting acceptability research and their advantages and disadvantages: focus groups and interviews. We provide examples from our own research and other studies to demonstrate the use of these methods for conducting acceptability research and how one might adapt this approach for oral health research. Finally, we present emerging methods for conducting acceptability research, including the use of community-based participatory research, as well as the utility of conducting acceptability research for assessing the appropriateness of measures in intervention research. PMID:21656958

  3. Representing scientific data sets in KML: Methods and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballagh, Lisa M.; Raup, Bruce H.; Duerr, Ruth E.; Khalsa, Siri Jodha S.; Helm, Christopher; Fowler, Doug; Gupte, Amruta

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Globes such as Google Earth and NASA World Wind permit users to explore rich imagery and the topography of the Earth. While other online services such as map servers provide ways to view, query, and download geographic information, the public has become captivated with the ability to view the Earth's features virtually. The National Snow and Ice Data Center began to display scientific data on Virtual Globes in 2006. The work continues to evolve with the production of high-quality Keyhole Markup Language (KML) representations of scientific data and an assortment of technical experiments. KML files are interoperable with many Virtual Globe or mapping software packages. This paper discusses the science benefits of Virtual Globes, summarizes KML creation methods, and introduces a guide for selecting tools and methods for authoring KML for use with scientific data sets.

  4. 17 CFR 162.8 - Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. 162.8 Section 162.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Marketing Rules § 162.8 Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. (a) In general. The opt-out...

  5. 17 CFR 162.8 - Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. 162.8 Section 162.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Marketing Rules § 162.8 Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. (a) In general. The opt-out...

  6. 17 CFR 162.8 - Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. 162.8 Section 162.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Affiliate Marketing Rules § 162.8 Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. (a) In general. The...

  7. Hot Salsa: A Laboratory Exercise Exploring the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levri, Edward P.; Levri, Maureen A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise on spicy food and body temperature that introduces the scientific method to introductory biology students. Suggests that when students perform their own experiments which they have developed, it helps with their understanding of and confidence in doing science. (Author/SOE)

  8. Revising Geology Labs To Explicitly Use the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannula, Kimberly A.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that content- or skill-based labs can be revised to explicitly involve the scientific method by asking students to propose hypotheses before making observations. Students' self-assessment showed they felt that they learned a great deal from this style of labs and found the labs to be fun; however, students felt that they learned little…

  9. Faculty Forum: HOMER as an Acronym for the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Jessica L.; Giesler, R. Brian; Morris, Kathryn A.; Vosmik, Jordan R.

    2007-01-01

    Mnemonic strategies, such as acronyms, effectively increase student retention of course material. We present an acronym based on a popular television character to help students remember the basic steps in the scientific method. Our empirical evaluation of the acronym revealed that students found it to be enjoyable, useful, and worthy of use in…

  10. Addressing STEM Retention through a Scientific Thought and Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; Schen, Melissa; Edwards, Michael; Bao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Retention of majors in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a national problem that continues to be the focus of bridging and first-year experience programs. This article presents an innovative course, Scientific Thought and Methods, that targets students with low math placement scores. These students are not eligible for…

  11. Divergence of Scientific Heuristic Method and Direct Algebraic Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calucag, Lina S.

    2016-01-01

    This is an experimental study, made used of the non-randomized experimental and control groups, pretest-posttest designs. The experimental and control groups were two separate intact classes in Algebra. For a period of twelve sessions, the experimental group was subjected to the scientific heuristic method, but the control group instead was given…

  12. Teaching the Scientific Method Using Current News Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Laura K.; Mahan, Carolyn G.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a short (less than 50 minutes) activity using news articles from sources such as "Science Daily" to teach students the steps of the scientific method and the difference between primary and secondary literature sources. The flexibility in choosing news articles to examine allowed us to tailor the activity to the specific interests of…

  13. Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overway, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

  14. What if Indigenous Knowledge Contradicts Accepted Scientific Findings?--The Hidden Agenda: Respect, Caring and Passion towards Aboriginal Research in the Context of Applying Western Academic Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    The statement in the title, what if Indigenous Knowledge contradicts accepted scientific findings (Fowler, 2000), is an expression of the dilemma people who research Indigenous Knowledge think they find themselves in when they are confronted with different interpretations of what it means to be human, or, as I may summarize it, with different…

  15. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  16. Methods of Predicting User Acceptance of Voice Communication Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-15

    speech test signal in terms of a set of ordered categories. Typical category labels are "Unsatisfactory," "Poor," "Fair," "Good," and "Excellent...extreme categories in order to "anchor" his subjective scale; still others present the subject with either all, or a representative sample, of the test...signals in order to orient him to the relevant range of qualities 9 The absolute preference methods are often charac- terized by low reliability

  17. A study on the acceptability of male fertility regulating methods in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn K-c; Kim O-k

    1978-11-01

    In order to assess the acceptability of existing and potential male fertility regulating methods in Korea, a total of 353 male respondents were interviewed from 3 sampling areas: 99 cases from urban middle socioeconomic status, 104 cases from urban low socioeconomic status, and 150 cases from the rural area. Respondents from each area differed in terms of educational attainment and socioeconomic status. Respondents from each area have about the same level of knowledge of contraceptive methods, but their behaviors differ considerably. The rate of currently practicing contraception was highest among rural samples and lowest among urban low socioeconomic groups. The relative acceptability of 2 existing (condom and vasectomy) and 2 potential (daily pill and monthly injection) male fertility regulating methods was assessed using several measures of acceptability. Whatever measure used, the most consistent finding among sampling groups was that vasectomy is the least acceptable method. Vasectomy is least preferred among potential users, and this finding suggests that the current target system on vasectomy in the national family planning program should be reconsidered. For all measures of acceptability potential methods were more preferred than either condom or vasectomy for the rural and urban low socioeconomic status samples. With regard to the potential male methods, methods with longer duration of action are preferred to methods with a shorter duration. Urban-rural residence was found to be significantly related to the acceptability of condom and vasectomy; urban residents liked condom and vasectomy more than rural residents. Age of respondents was not significantly related to the attitudes toward using each male method but significantly related to the behavioral intention to use each male method. The education level is not significantly related to the acceptability of condom but related to the acceptability of other male fertility regulating methods. More than 1/2 of

  18. Local tolerance testing under REACH: Accepted non-animal methods are not on equal footing with animal tests.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Hill, Erin H; Curren, Rodger D; Raabe, Hans A; Kolle, Susanne N; Teubner, Wera; Mehling, Annette; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In general, no single non-animal method can cover the complexity of any given animal test. Therefore, fixed sets of in vitro (and in chemico) methods have been combined into testing strategies for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation testing, with pre-defined prediction models for substance classification. Many of these methods have been adopted as OECD test guidelines. Various testing strategies have been successfully validated in extensive in-house and inter-laboratory studies, but they have not yet received formal acceptance for substance classification. Therefore, under the European REACH Regulation, data from testing strategies can, in general, only be used in so-called weight-of-evidence approaches. While animal testing data generated under the specific REACH information requirements are per se sufficient, the sufficiency of weight-of-evidence approaches can be questioned under the REACH system, and further animal testing can be required. This constitutes an imbalance between the regulatory acceptance of data from approved non-animal methods and animal tests that is not justified on scientific grounds. To ensure that testing strategies for local tolerance testing truly serve to replace animal testing for the REACH registration 2018 deadline (when the majority of existing chemicals have to be registered), clarity on their regulatory acceptance as complete replacements is urgently required.

  19. Public acceptance of management methods under different human-wildlife conflict scenarios.

    PubMed

    Liordos, Vasilios; Kontsiotis, Vasileios J; Georgari, Marina; Baltzi, Kerasia; Baltzi, Ioanna

    2017-02-01

    Wildlife management seeks to minimise public controversy for successful application of wildlife control methods. Human dimensions research in wildlife seeks a better understanding of public preferences for effective human-wildlife conflict resolution. In face to face interviews, 630 adults in Greece were asked to rate on a 5-point Likert-like scale their acceptance of 3 management methods, i.e., do nothing, non-lethal control, and lethal control, in the context of 5 human-wildlife conflict scenarios: 1) corvids damage crops; 2) starlings damage crops; 3) starlings foul urban structures; 4) coypus damage crops; and 5) coypus transfer disease. Univariate GLMs determined occupation, hunting membership and their interaction as the stronger predictors of public acceptance, generating 4 stakeholder groups: the general public, farmers, hunters, and farmers-hunters. Differences in acceptance and consensus among stakeholder groups were assessed using the Potential for Conflict Index2 (PCI2). All 4 stakeholder groups agreed that doing nothing was unacceptable and non-lethal control acceptable in all 5 scenarios, with generally high consensus within and between groups. The lethal control method was more controversial and became increasingly more acceptable as the severity of scenarios was increased and between non-native and native species. Lethal control was unacceptable for the general public in all scenarios. Farmers accepted lethal methods in the corvids and starlings scenarios, were neutral in the coypus damage crops scenario, whereas they accepted lethal control when coypus transfer disease. Hunters' opinion was neutral in the corvids, starlings and coypus damage crops and starlings foul urban structures scenarios, but they accepted lethal methods in the coypus transfer disease scenario. Farmers-hunters considered lethal control acceptable in all 5 scenarios. Implications from this study could be used for designing a socio-ecological approach which incorporates wildlife

  20. Scientific Writing & the Scientific Method: Parallel "Hourglass" Structure in Form & Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Bruce A.

    2003-01-01

    The writing of a scientific article offers a sharp divergence from the standard essay paper familiar to most students from English class. Supporting documentation is embedded in the scientific prose, not footnoted along the bottom of each page. Instructing students in the art of scientific writing can be truly challenging. After years of…

  1. Using History To Teach Scientific Method: The Case of Argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunta, Carmen J.

    1998-10-01

    The history of science is full of stories that exhibit scientific methodology to an exemplary degree. Such stories can be vehicles for the teaching of scientific thought to non-science majors in general-education science courses, particularly if they do not involve much technical background and are told in ordinary language. This paper illustrates the kind of lessons that can be gleaned from such stories by examining the discovery of argon, an episode replete with examples of how scientists pursue knowledge. Lord Rayleigh's use of multiple methods to determine the density of nitrogen; his persistent tracking down of a small but real anomaly in those measurements; his and William Ramsay's eventual realization that the anomaly was due to a previously unknown but relatively plentiful component of the atmosphere, an inert, monatomic gas; and Ramsay's subsequent successful search for other members of the inert gas family all illustrate the scientific approach to knowledge. This story can be presented to students in Rayleigh's words, annotated to supply background material and to pose questions.

  2. Medical methods for termination of pregnancy. Report of a WHO Scientific Group.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Recent estimates indicate that as many as 53 million pregnancies are terminated by induced abortion each year. One-third of these abortions are performed in unsafe conditions, resulting in some 50,000-100,000 deaths each year, and many more women have complications which may have long-term consequences for their health. This report of a WHO Scientific Group reviews medical methods for the termination of first- and second-trimester pregnancy, including studies on the agents that induce abortion, their mode of action, and their efficacy compared with surgical methods. It examines the factors that cause women to seek abortion services, as well as those that affect complications, their prevention and the acceptability of different methods. The report makes a number of recommendations on the service environment required to employ medical methods and for further research in the field of medical termination of pregnancy.

  3. Demystifying Scientific Data ­ Using Earth Science to Teach the Scientific Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassiff, P. J.; Santos, E. A.; Erickson, P. J.; Niell, A. E.

    2006-12-01

    The collection of large quantities of data and their subsequent analyses are important components of any scientific process, particularly at research institutes such as MIT's Haystack Observatory, where the collection and analyses of data is crucial to research efforts. Likewise, a recent study on science education concluded that students should be introduced to analyzing evidence and hypotheses, to critical thinking - including appropriate skepticism, to quantitative reasoning and the ability to make reasonable estimates, and to the role of uncertainty and error in science. In order to achieve this goal with grades 9-12 students and their instructors, we developed lesson plans and activities based on atmospheric science and geodetic research at Haystack Observatory. From the complex steps of experimental design, measurement, and data analysis, students and teachers will gain insight into the scientific research processes as they exist today. The use of these space weather and geodesy activities in classrooms will be discussed. Space Weather: After decades of data collection with multiple variables, space weather is about as complex an area of investigation as possible. Far from the passive relationship between the Sun and Earth often taught in the early grades, or the beautiful auroras discussed in high school, there are complex and powerful interactions between the Sun and Earth. In spite of these complexities, high school students can learn about space weather and the repercussions on our communication and power technologies. Starting from lessons on the basic method of observing space weather with incoherent scatter radar, and progressing to the use of simplified data sets, students will discover how space weather affects Earth over solar cycles and how severe solar activity is measured and affects the Earth over shorter time spans. They will see that even from complex, seemingly ambiguous data with many variables and unknowns, scientists can gain valuable

  4. I Can Make a Scientific Research: A Course about Scientific Research Methods, in Which Learning Management System (LMS) Is Used

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özden, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the perception of teacher candidates towards scientific research process and their self-efficacy in this process, during Scientific Research Methods course that has been conducted using "Learning Management System" based on out-of-class learning activities. Being designed as a…

  5. Scientific method by using project method in acid, base and salt material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febriana, Beta Wulan; Arlianty, Widinda Normalia; Diniaty, Artina

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of scientific method using project method on student's achievement. This research was conducted at SMPN 2 Karanganyar. The descriptive quantitative method was used in this research. Samples were taken two classes using cluster random sampling. Data was obtained based on cognitive instruments. This data represents the value pretest and posttest. Data was analyzed by using descriptive analysis techniques. The results show that the class which using scientific method using project method has an average value of 37.50% of students' achievement (high), 37.50% (moderate) and 4.16% (very low). On the other hand, the class which using one method, scientific method, have the students' achievement at 33.3% (high), 8.33% (moderate) and 20.83% (very low).

  6. Using Financial Information in Continuing Education. Accepted Methods and New Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary W.

    This book, which is intended as a resource/reference guide for experienced financial managers and course planners, examines accepted methods and new approaches for using financial information in continuing education. The introduction reviews theory and practice, traditional and new methods, planning and organizational management, and technology.…

  7. The use and acceptance of Other Scientifically Relevant Information (OSRI) in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Patricia L; Willett, Catherine E

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) currently relies on an initial screening battery (Tier 1) consisting of five in vitro and six in vivo assays to evaluate a chemical's potential to interact with the endocrine system. Chemical companies may request test waivers based on Other Scientifically Relevant Information (OSRI) that is functionally equivalent to data gathered in the screening battery or that provides information on a potential endocrine effect. Respondents for 47 of the first 67 chemicals evaluated in the EDSP submitted OSRI in lieu of some or all Tier 1 tests, seeking 412 waivers, of which EPA granted only 93. For 20 of the 47 chemicals, EPA denied all OSRI and required the entire Tier 1 battery. Often, the OSRI accepted was either identical to data generated by the Tier 1 assay or indicated a positive result. Although identified as potential sources of OSRI in EPA guidance, Part 158 guideline studies for pesticide registration were seldom accepted by EPA. The 93 waivers reduced animal use by at least 3325 animals. We estimate 27,731 animals were used in the actual Tier 1 tests, with additional animals being used in preparation for testing. Even with EPA's shift toward applying 21st-century toxicology tools to screening of endocrine disruptors in the future, acceptance of OSRI will remain a primary means for avoiding duplicative testing and reducing use of animals in the EDSP. Therefore, it is essential that EPA develop a consistent and transparent basis for accepting OSRI.

  8. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  9. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  10. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  11. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  12. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  13. Social Skills and Peer Acceptance: Effects of a Social Learning Method for Training Verbal Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.

    The purpose of this study was to see if a social learning method for training verbal social skills might influence the social effectiveness of third grade children with low peer acceptance. Children were trained in three verbal skills: asking questions of peers; leading peers (e.g., offering useful suggestions or directions); and, offering…

  14. A scientist's voice in American culture. Simon Newcomb and the rhetoric of scientific method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, A. E.

    Through close readings of Newcomb's (1835 - 1909) published and unpublished works, the author illuminates the ways this eminent astronomer used the "rhetoric of scientific method" to great effect. The book devides into three sections: an introduction to the rhetoric of scientific method, a core of ten central chapters on Newcomb's life and thought, and the concluding commentary on pragmatism and scientific method.

  15. A science confidence gap: Education, trust in scientific methods, and trust in scientific institutions in the United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Achterberg, Peter; de Koster, Willem; van der Waal, Jeroen

    2015-12-06

    Following up on suggestions that attitudes toward science are multi-dimensional, we analyze nationally representative survey data collected in the United States in 2014 (N = 2006), and demonstrate the existence of a science confidence gap: some people place great trust in scientific methods and principles, but simultaneously distrust scientific institutions. This science confidence gap is strongly associated with level of education: it is larger among the less educated than among the more educated. We investigate explanations for these educational differences. Whereas hypotheses deduced from reflexive-modernization theory do not pass the test, those derived from theorizing on the role of anomie are corroborated. The less educated are more anomic (they have more modernity-induced cultural discontents), which not only underlies their distrust in scientific institutions, but also fuels their trust in scientific methods and principles. This explains why this science confidence gap is most pronounced among the less educated.

  16. Technology Acceptance and Course Completion Rates in Online Education: A Non-experimental, Mixed Method Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Colelia

    As the need for quality online courses increase in demand, the acceptance of technology and completion rates become the focus of higher education. The purpose of this non-experimental, mixed method study was to examine the relationship between the university students' perceptions and acceptance of technology and learner completion rates with respect to the development of online courses. This study involved 61 participants from two universities regarding their perceived usefulness (PU) of technology, intent to use technology, and intent to complete a course. Two research questions were examined regarding student perceptions regarding technology employed in an online course and the relationship, if any, between technology acceptance and completion of an online university course. The technology acceptance model (TAM) was used to collect data on the usefulness of course activities and student intent to complete the course. An open-ended questionnaire was administered to collect information concerning student perceptions of course activities. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS and Qualtrics, which indicated there was not a significant relationship between technology acceptance and course completion (p = .154). Qualitative data were examined by pattern matching to create a concept map of the theoretical patterns between constructs. Pattern matching revealed many students favored the use of the Internet over Canvas. Furthermore, data showed students enrolled in online courses because of the flexibility and found the multimedia used in the courses as helpful in course completion. Insight was investigated to offer reasons and decisions concerning choice that were made by the students. Future recommendations are to expand mixed methods studies of technology acceptance in various disciplines to gain a better understanding of student perceptions of technology uses, intent to use, and course completion.

  17. Presenting the Scientific Process: Introducing Philosophy, Theory, Methods, and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meers, Mason; Demers, Nora Egan; Savarese, Michael

    2003-01-01

    In a course titled Scientific Process, we introduce undergraduates to the philosophy and practice of science and initiate them into a 2-year undergraduate research track. Engaging exercises and discussions help students understand the scientific process and ultimately produce a research proposal in grant application format. Students defend their…

  18. Developing Scientific Thinking Methods and Applications in Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharaf, Adel

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the early and medieval Islamic scholarship to the development of critical and scientific thinking and how they contributed to the development of an Islamic theory of epistemology and scientific thinking education. The article elucidates how the Qur'an and the Sunna of Prophet Muhammad have also contributed to the…

  19. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science: Students’ Acceptance of Astrology and Pseudoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugarman, Hannah R.; Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our survey used to collect data during a twenty-year long investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting), contains several questions addressing how students conceptualize astrology, and other pseudoscientific ideas. This poster presents findings from the quantitative analysis of some of these question responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) and half of science majors (52%) consider astrology either "very” or "sort of” scientific. Students performed comparatively better on all other pseudoscientific questions, demonstrating that belief in astrology is pervasive and deeply entrenched. We compare our results to those obtained by the NSF Science Indicators series, and suggest possible reasons for the high susceptibility to belief in astrology. These findings call into question whether our education system is adequately preparing students to be scientifically literate adults. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  20. Learning the scientific method using GloFish.

    PubMed

    Vick, Brianna M; Pollak, Adrianna; Welsh, Cynthia; Liang, Jennifer O

    2012-12-01

    Here we describe projects that used GloFish, brightly colored, fluorescent, transgenic zebrafish, in experiments that enabled students to carry out all steps in the scientific method. In the first project, students in an undergraduate genetics laboratory course successfully tested hypotheses about the relationships between GloFish phenotypes and genotypes using PCR, fluorescence microscopy, and test crosses. In the second and third projects, students doing independent research carried out hypothesis-driven experiments that also developed new GloFish projects for future genetics laboratory students. Brianna Vick, an undergraduate student, identified causes of the different shades of color found in orange GloFish. Adrianna Pollak, as part of a high school science fair project, characterized the fluorescence emission patterns of all of the commercially available colors of GloFish (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple). The genetics laboratory students carrying out the first project found that learning new techniques and applying their knowledge of genetics were valuable. However, assessments of their learning suggest that this project was not challenging to many of the students. Thus, the independent projects will be valuable as bases to widen the scope and range of difficulty of experiments available to future genetics laboratory students.

  1. Learning the Scientific Method Using GloFish

    PubMed Central

    Vick, Brianna M.; Pollak, Adrianna; Welsh, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Here we describe projects that used GloFish, brightly colored, fluorescent, transgenic zebrafish, in experiments that enabled students to carry out all steps in the scientific method. In the first project, students in an undergraduate genetics laboratory course successfully tested hypotheses about the relationships between GloFish phenotypes and genotypes using PCR, fluorescence microscopy, and test crosses. In the second and third projects, students doing independent research carried out hypothesis-driven experiments that also developed new GloFish projects for future genetics laboratory students. Brianna Vick, an undergraduate student, identified causes of the different shades of color found in orange GloFish. Adrianna Pollak, as part of a high school science fair project, characterized the fluorescence emission patterns of all of the commercially available colors of GloFish (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple). The genetics laboratory students carrying out the first project found that learning new techniques and applying their knowledge of genetics were valuable. However, assessments of their learning suggest that this project was not challenging to many of the students. Thus, the independent projects will be valuable as bases to widen the scope and range of difficulty of experiments available to future genetics laboratory students. PMID:23244693

  2. Resourcefulness Training for Women Dementia Caregivers: Acceptability and Feasibility of Two Methods.

    PubMed

    Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Lekhak, Nirmala; Napoleon, Betty; Morris, Diana L

    2016-01-01

    Almost 10 million women in the United States are caregivers for elders with dementia and many experience extreme stress that compromises their health. Acceptable and feasible interventions to teach them resourcefulness skills for managing stress may improve their health and facilitate continued caregiving. This study examined two commonly used methods for practicing skills taught during resourcefulness training (RT) to women caregivers of elders with dementia (n=63): journaling and digital voice recording. It also explored whether providing caregivers a choice between the two methods made it more acceptable or feasible. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected before, during, and after RT. Caregivers who recorded used more words (M=5446) but recorded fewer days (M=17) than those who journaled (M=2792 words and M=27 days). Similar concerns in relation to time management and practice method were expressed by women caregivers irrespective of practice method (journal versus recorder) or random versus choice condition. While journaling was more frequent than recording, more words were expressed during recordings. Perceived stress and depressive symptoms were unrelated to the number of practice days or word counts, suggesting RT acceptability and feasibility even for highly stressed or depressed caregivers. Because intervention feasibility is important for RT effectiveness testing, alternatives to the journaling and recording methods for practicing RT skills should be considered.

  3. Scientific evaluation of the safety factor for the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Case study: butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA).

    PubMed

    Würtzen, G

    1993-01-01

    The principles of 'data-derived safety factors' are applied to toxicological and biochemical information on butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The calculated safety factor for an ADI is, by this method, comparable to the existing internationally recognized safety evaluations. Relevance for humans of forestomach tumours in rodents is discussed. The method provides a basis for organizing data in a way that permits an explicit assessment of its relevance.

  4. Teachers' Language on Scientific Inquiry: Methods of teaching or methods of inquiry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyllenpalm, Jakob; Wickman, Per-Olof; Holmgren, Sven-Olof

    2010-06-01

    With a focus on the use of language related to scientific inquiry, this paper explores how 12 secondary school science teachers describe instances of students' practical work in their science classes. The purpose of the study was to shed light on the culture and traditions of secondary school science teaching related to inquiry as expressed in the use of language. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews about actual inquiry units used by the teachers. These were used to situate the discussion of their teaching in a real context. The theoretical background is socio-cultural and pragmatist views on the role of language in science learning. The analysis focuses on two concepts of scientific inquiry: hypothesis and experiment. It is shown that the teachers tend to use these terms with a pedagogical function thus conflating methods of teaching with methods of inquiry as part of an emphasis on teaching the children the correct explanation. The teachers did not prioritise an understanding of scientific inquiry as a knowledge goal. It discusses how learners' possibilities to learn about the characteristics of scientific inquiry and the nature of science are affected by an unreflective use of everyday discourse.

  5. Acceptability and Feasibility of Physical Activity Assessment Methods for an Appalachian Population.

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, Yelena N; Howell, Britteny M; Studts, Christina R; Strath, Scott J; Schoenberg, Nancy E

    2015-08-01

    Nowhere is improving understanding and accurate assessment of physical activity more important for disease prevention and health promotion than among health disparities populations such as those residing in rural and Appalachian regions. To enhance accurate assessment of physical activity and potentially improve intervention capacity, we conducted a mixed-methods study examining the acceptability and feasibility of self-report physical activity questionnaires, pedometers, and accelerometers among rural Appalachian children, adolescents, and adults. Most participants reported positive experiences with all three physical activity assessment tools. Several acceptability ratings differed by age group and by sex within each age group. With very few exceptions, no significant differences in acceptability were found by race, education, employment status, health status, BMI categories, income levels, or insurance status within age groups or overall. Several factors may impact the choice of the physical activity assessment method, including target population age, equipment cost, researcher burden, and potential influence on physical activity levels. Children and adolescents appear to have more constraints on when they can wear pedometers and accelerometers. While pedometers are inexpensive and convenient, they may influence physical activity levels, rather than simply measure them. Accelerometers, while less influential on behavior, consume extensive resources, including high purchase costs and researcher burden.

  6. Observed Methods for Generating Analogies in Scientific Problem Solving. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, John

    Evidence from video tapes of experts thinking aloud and using analogies in scientific problem solving is presented. Four processes appear to be important in using an analogy: (1) generating the analogy; (2) establishing confidence in the validity of the analogy relation; (3) understanding the analogous case; and (4) applying findings to the…

  7. A Semantic Analysis Method for Scientific and Engineering Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a procedure to statically analyze aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. The analysis involves adding semantic declarations to a user's code and parsing this semantic knowledge with the original code using multiple expert parsers. These semantic parsers are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. In practice, a user would submit code with semantic declarations of primitive variables to the analysis procedure, and its semantic parsers would automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. A prototype implementation of this analysis procedure is demonstrated. Further, the relationship between the fundamental algebraic manipulations of equations and the parsing of expressions is explained. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  8. Acceptability of impregnated school uniforms for dengue control in Thailand: a mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Natasha; Jansarikij, Suphachai; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Maskhao, Pongsri; Souares, Aurélia; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Louis, Valérie R.

    2014-01-01

    Background As current dengue control strategies have been shown to be largely ineffective in reducing dengue in school-aged children, novel approaches towards dengue control need to be studied. Insecticide-impregnated school uniforms represent an innovative approach with the theoretical potential to reduce dengue infections in school children. Objectives This study took place in the context of a randomised control trial (RCT) to test the effectiveness of permethrin-impregnated school uniforms (ISUs) for dengue prevention in Chachoengsao Province, Thailand. The objective was to assess the acceptability of ISUs among parents, teachers, and principals of school children involved in the trial. Methodology Quantitative and qualitative tools were used in a mixed methods approach. Class-clustered randomised samples of school children enrolled in the RCT were selected and their parents completed 321 self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyse the quantitative data. Focus group discussions and individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents, teachers, and principals. Qualitative data analysis involved content analysis with coding and thematic development. Results The knowledge and experience of dengue was substantial. The acceptability of ISUs was high. Parents (87.3%; 95% CI 82.9–90.8) would allow their child to wear an ISU and 59.9% (95% CI 53.7–65.9) of parents would incur additional costs for an ISU over a normal uniform. This was significantly associated with the total monthly income of a household and the educational level of the respondent. Parents (62.5%; 95% CI 56.6–68.1) indicated they would be willing to recommend ISUs to other parents. Conclusions Acceptability of the novel tool of ISUs was high as defined by the lack of concern along with the willingness to pay and recommend. Considering issues of effectiveness and scalability, assessing acceptability of ISUs over time is

  9. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-10-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility.

  10. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  11. Using Integrated Mixed Methods to Develop Behavioral Measures of Factors Associated With Microbicide Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Kathleen M.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Salomon, Liz; Woodsong, Cynthia; Severy, Lawrence; Fava, Joseph L.; Vargas, Sara; Barroso, Candelaria

    2015-01-01

    Our current understanding of factors associated with microbicide acceptability and consistent use typically has been derived from separate and distinct qualitative or quantitative studies. Specifically, rarely have investigators used mixed methods to both develop and validate behavioral measures. We utilized an integrated mixed methods design, including qualitative metasyntheses, cognitive interviews and expert reviews, psychometric evaluation, and confirmatory qualitative analyses of the correspondence between quantitative items and original qualitative data to develop and validate measures of factors associated with microbicide acceptability and use. We describe this methodology and use the development of the Relationship Context Scale to illustrate it. As a result of independent confirmatory analyses of qualitative passages corresponding to survey items, we demonstrated that items from the same subscales are frequently double coded within a particular textual passage, and thematically related, suggesting associations that resulted in a unique factor structure within the subscale. This integrated mixed method design was critical to the development of this psychometrically validated behavioral measure, and could serve as a model for future measure development. PMID:21447804

  12. Validation of analytical methods involved in dissolution assays: acceptance limits and decision methodologies.

    PubMed

    Rozet, E; Ziemons, E; Marini, R D; Boulanger, B; Hubert, Ph

    2012-11-02

    Dissolution tests are key elements to ensure continuing product quality and performance. The ultimate goal of these tests is to assure consistent product quality within a defined set of specification criteria. Validation of an analytical method aimed at assessing the dissolution profile of products or at verifying pharmacopoeias compliance should demonstrate that this analytical method is able to correctly declare two dissolution profiles as similar or drug products as compliant with respect to their specifications. It is essential to ensure that these analytical methods are fit for their purpose. Method validation is aimed at providing this guarantee. However, even in the ICHQ2 guideline there is no information explaining how to decide whether the method under validation is valid for its final purpose or not. Are the entire validation criterion needed to ensure that a Quality Control (QC) analytical method for dissolution test is valid? What acceptance limits should be set on these criteria? How to decide about method's validity? These are the questions that this work aims at answering. Focus is made to comply with the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) principles in the pharmaceutical industry in order to allow to correctly defining the Analytical Target Profile (ATP) of analytical methods involved in dissolution tests. Analytical method validation is then the natural demonstration that the developed methods are fit for their intended purpose and is not any more the inconsiderate checklist validation approach still generally performed to complete the filing required to obtain product marketing authorization.

  13. Comparing the Costs and Acceptability of Three Fidelity Assessment Methods for Assertive Community Treatment.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Angela L; Kukla, Marina; Salyers, Michelle P; McGrew, John H; Flanagan, Mindy E; Leslie, Doug L; Hunt, Marcia G; McGuire, Alan B

    2017-01-04

    Successful implementation of evidence-based practices requires valid, yet practical fidelity monitoring. This study compared the costs and acceptability of three fidelity assessment methods: on-site, phone, and expert-scored self-report. Thirty-two randomly selected VA mental health intensive case management teams completed all fidelity assessments using a standardized scale and provided feedback on each. Personnel and travel costs across the three methods were compared for statistical differences. Both phone and expert-scored self-report methods demonstrated significantly lower costs than on-site assessments, even when excluding travel costs. However, participants preferred on-site assessments. Remote fidelity assessments hold promise in monitoring large scale program fidelity with limited resources.

  14. Acceptance of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence: a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence and detrimental health effects of intimate partner violence have resulted in international discussions and recommendations that health care professionals should screen women for intimate partner violence during general and antenatal health care visits. Due to the lack of discussion on routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care in Germany, this study seeks to explore its acceptability among pregnant German women. Methods A mixed methods approach was used, utilizing a self-administered survey on the acceptability of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence in a university hospital’s maternity ward in Munich and in-depth interviews with seven women who experienced violence during pregnancy. Results Of the 401 women who participated in the survey, 92 percent were in favor of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care. Acceptance of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care was significantly associated with women’s experiences of child sexual abuse, being young, less educated, single or divorced and smoking during pregnancy. Open-ended survey questions and in-depth interviews stressed adequate training for screening, sufficient time and provision of referral information as important conditions for routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence. Conclusions Women in this study showed an overwhelming support for routine or case-based screening for intimate partner violence in antenatal care in Germany. Until adequate training is in place to allow providers to inquire for intimate partner violence in a professional manner, this study recommends that health care providers are made aware of the prevalence and health consequences of violence during pregnancy. PMID:23531127

  15. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility`s WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator`s waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits.

  16. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  17. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  18. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  19. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  20. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  1. Using the Scientific Method to Engage Mathematical Modeling: An Investigation of pi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Lester A. C.; Ng, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how to use the scientific method as the framework to introduce mathematical model. Two interdisciplinary activities, targeted for students in grade 6 or grade 7, are explained to show the application of the scientific method while building a mathematical model to investigate the relationship between the…

  2. The Scientific Method Ain't What It Used to Be

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2010-01-01

    Remember the time when all you had to do was memorize these five steps: ask a question, formulate a hypothesis, perform experiment, collect data, and draw conclusions? And you received full credit for defining the scientific method. Well, those days are gone. This article discusses why the "scientific method ain't what it used to be." (Contains 2…

  3. A portable swappable method scientific CMOS image data storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-long; Pi, Hai-feng; Hu, Bing-liang; Gao, Jia-rui

    2015-11-01

    In the field of deep space exploration, the detector needs high-speed data real-time transmission and large capacity storage. SATA(Serial advanced technology attachment) as a new generation of interface protocols, SATA interface hard disk has the advantages of with large storage capacity, high transmission rate, the cheap price, data is not lost when power supply drop, so it is suitable for used in high speed large capacity data storage system. This paper by using Kintex-7 XCE7K325T XILINK series FPGA, the data of scientific CMOS CIS2521F through the SATA controller is stored in the hard disk. If the hard disk storage is full, it will automatically switch to the next hard disk.

  4. Exploring the Changes in Students' Understanding of the Scientific Method Using Word Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Sinan, Olcay; Bowman, Charles R.; Yildirim, Yetkin

    2015-10-01

    A study is presented that explores how students' knowledge structures, as related to the scientific method, compare at different student ages. A word association test comprised of ten total stimulus words, among them experiment, science fair, and hypothesis, is used to probe the students' knowledge structures. Students from grades four, five, and eight, as well as first-year college students were tested to reveal their knowledge structures relating to the scientific method. Younger students were found to have a naïve view of the science process with little understanding of how science relates to the real world. However, students' conceptions about the scientific process appear to be malleable, with science fairs a potentially strong influencer. The strength of associations between words is observed to change from grade to grade, with younger students placing science fair near the center of their knowledge structure regarding the scientific method, whereas older students conceptualize the scientific method around experiment.

  5. The Scientific Method through the Lens of Neuroscience; From Willis to Broad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, J. Lanier

    2009-01-01

    In an age of unprecedented scientific achievement, I argue that the neurosciences are poised to transform our perceptions about life on earth, and that collaboration is needed to exploit a vast body of knowledge for humanity's benefit. The scientific method distinguishes science from the humanities and religion. It has evolved into a professional,…

  6. Study of the comprehension of the scientific method by members of a university health research laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Burlamaque-Neto, A.C.; Santos, G.R.; Lisbôa, L.M.; Goldim, J.R.; Machado, C.L.B.; Matte, U.; Giugliani, R.

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students' concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students' opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students' difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research. PMID:22249427

  7. Study of the comprehension of the scientific method by members of a university health research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Burlamaque-Neto, A C; Santos, G R; Lisbôa, L M; Goldim, J R; Machado, C L B; Matte, U; Giugliani, R

    2012-02-01

    In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students' concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students' opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students' difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research.

  8. Acceptability of Strategies to Reduce Student Sitting: A Mixed-Methods Study With College Teachers.

    PubMed

    Laine, Hanna; Araújo-Soares, Vera; Haukkala, Ari; Hankonen, Nelli

    2016-11-18

    Background As school days among adolescents include long periods of prolonged sitting, teachers are key agents to deliver interventions to reduce youth sedentary behavior. To develop an intervention, acceptability and feasibility of alternative strategies should be tested. We aimed to examine teachers' current use and willingness to use various strategies to decrease student sitting and potential barriers and facilitators of use. Method Mixed-methods design with college teachers using an online cross-sectional survey (n = 192) and focus group interviews (n = 13). Findings Although a vast majority (87%) of the teachers found reducing prolonged sitting an important goal, only 47% were actually including practices to reduce sitting in their classroom. 89% of the teachers reported willingness to use at least one of the five alternative strategies presented. Focus groups revealed a discussion emphasis on environmental opportunity and motivation as key to implementation. Teachers also generated additional ideas for intervention content. Discussion Despite low levels of current sitting reduction, teachers were willing to try at least one strategy to reduce sitting. Results informed intervention development regarding parameters of use for each strategy. When possible, interventions should provide teachers with a variety of alternative strategies that are easy to use to reduce prolonged sitting.

  9. A Formula for Fixing Troubled Projects: The Scientific Method Meets Leadership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    This presentation focuses on project management, specifically addressing project issues using the scientific method of problem-solving. Two sample projects where this methodology has been applied are provided.

  10. Scientific assay methods as the basis for glove selection.

    PubMed

    Beezhold, D H; Fay, M F; Sussman, G L

    1994-01-01

    Allergies to latex proteins and glove chemicals are increasing in the clinical practice setting. Inasmuch as latex is ubiquitous in the health environment, individuals may be exposed to latex antigens by a number of different routes, including compromised skin, mucous membranes of the respiratory and urogenital tracts, and internally during surgery. As demonstrated by numerous research articles, the key factors that appear to play a role in acquired latex hypersensitivity are chemicals used in the manufacture of products; the level of residual latex proteins, and the presence of glove powder, which binds latex protein. Currently, devices and materials containing latex are not labeled, although this may be rectified by the FDA in the near future. Until products are labeled, it is important for physicians to familiarize themselves with the routes of sensitization, variations in assay methods, and the type and amount of allergen in products in order to select the safest product for patient use and personal protection.

  11. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Derivations and Verification of Plans. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K, Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques. This recommended procedure would be used as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. This document contains the outcome of the assessment.

  12. Using Rubrics as a Scientific Writing Instructional Method in Early Stage Undergraduate Neuroscience Study

    PubMed Central

    Clabough, Erin B.D.; Clabough, Seth W.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific writing is an important communication and learning tool in neuroscience, yet it is a skill not adequately cultivated in introductory undergraduate science courses. Proficient, confident scientific writers are produced by providing specific knowledge about the writing process, combined with a clear student understanding about how to think about writing (also known as metacognition). We developed a rubric for evaluating scientific papers and assessed different methods of using the rubric in inquiry-based introductory biology classrooms. Students were either 1) given the rubric alone, 2) given the rubric, but also required to visit a biology subject tutor for paper assistance, or 3) asked to self-grade paper components using the rubric. Students who were required to use a peer tutor had more negative attitudes towards scientific writing, while students who used the rubric alone reported more confidence in their science writing skills by the conclusion of the semester. Overall, students rated the use of an example paper or grading rubric as the most effective ways of teaching scientific writing, while rating peer review as ineffective. Our paper describes a concrete, simple method of infusing scientific writing into inquiry-based science classes, and provides clear avenues to enhance communication and scientific writing skills in entry-level classes through the use of a rubric or example paper, with the goal of producing students capable of performing at a higher level in upper level neuroscience classes and independent research. PMID:27980476

  13. Using Rubrics as a Scientific Writing Instructional Method in Early Stage Undergraduate Neuroscience Study.

    PubMed

    Clabough, Erin B D; Clabough, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Scientific writing is an important communication and learning tool in neuroscience, yet it is a skill not adequately cultivated in introductory undergraduate science courses. Proficient, confident scientific writers are produced by providing specific knowledge about the writing process, combined with a clear student understanding about how to think about writing (also known as metacognition). We developed a rubric for evaluating scientific papers and assessed different methods of using the rubric in inquiry-based introductory biology classrooms. Students were either 1) given the rubric alone, 2) given the rubric, but also required to visit a biology subject tutor for paper assistance, or 3) asked to self-grade paper components using the rubric. Students who were required to use a peer tutor had more negative attitudes towards scientific writing, while students who used the rubric alone reported more confidence in their science writing skills by the conclusion of the semester. Overall, students rated the use of an example paper or grading rubric as the most effective ways of teaching scientific writing, while rating peer review as ineffective. Our paper describes a concrete, simple method of infusing scientific writing into inquiry-based science classes, and provides clear avenues to enhance communication and scientific writing skills in entry-level classes through the use of a rubric or example paper, with the goal of producing students capable of performing at a higher level in upper level neuroscience classes and independent research.

  14. LEARNING TO READ SCIENTIFIC RUSSIAN BY THE THREE QUESTION EXPERIMENTAL (3QX) METHOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALFORD, M.H.T.

    A NEW METHOD FOR LEARNING TO READ TECHNICAL LITERATURE IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IS BEING DEVELOPED AND TESTED AT THE LANGUAGE CENTRE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ESSEX, COLCHESTER, ENGLAND. THE METHOD IS CALLED "THREE QUESTION EXPERIMENTAL METHOD (3QX)," AND IT HAS BEEN USED IN THREE COURSES FOR TEACHING SCIENTIFIC RUSSIAN TO PHYSICISTS. THE THREE…

  15. 77 FR 40358 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... strategies. NICEATM and ICCVAM work collaboratively to evaluate new and improved test methods and strategies... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM... Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the NTP Interagency Center for...

  16. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

  17. Difficulties in the neuroscience of creativity: jazz improvisation and the scientific method.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Malinda; Limb, Charles J

    2013-11-01

    Creativity is a fundamental and remarkable human capacity, yet the scientific study of creativity has been limited by the difficulty of reconciling the scientific method and creative processes. We outline several hurdles and considerations that should be addressed when studying the cognitive neuroscience of creativity and suggest that jazz improvisation may be one of the most useful experimental models for the study of spontaneous creativity. More broadly, we argue that studying creativity in a way that is both scientifically and ecologically valid requires collaboration between neuroscientists and artists.

  18. Scholarship for Nuclear Communications and Methods for Evaluation of Nuclear Project Acceptability

    SciTech Connect

    Golay, Michael

    2016-10-30

    This project aims to go beyond effective communication in understanding how to design nuclear enterprise projects that will gain stakeholder acceptability. Much of what we are studying is generally applicable to controversial projects, and we expect our results to be of broad value beyond the nuclear arena. Acceptability is more than effective communication; it also requires varying degrees of engagement with a disparate number of stakeholder groups. In the nuclear enterprise, previous attempts have been well designed physically (i.e., technologically sound), but have floundered by being insensitive concerning acceptance. Though effective communication is a necessary, but insufficient, condition for such success, there is a lack of scholarship regarding how to gain stakeholder acceptance for new controversial projects, including nuclear ones. Our work is building a model for use in assessing the performance of a project in the area of acceptability. In the nuclear-social nexus, gaining acceptance requires a clear understanding of factors regarded as being important by the many stakeholders that are common to new nuclear project (many of whom hold an effective veto power). Projects tend to become socially controversial when public beliefs, expert opinion and decision-maker understanding are misaligned. As such, stakeholder acceptance is hypothesized as both an ongoing process and an initial project design parameter comprised of complex, social, cognitive and technical components. Controversial projects may be defined as aspects of modern technologies that some people question, or are cautious about. They could range from genetic modifications, biological hazards, effects of chemical agents, nuclear radiation or hydraulic fracturing operations. We intend that our work will result in a model likely to be valuable for refining project design and implementation to increase the knowledge needed for successful management of stakeholder relationships.

  19. Scientific Method in Teaching Physics in Languages and Social Sciences Department of High—Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagl, Mirko G.; Obadović, Dušanka Ž.; Stojanović, Maja M.

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of scientific materials in the last few decades, demands that the contemporary educational system should select and develop methods of effective learning in the process of acquiring skills and knowledge usable and feasible for a longer period of time. Grammar schools as general educational institutions possess all that is necessary for the development of new teaching methods and fitting into contemporary social tendencies. In the languages and social sciences department in of grammar schools physics is the only natural sciences subject present during all four years. The classical approach to teaching is tiring as such and creates aversion towards learning physic when it deals with pupils oriented towards social sciences. The introduction of scientific methods raises the motivation to a substantial level and when applied both the teacher and pupils forget when the class starts or ends. The assignment has shown the analysis of initial knowledge of physics of the pupils attending the first grade of languages and social sciences department of of grammar schools as a preparation for the introduction of the scientific method, the analysis of the initial test with the topic of gravitation, as well as the analysis of the final test after applying the scientific method through the topic of gravitation. The introduction of the scientific method has duly justified the expectations and resulted in increasing the level of achievement among the pupils in the experimental class.

  20. Development, validation and acceptance of alternative methods in the quality control of vaccines: A case report.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, C F

    1995-12-01

    Information about levels of protection against tetanus is needed both for the assessment of immune status and for the estimation of the potency of batches of tetanus toxoid. Originally, levels of protective antibodies in human serum samples were titrated in an in vivo toxin neutralization (TN) test. Potency testing was based either on an indirect protection test or a direct challenge test. In the former test, rabbits or guinea pigs are immunized and bled, followed by titration of serum samples in a TN test. In the latter test, used in the quality control of tetanus toxoid for human use, protective immunity is induced by vaccination in guinea pigs or mice and subsequently challenging them directly with tetanus toxin. In the mid-1980s, an in vitro model was developed at the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) for estimating levels of tetanus antitoxin in serum samples. This model, the toxin-binding inhibition (ToBI) test, was validated recently for both diagnostic testing and potency testing. Although accurate estimation of antitoxin levels is more important for diagnostic testing than for potency testing, the ToBI test has been adopted for determining the immune status but not for potency testing. One major reason is that there are no official guidelines for titration of human serum samples. By contrast, potency testing is performed in accordance with the monographs of national and international pharmacopoeias, which complicates acceptance for technical and bureaucratic reasons. This paper focuses on the validation studies performed at the RIVM. In particular, attention is paid to the various problems encountered. Suggestions for the role of the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM)( *) in the quality control of vaccines are also presented.

  1. Breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding: a mixed methods study of acceptability.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Nicola; Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; MacLennan, Graeme; Campbell, Marion; Dykes, Fiona; Hoddinott, Pat

    2016-10-01

    Increasing breastfeeding rates would improve maternal and child health, but multiple barriers to breastfeeding persist. Breast pump provision has been used as an incentive for breastfeeding, although effectiveness is unclear. Women's use of breast pumps is increasing and a high proportion of mothers express breastmilk. No research has yet reported women's and health professionals' perspectives on breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. In the Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS) study, mixed methods research explored women's and professionals' views of breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. A survey of health professionals across Scotland and North West England measured agreement with 'a breast pump costing around £40 provided for free on the NHS' as an incentive strategy. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted in two UK regions with a total of 68 participants (pregnant women, new mothers, and their significant others and health professionals) and thematic analysis undertaken. The survey of 497 health professionals found net agreement of 67.8% (337/497) with the breast pump incentive strategy, with no predictors of agreement shown by a multiple ordered logistic regression model. Qualitative research found interrelated themes of the 'appeal and value of breast pumps', 'sharing the load', 'perceived benefits', 'perceived risks' and issues related to 'timing'. Qualitative participants expressed mixed views on the acceptability of breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. Understanding the mechanisms of action for pump type, timing and additional support required for effectiveness is required to underpin trials of breast pump provision as an incentive for improving breastfeeding outcomes. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Creepy Crawlies and the Scientific Method: Over 100 Hands-On Science Experiments for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneidel, Sally Stenhouse

    This book contains 114 experiments, mostly behavioral, with animals that are commonly found in nature. Each experiment is a five-step procedure: question, hypothesis, methods, result, and conclusion. Chapter 1 is devoted entirely to explaining these five steps, which together constitute the scientific method. The experiments are in the last part…

  3. The Scientific Method and the Creative Process: Implications for the K-6 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Amanda J.; Stephens, April H.

    2013-01-01

    Science and the arts might seem very different, but the processes that both fields use are very similar. The scientific method is a way to explore a problem, form and test a hypothesis, and answer questions. The creative process creates, interprets, and expresses art. Inquiry is at the heart of both of these methods. The purpose of this article is…

  4. A review of contemporary methods for the presentation of scientific uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Makinson, K A; Hamby, D M; Edwards, J A

    2012-12-01

    Graphic methods for displaying uncertainty are often the most concise and informative way to communicate abstract concepts. Presentation methods currently in use for the display and interpretation of scientific uncertainty are reviewed. Numerous subjective and objective uncertainty display methods are presented, including qualitative assessments, node and arrow diagrams, standard statistical methods, box-and-whisker plots,robustness and opportunity functions, contribution indexes, probability density functions, cumulative distribution functions, and graphical likelihood functions.

  5. Acceptability of Positive and Punitive Discipline Methods: Comparisons among Abusive, Potentially Abusive, and Nonabusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Mary Lou; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Abusive, potentially abusive, and control group parents (N=62) were presented with vignettes describing a child with either mild or severe behavior problems and asked to rate the acceptability of four discipline procedures (positive reinforcement, timeout, timeout with spanking, and spanking). Overall, parents rated positive reinforcement as more…

  6. A method to investigate drivers' acceptance of Blind Spot Detection System®.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Giuliofrancesco; Simões, Anabela; Rodrigues, Carlos Manuel; Leitão, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Lately, with the goal of improving road safety, car makers developed and commercialised some Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) which, through the detection of blind spot areas on the vehicle's sides, could help the drivers during the overtaking and the change lane task. Despite the possible benefits to reduce lateral crashes, the overall impact on road safety of such systems have not been deeply studied yet; notably, despite some researches have been carried out, there is a lack of studies regarding the long-term usage and drivers' acceptance of those systems. In order to fill the research gap, a methodology, based on the combination of focus groups interviews, questionnaires and a small-scale field operational test (FOT), has been designed in this study; such a methodology aims at evaluating drivers' acceptance of Blind Spot Information System® and at proposing some ideas to improve the usability and user-friendliness of this (or similar) device in their future development.

  7. A Method for Understanding Their Method: Discovering Scientific Inquiry through Biographies of Famous Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, Elizabeth; Fairweather, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Mendel and his peas. Goodall and her chimpanzees. Bentley and his snowflakes. Pasteur and his sheep. Not only do these stories intrigue students, but they also demonstrate the trials and tribulations associated with scientific inquiry. Using scientists' biographies piques student interest while providing an added dimension to their understanding…

  8. Normal Science and the Paranormal: The Effect of a Scientific Method Course on Students' Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morier, Dean; Keeports, David

    1994-01-01

    A study investigated the effects of an interdisciplinary course on the scientific method on the attitudes of 34 college students toward the paranormal. Results indicated that the course substantially reduced belief in the paranormal, relative to a control group. Student beliefs in their own paranormal powers, however, did not change. (Author/MSE)

  9. Two Case Studies in the Scientific Method: Antisense Experiments and HIV Vaccination Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilfoile, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    Presents two recent cases that can be used in the classroom to illustrate the application of scientific methods in biological research: (1) the use of a complementary RNA or DNA molecule to block the production or translation of an mRNA molecule; and (2) the development of HIV trial vaccines. Contains 20 references. (WRM)

  10. Exploring the Changes in Students' Understanding of the Scientific Method Using Word Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Sinan, Olcay; Bowman, Charles R.; Yildirim, Yetkin

    2015-01-01

    A study is presented that explores how students' knowledge structures, as related to the scientific method, compare at different student ages. A word association test comprised of ten total stimulus words, among them "experiment," "science fair," and "hypothesis," is used to probe the students' knowledge structures.…

  11. Implementing Web-Based Scientific Inquiry in Preservice Science Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how the Web-based Inquiry for Learning Science (WBI) instrument was used with preservice elementary and secondary science teachers in science methods courses to enhance their understanding of Web-based scientific inquiry. The WBI instrument is designed to help teachers identify Web-based inquiry activities for learning science…

  12. Toward a Richer View of the Scientific Method: The Role of Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Armando; Silva, Francisco J.

    2007-01-01

    Within the complex set of activities that comprise the scientific method, three clusters of activities can be recognized: experimentation, mathematization, and conceptual analysis. In psychology, the first two of these clusters are well-known and valued, but the third seems less known and valued. The authors show the value of these three clusters…

  13. Using the Scientific Method to Motivate Biology Students to Study Precalculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, James P.; Sabatino, Linda

    2008-01-01

    During the last two years we have developed a precalculus course customized around biology by using the scientific method as a framework to engage and motivate biology students. Historically, the precalculus and calculus courses required for the Suffolk County Community College biology curriculum were designed using examples from the physical…

  14. Scaffolded Instruction Improves Student Understanding of the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Costa, Allison R.; Schlueter, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of a guided-inquiry lab in introductory biology classes, along with scaffolded instruction, improved students' understanding of the scientific method, their ability to design an experiment, and their identification of experimental variables. Pre- and postassessments from experimental versus control sections over three semesters…

  15. BioLab: Using Yeast Fermentation as a Model for the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigage, Helen K.; Neilson, Milton C.; Greeder, Michele M.

    This document presents a science experiment demonstrating the scientific method. The experiment consists of testing the fermentation capabilities of yeasts under different circumstances. The experiment is supported with computer software called BioLab which demonstrates yeast's response to different environments. (YDS)

  16. Psychosocial determinants of physicians' acceptance of recommendations by antibiotic computerised decision support systems: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Chow, Angela; Lye, David C B; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2015-03-01

    Antibiotic computerised decision support systems (CDSSs) were developed to facilitate optimal prescribing, but acceptance of their recommendations has remained low. We aimed to evaluate physicians' perceptions and attitudes toward antibiotic CDSSs and determine psychosocial factors associated with acceptance of CDSS recommendations for empirical therapy. A mixed methods study was conducted in an adult tertiary-care hospital in Singapore, with its in-house antibiotic CDSS that integrates antimicrobial stewardship with electronic prescribing. Focus group discussions were conducted among purposively sampled physicians and data were analysed using the framework approach. Emerging themes were included in the questionnaire with newly developed scales for the subsequent cross-sectional survey involving all physicians. Principal components analysis was performed to derive the latent factor structure that was later applied in multivariate analyses. Physicians expressed confidence in the credibility of CDSS recommendations. Junior physicians accepted CDSS recommendations most of the time, whilst senior physicians acknowledged overriding recommendations in complex patients with multiple infections or allergies. Willingness to consult the CDSS for common and complex infections (OR=1.68, 95% CI 1.16-2.44) and preference for personal or team decision (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.43-0.85) were associated with acceptance of CDSS recommendations. Cronbach's α for scales measuring physicians' attitudes and perceptions towards acceptance of CDSS recommendations ranged from 0.64 to 0.88. Physicians' willingness to consult an antibiotic CDSS determined acceptance of its recommendations. Physicians would choose to exercise their own or clinical team's decision over CDSS recommendations in complex patient situations when the antibiotic prescribing needs were not met.

  17. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kelty, Catherine A.; Oshiro, Robin; Haugland, Richard A.; Madi, Tania; Brooks, Lauren; Field, Katharine G.; Sivaganesan, Mano

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data quality across laboratories. Data quality is typically determined through a series of specifications that ensure good experimental practice and the absence of bias in the results due to DNA isolation and amplification interferences. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on how best to evaluate and interpret human fecal source identification qPCR experiments. This is, in part, due to the lack of standardized protocols and information on interlaboratory variability under conditions for data acceptance. The aim of this study is to provide users and reviewers with a complete series of conditions for data acceptance derived from a multiple laboratory data set using standardized procedures. To establish these benchmarks, data from HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 human-associated qPCR methods were generated across 14 laboratories. Each laboratory followed a standardized protocol utilizing the same lot of reference DNA materials, DNA isolation kits, amplification reagents, and test samples to generate comparable data. After removal of outliers, a nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to establish proficiency metrics that include lab-to-lab, replicate testing within a lab, and random error for amplification inhibition and sample processing controls. Other data acceptance measurements included extraneous DNA contamination assessments (no-template and extraction blank controls) and calibration model performance (correlation coefficient, amplification efficiency, and lower limit of quantification). To demonstrate the implementation of the proposed standardized protocols and data acceptance criteria, comparable data from two additional laboratories were reviewed. The data acceptance criteria

  18. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Kelty, Catherine A; Oshiro, Robin; Haugland, Richard A; Madi, Tania; Brooks, Lauren; Field, Katharine G; Sivaganesan, Mano

    2016-05-01

    There is growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data quality across laboratories. Data quality is typically determined through a series of specifications that ensure good experimental practice and the absence of bias in the results due to DNA isolation and amplification interferences. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on how best to evaluate and interpret human fecal source identification qPCR experiments. This is, in part, due to the lack of standardized protocols and information on interlaboratory variability under conditions for data acceptance. The aim of this study is to provide users and reviewers with a complete series of conditions for data acceptance derived from a multiple laboratory data set using standardized procedures. To establish these benchmarks, data from HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 human-associated qPCR methods were generated across 14 laboratories. Each laboratory followed a standardized protocol utilizing the same lot of reference DNA materials, DNA isolation kits, amplification reagents, and test samples to generate comparable data. After removal of outliers, a nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to establish proficiency metrics that include lab-to-lab, replicate testing within a lab, and random error for amplification inhibition and sample processing controls. Other data acceptance measurements included extraneous DNA contamination assessments (no-template and extraction blank controls) and calibration model performance (correlation coefficient, amplification efficiency, and lower limit of quantification). To demonstrate the implementation of the proposed standardized protocols and data acceptance criteria, comparable data from two additional laboratories were reviewed. The data acceptance criteria

  19. A new method of CCD dark current correction via extracting the dark Information from scientific images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bin; Shang, Zhaohui; Hu, Yi; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Lifan; Wei, Peng

    2014-07-01

    We have developed a new method to correct dark current at relatively high temperatures for Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) images when dark frames cannot be obtained on the telescope. For images taken with the Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3) in 2012, due to the low cooling efficiency, the median CCD temperature was -46°C, resulting in a high dark current level of about 3e-/pix/sec, even comparable to the sky brightness (10e-/pix/sec). If not corrected, the nonuniformity of the dark current could even overweight the photon noise of the sky background. However, dark frames could not be obtained during the observing season because the camera was operated in frame-transfer mode without a shutter, and the telescope was unattended in winter. Here we present an alternative, but simple and effective method to derive the dark current frame from the scientific images. Then we can scale this dark frame to the temperature at which the scientific images were taken, and apply the dark frame corrections to the scientific images. We have applied this method to the AST3 data, and demonstrated that it can reduce the noise to a level roughly as low as the photon noise of the sky brightness, solving the high noise problem and improving the photometric precision. This method will also be helpful for other projects that suffer from similar issues.

  20. Preferred delivery method and acceptability of Wheat-Soy Blend (WSB++) as a daily complementary food supplement in northwest Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Hanif, Abu A M; Merrill, Rebecca D; Campbell, Rebecca K; Kumkum, Mehnaz Alam; Shaikh, Saijuddin; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Parveen, Monira; Mehra, Sucheta; Klemm, Rolf D W; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are widely used to prevent undernutrition in early childhood in food-insecure settings. We field tested enhanced Wheat Soy Blend (WSB++)-a FBF fortified with micronutrients, milk powder, sugar, and oil-in preparation for a complementary food supplement (CFS) trial in rural northwestern Bangladesh. Formative work was conducted to determine the optimal delivery method (cooked vs. not) for this CFS, to examine mothers' child feeding practices with and acceptance of the WSB++, and to identify potential barriers to adherence. Our results suggest WSB++ is an acceptable CFS in rural Bangladesh and the requirement for mothers to cook WSB++ at home is unlikely to be a barrier to its daily use as a CFS in this population.

  1. Toward a richer view of the scientific method. The role of conceptual analysis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Armando; Silva, Francisco J

    2007-10-01

    Within the complex set of activities that comprise the scientific method, three clusters of activities can be recognized: experimentation, mathematization, and conceptual analysis. In psychology, the first two of these clusters are well-known and valued, but the third seems less known and valued. The authors show the value of these three clusters of scientific method activities in the works of the quintessential scientist Galileo Galilei. They then illustrate how conceptual analysis can be used in psychology to clarify the grammar and meaning of concepts, expose conceptual problems in models, reveal unacknowledged assumptions and steps in arguments, and evaluate the consistency of theoretical accounts. The article concludes with a discussion of three criticisms of conceptual analysis.

  2. Formative research on the primo vascular system and acceptance by the korean scientific community: the gap between creative basic science and practical convergence technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon Gi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to trace the formative process of primo vascular system (PVS) research over the past decade and to describe the characteristics of the Korean scientific community. By publishing approximately 30 papers in journals ranking in the Science Citation Index (Expanded), the PVS research team actively convinced domestic and international scientists of the anatomical existence of the PVS and its possible application to Korean and Western medicine. In addition, by sharing the PVS observation technique, the team promoted the dissemination and further pursuit of the research. In 2012, however, PVS researchers performed smaller scale research without advancing to a higher level as compared to the early days. The main reasons were found to be the Korean Research and Development policy of supporting creative, small-scale basic research and applied research of Western scientific fields that promised potentially greater success on an extensive scale; the indifference concerning, and the disbelief in, the existence of a new circulatory system were shown by the Western medical community. In addition, the Oriental medical community was apathetic about working with the PVS team. Professors Kwang-Sup Soh and Byung-Cheon Lee were the prime movers of PVS research under difficult conditions. Spurred by their belief in the existence and significance of the PVS, they continued with their research despite insufficient experimental data. The Korean scientific community is not ready to promote the Korea-oriented creative field of the PVS team.

  3. 19 CFR 134.44 - Location and other acceptable methods of marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported... Customs, any method of marking at any location insuring that country of origin will conspicuously...

  4. 19 CFR 134.44 - Location and other acceptable methods of marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported... Customs, any method of marking at any location insuring that country of origin will conspicuously...

  5. A review of the scientific rationale and methods used in the search for other planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Planetary systems appear to be one of the crucial links in the chain leading from simple molecules to living systems, particularly complex (intelligent?) living systems. Although there is currently no observational proof of the existence of any planetary system other than our own, techniques are now being developed which will permit a comprehensive search for other planetary systems. The scientific rationale for and methods used in such a search effort are reviewed here.

  6. Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA): A Method for Evaluating Changes in Understanding and Visualization of the Scientific Process in a Multidisciplinary Student Population

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kristy J.; Rigakos, Bessie

    2016-01-01

    The scientific process is nonlinear, unpredictable, and ongoing. Assessing the nature of science is difficult with methods that rely on Likert-scale or multiple-choice questions. This study evaluated conceptions about the scientific process using student-created visual representations that we term “flowcharts.” The methodology, Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA), consisted of a prompt and rubric that was designed to assess students’ understanding of the scientific process. Forty flowcharts representing a multidisciplinary group without intervention and 26 flowcharts representing pre- and postinstruction were evaluated over five dimensions: connections, experimental design, reasons for doing science, nature of science, and interconnectivity. Pre to post flowcharts showed a statistically significant improvement in the number of items and ratings for the dimensions. Comparison of the terms used and connections between terms on student flowcharts revealed an enhanced and more nuanced understanding of the scientific process, especially in the areas of application to society and communication within the scientific community. We propose that SPFA can be used in a variety of circumstances, including in the determination of what curricula or interventions would be useful in a course or program, in the assessment of curriculum, or in the evaluation of students performing research projects. PMID:27856551

  7. Goat milk acceptance and promotion methods in Japan: The questionnaire survey to middle class households.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Mukuda, Kumiko; Fujita, Masaru; Nishitani, Jiro

    2009-04-01

    A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market.

  8. Agro-Ecosystem Research Results with Big Data and a Modified Scientific Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, M. S.; Heilman, P.; Peters, D. P. C.; Holifield Collins, C.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term studies of agro-ecosystems at the continental scale are providing an extraordinary understanding of regional environmental dynamics. The new Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network (established in 2013) has designed an explicit research program with multiple USDA experimental watersheds, ranges and forests for cross-site studies. Here, we report results from studies using a modified scientific method implemented over the past five years with long-term data from USDA experimental sites in coordination with other networks. The method provides a flexible structure to transform an idea to a hypothesis and come to conclusion with the valuable expertise and full participation of the data providers. The results offer a compelling argument for the LTAR concept of combining bottom-up site-based expertise and top-down network-wide coordination to arrive at more accurate scientific conclusions. Simply put, without site-based expertise and cross-site communication, the interpretations and conclusions of these studies would have been incomplete, if not incorrect. Further, the up-front time commitment to data processing and analytics above the time dedicated to place-based studies increased the productivity of the team and the impact of the research, unlike the common perception that cross-site research might be less efficient. In turn, this supported a non-traditional system of credit for co-authors based on publication impact with less regard for author order. The LTAR network has embraced this modified scientific method in its Shared Research Strategy and Common Experiment to address the problematic issues of data quality, co-author credit, research efficiency, and scientific impact in data intensive research. The initial success expressed here with USDA experimental sites bodes well for the LTAR and other such networks going forward.

  9. A model of "integrated scientific method" and its application for the analysis of instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusbult, Craig Francis

    A model of 'integrated scientific method' (ISM) was constructed as a framework for describing the process of science in terms of activities (formulating a research problem, and inventing and evaluating actions--such as selecting and inventing theories, evaluating theories, designing experiments, and doing experiments--intended to solve the problem) and evaluation criteria (empirical, conceptual, and cultural-personal). Instead of trying to define the scientific method, ISM is intended to serve as a flexible framework that--by varying the characteristics of its components, their integrated relationships, and their relative importance can be used to describe a variety of scientific methods, and a variety of perspectives about what constitutes an accurate portrayal of scientific methods. This framework is outlined visually and verbally, followed by an elaboration of the framework and my own views about science, and an evaluation of whether ISM can serve as a relatively neutral framework for describing a wide range of science practices and science interpretations. ISM was used to analyze an innovative, guided inquiry classroom (taught by Susan Johnson, using Genetics Construction Kit software) in which students do simulated scientific research by solving classical genetics problems that require effect-to-cause reasoning and theory revision. The immediate goal of analysis was to examine the 'science experiences' of students, to determine how the 'structure of instruction' provides opportunities for these experiences. Another goal was to test and improve the descriptive and analytical utility of ISM. In developing ISM, a major objective was to make ISM educationally useful. A concluding discussion includes controversies about "the nature of science" and how to teach it, how instruction can expand opportunities for student experience, and how goal-oriented intentional learning (using ISM might improve the learning, retention, and transfer of thinking skills. Potential

  10. CHRONICLE: Fourth Scientific and Technical Conference on Optical Methods for Flow Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubov, Vladimir A.; Rinkevichius, Bronyus S.

    1997-12-01

    A review is given of the papers presented at the Fourth Scientific and Technical Conference on Optical Methods for Flow Diagnostics. This conference was concerned with research and applications in the field of flow diagnostics and with related physical and technical topics, such as determination and visualisation of optical and dynamic characteristics of media, creation and monitoring of local directional precision displacements, local measurements and determination of the spatial distribution of optical inhomogeneities in transparent media, as well as a number of practical applications of new methods and techniques.

  11. [Crowdsourcing is a new method for generating data for scientific research].

    PubMed

    Bækgaard, Josefine Stokholm; Hallas, Peter

    2015-01-05

    Crowdsourcing (CS) is a rapidly emerging method in scientific research. In CS, large groups of people generate new data or try to find solutions to specific research questions, mainly by online collaboration. Examples of the current use of CS in medicine include disease surveillance as well as diagnosis of rare conditions. CS techniques are rapid, low cost and geographically independent - traits lacking in traditional types of study design. However, CS as a method has not yet found its place in the evidence rating scale and a standard for conducting and reporting CS studies does not yet exist.

  12. Scientific method, history, Darwinism and laicism: a Giovanni Jervis's intellectual biography.

    PubMed

    Corbellini, Gilberto; Sirgiovanni, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Some authors marked a change of perspective from the early to the late Jervis's thought, in terms of a supposed turn towards conservatism. That laid him open to criticism from some Leftist Italian intellectuals. The aim of this paper is to show that conservatism never was a Jervis's thought feature. Mainly, subjects and methods leading the development of his philosophical views suggest a continuity between earlier writings and later ones. All over his thought, in fact, the idea of preeminence of scientific method and historical contextualization convinced him about naturalistic approaches to human behavior, which came to support his Darwinism and laicism in approaching socio-psychological and socio-political issues.

  13. PREFACE: I International Scientific School Methods of Digital Image Processing in Optics and Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurov, I. P.; Kozlov, S. A.

    2014-09-01

    The first international scientific school "Methods of Digital Image Processing in Optics and Photonics" was held with a view to develop cooperation between world-class experts, young scientists, students and post-graduate students, and to exchange information on the current status and directions of research in the field of digital image processing in optics and photonics. The International Scientific School was managed by: Saint Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO University) - Saint Petersburg (Russia) Chernyshevsky Saratov State University - Saratov (Russia) National research nuclear University "MEPHI" (NRNU MEPhI) - Moscow (Russia) The school was held with the participation of the local chapters of Optical Society of America (OSA), the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) and IEEE Photonics Society. Further details, including topics, committees and conference photos are available in the PDF

  14. Assessing Scientific Practices Using Machine-Learning Methods: How Closely Do They Match Clinical Interview Performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggrow, Elizabeth P.; Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis; Boone, William J.

    2013-07-01

    The landscape of science education is being transformed by the new Framework for Science Education (National Research Council, A framework for K-12 science education: practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2012), which emphasizes the centrality of scientific practices—such as explanation, argumentation, and communication—in science teaching, learning, and assessment. A major challenge facing the field of science education is developing assessment tools that are capable of validly and efficiently evaluating these practices. Our study examined the efficacy of a free, open-source machine-learning tool for evaluating the quality of students' written explanations of the causes of evolutionary change relative to three other approaches: (1) human-scored written explanations, (2) a multiple-choice test, and (3) clinical oral interviews. A large sample of undergraduates (n = 104) exposed to varying amounts of evolution content completed all three assessments: a clinical oral interview, a written open-response assessment, and a multiple-choice test. Rasch analysis was used to compute linear person measures and linear item measures on a single logit scale. We found that the multiple-choice test displayed poor person and item fit (mean square outfit >1.3), while both oral interview measures and computer-generated written response measures exhibited acceptable fit (average mean square outfit for interview: person 0.97, item 0.97; computer: person 1.03, item 1.06). Multiple-choice test measures were more weakly associated with interview measures (r = 0.35) than the computer-scored explanation measures (r = 0.63). Overall, Rasch analysis indicated that computer-scored written explanation measures (1) have the strongest correspondence to oral interview measures; (2) are capable of capturing students' normative scientific and naive ideas as accurately as human-scored explanations, and (3) more validly detect understanding

  15. Analytical method transfer using equivalence tests with reasonable acceptance criteria and appropriate effort: extension of the ISPE concept.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, L; Schepers, U; Wätzig, H

    2010-12-15

    A method development process is commonly finalized by a method transfer from the developing to the routine laboratory. Statistical tests are performed in order to survey if a transfer succeeded or failed. However, using the classic two-sample t-test can lead to misjudgments and unsatisfying transfer results due to its test characteristics. Therefore the International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE) employed a fixed method transfer design using equivalence tests in their Guide for Technology Transfer. Although it was well received by analytical laboratories worldwide this fixed design can easily bring about high beta-errors (rejection of successful transfers) or high workload (many analysts employed during transfer) if sigma(AN) (error due to different analysts) exceeds 0.6%. Hence this work introduces an extended concept which will help to circumvent this disadvantage by providing guidance to select a personalized and more appropriate experimental design. First of all it demonstrates that former t-test related acceptance criteria can be scaled by a factor of 1.15, which allows for a broader tolerance without a loss of decision certainty. Furthermore a decision guidance to choose the proper number of analysts or series at given percentage acceptance limits (%AL) is presented.

  16. Social Acceptance and Rejection of Preschool Children with Disabilities: A Mixed-Method Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Samuel L.; Zercher, Craig; Li, Shouming; Marquart, Jules M.; Sandall, Susan; Brown, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Eighty children with disabilities enrolled in a nationally distributed set of inclusive preschool programs participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 3.9 years, and 60% were male. The children exhibited a range of disabilities and developmental levels. Using a mixed-method approach, the authors established quantitative…

  17. Comparative study on the acceptance and use of contraceptive methods in a rural population in Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Kamalanathan, J P

    1990-12-01

    Contraceptive prevalence was determined in the Kelantan region of Malaysia, an area with relatively poor health indices. 350 women attending health clinics on rubber and palm-oil estates and living in surrounding suburbs were surveyed by clinic workers or during home visits. The sample included 273 Malays, 64 Indians and 13 Chinese. This area of Peninsular Malaysia is noted for the highest infant mortality rate (17.7), second highest crude birth rate (35.2) and highest dependency ratio (88%) in the country. 44.9% practiced contraception, highest in Chinese and lowest in Indians. Methods used were pills by (55%), traditional methods (19%), tubal ligation (18%), safe period (14%), injections (5.5%), IUD (4.7%), and condom (2.3%). The Malaysian traditional methods are herbal preparations from tree bark or roots, herb pills, and exercises after coitus. 34% of the non contraceptors had used contraception before but stopped because of side effects, religious or spousal objections, or desire to conceive. 74% had married in their teens. 46% of the non-contraceptors were spacing their children by prolonged breastfeeding.

  18. Using Scientific Argumentation in a Science Methods Course to Improve Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Soden, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Given that K-12 students have numerous alternative conceptions, it is critical that teachers have an understanding of the fundamental science underlying climate change (Feldman et al., 2010). Many teachers, however, do not demonstrate adequate understanding of these concepts (Daskolia et al., 2006). Argumentation has been identified as a mechanism for conceptual change (Mercer et al., 2004). Even with several educational initiatives promoting and supporting the use of argumentation as an instructional practice, teachers often struggle to implement argumentation in the classroom (Sampson & Blanchard, 2012). To remedy both issues above, we have designed an innovative methods course to provide background in climate change knowledge and argumentation instruction. In our methods course, we utilize Climate Science Investigations (CSI), an online, interactive series of modules and teaching resources funded by a NASA grant to support teachers learning about the basic science concepts underlying climate change. A key assignment is to develop and present an evidence-based scientific argument. The teachers were assigned a typical question and claim of climate skeptics and asked to conduct research on the scientific findings to prepare a counter-argument (rebuttal). This study examined changes in 60 preservice teachers' knowledge and perceptions about climate change after participation in the course. The teachers' understanding of fundamental concepts increased significantly. Their perceptions about climate change became more aligned to those of climate scientists. Findings suggest that scientific argumentation can play an effective role in the preparation of science educators. In addition to reporting findings in more detail, methods course activities, particularly in argumentation, will be shared in our presentation.

  19. Learning from our GWAS mistakes: from experimental design to scientific method.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Christophe G; Black, Laura J

    2012-04-01

    Many public and private genome-wide association studies that we have analyzed include flaws in design, with avoidable confounding appearing as a norm rather than the exception. Rather than recognizing flawed research design and addressing that, a category of quality-control statistical methods has arisen to treat only the symptoms. Reflecting more deeply, we examine elements of current genomic research in light of the traditional scientific method and find that hypotheses are often detached from data collection, experimental design, and causal theories. Association studies independent of causal theories, along with multiple testing errors, too often drive health care and public policy decisions. In an era of large-scale biological research, we ask questions about the role of statistical analyses in advancing coherent theories of diseases and their mechanisms. We advocate for reinterpretation of the scientific method in the context of large-scale data analysis opportunities and for renewed appreciation of falsifiable hypotheses, so that we can learn more from our best mistakes.

  20. Methods for the Scientific Study of Discrimination and Health: An Ecosocial Approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The scientific study of how discrimination harms health requires theoretically grounded methods. At issue is how discrimination, as one form of societal injustice, becomes embodied inequality and is manifested as health inequities. As clarified by ecosocial theory, methods must address the lived realities of discrimination as an exploitative and oppressive societal phenomenon operating at multiple levels and involving myriad pathways across both the life course and historical generations. An integrated embodied research approach hence must consider (1) the structural level—past and present de jure and de facto discrimination; (2) the individual level—issues of domains, nativity, and use of both explicit and implicit discrimination measures; and (3) how current research methods likely underestimate the impact of racism on health. PMID:22420803

  1. Uniform-acceptance force-bias Monte Carlo method with time scale to study solid-state diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mees, Maarten J.; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Neyts, Erik C.; Thijsse, Barend J.; Stesmans, André

    2012-04-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods have a long-standing history as partners of molecular dynamics (MD) to simulate the evolution of materials at the atomic scale. Among these techniques, the uniform-acceptance force-bias Monte Carlo (UFMC) method [G. Dereli, Mol. Simul.10.1080/08927029208022490 8, 351 (1992)] has recently attracted attention [M. Timonova , Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.81.144107 81, 144107 (2010)] thanks to its apparent capacity of being able to simulate physical processes in a reduced number of iterations compared to classical MD methods. The origin of this efficiency remains, however, unclear. In this work we derive a UFMC method starting from basic thermodynamic principles, which leads to an intuitive and unambiguous formalism. The approach includes a statistically relevant time step per Monte Carlo iteration, showing a significant speed-up compared to MD simulations. This time-stamped force-bias Monte Carlo (tfMC) formalism is tested on both simple one-dimensional and three-dimensional systems. Both test-cases give excellent results in agreement with analytical solutions and literature reports. The inclusion of a time scale, the simplicity of the method, and the enhancement of the time step compared to classical MD methods make this method very appealing for studying the dynamics of many-particle systems.

  2. Bridging the gap between regulatory acceptance and industry use of non-animal methods.

    PubMed

    Clippinger, Amy J; Hill, Erin; Curren, Rodger; Bishop, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration between industry and regulators resulted in the development of a decision tree approach using in vitro or ex vivo assays to replace animal tests when determining the eye irritation potential of antimicrobial cleaning products (AMCPs) under the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs' hazard classification and labeling system. A policy document issued by the EPA in 2013 and updated in 2015 describes the alternate testing framework that industry could apply to new registrations of AMCPs and, on a case-by-case basis, to conventional pesticide products. Despite the collaborative effort, the availability of relevant non-animal methods, and the EPA's change in policy, only a limited number of AMCPs have been registered using the framework. Companies continue to conduct animal tests when registering AMCPs due to various challenges surrounding adoption of the new testing framework; however, recent discussions between industry, regulators, and other interested parties have identified ways these challenges may be overcome. In this article we explore how use of the alternate framework could be expanded through efforts such as increasing international harmonization, more proactively publicizing the framework, and enhancing the training of regulatory reviewers. Not only can these strategies help to increase use of the EPA alternate eye irritation framework, they can also be applied to facilitate the uptake of other alternative approaches to animal testing in the future.

  3. Clustering Scientific Publications Based on Citation Relations: A Systematic Comparison of Different Methods

    PubMed Central

    Šubelj, Lovro; van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between different properties that may be considered desirable for a good clustering of publications. Overall, map equation methods appear to perform best in our analysis, suggesting that these methods deserve more attention from the bibliometric community. PMID:27124610

  4. Clustering Scientific Publications Based on Citation Relations: A Systematic Comparison of Different Methods.

    PubMed

    Šubelj, Lovro; van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between different properties that may be considered desirable for a good clustering of publications. Overall, map equation methods appear to perform best in our analysis, suggesting that these methods deserve more attention from the bibliometric community.

  5. Applying the scientific method to small catchment studies: Areview of the Panola Mountain experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    A hallmark of the scientific method is its iterative application to a problem to increase and refine the understanding of the underlying processes controlling it. A successful iterative application of the scientific method to catchment science (including the fields of hillslope hydrology and biogeochemistry) has been hindered by two factors. First, the scale at which controlled experiments can be performed is much smaller than the scale of the phenomenon of interest. Second, computer simulation models generally have not been used as hypothesis-testing tools as rigorously as they might have been. Model evaluation often has gone only so far as evaluation of goodness of fit, rather than a full structural analysis, which is more useful when treating the model as a hypothesis. An iterative application of a simple mixing model to the Panola Mountain Research Watershed is reviewed to illustrate the increase in understanding gained by this approach and to discern general principles that may be applicable to other studies. The lessons learned include the need for an explicitly stated conceptual model of the catchment, the definition of objective measures of its applicability, and a clear linkage between the scale of observations and the scale of predictions. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons. Ltd.

  6. On Understanding: Maxwell on the Methods of Illustration and Scientific Metaphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cat, Jordi

    In this paper I examine the notion and role of metaphors and illustrations in Maxwell's works in exact science as a pathway into a broader and richer philosophical conception of a scientist and scientific practice. While some of these notions and methods are still at work in current scientific research-from economics and biology to quantum computation and quantum field theory-, here I have chosen to attest to their entrenchment and complexity in actual science by attempting to make some conceptual sense of Maxwell's own usage; this endeavour includes situating Maxwell's conceptions and applications in his own culture of Victorian science and philosophy. I trace Maxwell's notions to the formulation of the problem of understanding, or interpreting, abstract representations such as potential functions and Lagrangian equations. I articulate the solution in terms of abstract-concrete relations, where the concrete, in tune with Victorian British psychology and engineering, includes the muscular as well as the pictorial. This sets the basis for a conception of understanding in terms of unification and concrete modelling, or representation. I examine the relation of illustration to analogies and metaphors on which this account rests. Lastly, I stress and explain the importance of context-dependence, its consequences for realism-instrumentalism debates, and Maxwell's own emphasis on method.

  7. Evaluation of the Thermo Scientific SureTect Listeria species assay. AOAC Performance Tested Method 071304.

    PubMed

    Cloke, Jonathan; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron

    2014-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific SureTect Listeria species Assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of all species of Listeria in food and environmental samples. This validation study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods program to validate the SureTect Listeria species Assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in International Organization for Standardization 11290-1:1996 including amendment 1:2004 in a variety of foods plus plastic and stainless steel. The food matrixes validated were smoked salmon, processed cheese, fresh bagged spinach, cantaloupe, cooked prawns, cooked sliced turkey meat, cooked sliced ham, salami, pork frankfurters, and raw ground beef. All matrixes were tested by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Microbiology Division, Basingstoke, UK. In addition, three matrixes (pork frankfurters, fresh bagged spinach, and stainless steel surface samples) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC-RI-controlled independent laboratory study by the University ofGuelph, Canada. Using probability of detection statistical analysis, a significant difference in favour of the SureTect assay was demonstrated between the SureTect and reference method for high level spiked samples of pork frankfurters, smoked salmon, cooked prawns, stainless steel, and low-spiked samples of salami. For all other matrixes, no significant difference was seen between the two methods during the study. Inclusivity testing was conducted with 68 different isolates of Listeria species, all of which were detected by the SureTect Listeria species Assay. None of the 33 exclusivity isolates were detected by the SureTect Listeria species Assay. Ruggedness testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of the assay with specific method deviations outside of the recommended parameters open to variation, which demonstrated that the assay gave reliable performance. Accelerated stability testing was additionally conducted, validating the assay

  8. Scientific and Artistic Authority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The differences and similarities between science and art are commonly discussed in various disciplines, e.g. collective versus individual, truth versus imagination, fact versus fiction, and more. Both art and science involve communication. Both artists and scientists have responsibilities of integrity in the arena of intellectual property. However, an artist has a primary responsibility to his/her personal artistic vision and craft. A scientist has a very clearly defined responsibility to scientific method as a collective practice, i.e. generally accepted scientific knowledge, norms of data collection and analysis as well as norms of communication. In presenting a work of art to an audience, it is accepted that different people will interpret the art through different lens. In science communication, we hope that the audience's understanding is in line with scientific interpretation. When science and art meet, how do we come to an understanding of what the intended message should be and how it should or must be received. Accuracy in fact is important in science, as is accuracy of the message whether it is a process, model, image or story. How do we mediate this tension in collaborative projects? How do we celebrate the artistic nature of an artwork based on science when there is tension between the artistic merit and the scientific content? Authority of the artist, scientist, and organization must be satisfied.

  9. How to write a materials and methods section of a scientific article?

    PubMed Central

    Erdemir, Fikret

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to past centuries, scientific researchers have been currently conducted systematically in all countries as part of an education strategy. As a consequence, scientists have published thousands of reports. Writing an effective article is generally a significant problem for researchers. All parts of an article, specifically the abstract, material and methods, results, discussion and references sections should contain certain features that should always be considered before sending a manuscript to a journal for publication. It is generally known that the material and methods section is a relatively easy section of an article to write. Therefore, it is often a good idea to begin by writing the materials and methods section, which is also a crucial part of an article. Because “reproducible results” are very important in science, a detailed account of the study should be given in this section. If the authors provide sufficient detail, other scientists can repeat their experiments to verify their findings. It is generally recommended that the materials and methods should be written in the past tense, either in active or passive voice. In this section, ethical approval, study dates, number of subjects, groups, evaluation criteria, exclusion criteria and statistical methods should be described sequentially. It should be noted that a well-written materials and methods section markedly enhances the chances of an article being published. PMID:26328129

  10. How to write a materials and methods section of a scientific article?

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Fikret

    2013-09-01

    In contrast to past centuries, scientific researchers have been currently conducted systematically in all countries as part of an education strategy. As a consequence, scientists have published thousands of reports. Writing an effective article is generally a significant problem for researchers. All parts of an article, specifically the abstract, material and methods, results, discussion and references sections should contain certain features that should always be considered before sending a manuscript to a journal for publication. It is generally known that the material and methods section is a relatively easy section of an article to write. Therefore, it is often a good idea to begin by writing the materials and methods section, which is also a crucial part of an article. Because "reproducible results" are very important in science, a detailed account of the study should be given in this section. If the authors provide sufficient detail, other scientists can repeat their experiments to verify their findings. It is generally recommended that the materials and methods should be written in the past tense, either in active or passive voice. In this section, ethical approval, study dates, number of subjects, groups, evaluation criteria, exclusion criteria and statistical methods should be described sequentially. It should be noted that a well-written materials and methods section markedly enhances the chances of an article being published.

  11. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation.

    PubMed

    Wion, Didier; Appaix, Florence; Burruss, Meriwether; Berger, Francois; van der Sanden, Boudewijn

    2015-09-01

    Despite important human and financial resources and considerable accumulation of scientific publications, patents, and clinical trials, cancer research has been slow in achieving a therapeutic revolution similar to the one that occurred in the last century for infectious diseases. It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the 'paradigm shift' method in cancer research requires identifying its founding paradigms. In this review, two of these founding paradigms will be discussed: (i) the reification of cancer as a tumour mass and (ii) the translation of the concepts issued from infectious disease in cancer research. We show how these founding paradigms can generate biases that lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment and also hamper the development of curative cancer therapies. We apply the 'paradigm shift' method to produce perspective reversals consistent with current experimental evidence. The 'paradigm shift' method enlightens the existence of a tumour physiologic-prophylactic-pathologic continuum. It integrates the target/antitarget concept and that cancer is also an extracellular disease. The 'paradigm shift' method has immediate implications for cancer prevention and therapy. It could be a general method of investigation for other diseases awaiting therapy.

  12. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct.

  13. Novel keyword co-occurrence network-based methods to foster systematic reviews of scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Jacqueline A.

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of scientific literature are important for mapping the existing state of research and highlighting further growth channels in a field of study, but systematic reviews are inherently tedious, time consuming, and manual in nature. In recent years, keyword co-occurrence networks (KCNs) are exploited for knowledge mapping. In a KCN, each keyword is represented as a node and each co-occurrence of a pair of words is represented as a link. The number of times that a pair of words co-occurs in multiple articles constitutes the weight of the link connecting the pair. The network constructed in this manner represents cumulative knowledge of a domain and helps to uncover meaningful knowledge components and insights based on the patterns and strength of links between keywords that appear in the literature. In this work, we propose a KCN-based approach that can be implemented prior to undertaking a systematic review to guide and accelerate the review process. The novelty of this method lies in the new metrics used for statistical analysis of a KCN that differ from those typically used for KCN analysis. The approach is demonstrated through its application to nano-related Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) risk literature. The KCN approach identified the knowledge components, knowledge structure, and research trends that match with those discovered through a traditional systematic review of the nanoEHS field. Because KCN-based analyses can be conducted more quickly to explore a vast amount of literature, this method can provide a knowledge map and insights prior to undertaking a rigorous traditional systematic review. This two-step approach can significantly reduce the effort and time required for a traditional systematic literature review. The proposed KCN-based pre-systematic review method is universal. It can be applied to any scientific field of study to prepare a knowledge map. PMID:28328983

  14. Method Modification Study for the Thermo Scientific SureTect™ Listeria Species Assay-Matrix Extension.

    PubMed

    Cloke, Jonathan; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron; Chen, Yi; Ryser, Elliot; Carter, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific™ SureTect™ Listeria species assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of all species of Listeria in food and environmental samples. The assay was originally certified as Performance Tested Methods(SM) (PTM) 071304 in 2013. This report details the method modification study undertaken to extend the performance claims of the assay for matrixes of raw ground turkey, raw ground pork, bagged lettuce, raw pork sausages, pasteurized 2% fat milk, raw cod, pasteurized brie cheese, and ice cream. The method modification study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) PTM program to validate the SureTect PCR assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in ISO 11290-1:1996 including amendment 1:2004. All matrixes were tested by Thermo Fisher Scientific (Basingstoke, United Kingdom). In addition, three matrixes (raw cod, bagged lettuce, and pasteurized brie cheese) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC RI-controlled independent laboratory study by the University of Guelph, Canada. Using probability of detection statistical analysis, there was no significant difference in the performance between the SureTect assay and the International Organization for Standardization reference method for any of the matrixes analyzed in this study.

  15. Using Solar System Topics to Teach the Scientific Method in an Age of Science Denial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presto, M. C.

    2013-04-01

    A number of excellent opportunities to remind students of the scientific method and how the process of science works come about during coverage of common topics in a Solar System “unit” in an introductory college astronomy course. With the tremendous amount of misinformation about science that students are exposed to through the Internet and other forms of media, this is now more important than ever. If non-science majors can leave introductory astronomy, often the only science course they will take, with a decent appreciation of, or at least an exposure to, how science works, they will then be better able to judge the validity of what they hear about science in the media throughout their lives.

  16. Methods of Science Investigation Part 2: Results of Implementation of a Curriculum Fostering Original Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danch, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    Originally designed to allow secondary students with special needs to participate in original scientific research, the Methods of Science Curriculum was piloted in 2008. Students participating included those with special needs, English language learners, and the general population. Students were incrementally graduated from traditional inquiry activities towards authentic student-generated research projects. Students were evaluated via class work grades, an in-school symposium and a pre/post test. 100 percent of participants successfully completed and presented their original research. The pre/post evaluation demonstrated improvement for 91 percent of participants. An unanticipated result was the performance and growth of English language learners, possibly because of the emphasis on the creative and active process of science rather than vocabulary. A teacher-training program is being developed for expansion of the curriculum to additional schools in 2009.

  17. A Mixed-methods Evaluation of the Feasibility, Acceptability and Preliminary Efficacy of a Mobile Intervention for Methadone Maintenance Clients

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Honoria; Acosta, Michelle; Marsch, Lisa A.; Xie, Haiyi; Aponte-Melendez, Yesenia

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent explosion of behavioral health interventions delivered on mobile devices, little is known about factors that make such applications practical, engaging and useful to their target audience. This study reports on the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a prototype of a novel, interactive mobile psychosocial intervention to reduce problematic drug use among clients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). A mixed-methods pilot study with new MMT clients (n=25) indicated that the mobile intervention approach was feasible, and that participants found the intervention highly acceptable and useful. On 100-point visual analog scale (VAS) items, participants reported high levels of liking the program (M=75.6), and endorsed it as useful (M=77.5), easy to use (M=80.7), and containing a significant amount of new information (M=74.8). When compared with 25 study participants who received standard MMT alone, pilot participants rated their treatment significantly higher in interestingness and usefulness, and were significantly more satisfied with their treatment. In qualitative interviews, participants reported using the mobile intervention in a range of settings, including during times of heightened risk for substance use, and finding it helpful in managing drug cravings. Additionally, pilot participants showed evidence of increased treatment retention and abstinence from illicit opioids (in terms of effect size) over a 3-month period relative to those in standard MMT, suggesting the application’s potential to enhance treatment outcomes. These promising findings suggest that an evidence-based mobile therapeutic tool addressing substance use may appeal to drug treatment clients and have clinical utility as an adjunct to formal treatment. PMID:26618796

  18. Thwarting science by protecting the received wisdom on tobacco addiction from the scientific method.

    PubMed

    Difranza, Joseph R

    2010-11-04

    In their commentary, Dar and Frenk call into question the validity of all published data that describe the onset of nicotine addiction. They argue that the data that describe the early onset of nicotine addiction is so different from the conventional wisdom that it is irrelevant. In this rebuttal, the author argues that the conventional wisdom cannot withstand an application of the scientific method that requires that theories be tested and discarded when they are contradicted by data. The author examines the origins of the threshold theory that has represented the conventional wisdom concerning the onset of nicotine addiction for 4 decades. The major tenets of the threshold theory are presented as hypotheses followed by an examination of the relevant literature. Every tenet of the threshold theory is contradicted by all available relevant data and yet it remains the conventional wisdom. The author provides an evidence-based account of the natural history of nicotine addiction, including its onset and development as revealed by case histories, focus groups, and surveys involving tens of thousands of smokers. These peer-reviewed and replicated studies are the work of independent researchers from around the world using a variety of measures, and they provide a consistent and coherent clinical picture. The author argues that the scientific method demands that the fanciful conventional wisdom be discarded and replaced with the evidence-based description of nicotine addiction that is backed by data. The author charges that in their attempt to defend the conventional wisdom in the face of overwhelming data to the contrary, Dar and Frenk attempt to destroy the credibility of all who have produced these data. Dar and Frenk accuse other researchers of committing methodological errors and showing bias in the analysis of data when in fact Dar and Frenk commit several errors and reveal their bias by using a few outlying data points to misrepresent an entire body of research

  19. Using the mystery box as a means to explore the scientific method in an undergraduate lecture setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, H. M.; Cook, G. W.

    2015-12-01

    The mystery box is a well-known and well-loved teaching tool designed to encourage students to engage in making observations in order to draw conclusions. We have adapted this exercise, normally used in laboratory settings, for use in a lecture setting in introductory earth science classes. We have tied it to the scientific method such that students are engaging in mystery-box- based inquiry while exploring the steps of the scientific method. It is used in conjunction with a PowerPoint presentation that illustrates and discusses the steps and process integral to the scientific method, which is fundamental to science. Students are encouraged to explore the formal and informal use of the scientific method throughout their educational careers and in their daily lives. Furthermore, students are challenged to analyze the necessity of the scientific method as means for conducting scientific inquiry and exploring the results of such inquiry. A follow-up assignment to the activity asks students to evaluate the efficacy of the activity and associated PowerPoint and discussion. Students consistently report having enjoyed and learned from the process.

  20. The embalming, the scientific method and the paleopathology: the case of Gaetano Arrighi (1836).

    PubMed

    Ciranni, Rosalba; Caramella, Davide; Nenci, Riccardo; Fornaciari, Gino

    2005-01-01

    Since the most ancient times the problem of the artificial preservation of dead bodies has been an important object of study. In ancient and classic times the reasons leading to this practice were essentially of a religious and esoteric type, but in the modern age, following the development of medical and biological studies, embalming has assumed a more practical trend which is both medicine and scientific. The discovery of blood circulation has marked the scientific method which, in its various forms, has circulated all over Europe bringing fame to eminent anatomists such as Federico Ruysch (1638-1731), William (1718-1783) and John Hunter (1728-1793), Jean Nicolas Gannal (1791-1852), Giuseppe Tranchina, Laskowky and Brosch, who affirmed the embalming by endoarterial injection of conservation fluids making evisceration useless and obsolete. The advent of formalin and the introduction of new surgical and autoptic methods have made this practice gradually fall into disuse. For this reason, the mummy found in Leghorn (Tuscany, Central Italy) is of particular importance since was obtained applying the intravascular injection following the method, described by the Italian medical Giuseppe Tranchina in 1835. The mummified body belongs to Gaetano Arrighi, a prisoner in the Leghorn fortress. He was born in Arezzo in 1789 and died on March 1836 at the age of 47 in the Civil Hospital of Leghorn following pleurisy, as results in an annexed document. The day after his death Dr. Raimondo Barsanti from Pisa and Superintendent at the Leghorn hospital made up the Tranchina's method, which consisted in the injection of an arsencial -mercury solution inside of the blood vessels, giving rigidity and dark red color to the dead body. The excellent outcome of the intervention has made it possible, more than 160 years later, to study not only the method by which Arrighi's body was embalmed but also to perform a careful paleopathological imaging study by traditional X-rays and by Computer

  1. Enhanced Sampling in Free Energy Calculations: Combining SGLD with the Bennett's Acceptance Ratio and Enveloping Distribution Sampling Methods.

    PubMed

    König, Gerhard; Miller, Benjamin T; Boresch, Stefan; Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R

    2012-10-09

    One of the key requirements for the accurate calculation of free energy differences is proper sampling of conformational space. Especially in biological applications, molecular dynamics simulations are often confronted with rugged energy surfaces and high energy barriers, leading to insufficient sampling and, in turn, poor convergence of the free energy results. In this work, we address this problem by employing enhanced sampling methods. We explore the possibility of using self-guided Langevin dynamics (SGLD) to speed up the exploration process in free energy simulations. To obtain improved free energy differences from such simulations, it is necessary to account for the effects of the bias due to the guiding forces. We demonstrate how this can be accomplished for the Bennett's acceptance ratio (BAR) and the enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) methods. While BAR is considered among the most efficient methods available for free energy calculations, the EDS method developed by Christ and van Gunsteren is a promising development that reduces the computational costs of free energy calculations by simulating a single reference state. To evaluate the accuracy of both approaches in connection with enhanced sampling, EDS was implemented in CHARMM. For testing, we employ benchmark systems with analytical reference results and the mutation of alanine to serine. We find that SGLD with reweighting can provide accurate results for BAR and EDS where conventional molecular dynamics simulations fail. In addition, we compare the performance of EDS with other free energy methods. We briefly discuss the implications of our results and provide practical guidelines for conducting free energy simulations with SGLD.

  2. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  3. Effects of disciplinary cultures of researchers and research trainees on the acceptability of nanocarriers for drug delivery in different contexts of use: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Chenel, Vanessa; Boissy, Patrick; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre; Patenaude, Johane

    The acceptability of nanomedical applications, which have the potential to generate ethical and societal impacts, is a significant factor in the deployment of nanomedicine. A lack of fit between nanomedical applications and society's values may result from a partial consideration of such impacts. New approaches for technological evaluation focused on impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability are needed to go beyond traditional technology assessment approaches used with nanotechnology, which focus mainly on toxicological and safety criteria. Using a new evaluative approach based on perceived impacts of nanotechnology, the objective of this study was to assess perceptions among researchers and research trainees familiar with emergent technologies and from different disciplinary background the scope of acceptability judgments made towards the use of nanocarriers. This mixed-methods study was based on scenarios presenting two types of drug-delivery nanocarriers (carbon, synthetic DNA) in two contexts of use (lung cancer treatment, seasonal flu treatment). Researchers and research trainees in the natural sciences and engineering, and the social sciences and the humanities were invited by email to take part in this project. An online questionnaire followed by semi-directed interviews allowed characterization of disciplinary divergences regarding to impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability of the scenarios. The results suggest that impact perception is influenced by disciplinary culture. Also, trends can be seen between respondents' profiles and variables of acceptance and acceptability, and certain components of the acceptability judgement are specific to each disciplinary culture. The acknowledgment and consideration of these disciplinary divergences could allow, among others, for opening up interdisciplinary dialogue on matters related to the acceptability of nanomedical applications and their developments.

  4. Effects of disciplinary cultures of researchers and research trainees on the acceptability of nanocarriers for drug delivery in different contexts of use: a mixed-methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenel, Vanessa; Boissy, Patrick; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre; Patenaude, Johane

    2015-04-01

    The acceptability of nanomedical applications, which have the potential to generate ethical and societal impacts, is a significant factor in the deployment of nanomedicine. A lack of fit between nanomedical applications and society's values may result from a partial consideration of such impacts. New approaches for technological evaluation focused on impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability are needed to go beyond traditional technology assessment approaches used with nanotechnology, which focus mainly on toxicological and safety criteria. Using a new evaluative approach based on perceived impacts of nanotechnology, the objective of this study was to assess perceptions among researchers and research trainees familiar with emergent technologies and from different disciplinary background the scope of acceptability judgments made towards the use of nanocarriers. This mixed-methods study was based on scenarios presenting two types of drug-delivery nanocarriers (carbon, synthetic DNA) in two contexts of use (lung cancer treatment, seasonal flu treatment). Researchers and research trainees in the natural sciences and engineering, and the social sciences and the humanities were invited by email to take part in this project. An online questionnaire followed by semi-directed interviews allowed characterization of disciplinary divergences regarding to impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability of the scenarios. The results suggest that impact perception is influenced by disciplinary culture. Also, trends can be seen between respondents' profiles and variables of acceptance and acceptability, and certain components of the acceptability judgement are specific to each disciplinary culture. The acknowledgment and consideration of these disciplinary divergences could allow, among others, for opening up interdisciplinary dialogue on matters related to the acceptability of nanomedical applications and their developments.

  5. Evaluation of the Thermo Scientific SureTect Salmonella species assay. AOAC Performance Tested Method 051303.

    PubMed

    Cloke, Jonathan; Clark, Dorn; Radcliff, Roy; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific SureTect Salmonella species Assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of Salmonellae in food and environmental samples. This validation study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods program to validate the SureTect Salmonella species Assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in International Organization for Standardization 6579:2002 in a variety of food matrixes, namely, raw ground beef, raw chicken breast, raw ground pork, fresh bagged lettuce, pork frankfurters, nonfat dried milk powder, cooked peeled shrimp, pasteurized liquid whole egg, ready-to-eat meal containing beef, and stainless steel surface samples. With the exception of liquid whole egg and fresh bagged lettuce, which were tested in-house, all matrixes were tested by Marshfield Food Safety, Marshfield, WI, on behalf of Thermo Fisher Scientific. In addition, three matrixes (pork frankfurters, lettuce, and stainless steel surface samples) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC-RI-controlled laboratory study by the University of Guelph, Canada. No significant difference by probability of detection or McNemars Chi-squared statistical analysis was found between the candidate or reference methods for any of the food matrixes or environmental surface samples tested during the validation study. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing was conducted with 117 and 36 isolates, respectively, which demonstrated that the SureTect Salmonella species Assay was able to detect all the major groups of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica (e.g., Typhimurium) and the less common subspecies of S. enterica (e.g., arizoniae) and the rarely encountered S. bongori. None of the exclusivity isolates analyzed were detected by the SureTect Salmonella species Assay. Ruggedness testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of the assay with specific method deviations outside of the recommended parameters open to variation (enrichment time

  6. Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Henry C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

  7. Emphasizing the process of the scientific method in the physical science classroom through altered techniques and procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmachtenberger, Trevor

    High school science requires students to use the scientific method when solving problems. The ability to solve problems in this way is a valuable and necessary skill for the classroom and life experiences. The goal of this study was to fully incorporate scientific thinking and methodology into the current curriculum. The hypothesis for this study was: a gradual release of responsibility from instructor to student will show an improvement in the ability of students to solve critical thinking problems, an integral part of the scientific method. This project was implemented over the period of one semester, 18 weeks and covered eight units of study. The research reported here focused on three particular units: Motion, Heat Energy, and Wave Energy. Students in a Physical Science class participated in making observations, identifying patterns, and asking questions based on the observed patterns, which led to student developed hypotheses and protocols, including data collection and analysis. Students participated in their own scientific practices, which, in turn, led to a sense of ownership and also a more thorough understanding of the scientific method and its practices as measured by lab activity accuracy and improvement in formative scores. Pre-test and post-test results indicated an improvement in students' ability to use scientific methodology.

  8. Scientific rotoscoping: a morphology-based method of 3-D motion analysis and visualization.

    PubMed

    Gatesy, Stephen M; Baier, David B; Jenkins, Farish A; Dial, Kenneth P

    2010-06-01

    Three-dimensional skeletal movement is often impossible to accurately quantify from external markers. X-ray imaging more directly visualizes moving bones, but extracting 3-D kinematic data is notoriously difficult from a single perspective. Stereophotogrammetry is extremely powerful if bi-planar fluoroscopy is available, yet implantation of three radio-opaque markers in each segment of interest may be impractical. Herein we introduce scientific rotoscoping (SR), a new method of motion analysis that uses articulated bone models to simultaneously animate and quantify moving skeletons without markers. The three-step process is described using examples from our work on pigeon flight and alligator walking. First, the experimental scene is reconstructed in 3-D using commercial animation software so that frames of undistorted fluoroscopic and standard video can be viewed in their correct spatial context through calibrated virtual cameras. Second, polygonal models of relevant bones are created from CT or laser scans and rearticulated into a hierarchical marionette controlled by virtual joints. Third, the marionette is registered to video images by adjusting each of its degrees of freedom over a sequence of frames. SR outputs high-resolution 3-D kinematic data for multiple, unmarked bones and anatomically accurate animations that can be rendered from any perspective. Rather than generating moving stick figures abstracted from the coordinates of independent surface points, SR is a morphology-based method of motion analysis deeply rooted in osteological and arthrological data.

  9. Modern scientific methods and their potential in wastewater science and technology.

    PubMed

    Wilderer, Peter A; Bungartz, Hans-Joachim; Lemmer, Hilde; Wagner, Michael; Keller, Jurg; Wuertz, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Application of novel analytical and investigative methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridization, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), microelectrodes and advanced numerical simulation has led to new insights into micro- and macroscopic processes in bioreactors. However, the question is still open whether or not these new findings and the subsequent gain of knowledge are of significant practical relevance and if so, where and how. To find suitable answers it is necessary for engineers to know what can be expected by applying these modern analytical tools. Similarly, scientists could benefit significantly from an intensive dialogue with engineers in order to find out about practical problems and conditions existing in wastewater treatment systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to help bridge the gap between science and engineering in biological wastewater treatment. We provide an overview of recently developed methods in microbiology and in mathematical modeling and numerical simulation. A questionnaire is presented which may help generate a platform from which further technical and scientific developments can be accomplished. Both the paper and the questionnaire are aimed at encouraging scientists and engineers to enter into an intensive, mutually beneficial dialogue.

  10. Cell-Phone Use and Cancer: A Case Study Exploring the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon Parrilla, Wilma V.

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an introductory nonmajors biology course, this case study presents students with a series of short news stories describing a scientific study of cell-phone use and its health effects. Students read the news stories and then the scientific paper they are based on, comparing the information presented by the news media to the information…

  11. Does Participation in Citizen Science Improve Scientific Literacy? A Study to Compare Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronje, Ruth; Rohlinger, Spencer; Crall, Alycia; Newman, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of a contextually sensitive instrument to assess the effect of invasive species monitoring training on the scientific literacy of citizen volunteers. The authors measured scientific literacy scores before and after 57 citizens participated in a 2-day event to learn to monitor invasive species with an instrument…

  12. Specifying and reporting complex behaviour change interventions: the need for a scientific method

    PubMed Central

    Michie, Susan; Fixsen, Dean; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Eccles, Martin P

    2009-01-01

    Complex behaviour change interventions are not well described; when they are described, the terminology used is inconsistent. This constrains scientific replication, and limits the subsequent introduction of successful interventions. Implementation Science is introducing a policy of initially encouraging and subsequently requiring the scientific reporting of complex behaviour change interventions. PMID:19607700

  13. The pedicle screw-rod system is an acceptable method of reconstructive surgery after resection of sacroiliac joint tumours

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi-Jun; Yunus, Akbar; Tian, Zheng; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Chong; Xu, Lei-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Hemipelvic resections for primary bone tumours require reconstruction to restore weight bearing along anatomic axes. However, reconstruction of the pelvic arch remains a major surgical challenge because of the high rate of associated complications. We used the pedicle screw-rod system to reconstruct the pelvis, and the purpose of this investigation was to assess the oncology, functional outcome and complication rate following this procedure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the operative indications and technique of the pedicle screw-rod system in reconstruction of the stability of the sacroiliac joint after resection of sacroiliac joint tumours. The average MSTS (Musculoskeletal Tumour Society) score was 26.5 at either three months after surgery or at the latest follow-up. Seven patients had surgery-related complications, including wound dehiscence in one, infection in two, local necrosis in four (including infection in two), sciatic nerve palsy in one and pubic symphysis subluxation in one. There was no screw loosening or deep vein thrombosis occurring in this series. Using a pedicle screw-rod after resection of a sacroiliac joint tumour is an acceptable method of pelvic reconstruction because of its reduced risk of complications and satisfactory functional outcome, as well as its feasibility of reconstruction for type IV pelvis tumour resection without elaborate preoperative customisation. Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. PMID:27095944

  14. The seven Cs of the high acceptability of home-based VCT: results from a mixed methods approach in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, Marte; Sandøy, Ingvild F; Michelo, Charles; Fylkesnes, Knut; Mwangala, Sheila; Blystad, Astrid

    2013-11-01

    HIV testing and counselling is a critical gateway to prevention and treatment. Yet, coverage remains insufficient, few couples are tested together and gender differences in access exist. We used an embedded mixed methods approach to investigate possible explanations for the high acceptance of home-based voluntary HIV counselling and testing (HB-VCT) in a pair-matched cluster-randomized trial in Zambia. A baseline survey included 1694 individuals in 36 clusters. Adults in 18 intervention clusters were offered HB-VCT by lay counsellors. Standard testing services were available in both trial arms. After the completion of the intervention, a follow-up survey was conducted in all trial clusters. In addition, 21 in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion were conducted with home-based VCT clients in the intervention arm. Informants favoured the convenience, confidentiality and credibility of HB-VCT. Counsellors were perceived as trustworthy owing to their closeness and conduct, and the consent process was experienced as convincing. Couple testing was selected by 70% of cohabiting couples and was experienced as beneficial by both genders. Levels of first-time testing (68% vs. 29%, p < 0.0001) and re-testing (94% vs. 74%, p < 0.0001) were higher in the intervention than in the control arm. Acceptance of HIV testing and counselling is dependent on stigma, trust and gender. The confidentiality of home-based VCT was essential for overcoming stigma-related barriers, and the selection of local counsellors was important to ensure trust in the services. The high level of couple counselling within HB-VCT may contribute to closing the gender gap in HIV testing, and has benefits for both genders and potentially for prevention of HIV transmission. The study demonstrates the feasibility of achieving high test coverage with an opt-in consent approach. The embedded qualitative component confirmed the high satisfaction with HB-VCT reported in the quantitative survey and was

  15. Dental movement acceleration: Literature review by an alternative scientific evidence method

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Angela Domínguez; Cujar, Sergio Andres Velásquez

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the majority of publications using effective methods to speed up orthodontic treatment and determine which publications carry high evidence-based value. The literature published in Pubmed from 1984 to 2013 was reviewed, in addition to well-known reports that were not classified under this database. To facilitate evidence-based decision making, guidelines such as the Consolidation Standards of Reporting Trials, Preferred Reporting items for systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses, and Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomized Designs check list were used. The studies were initially divided into three groups: local application of cell mediators, physical stimuli, and techniques that took advantage of the regional acceleration phenomena. The articles were classified according to their level of evidence using an alternative method for orthodontic scientific article classification. 1a: Systematic Reviews (SR) of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 1b: Individual RCT, 2a: SR of cohort studies, 2b: Individual cohort study, controlled clinical trials and low quality RCT, 3a: SR of case-control studies, 3b: Individual case-control study, low quality cohort study and short time following split mouth designs. 4: Case-series, low quality case-control study and non-systematic review, and 5: Expert opinion. The highest level of evidence for each group was: (1) local application of cell mediators: the highest level of evidence corresponds to a 3B level in Prostaglandins and Vitamin D; (2) physical stimuli: vibratory forces and low level laser irradiation have evidence level 2b, Electrical current is classified as 3b evidence-based level, Pulsed Electromagnetic Field is placed on the 4th level on the evidence scale; and (3) regional acceleration phenomena related techniques: for corticotomy the majority of the reports belong to level 4. Piezocision, dentoalveolar distraction, alveocentesis, monocortical tooth dislocation and ligament

  16. Thwarting science by protecting the received wisdom on tobacco addiction from the scientific method

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In their commentary, Dar and Frenk call into question the validity of all published data that describe the onset of nicotine addiction. They argue that the data that describe the early onset of nicotine addiction is so different from the conventional wisdom that it is irrelevant. In this rebuttal, the author argues that the conventional wisdom cannot withstand an application of the scientific method that requires that theories be tested and discarded when they are contradicted by data. The author examines the origins of the threshold theory that has represented the conventional wisdom concerning the onset of nicotine addiction for 4 decades. The major tenets of the threshold theory are presented as hypotheses followed by an examination of the relevant literature. Every tenet of the threshold theory is contradicted by all available relevant data and yet it remains the conventional wisdom. The author provides an evidence-based account of the natural history of nicotine addiction, including its onset and development as revealed by case histories, focus groups, and surveys involving tens of thousands of smokers. These peer-reviewed and replicated studies are the work of independent researchers from around the world using a variety of measures, and they provide a consistent and coherent clinical picture. The author argues that the scientific method demands that the fanciful conventional wisdom be discarded and replaced with the evidence-based description of nicotine addiction that is backed by data. The author charges that in their attempt to defend the conventional wisdom in the face of overwhelming data to the contrary, Dar and Frenk attempt to destroy the credibility of all who have produced these data. Dar and Frenk accuse other researchers of committing methodological errors and showing bias in the analysis of data when in fact Dar and Frenk commit several errors and reveal their bias by using a few outlying data points to misrepresent an entire body of research

  17. Method and apparatus for scientific analysis under low temperature vacuum conditions

    DOEpatents

    Winefordner, James D.; Jones, Bradley T.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for scientific analysis of a sample under low temperature vacuum conditions uses a vacuum chamber with a conveyor belt disposed therein. One end of the conveyor belt is a cool end in thermal contact with the cold stage of a refrigerator, whereas the other end of the conveyor belt is a warm end spaced from the refrigerator. A septum allows injection of a sample into the vacuum chamber on top of the conveyor belt for spectroscopic or other analysis. The sample freezes on the conveyor belt at the cold end. One or more windows in the vacuum chamber housing allow spectroscopic analysis of the sample. Following the spectroscopic analysis, the conveyor belt may be moved such that the sample moves toward the warm end of the conveyor belt where upon it evaporates, thereby cleaning the conveyor belt. Instead of injecting the sample by way of a septum and use of a syringe and needle, the present device may be used in series with capillary-column gas chromatography or micro-bore high performance liquid chromatography.

  18. IYPT problems teach high school students about teamwork and the scientific method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanski, K.; Klishin, A.

    2015-12-01

    Laboratory work is often STEM students' primary exposure to key creative and communicative skills in the sciences, including experimental design, trouble shooting, team work, and oral presentations. The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) teaches these skills by inviting high school students to investigate simple unsolved systems instead of reproducing familiar results. Students work in teams to form hypotheses, gather data, and present their results orally in a tournament format. The IYPT has published 17 questions yearly since 1988, and its archives are an efficient source of experimental problems for outreach programs and have also been used for first-year undergraduate project classes (Planisic, 2009). We present insights and outcomes from two schools in which we introduced a new extracurricular program based on the IYPT model. Twenty-four students worked in small teams for three hours per day for six weeks. Surprisingly, most teams chose problems in unfamiliar subject areas such as fluid dynamics, and tailored their approaches to take advantage of individual skills including soldering, photography, and theoretical analysis. As the program progressed, students developed an increasingly intuitive understanding of the scientific method. They began to discuss the repeatability of their experiments without prompting, and were increasingly willing to describe alternative hypotheses.

  19. Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

  20. Feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the Cultural Formulation Interview: mixed-methods results from the DSM-5 international field trial.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Lam, Peter C; Galfalvy, Hanga; Weiss, Mitchell G; Kirmayer, Laurence J; Paralikar, Vasudeo; Deshpande, Smita N; Díaz, Esperanza; Nicasio, Andel V; Boiler, Marit; Alarcón, Renato D; Rohlof, Hans; Groen, Simon; van Dijk, Rob C J; Jadhav, Sushrut; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev; Ndetei, David; Scalco, Monica Z; Bassiri, Kavoos; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Ton, Hendry; Westermeyer, Joseph; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann M

    2017-04-01

    BackgroundThere is a need for clinical tools to identify cultural issues in diagnostic assessment.AimsTo assess the feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) in routine clinical practice.MethodMixed-methods evaluation of field trial data from six countries. The CFI was administered to diagnostically diverse psychiatric out-patients during a diagnostic interview. In post-evaluation sessions, patients and clinicians completed debriefing qualitative interviews and Likert-scale questionnaires. The duration of CFI administration and the full diagnostic session were monitored.ResultsMixed-methods data from 318 patients and 75 clinicians found the CFI feasible, acceptable and useful. Clinician feasibility ratings were significantly lower than patient ratings and other clinician-assessed outcomes. After administering one CFI, however, clinician feasibility ratings improved significantly and subsequent interviews required less time.ConclusionsThe CFI was included in DSM-5 as a feasible, acceptable and useful cultural assessment tool.

  1. Meta-analysis as Statistical and Analytical Method of Journal’s Content Scientific Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A meta-analysis is a statistical and analytical method which combines and synthesizes different independent studies and integrates their results into one common result. Goal: Analysis of the journals “Medical Archives”, “Materia Socio Medica” and “Acta Informatica Medica”, which are located in the most eminent indexed databases of the biomedical milieu. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period of the calendar year 2014. Study included six editions of all three journals (total of 18 journals). Results: In this period was published a total of 291 articles (in the “Medical Archives” 110, “Materia Socio Medica” 97, and in “Acta Informatica Medica” 84). The largest number of articles was original articles. Small numbers have been published as professional, review articles and case reports. Clinical events were most common in the first two journals, while in the journal “Acta Informatica Medica” belonged to the field of medical informatics, as part of pre-clinical medical disciplines. Articles are usually required period of fifty to fifty nine days for review. Articles were received from four continents, mostly from Europe. The authors are most often from the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, then Iran, Kosovo and Macedonia. Conclusion: The number of articles published each year is increasing, with greater participation of authors from different continents and abroad. Clinical medical disciplines are the most common, with the broader spectrum of topics and with a growing number of original articles. Greater support of the wider scientific community is needed for further development of all three of the aforementioned journals. PMID:25870484

  2. Scientific Misconduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2002-12-01

    These cases provide a good basis for discussions of scientific ethics, particularly with respect to the responsibilities of colleagues in collaborative projects. With increasing numbers of students working in cooperative or collaborative groups, there may be opportunities for more than just discussion—similar issues of responsibility apply to the members of such groups. Further, this is an area where, “no clear, widely accepted standards of behavior exist” (1). Thus there is an opportunity to point out to students that scientific ethics, like science itself, is incomplete and needs constant attention to issues that result from new paradigms such as collaborative research. Finally, each of us can resolve to pay more attention to the contributions we and our colleagues make to collaborative projects, applying to our own work no less critical an eye than we would cast on the work of those we don’t know at all.

  3. Acceptance of an assistive robot in older adults: a mixed-method study of human–robot interaction over a 1-month period in the Living Lab setting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Wrobel, Jérémy; Cornuet, Mélanie; Kerhervé, Hélène; Damnée, Souad; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in investigating acceptance of robots, which are increasingly being proposed as one form of assistive technology to support older adults, maintain their independence, and enhance their well-being. In the present study, we aimed to observe robot-acceptance in older adults, particularly subsequent to a 1-month direct experience with a robot. Subjects and methods Six older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and five cognitively intact healthy (CIH) older adults were recruited. Participants interacted with an assistive robot in the Living Lab once a week for 4 weeks. After being shown how to use the robot, participants performed tasks to simulate robot use in everyday life. Mixed methods, comprising a robot-acceptance questionnaire, semistructured interviews, usability-performance measures, and a focus group, were used. Results Both CIH and MCI subjects were able to learn how to use the robot. However, MCI subjects needed more time to perform tasks after a 1-week period of not using the robot. Both groups rated similarly on the robot-acceptance questionnaire. They showed low intention to use the robot, as well as negative attitudes toward and negative images of this device. They did not perceive it as useful in their daily life. However, they found it easy to use, amusing, and not threatening. In addition, social influence was perceived as powerful on robot adoption. Direct experience with the robot did not change the way the participants rated robots in their acceptance questionnaire. We identified several barriers to robot-acceptance, including older adults’ uneasiness with technology, feeling of stigmatization, and ethical/societal issues associated with robot use. Conclusion It is important to destigmatize images of assistive robots to facilitate their acceptance. Universal design aiming to increase the market for and production of products that are usable by everyone (to the greatest extent possible) might help to

  4. Management of Teacher Scientific-Methodical Work in Vocational Educational Institutions on the Basis of Project-Target Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakuto, Elena A.; Dorozhkin, Evgenij M.; Kozlova, Anastasia A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the subject under analysis is determined by the lack of theoretical development of the problem of management of teacher scientific-methodical work in vocational educational institutions based upon innovative approaches in the framework of project paradigm. The purpose of the article is to develop and test a science-based…

  5. Beyond the Scientific Method: Model-Based Inquiry as a New Paradigm of Preference for School Science Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windschitl, Mark; Thompson, Jessica; Braaten, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    One hundred years after its conception, the scientific method continues to reinforce a kind of cultural lore about what it means to participate in inquiry. As commonly implemented in venues ranging from middle school classrooms to undergraduate laboratories, it emphasizes the testing of predictions rather than ideas, focuses learners on material…

  6. The Scientific Method, Diagnostic Bayes, and How to Detect Epistemic Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrugt, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    In the past decades, Bayesian methods have found widespread application and use in environmental systems modeling. Bayes theorem states that the posterior probability, P(H|D) of a hypothesis, H is proportional to the product of the prior probability, P(H) of this hypothesis and the likelihood, L(H|hat{D}) of the same hypothesis given the new/incoming observations, \\hat {D}. In science and engineering, H often constitutes some numerical simulation model, D = F(x,.) which summarizes using algebraic, empirical, and differential equations, state variables and fluxes, all our theoretical and/or practical knowledge of the system of interest, and x are the d unknown parameters which are subject to inference using some data, \\hat {D} of the observed system response. The Bayesian approach is intimately related to the scientific method and uses an iterative cycle of hypothesis formulation (model), experimentation and data collection, and theory/hypothesis refinement to elucidate the rules that govern the natural world. Unfortunately, model refinement has proven to be very difficult in large part because of the poor diagnostic power of residual based likelihood functions tep{gupta2008}. This has inspired te{vrugt2013} to advocate the use of 'likelihood-free' inference using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). This approach uses one or more summary statistics, S(\\hat {D}) of the original data, \\hat {D} designed ideally to be sensitive only to one particular process in the model. Any mismatch between the observed and simulated summary metrics is then easily linked to a specific model component. A recurrent issue with the application of ABC is self-sufficiency of the summary statistics. In theory, S(.) should contain as much information as the original data itself, yet complex systems rarely admit sufficient statistics. In this article, we propose to combine the ideas of ABC and regular Bayesian inference to guarantee that no information is lost in diagnostic model

  7. Scientific Method and the Regulation of Health and Nutritional Claims by the European Food Safety Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoad, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The protection of European consumers from the false or misleading scientific and nutritional claims of food manufacturers took a step forward with the recent opinions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a risk assessment agency, the EFSA recently assessed and rejected a vast number of food claim forcing the withdrawal of many claims…

  8. Teaching Methods for Science and Technology: Visualized Teaching and Cultivating the Capacity for Scientific Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Improvement of the student's ability to analyze and solve problems by effectively relating the use of visual aids to the cultivation of capacity for scientific abstraction is discussed. These basic theory courses are based on the dialectical materialistic theory of knowledge and Mao's instruction on the unity of theory and reality.'' (SM)

  9. Reflections on Teaching and Learning Scientific Methods in the Ghanaian Field and the British Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellwood-Howard, Imogen

    2012-01-01

    Designing investigative skills sessions for key stage 5 students based on field research in the Ghanaian savannah prompted reflection on the similarities and differences in the ways farmers and students learned about and applied scientific methodology. Circumstantial constraints mean that farmers' experiments were less controlled than those…

  10. Using a Simple "Escherichia Coli" Growth Curve Model to Teach the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKernan, Lisa N.

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of teaching in the sciences is not only conveying knowledge in the discipline, but also developing essential critical thinking, data analysis, and scientific writing skills. I outline an exercise that can be done easily as part of a microbiology laboratory course. It teaches the nature of the research process, from asking questions…

  11. Acceptability and Feasibility of HIV Self-Testing Among Transgender Women in San Francisco: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Lissa; Sevelius, Jae; Castillo, Leslie S.; Ventura, Angel; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Buchbinder, Susan

    2015-01-01

    An estimated one in four transgender women (trans women) in the U.S. are infected with HIV. Rates of HIV testing are not commensurate with their risk, necessitating alternative strategies for early detection and care. We explored the feasibility and acceptability of HIV self-testing (HIVST) with 50 HIV-negative adult trans women in San Francisco. Participants received three self-test kits to perform once a month. Acceptability and behavioral surveys were collected as were 11 in-depth interviews (IDIs). Among 50 participants, 44 reported utilizing HIVST at least once; 94 % reported the test easy to use; 93 % said results were easy to read; and 91 % would recommend it to others. Most participants (68 %) preferred HIVST to clinic-based testing, although price was a key barrier to uptake. IDIs revealed a tension between desires for privacy versus support found at testing sites. HIVST for trans women was acceptable and feasible and requires careful consideration of linkage to support services. PMID:26511864

  12. Methods for structuring scientific knowledge from many areas related to aging research.

    PubMed

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration.

  13. Methods for Structuring Scientific Knowledge from Many Areas Related to Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration. PMID:21799912

  14. Methods for Specifying Scientific Data Standards and Modeling Relationships with Applications to Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Rübel, Oliver; Dougherty, Max; Prabhat; Denes, Peter; Conant, David; Chang, Edward F.; Bouchard, Kristofer

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience continues to experience a tremendous growth in data; in terms of the volume and variety of data, the velocity at which data is acquired, and in turn the veracity of data. These challenges are a serious impediment to sharing of data, analyses, and tools within and across labs. Here, we introduce BRAINformat, a novel data standardization framework for the design and management of scientific data formats. The BRAINformat library defines application-independent design concepts and modules that together create a general framework for standardization of scientific data. We describe the formal specification of scientific data standards, which facilitates sharing and verification of data and formats. We introduce the concept of Managed Objects, enabling semantic components of data formats to be specified as self-contained units, supporting modular and reusable design of data format components and file storage. We also introduce the novel concept of Relationship Attributes for modeling and use of semantic relationships between data objects. Based on these concepts we demonstrate the application of our framework to design and implement a standard format for electrophysiology data and show how data standardization and relationship-modeling facilitate data analysis and sharing. The format uses HDF5, enabling portable, scalable, and self-describing data storage and integration with modern high-performance computing for data-driven discovery. The BRAINformat library is open source, easy-to-use, and provides detailed user and developer documentation and is freely available at: https://bitbucket.org/oruebel/brainformat. PMID:27867355

  15. Web-based virtual microscopy at the RWTH Aachen University: didactic concept, methods and analysis of acceptance by the students.

    PubMed

    Merk, Magdalene; Knuechel, Ruth; Perez-Bouza, Alberto

    2010-12-20

    Fundamental knowledge of microscopic anatomy and pathology has always been an essential part in medical education. The traditional didactic concept comprises theoretical and practical lessons using a light microscope and glass slides. High-speed Internet connections and technical improvement in whole-slide digital microscopy (commonly termed "virtual microscopy") provide a new and attractive approach for both teachers and students. High picture quality and unlimited temporal and spatial availability of histology samples from different fields are key advantages of web-based digital microscopy. In this report we discuss the technical requirements, system efficiency, optical resolution and didactic concept. Furthermore, we present a review of the experience gained in the course of one year based on an analysis of student acceptance. Three groups with a total of 192 students between the 3rd and 5th year of medical studies attending the practical courses of general and advanced histopathology had access to both glass-mounted and digitalized slides. Prior to exams, students were asked to answer an anonymous questionnaire. The results of the study reflect the high acceptance and intensive use of the web-based digital histology by students, thus encouraging the development of further Web-based learning strategies for the teaching of histology and pathology.

  16. The Brief Intervention for School Clinicians (BRISC): A mixed-methods evaluation of feasibility, acceptability, and contextual appropriateness

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Bruns, Eric J.; Ludwig, Kristy; Stoep, Ann Vander; Pullmann, Michael D.; Dorsey, Shannon; Eaton, John; Hendrix, Ethan; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    To maximize impact across the broad spectrum of mental health needs exhibited by youth in school settings, interventions must be designed to be effective, efficient, and demonstrate good fit with the educational context. The current paper reports on the second phase of an iterative development process for a short-term, “Tier 2” intervention for use by school-based mental health providers – the Brief Intervention for School Clinicians (BRISC) – using mixed qualitative and quantitative analyses to evaluate feasibility, acceptability, and appropriateness while emphasizing student experiences. This phase was intended to yield information to drive further protocol refinement and testing across subsequent phases. We describe the rationale for, development of, and formative testing of the BRISC intervention. Results suggest that BRISC may be feasible to deliver, acceptable to students, and appropriate to the school context. In particular, the BRISC process appears to be effective in enhancing student engagement in the intervention and identifying and addressing individualized student needs. These findings and directions for further enhancing BRISC’s potential for positive impact highlight how treatment development may benefit from initial, small-scale evaluations focused both on client and implementation outcomes. PMID:26688700

  17. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you.

  18. Effect of variety and processing method on functional properties of traditional sweet potato flour (“elubo”) and sensory acceptability of cooked paste (“amala”)

    PubMed Central

    Fetuga, Ganiyat; Tomlins, Keith; Henshaw, Folake; Idowu, Michael

    2014-01-01

    “Amala” is a generic term in Nigeria, used to describe a thick paste prepared by stirring flour (“elubo”) from yam, cassava or unripe plantain, in hot water, to form a smooth consistency. In order to overcome its high perishability and increase the utilization of sweet potato roots, three varieties of sweet potato roots were processed into flour using two methods. The interactive effect of variety and the processing method had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on all the functional properties of the flour except yellowness, setback viscosity, and peak time. Acceptable sweet potato “amala” with average sensory acceptability score of 7.5 were obtained from yellow-fleshed varieties irrespective of the processing method. Flour that produced acceptable “amala” were characterized by lower values of protein (2.20–3.94%), fiber (1.30–1.65%), total sugar (12.41–38.83 μg/mg), water absorption capacity (168–215 g/100 g), water solubility (8.29–14.65%), swelling power (0.52–0.82 g/g), and higher peak time (6.9–8.7 min). PMID:25493186

  19. Turning Vygotsky on His Head: Vygotsky' `Scientifically Based Method' and the Socioculturalist's `Social Other'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, S.

    Vygotsky has become an authority, but the authority has more to do with justifying a sociocultural relativism than it has with his Marxist objectivist approach to psychology and pedagogy. This paper is an attempt to understand Vygotsky's perspective in relation to Marxist epistemology, and will critically examine the sociocultural interpretation of Vygotsky but within the light of his own perspective. It will be shown that the relativism of the sociocultural school not only takes Vygotsky's zone of proximal development out of its social and historical context, but as a consequence downplays the zone of proximal development as a dynamic research methodology. As an extension of the discussion of the zone of proximal development, this paper will also examine the sociocultural interpretation of Vygotsky's relation between scientific and everyday concepts, and the pedagogical consequences of such an interpretation.

  20. Scientific Claims versus Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides activities that help students to understand the importance of the scientific method. The activities include the science of fusion and cold fusion; a group activity that analyzes and interprets the events surrounding cold fusion; and an application research project concerning a current science issue. (ZWH)

  1. TextTB: A Mixed Method Pilot Study Evaluating Acceptance, Feasibility, and Exploring Initial Efficacy of a Text Messaging Intervention to Support TB Treatment Adherence.

    PubMed

    Iribarren, Sarah; Beck, Susan; Pearce, Patricia F; Chirico, Cristina; Etchevarria, Mirta; Cardinale, Daniel; Rubinstein, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess a text messaging intervention to promote tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence. Methods. A mixed-methods pilot study was conducted within a public pulmonary-specialized hospital in Argentina. Patients newly diagnosed with TB who were 18 or older, and had mobile phone access were recruited and randomized to usual care plus either medication calendar (n = 19) or text messaging intervention (n = 18) for the first two months of treatment. Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability; secondary outcomes explored initial efficacy. Results. Feasibility was evidenced by high access to mobile phones, familiarity with texting, most phones limited to basic features, a low rate of participant refusal, and many describing suboptimal TB understanding. Acceptability was evidenced by participants indicating feeling cared for, supported, responsible for their treatment, and many self-reporting adherence without a reminder. Participants in the texting group self-reported adherence on average 77% of the days whereas only 53% in calendar group returned diaries. Exploring initial efficacy, microscopy testing was low and treatment outcomes were similar in both groups. Conclusion. The texting intervention was well accepted and feasible with greater reporting of adherence using text messaging than the diary. Further evaluation of the texting intervention is warranted.

  2. Acceptability of vaginal microbicides among female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-U.S. border cities: a mixed methods analysis

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Angela M.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs’ intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. Methods FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010–2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics, and identify factors associated with concern about male partners’ anger regarding microbicide use. Results Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly 1 in 6 participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflict causing injury within relationships among men. Conclusions HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners, and promote risk communication skills. PMID:23398385

  3. TextTB: A Mixed Method Pilot Study Evaluating Acceptance, Feasibility, and Exploring Initial Efficacy of a Text Messaging Intervention to Support TB Treatment Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Patricia F.; Chirico, Cristina; Etchevarria, Mirta; Cardinale, Daniel; Rubinstein, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess a text messaging intervention to promote tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence. Methods. A mixed-methods pilot study was conducted within a public pulmonary-specialized hospital in Argentina. Patients newly diagnosed with TB who were 18 or older, and had mobile phone access were recruited and randomized to usual care plus either medication calendar (n = 19) or text messaging intervention (n = 18) for the first two months of treatment. Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability; secondary outcomes explored initial efficacy. Results. Feasibility was evidenced by high access to mobile phones, familiarity with texting, most phones limited to basic features, a low rate of participant refusal, and many describing suboptimal TB understanding. Acceptability was evidenced by participants indicating feeling cared for, supported, responsible for their treatment, and many self-reporting adherence without a reminder. Participants in the texting group self-reported adherence on average 77% of the days whereas only 53% in calendar group returned diaries. Exploring initial efficacy, microscopy testing was low and treatment outcomes were similar in both groups. Conclusion. The texting intervention was well accepted and feasible with greater reporting of adherence using text messaging than the diary. Further evaluation of the texting intervention is warranted. PMID:24455238

  4. Using HeLa Cell Stress Response to Introduce First Year Students to the Scientific Method, Laboratory Techniques, Primary Literature, and Scientific Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resendes, Karen K.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating scientific literacy into inquiry driven research is one of the most effective mechanisms for developing an undergraduate student's strength in writing. Additionally, discovery-based laboratories help develop students who approach science as critical thinkers. Thus, a three-week laboratory module for an introductory cell and molecular…

  5. The History of the Planar Elastica: Insights into Mechanics and Scientific Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Victor Geoffrey Alan

    2009-08-01

    Euler’s formula for the buckling of an elastic column is widely used in engineering design. However, only a handful of engineers will be familiar with Euler’s classic paper De Curvis Elasticis in which the formula is derived. In addition to the Euler Buckling Formula, De Curvis Elasticis classifies all the bent configurations of elastic rod—a landmark in the development of a rational theory of continuum mechanics. As a historical case study, Euler’s work on elastic rods offers an insight into some important concepts which underlie mechanics. It sheds light on the search for unifying principles of mechanics and the role of analysis. The connection between results obtained from theory and those obtained from experiments on rods, highlights two different approaches to scientific discovery, which can be traced back to Bacon, Descartes and Galileo. The bent rod also has an analogy in dynamics, with a pendulum, which highlights the crucial distinctions between initial value and boundary value problems and between linear and nonlinear differential equations. In addition to benefiting from the overview which a historical study provides, the particular problem of the elastica offers students of science and engineering a clear elucidation of the connection between mathematics and real-world engineering, issues which still have relevance today.

  6. From traditional cognitive-behavioural therapy to acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain: a mixed-methods study of staff experiences of change.

    PubMed

    Barker, Estelle; McCracken, Lance M

    2014-08-01

    Health care organizations, both large and small, frequently undergo processes of change. In fact, if health care organizations are to improve over time, they must change; this includes pain services. The purpose of the present study was to examine a process of change in treatment model within a specialty interdisciplinary pain service in the UK. This change entailed a switch from traditional cognitive-behavioural therapy to a form of cognitive-behavioural therapy called acceptance and commitment therapy. An anonymous online survey, including qualitative and quantitative components, was carried out approximately 15 months after the initial introduction of the new treatment model and methods. Fourteen out of 16 current clinical staff responded to the survey. Three themes emerged in qualitative analyses: positive engagement in change; uncertainty and discomfort; and group cohesion versus discord. Quantitative results from closed questions showed a pattern of uncertainty about the superiority of one model over the other, combined with more positive views on progress reflected, and the experience of personal benefits, from adopting the new model. The psychological flexibility model, the model behind acceptance and commitment therapy, may clarify both processes in patient behaviour and processes of staff experience and skilful treatment delivery. This integration of processes on both sides of treatment delivery may be a strength of acceptance and commitment therapy.

  7. Incremental Validity and Informant Effect from a Multi-Method Perspective: Assessing Relations between Parental Acceptance and Children’s Behavioral Problems

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo-Sotorrío, Eva; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P.; Carrasco, Miguel Á.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between perceived parental acceptance and children’s behavioral problems (externalizing and internalizing) from a multi-informant perspective. Using mothers, fathers, and children as sources of information, we explore the informant effect and incremental validity. The sample was composed of 681 participants (227 children, 227 fathers, and 227 mothers). Children’s (40% boys) ages ranged from 9 to 17 years (M = 12.52, SD = 1.81). Parents and children completed both the Parental Acceptance Rejection/Control Questionnaire (PARQ/Control) and the check list of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Statistical analyses were based on the correlated uniqueness multitrait-multimethod matrix (model MTMM) by structural equations and different hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed a significant informant effect and a different incremental validity related to which combination of sources was considered. A multi-informant perspective rather than a single one increased the predictive value. Our results suggest that mother–father or child–father combinations seem to be the best way to optimize the multi-informant method in order to predict children’s behavioral problems based on perceived parental acceptance. PMID:27242582

  8. "Learning by Doing": A Teaching Method for Active Learning in Scientific Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bot, Ludovic; Gossiaux, Pol-Bernard; Rauch, Carl-Philippe; Tabiou, Safouana

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an active learning method for the teaching of physical sciences and mathematics to engineers. After defining the challenges involved in the training of engineers, we shall describe the answers provided by our method, "learning by doing" (named "Apprentissage Par l"Action" in French), by introducing…

  9. Analysis of Source Selection Methods and Performance Outcomes: Lowest Price Technically Acceptable vs. Tradeoff in Air Force Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT ANALYSIS OF SOURCE SELECTION METHODS AND PERFORMANCE...2. REPORT DATE December 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS OF SOURCE SELECTION METHODS AND...distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) As part of procurement planning, government acquisition teams must select

  10. UGV acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  11. Using HeLa cell stress response to introduce first year students to the scientific method, laboratory techniques, primary literature, and scientific writing.

    PubMed

    Resendes, Karen K

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating scientific literacy into inquiry driven research is one of the most effective mechanisms for developing an undergraduate student's strength in writing. Additionally, discovery-based laboratories help develop students who approach science as critical thinkers. Thus, a three-week laboratory module for an introductory cell and molecular biology course that couples inquiry-based experimental design with extensive scientific writing was designed at Westminster College to expose first year students to these concepts early in their undergraduate career. In the module students used scientific literature to design and then implement an experiment on the effect of cellular stress on protein expression in HeLa cells. In parallel the students developed a research paper in the style of the undergraduate journal BIOS to report their results. HeLa cells were used to integrate the research experience with the Westminster College "Next Chapter" first year program, in which the students explored the historical relevance of HeLa cells from a sociological perspective through reading The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot. In this report I detail the design, delivery, student learning outcomes, and assessment of this module, and while this exercise was designed for an introductory course at a small primarily undergraduate institution, suggestions for modifications at larger universities or for upper division courses are included. Finally, based on student outcomes suggestions are provided for improving the module to enhance the link between teaching students skills in experimental design and execution with developing student skills in information literacy and writing.

  12. KNODWAT: A scientific framework application for testing knowledge discovery methods for the biomedical domain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Professionals in the biomedical domain are confronted with an increasing mass of data. Developing methods to assist professional end users in the field of Knowledge Discovery to identify, extract, visualize and understand useful information from these huge amounts of data is a huge challenge. However, there are so many diverse methods and methodologies available, that for biomedical researchers who are inexperienced in the use of even relatively popular knowledge discovery methods, it can be very difficult to select the most appropriate method for their particular research problem. Results A web application, called KNODWAT (KNOwledge Discovery With Advanced Techniques) has been developed, using Java on Spring framework 3.1. and following a user-centered approach. The software runs on Java 1.6 and above and requires a web server such as Apache Tomcat and a database server such as the MySQL Server. For frontend functionality and styling, Twitter Bootstrap was used as well as jQuery for interactive user interface operations. Conclusions The framework presented is user-centric, highly extensible and flexible. Since it enables methods for testing using existing data to assess suitability and performance, it is especially suitable for inexperienced biomedical researchers, new to the field of knowledge discovery and data mining. For testing purposes two algorithms, CART and C4.5 were implemented using the WEKA data mining framework. PMID:23763826

  13. Encouraging Uncertainty in the "Scientific Method": Promoting Understanding in the Processes of Science with Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Wayne; Bartley, Anthony; Fazio, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' feelings of uncertainty are an overlooked, though crucial, condition necessary for the promotion of educational change. This article investigates the feelings of uncertainty that preservice teachers have toward the conduct of science as inquiry and the extent to which methods courses can confront and embrace those uncertainties. Our work…

  14. Clustering Methods; Part IV of Scientific Report No. ISR-18, Information Storage and Retrieval...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

    Two papers are included as Part Four of this report on Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Texts (SMART) project report. The first paper: "A Controlled Single Pass Classification Algorithm with Application to Multilevel Clustering" by D. B. Johnson and J. M. Laferente presents a single pass clustering method which compares favorably…

  15. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Collaborative Care Intervention To Improve Symptoms and Quality of Life in Chronic Heart Failure: Mixed Methods Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Stephanie; Nowels, Carolyn T.; Main, Deborah S.; Meek, Paula; McBryde, Connor; Hattler, Brack; Lorenz, Karl A.; Heidenreich, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: People with chronic heart failure (HF) suffer from numerous symptoms that worsen quality of life. The CASA (Collaborative Care to Alleviate Symptoms and Adjust to Illness) intervention was designed to improve symptoms and quality of life by integrating palliative and psychosocial care into chronic care. Objective: Our aim was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of CASA and identify necessary improvements. Methods: We conducted a prospective mixed-methods pilot trial. The CASA intervention included (1) nurse phone visits involving structured symptom assessments and guidelines to alleviate breathlessness, fatigue, pain, or depression; (2) structured phone counseling targeting adjustment to illness and depression if present; and (3) weekly team meetings with a palliative care specialist, cardiologist, and primary care physician focused on medical recommendations to primary care providers (PCPs, physician or nurse practioners) to improve symptoms. Study subjects were outpatients with chronic HF from a Veteran's Affairs hospital (n=15) and a university hospital (n=2). Measurements included feasibility (cohort retention rate, medical recommendation implementation rate, missing data, quality of care) and acceptability (an end-of-study semi-structured participant interview). Results: Participants were male with a median age of 63 years. One withdrew early and there were <5% missing data. Overall, 85% of 87 collaborative care team medical recommendations were implemented. All participants who screened positive for depression were either treated for depression or thought to not have a depressive disorder. In the qualitative interviews, patients reported a positive experience and provided several constructive critiques. Conclusions: The CASA intervention was feasible based on participant enrollment, cohort retention, implementation of medical recommendations, minimal missing data, and acceptability. Several intervention changes were made based

  16. Behavioral and social sciences at the National Institutes of Health: Methods, measures, and data infrastructures as a scientific priority.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T

    2017-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) recently released its strategic plan for 2017-2021. This plan focuses on three equally important strategic priorities: 1) improve the synergy of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences research, 2) enhance and promote the research infrastructure, methods, and measures needed to support a more cumulative and integrated approach to behavioral and social sciences research, and 3) facilitate the adoption of behavioral and social sciences research findings in health research and in practice. This commentary focuses on scientific priority two and future directions in measurement science, technology, data infrastructure, behavioral ontologies, and big data methods and analytics that have the potential to transform the behavioral and social sciences into more cumulative, data rich sciences that more efficiently build on prior research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  18. Is multicultural psychology a-scientific?: diverse methods for diversity research.

    PubMed

    Cauce, Ana Mari

    2011-07-01

    This article asks, and answers three separate questions: What is multicultural psychology? What is psychological science? Are multicultural psychology and (empirical/positivist) psychological science incompatible? A brief overview of the history of science is provided emphasizing the emancipatory impulses behind a modernist, empirical, positivist approach to science. It is argued that such an approach is not incompatible with multicultural psychology. The author concludes that multicultural psychological will be strengthened if psychologists draw upon both qualitative and quantitative methods, including those that come from a positivist tradition, when investigating psychological and social issues as they affect diverse populations.

  19. The Kangaroo Mother Care Method: from scientific evidence generated in Colombia to worldwide practice.

    PubMed

    Charpak, Nathalie; Ruiz, Juan Gabriel

    2016-10-17

    Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a human-based care intervention devised to complement neonatal care for low birth weight and premature infants. Kangaroo position (skin-to-skin contact on the mother's chest) offers thermal regulation, physiological stability, appropriate stimulation, and enhances bonding and breastfeeding. Kangaroo nutrition is based on breastfeeding, and kangaroo discharge policy relies on family empowerment and early discharge in kangaroo position with close ambulatory follow-up. We describe how the evidence has been developed and how it has been put into practice by means of direct preterm infants care and dissemination of the method, including training of KMC excellence centers in many countries not only in Latin America but worldwide.

  20. Method Modification of the Thermo Scientific SureTect Listeria monocytogenes Assay for Raw Meat, Dairy, Produce, and Seafood.

    PubMed

    Cloke, Jonathan; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific™ SureTect™ Listeria monocytogenes assay is a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food and environmental samples, which was certified during 2013 by the AOAC Research Institute (RI) as Performance Tested Method(SM) (PTM) 061302 for a representative range of key food matrixes and production surfaces. This report details the method modification study, which was conducted during 2014, using the AOAC-RI PTM program to extend the validated matrix claims of the assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in International Organization for Standardization 11290-1:1996, including Amendment 1:2004, to gain certification for raw ground turkey, raw ground pork, pasteurized 2% milk, raw pork sausages, raw cod, pasteurized brie cheese, cooked sliced ham, and bagged lettuce. All matrixes were tested by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Microbiology Division, Basingstoke, UK. In addition, brie cheese, bagged lettuce, and raw cod were analyzed independently by the University of Guelph, Canada, during the AOAC-RI controlled independent laboratory study. Using probability of detection (POD) statistical analysis, a significant difference was demonstrated between the candidate and reference methods for the high spiking level with raw ground pork and brie cheese. For all other matrixes and the low spiked levels for raw ground pork and brie cheese, no significant difference by POD was seen between the two methods during the study.

  1. Developing automated analytical methods for scientific environments using LabVIEW.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Christoph; Armenta, Sergio; Lendl, Bernhard

    2010-01-15

    The development of new analytical techniques often requires the building of specially designed devices, each requiring its own dedicated control software. Especially in the research and development phase, LabVIEW has proven to be one highly useful tool for developing this software. Yet, it is still common practice to develop individual solutions for different instruments. In contrast to this, we present here a single LabVIEW-based program that can be directly applied to various analytical tasks without having to change the program code. Driven by a set of simple script commands, it can control a whole range of instruments, from valves and pumps to full-scale spectrometers. Fluid sample (pre-)treatment and separation procedures can thus be flexibly coupled to a wide range of analytical detection methods. Here, the capabilities of the program have been demonstrated by using it for the control of both a sequential injection analysis - capillary electrophoresis (SIA-CE) system with UV detection, and an analytical setup for studying the inhibition of enzymatic reactions using a SIA system with FTIR detection.

  2. Similarity landscapes: An improved method for scientific visualization of information from protein and DNA database searches

    SciTech Connect

    Dogget, N.; Myers, G.; Wills, C.J.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have used computer simulations and examination of a variety of databases to answer questions about a wide range of evolutionary questions. The authors have found that there is a clear distinction in the evolution of HIV-1 and HIV-2, with the former and more virulent virus evolving more rapidly at a functional level. The authors have discovered highly non-random patterns in the evolution of HIV-1 that can be attributed to a variety of selective pressures. In the course of examination of microsatellite DNA (short repeat regions) in microorganisms, the authors have found clear differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in their distribution, differences that can be tied to different selective pressures. They have developed a new method (topiary pruning) for enhancing the phylogenetic information contained in DNA sequences. Most recently, the authors have discovered effects in complex rainforest ecosystems that indicate strong frequency-dependent interactions between host species and their parasites, leading to the maintenance of ecosystem variability.

  3. The structure and material composition of ossified aortic valves identified using a set of scientific methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Antonín; Šmíd, Michal; Havelcová, Martina; Coufalová, Lucie; Kučková, Štěpánka; Velčovská, Martina; Hynek, Radovan

    2013-11-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis has become a common and dangerous disease in recent decades. This disease leads to the mineralization of aortic valves, their gradual thickening and loss of functionality. We studied the detailed assessment of the proportion and composition of inorganic and organic components in the ossified aortic valve, using a set of analytical methods applied in science: polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The sample valves showed the occurrence of phosphorus and calcium in the form of phosphate and calcium carbonate, hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite and hydroxy-fluorapatite, with varying content of inorganic components from 65 to 90 wt%, and with phased development of degenerative disability. The outer layers of the plaque contained an organic component with peptide bonds, fatty acids, proteins and cholesterol. The results show a correlation between the formation of fluorapatite in aortic valves and in other parts of the human bodies, associated with the formation of bones.

  4. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: scientific rationale supporting use of freely dissolved concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Philipp; Parkerton, Thomas F; Adams, Rachel G; Cargill, John G; Gan, Jay; Gouin, Todd; Gschwend, Philip M; Hawthorne, Steven B; Helm, Paul; Witt, Gesine; You, Jing; Escher, Beate I

    2014-04-01

    Passive sampling methods (PSMs) allow the quantification of the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree ) of an organic contaminant even in complex matrices such as sediments. Cfree is directly related to a contaminant's chemical activity, which drives spontaneous processes including diffusive uptake into benthic organisms and exchange with the overlying water column. Consequently, Cfree provides a more relevant dose metric than total sediment concentration. Recent developments in PSMs have significantly improved our ability to reliably measure even very low levels of Cfree . Application of PSMs in sediments is preferably conducted in the equilibrium regime, where freely dissolved concentrations in the sediment are well-linked to the measured concentration in the sampler via analyte-specific partition ratios. The equilibrium condition can then be assured by measuring a time series or a single time point using passive samplers with different surface to volume ratios. Sampling in the kinetic regime is also possible and generally involves the application of performance reference compounds for the calibration. Based on previous research on hydrophobic organic contaminants, it is concluded that Cfree allows a direct assessment of 1) contaminant exchange and equilibrium status between sediment and overlying water, 2) benthic bioaccumulation, and 3) potential toxicity to benthic organisms. Thus, the use of PSMs to measure Cfree provides an improved basis for the mechanistic understanding of fate and transport processes in sediments and has the potential to significantly improve risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments.

  5. An innovative method for the preparation of mum (Thai fermented sausages) with acceptable technological quality and extended shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Wanangkarn, Amornrat; Liu, Deng-Cheng; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2012-11-15

    Freshly-manufactured mum sausages were assigned to two processing methods (process I: stored at ∼30 °C for 14 days; process II: stored at ∼30 °C for three days, vacuum-packaged, and stored at 4 °C until day 28). Physicochemical, microbial, textural, and sensory properties of samples were analysed. The results showed that dehydration was more intense in process I samples, and resulted in lower moisture content and water activity. Significant decreases in pH values, and increases in lactic acid were observed in both samples by day 3. The total microflora and lactic acid bacteria counts increased rapidly during the fermentation and then decreased while the Enterobacteriaceae counts decreased steadily. Too much dehydration resulted in tough textures and unacceptable sensory qualities for process I samples. In conclusion, after three days of fermentation, with vacuum-packaging, ripening and storage at 4 °C up to 28 days, it is possible to produce mum sausages with better qualities and an extended shelf life.

  6. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Scientific rationale supporting use of freely dissolved concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Philipp; Parkerton, Thomas F; Adams, Rachel G; Cargill, John G; Gan, Jay; Gouin, Todd; Gschwend, Philip M; Hawthorne, Steven B; Helm, Paul; Witt, Gesine; You, Jing; Escher, Beate I

    2014-01-01

    Passive sampling methods (PSMs) allow the quantification of the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) of an organic contaminant even in complex matrices such as sediments. Cfree is directly related to a contaminant's chemical activity, which drives spontaneous processes including diffusive uptake into benthic organisms and exchange with the overlying water column. Consequently, Cfree provides a more relevant dose metric than total sediment concentration. Recent developments in PSMs have significantly improved our ability to reliably measure even very low levels of Cfree. Application of PSMs in sediments is preferably conducted in the equilibrium regime, where freely dissolved concentrations in the sediment are well-linked to the measured concentration in the sampler via analyte-specific partition ratios. The equilibrium condition can then be assured by measuring a time series or a single time point using passive samplers with different surface to volume ratios. Sampling in the kinetic regime is also possible and generally involves the application of performance reference compounds for the calibration. Based on previous research on hydrophobic organic contaminants, it is concluded that Cfree allows a direct assessment of 1) contaminant exchange and equilibrium status between sediment and overlying water, 2) benthic bioaccumulation, and 3) potential toxicity to benthic organisms. Thus, the use of PSMs to measure Cfree provides an improved basis for the mechanistic understanding of fate and transport processes in sediments and has the potential to significantly improve risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:197–209. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:24288295

  7. Scientific fraud in 20 falsified anesthesia papers : detection using financial auditing methods.

    PubMed

    Hein, J; Zobrist, R; Konrad, C; Schuepfer, G

    2012-06-01

    Data from natural sources show counter-intuitive distribution patterns for the leading digits to the left of the decimal point and the digit 1 is observed more frequently than all other numbers. This pattern, which was first described by Newcomb and later confirmed by Benford, is used in financial and tax auditing to detect fraud. Deviations from the pattern indicate possible falsifications. Anesthesiology journals are affected not only by ghostwriting and plagiarism but also by counterfeiting. In the present study 20 publications in anesthesiology known to be falsified by an author were investigated for irregularities with respect to Benford's law using the χ(2)-test and the Z-test. In the 20 retracted publications an average first-digit frequency of 243.1 (standard deviation SD ± 118.2, range: 30-592) and an average second-digit frequency of 132.3 (SD ± 72.2, range: 15-383) were found. The observed distribution of the first and second digits to the left of the decimal point differed significantly (p< 0.01) from the expected distribution described by Benford. Only the observed absolute frequencies for digits 3, 4 and 5 did not differ significantly from the expected values. In an analysis of each paper 17 out of 20 studies differed significantly from the expected value for the first digit and 18 out of 20 studies varied significantly from the expected value of the second digit. Only one paper did not vary significantly from expected values for the digits to the left of the decimal. For comparison, a meta-analysis using complex mathematical procedures was chosen as a control. The analysis showed a first-digit distribution consistent with the Benford distribution. Thus, the method used in the present study seems to be sensitive for detecting fraud. Additional statements of specificity cannot yet be made as this requires further analysis of data that is definitely not falsified. Future studies exploring conformity might help prevent falsified studies from being

  8. Acceptance of Commercially Available Wearable Activity Trackers Among Adults Aged Over 50 and With Chronic Illness: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kathryn; Giangregorio, Lora; Schneider, Eric; Chilana, Parmit; Li, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior increase the risk of chronic illness and death. The newest generation of “wearable” activity trackers offers potential as a multifaceted intervention to help people become more active. Objective To examine the usability and usefulness of wearable activity trackers for older adults living with chronic illness. Methods We recruited a purposive sample of 32 participants over the age of 50, who had been previously diagnosed with a chronic illness, including vascular disease, diabetes, arthritis, and osteoporosis. Participants were between 52 and 84 years of age (mean 64); among the study participants, 23 (72%) were women and the mean body mass index was 31 kg/m2. Participants tested 5 trackers, including a simple pedometer (Sportline or Mio) followed by 4 wearable activity trackers (Fitbit Zip, Misfit Shine, Jawbone Up 24, and Withings Pulse) in random order. Selected devices represented the range of wearable products and features available on the Canadian market in 2014. Participants wore each device for at least 3 days and evaluated it using a questionnaire developed from the Technology Acceptance Model. We used focus groups to explore participant experiences and a thematic analysis approach to data collection and analysis. Results Our study resulted in 4 themes: (1) adoption within a comfort zone; (2) self-awareness and goal setting; (3) purposes of data tracking; and (4) future of wearable activity trackers as health care devices. Prior to enrolling, few participants were aware of wearable activity trackers. Most also had been asked by a physician to exercise more and cited this as a motivation for testing the devices. None of the participants planned to purchase the simple pedometer after the study, citing poor accuracy and data loss, whereas 73% (N=32) planned to purchase a wearable activity tracker. Preferences varied but 50% felt they would buy a Fitbit and 42% felt they would buy a Misfit, Jawbone, or

  9. A novel 2D and 3D method for automated insulin granule measurement and its application in assessing accepted preparation methods for electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantell, J.; Nam, D.; Bull, D.; Achim, A.; Verkade, P.

    2014-06-01

    Transmission electron microscopy images of insulin-producing beta cells in the islets of Langerhans contain many complex structures, making it difficult to accurately segment insulin granules. Furthermore the appearance of the granules and surrounding halo and limiting membrane can vary enormously depending on the methods used for sample preparation. An automated method has been developed using active contours to segment the insulin core initially and then expand to segment the halos [1]. The method has been validated against manual measurements and also yields higher accuracy than other automated methods [2]. It has then been extended to three dimensions to analyse a tomographic reconstruction from a thick section of the same material. The final step has been to produce a GUI and use the automated process to compare a number of different electron microscopy preparation protocols including chemical fixation (where many of halos are often distended) and to explore the many subtleties of high pressure freezing (where the halos are often minimal, [3]).

  10. Selecting the Acceptance Criteria of Medicines in the Reimbursement List of Public Health Insurance of Iran, Using the “Borda” Method: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Viyanchi, Amir; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; SafiKhani, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making for medicines to be accepted in Iran’s public health insurance reimbursement list is a complex process and involves factors, which should be considered in applying a coverage for medicine costs. These processes and factors are not wholly assessed, while assessment of these factors is an essential need for getting a transparent and evidence-based approach toward medicine reimbursement in Iran. This paper aims to show an evidence-based approach toward medicine selection criteria to inform the medical reimbursement decision makers in Iranian health insurance organizations. To explore an adaptable decision-making framework while incorporating a method called “Borda” in medicine reimbursement assessment, we used the help of an expert group including decision makers and clinical researchers who are also policy makers to appraise the five chief criteria that have three sub criteria (Precision, Interpretability, and Cost). Also software “Math-lab”7, “SPSS” 17 and Excel 2007 were used in this study. “Borda” estimates the amount of perceived values from different criteria and creates a range from one to five while providing a comprehensive measurement of a large spectrum of criteria. Participants reported that the framework provided an efficient approach to systematic consideration in a pragmatic format consisting of many parts to guide decision-makings, including criteria and value (a model with the core of Borda) and evidences (medicine reimbursement based on criteria). The most important criterion for medicine acceptance in health insurance companies, in Iran, is the "life-threatening" factor and "evidence quality" is accounted as the fifth important factor. This pilot study showed the usefulness of incorporating Borda in medicine reimbursement decisions to support a transparent and systematic appraisal of health insurance companies' deeds. Further research is needed to advance Borda-based approaches that are effective on health insurance

  11. A mixed-method evaluation of the feasibility and acceptability of a telehealth-based parent-mediated intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Katherine E; Wainer, Allison L; Bailey, Kathryn M; Ingersoll, Brooke R

    2016-10-01

    Research within the autism spectrum disorder field has called for the use of service delivery models that are able to more efficiently disseminate evidence-based practices into community settings. This study employed telehealth methods in order to deliver an Internet-based, parent training intervention for autism spectrum disorder, ImPACT Online. This study used mixed-methods analysis to create a more thorough understanding of parent experiences likely to influence the adoption and implementation of the program in community settings. Specific research questions included (1) What are parents' perceptions of the online program? (2) How does ImPACT Online compare to other services that parents are accessing for their children? And (3) Do parents' experience in, and perceptions of, the program differ based on whether they received a therapist-assisted version of the program? Results from 28 parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder indicate that parents saw improvements in their child's social communication skills and their own competence during the course of the program, regardless of whether they received therapist assistance. However, qualitative interviews indicate that parents who received therapist assistance were more likely endorse the acceptability and observability of the program. These findings support the potential for Internet-based service delivery to more efficiently disseminate evidence-based parent training interventions for autism spectrum disorder.

  12. The a3 problem solving report: a 10-step scientific method to execute performance improvements in an academic research vivarium.

    PubMed

    Bassuk, James A; Washington, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation). The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponsor and Coach. The 10-step method (Issue, Background, Current Condition, Goal, Root Cause, Target Condition, Countermeasures, Implementation Plan, Test, and Follow-up) was shown to align with Shewhart's Plan-Do-Check-Act process improvement cycle in a manner that allowed for quantitative analysis of the Countermeasure's outcomes and of Testing results. During fiscal year 2012, 9 A3 Problem Solving Reports were completed in the vivarium under the teaching and coaching system implemented by the Research Institute. Two of the 9 reports are described herein. Report #1 addressed the issue of the vivarium's veterinarian not being able to provide input into sick animal cases during the work day, while report #7 tackled the lack of a standard in keeping track of weekend/holiday animal health inspections. In each Report, a measurable Goal that established the basis for improvement recognition was present. A Five Whys analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #1 as historical work patterns that existed before the veterinarian was hired on and that modern electronic communication tools had not been implemented. The same analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #7 as the vivarium had never standardized the process for weekend/holiday checks. Successful outcomes for both Reports were obtained and validated by robust audit plans. The collective data indicate that vivarium staff acquired a disciplined way of reporting on, as well as solving, problems in a manner consistent with high

  13. The A3 Problem Solving Report: A 10-Step Scientific Method to Execute Performance Improvements in an Academic Research Vivarium

    PubMed Central

    Bassuk, James A.; Washington, Ida M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation). The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponsor and Coach. The 10-step method (Issue, Background, Current Condition, Goal, Root Cause, Target Condition, Countermeasures, Implementation Plan, Test, and Follow-up) was shown to align with Shewhart's Plan-Do-Check-Act process improvement cycle in a manner that allowed for quantitative analysis of the Countermeasure's outcomes and of Testing results. During fiscal year 2012, 9 A3 Problem Solving Reports were completed in the vivarium under the teaching and coaching system implemented by the Research Institute. Two of the 9 reports are described herein. Report #1 addressed the issue of the vivarium's veterinarian not being able to provide input into sick animal cases during the work day, while report #7 tackled the lack of a standard in keeping track of weekend/holiday animal health inspections. In each Report, a measurable Goal that established the basis for improvement recognition was present. A Five Whys analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #1 as historical work patterns that existed before the veterinarian was hired on and that modern electronic communication tools had not been implemented. The same analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #7 as the vivarium had never standardized the process for weekend/holiday checks. Successful outcomes for both Reports were obtained and validated by robust audit plans. The collective data indicate that vivarium staff acquired a disciplined way of reporting on, as well as solving, problems in a manner consistent with high

  14. Teaching peer review and the process of scientific writing.

    PubMed

    Guilford, W H

    2001-12-01

    Many undergraduate and graduate students understand neither the process of scientific writing nor the significance of peer review. In response, some instructors have created writing assignments that teach or mimic parts of the scientific publishing process. However, none fully reproduced peer review and revision of papers together with the writing and publishing process from research to final, accepted draft. In addition, most have been instituted at the graduate rather than undergraduate level. We present a detailed method for teaching undergraduate students the full scientific publishing process, including anonymous peer review, during the process of writing a "term paper." The result is a review article in the format for submission to a major scientific journal. This method has been implemented in the course Cell and Molecular Biology for Engineers at the University of Virginia. Use of this method resulted in improved grades, much higher quality in the final manuscript, greater objectivity in grading, and improved understanding of the importance of peer review.

  15. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    PubMed

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly.

  16. Perceptions and acceptability of mHealth interventions for improving patient care at a community-based HIV/AIDS clinic in Uganda: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Larry W; Njie-Carr, Veronica; Kalenge, Sheila; Kelly, Jack F; Bollinger, Robert C; Alamo-Talisuna, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Mobile technologies for health (mHealth) represents a growing array of tools being applied in diverse health care settings. mHealth interventions for improving HIV/AIDS care is a promising strategy, but its evidence base is limited. We conducted a formative research evaluation to inform the development of novel mHealth HIV/AIDS care interventions to be used by community health workers (CHWs) in Kampala, Uganda. A mixed methods formative research approach was utilized. Qualitative methods included 20 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and six focus groups with CHWs, clinic staff, and patients. Thematic analysis was performed and selected quotations used to illustrate themes. Quantitative methods consisted of a survey administered to CHWs and clinic staff, using categorical and Likert scale questions regarding current mobile phone and internet access and perceptions on the potential use of smartphones by CHWs. Qualitative results included themes on significant current care challenges, multiple perceived mHealth benefits, and general intervention acceptability. Key mHealth features desired included tools to verify CHWs' task completions, clinical decision support tools, and simple access to voice calling. Inhibiting factors identified included concerns about CHWs' job security and unrealistic expectations of mHealth capabilities. Quantitative results from 27 staff participants found that 26 (96%) did not have internet access at home, yet only 2 (7.4%) did not own a mobile phone. Likert scale survey responses (1-5, 1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree) indicated general agreement that smartphones would improve efficiency (Mean = 4.35) and patient care (4.31) but might be harmful to patient confidentiality (3.88) and training was needed (4.63). Qualitative and quantitative results were generally consistent, and, overall, there was enthusiasm for mHealth technology. However, a number of potential inhibiting factors were also discovered. Findings from this study may help

  17. Feasibility, acceptability, and effects of gentle Hatha yoga for women with major depression: findings from a randomized controlled mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Whaley, Diane; Hauenstein, Emily; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2013-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, debilitating chronic condition in the United States and worldwide. Particularly in women, depressive symptoms are often accompanied by high levels of stress and ruminations, or repetitive self-critical negative thinking. There is a research and clinical imperative to evaluate complementary therapies that are acceptable and feasible for women with depression and that target specific aspects of depression in women, such as ruminations. To begin to address this need, we conducted a randomized, controlled, mixed-methods community-based study comparing an 8-week yoga intervention with an attention-control activity in 27 women with MDD. After controlling for baseline stress, there was a decrease in depression over time in both the yoga group and the attention-control group, with the yoga group having a unique trend in decreased ruminations. Participants in the yoga group reported experiencing increased connectedness and gaining a coping strategy through yoga. The findings provide support for future large scale research to explore the effects of yoga for depressed women and the unique role of yoga in decreasing rumination.

  18. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  19. Methods for open innovation on a genome-design platform associating scientific, commercial, and educational communities in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology requires both engineering efficiency and compliance with safety guidelines and ethics. Focusing on the rational construction of biological systems based on engineering principles, synthetic biology depends on a genome-design platform to explore the combinations of multiple biological components or BIO bricks for quickly producing innovative devices. This chapter explains the differences among various platform models and details a methodology for promoting open innovation within the scope of the statutory exemption of patent laws. The detailed platform adopts a centralized evaluation model (CEM), computer-aided design (CAD) bricks, and a freemium model. It is also important for the platform to support the legal aspects of copyrights as well as patent and safety guidelines because intellectual work including DNA sequences designed rationally by human intelligence is basically copyrightable. An informational platform with high traceability, transparency, auditability, and security is required for copyright proof, safety compliance, and incentive management for open innovation in synthetic biology. GenoCon, which we have organized and explained here, is a competition-styled, open-innovation method involving worldwide participants from scientific, commercial, and educational communities that aims to improve the designs of genomic sequences that confer a desired function on an organism. Using only a Web browser, a participating contributor proposes a design expressed with CAD bricks that generate a relevant DNA sequence, which is then experimentally and intensively evaluated by the GenoCon organizers. The CAD bricks that comprise programs and databases as a Semantic Web are developed, executed, shared, reused, and well stocked on the secure Semantic Web platform called the Scientists' Networking System or SciNetS/SciNeS, based on which a CEM research center for synthetic biology and open innovation should be established.

  20. Exploring the Philosophical Underpinnings of Research: Relating Ontology and Epistemology to the Methodology and Methods of the Scientific, Interpretive, and Critical Research Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotland, James

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the philosophical underpinnings of three major educational research paradigms: scientific, interpretive, and critical. The aim was to outline and explore the interrelationships between each paradigm's ontology, epistemology, methodology and methods. This paper reveals and then discusses some of the underlying assumptions of…

  1. Effects of Two Teaching Methods on the Achievement in and Attitude to Biology of Students of Different Levels of Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwagbo, Chinwe

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the relative efficacy of the guided inquiry and the expository teaching methods on the achievement in and attitude to biology of students of different levels of scientific literacy. Four research questions and four null hypotheses were posed and formulated respectively, to guide the work. It was hypothesized…

  2. Pre-Service Teachers' Opinions about the Course on Scientific Research Methods and the Levels of Knowledge and Skills They Gained in This Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosun, Cemal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the pre-service teachers taking the Scientific Research Methods course attained basic research knowledge and skills. In addition, the impact of the process, which is followed while implementing the course, on the students' anxiety and attitude during the course is examined. Moreover, the study…

  3. [Analysis of the cognitive structure of scientific competence in PISA-2006 by means of the Least Squares Distance Method (LSDM): the Spanish case].

    PubMed

    Romero, Sonia J; Ordóñez, Xavier G; López Martín, Esther; Navarro, Enrique

    2009-11-01

    The cognitive diagnosis approach links Psychometrics and Cognitive Psychology in order to obtain detailed measurements of the processes and cognitive attributes required to solve test items. In this context, the Least Squares Distance Method (LSDM) employs item parameters, calibrated with any Item Response Theory (IRT) model, to analyze the attributes and provide evidence about the validity of the cognitive structure. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) determines three cognitive attributes underlying students' performance in the PISA-2006 science items: a) identifying scientific issues, b) explaining phenomena scientifically and c) using scientific evidence. The aim of the present work is to analyze these processes and collect evidence of the cognitive structure proposed by the OECD, using the LSDM. A second aim is to compare the probabilities of mastering the attributes of the Spanish Communities. The results show that the proposed structure is appropriate to explain students' proficiency in the science items, and also, significant differences between three Spanish Communities were found.

  4. Group Projects as a Method of Promoting Student Scientific Communication and Collaboration in a Public Health Microbiology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Kristen L. W.; Baker, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    Communication of scientific and medical information and collaborative work are important skills for students pursuing careers in health professions and other biomedical sciences. In addition, group work and active learning can increase student engagement and analytical skills. Students in our public health microbiology class were required to work…

  5. [Text mining, a method for computer-assisted analysis of scientific texts, demonstrated by an analysis of author networks].

    PubMed

    Hahn, P; Dullweber, F; Unglaub, F; Spies, C K

    2014-06-01

    Searching for relevant publications is becoming more difficult with the increasing number of scientific articles. Text mining as a specific form of computer-based data analysis may be helpful in this context. Highlighting relations between authors and finding relevant publications concerning a specific subject using text analysis programs are illustrated graphically by 2 performed examples.

  6. LIMS user acceptance testing.

    PubMed

    Klein, Corbett S

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) play a key role in the pharmaceutical industry. Thorough and accurate validation of such systems is critical and is a regulatory requirement. LIMS user acceptance testing is one aspect of this testing and enables the user to make a decision to accept or reject implementation of the system. This paper discusses key elements in facilitating the development and execution of a LIMS User Acceptance Test Plan (UATP).

  7. On Maximum FODO Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Yuri Konstantinovich

    2014-12-24

    This note illustrates maximum acceptance of FODO quadrupole focusing channel. Acceptance is the largest Floquet ellipse of a matched beam: A = $\\frac{a^2}{β}$$_{max}$ where a is the aperture of the channel and βmax is the largest value of beta-function in the channel. If aperture of the channel is restricted by a circle of radius a, the s-s acceptance is available for particles oscillating at median plane, y=0. Particles outside median plane will occupy smaller phase space area. In x-y plane, cross section of the accepted beam has a shape of ellipse with truncated boundaries.

  8. Essentials of research methods in neurosurgery and allied sciences for research, appraisal and application of scientific information to patient care (Part I)

    PubMed Central

    Esene, Ignatius N.; El-Shehaby, Amr M.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2016-01-01

    Every neurosurgeon ought to be acquainted with the basics of research methods to enhance the comprehension of the research process and critical appraisal procedures of a scientific write-up. This in turn will ensure the appropriate application of scientific knowledge to patient care. Recent publications reveal that a significant proportion of articles published in neurosurgery are mislabeled with dire consequences on the sorting and indexing of evidence. Furthermore, many clinicians report that they feel unqualified to read the medical literature critically hence, it is for this reason that we conducted this review. Herein, we present a simple algorithm to facilitate the comprehension of research methods, as well as elucidate on the anatomy of common study designs in neurosurgery. Illustrative examples are provided when necessary. Understanding research methods and the critical analysis of published reports of clinical investigation is a fundamental skill of the physician to enable the incorporation of new clinical knowledge to practice PMID:27094519

  9. University Students' Acceptance of Biological Theories--Is Evolution Really Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Michael L.; Sadler, Kim Cleary

    2011-01-01

    Understanding students' thinking about scientific theories is fundamental to the development of effective instructional strategies designed to foster scientific literacy. We conducted a study to determine student acceptance of important biological theories and to explore the relationships between their acceptance of scientific theories and their…

  10. Research Prototype: Automated Analysis of Scientific and Engineering Semantics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.; Follen, Greg (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Physical and mathematical formulae and concepts are fundamental elements of scientific and engineering software. These classical equations and methods are time tested, universally accepted, and relatively unambiguous. The existence of this classical ontology suggests an ideal problem for automated comprehension. This problem is further motivated by the pervasive use of scientific code and high code development costs. To investigate code comprehension in this classical knowledge domain, a research prototype has been developed. The prototype incorporates scientific domain knowledge to recognize code properties (including units, physical, and mathematical quantity). Also, the procedure implements programming language semantics to propagate these properties through the code. This prototype's ability to elucidate code and detect errors will be demonstrated with state of the art scientific codes.

  11. Scientific consensus, the law, and same sex parenting outcomes.

    PubMed

    adams, Jimi; Light, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    While the US Supreme Court was considering two related cases involving the constitutionality of same-sex marriage, one major question informing that decision was whether scientific research had achieved consensus regarding how children of same-sex couples fare. Determining the extent of consensus has become a key aspect of how social science evidence and testimony is accepted by the courts. Here, we show how a method of analyzing temporal patterns in citation networks can be used to assess the state of social scientific literature as a means to inform just such a question. Patterns of clustering within these citation networks reveal whether and when consensus arises within a scientific field. We find that the literature on outcomes for children of same-sex parents is marked by scientific consensus that they experience "no differences" compared to children from other parental configurations.

  12. Asymmetry in scientific method and limits to cross-disciplinary dialogue: toward a shared language and science policy in pharmacogenomics and human disease genetics.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Vural; Williams-Jones, Bryn; Graham, Janice E; Preskorn, Sheldon H; Gripeos, Dimitrios; Glatt, Stephen J; Friis, Robert H; Reist, Christopher; Szabo, Sandor; Lohr, James B; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2007-04-01

    Pharmacogenomics is a hybrid field of experimental science at the intersection of human disease genetics and clinical pharmacology sharing applications of the new genomic technologies. But this hybrid field is not yet stable or fully integrated, nor is science policy in pharmacogenomics fully equipped to resolve the challenges of this emerging hybrid field. The disciplines of human disease genetics and clinical pharmacology contain significant differences in their scientific practices. Whereas clinical pharmacology originates as an experimental science, human disease genetics is primarily observational in nature. The result is a significant asymmetry in scientific method that can differentially impact the degree to which gene-environment interactions are discerned and, by extension, the study sample size required in each discipline. Because the number of subjects enrolled in observational genetic studies of diseases is characteristically viewed as an important criterion of scientific validity and reliability, failure to recognize discipline-specific requirements for sample size may lead to inappropriate dismissal or silencing of meritorious, although smaller-scale, craft-based pharmacogenomic investigations using an experimental study design. Importantly, the recognition that pharmacogenomics is an experimental science creates an avenue for systematic policy response to the ethical imperative to prospectively pursue genetically customized therapies before regulatory approval of pharmaceuticals. To this end, we discuss the critical role of interdisciplinary engagement between medical sciences, policy, and social science. We emphasize the need for development of shared standards across scientific, methodologic, and socioethical epistemologic divides in the hybrid field of pharmacogenomics to best serve the interests of public health.

  13. The admissibility of scientific evidence in psychiatric malpractice: junk science and the Daubert case.

    PubMed

    Tancredi, L R; Giannini, A J

    1994-12-01

    The defence in malpractice cases has traditionally relied upon a commonly accepted body of knowledge. According to the American 'Frye rule', this knowledge could either have been accepted generally or by a 'respectable minority' of physicians. The US Supreme Court, however, has recently ruled in the Daubert case that conclusions not subject to peer review are acceptable in malpractice cases. The authors analyse the implications of the Daubert decision using the case-study method. Two alternative-scenarios of a hypothetical case are analysed. The potential effect of Daubert places the US psychiatrist-defendant in an untenable position. Either use or non-use of non-peer-reviewed studies in clinical practice could produce a finding of negligence. Furthermore, the responsibility to assess scientific acceptability in US courts has shifted from expert witnesses to judges who are usually without scientific training.

  14. Willingness to Know the Cause of Death and Hypothetical Acceptability of the Minimally Invasive Autopsy in Six Diverse African and Asian Settings: A Mixed Methods Socio-Behavioural Study

    PubMed Central

    Maixenchs, Maria; Anselmo, Rui; Zielinski-Gutiérrez, Emily; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Akello, Clarah; Zaidi, S. Shujaat H.; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Diarra, Kounandji; Djitèye, Mahamane; Dembélé, Roukiatou; Sow, Samba; Minsoko, Pamela Cathérine Angoissa; Agnandji, Selidji Todagbe; Ismail, Mamudo R.; Carrilho, Carla; Ordi, Jaume; Menéndez, Clara; Bassat, Quique

    2016-01-01

    Background The minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) is being investigated as an alternative to complete diagnostic autopsies for cause of death (CoD) investigation. Before potential implementation of the MIA in settings where post-mortem procedures are unusual, a thorough assessment of its feasibility and acceptability is essential. Methods and Findings We conducted a socio-behavioural study at the community level to understand local attitudes and perceptions related to death and the hypothetical feasibility and acceptability of conducting MIAs in six distinct settings in Gabon, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, and Pakistan. A total of 504 interviews (135 key informants, 175 health providers [including formal health professionals and traditional or informal health providers], and 194 relatives of deceased people) were conducted. The constructs “willingness to know the CoD” and “hypothetical acceptability of MIAs” were quantified and analysed using the framework analysis approach to compare the occurrence of themes related to acceptability across participants. Overall, 75% (379/504) of the participants would be willing to know the CoD of a relative. The overall hypothetical acceptability of MIA on a relative was 73% (366/504). The idea of the MIA was acceptable because of its perceived simplicity and rapidity and particularly for not “mutilating” the body. Further, MIAs were believed to help prevent infectious diseases, address hereditary diseases, clarify the CoD, and avoid witchcraft accusations and conflicts within families. The main concerns regarding the procedure included the potential breach of confidentiality on the CoD, the misperception of organ removal, and the incompatibility with some religious beliefs. Formal health professionals were concerned about possible contradictions between the MIA findings and the clinical pre-mortem diagnoses. Acceptability of the MIA was equally high among Christian and Islamic communities. However, in the two predominantly

  15. Protecting the pipeline of science: openness, scientific methods and the lessons from ticagrelor and the PLATO trial.

    PubMed

    Coats, Andrew J Stewart; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Francis, Darrel P

    2014-10-20

    Ticagrelor, a potent antiplatelet, has been shown to be beneficial in patients with acute coronary syndromes in a randomised controlled trial published in a highly ranked peer reviewed journal. Accordingly it has entered guidelines and has been approved for clinical use by authorities. However, there remains a controversy regarding aspects of the PLATO trial, which are not immediately apparent from the peer-reviewed publications. A number of publications have sought to highlight potential discrepancies, using data available in publicly published documents from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) leading to disagreement regarding the value of open science and data sharing. We reflect upon potential sources of bias present in even rigorously performed randomised controlled trials, on whether peer review can establish the presence of bias and the need to constantly challenge and question even accepted data.

  16. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  17. Working Scientifically Using the Investigation Planning Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Louise

    2000-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching elementary school children about scientific inquiry methods. Recommends a Planning Board to scaffold students' thinking as they plan and conduct scientific investigations. (WRM)

  18. SAP Minutes No. 2014-03 for FIFRA meeting held July 29-31, 2014. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding new high throughput methods to estimate chemical exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On July 29-31, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “new High Throughput Methods to Estimate Chemical Exposure”. EPA is proposing to use these methods to identify...

  19. The Effectiveness of Scientific Inquiry With/Without Integration of Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chun-Ting; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the difference in effectiveness between two scientific inquiry programs-one with an emphasis on scientific reasoning and one without a scientific reasoning component-on students' scientific concepts, scientific concept-dependent reasoning, and scientific inquiry. A mixed-method approach was used in which 115 grade 5…

  20. Evolutionary epistemology as a scientific method: a new look upon the units and levels of evolution debate.

    PubMed

    Gontier, Nathalie

    2010-09-01

    Evolutionary epistemology can provide a unified scientific methodology that enables scholars to study the evolution of life as well as the evolution of cognition, science, culture and any other phenomenon displayed by living organisms. In this article, three heuristics are provided that allow for a thorough search for the units, levels and mechanisms of evolution. Contrary to previous approaches, units, levels and mechanisms are not identified by pointing out essential features, but rather ostensive definitions are preferred. That is, units are considered as such if a level of evolution and a mechanism of evolution is identifiable. Levels are levels if one can point out units that evolve at that level according to evolutionary mechanisms, and mechanisms are considered as such if one can point out units and levels where the mechanism is active.

  1. Scientific Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-01-01

    1919 paper (ref. 9), in which he suggested a Moon rocket. Rock- etry was on a par with extrasensory perception in those days. 38 SCIENTIFIC SA&TLLITES...this way, images of sky can be taken at different wavelengths. The perceptive reader will note that the two zodiacal-light ex- periments described

  2. Scientific Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Gail W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how scientific documentation is taught in three 50-minute sessions in a technical writing course. Tells how session one distinguishes between in-text notes, footnotes, and reference entries; session two discusses the author-year system of citing references; and session three is concerned with the author-number system of reference…

  3. Acceptance of disease and lifestyle modification after diagnosis among young adults with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Staniszewska, Anna; Religioni, Urszula; Dąbrowska-Bender, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Aim Assessment of factors affecting the degree of illness acceptance in patients with epilepsy and determination of whether the diagnosis of epilepsy influenced the functioning of this population group. Materials and methods The Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS) and authors’ own questionnaire were used in this study. The study included 264 patients with epilepsy aged 20–40 years. The study was carried out during the period from June 2015 to June 2016. Participants were recruited through multiple channels, including online websites, a forum for people suffering from epilepsy, and from a neurological outpatient clinic in Warsaw. Results The mean value for overall rates of illness acceptance for all patients was 25.05±5.23, which indicated a mean level of illness acceptance of the patients. A significant correlation was observed between the results on AIS and the marital status of patients (P=0.04541). However, statistical analysis did not support the significant association between the illness acceptance and other socio-demographic factors and clinical aspects (P>0.05 in all cases). An analysis of the correlation between the level of illness acceptance and taking life decisions by the patients showed that the only statistically significant difference was the influence of an illness on the decision about marriage (P=0.032383). Conclusion The problem of illness acceptance is often addressed in scientific research. It seems to be difficult to attain the state of full illness acceptance, especially in a situation when a number of changes have to be made in a patient’s current life and everyday functioning. It can be argued that illness acceptance has a positive meaning because it entails benefits resulting from better mental and physical comfort of a patient. The time needed for the attainment of full illness acceptance is individual for every patient and also depends on many factors. PMID:28203060

  4. Accepting space radiation risks.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2010-08-01

    The human exploration of space inevitably involves exposure to radiation. Associated with this exposure are multiple risks, i.e., probabilities that certain aspects of an astronaut's health or performance will be degraded. The management of these risks requires that such probabilities be accurately predicted, that the actual exposures be verified, and that comprehensive records be maintained. Implicit in these actions is the fact that, at some point, a decision has been made to accept a certain level of risk. This paper examines ethical and practical considerations involved in arriving at a determination that risks are acceptable, roles that the parties involved may play, and obligations arising out of reliance on the informed consent paradigm seen as the basis for ethical radiation risk acceptance in space.

  5. Feasibility and Acceptability of Global Positioning System (GPS) Methods to Study the Spatial Contexts of Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A P18 Cohort Sub-Study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Dustin T.; Kapadia, Farzana; Regan, Seann D.; Goedel, William C.; Levy, Michael D.; Barton, Staci C.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2016-01-01

    Background No global positioning system (GPS) technology study has been conducted among a sample of young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM). As such, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of using GPS methods to understand the spatial context of substance use and sexual risk behaviors among a sample of YMSM in New York City, a high-risk population. Methods Data came from a subsample of the ongoing P18 Cohort Study (n = 75). GPS feasibility and acceptability among participants was measured with: 1) a pre- and post-survey and 2) adherence to the GPS protocol which included returning the GPS device, self-report of charging and carrying the GPS device as well as objective data analyzed from the GPS devices. Analyses of the feasibility surveys were treated as repeated measures as each participant had a pre- and post-feasibility survey. When comparing the similar GPS survey items asked at baseline and at follow-up, we present percentages and associated p-values based on chi-square statistics. Results Participants reported high ratings of pre-GPS acceptability, ease of use, and low levels of wear-related concerns in addition to few concerns related to safety, loss, or appearance, which were maintained after baseline GPS feasibility data collection. The GPS return rate was 100%. Most participants charged and carried the GPS device on most days. Of the total of 75 participants with GPS data, 75 (100%) have at least one hour of GPS data for one day and 63 (84%) had at least one hour on all 7 days. Conclusions Results from this pilot study demonstrate that utilizing GPS methods among YMSM is feasible and acceptable. GPS devices may be used in spatial epidemiology research in YMSM populations to understand place-based determinants of health such as substance use and sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26918766

  6. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  7. Study of the scientific reasoning methods: Identifying the salient reasoning characteristics exhibited by engineers and scientists in an R&D environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, William F.

    At the core of what it means to be a scientist or engineer is the ability to think rationally using scientific reasoning methods. Yet, typically if asked, scientist and engineers are hard press for a reply what that means. Some may argue that the meaning of scientific reasoning methods is a topic for the philosophers and psychologist, but this study believes and will prove that the answers lie with the scientists and engineers, for who really know the workings of the scientific reasoning thought process than they. This study will provide evidence to the aims: (a) determine the fundamental characteristics of cognitive reasoning methods exhibited by engineer/scientists working in R&D projects, (b) sample the engineer/scientist community to determine their views as to the importance, frequency, and ranking of each of characteristics towards benefiting their R&D projects, (c) make concluding remarks regarding any identified competency gaps in the exhibited or expected cognitive reasoning methods of engineer/scientists working on R&D projects. To drive these aims are the following three research questions. The first, what are the salient characteristics of cognitive reasoning methods exhibited by engineer/scientists in an R&D environment? The second, what do engineer/scientists consider to be the frequency and importance of the salient cognitive reasoning methods characteristics? And the third, to what extent, if at all, do patent holders and technical fellows differ with regard to their perceptions of the importance and frequency of the salient cognitive reasoning characteristics of engineer/scientists? The methodology and empirical approach utilized and described: (a) literature search, (b) Delphi technique composed of seven highly distinguish engineer/scientists, (c) survey instrument directed to distinguish Technical Fellowship, (d) data collection analysis. The results provide by Delphi Team answered the first research question. The collaborative effort validated

  8. How We Learn to Teach: Trial by Fire, by the Seat of Our Pants, and Other (More Scientific) Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Kate L.; Martinez, Gilbert D.

    2012-01-01

    A survey of more than three hundred journalism instructors who belong to the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication sought to find out by what methods they learned to teach journalism, what advice they had for new teachers and academic units seeking to improve teaching, and what effective and/or innovative teaching…

  9. Research on bodies of the executed in German anatomy: an accepted method that changed during the Third Reich. Study of anatomical journals from 1924 to 1951.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-04-01

    While it is known that bodies of the executed were used for anatomical research in Germany during the Third Reich, it is unclear whether this type of work was unique to the time period or more common in Germany than elsewhere. The dissected persons and the anatomists involved have not been fully investigated. This study of anatomical journals from 1924 to 1951 shows that 166 out of 7,438 [2.2%] German language articles mentioned the use of "material" from the bodies of executed persons. In comparison, only 2 out of 4,702 English language articles explicitly mentioned bodies of the executed. From 1924 to1932, 33 of a total of 3,734 [1%] German articles listed the use of the executed. From 1933 to 1938 the number rose to 46 out of 2,265 [2%], and increased again from 1939 to 1945 to 73 out of 984 [7%]. After the war 15 out of 455 [3%] still dealt with "material" from the executed. German anatomists' familiarity with the use of the executed as a standard for healthy tissues even before 1933 may have contributed to the ease with which they accepted the "opportunities" (large-scale studies and research on women) presented to them by unlimited access to bodies of the executed provided by the abusive National Socialist (NS) legislation and continued using them for some years after the war. German postwar anatomy was built in part on the bodies of NS victims. Information given in some publications will help with further identification of these victims.

  10. Scarless deletion of up to seven methyl-accepting chemotaxis genes with an optimized method highlights key function of CheM in Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Stefanie; Schmidt, Christiane; Walter, Steffi; Bender, Jennifer K; Gerlach, Roman G

    2017-01-01

    Site-directed scarless mutagenesis is an essential tool of modern pathogenesis research. We describe an optimized two-step protocol for genome editing in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to enable multiple sequential mutagenesis steps in a single strain. The system is based on the λ Red recombinase-catalyzed integration of a selectable antibiotics resistance marker followed by replacement of this cassette. Markerless mutants are selected by expressing the meganuclease I-SceI which induces double-strand breaks in bacteria still harboring the resistance locus. Our new dual-functional plasmid pWRG730 allows for heat-inducible expression of the λ Red recombinase and tet-inducible production of I-SceI. Methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP) are transmembrane chemoreceptors for a vast set of environmental signals including amino acids, sugars, ions and oxygen. Based on the sensory input of MCPs, chemotaxis is a key component for Salmonella virulence. To determine the contribution of individual MCPs we sequentially deleted seven MCP genes. The individual mutations were validated by PCR and genetic integrity of the final seven MCP mutant WRG279 was confirmed by whole genome sequencing. The successive MCP mutants were functionally tested in a HeLa cell infection model which revealed increased invasion rates for non-chemotactic mutants and strains lacking the MCP CheM (Tar). The phenotype of WRG279 was reversed with plasmid-based expression of CheM. The complemented WRG279 mutant showed also partially restored chemotaxis in swarming assays on semi-solid agar. Our optimized scarless deletion protocol enables efficient and precise manipulation of the Salmonella genome. As demonstrated with whole genome sequencing, multiple subsequent mutagenesis steps can be realized without the introduction of unwanted mutations. The sequential deletion of seven MCP genes revealed a significant role of CheM for the interaction of S. Typhimurium with host cells which might give

  11. Scarless deletion of up to seven methyl-accepting chemotaxis genes with an optimized method highlights key function of CheM in Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Stefanie; Schmidt, Christiane; Walter, Steffi; Bender, Jennifer K.

    2017-01-01

    Site-directed scarless mutagenesis is an essential tool of modern pathogenesis research. We describe an optimized two-step protocol for genome editing in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to enable multiple sequential mutagenesis steps in a single strain. The system is based on the λ Red recombinase-catalyzed integration of a selectable antibiotics resistance marker followed by replacement of this cassette. Markerless mutants are selected by expressing the meganuclease I-SceI which induces double-strand breaks in bacteria still harboring the resistance locus. Our new dual-functional plasmid pWRG730 allows for heat-inducible expression of the λ Red recombinase and tet-inducible production of I-SceI. Methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP) are transmembrane chemoreceptors for a vast set of environmental signals including amino acids, sugars, ions and oxygen. Based on the sensory input of MCPs, chemotaxis is a key component for Salmonella virulence. To determine the contribution of individual MCPs we sequentially deleted seven MCP genes. The individual mutations were validated by PCR and genetic integrity of the final seven MCP mutant WRG279 was confirmed by whole genome sequencing. The successive MCP mutants were functionally tested in a HeLa cell infection model which revealed increased invasion rates for non-chemotactic mutants and strains lacking the MCP CheM (Tar). The phenotype of WRG279 was reversed with plasmid-based expression of CheM. The complemented WRG279 mutant showed also partially restored chemotaxis in swarming assays on semi-solid agar. Our optimized scarless deletion protocol enables efficient and precise manipulation of the Salmonella genome. As demonstrated with whole genome sequencing, multiple subsequent mutagenesis steps can be realized without the introduction of unwanted mutations. The sequential deletion of seven MCP genes revealed a significant role of CheM for the interaction of S. Typhimurium with host cells which might give

  12. Acceptance Test Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    7 RD-Ai507 154 CCEPTANCE TEST PLN(U) WESTINGHOUSE DEFENSE ND i/i ELECTRO ICS CENTER BALTIMORE MD DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONS DIY D C KRRiJS 28 JUN...Ln ACCEPTANCE TEST PLAN FOR SPECIAL RELIABILITY TESTS FOR BROADBAND MICROWAVE AMPLIFIER PANEL David C. Kraus, Reliability Engineer WESTINGHOUSE ...ORGANIZATION b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7g& NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION tIf appdeg ble) WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORP. - NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY e. AOORES$ (Ci7t

  13. Investigation of the Utilization of Modern Industrial Methods, Processes, Ergonomics, and the Internet in the Scientific Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myer, Spencer S., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    On Oct. 1, 2001 Cleveland State University and NASA Glenn Research Center embarked on the above named cooperative agreement. Because NASA's research facilities often exhibit instances where the failure to use state-of-the-art technologies and methods to improve on outmoded systems of interface and control, and this runs contrary to the NASA philosophy of "faster, better, and cheaper", it was deemed an ideal opportunity for this collaboration. The main objectives of the proposed effort were to research and investigate the use of the latest technologies, methods, techniques, etc. which pertain to control and interface with industrial and research systems and facilities. The work was done in large part at NASA Glenn Research Center, using selected research facilities as real-world laboratories; such as certain Microgravity Science Division and Space Station projects. Microgravity Science Division at Glenn Research Center designs and builds experiments to be flown on the Space Shuttle and eventually on the International Space Station. Economy of space, weight, complexity, data storage, ergonomics, and many other factors present problems that also exist in industry. Many of the solutions can come from the same areas of study mentioned above.

  14. Effective Method of Purification of Betulin from Birch Bark: The Importance of Its Purity for Scientific and Medicinal Use

    PubMed Central

    Šiman, Pavel; Filipová, Alžběta; Tichá, Alena; Niang, Mohamed; Bezrouk, Aleš; Havelek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    A new and relatively simple method for purification of betulin from birch bark extract was developed in this study. Its five purification steps are based on the differential solubility of extract components in various solvents and their crystallization and/or precipitation, on their affinity for Ca(OH)2 in ethanol, and on the affinity of some impurities for silica gel in chloroform. In addition, all used solvents can be simply recycled. Betulin of more than 99% purity can be prepared by this method with minimal costs. Various observations including crystallization of betulin, changes in crystals during heating, and attempt of localization of betulin in outer birch bark are also described in this work. The original extract, fraction without betulinic acid and lupeol, amorphous fraction of pure betulin, final crystalline fraction of pure betulin and commercial betulin as a standard were employed to determine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effect. We used WST-1 tetrazolium-based assays with triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549. The decrease in cell survival showed clear relationship with the purity of the samples, being most pronounced using our final product of pure crystalline betulin. WST-1 proliferation/cytotoxicity test using triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549 clearly showed the importance of purity of betulin for biological experiments and, apparently, for its medicinal use. PMID:27152419

  15. Effective Method of Purification of Betulin from Birch Bark: The Importance of Its Purity for Scientific and Medicinal Use.

    PubMed

    Šiman, Pavel; Filipová, Alžběta; Tichá, Alena; Niang, Mohamed; Bezrouk, Aleš; Havelek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    A new and relatively simple method for purification of betulin from birch bark extract was developed in this study. Its five purification steps are based on the differential solubility of extract components in various solvents and their crystallization and/or precipitation, on their affinity for Ca(OH)2 in ethanol, and on the affinity of some impurities for silica gel in chloroform. In addition, all used solvents can be simply recycled. Betulin of more than 99% purity can be prepared by this method with minimal costs. Various observations including crystallization of betulin, changes in crystals during heating, and attempt of localization of betulin in outer birch bark are also described in this work. The original extract, fraction without betulinic acid and lupeol, amorphous fraction of pure betulin, final crystalline fraction of pure betulin and commercial betulin as a standard were employed to determine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effect. We used WST-1 tetrazolium-based assays with triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549. The decrease in cell survival showed clear relationship with the purity of the samples, being most pronounced using our final product of pure crystalline betulin. WST-1 proliferation/cytotoxicity test using triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549 clearly showed the importance of purity of betulin for biological experiments and, apparently, for its medicinal use.

  16. Unlocking the scientific potential of complex 3D point cloud dataset : new classification and 3D comparison methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lague, D.; Brodu, N.; Leroux, J.

    2012-12-01

    Ground based lidar and photogrammetric techniques are increasingly used to track the evolution of natural surfaces in 3D at an unprecedented resolution and precision. The range of applications encompass many type of natural surfaces with different geometries and roughness characteristics (landslides, cliff erosion, river beds, bank erosion,....). Unravelling surface change in these contexts requires to compare large point clouds in 2D or 3D. The most commonly used method in geomorphology is based on a 2D difference of the gridded point clouds. Yet this is hardly adapted to many 3D natural environments such as rivers (with horizontal beds and vertical banks), while gridding complex rough surfaces is a complex task. On the other hand, tools allowing to perform 3D comparison are scarce and may require to mesh the point clouds which is difficult on rough natural surfaces. Moreover, existing 3D comparison tools do not provide an explicit calculation of confidence intervals that would factor in registration errors, roughness effects and instrument related position uncertainties. To unlock this problem, we developed the first algorithm combining a 3D measurement of surface change directly on point clouds with an estimate of spatially variable confidence intervals (called M3C2). The method has two steps : (1) surface normal estimation and orientation in 3D at a scale consistent with the local roughness ; (2) measurement of mean surface change along the normal direction with explicit calculation of a local confidence interval. Comparison with existing 3D methods based on a closest-point calculation demonstrates the higher precision of the M3C2 method when mm changes needs to be detected. The M3C2 method is also simple to use as it does not require surface meshing or gridding, and is not sensitive to missing data or change in point density. We also present a 3D classification tool (CANUPO) for vegetation removal based on a new geometrical measure: the multi

  17. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  18. Scientific Research: How Many Paradigms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, George O.

    2012-01-01

    As Yogi Berra said, "Predictions are hard, especially about the future." In this article, the author offers a few forward-looking observations about the emerging impact of information technology on scientific research. Scientific research refers to a particular method for acquiring knowledge about natural phenomena. This method has two dimensions:…

  19. Acceptability of a Community-Based Outreach HIV-Testing Intervention Using Oral Fluid Collection Devices and Web-Based HIV Test Result Collection Among Sub-Saharan African Migrants: A Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Manirankunda, Lazare; Platteau, Tom; Albers, Laura; Fransen, Katrien; Vermoesen, Tine; Namanya, Fiona; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2016-01-01

    Background Late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis is common among sub-Saharan African migrants. To address their barriers to HIV testing uptake and improve timely HIV diagnoses and linkage to care, the outreach HIV testing intervention, “swab2know,” was developed. It combined a community-based approach with innovative testing methods: oral fluid self-sampling and the choice between Web-based HIV test result collections using a secured website or post-test counseling at a sexual health clinic. The sessions included an informational speech delivered by a physician of sub-Saharan African origin and testimonies by community members living with HIV. Objectives The objectives of this study were to evaluate the intervention’s acceptability among sub-Saharan African migrants and its potential to reach subgroups at higher risk for HIV infection and to identify facilitators and barriers for HIV testing uptake. Methods This mixed-method study combined qualitative (participant observations and informal interviews with testers and nontesters) and quantitative data (paper–pencil survey, laboratory data, and result collection files). Data were analyzed using a content analytical approach for qualitative and univariate analysis for quantitative data. Results A total of 10 testing sessions were organized in sub-Saharan African migrant community venues in the city of Antwerp, Belgium, between December 2012 and June 2013. Overall, 18.2% of all people present (N=780) underwent HIV testing; 29.8% of them tested for HIV for the first time, 22.3% did not have a general practitioner, and 21.5% reported 2 or more sexual partners (last 3 months). Overall, 56.3% of participants chose to collect their HIV test results via the protected website. In total, 78.9% collected their results. The qualitative analysis of 137 participant observation field notes showed that personal needs and Internet literacy determined the choice of result collection method. Generally, the oral

  20. [What scientific publications should be read?].

    PubMed

    Belitzky, R

    1980-01-01

    Students in the biomedical fields, and even those at the graduate level, often tend to accept more readily the opinions of authority than scientific knowledge itself. Books and papers sometimes confuse hypotheses with evidence. Similarly, the great profusion of scientific publications makes it necessary to sift the sound from the fatuous, the important from the trivial, the useful from the dangerous. A good way to choose one's reading matter is to learn the scientific method and to consider each article from that point of view. Is the writing a mere description of phenomena, a study of case histories, a presentation of new techniques, or a report of really valid experimental work? One should be aware of the scope and limitations of experimental design models applicable to physiological and biochemical research and of those for clinical experimentation. This paper offers guidelines for the analysis of articles and indicates the need to determine whether the components of an experimental design (a target population, alternative therapies, and situations of change) are present, and to review its structure and the sequence it prescribes on that basis. Several questions are asked following the above steps, as a quick gauge of the value and usefulness of the publication or paper.

  1. Assessing Scientific Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, John M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A method for assessing scientific performance based on relationships displayed numerically in published documents is proposed and illustrated using published documents in pediatric oncology for the period 1979-1982. Contributions of a major clinical investigations group, the Childrens Cancer Study Group, are analyzed. Twenty-nine references are…

  2. Program Supports Scientific Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Stephan

    1994-01-01

    Primary purpose of General Visualization System (GVS) computer program is to support scientific visualization of data generated by panel-method computer program PMARC_12 (inventory number ARC-13362) on Silicon Graphics Iris workstation. Enables user to view PMARC geometries and wakes as wire frames or as light shaded objects. GVS is written in C language.

  3. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  4. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  5. A Mixed-Method Evaluation of the Feasibility and Acceptability of a Telehealth-Based Parent-Mediated Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Katherine E.; Wainer, Allison L.; Bailey, Kathryn M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2016-01-01

    Research within the autism spectrum disorder field has called for the use of service delivery models that are able to more efficiently disseminate evidence-based practices into community settings. This study employed telehealth methods in order to deliver an Internet-based, parent training intervention for autism spectrum disorder, ImPACT Online.…

  6. Attributes Affecting the Acceptance and Integration of Best Practices in Secondary Professional-Technical Education (PTE): A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Harold Anderson

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined which attributes Professional-Technical Education (PTE) teachers desire to see in the best practices presented to them. The study used data from two separate pilot studies to create a survey administered during the June, 2009 PTE summer conference; which was returned by 229 responders; and in addition used to…

  7. Self-acceptance, acceptance of others, and SYMLOG: equivalent measures of the two central interpersonal dimensions?

    PubMed

    Hurley, J R

    1991-07-01

    After 50 hours of small group participation during 9 weeks, 91 young adults rated each same-group member's conduct on SYMLOG's dimensions of dominance, friendliness, and task-orientedness. Earlier, they made similar ratings twice, several weeks apart, on separate measures of self-acceptance and acceptance of others. Individuals' mean SYMLOG dominance ratings by group peers correlated much more highly with aggregated ratings for self-acceptance (.83) than for other-acceptance (.02), while SYMLOG friendliness correlated more positively with acceptance of others (.85) than with self-acceptance (.05). Self-ratings yielded parallel, but weaker associations. After attenuation corrections, these divergent approaches to assessing the interpersonal domain's central dimensions yielded empirically equivalent results. Both methods provide measures relevant to small group processes.

  8. Scientific/Techical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chris Leighton, Neutron Scattering Society of American; Mr. J. Ardie Dillen, MRS Director of Finance and Administration

    2012-11-07

    The ACNS provides a focal point for the North American neutron user community, strengthening ties within this diverse group, and promoting neutron research in related disciplines. The conference thus serves a dual role as both a national user meeting and a scientific meeting. As a venue for scientific exchange, the ACNS showcases recent results and provides a forum for scientific discussion of neutron-enabled research in fields as diverse as hard and soft condensed matter, liquids, biology, magnetism, engineering materials, chemical spectroscopy, crystal structure, elementary excitations, fundamental physics, and development of neutron instrumentation. This is achieved through a combination of invited oral presentations, contributed oral presentations, and poster sessions. Adequate opportunity for spontaneous discussion and collaboration is also built into the ACNS program in order to foster free exchange of new scientific ideas and the potential for use of powerful neutron scattering methods beyond the current realms of application. The sixth American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS 2012) provided essential information on the breadth and depth of current neutron-related research worldwide. A strong program of plenary, invited and contributed talks showcased recent scientific results in neutron science in a wide range of fields, including soft and hard condensed matter, biology, chemistry, energy and engineering applications, and neutron physics.

  9. The Interplay of Scientific Activity, Worldviews and Value Outlooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Scientific activity tends to reflect particular worldviews and their associated value outlooks; and scientific results sometimes have implications for worldviews and the presuppositions of value outlooks. Even so, scientific activity per se neither presupposes nor provides sound rational grounds to accept any worldview or value outlook. Moreover,…

  10. Scientific methodology applied.

    PubMed

    Lussier, A

    1975-04-01

    The subject of this symposium is naproxen, a new drug that resulted from an investigation to find a superior anti-inflammatory agent. It was synthesized by Harrison et al. in 1970 at the Syntex Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biological Sciences. How can we chart the evolution of this or any other drug? Three steps are necessary: first, chemical studies (synthesis, analysis); second, animal pharmacology; third, human pharmacology. The last step can additionally be divided into four phases: metabolism and toxicology of the drug in normal volunteers; dose titration and initial clinical trials with sick subjects (pharmacometry); confirmatory clinical trials when the drug is accepted on the market and revaluation (familiarization trials). To discover the truth about naproxen, we must all participate actively with a critical mind, following the principles of scientific methodology. We shall find that the papers to be presented today all deal with the third step in the evaluation process--clinical pharmacology. It is quite evident that the final and most decisive test must be aimed at the most valuable target: the human being. The end product of this day's work for each of us should be the formation of an opinion based on solid scientific proofs. And let us hope that we will all enjoy fulfilling the symposium in its entire etymological meaning this evening. In vino veritas.

  11. Claim Assessment Profile: A Method for Capturing Healthcare Evidence in the Scientific Evaluation and Review of Claims in Health Care (SEaRCH)

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Lara; Jonas, Wayne B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Grounding health claims in an evidence base is essential for determining safety and effectiveness. However, it is not appropriate to evaluate all healthcare claims with the same methods. “Gold standard” randomized controlled trials may skip over important qualitative and observational data about use, benefits, side effects, and preferences, issues especially salient in research on complementary and integrative health (CIH) practices. This gap has prompted a move toward studying treatments in their naturalistic settings. In the 1990s, a program initiated under the National Institutes of Health was designed to provide an outreach to CIH practices for assessing the feasibility of conducting retrospective or prospective evaluations. The Claim Assessment Profile further develops this approach, within the framework of Samueli Institute's Scientific Evaluation and Review of Claims in Health Care (SEaRCH) method. Methods/Design: The goals of a Claim Assessment Profile are to clarify the elements that constitute a practice, define key outcomes, and create an explanatory model of these impacts. The main objective is to determine readiness and capacity of a practice to engage in evaluation of effectiveness. This approach is informed by a variety of rapid assessment and stakeholder-driven methods. Site visits, structured qualitative interviews, surveys, and observational data on implementation provide descriptive data about the practice. Logic modeling defines inputs, processes, and outcome variables; Path modeling defines an analytic map to explore. Discussion: The Claim Assessment Profile is a rapid assessment of the evaluability of a healthcare practice. The method was developed for use on CIH practices but has also been applied in resilience research and may be applied beyond the healthcare sector. Findings are meant to provide sufficient data to improve decision-making for stakeholders. This method provides an important first step for moving

  12. Epistemic beliefs of middle and high school students in a problem-based, scientific inquiry unit: An exploratory, mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jiangyue

    Epistemic beliefs are individuals' beliefs about the nature of knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and how knowledge can be justified. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to examine: (a) middle and high school students' self-reported epistemic beliefs (quantitative) and epistemic beliefs revealed from practice (qualitative) during a problem-based, scientific inquiry unit, (b) How do middle and high school students' epistemic beliefs contribute to the construction of students' problem solving processes, and (c) how and why do students' epistemic beliefs change by engaging in PBL. Twenty-one middle and high school students participated in a summer science class to investigate local water quality in a 2-week long problem-based learning (PBL) unit. The students worked in small groups to conduct water quality tests at in their local watershed and visited several stakeholders for their investigation. Pretest and posttest versions of the Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire were conducted to assess students' self-reported epistemic beliefs before and after the unit. I videotaped and interviewed three groups of students during the unit and conducted discourse analysis to examine their epistemic beliefs revealed from scientific inquiry activities and triangulate with their self-reported data. There are three main findings from this study. First, students in this study self-reported relatively sophisticated epistemic beliefs on the pretest. However, the comparison between their self-reported beliefs and beliefs revealed from practice indicated that some students were able to apply sophisticated beliefs during the unit while others failed to do so. The inconsistency between these two types of epistemic beliefs may due to students' inadequate cognitive ability, low validity of self-report measure, and the influence of contextual factors. Second, qualitative analysis indicated that students' epistemic beliefs of the nature of knowing influenced their problem

  13. Solar Biology : A Scientific Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Hiram E.

    A comprehensive work on astrology providing guidelines on how to make use of solar biology for delineating character, diagnosing disease, determining mental, physical and business qualifications etc., from date of birth.

  14. The Acceptability Among Health Researchers and Clinicians of Social Media to Translate Research Evidence to Clinical Practice: Mixed-Methods Survey and Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Tunnecliff, Jacqueline; Ilic, Dragan; Morgan, Prue; Keating, Jennifer; Gaida, James E; Clearihan, Lynette; Sadasivan, Sivalal; Davies, David; Ganesh, Shankar; Mohanty, Patitapaban; Weiner, John; Reynolds, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Establishing and promoting connections between health researchers and health professional clinicians may help translate research evidence to clinical practice. Social media may have the capacity to enhance these connections. Objective The aim of this study was to explore health researchers’ and clinicians’ current use of social media and their beliefs and attitudes towards the use of social media for communicating research evidence. Methods This study used a mixed-methods approach to obtain qualitative and quantitative data. Participation was open to health researchers and clinicians. Data regarding demographic details, current use of social media, and beliefs and attitudes towards the use of social media for professional purposes were obtained through an anonymous Web-based survey. The survey was distributed via email to research centers, educational and clinical institutions, and health professional associations in Australia, India, and Malaysia. Consenting participants were stratified by country and role and selected at random for semistructured telephone interviews to explore themes arising from the survey. Results A total of 856 participants completed the questionnaire with 125 participants declining to participate, resulting in a response rate of 87.3%. 69 interviews were conducted with participants from Australia, India, and Malaysia. Social media was used for recreation by 89.2% (749/840) of participants and for professional purposes by 80.0% (682/852) of participants. Significant associations were found between frequency of professional social media use and age, gender, country of residence, and graduate status. Over a quarter (26.9%, 229/852) of participants used social media for obtaining research evidence, and 15.0% (128/852) of participants used social media for disseminating research evidence. Most participants (95.9%, 810/845) felt there was a role for social media in disseminating or obtaining research evidence. Over half of the

  15. Who Is Scientifically Literate, Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinman, Richard L.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the National Academy of Sciences promulgated national standards for science education and defined scientific literacy. Literates should be able to describe, explain, and predict natural phenomena; understand popular-press articles on science; and evaluate the quality of scientific information, based on source and method. A fictional…

  16. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die.

  17. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  18. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  19. The Acquisition of Scientific Knowledge: The Influence of Methods of Questioning and Analysis on the Interpretation of Children's Conceptions of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frede, Valerie; Nobes, Gavin; Frappart, Soren; Panagiotaki, Georgia; Troadec, Bertrand; Martin, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Studies of children's knowledge of the Earth have led to very different conclusions: some appear to show that children construct their own, non-scientific "theories" (mental models) of the flat, hollow or dual Earth. Others indicate that many young children have some understanding of the spherical (scientific) Earth, and that their…

  20. Sherlock Holmes: scientific detective.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Sherlock Holmes was intended by his creator, Arthur Conan Doyle, to be a 'scientific detective'. Conan Doyle criticized his predecessor Edgar Allan Poe for giving his creation - Inspector Dupin - only the 'illusion' of scientific method. Conan Doyle believed that he had succeeded where Poe had failed; thus, he has Watson remark that Holmes has 'brought detection as near an exact science as it will ever be brought into the world.' By examining Holmes' methods, it becomes clear that Conan Doyle modelled them on certain images of science that were popular in mid- to late-19th century Britain. Contrary to a common view, it is also evident that rather than being responsible for the invention of forensic science, the creation of Holmes was influenced by the early development of it.

  1. Is risk analysis scientific?

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sven Ove; Aven, Terje

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses to what extent risk analysis is scientific in view of a set of commonly used definitions and criteria. We consider scientific knowledge to be characterized by its subject matter, its success in developing the best available knowledge in its fields of study, and the epistemic norms and values that guide scientific investigations. We proceed to assess the field of risk analysis according to these criteria. For this purpose, we use a model for risk analysis in which science is used as a base for decision making on risks, which covers the five elements evidence, knowledge base, broad risk evaluation, managerial review and judgment, and the decision; and that relates these elements to the domains experts and decisionmakers, and to the domains fact-based or value-based. We conclude that risk analysis is a scientific field of study, when understood as consisting primarily of (i) knowledge about risk-related phenomena, processes, events, etc., and (ii) concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and manage risk, in general and for specific applications (the instrumental part).

  2. An Activity Model for Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, William

    2004-01-01

    Most people are frustrated with the current scientific method presented in textbooks. The scientific method--a simplistic model of the scientific inquiry process--fails in most cases to provide a successful guide to how science is done. This is not shocking, really. Many simple models used in science are quite useful within their limitations. When…

  3. Bringing Kids into the Scientific Review Process.

    PubMed

    Kastner, Sabine; Knight, Robert T

    2017-01-04

    Frontiers for Young Minds puts kids in charge of scientific publications by having them control the review process. This provides kids the ability to shape the way science is taught and to better understand the scientific method.

  4. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK – A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Frankis, Jamie; Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM), whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK), using a mixed methods design. Methods Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social and sociosexual media were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. In addition, n = 10 in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM were analysed thematically. Results Under one third (29.7%) of MSM had heard of PrEP, with awareness related to living in large cities, degree level education, commercial gay scene use and reporting an HIV test in the last year. Just under half of participants (47.8%) were likely to use PrEP if it were available but there was no relationship between PrEP acceptability and previous PrEP awareness. Younger men (18–25 years) and those who report higher risk UAI were significantly more likely to say they would use PrEP. Qualitative data described specific PrEP scenarios, illustrating how risk, patterns of sexual practice and social relationships could affect motivation for and nature of PrEP use. Conclusion These findings suggest substantial interest PrEP amongst MSM reporting HIV risk behaviours in Scotland. Given the Proud results, there is a strong case to investigate PrEP implementation within the UK. However, it appears that disparities in awareness have already emerged along traditional indicators of inequality. Our research identifies the need for comprehensive support when PrEP is introduced, including a key online component, to ensure equity of awareness across diverse MSM communities (e.g. by geography, education, gay scene use and HIV proximity), as well as to responding to the diverse informational and sexual health

  5. Test Methods for Acceptance Testing of Telescopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    instrument. Although various interferometer configurations are used, they all basically operate on the same principle. The beam from a stable continuous...a Goerz with a nominal focal length of 92 inches. This lens has been recoated and carefully aligned to produce excellent image quality. The focus...test. Such requirements are necessary when the procuring agency has no facilities for performing adequate tests. It is also an excellent policy even

  6. Methodology of Military-Scientific Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The book gives an analysis of the methodology used in military- scientific research. The authors examine the characteristics of such research and the...Marxist dialectic method , logic and statistical method used in it; also discussed is the process of military-scientific research and recommendations...on the literary finalization of a scientific work and on the preparation of a manuscript for the press; the methodology for organizing military-scientific work is discussed in detail.

  7. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  8. Pearls of Publishing: Advice for Increasing Your Acceptance Odds.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J; Provencher, Matthew T; Lubowitz, James H

    2016-07-01

    Pearls of wisdom can be a convenient and efficient strategy to improve performance. As Editors, we employ pearls to standardize the review and editorial process, and we offer our own pearls to you to help facilitate acceptance of submitted research manuscripts with the ultimate goal of strengthening scientific conclusions that can affect patient care, and ultimately, improve outcome.

  9. The next scientific revolution.

    PubMed

    Hey, Tony

    2010-11-01

    For decades, computer scientists have tried to teach computers to think like human experts. Until recently, most of those efforts have failed to come close to generating the creative insights and solutions that seem to come naturally to the best researchers, doctors, and engineers. But now, Tony Hey, a VP of Microsoft Research, says we're witnessing the dawn of a new generation of powerful computer tools that can "mash up" vast quantities of data from many sources, analyze them, and help produce revolutionary scientific discoveries. Hey and his colleagues call this new method of scientific exploration "machine learning." At Microsoft, a team has already used it to innovate a method of predicting with impressive accuracy whether a patient with congestive heart failure who is released from the hospital will be readmitted within 30 days. It was developed by directing a computer program to pore through hundreds of thousands of data points on 300,000 patients and "learn" the profiles of patients most likely to be rehospitalized. The economic impact of this prediction tool could be huge: If a hospital understands the likelihood that a patient will "bounce back," it can design programs to keep him stable and save thousands of dollars in health care costs. Similar efforts to uncover important correlations that could lead to scientific breakthroughs are under way in oceanography, conservation, and AIDS research. And in business, deep data exploration has the potential to unearth critical insights about customers, supply chains, advertising effectiveness, and more.

  10. Toward Scientific Numerical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Bil

    2007-01-01

    Ultimately, scientific numerical models need quantified output uncertainties so that modeling can evolve to better match reality. Documenting model input uncertainties and verifying that numerical models are translated into code correctly, however, are necessary first steps toward that goal. Without known input parameter uncertainties, model sensitivities are all one can determine, and without code verification, output uncertainties are simply not reliable. To address these two shortcomings, two proposals are offered: (1) an unobtrusive mechanism to document input parameter uncertainties in situ and (2) an adaptation of the Scientific Method to numerical model development and deployment. Because these two steps require changes in the computational simulation community to bear fruit, they are presented in terms of the Beckhard-Harris-Gleicher change model.

  11. Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Jason R.

    This investigation explored scientific, religious, and otherwise nonscientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution and related concepts, how students perceived these factors to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution and changes therein, and what patterns arose among students' articulations of how their levels of acceptance of evolution may have changed. This exploration also measured the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following a treatment designed to address factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution. Acceptance of evolution was measured using the MATE instrument (Rutledge and Warden, 1999; Rutledge and Sadler, 2007) among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic program during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than pre-treatment levels both immediately following and slightly over one year after treatment. Qualitative data from informal questionnaires, from formal course evaluations, and from semi-structured interviews of students engaged in secondary level education and former students at various stages of post-secondary education confirmed that the suspected factors were perceived by participants to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution. Furthermore, participant reports provided insight regarding the relative effects they perceived these factors to have had on their evolution acceptance levels. Additionally, many participants reported that their science teachers in public schools had avoided, omitted, or denigrated evolution during instruction, and several of these students expressed frustration regarding what they perceived to have been a lack of education of an important scientific principle. Finally, no students expressed feelings of being offended by having been taught about

  12. Acceptance of tinnitus: validation of the tinnitus acceptance questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Weise, Cornelia; Kleinstäuber, Maria; Hesser, Hugo; Westin, Vendela Zetterqvist; Andersson, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The concept of acceptance has recently received growing attention within tinnitus research due to the fact that tinnitus acceptance is one of the major targets of psychotherapeutic treatments. Accordingly, acceptance-based treatments will most likely be increasingly offered to tinnitus patients and assessments of acceptance-related behaviours will thus be needed. The current study investigated the factorial structure of the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ) and the role of tinnitus acceptance as mediating link between sound perception (i.e. subjective loudness of tinnitus) and tinnitus distress. In total, 424 patients with chronic tinnitus completed the TAQ and validated measures of tinnitus distress, anxiety, and depression online. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support to a good fit of the data to the hypothesised bifactor model (root-mean-square-error of approximation = .065; Comparative Fit Index = .974; Tucker-Lewis Index = .958; standardised root mean square residual = .032). In addition, mediation analysis, using a non-parametric joint coefficient approach, revealed that tinnitus-specific acceptance partially mediated the relation between subjective tinnitus loudness and tinnitus distress (path ab = 5.96; 95% CI: 4.49, 7.69). In a multiple mediator model, tinnitus acceptance had a significantly stronger indirect effect than anxiety. The results confirm the factorial structure of the TAQ and suggest the importance of a general acceptance factor that contributes important unique variance beyond that of the first-order factors activity engagement and tinnitus suppression. Tinnitus acceptance as measured with the TAQ is proposed to be a key construct in tinnitus research and should be further implemented into treatment concepts to reduce tinnitus distress.

  13. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  14. Acceptance Probability (P a) Analysis for Process Validation Lifecycle Stages.

    PubMed

    Alsmeyer, Daniel; Pazhayattil, Ajay; Chen, Shu; Munaretto, Francesco; Hye, Maksuda; Sanghvi, Pradeep

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces an innovative statistical approach towards understanding how variation impacts the acceptance criteria of quality attributes. Because of more complex stage-wise acceptance criteria, traditional process capability measures are inadequate for general application in the pharmaceutical industry. The probability of acceptance concept provides a clear measure, derived from specific acceptance criteria for each quality attribute. In line with the 2011 FDA Guidance, this approach systematically evaluates data and scientifically establishes evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering quality product. The probability of acceptance provides a direct and readily understandable indication of product risk. As with traditional capability indices, the acceptance probability approach assumes that underlying data distributions are normal. The computational solutions for dosage uniformity and dissolution acceptance criteria are readily applicable. For dosage uniformity, the expected AV range may be determined using the s lo and s hi values along with the worst case estimates of the mean. This approach permits a risk-based assessment of future batch performance of the critical quality attributes. The concept is also readily applicable to sterile/non sterile liquid dose products. Quality attributes such as deliverable volume and assay per spray have stage-wise acceptance that can be converted into an acceptance probability. Accepted statistical guidelines indicate processes with C pk > 1.33 as performing well within statistical control and those with C pk < 1.0 as "incapable" (1). A C pk > 1.33 is associated with a centered process that will statistically produce less than 63 defective units per million. This is equivalent to an acceptance probability of >99.99%.

  15. Effects of an Educational Experience Incorporating an Inventory of Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Jason R.; Alters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This investigation provides an extensive review of scientific, religious, and otherwise non-scientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution. We also measure the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following an educational experience designed to address an inclusive inventory of factors identified…

  16. Applying the Scientific Method & Phylogenetics to Understand the Transition from Kingdoms to Domains: Does One Plus One Equal Five, Six, or Three?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    The progression of the taxonomic organization of life from Linnaeus's original two kingdoms to the traditional five-kingdom system to today's widely accepted three-domain system is explored in a group-learning activity. Working with a set of organisms, students organize them into each system. Discussion after each step focuses on viewing…

  17. Children acceptance of laser dental treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazea, Andreea; Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the dental anxiety level and the degree of acceptance of laser assisted pedodontic treatments from the children part. Also, we want to underline the advantages of laser use in pediatric dentistry, to make this technology widely used in treating dental problems of our children patients. Methods: Thirty pediatric dental patients presented in the Department of Pedodontics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babeş", Timişoara were evaluated using the Wong-Baker pain rating scale, wich was administered postoperatory to all patients, to assess their level of laser therapy acceptance. Results: Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFPS) has good validity and high specificity; generally it's easy for children to use, easy to compare and has good feasibility. Laser treatment has been accepted and tolerated by pediatric patients for its ability to reduce or eliminate pain. Around 70% of the total sample showed an excellent acceptance of laser dental treatment. Conclusions: Laser technology is useful and effective in many clinical situations encountered in pediatric dentistry and a good level of pacient acceptance is reported during all laser procedures on hard and soft tissues.

  18. Guidance on the establishment of acceptable daily exposure limits (ADE) to support Risk-Based Manufacture of Pharmaceutical Products.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Edward V; Faria, Ellen; Pfister, Thomas; Sussman, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Health-based limits for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) referred to as acceptable daily exposures (ADEs) are necessary to the pharmaceutical industry and used to derive acceptance limits for cleaning validation purposes and evaluating cross-carryover. ADEs represent a dose of an API unlikely to cause adverse effects if an individual is exposed, by any route, at or below this dose every day over a lifetime. Derivations of ADEs need to be consistent with ICH Q9 as well as other scientific approaches for the derivation of health-based limits that help to manage risks to both product quality and operator safety during the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. Previous methods for the establishment of acceptance limits in cleaning validation programs are considered arbitrary and have largely ignored the available clinical and toxicological data available for a drug substance. Since the ADE utilizes all available pharmaceutical data and applies scientifically acceptable risk assessment methodology it is more holistic and consistent with other quantitative risk assessments purposes such derivation of occupational exposure limits. Processes for hazard identification, dose response assessment, uncertainty factor analysis and documentation are reviewed.

  19. CHRONICLE: Plenary session of Section No. 3 on Optical Data Processing Methods of the Scientific Council of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR on the Problem of Holography, Baku, October 24-27, 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malov, Aleksei N.

    1982-09-01

    A review is given of the papers presented at a plenary session of Section No. 3 on Optical Data Processing Methods of the Scientific Council of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR on the Problem of Holography (Baku, October 24-27, 1981). The session dealt with the progress made and current status of work on optical data processing methods, and with likely trends in the future.

  20. Extending the Technology Acceptance Model: Policy Acceptance Model (PAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Tamra

    There has been extensive research on how new ideas and technologies are accepted in society. This has resulted in the creation of many models that are used to discover and assess the contributing factors. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one that is a widely accepted model. This model examines people's acceptance of new technologies based on variables that directly correlate to how the end user views the product. This paper introduces the Policy Acceptance Model (PAM), an expansion of TAM, which is designed for the analysis and evaluation of acceptance of new policy implementation. PAM includes the traditional constructs of TAM and adds the variables of age, ethnicity, and family. The model is demonstrated using a survey of people's attitude toward the upcoming healthcare reform in the United States (US) from 72 survey respondents. The aim is that the theory behind this model can be used as a framework that will be applicable to studies looking at the introduction of any new or modified policies.

  1. Acceptability of contraception for men: a review.

    PubMed

    Glasier, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Methods of contraception for use by men include condoms, withdrawal and vasectomy. Prevalence of use of a method and continuation rates are indirect measures of acceptability. Worldwide, none of these "male methods" accounts for more than 7% of contraceptive use although uptake varies considerably between countries. Acceptability can be assessed directly by asking about intended (hypothetical) use and assessing satisfaction during/after use. Since they have been around for a very long time, there are very few data of this nature on condoms (as contraceptives rather than for prevention of infection), withdrawal or vasectomy. There are direct data on the acceptability of hormonal methods for men but from relatively small clinical trials which undoubtedly do not represent the real world. Surveys undertaken among the male general public demonstrate that, whatever the setting, at least 25% of men - and in most countries substantially more - would consider using hormonal contraception. Although probably an overestimate of the number of potential users when such a method becomes available, it would appear that hormonal contraceptives for men may have an important place on the contraceptive menu. Despite commonly expressed views to the contrary, most women would trust their male partner to use a hormonal method.

  2. SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

  3. Market Acceptance of Smart Growth

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report finds that smart growth developments enjoy market acceptance because of stability in prices over time. Housing resales in smart growth developments often have greater appreciation than their conventional suburban counterparts.

  4. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  5. Quantifying the Ease of Scientific Discovery.

    PubMed

    Arbesman, Samuel

    2011-02-01

    It has long been known that scientific output proceeds on an exponential increase, or more properly, a logistic growth curve. The interplay between effort and discovery is clear, and the nature of the functional form has been thought to be due to many changes in the scientific process over time. Here I show a quantitative method for examining the ease of scientific progress, another necessary component in understanding scientific discovery. Using examples from three different scientific disciplines - mammalian species, chemical elements, and minor planets - I find the ease of discovery to conform to an exponential decay. In addition, I show how the pace of scientific discovery can be best understood as the outcome of both scientific output and ease of discovery. A quantitative study of the ease of scientific discovery in the aggregate, such as done here, has the potential to provide a great deal of insight into both the nature of future discoveries and the technical processes behind discoveries in science.

  6. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  7. PREDON Scientific Data Preservation 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaconu, C.; Kraml, S.; Surace, C.; Chateigner, D.; Libourel, T.; Laurent, A.; Lin, Y.; Schaming, M.; Benbernou, S.; Lebbah, M.; Boucon, D.; Cérin, C.; Azzag, H.; Mouron, P.; Nief, J.-Y.; Coutin, S.; Beckmann, V.

    researchers from different disciplines and institutes. Several meetings and workshops lead to a rich exchange in ideas, paradigms and methods. The present document includes contributions of the participants to the PREDON Study Group, as well as invited papers, related to the scientific case, methodology and technology. This document should be read as a "facts finding" resource pointing to a concrete and significant scientific interest for long term research data preservation, as well as to cutting edge methods and technologies to achieve this goal. A sustained, coherent and long term action in the area of scientific data preservation would be highly beneficial.

  8. Museology and Scientific Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunier, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the period of transition and self examination of the museology of science. Defines the main issues and limits of the museum as a means of transmitting a scientific culture and scientific ways. (Author/RT)

  9. FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Experts on the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel provide independent scientific advice to the EPA on a wide range of health and safety issues related to pesticides.

  10. Extensional scientific realism vs. intensional scientific realism.

    PubMed

    Park, Seungbae

    2016-10-01

    Extensional scientific realism is the view that each believable scientific theory is supported by the unique first-order evidence for it and that if we want to believe that it is true, we should rely on its unique first-order evidence. In contrast, intensional scientific realism is the view that all believable scientific theories have a common feature and that we should rely on it to determine whether a theory is believable or not. Fitzpatrick argues that extensional realism is immune, while intensional realism is not, to the pessimistic induction. I reply that if extensional realism overcomes the pessimistic induction at all, that is because it implicitly relies on the theoretical resource of intensional realism. I also argue that extensional realism, by nature, cannot embed a criterion for distinguishing between believable and unbelievable theories.

  11. Scientific and non-scientific challenges for Operational Earthquake Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, W.

    2015-12-01

    Tracking the time evolution of seismic hazard in time windows shorter than the usual 50-years of long-term hazard models may offer additional opportunities to reduce the seismic risk. This is the target of operational earthquake forecasting (OEF). During the OEF development in Italy we identify several challenges that range from pure science to the more practical interface of science with society. From a scientific point of view, although earthquake clustering is the clearest empirical evidence about earthquake occurrence, and OEF clustering models are the most (successfully) tested hazard models in seismology, we note that some seismologists are still reluctant to accept their scientific reliability. After exploring the motivations of these scientific doubts, we also look into an issue that is often overlooked in this discussion, i.e., in any kind of hazard analysis, we do not use a model because it is the true one, but because it is the better than anything else we can think of. The non-scientific aspects are mostly related to the fact that OEF usually provides weekly probabilities of large eartquakes smaller than 1%. These probabilities are considered by some seismologists too small to be of interest or useful. However, in a recent collaboration with engineers we show that such earthquake probabilities may lead to intolerable individual risk of death. Interestingly, this debate calls for a better definition of the still fuzzy boundaries among the different expertise required for the whole risk mitigation process. The last and probably more pressing challenge is related to the communication to the public. In fact, a wrong message could be useless or even counterproductive. Here we show some progresses that we have made in this field working with communication experts in Italy.

  12. College Student Invulnerability Beliefs and HIV Vaccine Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, Russell D.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine behavioral history, beliefs, and vaccine characteristics as predictors of HIV vaccine acceptability. Methods: Two hundred forty-five US under graduates were surveyed regarding their sexual history, risk beliefs, and likelihood of accepting hypothetical HIV vaccines. Results: Multivariate regression analysis indicated that…

  13. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.

    1999-12-16

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements.

  14. Acceptance test report 2721-Z upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, R.D.

    1998-02-03

    This test procedure provides instructions for acceptance testing of modifications to the 2721-Z diesel-generator system made by Project C-189. The modifications include (1) replacing the generator NUMA-LOGIC controller with connection to the PFP distributed control system (DCS), (2) replacing ATSI with a breaker switching scheme for 2736-ZB backup power and (3) providing a method for generator load and system testing.

  15. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  16. Defining acceptable conditions in wilderness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenbuck, J. W.; Williams, D. R.; Watson, A. E.

    1993-03-01

    The limits of acceptable change (LAC) planning framework recognizes that forest managers must decide what indicators of wilderness conditions best represent resource naturalness and high-quality visitor experiences and how much change from the pristine is acceptable for each indicator. Visitor opinions on the aspects of the wilderness that have great impact on their experience can provide valuable input to selection of indicators. Cohutta, Georgia; Caney Creek, Arkansas; Upland Island, Texas; and Rattlesnake, Montana, wilderness visitors have high shared agreement that littering and damage to trees in campsites, noise, and seeing wildlife are very important influences on wilderness experiences. Camping within sight or sound of other people influences experience quality more than do encounters on the trails. Visitors’ standards of acceptable conditions within wilderness vary considerably, suggesting a potential need to manage different zones within wilderness for different clientele groups and experiences. Standards across wildernesses, however, are remarkably similar.

  17. Staff Acceptance of Tele-ICU Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Paul S.; Cram, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Remote coverage of ICUs is increasing, but staff acceptance of this new technology is incompletely characterized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing research on acceptance of tele-ICU coverage among ICU staff. Methods: We searched for published articles pertaining to critical care telemedicine systems (aka, tele-ICU) between January 1950 and March 2010 using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Global Health, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library and abstracts and presentations delivered at national conferences. Studies were included if they provided original qualitative or quantitative data on staff perceptions of tele-ICU coverage. Studies were imported into content analysis software and coded by tele-ICU configuration, methodology, participants, and findings (eg, positive and negative staff evaluations). Results: Review of 3,086 citations yielded 23 eligible studies. Findings were grouped into four categories of staff evaluation: overall acceptance level of tele-ICU coverage (measured in 70% of studies), impact on patient care (measured in 96%), impact on staff (measured in 100%), and organizational impact (measured in 48%). Overall acceptance was high, despite initial ambivalence. Favorable impact on patient care was perceived by > 82% of participants. Staff impact referenced enhanced collaboration, autonomy, and training, although scrutiny, malfunctions, and contradictory advice were cited as potential barriers. Staff perceived the organizational impact to vary. An important limitation of available studies was a lack of rigorous methodology and validated survey instruments in many studies. Conclusions: Initial reports suggest high levels of staff acceptance of tele-ICU coverage, but more rigorous methodologic study is required. PMID:21051386

  18. ENHANCING STAKEHOLDER ACCEPTANCE OF BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Focht, Will; Albright, Matt; Anex, Robert P., Jr., ed.

    2009-04-21

    This project inquired into the judgments and beliefs of people living near DOE reservations and facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Hanford, Washington; and Los Alamos, Tennessee about bioremediation of subsurface contamination. The purpose of the investigation was to identify strategies based on these judgments and beliefs for enhancing public support of bioremediation. Several methods were used to collect and analyze data including content analysis of transcripts of face-to-face personal interviews, factor analysis of subjective perspectives using Q methodology, and statistical analysis of results from a large-sample randomized telephone survey. Content analysis of interview transcripts identified themes about public perceptions and constructions of contamination risk, risk management, and risk managers. This analysis revealed that those who have no employment relationship at the sites and are not engaged in technical professions are most concerned about contamination risks. We also found that most interviewees are unfamiliar with subsurface contamination risks and how they can be reduced, believe they have little control over exposure, are frustrated with the lack of progress in remediation, are concerned about a lack of commitment of DOE to full remediation, and distrust site managers to act in the public interest. Concern is also expressed over frequent site management turnover, excessive secrecy, ineffective and biased communication, perceived attempts to talk the public into accepting risk, and apparent lack of concern about community welfare. In the telephone survey, we asked respondents who were aware of site contamination about their perceptions of risk from exposure to subsurface contamination. Response analysis revealed that most people believe that they are at significant risk from subsurface contamination but they acknowledge that more education is needed to calibrate risk perceptions against scientific risk assessments. Most rate their personal

  19. A Mixed-Methods Study on the Acceptability of Using eHealth for HIV Prevention and Sexual Health Care Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in China

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Cedric H; Wei, Chongyi; Lo, Elaine J; Yang, Min; Tucker, Joseph D; Yang, Ligang; Meng, Gang; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2015-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM). Over half of all HIV-positive MSM in China may not know their HIV status. Mobile phones and Web interventions (eHealth) are underutilized resources that show promise for supporting HIV education, testing, and linkage to care. Objective This mixed-methods study among MSM in China assessed technology utilization and eHealth acceptability for sexual health care. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews and an online survey. Qualitative analyses informed the development of the Internet survey, which was administered through two popular MSM websites. Bivariate and multivariate analysis assessed characteristics of MSM interested in eHealth for sexual health care. Results The qualitative sample included MSM across a range of ages, education, marital status, sexuality, and HIV testing experience. Qualitative findings included the importance of the Internet as the primary source of information about sexual health, HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), use of the Internet to enable HIV testing opportunities by facilitating connections with both the gay community and health care providers, and mixed perceptions regarding the confidentiality of eHealth tools for sexual health. Among the Internet sample (N=1342), the average age was 30.6 years old, 82.81% (1098/1342) were single, and 53.42% (711/1331) had completed college. In the past 3 months, 38.66% (382/988) had condomless sex and 60.53% (805/1330) self-reported having ever tested for HIV. The majority of men owned computers (94.14%, 1220/1296) and mobile phones (92.32%, 1239/1342), which many had used to search for HIV/STD information and testing sites. In multivariate analysis, interest in using computers or mobile phones to support their sexual health care was associated with being a student, prior use of computers or mobile phones to search for general health information, prior use of

  20. Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Web-Based Training in Malaysia: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Junaidah

    2008-01-01

    Companies in Malaysia are beginning to use web-based training to reduce the cost of training and to provide employees with greater access to instruction. However, some people are uncomfortable with technology and prefer person-to-person methods of training. This study examines the acceptance of web-based training among a convenience sample of 261…

  1. Acceptance- versus Change-Based Pain Management: The Role of Psychological Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacker, Kara J.; Herbert, James D.; Forman, Evan M.; Kounios, John

    2012-01-01

    This study compared two theoretically opposed strategies for acute pain management: an acceptance-based and a change-based approach. These two strategies were compared in a within-subjects design using the cold pressor test as an acute pain induction method. Participants completed a baseline pain tolerance assessment followed by one of the two…

  2. Scientific Visualization and Computational Science: Natural Partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uselton, Samuel P.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Scientific visualization is developing rapidly, stimulated by computational science, which is gaining acceptance as a third alternative to theory and experiment. Computational science is based on numerical simulations of mathematical models derived from theory. But each individual simulation is like a hypothetical experiment; initial conditions are specified, and the result is a record of the observed conditions. Experiments can be simulated for situations that can not really be created or controlled. Results impossible to measure can be computed.. Even for observable values, computed samples are typically much denser. Numerical simulations also extend scientific exploration where the mathematics is analytically intractable. Numerical simulations are used to study phenomena from subatomic to intergalactic scales and from abstract mathematical structures to pragmatic engineering of everyday objects. But computational science methods would be almost useless without visualization. The obvious reason is that the huge amounts of data produced require the high bandwidth of the human visual system, and interactivity adds to the power. Visualization systems also provide a single context for all the activities involved from debugging the simulations, to exploring the data, to communicating the results. Most of the presentations today have their roots in image processing, where the fundamental task is: Given an image, extract information about the scene. Visualization has developed from computer graphics, and the inverse task: Given a scene description, make an image. Visualization extends the graphics paradigm by expanding the possible input. The goal is still to produce images; the difficulty is that the input is not a scene description displayable by standard graphics methods. Visualization techniques must either transform the data into a scene description or extend graphics techniques to display this odd input. Computational science is a fertile field for visualization

  3. Acceptance of Domestic Cat Mitochondrial DNA in a Criminal Proceeding

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Leslie A.; Grahn, Robert A.; Kun, Teri J.; Netzel, Linda R.; Wictum, Elizabeth E.; Halverson, Joy L.

    2014-01-01

    Shed hair from domestic animals readily adheres to clothing and other contact items, providing a source of transfer evidence for criminal investigations. Mitochondrial DNA is often the only option for DNA analysis of shed hair. Human mitochondrial DNA analysis has been accepted in the US court system since 1996. The murder trial of the State of Missouri versus Henry L. Polk, Jr. represents the first legal proceeding where cat mitochondrial DNA analysis was introduced into evidence. The mitochondrial DNA evidence was initially considered inadmissible due to concerns about the cat dataset and the scientific acceptance of the marker. Those concerns were subsequently addressed, and the evidence was deemed admissible. This report reviews the case in regards to the cat biological evidence and its ultimate admission as generally accepted and reliable. Expansion and saturation analysis of the cat mitochondrial DNA control region dataset supported the initial interpretation of the evidence. PMID:25086413

  4. Acceptance of domestic cat mitochondrial DNA in a criminal proceeding.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Kun, Teri J; Netzel, Linda R; Wictum, Elizabeth E; Halverson, Joy L

    2014-11-01

    Shed hair from domestic animals readily adheres to clothing and other contact items, providing a source of transfer evidence for criminal investigations. Mitochondrial DNA is often the only option for DNA analysis of shed hair. Human mitochondrial DNA analysis has been accepted in the US court system since 1996. The murder trial of the State of Missouri versus Henry L. Polk, Jr. represents the first legal proceeding where cat mitochondrial DNA analysis was introduced into evidence. The mitochondrial DNA evidence was initially considered inadmissible due to concerns about the cat dataset and the scientific acceptance of the marker. Those concerns were subsequently addressed, and the evidence was deemed admissible. This report reviews the case in regards to the cat biological evidence and its ultimate admission as generally accepted and reliable. Expansion and saturation analysis of the cat mitochondrial DNA control region dataset supported the initial interpretation of the evidence.

  5. A quiz on "the ethics of accepting gifts from industry".

    PubMed

    Holm, Richard P

    2007-03-01

    (1) Cash payments should not be accepted from any health-related industry, which might create a conflict of interest, unless it is payment for legitimate research purposes, and the cash is not for purposes of marketing. (2) Marketing gifts, which benefit the patient, are acceptable as long as they are not of substantial value...like equal or less than $100. (3) Conferences (including a "mo dest" meal) sponsored by industry are acceptable when they serve a genuine educational function, and promote objective and scientific activity. (4) Professional people should understand and appreciate the marketing forces, which are endeavoring to influence our behavior. To interact with marketing people is appropriate, not unethical. However we must not be influenced in any way that would disadvantage our patients.

  6. The dynamic interest in topics within the biomedical scientific community.

    PubMed

    Michon, Frederic; Tummers, Mark

    2009-08-07

    The increase in the size of the scientific community created an explosion in scientific production. We have analyzed the dynamics of biomedical scientific output during 1957-2007 by applying a bibliometric analysis of the PubMed database using different keywords representing specific biomedical topics. With the assumption that increased scientific interest will result in increased scientific output, we compared the output of specific topics to that of all scientific output. This analysis resulted in three broad categories of topics; those that follow the general trend of all scientific output, those that show highly variable output, and attractive topics which are new and grow explosively. The analysis of the citation impact of the scientific output resulted in a typical longtail distribution: the majority of journals and articles are of very low impact. This distribution has remained unchanged since 1957, although the interests of scientists must have shifted in this period. We therefore analyzed the distribution of articles in top journals and lower impact journals over time for the attractive topics. Novelty is rewarded by publication in top journals. Over time more articles are published in low impact journals progressively creating the longtail distribution, signifying acceptance of the topic by the community. There can be a gap of years between novelty and acceptance. Within topics temporary novelty is created with new subtopics. In conclusion, the longtail distribution is the foundation of the scientific output of the scientific community and can be used to examine different aspects of science practice.

  7. The Dynamic Interest in Topics within the Biomedical Scientific Community

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The increase in the size of the scientific community created an explosion in scientific production. We have analyzed the dynamics of biomedical scientific output during 1957–2007 by applying a bibliometric analysis of the PubMed database using different keywords representing specific biomedical topics. With the assumption that increased scientific interest will result in increased scientific output, we compared the output of specific topics to that of all scientific output. This analysis resulted in three broad categories of topics; those that follow the general trend of all scientific output, those that show highly variable output, and attractive topics which are new and grow explosively. The analysis of the citation impact of the scientific output resulted in a typical longtail distribution: the majority of journals and articles are of very low impact. This distribution has remained unchanged since 1957, although the interests of scientists must have shifted in this period. We therefore analyzed the distribution of articles in top journals and lower impact journals over time for the attractive topics. Novelty is rewarded by publication in top journals. Over time more articles are published in low impact journals progressively creating the longtail distribution, signifying acceptance of the topic by the community. There can be a gap of years between novelty and acceptance. Within topics temporary novelty is created with new subtopics. In conclusion, the longtail distribution is the foundation of the scientific output of the scientific community and can be used to examine different aspects of science practice. PMID:19668345

  8. Basic structure and types of scientific papers.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C; Ng, K H

    2008-07-01

    The basic structure of a scientific paper is summarised by the acronym IMRAD. Many types of papers are published in medical journals. These include original articles, case reports, technical notes, pictorial essays, reviews, commentaries and editorials. Authors should be aware that each type of paper is specific in nature, serve a distinct purpose, and is judged by different criteria. Authors submitting their work in the most appropriate format will be able to maximise their material and enhance the chances of manuscript acceptance.

  9. Further Conceptualization of Treatment Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    A review and extension of previous conceptualizations of treatment acceptability is provided in light of progress within the area of behavior treatment development and implementation. Factors including legislation, advances in research, and service delivery models are examined as to their relationship with a comprehensive conceptualization of…

  10. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  11. Nitrogen trailer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-02-12

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0249. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-108 Rev.0. The equipment being tested is a portable contained nitrogen supply. The test was conducted at Norco`s facility.

  12. Imaginary Companions and Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.

    2004-01-01

    Early research on imaginary companions suggests that children who create them do so to compensate for poor social relationships. Consequently, the peer acceptance of children with imaginary companions was compared to that of their peers. Sociometrics were conducted on 88 preschool-aged children; 11 had invisible companions, 16 had personified…

  13. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  14. Helping Our Children Accept Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Mae

    1984-01-01

    Parents of a child with muscular dystrophy recount their reactions to learning of the diagnosis, their gradual acceptance, and their son's resistance, which was gradually lessened when he was provided with more information and treated more normally as a member of the family. (CL)

  15. Confidence in ASCI scientific simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, J.A.; Trucano, T.G.; Luginbuhl, D.R.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program calls for the development of high end computing and advanced application simulations as one component of a program to eliminate reliance upon nuclear testing in the US nuclear weapons program. This paper presents results from the ASCI program`s examination of needs for focused validation and verification (V and V). These V and V activities will ensure that 100 TeraOP-scale ASCI simulation code development projects apply the appropriate means to achieve high confidence in the use of simulations for stockpile assessment and certification. The authors begin with an examination of the roles for model development and validation in the traditional scientific method. The traditional view is that the scientific method has two foundations, experimental and theoretical. While the traditional scientific method does not acknowledge the role for computing and simulation, this examination establishes a foundation for the extension of the traditional processes to include verification and scientific software development that results in the notional framework known as Sargent`s Framework. This framework elucidates the relationships between the processes of scientific model development, computational model verification and simulation validation. This paper presents a discussion of the methodologies and practices that the ASCI program will use to establish confidence in large-scale scientific simulations. While the effort for a focused program in V and V is just getting started, the ASCI program has been underway for a couple of years. The authors discuss some V and V activities and preliminary results from the ALEGRA simulation code that is under development for ASCI. The breadth of physical phenomena and the advanced computational algorithms that are employed by ALEGRA make it a subject for V and V that should typify what is required for many ASCI simulations.

  16. Enracinement or the earth, the originary ark, does not move: on the phenomenological (historical and ontogenetic) origin of common and scientific sense and the genetic method of teaching (for) understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2015-06-01

    For many students, the experience with science tends to be alienating and uprooting. In this study, I take up Simone Weil's concepts of enracinement (rooting) and déracinement (uprooting) to theorize the root of this alienation, the confrontation between children's familiarity with the world and unfamiliar/strange scientific conceptions. I build on the works of the phenomenological philosopher Edmund Husserl and the German physics educator Martin Wagenschein (who directly refers to Weil's concepts) to make a case for the rooting function of original/originary experiences and the genetic method to science teaching. The genetic approach allows students to retain their foundational familiarity with the world and their descriptions thereof all the while evolving other (more scientific) ways of explaining natural phenomena.

  17. Engagement practices that join scientific methods with community wisdom: designing a patient-centered, randomized control trial with a Pacific Islander community.

    PubMed

    McElfish, Pearl Anna; Goulden, Peter A; Bursac, Zoran; Hudson, Jonell; Purvis, Rachel S; Kim Yeary, Karen H; Aitaoto, Nia; Kohler, Peter O

    2016-06-20

    This article illustrates how a collaborative research process can successfully engage an underserved minority community to address health disparities. Pacific Islanders, including the Marshallese, are one of the fastest growing US populations. They face significant health disparities, including extremely high rates of type 2 diabetes. This article describes the engagement process of designing patient-centered outcomes research with Marshallese stakeholders, highlighting the specific influences of their input on a randomized control trial to address diabetes. Over 18 months, an interdisciplinary research team used community-based participatory principles to conduct patient-engaged outcomes research that involved 31 stakeholders in all aspects of research design, from defining the research question to making decisions about budgets and staffing. This required academic researcher flexibility, but yielded a design linking scientific methodology with community wisdom.

  18. Fundamentals of quality assessment of molecular amplification methods in clinical diagnostics. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Scientific Division Committee on Molecular Biology Techniques.

    PubMed

    Neumaier, M; Braun, A; Wagener, C

    1998-01-01

    The increasing interest in molecular biology diagnostics is a result of the tremendous gain of scientific knowledge in genetics, made possible especially since the introduction of amplification techniques. High expectations have been placed on genetic testing, and the number of laboratories now using the relevant technology is rapidly increasing--resulting in an obvious need for standardization and definition of laboratory organization. This communication is an effort towards that end. We address aspects that should be considered when structuring a new molecular diagnostic laboratory, and we discuss individual preanalytical and analytical procedures, from sampling to evaluation of assay results. In addition, different means of controlling contamination are discussed. Because the methodology is in constant change, no general standards can be defined. Accordingly, this publication is intended to serve as a recommendation for good laboratory practice and internal quality control and as a guide to troubleshooting, primarily in amplification techniques.

  19. Introduction: why people do not accept evolution: using protistan diversity to promote evolution literacy.

    PubMed

    Paz-Y-Miño-C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina

    2012-01-01

    The controversy evolution vs. creationism is inherent to the incompatibility between scientific rationalism/empiricism and the belief in supernatural causation. To test this hypothesis, we conceptualized a Cartesian landscape where the dependent variable acceptance of evolution was plotted as function of three factors, each represented by an index (value range 0 to 3): Religiosity Index (RI), Science Index (SI), and Evolution Index (EI). The indexes summarized an individual's personal religious convictions, familiarity with the processes and forces of change in organisms (= concept of evolution), and understanding the essence of science (= method to explore reality). We compared and contrasted acceptance of evolution among four populations of variable educational attainment: 244 professors of New England, United States (93% Ph.D./doctorate holders), 50 protistologists from 25 countries (70% Ph.D./doctorate holders), 62 educators of prospective teachers (83% Ph.D./doctorate holders), and 827 college students. The New England faculty held the highest acceptance of evolution position (RI = 0.49; SI = 2.49; EI = 2.49), followed by the protistologists (RI = 0.46; SI = 2.30; EI = 2.48), the educators of prospective teachers (RI = 0.83; SI = 1.96; EI = 1.96), and the students (RI = 0.89; SI = 1.80; EI = 1.60); therefore, the data supported our hypothesis. Proper science education, public outreach and robust debate over the controversy "evolution versus creationism" should suffice to improve society's evolution literacy, and qualified scholars ought to lead this mission.

  20. Scientific integrity memorandum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama signed a presidential memorandum on 9 March to help restore scientific integrity in government decision making. The memorandum directs the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to develop a strategy within 120 days that ensures that "the selection of scientists and technology professionals for science and technology positions in the executive branch is based on those individuals' scientific and technological knowledge, credentials, and experience; agencies make available to the public the scientific or technological findings or conclusions considered or relied upon in policy decisions; agencies use scientific and technological information that has been subject to well-established scientific processes such as peer review; and agencies have appropriate rules and procedures to ensure the integrity of the scientific process within the agency, including whistleblower protection."

  1. [Editing of articles accepted for publication by the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde].

    PubMed

    Walvoort, H C

    1997-01-04

    The Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde has been publishing medical science in Dutch for 140 years. To bridge the gap between the specialist science and the general medical reader several sections in the accepted papers have to be clarified, simplified and shortened by post acceptance editing. The style and language of the authors is treated with respect. Changes are made if the article does not comply with internationally accepted rules on scientific reporting, if the article can not be understood using currently authoritative general and medical books of reference, and if its language does not comply with generally accepted Dutch rules for grammar and spelling.

  2. Scientific Journalism in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, the problems of scientific journalism and activities of Armenian science journalists are presented. Scientific journalism in the world, forms of its activities, Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) press-releases and their subjects, ArAS website "Mass Media News" section, annual and monthly calendars of astronomical events, and "Astghagitak" online journal are described. Most interesting astronomical subjects involved in scientific journalism, reasons for non-satisfactory science outreach and possible solutions are discussed.

  3. Making sense scientific claims in advertising. A study of scientifically aware consumers.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Rachel E; Tseëlon, Efrat; Weitkamp, Emma L C

    2008-04-01

    Evidence that science is becoming increasingly embedded in culture comes from the proliferation of discourses of ethical consumption, sustainability, and environmental awareness. Al Gore's recent award, along with UN's Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the Nobel peace prize-- provided a recent high profile linking of consumption and science. It is not clear to what extent the public at large engages in evaluating the scientific merits of the arguments about the link between human consumption and global environmental catastrophes. But on a local scale, we are routinely required to evaluate, scientific and pseudoscientific claims in advertising. Since advertising is used to sell products, the discourse of scientifically framed claims is being used to persuade consumers of the benefits of these products. In the case of functional foods and cosmetics, such statements are deployed to promote the health benefits and effectiveness of their products. This exploratory study examines the views of British consumers about the scientific and pseudoscientific claims made in advertisements for foods, with particular reference to functional foods, and cosmetics. The participants in the study all worked in scientific environments, though they were not all scientists. The study found that scientific arguments that were congruent with existing health knowledge tended to be accepted while pseudoscientific knowledge was regarded skeptically and concerns were raised over the accuracy and believability of the pseudoscientific claims. It appears that scientific awareness may play a part in consumers' ability to critically examine scientifically and pseudoscientifically based advertising claims.

  4. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author’s scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current

  5. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara; Adeli, Khosrow

    2014-10-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current article

  6. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  7. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  8. Acceptability of two spermicides in five countries.

    PubMed

    Raymond, E; Alvarado, G; Ledesma, L; Diaz, S; Bassol, S; Morales, E; Fernandez, V; Carlos, G

    1999-07-01

    Data from a large, international, multicenter, randomized trial were analyzed to compare the acceptability of two nonoxynol-9 spermicide preparations. Women who wished to use a spermicide for contraception were randomly assigned to use either a foaming tablet (n = 383) or a nonoxynol-9 film (n = 382) for 28 weeks as their only method of contraception. Participants completed questionnaires about acceptability of the assigned product 4 weeks after admission and at discontinuation. Women in both groups had very favorable opinions of the spermicide. The proportion of women who said that they liked their assigned product very much was 50% in the tablet group and 55% in the film group. Significantly more women in the film group rated the spermicide difficult to insert and stated that the product stuck to the finger during insertion. More women in the tablet group said that the product was messy and that, at least once, it did not dissolve. In both groups, liking the product was significantly associated with consistency of use, but not with subsequent pregnancy. Participants' male partners had little influence on participants' opinions about, or use of, the spermicides. Although previous analyses showed that both spermicides are associated with high pregnancy rates, they are both highly acceptable to most women.

  9. The public's trust in scientific claims regarding offshore oil drilling.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Juliet E; Feezell, Jessica T; Michaud, Kristy E H; Smith, Eric R A N; Smith, Leeanna

    2010-09-01

    Our study examines how individuals decide which scientific claims and experts to believe when faced with competing claims regarding a policy issue. Using an experiment in a public opinion survey, we test the source content and credibility hypotheses to assess how much confidence people have in reports about scientific studies of the safety of offshore oil drilling along the California coast. The results show that message content has a substantial impact. People tend to accept reports of scientific studies that support their values and prior beliefs, but not studies that contradict them. Previous studies have shown that core values influence message acceptance. We find that core values and prior beliefs have independent effects on message acceptance. We also find that the sources of the claims make little difference. Finally, the public leans toward believing reports that oil drilling is riskier than previously believed.

  10. The voices acceptance and action scale (VAAS): Pilot data.

    PubMed

    Shawyer, Frances; Ratcliff, Kirk; Mackinnon, Andrew; Farhall, John; Hayes, Steven C; Copolov, David

    2007-06-01

    Acceptance and mindfulness methods that emphasise the acceptance rather than control of symptoms are becoming more central to behavioural and cognitive therapies. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is the most developed of these methods; recent applications of ACT to psychosis suggest it to be a promising therapeutic approach. However, investigation of the mechanisms of therapy within this domain is difficult because there are no acceptance-based measures available specifically for psychotic symptoms. This paper describes the preliminary evaluation of a self-report instrument designed to assess acceptance-based attitudes and actions in relation to auditory and command hallucinations. Following initial scale development, a 56-item version of the Voices Acceptance and Action Scale (VAAS) was administered to 43 participants with command hallucinations as part of their baseline assessment in a larger trial. Measures of symptoms, quality of life, and depression were also administered. The scale was examined for reliability using corrected item total statistics. Based on this method, 31 items were retained. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the 31-item VAAS were acceptable. Subsequent examination of construct validity showed the VAAS to correlate significantly in the expected directions with depression, quality of life, and coping with command hallucinations. It also discriminated compliance from non-compliance with harmful command hallucinations. Although these results are preliminary and subject to a number of limitations, the VAAS shows promise as a useful aid in the assessment of the psychological impact of voices.

  11. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Promote Health and Well-being Among Middle School Educators. 20. A Systematic Review of Yoga-based Interventions for Objective and Subjective Balance Measures. 21. Disparities in Yoga Use: A Multivariate Analysis of 2007 National Health Interview Survey Data. 22. Implementing Yoga Therapy Adapted for Older Veterans Who Are Cancer Survivors. 23. Randomized, Controlled Trial of Yoga for Women With Major Depressive Disorder: Decreased Ruminations as Potential Mechanism for Effects on Depression? 24. Yoga Beyond the Metropolis: A Yoga Telehealth Program for Veterans. 25. Yoga Practice Frequency, Relationship Maintenance Behaviors, and the Potential Mediating Role of Relationally Interdependent Cognition. 26. Effects of Medical Yoga in Quality of Life, Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate in Patients With Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation. 27. Yoga During School May Promote Emotion Regulation Capacity in Adolescents: A Group Randomized, Controlled Study. 28. Integrated Yoga Therapy in a Single Session as a Stress Management Technique in Comparison With Other Techniques. 29. Effects of a Classroom-based Yoga Intervention on Stress and Attention in Second and Third Grade Students. 30. Improving Memory, Attention, and Executive Function in Older Adults with Yoga Therapy. 31. Reasons for Starting and Continuing Yoga. 32. Yoga and Stress Management May Buffer Against Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior Increases in College Freshmen. 33. Whole-systems Ayurveda and Yoga Therapy for Obesity: Outcomes of a Pilot Study. 34. Women�s Phenomenological Experiences of Exercise, Breathing, and the Body During Yoga for Smoking Cessation Treatment. 35. Mindfulness as a Tool for Trauma Recovery: Examination of a Gender-responsive Trauma-informed Integrative Mindfulness Program for Female Inmates. 36. Yoga After Stroke Leads to Multiple Physical Improvements. 37. Tele-Yoga in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Heart Failure: A Mixed-methods Study of Feasibility, Acceptability, and Safety

  12. Determinants of Mobile Learning Acceptance: An Empirical Investigation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akour, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Scope and method of study: The purpose of this study was to investigate the determinants of mobile learning acceptance in higher education. Mobile learning is a rapidly growing method of learning that utilizes mobile devices to deliver content. Acceptance of mobile learning theory was derived from technology acceptance theories. The study…

  13. Scientific Notation Watercolor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linford, Kyle; Oltman, Kathleen; Daisey, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper is to describe visual literacy, an adapted version of Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS), and an art-integrated middle school mathematics lesson about scientific notation. The intent of this lesson was to provide students with a real life use of scientific notation and exponents, and to motivate them to apply their…

  14. 3 CFR - Scientific Integrity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Departments and Agencies Science and the scientific process must inform and guide decisions of my..., and protection of national security. The public must be able to trust the science and scientific..., and integrity. By this memorandum, I assign to the Director of the Office of Science and...

  15. Alcohol-induced sleepwalking or confusional arousal as a defense to criminal behavior: a review of scientific evidence, methods and forensic considerations.

    PubMed

    Pressman, Mark R; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Bornemann, Michel Cramer

    2007-06-01

    An increasing number of criminal cases have claimed the defendant to be in a state of sleepwalking or related disorders induced by high quantities of alcohol. Sleepwalkers who commit violent acts, sexual assaults and other criminal acts are thought to be in a state of automatism, lacking conscious awareness and criminal intent. They may be acquitted in criminal trials. On the other hand, criminal acts performed as the result of voluntary alcohol intoxication alone cannot be used as a complete defense. The alcohol-induced sleepwalking criminal defense is most often based on past clinical or legal reports that ingestion of alcohol directly 'triggers' sleepwalking or increased the risk of sleepwalking by increasing the quantity of slow wave sleep (SWS). A review of the sleep medicine literature found no sleep laboratory studies of the effects of alcohol on the sleep of clinically diagnosed sleepwalkers. However, 19 sleep laboratory studies of the effects of alcohol on the sleep of healthy non-drinkers or social drinkers were identified with none reporting a change in SWS as a percentage of total sleep time. However, in six of 19 studies, a modest but statistically significant increase in SWS was found in the first 2-4 h. Among studies of sleep in alcohol abusers and abstinent abusers, the quantity and percentage of SWS was most often reduced and sometimes absent. Claims that direct alcohol provocation tests can assist in the forensic assessment of these cases found no support of any kind in the medical literature with not a single report of testing in normative or patient groups and no reports of validation testing of any sort. There is no direct experimental evidence that alcohol predisposes or triggers sleepwalking or related disorders. A legal defense of sleepwalking resulting from voluntarily ingested alcohol should be consistent with the current state of art sleep science and meet generally accepted requirements for the diagnosis of sleepwalking and other

  16. Scientific Ethics in Chemical Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    1996-10-01

    Scientific ethics is a subset of professional ethics, the special rules of conduct adhered to by people engaged in those pursuits called professions. It is distinct from, but consistent with, both ordinary morality and moral theory. The codes of professional ethics derive from the two bargains that define a profession: the internal code of practice and the external bargain between the profession and society. While the informal code of professional conduct is well understood by working scientists, it is rarely explicitly included in the chemistry curriculum. Instead, we have relied on informal methods to teach students scientific ethics, a strategy that is haphazard at best. In this paper I argue that scientific ethics can and must be taught as part of the chemistry curriculum and that this is the best done through the case-study method. Many decisions made by working scientists have both a technical and an ethical component. Students need to learn how to make good decisions in professional ethics. The alternative is, at best, sloppy science and, at worst, scientific misconduct.

  17. Acceptance and meanings of wheelchair use in senior stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Barker, Donna J; Reid, Denise; Cott, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain understanding of the lived experience of senior stroke survivors who used prescribed wheelchairs in their homes and communities. The study involved semistructured, in-depth interviews that were conducted with 10 participants, ages 70 to 80 years old, who had used a wheelchair for a mean of 5.6 years. A constant comparative inductive method of analysis was performed. Three different categories of acceptance of wheelchair use were identified; reluctant acceptance, grateful acceptance, and internal acceptance. Increased mobility, varied social response, and loss of some valued roles were common to all three wheelchair acceptance categories. Aspects of level of burden, freedom, and spontaneity varied in degree among the three acceptance categories. As the wheelchair provided opportunity for increased continuity in the lives of these stroke survivors, it appeared to be accepted more fully and viewed more positively. Prestroke lifestyle and values need to be carefully considered in order to maximize acceptance of wheelchair use among senior stroke survivors.

  18. 50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300... REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management measures... to be used. (vi) Survey design and methods of data analyses. (vii) Data to be collected. (3)...

  19. 50 CFR 300.104 - Scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300... REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management measures... to be used. (vi) Survey design and methods of data analyses. (vii) Data to be collected. (3)...

  20. Scientific and Technological Information in State Legislatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Irwin; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Examines four aspects of the role of scientific and technological information in state legislatures. Research indicates that a consensus on the need to bring scientific and technological information to bear on public problems does not exist. The method by which legislators secure information and the conditions necessary to change state information…

  1. Scientific Coolections: Informational - Navigational Portal for Scientific Publications Access.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatencov, Petru; Kozlenco, Ludmila; Ginculova, Silvia; Keradi, Natalia

    At present there is the tendency of uniting efforts of scientific establishments and libraries for using information - communication medium with the purpose of information support of research and pedagogical activity in Moldova. The efficient access to the scientific and technical literature and, first of all, to the new publications, is necessary practically for all scientists and experts irrespective of a field of knowledge, in which they work. Research institutions, knowing how to receive access to the electron information and to use it intellectually, realize that it effects positively the quality and outcomes of the research process. It is obvious, that to ensure maximum utilization of the new information stream by habitual methods is impossible. New non-traditional approaches are necessary for the increase of the level of information provision of scientists and experts. Creation of electron libraries, realizing qualitatively other level of production, storage, organization and distribution of various information is the most effective way to gin this object. The access to the electron versions of scientific journals allows to reduce the acuteness of shortage of scientific literature, the electron information becomes accessible before the publication of paper version of a journal, and taking into account the delivery time of foreign issues into Moldova, this outstripping can reach several months.

  2. The last bite was deadly--about responsibility in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Dragan; Usichenko, Taras I; Lehmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Some open access journals are believed to have devaluated the highly respected image of the scientific journal. This has been, it is claimed, verified. Yet the project we believe failed and we show why we think that it failed. The study itself was badly conducted and the report, which Science published, was itself a perfect example of "bad science". If the article that was published in Science were to be taken as one of the "test" articles and Science as a victim journal (a perfect control though), the study would show the opposite of what author concluded in his paper: 100% of the controls (normal non-open access journals, in the present study this was Science) accepted the "bait" paper for publication, while in the experimental group only about 60% (open access journals) accepted the bait paper for publication. The conclusion is that, with respect to non-open access and open access, the probability of accepting pseudoscience is well in favor of this being done by a non-open access journal. Since this interpretation is based on some facts that were not included in the project itself, the only warranted result of this study would be that nothing could be concluded from it. It is concluded that the method that Bohannon used was heavily flawed and in addition immoral; that the report that was published by Science was inconclusive and that the act of publishing such report cannot be morally justified either. Various methods to improve the quality of published papers exist but scientific fraud with "good intentions" as a method to promote scientific publishing should be avoided.

  3. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    the local public, we put some effort in informing interested people, media, politicians on all leveles: regional, state, federal state and European. If suspiciousness and distrust are the enemy of acceptance telling the truth and honesty is its best friend. Role of the media The key arguments find their way to the broad public through the media. Therefore the media have to be seen as partners in science communication, not as enterprise strategy proliferators. Journalists want their story: combine the true story with the true scientific content and you have the chance to get your information into the public. Neutrality and credibility also here are vital issues. We never told that CCS is the simple solution for the climate change problem (which it even cannot be) but that it is a bridge technology for some decades which might give us some more time to change energy production and consumption. All our media activities followed this rule.

  4. Axelrod model: accepting or discussing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybiec, Bartlomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-10-01

    Agents building social systems are characterized by complex states, and interactions among individuals can align their opinions. The Axelrod model describes how local interactions can result in emergence of cultural domains. We propose two variants of the Axelrod model where local consensus is reached either by listening and accepting one of neighbors' opinion or two agents discuss their opinion and achieve an agreement with mixed opinions. We show that the local agreement rule affects the character of the transition between the single culture and the multiculture regimes.

  5. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  6. Grammaticality, Acceptability, and Probability: A Probabilistic View of Linguistic Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jey Han; Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2016-10-12

    The question of whether humans represent grammatical knowledge as a binary condition on membership in a set of well-formed sentences, or as a probabilistic property has been the subject of debate among linguists, psychologists, and cognitive scientists for many decades. Acceptability judgments present a serious problem for both classical binary and probabilistic theories of grammaticality. These judgements are gradient in nature, and so cannot be directly accommodated in a binary formal grammar. However, it is also not possible to simply reduce acceptability to probability. The acceptability of a sentence is not the same as the likelihood of its occurrence, which is, in part, determined by factors like sentence length and lexical frequency. In this paper, we present the results of a set of large-scale experiments using crowd-sourced acceptability judgments that demonstrate gradience to be a pervasive feature in acceptability judgments. We then show how one can predict acceptability judgments on the basis of probability by augmenting probabilistic language models with an acceptability measure. This is a function that normalizes probability values to eliminate the confounding factors of length and lexical frequency. We describe a sequence of modeling experiments with unsupervised language models drawn from state-of-the-art machine learning methods in natural language processing. Several of these models achieve very encouraging levels of accuracy in the acceptability prediction task, as measured by the correlation between the acceptability measure scores and mean human acceptability values. We consider the relevance of these results to the debate on the nature of grammatical competence, and we argue that they support the view that linguistic knowledge can be intrinsically probabilistic.

  7. Anatomy of scientific evolution.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals great predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society, and may provide a useful basis for policy-making.

  8. Ethics of scientific publication

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Jharna; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Published scientific research breeds the development of clinical management guidelines and pathways. Currently, scholarly proficiency is assessed using numerous primitive metrics for incentives that can kindle publication of hoax or flawed research content. Such flawed data can lead to wastage of resources, time, and most importantly harm to the society. Authors, editors, and peer reviewers need to be genuine in conducting, analyzing, and publication of scientific research. Institutions need to be aware and utilize advanced metrics to assess the scientific reputation of researchers. This short review discusses in brief the common authorship and editorial ethical issues encountered in scientific publication and the newer metrics available for the assessment of scholarly excellence. Editors and peer reviewers need to be acquainted with the common ethical issues and follow consensus international guidelines on publication ethics to tackle them appropriately. PMID:27722097

  9. Anatomy of Scientific Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals great predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society, and may provide a useful basis for policy-making. PMID:25671617

  10. STARPROBE: Scientific rationale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, J. H. (Editor); Randolph, J. E. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The scientific rationale and instrumentation problems in the areas of solar internal dynamics and relativity, solar plasma and particle dynamics, and solar atmosphere structure were studied. Current STARPROBE mission and system design concepts are summarized.

  11. Report: Scientific Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of scientific software, including evaluation and selection of commercial software products; program exchanges, catalogs, and other information sources; major data analysis packages; statistics and chemometrics software; and artificial intelligence. (JN)

  12. Scientific data requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Each Scientific Data Requirement (SDR) is summarized in terms of professional discipline, research program, technical description, related parameters, geographical extent, resolution, error tolerance,space-based sensors systems, personnel, implementation expert, notes, and references.

  13. Epistemic Beliefs of Middle and High School Students in a Problem-Based, Scientific Inquiry Unit: An Exploratory, Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Jiangyue

    2016-01-01

    Epistemic beliefs are individuals' beliefs about the nature of knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and how knowledge can be justified. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to examine: (a) middle and high school students' self-reported epistemic beliefs (quantitative) and epistemic beliefs revealed from practice (qualitative) during a…

  14. Transdisciplinarity: a scientific essential.

    PubMed

    Hamberger, Erich

    2004-12-01

    Transdisciplinarity in science is necessary to counteract the rapid growth of scientific results and information, the elimination of logical inconsistencies, and the effect of specialization whereby uncomparable disciplines develop. A correspondence is drawn between the uncontrolled growth, immune system malfunction, repression/expansion, and isolation that are characteristic of cancer and of the scientific concept of modernity. Suggestions are presented regarding the promotion of healing in both of these realms.

  15. Open scientific communication urged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In a report released last week the National Academy of Sciences' Panel on Scientific Communication and National Security concluded that the ‘limited and uncertain benefits’ of controls on the dissemination of scientific and technological research are ‘outweighed by the importance of scientific progress, which open communication accelerates, to the overall welfare of the nation.’ The 18-member panel, chaired by Dale R. Corson, president emeritus of Cornell University, was created last spring (Eos, April 20, 1982, p. 241) to examine the delicate balance between open dissemination of scientific and technical information and the U.S. government's desire to protect scientific and technological achievements from being translated into military advantages for our political adversaries.The panel dealt almost exclusively with the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union but noted that there are ‘clear problems in scientific communication and national security involving Third World countries.’ Further study of this matter is necessary.

  16. Enhancing Scientific Literacy in the Northeast Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, John; Moss, B.; Wanzer, S.

    2014-01-01

    An observatory in the Northeast Kingdom of Vermont opens to assist surrounding elementary and high schools with science literacy using astronomy as a capstone science, introducing students to advanced instrumentation, scientific method and data manipulation skills.

  17. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. Objective This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. Method We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. Results We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Conclusions Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques. PMID:25125798

  18. Formulation factors affecting acceptability of oral medicines in children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Ranmal, Sejal; Batchelor, Hannah K; Orlu-Gul, Mine; Ernest, Terry B; Thomas, Iwan W; Flanagan, Talia; Kendall, Richard; Tuleu, Catherine

    2015-08-15

    Acceptability of medicines in children and caregivers affects safety and effectiveness of medicinal treatments. The pharmaceutical industry is required to demonstrate acceptability of new paediatric formulations in target age groups as an integrated part of the development of these products (Kozarewicz, 2014). Two questions arise when trying to tackle this task: "which dosage form to choose for each target age group?" and "how to formulate it once the dosage form is decided?". Inevitably, both the regulator and the developer turn to scientific evidence for answers. Research has emerged in recent years to demonstrate age-appropriateness and patient acceptability of different dosage forms; however, such information is still fragmented and far from satisfactory to define efficient formulation development strategies for a diverse patient subset (Ranmal and Tuleu, 2013). This paper highlights how formulation factors affect the acceptability of different oral medicines in children (Table 1), and it is based on a more extensive review article by Liu et al. (Liu et al., 2014). Gaps in knowledge are highlighted in order to stimulate further research. In some areas, findings from studies conducted in adult populations may provide useful guidance for paediatric development and this is also discussed.

  19. Studying Student Teachers' Acceptance of Role Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michael D.; Davis, Concetta M.

    1980-01-01

    There is variance in the way in which student teachers accept responsibility for the teaching act. This study explains why some variables may affect student teachers' acceptance of role responsibilities. (CM)

  20. [Subjective well-being and self acceptance].

    PubMed

    Makino, Y; Tagami, F

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between subjective well-being and self acceptance, and to design a happiness self-writing program to increase self acceptance and subjective well-being of adolescents. In study 1, we examined the relationship between social interaction and self acceptance. In study 2, we created a happiness self-writing program in cognitive behavioral approach, and examined whether the program promoted self acceptance and subjective well-being. Results indicated that acceptance of self-openness, an aspect of self acceptance, was related to subjective well-being. The happiness self-writing program increased subjective well-being, but it was not found to have increased self acceptance. It was discussed why the program could promote subjective well-being, but not self acceptance.

  1. Belief versus acceptance: why do people not believe in evolution?

    PubMed

    Williams, James D

    2009-11-01

    Despite being an established and accepted scientific theory for 150 years, repeated public polls show that evolution is not believed by large numbers of people. This essay examines why people do not accept evolution and argues that its poor representation in some science textbooks allows misconceptions, established and reinforced in early childhood, to take hold. There is also a lack of up-to-date examples of evidence for evolution in school textbooks. Poor understanding by science graduates and teachers of the nature of science and incorrect definitions by them of key terminology, serve only to undermine efforts to improve public understanding of evolution. This paper has several recommendations, including the introduction of evolution to primary age children and a call to bring evolution back as the central tenet of biology.

  2. What Does Galileo's Discovery of Jupiter's Moons Tell Us About the Process of Scientific Discovery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    In 1610, Galileo Galilei discovered Jupiter''smoons with the aid of a new morepowerful telescope of his invention. Analysisof his report reveals that his discoveryinvolved the use of at least three cycles ofhypothetico-deductive reasoning. Galileofirst used hypothetico-deductive reasoning to generateand reject a fixed star hypothesis.He then generated and rejected an ad hocastronomers-made-a-mistake hypothesis.Finally, he generated, tested, and accepted a moonhypothesis. Galileo''s reasoningis modeled in terms of Piaget''s equilibration theory,Grossberg''s theory of neurologicalactivity, a neural network model proposed by Levine &Prueitt, and another proposedby Kosslyn & Koenig. Given that hypothetico-deductivereasoning has played a rolein other important scientific discoveries, thequestion is asked whether it plays a rolein all important scientific discoveries. In otherwords, is hypothetico-deductive reasoningthe essence of the scientific method? Possiblealternative scientific methods, such asBaconian induction and combinatorial analysis,are explored and rejected as viablealternatives. Educational implications of thishypothetico-deductive view of scienceare discussed.

  3. Understanding Technology Acceptance in Pre-Service Teachers of Primary Mathematics in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Gary K. W.

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of educational technology in teaching depends on how well a teacher accepts it. This paper draws on a technology acceptance survey of pre-service primary mathematics teachers in Hong Kong to study the factors influencing their technology acceptance. This work adopted a mixed method approach, in which quantitative data were collected…

  4. Self-Acceptance: The Evaluative Component of the Self-concept Contruct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Lorrie A.

    1979-01-01

    Seven methods were used to measure the self-acceptance, self-description, and acceptance of others in 137 people ranging in age from 14 to 82. Results indicated that self-acceptance and self-description could not be clearly distinguished. (MH)

  5. Determining the drivers' acceptance of EFTCD in highway work zones.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yong; Li, Yingfeng

    2011-05-01

    Traffic safety is a major concern in the temporary one-lane, two-way highway work zones due to the increasing of construction and maintenance operations. To prevent rear-end crashes and to mitigate the severity of these crashes caused by the inattentive driving, the utilization of the Emergency Flasher Traffic Control Device (EFTCD) was under consideration by government agencies, in addition to existing temporary traffic control devices installed in the one-lane, two-way highway work zones. The EFTCD was a newly proposed traffic warning device implemented through the use of vehicles' hazard warning flashers. The primary objective of the research project was to investigate the drivers' acceptance of the proposed EFTCD by measuring the mean speed changes of vehicles with and without EFTCD and by evaluating the drivers' opinions of the EFTCD using the survey method. Field experimental results revealed that the EFTCD effectively reduced the mean vehicle speeds in the upstream of two work zones. A slow speed is more likely to reduce the severity of a crash in work zones. In addition, survey results indicated that 60% of the drivers thought the EFTCD signified a need for speed reduction and 82% of drivers recommended the implementation of the EFTCD in one-lane, two-way work zones. These results provide the necessary scientific justifications for the government agencies to decide if the EFTCD should be implemented in the one-lane, two-way highway work zones to prevent rear-end crashes and to mitigate the severity of these crashes.

  6. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  7. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  8. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  9. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  10. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  11. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  12. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  13. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  14. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an agency... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance....

  15. 21 CFR 820.86 - Acceptance status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance status. 820.86 Section 820.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.86 Acceptance status. Each manufacturer...

  16. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  17. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) 41 U.S...) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an agency under current...

  18. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Market acceptance. 2911.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  19. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  20. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  1. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  2. The relation between remembered parental acceptance in childhood and self-acceptance among young Turkish adults.

    PubMed

    Kuyumcu, Behire; Rohner, Ronald P

    2016-05-11

    This study examined the relation between young adults' age and remembrances of parental acceptance in childhood, and their current self-acceptance. The study was based on a sample of 236 young adults in Turkey (139 women and 97 men). The adult version of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection/Control Questionnaire for mothers and fathers along with the Self-Acceptance subscale of the Psychological Well-Being Scale, and the Personal Information Form were used as measures. Results showed that both men and women tended to remember having been accepted in childhood by both their mothers and fathers. Women, however, reported more maternal and paternal acceptance in childhood than did men. Similarly, the level of self-acceptance was high among both men and women. However, women's self-acceptance was higher than men's. Correlational analyses showed that self-acceptance was positively related to remembrances of maternal and paternal acceptance among both women and men. Results indicated that age and remembered paternal acceptance significantly predicted women's self-acceptance. Age and remembered maternal acceptance made significant and independent contributions to men's self-acceptance. Men's remembrances of paternal acceptance in childhood did not make significant contribution to their self-acceptance. Finally, the relation between women's age and self-acceptance was significantly moderated by remembrances of paternal acceptance in childhood.

  3. Scientific Analysis Is Essential to Assess Biofuel Policy Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Keith L; Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Dale, Virginia H; McBride, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Land-use change (LUC) estimated by economic models has sparked intense international debate. Models estimate how much LUC might be induced under prescribed scenarios and rely on assumptions to generate LUC values. It is critical to test and validate underlying assumptions with empirical evidence. Furthermore, this modeling approach cannot answer if any specific indirect effects are actually caused by biofuel policy. The best way to resolve questions of causation is via scientific methods. Kim and Dale attempt to address the question of if, rather than how much, market-induced land-use change is currently detectable based on the analysis of historic evidence, and in doing so, explore some modeling assumptions behind the drivers of change. Given that there is no accepted approach to estimate the global effects of biofuel policy on land-use change, it is critical to assess the actual effects of policies through careful analysis and interpretation of empirical data. Decision makers need a valid scientific basis for policy decisions on energy choices.

  4. An Introduction to Scientific Masculinities.

    PubMed

    Milam, Erika Lorraine; Nye, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    This volume seeks to integrate gender analysis into the global history of science and medicine from the late Middle Ages to the present by focusing on masculinity, the part of the gender equation that has received the least attention from scholars. The premise of the volume is that social constructions of masculinity function simultaneously as foils for femininity and as methods of differentiating between "kinds" of men. In exploring scientific masculinities without taking the dominance of men and masculinity in the sciences for granted, we ask, What is masculinity and how does it operate in science? Our answers remind us that gender is at once an analytical category and a historical object. The essays are divided into three sections that in turn emphasize the importance of gender to the professionalization of scientific, technological, and medical practices, the spaces in which such labor is performed, and the ways that sex, gender, and sexual orientation are measured and serve as metaphors in society and culture.

  5. Sexual Education In Malaysia: Accepted Or Rejected?

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Mutalip, Siti Syairah; Mohamed, Ruzianisra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Introduction to sexual education in schools was suggested by the Malaysian government as one of the effort taken in the aim to reduce the sexual-related social problems among Malaysian teenagers nowadays. This study was proposed in the aim to determine the rate of acceptance among adolescents on the implementation of sexual education in schools. Methods: This study was conducted using questionnaires distributed to 152 pre-degree students in Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Kampus Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. Results: Almost half (49.3%) of the respondents agreed that sexual education might help to overcome the social illness among school teenagers. Besides, a large number (77.6%) of respondents also agreed that this module should be incorporated with other core subjects compare to the feedback received on the implementation of this module on its own (28.9%). Conclusion: These results have provided some insight towards the perception of sexual education among the teenagers. Since most of the respondents agreed with this idea, so it might be a sign that the implementation of sexual education is almost accepted by the adolescents. PMID:23113207

  6. Citation indexing and evaluation of scientific papers.

    PubMed

    Margolis, J

    1967-03-10

    Evaluation by means of citation patterns can be successful only insofar as published papers and their bibliographies reflect scientific activity and nothing else. Such an innocent descrip tion is becoming less and less tenable. The present scientific explosion gave rise to more than a proportional pub lication explosion, which not only re flects the scientific explosion but has its own dynamics and vicious circles. Publication of results is probably the main means of accomplishing the al most impossible task of accounting for time and money spent on research. Inevitably, this puts a premium on quantity at the expense of quality, and, as with any other type of inflation, the problem worsens: the more papers are written, the less they count for and the greater is the pressure to publish more. What makes matters worse is the fact that the sheer volume of the"litera ture" makes it increasingly difficult to separate what is worthwhile from the rest. Critical reviews have become somewhat of a rarity, and editorial judgment is usually relegated to ref erees, who are contemporaries and, per haps, competitors of the authors-a situation which has its own undesirable implications (11, 18). It requires little imagination to discover other vicious circles, all arising from distortion of the primary reasons for publishing the results of scientific inquiry. There are, it is true, signs of ad justment to this crisis, partly due to some easing of the pressure to pub lish at all costs, and partly due to the readers' changing attitudes toward the flood of publications. An increasing amount of research is now being car ried out in the form of collective proj ects in large institutions where publica tion is no longer the standard method of accounting for individual work. At the same time there is apparent an in creasing tendency for scientific journals to polarize into the relatively few leading ones which carry important informa tion and the many subsidiary journals which serve as

  7. Making better scientific figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug

    2016-04-01

    In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.

  8. The future scientific CCD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, J. R.; Elliott, T.; Collins, S.; Marsh, H.; Blouke, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Since the first introduction of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in 1970, CCDs have been considered for applications related to memories, logic circuits, and the detection of visible radiation. It is pointed out, however, that the mass market orientation of CCD development has left largely untapped the enormous potential of these devices for advanced scientific instrumentation. The present paper has, therefore, the objective to introduce the CCD characteristics to the scientific community, taking into account prospects for further improvement. Attention is given to evaluation criteria, a summary of current CCDs, CCD performance characteristics, absolute calibration tools, quantum efficiency, aspects of charge collection, charge transfer efficiency, read noise, and predictions regarding the characteristics of the next generation of silicon scientific CCD imagers.

  9. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Activities in scientific ballooning in Japan during 1998-1999 are reported. The total number of scientific balloons flown in Japan in 1998 and 1999 was sixteen, eight flights in each year. The scientific objectives were observations of high energy cosmic electrons, air samplings at various altitudes, monitoring of atmospheric ozone density, Galactic infrared observations, and test flights of new type balloons. Balloon expeditions were conducted in Antarctica by the National Institute of Polar Research, in Russia, in Canada and in India in collaboration with foreign countries' institutes to investigate cosmic rays, Galactic infrared radiation, and Earth's atmosphere. There were three flights in Antarctica, four flights in Russia, three flights in Canada and two flights in India. Four test balloons were flown for balloon technology, which included pumpkin-type super-pressure balloon and a balloon made with ultra-thin polyethylene film of 3.4 μm thickness.

  10. Scientific data visualization software - Trends and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, James D.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific data visualization has finally come of age as an important and accepted discipline. While scientists have been using computer graphics to visualize experimental data and computational results for at least 30 years, recent improvements in cost/performance of graphics workstations, more readily available software, and a new-found identity based on the report "Visualization in Scientific Computing" (McCormick, DeFanti, and Brown, 1987) have solidified the discipline. The thesis here is that scientists are forced to work too hard to create these visualizations, but that the evolving set of visualization tools can greatly reduce the requisite effort. The architecture of a new class of software can lead to a more widespread availability of interactive visualization tools, which can make the process of creating a visualization as simple as doing interactive chart and graph layout.

  11. Values, standpoints, and scientific/intellectual movements.

    PubMed

    Rolin, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    Feminist standpoint empiricism contributes to the criticism of the value-free ideal by offering a unique analysis of how non-epistemic values can play not only a legitimate but also an epistemically productive role in science. While the inductive risk argument focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the acceptance of hypotheses, standpoint empiricism focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the production of evidence. And while many other analyses of values in science focus on the role of non-epistemic values either in an individual scientist's decision making or in the distribution of research efforts in scientific communities, standpoint empiricism focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the building of scientific/intellectual movements.

  12. The Interplay of Scientific Activity, Worldviews and Value Outlooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Hugh

    2009-06-01

    Scientific activity tends to reflect particular worldviews and their associated value outlooks; and scientific results sometimes have implications for worldviews and the presuppositions of value outlooks. Even so, scientific activity per se neither presupposes nor provides sound rational grounds to accept any worldview or value outlook. Moreover, in virtue of reflecting a suitable variety of worldviews and value outlooks, perhaps including some religious ones, science is better able to further its aim. An extended argument is made that, although the materialist worldview has de facto been widely associated with the development of modern science, the scope of scientific inquiry is improperly limited when constraints, derived from materialism, are generally placed upon admissible scientific theories. Some implications for science education are sketched in the conclusion.

  13. Recording Scientific Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Bowker, Geof

    2006-01-09

    The way we record knowledge, and the web of technical, formal, and social practices that surrounds it, inevitably affects the knowledge that we record. The ways we hold knowledge about the past - in handwritten manuscripts, in printed books, in file folders, in databases - shape the kind of stories we tell about that past. In this talk, I look at how over the past two hundred years, information technology has affected the nature and production of scientific knowledge. Further, I explore ways in which the emergent new cyberinfrastructure is changing our relationship to scientific practice.

  14. USGS Scientific Visualization Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Scientific Visualization Laboratory at the National Center in Reston, Va., provides a central facility where USGS employees can use state-of-the-art equipment for projects ranging from presentation graphics preparation to complex visual representations of scientific data. Equipment including color printers, black-and-white and color scanners, film recorders, video equipment, and DOS, Apple Macintosh, and UNIX platforms with software are available for both technical and nontechnical users. The laboratory staff provides assistance and demonstrations in the use of the hardware and software products.

  15. Awe and scientific explanation.

    PubMed

    Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Park, Jun; Gottlieb, Sara

    2016-10-01

    Past research has established a relationship between awe and explanatory frameworks, such as religion. We extend this work, showing (a) the effects of awe on a separate source of explanation: attitudes toward science, and (b) how the effects of awe on attitudes toward scientific explanations depend on individual differences in theism. Across 3 studies, we find consistent support that awe decreases the perceived explanatory power of science for the theistic (Study 1 and 2) and mixed support that awe affects attitudes toward scientific explanations for the nontheistic (Study 3). (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Developing a Test of Scientific Literacy Skills (TOSLS): measuring undergraduates' evaluation of scientific information and arguments.

    PubMed

    Gormally, Cara; Brickman, Peggy; Lutz, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Life sciences faculty agree that developing scientific literacy is an integral part of undergraduate education and report that they teach these skills. However, few measures of scientific literacy are available to assess students' proficiency in using scientific literacy skills to solve scenarios in and beyond the undergraduate biology classroom. In this paper, we describe the development, validation, and testing of the Test of Scientific Literacy Skills (TOSLS) in five general education biology classes at three undergraduate institutions. The test measures skills related to major aspects of scientific literacy: recognizing and analyzing the use of methods of inquiry that lead to scientific knowledge and the ability to organize, analyze, and interpret quantitative data and scientific information. Measures of validity included correspondence between items and scientific literacy goals of the National Research Council and Project 2061, findings from a survey of biology faculty, expert biology educator reviews, student interviews, and statistical analyses. Classroom testing contexts varied both in terms of student demographics and pedagogical approaches. We propose that biology instructors can use the TOSLS to evaluate their students' proficiencies in using scientific literacy skills and to document the impacts of curricular reform on students' scientific literacy.

  17. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-02

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  18. Consumer Acceptability of Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Damian; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2016-01-01

    Fat in meat greatly improves eating quality, yet many consumers avoid visible fat, mainly because of health concerns. Generations of consumers, especially in the English-speaking world, have been convinced by health authorities that animal fat, particularly saturated or solid fat, should be reduced or avoided to maintain a healthy diet. Decades of negative messages regarding animal fats has resulted in general avoidance of fatty cuts of meat. Paradoxically, low fat or lean meat tends to have poor eating quality and flavor and low consumer acceptability. The failure of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets to curb “globesity” has prompted many experts to re-evaluate of the place of fat in human diets, including animal fat. Attitudes towards fat vary dramatically between and within cultures. Previous generations of humans sought out fatty cuts of meat for their superior sensory properties. Many consumers in East and Southeast Asia have traditionally valued more fatty meat cuts. As nutritional messages around dietary fat change, there is evidence that attitudes towards animal fat are changing and many consumers are rediscovering and embracing fattier cuts of meat, including marbled beef. The present work provides a short overview of the unique sensory characteristics of marbled beef and changing consumer preferences for fat in meat in general. PMID:28115880

  19. Measuring the effectiveness of scientific gatekeeping

    PubMed Central

    Siler, Kyle; Lee, Kirby; Bero, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is the main institution responsible for the evaluation and gestation of scientific research. Although peer review is widely seen as vital to scientific evaluation, anecdotal evidence abounds of gatekeeping mistakes in leading journals, such as rejecting seminal contributions or accepting mediocre submissions. Systematic evidence regarding the effectiveness—or lack thereof—of scientific gatekeeping is scant, largely because access to rejected manuscripts from journals is rarely available. Using a dataset of 1,008 manuscripts submitted to three elite medical journals, we show differences in citation outcomes for articles that received different appraisals from editors and peer reviewers. Among rejected articles, desk-rejected manuscripts, deemed as unworthy of peer review by editors, received fewer citations than those sent for peer review. Among both rejected and accepted articles, manuscripts with lower scores from peer reviewers received relatively fewer citations when they were eventually published. However, hindsight reveals numerous questionable gatekeeping decisions. Of the 808 eventually published articles in our dataset, our three focal journals rejected many highly cited manuscripts, including the 14 most popular; roughly the top 2 percent. Of those 14 articles, 12 were desk-rejected. This finding raises concerns regarding whether peer review is ill-suited to recognize and gestate the most impactful ideas and research. Despite this finding, results show that in our case studies, on the whole, there was value added in peer review. Editors and peer reviewers generally—but not always—made good decisions regarding the identification and promotion of quality in scientific manuscripts. PMID:25535380

  20. How to pass a sensor acceptance test: using the gap between acceptance criteria and operational performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Piet

    2016-10-01

    When acquiring a new imaging system and operational task performance is a critical factor for success, it is necessary to specify minimum acceptance requirements that need to be met using a sensor performance model and/or performance tests. Currently, there exist a variety of models and test from different origin (defense, security, road safety, optometry) and they all do different predictions. This study reviews a number of frequently used methods and shows the effects that small changes in procedure or threshold criteria can have on the outcome of a test. For example, a system may meet the acceptance requirements but not satisfy the needs for the operational task, or the choice of test may determine the rank order of candidate sensors. The goal of the paper is to make people aware of the pitfalls associated with the acquisition process, by i) illustrating potential tricks to have a system accepted that is actually not suited for the operational task, and ii) providing tips to avoid this unwanted situation.

  1. Scientific experimentation afforded by the International Asteroid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The International Asteroid Mission (IAM) affords scientists the opportunity to perform interesting and important experimentations. This opportunity is not sufficient in its own right to mandate inclusion of science into the mission. Certain scientific experimentations are essential to the success of the mission, and are the driving force behind the inclusion of science. Instrument designs incorporate the need for direct contribution to the success of the mining mission. Examples of these applications include the search for additional candidate asteroids, especially at the Earth-Sun Trojan points, with an infrared telescope facility; a gamma ray burst detector provides the crew with real-time notification of potentially harmful solar-flare activity; and a materials processing laboratory provides information on the porosity, composition, and crystalline structure of samples to optimize the mining operations in addition to yielding great insight into the history and formation of the solar-system. Instrument designs have emphasized the use of off-the-shelf hardware, demonstrated technologies. Their scientific value is derived from the location on an interplanetary platform, not necessarily advancements in technology or detection methods. Instrumentation will be delivered to the IAM project after completion of a thorough certification program. The program will include qualification, acceptance, performance, thermal balance, thermal vacuum, vibration, electromagnetic susceptibility and compatibility, and calibration testing. After delivery to the assembly-site in low-Earth orbit, an additional series of functional and compatibility tests will be required prior to initiation of the mission. The scientific instrumentation proposed for the IAM consists of experiments using a Gamma Ray Burst Detector, a Infrared Observatory, a Materials Processing Facility, Long-Wavelength Radar, Seismic Measurement Devices, Cosmic Ray Detectors, Interplanetary Plasma Measurements, a Solar

  2. Stakeholder acceptance analysis ResonantSonic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning ResonantSonic Drilling (Sonic Drilling), derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. Sonic Drilling is an innovative method to reach contamination in soil and groundwater. The resonant sonic drill rig uses counter-rotating weights to generate energy, which causes the drill pipe to vibrate elastically along its entire length. In the resonant condition, forces of up to 200,000 pounds are transmitted to the drill bit face to create a cutting action. The resonant energy causes subsurface materials to move back into the adjacent formation, permitting the drill pipe to advance. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders` perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of sonic drilling to the remediation problems they face.

  3. Acceptance in Romantic Relationships: The Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Despite the recent emphasis on acceptance in romantic relationships, no validated measure of relationship acceptance presently exists. To fill this gap, the 20-item Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory (FAPBI; A. Christensen & N. S. Jacobson, 1997) was created to assess separately the acceptability and frequency of both…

  4. 24 CFR 203.202 - Plan acceptability and acceptance renewal criteria-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUD acceptance of such change or modification, except that changes mandated by other applicable laws... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plan acceptability and acceptance... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.202 Plan acceptability and...

  5. Scientific Discovery for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaikowski, Lori; Lichtman, Paul; Quarless, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    The scientific discovery process comes alive for 70 minority students each year at Uniondale High School in New York where students have won top awards for "in-house" projects. Uniondale High School is in a middle-income school district where over 95% of students are from minority groups. Founded in 2000, the Uniondale High School Research Program…

  6. Serendipity and Scientific Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenman, Martin F.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of penicillin is cited in a discussion of the role of serendipity as it relates to scientific discovery. The importance of sagacity as a personality trait is noted. Successful researchers have questioning minds, are willing to view data from several perspectives, and recognize and appreciate the unexpected. (JW)

  7. Scientific Inquiry 'R' Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdeau, Virginia D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the role that informal interpretative programs and facilities can play in providing inquiry-oriented science experiences. Presents two examples of scientific inquiry programs: investigating wetlands and investigating density. In both examples, participants formulate questions, collect data, and attempt to answer their own questions. (DLH)

  8. Professional Scientific Blog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beke, Tamás

    2009-01-01

    The professional blog is a weblog that on the whole meets the requirements of scientific publication. In my opinion it bears a resemblance to digital notice boards, where the competent specialists of the given branch of science can place their ideas, questions, possible solutions and can raise problems. Its most important function can be…

  9. Scientific Imagination in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stableford, Brian M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the conflict between the religious and scientific imaginations as existing between the intellectual realms of unquestioning faith and constant questioning. Relates this conflict to writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, e.g., Bacon, Kepler, Wilkins, Godwin, Harrington, Campanella, Cyrano, Le Bret, Defoe, Swift, Voltiare,…

  10. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current…

  11. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current debate on realism in contemporary analytic philosophy.

  12. Scientific networking in disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching-Ray; Marks, Ann; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2013-03-01

    Scientific networking occurs at various levels. There are regional and worldwide professional organizations that link together national physical societies (IUPAP, EPS, AAPPS, FeLaSoFi), providing a platform to exchange ideas and advance common agendas. National and international agencies have special lines of funding for scientific collaboration between groups of various countries. Some of these lines are targeted at improving science education at all levels. There are then personal networks that link people with common interests or who know each other for any reason. The International Conferences on Women in Physics have provided a unique opportunity for female physicists from all over the world to start a network of interactions that can involve all sorts of collaborative efforts. In the three-session workshop organized at ICWIP11, we discussed these various issues that the worldwide scientific community faces. In this paper we summarize the main ideas that surged during the meeting and provide the list of recommendations that were to start and keep an active network of female physicists and to foster scientific collaboration regionally and internationally.

  13. Scientific Component Technology Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S; Bosl, B; Dahlgren, T; Kumfert, G; Smith, S

    2003-02-07

    The laboratory has invested a significant amount of resources towards the development of high-performance scientific simulation software, including numerical libraries, visualization, steering, software frameworks, and physics packages. Unfortunately, because this software was not designed for interoperability and re-use, it is often difficult to share these sophisticated software packages among applications due to differences in implementation language, programming style, or calling interfaces. This LDRD Strategic Initiative investigated and developed software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address problems of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology is an extension of scripting and object-oriented software development techniques that specifically focuses on the needs of software interoperability. Component approaches based on CORBA, COM, and Java technologies are widely used in industry; however, they do not support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. Our research focused on the unique requirements of scientific computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections among components, language interoperability for scientific languages, and data distribution support for massively parallel SPMD components.

  14. Scientific and Technical English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaclavik, Jaroslav

    Technical English differs from everyday English because of the specialized contexts in which it is used and because of the specialized interests of scientists and engineers. This text provides exercises in technical and scientific exposition in the following fields: mathematics, physics, temperature effects, mechanics, dynamics, conservation of…

  15. Framing for Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Leema K.; Hammer, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, research on students' scientific argumentation has progressed to a recognition of nascent resources: Students can and do argue when they experience the need and possibility of persuading others who may hold competing views. Our purpose in this article is to contribute to this progress by applying the perspective of framing to the…

  16. Scientific Tourism in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashchyan, Davit

    2016-12-01

    The Scientific Tourism is relatively new direction in the world, however it already has managed to gain great popularity. As it is, it has arisen in 1980s, but its ideological basis comes from the earliest periods of the human history. In Armenia, it is a completely new phenomenon and still not-understandable for many people. At global level, the Scientific Tourism has several definitions: for example, as explains the member of the scientific tourist centre of Zlovlen Mrs. Pichelerova "The essence of the scientific tourism is based on the provision of the educational, cultural and entertainment needs of a group of people of people who are interested in the same thing", which in our opinion is a very comprehensive and discreet definition. We also have our own views on this type of tourism. Our philosophy is that by keeping the total principles, we put the emphasis on the strengthening of science-individual ties. Our main emphasis is on the scientific-experimental tourism. But this does not mean that we do not take steps to other forms of tourism. Studying the global experience and combining it with our resources, we are trying to get a new interdisciplinary science, which will bring together a number of different professionals as well as individuals, and as a result will have a new lore. It is in this way that an astronomer will become an archaeologist, an archaeologist will become an astrophysicist, etc. Speaking on interdisciplinary sciences, it's worth mentioning that in recent years, the role of interdisciplinary sciences at global level every day is being considered more and more important. In these terms, tourism is an excellent platform for the creation of interdisciplinary sciences and, therefore, the preparation of corresponding scholars. Nevertheless, scientific tourism is very important for the revelation, appreciation and promotion of the country's historical-cultural heritage and scientific potential. Let us not forget either that tourism in all its

  17. Scientific Misconduct in India: Causes and Perpetuation.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Pratap R

    2016-08-01

    Along with economic strength, space technology and software expertise, India is also a leading nation in fraudulent scientific research. The problem is worsened by vested interests working in concert for their own benefits. These self-promoting cartels, together with biased evaluation methods and weak penal systems, combine to perpetuate scientific misconduct. Some of these issues are discussed in this commentary, with supporting examples and possible solutions.

  18. Pornography, public acceptance and sex related crime: a review.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Milton

    2009-01-01

    A vocal segment of the population has serious concerns about the effect of pornography in society and challenges its public use and acceptance. This manuscript reviews the major issues associated with the availability of sexually explicit material. It has been found everywhere it was scientifically investigated that as pornography has increased in availability, sex crimes have either decreased or not increased. It is further been found that sexual erotica has not only wide spread personal acceptance and use but general tolerance for its availability to adults. This attitude is seen by both men and women and not only in urban communities but also in reputed conservative ones as well. Further this finding holds nationally in the United States and in widely different countries around the world. Indeed, no country where this matter has been scientifically studied has yet been found to think pornography ought be restricted from adults. The only consistent finding is that adults prefer to have the material restricted from children's production or use.

  19. Research on Web-based Scientific Computing Legacy Application Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Cui, Bin-Ge

    With the development of Internet technology, A legion of scientific computing legacy programs with rich domain knowledge and expertise were distributed across various disciplines. As the program implementations or interfaces and so on, scientific computing legacy programs can not be shared through the Internet. This paper proposes a method of packaging scientific computing legacy programs into DLL(Dynamic Link Library), and packaging them into Web services through the C# reflection, making the scientific computing legacy programs successfully share on the Internet.

  20. The nature of scientific truth.

    PubMed

    Packard, S A; Polifroni, E C

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share with the readers the authors' views on the need for a philosophical foundation in nursing scholarship. The philosophical premises of realism, idealism, and empiricism are discussed. In addition, the research methods most appropriately used with each philosophical stance are identified and discussed. The authors strongly suggest that nursing epistemology will not advance along the lines of good science until all nursing theorists, thinkers, and philosophers identify their underpinning philosophical positions prior to the discovery of theory, through research and other scientific endeavors. A nursing science fiction account of discovery and theory is used to illustrate the points made within the article.