Science.gov

Sample records for accepted scientific models

  1. Behavioral genetics: scientific and social acceptance.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, David R

    2003-01-01

    Human behavioral genetics can be broadly defined as the attempt to characterize and define the genetic or hereditary basis for human behavior. Examination of the history of these scientific enterprises reveals episodes of controversy, and an apparent distinction between scientific and social acceptance of the genetic nature of such complex behaviors. This essay will review the history and methodology of behavioral genetics research, including a more detailed look at case histories involving behavioral genetic research for aggressive behavior and alcoholism. It includes a discussion of the scientific versus social qualities of the acceptance of behavioral genetics research, as well as the development of a general model for scientific acceptance involving the researchers, the scientific literature, the scientific peer group, the mainstream media, and the public at large. From this model follows a discussion of the means and complications by which behavioral genetics research may be accepted by society, and an analysis of how future studies might be conducted.

  2. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  3. The Changing Face of Scientific Discourse: Analysis of Genomic and Proteomic Database Usage and Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cecelia

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the growth in use and acceptance of Web-based genomic and proteomic databases (GPD) in scholarly communication. Confirms the role of GPD in the scientific literature cycle, suggests GPD are a storage and retrieval mechanism for molecular biology information, and recommends that existing models of scientific communication be updated to…

  4. Extending the Technology Acceptance Model: Policy Acceptance Model (PAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Tamra

    There has been extensive research on how new ideas and technologies are accepted in society. This has resulted in the creation of many models that are used to discover and assess the contributing factors. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one that is a widely accepted model. This model examines people's acceptance of new technologies based on variables that directly correlate to how the end user views the product. This paper introduces the Policy Acceptance Model (PAM), an expansion of TAM, which is designed for the analysis and evaluation of acceptance of new policy implementation. PAM includes the traditional constructs of TAM and adds the variables of age, ethnicity, and family. The model is demonstrated using a survey of people's attitude toward the upcoming healthcare reform in the United States (US) from 72 survey respondents. The aim is that the theory behind this model can be used as a framework that will be applicable to studies looking at the introduction of any new or modified policies.

  5. Toward Scientific Numerical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Bil

    2007-01-01

    Ultimately, scientific numerical models need quantified output uncertainties so that modeling can evolve to better match reality. Documenting model input uncertainties and verifying that numerical models are translated into code correctly, however, are necessary first steps toward that goal. Without known input parameter uncertainties, model sensitivities are all one can determine, and without code verification, output uncertainties are simply not reliable. To address these two shortcomings, two proposals are offered: (1) an unobtrusive mechanism to document input parameter uncertainties in situ and (2) an adaptation of the Scientific Method to numerical model development and deployment. Because these two steps require changes in the computational simulation community to bear fruit, they are presented in terms of the Beckhard-Harris-Gleicher change model.

  6. Biosphere 2 aims for scientific acceptance rather than Mars

    PubMed

    Huff, W

    1995-01-01

    Biosphere 2 is now taking a new turn for scientific respect. The new management has created a partnership with Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory to set up a nonprofit consortium to determine the Biosphere's future. The Consortium will emphasize university style basic research, complete with peer review, postdoctoral fellows, and grant applications to federal science agencies. Located in the middle of an Arizona desert near Oracle, Biosphere 2 was designed as a miniature model of Earth. It contains seven "biomes" over 3 acres: an ocean, a desert, a savannah, a rain forest, a marsh, a farm, and human habitat. It completed a highly publicized experiment last year, by keeping eight humans inside the closed system for 2 years.

  7. Scientific Productivity and Idea Acceptance in Nobel Laureates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charyton, Christine; DeDios, Samantha Lynn; Nygren, Thomas Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how new ideas become accepted for Nobel laureates in science. Archival data were collected for 204 Nobel laureates from 1980 to 2009 in physics, chemistry, and medicine or physiology. Acceptance was evaluated for Nobel laureates by Prize area and three key publications in the Nobel laureates' publishing careers: (a) first…

  8. The Benefits of Scientific Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Lisa; Schwarz, Christina; Hug, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    When students are engaged in scientific modeling, they are able to notice patterns and develop and revise representations that become useful models to predict and explain--making their own scientific knowledge stronger, helping them to think critically, and helping them know more about the nature of science. To illustrate, this article describes a…

  9. Integrated Model for E-Learning Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadiani; Rodziah, A.; Hasan, S. M.; Rusli, A.; Noraini, C.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning is not going to work if the system is not used in accordance with user needs. User Interface is very important to encourage using the application. Many theories had discuss about user interface usability evaluation and technology acceptance separately, actually why we do not make it correlation between interface usability evaluation and user acceptance to enhance e-learning process. Therefore, the evaluation model for e-learning interface acceptance is considered important to investigate. The aim of this study is to propose the integrated e-learning user interface acceptance evaluation model. This model was combined some theories of e-learning interface measurement such as, user learning style, usability evaluation, and the user benefit. We formulated in constructive questionnaires which were shared at 125 English Language School (ELS) students. This research statistics used Structural Equation Model using LISREL v8.80 and MANOVA analysis.

  10. Model of aircraft passenger acceptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    A technique developed to evaluate the passenger response to a transportation system environment is described. Reactions to motion, noise, temperature, seating, ventilation, sudden jolts and descents are modeled. Statistics are presented for the age, sex, occupation, and income distributions of the candidates analyzed. Values are noted for the relative importance of system variables such as time savings, on-time arrival, convenience, comfort, safety, the ability to read and write, and onboard services.

  11. Postgraduate medical students’ acceptance and understanding of scientific information databases and electronic resources

    PubMed Central

    Azami, Mohammad; Khajouei, Reza; Rakhshani, Safiyeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The significance and validity of web-based scientific databases are increasing dramatically in the scientific community. Moreover, a great number of students use these resources without having sufficient and accurate knowledge and understanding. In order for students to use these databases and electronic resources optimally, identifying the factors that affect the understanding and acceptance of these resources seems necessary. The aim of this study was to determine postgraduate medical students’ acceptance and understanding of these resources. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 311 postgraduate medical students from Kerman University of Medical Science (KMU) in 2013. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire, and the data were analyzed using SPSS. In order to design the model (i.e., the interaction between study variables and to determine the relationships between them in an integrated pattern), LISREL version 8.7 and a structural equation model were used. Descriptive statistics and t-tests also were used in data analysis. Results The results showed that the average components of the perception of usefulness, perception of ease of use, attitude towards use, decision to use, using to perform duties, and using to increase knowledge were 4.31, 4.14, 4.24, 16.27, 20.85, and 16.13 respectively. Accordingly, the average of all these indicators was significantly higher than the assumed amount (p < 0.01). Moreover, the results obtained from factor analysis and the structural equation model indicated that the model of the present study fit the data perfectly. Conclusions Based on the findings of this study, the more these databases are considered useful and easy to use, the more they are used. Therefore, designers of databases and electronic resources can design systems that are both useful and easy to learn by considering the components of the research model. PMID:27123213

  12. Conceptual Change in Psychology Students' Acceptance of the Scientific Foundation of the Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsel, Eric; Ashley, Aaron; Baird, Todd; Johnston, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Two studies explored conceptual change in undergraduate psychology students' acceptance of the scientific foundations of the discipline. In Study 1, Introductory Psychology students completed the Psychology as Science questionnaire (PAS) at the beginning and end of the semester and did so from their own (Self Condition) and their instructors'…

  13. The pivotal role of perceived scientific consensus in acceptance of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Gignac, Gilles E.; Vaughan, Samuel

    2013-04-01

    Although most experts agree that CO2 emissions are causing anthropogenic global warming (AGW), public concern has been declining. One reason for this decline is the `manufacture of doubt' by political and vested interests, which often challenge the existence of the scientific consensus. The role of perceived consensus in shaping public opinion is therefore of considerable interest: in particular, it is unknown whether consensus determines people's beliefs causally. It is also unclear whether perception of consensus can override people's `worldviews', which are known to foster rejection of AGW. Study 1 shows that acceptance of several scientific propositions--from HIV/AIDS to AGW--is captured by a common factor that is correlated with another factor that captures perceived scientific consensus. Study 2 reveals a causal role of perceived consensus by showing that acceptance of AGW increases when consensus is highlighted. Consensus information also neutralizes the effect of worldview.

  14. Chinese Nurses' Acceptance of PDA: A Cross-Sectional Survey Using a Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanling; Xiao, Qian; Sun, Liu; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study explores Chinese nurses' acceptance of PDA, using a questionnaire based on the framework of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). 357 nurses were involved in the study. The results reveal the scores of the nurses' acceptance of PDA were means 3.18~3.36 in four dimensions. The younger of nurses, the higher nurses' title, the longer previous usage time, the more experienced using PDA, and the more acceptance of PDA. Therefore, the hospital administrators may change strategies to enhance nurses' acceptance of PDA, and promote the wide application of PDA.

  15. Measuring Technology Acceptance Level of Turkish Pre-Service English Teachers by Using Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmizi, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate technology acceptance of prospective English teachers by using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in Turkish context. The study is based on Structural Equation Model (SEM). The participants of the study from English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe, Gazi and Baskent Universities. The participants…

  16. Technology, Demographic Characteristics and E-Learning Acceptance: A Conceptual Model Based on Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhini, Ali; Elyas, Tariq; Akour, Mohammad Ali; Al-Salti, Zahran

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to develop an amalgamated conceptual model of technology acceptance that explains how individual, social, cultural and organizational factors affect the students' acceptance and usage behaviour of the Web-based learning systems. More specifically, the proposed model extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to…

  17. Technological Diffusion within Educational Institutions: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolski, Stacy; Jackson, Sally

    Expectancy models of behavior such as the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) offer guidelines that aid efforts to facilitate use of new technology. These models remind us that both acceptance of and resistance to technology use are grounded in beliefs and norms regarding the technology. Although TAM is widely…

  18. Developing a Learning Progression for Scientific Modeling: Making Scientific Modeling Accessible and Meaningful for Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Christina V.; Reiser, Brian J.; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Kenyon, Lisa; Acher, Andres; Fortus, David; Shwartz, Yael; Hug, Barbara; Krajcik, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Modeling is a core practice in science and a central part of scientific literacy. We present theoretical and empirical motivation for a learning progression for scientific modeling that aims to make the practice accessible and meaningful for learners. We define scientific modeling as including the elements of the practice (constructing, using,…

  19. Gerontechnology acceptance by elderly Hong Kong Chinese: a senior technology acceptance model (STAM).

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Chan, Alan Hoi Shou

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a senior technology acceptance model (STAM) aimed at understanding the acceptance of gerontechnology by older Hong Kong Chinese people. The proposed STAM extended previous technology acceptance models and theories by adding age-related health and ability characteristics of older people. The proposed STAM was empirically tested using a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with a sample of 1012 seniors aged 55 and over in Hong Kong. The result showed that STAM was strongly supported and could explain 68% of the variance in the use of gerontechnology. For older Hong Kong Chinese, individual attributes, which include age, gender, education, gerontechnology self-efficacy and anxiety, and health and ability characteristics, as well as facilitating conditions explicitly and directly affected technology acceptance. These were better predictors of gerontechnology usage behaviour (UB) than the conventionally used attitudinal factors (usefulness and ease of use).

  20. Evaluation of the Acceptance of Audience Response System by Corporations Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hsing-Hui; Lu, Ta-Jung; Wann, Jong-Wen

    The purpose of this research is to explore enterprises' acceptance of Audience Response System (ARS) using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The findings show that (1) IT characteristics and facilitating conditions could be external variables of TAM. (2) The degree of E-business has positive significant correlation with behavioral intention of employees. (3) TAM is a good model to predict and explain IT acceptance. (4) Demographic variables, industry and firm characteristics have no significant correlation with ARS acceptance. The results provide useful information to managers and ARS providers that (1) ARS providers should focus more on creating different usages to enhance interactivity and employees' using intention. (2) Managers should pay attention to build sound internal facilitating conditions for introducing IT. (3) According to the degree of E-business, managers should set up strategic stages of introducing IT. (4) Providers should increase product promotion and also leverage academic and government to promote ARS.

  1. Scientific Inquiry: A Model for Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.

    1984-01-01

    Explores scientific inquiry as philosophical and behavioral model for online search specialist and information retrieval process. Nature of scientific research is described and online analogs to research concepts of variable, hypothesis formulation and testing, operational definition, validity, reliability, assumption, and cyclical nature of…

  2. Scientific Writing: A Blended Instructional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, MaryAnn; Olson, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Scientific writing is composed of a unique skill set and corresponding instructional strategies are critical to foster learning. In an age of technology, the blended instructional model provides the instrumental format for student mastery of the scientific writing competencies. In addition, the course management program affords opportunities for…

  3. Modeling Patients' Acceptance of Provider-delivered E-health

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, E. Vance; Lankton, Nancy K.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Health care providers are beginning to deliver a range of Internet-based services to patients; however, it is not clear which of these e-health services patients need or desire. The authors propose that patients' acceptance of provider-delivered e-health can be modeled in advance of application development by measuring the effects of several key antecedents to e-health use and applying models of acceptance developed in the information technology (IT) field. Design: This study tested three theoretical models of IT acceptance among patients who had recently registered for access to provider-delivered e-health. Measurements: An online questionnaire administered items measuring perceptual constructs from the IT acceptance models (intrinsic motivation, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness/extrinsic motivation, and behavioral intention to use e-health) and five hypothesized antecedents (satisfaction with medical care, health care knowledge, Internet dependence, information-seeking preference, and health care need). Responses were collected and stored in a central database. Results: All tested IT acceptance models performed well in predicting patients' behavioral intention to use e-health. Antecedent factors of satisfaction with provider, information-seeking preference, and Internet dependence uniquely predicted constructs in the models. Conclusion: Information technology acceptance models provide a means to understand which aspects of e-health are valued by patients and how this may affect future use. In addition, antecedents to the models can be used to predict e-health acceptance in advance of system development. PMID:15064290

  4. A toolbox and record for scientific models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellman, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Computational science presents a host of challenges for the field of knowledge-based software design. Scientific computation models are difficult to construct. Models constructed by one scientist are easily misapplied by other scientists to problems for which they are not well-suited. Finally, models constructed by one scientist are difficult for others to modify or extend to handle new types of problems. Construction of scientific models actually involves much more than the mechanics of building a single computational model. In the course of developing a model, a scientist will often test a candidate model against experimental data or against a priori expectations. Test results often lead to revisions of the model and a consequent need for additional testing. During a single model development session, a scientist typically examines a whole series of alternative models, each using different simplifying assumptions or modeling techniques. A useful scientific software design tool must support these aspects of the model development process as well. In particular, it should propose and carry out tests of candidate models. It should analyze test results and identify models and parts of models that must be changed. It should determine what types of changes can potentially cure a given negative test result. It should organize candidate models, test data, and test results into a coherent record of the development process. Finally, it should exploit the development record for two purposes: (1) automatically determining the applicability of a scientific model to a given problem; (2) supporting revision of a scientific model to handle a new type of problem. Existing knowledge-based software design tools must be extended in order to provide these facilities.

  5. Examining Engineering & Technology Students' Acceptance of Network Virtualization Technology Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousif, Wael K.

    2010-01-01

    This causal and correlational study was designed to extend the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and to test its applicability to Valencia Community College (VCC) Engineering and Technology students as the target user group when investigating the factors influencing their decision to adopt and to utilize VMware as the target technology. In…

  6. User Acceptance of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) Services: An Application of Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eunil; Kim, Ki Joon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose an integrated path model in order to explore user acceptance of long-term evolution (LTE) services by examining potential causal relationships between key psychological factors and user intention to use the services. Design/methodology/approach: Online survey data collected from 1,344 users are analysed…

  7. User Acceptance of YouTube for Procedural Learning: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Doo Young; Lehto, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was framed using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to identify determinants affecting behavioral intention to use YouTube. Most importantly, this research emphasizes the motives for using YouTube, which is notable given its extrinsic task goal of being used for procedural learning tasks. Our conceptual framework included two…

  8. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices. Of course, scientific/technical software differs from other software categories in a number of important respects, but I nonetheless believe that TDD is quite applicable to the development of such software and has the potential to significantly improve programmer productivity and code quality within the scientific community. After a detailed introduction to TDD, I will present the experience within the Software Systems Support Office (SSSO) in applying the technique to various scientific applications. This discussion will emphasize the various direct and indirect benefits as well as some of the difficulties and limitations of the methodology. I will conclude with a brief description of pFUnit, a unit testing framework I co-developed to support test-driven development of parallel Fortran applications.

  9. Development and application of an acceptance testing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendley, Rex D.; Noonan, Caroline H.; Hall, Kenneth R.

    1992-01-01

    The process of acceptance testing large software systems for NASA has been analyzed, and an empirical planning model of the process constructed. This model gives managers accurate predictions of the staffing needed, the productivity of a test team, and the rate at which the system will pass. Applying the model to a new system shows a high level of agreement between the model and actual performance. The model also gives managers an objective measure of process improvement.

  10. Test Driven Development: Lessons from a Simple Scientific Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clune, T. L.; Kuo, K.

    2010-12-01

    In the commercial software industry, unit testing frameworks have emerged as a disruptive technology that has permanently altered the process by which software is developed. Unit testing frameworks significantly reduce traditional barriers, both practical and psychological, to creating and executing tests that verify software implementations. A new development paradigm, known as test driven development (TDD), has emerged from unit testing practices, in which low-level tests (i.e. unit tests) are created by developers prior to implementing new pieces of code. Although somewhat counter-intuitive, this approach actually improves developer productivity. In addition to reducing the average time for detecting software defects (bugs), the requirement to provide procedure interfaces that enable testing frequently leads to superior design decisions. Although TDD is widely accepted in many software domains, its applicability to scientific modeling still warrants reasonable skepticism. While the technique is clearly relevant for infrastructure layers of scientific models such as the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), numerical and scientific components pose a number of challenges to TDD that are not often encountered in commercial software. Nonetheless, our experience leads us to believe that the technique has great potential not only for developer productivity, but also as a tool for understanding and documenting the basic scientific assumptions upon which our models are implemented. We will provide a brief introduction to test driven development and then discuss our experience in using TDD to implement a relatively simple numerical model that simulates the growth of snowflakes. Many of the lessons learned are directly applicable to larger scientific models.

  11. A Causal Model of Teacher Acceptance of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jui-Ling; Lieu, Pang-Tien; Liang, Jung-Hui; Liu, Hsiang-Te; Wong, Seng-lee

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a causal model for investigating teacher acceptance of technology. We received 258 effective replies from teachers at public and private universities in Taiwan. A questionnaire survey was utilized to test the proposed model. The Lisrel was applied to test the proposed hypotheses. The result shows that computer self-efficacy has…

  12. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD), a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and software reliability, has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices.After a brief overview of the TDD process and my experience in applying the methodology for development activities at Goddard, I will delve more deeply into some of the challenges that are posed by numerical and scientific software as well as tools and implementation approaches that should address those challenges.

  13. Presenting Global Warming and Evolution as Public Health Issues to Encourage Acceptance of Scientific Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Shawn K.; McArthur, Laurence B.; Mabry, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence supporting anthropogenic global warming and evolution by natural selection is considerable, the public does not embrace these concepts. The current study explores the hypothesis that individuals will become more receptive to scientific viewpoints if evidence for evolution and implications of global warming are presented as issues…

  14. Examining the Factors Affecting PDA Acceptance among Physicians: An Extended Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Basak, Ecem; Gumussoy, Cigdem Altin; Calisir, Fethi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the intention to use personal digital assistant (PDA) technology among physicians in Turkey using an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A structural equation-modeling approach was used to identify the variables that significantly affect the intention to use PDA technology. The data were collected from 339 physicians in Turkey. Results indicated that 71% of the physicians' intention to use PDA technology is explained by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. On comparing both, the perceived ease of use has the strongest effect, whereas the effect of perceived enjoyment on behavioral intention to use is found to be insignificant. This study concludes with the recommendations for managers and possible future research.

  15. Mental models as indicators of scientific thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derosa, Donald Anthony

    One goal of science education reform is student attainment of scientific literacy. Therefore, it is imperative for science educators to identify its salient elements. A dimension of scientific literacy that warrants careful consideration is scientific thinking and effective ways to foster scientific thinking among students. This study examined the use of mental models as evidence of scientific thinking in the context of two instructional approaches, transmissional and constructivist. Types of mental models, frequency of explanative information, and scores on problem solving transfer questions were measured and compared among subjects in each instructional context. Methods. Subjects consisted of sophomore biology students enrolled in general biology courses at three public high schools. The Group Assessment of Logical Thinking instrument was used to identify two equivalent groups with an N of 65. Each group was taught the molecular basis of sickle cell anemia and the principles of hemoglobin gel electrophoresis using one of the two instructional approaches at their schools during five instructional periods over the course of one week. Laboratory equipment and materials were provided by Boston University School of Medicine's MobileLab program. Following the instructional periods, each subject was asked to think aloud while responding to four problem solving transfer questions. Each response was audiotaped and videotaped. The interviews were transcribed and coded to identify types of mental models and explanative information. Subjects' answers to the problem solving transfer questions were scored using a rubric. Results. Students taught in a constructivist context tended to use more complete mental models than students taught in a transmissional context. Fifty-two percent of constructivist subjects and forty-four percent of transmissional subjects demonstrated evidence of relevant mental models. Overall fifty-two percent of the subjects expressed naive mental models

  16. Predicting User Acceptance of Collaborative Technologies: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model for E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Ronnie; Vogel, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative technologies support group work in project-based environments. In this study, we enhance the technology acceptance model to explain the factors that influence the acceptance of Google Applications for collaborative learning. The enhanced model was empirically evaluated using survey data collected from 136 students enrolled in a…

  17. Acceptance of health information technology in health professionals: an application of the revised technology acceptance model.

    PubMed

    Ketikidis, Panayiotis; Dimitrovski, Tomislav; Lazuras, Lambros; Bath, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    The response of health professionals to the use of health information technology (HIT) is an important research topic that can partly explain the success or failure of any HIT application. The present study applied a modified version of the revised technology acceptance model (TAM) to assess the relevant beliefs and acceptance of HIT systems in a sample of health professionals (n = 133). Structured anonymous questionnaires were used and a cross-sectional design was employed. The main outcome measure was the intention to use HIT systems. ANOVA was employed to examine differences in TAM-related variables between nurses and medical doctors, and no significant differences were found. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the predictors of HIT usage intentions. The findings showed that perceived ease of use, but not usefulness, relevance and subjective norms directly predicted HIT usage intentions. The present findings suggest that a modification of the original TAM approach is needed to better understand health professionals' support and endorsement of HIT. Perceived ease of use, relevance of HIT to the medical and nursing professions, as well as social influences, should be tapped by information campaigns aiming to enhance support for HIT in healthcare settings.

  18. Accept/decline decision module for the liver simulated allocation model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Phil; Gupta, Diwakar; Israni, Ajay K; Kasiske, Bertram L

    2015-03-01

    Simulated allocation models (SAMs) are used to evaluate organ allocation policies. An important component of SAMs is a module that decides whether each potential recipient will accept an offered organ. The objective of this study was to develop and test accept-or-decline classifiers based on several machine-learning methods in an effort to improve the SAM for liver allocation. Feature selection and imbalance correction methods were tested and best approaches identified for application to organ transplant data. Then, we used 2011 liver match-run data to compare classifiers based on logistic regression, support vector machines, boosting, classification and regression trees, and Random Forests. Finally, because the accept-or-decline module will be embedded in a simulation model, we also developed an evaluation tool for comparing performance of predictors, which we call sample-path accuracy. The Random Forest method resulted in the smallest overall error rate, and boosting techniques had greater accuracy when both sensitivity and specificity were simultaneously considered important. Our comparisons show that no method dominates all others on all performance measures of interest. A logistic regression-based classifier is easy to implement and allows for pinpointing the contribution of each feature toward the probability of acceptance. Other methods we tested did not have a similar interpretation. The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients decided to use the logistic regression-based accept-decline decision module in the next generation of liver SAM.

  19. A New Model for Inquiry: Is the Scientific Method Dead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, William S.

    2004-01-01

    There has been renewed discussion of the scientific method, with many voices arguing that it presents a very limited or even wholly incorrect image of the way science is really done. At the same time, the idea of a scientific method is pervasive. This article identifies the scientific method as a simple model for the process of scientific inquiry.…

  20. Modeling of the charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thele, M.; Schiffer, J.; Karden, E.; Surewaard, E.; Sauer, D. U.

    This paper presents a model for flooded and VRLA batteries that is parameterized by impedance spectroscopy and includes the overcharging effects to allow charge-acceptance simulations (e.g. for regenerative-braking drive-cycle profiles). The full dynamic behavior and the short-term charge/discharge history is taken into account. This is achieved by a detailed modeling of the sulfate crystal growth and modeling of the internal gas recombination cycle. The model is applicable in the full realistic temperature and current range of automotive applications. For model validation, several load profiles (covering the dynamics and the current range appearing in electrically assisted or hybrid cars) are examined and the charge-acceptance limiting effects are elaborately discussed. The validation measurements have been performed for different types of lead-acid batteries (flooded and VRLA). The model is therefore an important tool for the development of automotive power nets, but it also allows to analyze different charging strategies and energy gains which can be achieved during regenerative-braking.

  1. Ferrofluids: Modeling, numerical analysis, and scientific computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomas, Ignacio

    This dissertation presents some developments in the Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) describing the behavior of ferrofluids. The most widely accepted PDE model for ferrofluids is the Micropolar model proposed by R.E. Rosensweig. The Micropolar Navier-Stokes Equations (MNSE) is a subsystem of PDEs within the Rosensweig model. Being a simplified version of the much bigger system of PDEs proposed by Rosensweig, the MNSE are a natural starting point of this thesis. The MNSE couple linear velocity u, angular velocity w, and pressure p. We propose and analyze a first-order semi-implicit fully-discrete scheme for the MNSE, which decouples the computation of the linear and angular velocities, is unconditionally stable and delivers optimal convergence rates under assumptions analogous to those used for the Navier-Stokes equations. Moving onto the much more complex Rosensweig's model, we provide a definition (approximation) for the effective magnetizing field h, and explain the assumptions behind this definition. Unlike previous definitions available in the literature, this new definition is able to accommodate the effect of external magnetic fields. Using this definition we setup the system of PDEs coupling linear velocity u, pressure p, angular velocity w, magnetization m, and magnetic potential ϕ We show that this system is energy-stable and devise a numerical scheme that mimics the same stability property. We prove that solutions of the numerical scheme always exist and, under certain simplifying assumptions, that the discrete solutions converge. A notable outcome of the analysis of the numerical scheme for the Rosensweig's model is the choice of finite element spaces that allow the construction of an energy-stable scheme. Finally, with the lessons learned from Rosensweig's model, we develop a diffuse-interface model describing the behavior of two-phase ferrofluid flows and present an energy-stable numerical scheme for this model. For a

  2. A reference model for scientific information interchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reich, Lou; Sawyer, Don; Davis, Randy

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an Information Interchange Reference Model (IIRM) currently being developed by individuals participating in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Panel 2, the Planetary Data Systems (PDS), and the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS). This is an ongoing research activity and is not an official position by these bodies. This reference model provides a framework for describing and assessing current and proposed methodologies for information interchange within and among the space agencies. It is hoped that this model will improve interoperability between the various methodologies. As such, this model attempts to address key information interchange issues as seen by the producers and users of space-related data and to put them into a coherent framework. Information is understood as the knowledge (e.g., the scientific content) represented by data. Therefore, concern is not primarily on mechanisms for transferring data from user to user (e.g., compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM), wide-area networks, optical tape, and so forth) but on how information is encoded as data and how the information content is maintained with minimal loss or distortion during transmittal. The model assumes open systems, which means that the protocols or methods used should be fully described and the descriptions publicly available. Ideally these protocols are promoted by recognized standards organizations using processes that permit involvement by those most likely to be affected, thereby enhancing the protocol's stability and the likelihood of wide support.

  3. Accurate modeling of parallel scientific computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Townsend, James C.

    1988-01-01

    Scientific codes are usually parallelized by partitioning a grid among processors. To achieve top performance it is necessary to partition the grid so as to balance workload and minimize communication/synchronization costs. This problem is particularly acute when the grid is irregular, changes over the course of the computation, and is not known until load time. Critical mapping and remapping decisions rest on the ability to accurately predict performance, given a description of a grid and its partition. This paper discusses one approach to this problem, and illustrates its use on a one-dimensional fluids code. The models constructed are shown to be accurate, and are used to find optimal remapping schedules.

  4. Constructing Scientific Arguments Using Evidence from Dynamic Computational Climate Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallant, Amy; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Modeling and argumentation are two important scientific practices students need to develop throughout school years. In this paper, we investigated how middle and high school students (N = 512) construct a scientific argument based on evidence from computational models with which they simulated climate change. We designed scientific argumentation…

  5. Common Characteristics of Models in Present-Day Scientific Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Valk, Ton; Van Driel, Jan H.; De Vos, Wobbe

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the use of models in scientific research requires a description, in general terms, of how scientists actually use models in their research activities. This paper aims to arrive at defining common characteristics of models that are used in present-day scientific research. Initially, a list of common features of models and modelling, based…

  6. Factors of adoption of mobile information technology by homecare nurses: a technology acceptance model 2 approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiying; Cocosila, Mihail; Archer, Norm

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive healthcare support through mobile information technology solutions is playing an increasing role in the attempt to improve healthcare and reduce costs. Despite the apparent attractiveness, many mobile applications have failed or have not been implemented as predicted. Among factors possibly leading to such outcomes, technology adoption is a key problem. This must be investigated early in the development process because healthcare is a particularly sensitive area with vital social implications. Moreover, it is important to investigate technology acceptance using the support of scientific tools validated for relevant information systems research. This article presents an empirical study based on the Technology Acceptance Model 2 in mobile homecare nursing. The study elicited the perceptions of 91 Canadian nurses who used personal digital assistants for 1 month in their daily activities. A partial least squares modeling data analysis revealed that nurse's perception of usefulness is the main factor in the adoption of mobile technology, having subjective norm and image within the organization as significant antecedents. Overall, this study was the first attempt at investigating scientifically, through a pertinent information systems research model, user adoption of mobile systems by homecare nursing personnel.

  7. Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Web-Based Training in Malaysia: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Junaidah

    2008-01-01

    Companies in Malaysia are beginning to use web-based training to reduce the cost of training and to provide employees with greater access to instruction. However, some people are uncomfortable with technology and prefer person-to-person methods of training. This study examines the acceptance of web-based training among a convenience sample of 261…

  8. The History of UTAUT Model and Its Impact on ICT Acceptance and Usage by Academicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oye, N. D.; Iahad, N. A.; Rahim, N. Ab.

    2014-01-01

    This paper started with the review of the history of technology acceptance model from TRA to UTAUT. The expected contribution is to bring to lime light the current development stage of the technology acceptance model. Based on this, the paper examined the impact of UTAUT model on ICT acceptance and usage in HEIs. The UTAUT model theory was…

  9. Influence of Gender and Computer Teaching Efficacy on Computer Acceptance among Malaysian Student Teachers: An Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kung-Teck; Teo, Timothy; Russo, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate the technology acceptance model (TAM) in an educational context and explore the role of gender and computer teaching efficacy as external variables. From the literature, it appeared that only limited studies had developed models to explain statistically the chain of influence of computer teaching efficacy…

  10. Hierarchical Model Validation of Symbolic Performance Models of Scientific Kernels

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Sadaf R; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2006-08-01

    Multi-resolution validation of hierarchical performance models of scientific applications is critical primarily for two reasons. First, the step-by-step validation determines the correctness of all essential components or phases in a science simulation. Second, a model that is validated at multiple resolution levels is the very first step to generate predictive performance models, for not only existing systems but also for emerging systems and future problem sizes. We present the design and validation of hierarchical performance models of two scientific benchmarks using a new technique called the modeling assertions (MA). Our MA prototype framework generates symbolic performance models that can be evaluated efficiently by generating the equivalent model representations in Octave and MATLAB. The multi-resolution modeling and validation is conducted on two contemporary, massively-parallel systems, XT3 and Blue Gene/L system. The workload distribution and the growth rates predictions generated by the MA models are confirmed by the experimental data collected on the MPP platforms. In addition, the physical memory requirements that are generated by the MA models are verified by the runtime values on the Blue Gene/L system, which has 512 MBytes and 256 MBytes physical memory capacity in its two unique execution modes.

  11. Modeling Computer Usage Intentions of Tertiary Students in a Developing Country through the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afari-Kumah, Eben; Achampong, Akwasi Kyere

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the computer usage intentions of Ghanaian Tertiary Students. The Technology Acceptance Model was adopted as the theoretical framework to ascertain whether it could help explain behavioral intentions of individuals to accept and use technology. Factor analysis was used to assess the construct validity of the initial…

  12. Nuclear energy acceptance and potential role to meet future energy demand. Which technical/scientific achievements are needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Roland

    2012-06-19

    25 years after Chernobyl, the Fukushima disaster has changed the perspectives of nuclear power. The disaster has shed a negative light on the independence, reliability and rigor of the national nuclear regulator and plant operator and the usefulness of the international IAEA guidelines on nuclear safety. It has become clear that, in the light of the most severe earthquake in the history of Japan, the plants at Fukushima Daiichi were not adequately protected against tsunamis. Nuclear acceptance has suffered enormously and has changed the perspectives of nuclear energy dramatically in countries that have a very risk-sensitive population, Germany is an example. The paper analyses the reactions in major countries and the expected impact on future deployment of reactors and on R and D activities. On the positive side, the disaster has demonstrated a remarkable robustness of most of the 14 reactors closest to the epicentre of the Tohoku Seaquake although not designed to an event of level 9.0. Public acceptance can only be regained with a rigorous and worldwide approach towards inherent reactor safety and design objectives that limit the impact of severe accidents to the plant itself (like many of the new Gen III reactors). A widespread release of radioactivity and the evacuation (temporary or permanent) of the population up to 30 km around a facility are simply not acceptable. Several countries have announced to request more stringent international standards for reactor safety. The IAEA should take this move forward and intensify and strengthen the different peer review mission schemes. The safety guidelines and peer reviews should in fact become legally binding for IAEA members. The paper gives examples of the new safety features developed over the last 20 years and which yield much safer reactors with lesser burden to the environment under severe accident conditions. The compatibility of these safety systems with the current concepts for fusion-fission hybrids, which

  13. Nuclear energy acceptance and potential role to meet future energy demand. Which technical/scientific achievements are needed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenkel, Roland

    2012-06-01

    25 years after Chernobyl, the Fukushima disaster has changed the perspectives of nuclear power. The disaster has shed a negative light on the independence, reliability and rigor of the national nuclear regulator and plant operator and the usefulness of the international IAEA guidelines on nuclear safety. It has become clear that, in the light of the most severe earthquake in the history of Japan, the plants at Fukushima Daiichi were not adequately protected against tsunamis. Nuclear acceptance has suffered enormously and has changed the perspectives of nuclear energy dramatically in countries that have a very risk-sensitive population, Germany is an example. The paper analyses the reactions in major countries and the expected impact on future deployment of reactors and on R&D activities. On the positive side, the disaster has demonstrated a remarkable robustness of most of the 14 reactors closest to the epicentre of the Tohoku Seaquake although not designed to an event of level 9.0. Public acceptance can only be regained with a rigorous and worldwide approach towards inherent reactor safety and design objectives that limit the impact of severe accidents to the plant itself (like many of the new Gen III reactors). A widespread release of radioactivity and the evacuation (temporary or permanent) of the population up to 30 km around a facility are simply not acceptable. Several countries have announced to request more stringent international standards for reactor safety. The IAEA should take this move forward and intensify and strengthen the different peer review mission schemes. The safety guidelines and peer reviews should in fact become legally binding for IAEA members. The paper gives examples of the new safety features developed over the last 20 years and which yield much safer reactors with lesser burden to the environment under severe accident conditions. The compatibility of these safety systems with the current concepts for fusion-fission hybrids, which have

  14. Engineers' Non-Scientific Models in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norstrom, Per

    2013-01-01

    Engineers commonly use rules, theories and models that lack scientific justification. Examples include rules of thumb based on experience, but also models based on obsolete science or folk theories. Centrifugal forces, heat and cold as substances, and sucking vacuum all belong to the latter group. These models contradict scientific knowledge, but…

  15. Artificial intelligence support for scientific model-building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific model-building can be a time-intensive and painstaking process, often involving the development of large and complex computer programs. Despite the effort involved, scientific models cannot easily be distributed and shared with other scientists. In general, implemented scientific models are complex, idiosyncratic, and difficult for anyone but the original scientific development team to understand. We believe that artificial intelligence techniques can facilitate both the model-building and model-sharing process. In this paper, we overview our effort to build a scientific modeling software tool that aids the scientist in developing and using models. This tool includes an interactive intelligent graphical interface, a high-level domain specific modeling language, a library of physics equations and experimental datasets, and a suite of data display facilities.

  16. Identifying Ghanaian Pre-Service Teachers' Readiness for Computer Use: A Technology Acceptance Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyamfi, Stephen Adu

    2016-01-01

    This study extends the technology acceptance model to identify factors that influence technology acceptance among pre-service teachers in Ghana. Data from 380 usable questionnaires were tested against the research model. Utilising the extended technology acceptance model (TAM) as a research framework, the study found that: pre-service teachers'…

  17. Modeling eBook acceptance: A study on mathematics teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalal, Azlin Abd; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    The integration and effectiveness of eBook utilization in Mathematics teaching and learning greatly relied upon the teachers, hence the need to understand their perceptions and beliefs. The eBook, an individual laptop completed with digitized textbook sofwares, were provided for each students in line with the concept of 1 student:1 laptop. This study focuses on predicting a model on the acceptance of the eBook among Mathematics teachers. Data was collected from 304 mathematics teachers in selected schools using a survey questionnaire. The selection were based on the proportionate stratified sampling. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were employed where the model was tested and evaluated and was found to have a good fit. The variance explained for the teachers' attitude towards eBook is approximately 69.1% where perceived usefulness appeared to be a stronger determinant compared to perceived ease of use. This study concluded that the attitude of mathematics teachers towards eBook depends largely on the perception of how useful the eBook is on improving their teaching performance, implying that teachers should be kept updated with the latest mathematical application and sofwares to use with the eBook to ensure positive attitude towards using it in class.

  18. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diviacco, P.

    2012-04-01

    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  19. Key-Aspects of Scientific Modeling Exemplified by School Science Models: Some Units for Teaching Contextualized Scientific Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Develaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Models and modeling are core elements of scientific methods and consequently also are of key importance for the conception and teaching of scientific methodology. The epistemology of models and its transfer and adaption to nature of science education are not, however, simple themes. We present some conceptual units in which school science models…

  20. Multi-Resolution Modeling of Large Scale Scientific Simulation Data

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, C; Abdulla, G; Critchlow, T

    2003-01-31

    This paper discusses using the wavelets modeling technique as a mechanism for querying large-scale spatio-temporal scientific simulation data. Wavelets have been used successfully in time series analysis and in answering surprise and trend queries. Our approach however is driven by the need for compression, which is necessary for viable throughput given the size of the targeted data, along with the end user requirements from the discovery process. Our users would like to run fast queries to check the validity of the simulation algorithms used. In some cases users are welling to accept approximate results if the answer comes back within a reasonable time. In other cases they might want to identify a certain phenomena and track it over time. We face a unique problem because of the data set sizes. It may take months to generate one set of the targeted data; because of its shear size, the data cannot be stored on disk for long and thus needs to be analyzed immediately before it is sent to tape. We integrated wavelets within AQSIM, a system that we are developing to support exploration and analyses of tera-scale size data sets. We will discuss the way we utilized wavelets decomposition in our domain to facilitate compression and in answering a specific class of queries that is harder to answer with any other modeling technique. We will also discuss some of the shortcomings of our implementation and how to address them.

  1. What if Indigenous Knowledge Contradicts Accepted Scientific Findings?--The Hidden Agenda: Respect, Caring and Passion towards Aboriginal Research in the Context of Applying Western Academic Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    The statement in the title, what if Indigenous Knowledge contradicts accepted scientific findings (Fowler, 2000), is an expression of the dilemma people who research Indigenous Knowledge think they find themselves in when they are confronted with different interpretations of what it means to be human, or, as I may summarize it, with different…

  2. Do I Have to Learn Something New? Mental Models and the Acceptance of Replacement Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Few studies in technology acceptance have explicitly addressed the acceptance of replacement technologies, technologies that replace legacy ones that have been in use. This article explores this issue through the theoretical lens of mental models. We contend that accepting replacement technologies entails both mental model maintenance and mental…

  3. A toolbox and a record for scientific model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellman, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Scientific computation can benefit from software tools that facilitate construction of computational models, control the application of models, and aid in revising models to handle new situations. Existing environments for scientific programming provide only limited means of handling these tasks. This paper describes a two pronged approach for handling these tasks: (1) designing a 'Model Development Toolbox' that includes a basic set of model constructing operations; and (2) designing a 'Model Development Record' that is automatically generated during model construction. The record is subsequently exploited by tools that control the application of scientific models and revise models to handle new situations. Our two pronged approach is motivated by our belief that the model development toolbox and record should be highly interdependent. In particular, a suitable model development record can be constructed only when models are developed using a well defined set of operations. We expect this research to facilitate rapid development of new scientific computational models, to help ensure appropriate use of such models and to facilitate sharing of such models among working computational scientists. We are testing this approach by extending SIGMA, and existing knowledge-based scientific software design tool.

  4. Application of Logic Models in a Large Scientific Research Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts…

  5. A "Semantic" View of Scientific Models for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I inspect a "semantic" view of scientific models taken from contemporary philosophy of science-I draw upon the so-called "semanticist family", which frontally challenges the received, syntactic conception of scientific theories. I argue that a semantic view may be of use both for science education in the…

  6. Literature-Based Scientific Learning: A Collaboration Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Susan L.; Somerville, Mary M.

    2007-01-01

    Amidst exponential growth of knowledge, student insights into the knowledge creation practices of the scientific community can be furthered by science faculty collaborations with university librarians. The Literature-Based Scientific Learning model advances undergraduates' disciplinary mastery and information literacy through experience with…

  7. Software Engineering Tools for Scientific Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Marc; Saboo, Pallabi; Sonsini, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Software tools were constructed to address issues the NASA Fortran development community faces, and they were tested on real models currently in use at NASA. These proof-of-concept tools address the High-End Computing Program and the Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction Program. Two examples are the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric model in Cell Fortran on the Cell Broadband Engine, and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) coupled atmosphere- ocean model called ModelE, written in fixed format Fortran.

  8. Design Approaches to Support Preservice Teachers in Scientific Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Lisa; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Hug, Barbara

    2011-02-01

    Engaging children in scientific practices is hard for beginning teachers. One such scientific practice with which beginning teachers may have limited experience is scientific modeling. We have iteratively designed preservice teacher learning experiences and materials intended to help teachers achieve learning goals associated with scientific modeling. Our work has taken place across multiple years at three university sites, with preservice teachers focused on early childhood, elementary, and middle school teaching. Based on results from our empirical studies supporting these design decisions, we discuss design features of our modeling instruction in each iteration. Our results suggest some successes in supporting preservice teachers in engaging students in modeling practice. We propose design principles that can guide science teacher educators in incorporating modeling in teacher education.

  9. The Adult Roles Models Program: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Dean, Randa; Perez, Amanda; Rivera, Angelic

    2014-01-01

    We present the feasibility and acceptability of a parent sexuality education program led by peer educators in community settings. We also report the results of an outcome evaluation with 71 parents who were randomized to the intervention or a control group, and surveyed one month prior to and six months after the 4-week intervention. The program was highly feasible and acceptable to participants, and the curriculum was implemented with a high level of fidelity and facilitator quality. Pilot data show promising outcomes for increasing parental knowledge, communication, and monitoring of their adolescent children. PMID:24883051

  10. Hybrid E-Learning Acceptance Model: Learner Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Hassan M. Selim

    2010-01-01

    E-learning tools and technologies have been used to supplement conventional courses in higher education institutions creating a "hybrid" e-learning module that aims to enhance the learning experiences of students. Few studies have addressed the acceptance of hybrid e-learning by learners and the factors affecting the learners'…

  11. Advances in scientific balloon thermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohaboj, T.; Cathey, H.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office has long acknowledged that the accurate modeling of balloon performance and flight prediction is dependant on how well the balloon is thermally modeled. This ongoing effort is focused on developing accurate balloon thermal models that can be used to quickly predict balloon temperatures and balloon performance. The ability to model parametric changes is also a driver for this effort. This paper will present the most recent advances made in this area. This research effort continues to utilize the ``Thermal Desktop'' addition to AUTO CAD for the modeling. Recent advances have been made by using this analytical tool. A number of analyses have been completed to test the applicability of this tool to the problem with very positive results. Progressively detailed models have been developed to explore the capabilities of the tool as well as to provide guidance in model formulation. A number of parametric studies have been completed. These studies have varied the shape of the structure, material properties, environmental inputs, and model geometry. These studies have concentrated on spherical ``proxy models'' for the initial development stages and then to transition to the natural shaped zero pressure and super pressure balloons. An assessment of required model resolution has also been determined. Model solutions have been cross checked with known solutions via hand calculations. The comparison of these cases will also be presented. One goal is to develop analysis guidelines and an approach for modeling balloons for both simple first order estimates and detailed full models. This paper presents the step by step advances made as part of this effort, capabilities, limitations, and the lessons learned. Also presented are the plans for further thermal modeling work.

  12. Enabling Interoperation of High Performance, Scientific Computing Applications: Modeling Scientific Data with the Sets & Fields (SAF) Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M C; Reus, J F; Matzke, R P; Arrighi, W J; Schoof, L A; Hitt, R T; Espen, P K; Butler, D M

    2001-02-07

    This paper describes the Sets and Fields (SAF) scientific data modeling system. It is a revolutionary approach to interoperation of high performance, scientific computing applications based upon rigorous, math-oriented data modeling principles. Previous technologies have required all applications to use the same data structures and/or meshes to represent scientific data or lead to an ever expanding set of incrementally different data structures and/or meshes. SAF addresses this problem by providing a small set of mathematical building blocks--sets, relations and fields--out of which a wide variety of scientific data can be characterized. Applications literally model their data by assembling these building blocks. A short historical perspective, a conceptual model and an overview of SAF along with preliminary results from its use in a few ASCI codes are discussed.

  13. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Unified Model of Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Levin, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The present article summarizes the assumptions, model, techniques, evidence, and diversity/social justice commitments of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). ACT focused on six processes (acceptance, defusion, self, now, values, and action) that bear on a single overall target (psychological flexibility). The ACT model of behavior change has…

  14. Applying the Technology Acceptance Model and flow theory to Cyworld user behavior: implication of the Web2.0 user acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Hee; Kim, Won-Yong; Kim, Won-Young

    2008-06-01

    This study explores attitudinal and behavioral patterns when using Cyworld by adopting an expanded Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A model for Cyworld acceptance is used to examine how various factors modified from the TAM influence acceptance and its antecedents. This model is examined through an empirical study involving Cyworld users using structural equation modeling techniques. The model shows reasonably good measurement properties and the constructs are validated. The results not only confirm the model but also reveal general factors applicable to Web2.0. A set of constructs in the model can be the Web2.0-specific factors, playing as enhancing factor to attitudes and intention.

  15. Fraud, individuals, and networks: A biopsychosocial model of scientific frauds.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Samuel J; Linkowski, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The problem of fraud, especially scientific fraud, is global and its identification risk is still in its infancy. Based on an in-depth analysis of several financial and scientific fraud trials, the authors propose a new and integrative model of scientific fraud. This model identifies two major levels for committing fraud: (i) at the personal skills level (micro-level) and (ii) at the network skills level (macro-level). Interacting continuously with each other, they form a dynamic, efficient, and integrative system: an integrative model of fraud. The micro-level refers to three factors: (i) personality organization, (ii) social competence, and (iii) the so-called triangle of fraud. The macro-level refers essentially to social network organization and social engineering. Then, the key to understanding and mostly controlling fraud is to consider both the individual and the environment in which they operate. Based on our model, several steps at the micro- and macro-levels can be proposed.

  16. A `Semantic' View of Scientific Models for Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín

    2013-07-01

    In this paper I inspect a `semantic' view of scientific models taken from contemporary philosophy of science—I draw upon the so-called `semanticist family', which frontally challenges the received, syntactic conception of scientific theories. I argue that a semantic view may be of use both for science education in the classrooms of all educational levels, and for research and innovation within the discipline of didactics of science. I explore and characterise a model-based account of the nature of science, and derive some implications that may be of interest for our community.

  17. Investigating the Relationship between Students' Views of Scientific Models and Their Development of Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Lin, Jang-Long

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the nature of models and engaging in modeling practice have been emphasized in science education. However, few studies discuss the relationships between students' views of scientific models and their ability to develop those models. Hence, this study explores the relationship between students' views of scientific models and their…

  18. African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Abebe

    2002-03-01

    Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa

  19. The use and acceptance of Other Scientifically Relevant Information (OSRI) in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Patricia L; Willett, Catherine E

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) currently relies on an initial screening battery (Tier 1) consisting of five in vitro and six in vivo assays to evaluate a chemical's potential to interact with the endocrine system. Chemical companies may request test waivers based on Other Scientifically Relevant Information (OSRI) that is functionally equivalent to data gathered in the screening battery or that provides information on a potential endocrine effect. Respondents for 47 of the first 67 chemicals evaluated in the EDSP submitted OSRI in lieu of some or all Tier 1 tests, seeking 412 waivers, of which EPA granted only 93. For 20 of the 47 chemicals, EPA denied all OSRI and required the entire Tier 1 battery. Often, the OSRI accepted was either identical to data generated by the Tier 1 assay or indicated a positive result. Although identified as potential sources of OSRI in EPA guidance, Part 158 guideline studies for pesticide registration were seldom accepted by EPA. The 93 waivers reduced animal use by at least 3325 animals. We estimate 27,731 animals were used in the actual Tier 1 tests, with additional animals being used in preparation for testing. Even with EPA's shift toward applying 21st-century toxicology tools to screening of endocrine disruptors in the future, acceptance of OSRI will remain a primary means for avoiding duplicative testing and reducing use of animals in the EDSP. Therefore, it is essential that EPA develop a consistent and transparent basis for accepting OSRI.

  20. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Leutz, Ralf

    2014-09-26

    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV.

  1. Ensuring confidence in predictions: A scheme to assess the scientific validity of in silico models.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Mark; Ellison, Claire M; Cronin, Mark T D; Pastor, Manuel; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Munoz-Muriendas, Jordi; Pognan, Francois; Madden, Judith C

    2015-06-23

    The use of in silico tools within the drug development process to predict a wide range of properties including absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity has become increasingly important due to changes in legislation and both ethical and economic drivers to reduce animal testing. Whilst in silico tools have been used for decades there remains reluctance to accept predictions based on these methods particularly in regulatory settings. This apprehension arises in part due to lack of confidence in the reliability, robustness and applicability of the models. To address this issue we propose a scheme for the verification of in silico models that enables end users and modellers to assess the scientific validity of models in accordance with the principles of good computer modelling practice. We report here the implementation of the scheme within the Innovative Medicines Initiative project "eTOX" (electronic toxicity) and its application to the in silico models developed within the frame of this project. PMID:25794480

  2. Ensuring confidence in predictions: A scheme to assess the scientific validity of in silico models.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Mark; Ellison, Claire M; Cronin, Mark T D; Pastor, Manuel; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Munoz-Muriendas, Jordi; Pognan, Francois; Madden, Judith C

    2015-06-23

    The use of in silico tools within the drug development process to predict a wide range of properties including absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity has become increasingly important due to changes in legislation and both ethical and economic drivers to reduce animal testing. Whilst in silico tools have been used for decades there remains reluctance to accept predictions based on these methods particularly in regulatory settings. This apprehension arises in part due to lack of confidence in the reliability, robustness and applicability of the models. To address this issue we propose a scheme for the verification of in silico models that enables end users and modellers to assess the scientific validity of models in accordance with the principles of good computer modelling practice. We report here the implementation of the scheme within the Innovative Medicines Initiative project "eTOX" (electronic toxicity) and its application to the in silico models developed within the frame of this project.

  3. Statistical Modeling of Large-Scale Scientific Simulation Data

    SciTech Connect

    Eliassi-Rad, T; Baldwin, C; Abdulla, G; Critchlow, T

    2003-11-15

    With the advent of massively parallel computer systems, scientists are now able to simulate complex phenomena (e.g., explosions of a stars). Such scientific simulations typically generate large-scale data sets over the spatio-temporal space. Unfortunately, the sheer sizes of the generated data sets make efficient exploration of them impossible. Constructing queriable statistical models is an essential step in helping scientists glean new insight from their computer simulations. We define queriable statistical models to be descriptive statistics that (1) summarize and describe the data within a user-defined modeling error, and (2) are able to answer complex range-based queries over the spatiotemporal dimensions. In this chapter, we describe systems that build queriable statistical models for large-scale scientific simulation data sets. In particular, we present our Ad-hoc Queries for Simulation (AQSim) infrastructure, which reduces the data storage requirements and query access times by (1) creating and storing queriable statistical models of the data at multiple resolutions, and (2) evaluating queries on these models of the data instead of the entire data set. Within AQSim, we focus on three simple but effective statistical modeling techniques. AQSim's first modeling technique (called univariate mean modeler) computes the ''true'' (unbiased) mean of systematic partitions of the data. AQSim's second statistical modeling technique (called univariate goodness-of-fit modeler) uses the Andersen-Darling goodness-of-fit method on systematic partitions of the data. Finally, AQSim's third statistical modeling technique (called multivariate clusterer) utilizes the cosine similarity measure to cluster the data into similar groups. Our experimental evaluations on several scientific simulation data sets illustrate the value of using these statistical models on large-scale simulation data sets.

  4. Family support and acceptance, gay male identity formation, and psychological adjustment: a path model.

    PubMed

    Elizur, Y; Ziv, M

    2001-01-01

    While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men.

  5. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Model code provisions for use in... Minimum Property Standards § 200.926c Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code..., those portions of one of the model codes with which the property must comply. Schedule for Model...

  6. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science: Students’ Acceptance of Astrology and Pseudoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugarman, Hannah R.; Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our survey used to collect data during a twenty-year long investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting), contains several questions addressing how students conceptualize astrology, and other pseudoscientific ideas. This poster presents findings from the quantitative analysis of some of these question responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) and half of science majors (52%) consider astrology either "very” or "sort of” scientific. Students performed comparatively better on all other pseudoscientific questions, demonstrating that belief in astrology is pervasive and deeply entrenched. We compare our results to those obtained by the NSF Science Indicators series, and suggest possible reasons for the high susceptibility to belief in astrology. These findings call into question whether our education system is adequately preparing students to be scientifically literate adults. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  7. Adolescents' unconditional acceptance by parents and teachers and educational outcomes: A structural model of gender differences.

    PubMed

    Makri-Botsari, Evi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect gender specific patterns in the network of relations between unconditionality of parental and teacher acceptance in the form of unconditional positive regard and a range of educational outcomes, as indexed by academic self-perception, academic intrinsic motivation, and academic achievement. To test the role of gender as a moderator, a multi-group analysis was employed within the framework of structural equation modelling with increasing restrictions placed on the structural paths across genders. The results on a sample of 427 adolescents in grades 7-9 showed that conditionality of acceptance undermined level of perceived acceptance for both social agents. Moreover, unconditionality of teacher acceptance exerted stronger influences on students' educational outcomes than unconditionality of parental acceptance, with effect sizes being larger for girls than for boys. PMID:26057875

  8. Adolescents' unconditional acceptance by parents and teachers and educational outcomes: A structural model of gender differences.

    PubMed

    Makri-Botsari, Evi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect gender specific patterns in the network of relations between unconditionality of parental and teacher acceptance in the form of unconditional positive regard and a range of educational outcomes, as indexed by academic self-perception, academic intrinsic motivation, and academic achievement. To test the role of gender as a moderator, a multi-group analysis was employed within the framework of structural equation modelling with increasing restrictions placed on the structural paths across genders. The results on a sample of 427 adolescents in grades 7-9 showed that conditionality of acceptance undermined level of perceived acceptance for both social agents. Moreover, unconditionality of teacher acceptance exerted stronger influences on students' educational outcomes than unconditionality of parental acceptance, with effect sizes being larger for girls than for boys.

  9. Theory development in health care informatics: Information and communication technology acceptance model (ICTAM) improves the explanatory and predictive power of technology acceptance models.

    PubMed

    An, Ji-Young

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this web-based study was to explain and predict consumers' acceptance and usage behavior of Internet health information and services. Toward this goal, the Information and Communication Technology Acceptance Model (ICTAM) was developed and tested. Individuals who received a flyer through the LISTSERV of HealthGuide were eligible to participate. The study population was eighteen years old and older who had used Internet health information and services for a minimum of 6 months. For the analyses, SPSS (version 13.0) and AMOS (version 5.0) were employed. More than half of the respondents were women (n = 110, 55%). The average age of the respondents was 35.16 years (S.D. = 10.07). A majority reported at least some college education (n = 126, 63%). All of the observed factors accounted for 75.53% of the total variance explained. The fit indices of the structural model were within an acceptable range: chi2/df = 2.38 (chi2 = 1786.31, df = 752); GFI = .71; RMSEA = .08; CFI = .86; NFI = .78. The results of this study provide empirical support for the continued development of ICTAM in the area of health consumers' information and communication technology acceptance.

  10. Predicting nurses' use of healthcare technology using the technology acceptance model: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Strudwick, Gillian

    2015-05-01

    The benefits of healthcare technologies can only be attained if nurses accept and intend to fully use them. One of the most common models utilized to understand user acceptance of technology is the Technology Acceptance Model. This model and modified versions of it have only recently been applied in the healthcare literature among nurse participants. An integrative literature review was conducted on this topic. Ovid/MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and CINAHL were searched yielding a total of 982 references. Upon eliminating duplicates and applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the review included a total of four dissertations, three symposium proceedings, and 13 peer-reviewed journal articles. These documents were appraised and reviewed. The results show that a modified Technology Acceptance Model with added variables could provide a better explanation of nurses' acceptance of healthcare technology. These added variables to modified versions of the Technology Acceptance Model are discussed, and the studies' methodologies are critiqued. Limitations of the studies included in the integrative review are also examined.

  11. Fraud, individuals, and networks: A biopsychosocial model of scientific frauds.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Samuel J; Linkowski, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The problem of fraud, especially scientific fraud, is global and its identification risk is still in its infancy. Based on an in-depth analysis of several financial and scientific fraud trials, the authors propose a new and integrative model of scientific fraud. This model identifies two major levels for committing fraud: (i) at the personal skills level (micro-level) and (ii) at the network skills level (macro-level). Interacting continuously with each other, they form a dynamic, efficient, and integrative system: an integrative model of fraud. The micro-level refers to three factors: (i) personality organization, (ii) social competence, and (iii) the so-called triangle of fraud. The macro-level refers essentially to social network organization and social engineering. Then, the key to understanding and mostly controlling fraud is to consider both the individual and the environment in which they operate. Based on our model, several steps at the micro- and macro-levels can be proposed. PMID:26976469

  12. On Modeling Research Work for Describing and Filtering Scientific Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia, Miguel-Ángel

    Existing models for Research Information Systems (RIS) properly address the description of people and organizations, projects, facilities and their outcomes, e.g. papers, reports or patents. While this is adequate for the recording and accountability of research investments, helping researchers in finding relevant people, organizations or results requires considering both the content of research work and also its context. The content is not only related to the domain area, but it requires modeling methodological issues as variables, instruments or scientific methods that can then be used as search criteria. The context of research work is determined by the ongoing projects or scientific interests of an individual or a group, and can be expressed using the same methodological concepts. However, modeling methodological issues is notably complex and dependent on the scientific discipline and research area. This paper sketches the main requirements for those models, providing some motivating examples that could serve as a point of departure for future attempts in developing an upper ontology for research methods and tools.

  13. A Multivariate Model for the Study of Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohner, Ronald P.; Rohner, Evelyn C.

    This paper proposes a multivariate strategy for the study of parental acceptance-rejection and child abuse and describes a research study on parental rejection and child abuse which illustrates the advantages of using a multivariate, (rather than a simple-model) approach. The multivariate model is a combination of three simple models used to study…

  14. A proposed model of factors influencing hydrogen fuel cell vehicle acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanina, N. H. Noor; Kwe Lu, Tan; Fadhilah, A. R.

    2016-03-01

    Issues such as environmental problem and energy insecurity keep worsening as a result of energy use from household to huge industries including automotive industry. Recently, a new type of zero emission vehicle, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV) has received attention. Although there are argues on the feasibility of hydrogen as the future fuel, there is another important issue, which is the acceptance of HFCV. The study of technology acceptance in the early stage is a vital key for a successful introduction and penetration of a technology. This paper proposes a model of factors influencing green vehicle acceptance, specifically HFCV. This model is built base on two technology acceptance theories and other empirical studies of vehicle acceptance. It aims to provide a base for finding the key factors influencing new sustainable energy fuelled vehicle, HFCV acceptance which is achieved by explaining intention to accept HFCV. Intention is influenced by attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control from Theory of Planned Behaviour and personal norm from Norm Activation Theory. In the framework, attitude is influenced by perceptions of benefits and risks, and social trust. Perceived behavioural control is influenced by government interventions. Personal norm is influenced by outcome efficacy and problem awareness.

  15. ICT and OTs: a model of information and communication technology acceptance and utilisation by occupational therapists.

    PubMed

    Schaper, Louise K; Pervan, Graham P

    2007-06-01

    There is evidence to suggest that health professionals are reluctant to accept and utilise information and communication technologies (ICT) and concern is growing within health informatics research that this is contributing to the lag in adoption and utilisation of ICT across the health sector. Technology acceptance research within the field of information systems has been limited in its application to health and there is a concurrent need to develop and gain empirical support for models of technology acceptance within health and to examine acceptance and utilisation issues amongst health professionals to improve the success of information system implementation in this arena. This paper outlines a project that examines ICT acceptance and utilisation by Australian occupational therapists. It describes the theoretical basis behind the development of a research model and the methodology being employed to empirically validate the model using substantial quantitative, qualitative and longitudinal data. Preliminary results from Phase II of the study are presented. The theoretical significance of this work is that it uses a thoroughly constructed research model, with potentially the largest sample size ever tested, to extend technology acceptance research into the health sector.

  16. Test of the technology acceptance model for the internet in pediatrics.

    PubMed Central

    Chismar, William G.; Wiley-Patton, Sonja

    2002-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of the Internet and, more generally, information technology to pediatric care. However, acceptance of these technologies has been low. Attitudes of physicians can play a pivotal role in the adoption session. This study tests the extension to a widely used model in the information systems literature: the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Data were collected in a survey of pediatricians to see how well the extended model, TAM2, fits in the medical arena. Our results partially confirm the model; significant parts of the model were not confirmed. The primary factors in pediatricians' acceptance of technology applications relate to their usefulness and job relevance. Little weight is given to ease of use and social factors. We discuss possible explanations for the discrepancies and suggest future research. PMID:12463806

  17. Scientific Visualization & Modeling for Earth Systems Science Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhury, S. Raj; Rodriguez, Waldo J.

    2003-01-01

    Providing research experiences for undergraduate students in Earth Systems Science (ESS) poses several challenges at smaller academic institutions that might lack dedicated resources for this area of study. This paper describes the development of an innovative model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research. In studying global climate change, experts typically use scientific visualization techniques applied to remote sensing data collected by satellites. In particular, many problems related to environmental phenomena can be quantitatively addressed by investigations based on datasets related to the scientific endeavours such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Working with data products stored at NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers, visualization software specifically designed for students and an advanced, immersive Virtual Reality (VR) environment, students engage in guided research projects during a structured 6-week summer program. Over the 5-year span, this program has afforded the opportunity for students majoring in biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, physics, engineering and science education to work collaboratively in teams on research projects that emphasize the use of scientific visualization in studying the environment. Recently, a hands-on component has been added through science student partnerships with school-teachers in data collection and reporting for the GLOBE Program (GLobal Observations to Benefit the Environment).

  18. Thermal performance modeling of NASA s scientific balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, H.; Cathey, H.

    The flight performance of a scientific balloon is highly dependant on the interaction between the balloon and its environment. The balloon is a thermal vehicle. Modeling a scientific balloon's thermal performance has proven to be a difficult analytical task. Most previous thermal models have attempted these analyses by using either a bulk thermal model approach, or by simplified representations of the balloon. These approaches to date have provided reasonable, but not very accurate results. Improvements have been made in recent years using thermal analysis tools developed for the thermal modeling of spacecraft and other sophisticated heat transfer problems. These tools, which now allow for accurate modeling of highly transmissive materials, have been applied to the thermal analysis of NASA's scientific balloons. A research effort has been started that utilizes the "Thermal Desktop" addition to AUTO CAD. This paper will discuss the development of thermal models for both conventional and Ultra Long Duration super-pressure balloons. This research effort has focused on incremental analysis stages of development to assess the accuracy of the tool and the required model resolution to produce usable data. The first stage balloon thermal analyses started with simple spherical balloon models with a limited number of nodes, and expanded the number of nodes to determine required model resolution. These models were then modified to include additional details such as load tapes. The second stage analyses looked at natural shaped Zero Pressure balloons. Load tapes were then added to these shapes, again with the goal of determining the required modeling accuracy by varying the number of gores. The third stage, following the same steps as the Zero Pressure balloon efforts, was directed at modeling super-pressure pumpkin shaped balloons. The results were then used to develop analysis guidelines and an approach for modeling balloons for both simple first order estimates and detailed

  19. The Nature of Scientific Revolutions from the Vantage Point of Chaos Theory: Toward a Formal Model of Scientific Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perla, Rocco J.; Carifio, James

    In sharp contrast to the early positivist view of the nature of science and scientific knowledge, Kuhn argues that the scientific enterprise involves states of continuous, gradual development punctuated by comparatively rare instances of turmoil and change, which ultimately brings about a new stability and a qualitatively changed knowledge base. Although this discontinuous or nonlinear view of scientific knowledge is shared by a number of philosophers of science and science educators currently, Kuhn's description of how progress in science occurs has never been formally modeled from a nonlinear mathematical perspective. In this article, we represent aspects of Kuhn's main thesis and ideas as stated in his classic work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions using catastrophe theory, which is a particular instantiation of chaos theory capable of describing discontinuous phenomenon. Through this catastrophe theory representation we attempt to depict and develop a formal nonlinear model of scientific change. The pedagogical implications of the model developed and presented are discussed.

  20. Application of logic models in a large scientific research program.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Christine M; Head, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts mission-driven scientific research focussed on delivering results with relevance and impact for Australia, where impact is defined and measured in economic, environmental and social terms at the national level. The Australian Government has recently signalled an increasing emphasis on performance assessment and evaluation, which in the CSIRO context implies an increasing emphasis on ensuring and demonstrating the impact of its research programs. CSIRO continues to develop and improve its approaches to impact planning and evaluation, including conducting a trial of a program logic approach in the CSIRO Preventative Health National Research Flagship. During the trial, improvements were observed in clarity of the research goals and path to impact, as well as in alignment of science and support function activities with national challenge goals. Further benefits were observed in terms of communication of the goals and expected impact of CSIRO's research programs both within CSIRO and externally. The key lesson learned was that significant value was achieved through the process itself, as well as the outcome. Recommendations based on the CSIRO trial may be of interest to managers of scientific research considering developing similar logic models for their research projects. The CSIRO experience has shown that there are significant benefits to be gained, especially if the project participants have a major role in the process of developing the logic model.

  1. The Institutionalization of Scientific Information: A Scientometric Model (ISI-S Model).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinkler, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a scientometric model (ISI-S model) for describing the institutionalization process of scientific information. ISI-S describes the information and knowledge systems of scientific publications as a global network of interdependent information and knowledge clusters that are dynamically changing by their content and size. (Author/LRW)

  2. THE TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL: ITS PAST AND ITS FUTURE IN HEALTH CARE

    PubMed Central

    HOLDEN, RICHARD J.; KARSH, BEN-TZION

    2009-01-01

    Increasing interest in end users’ reactions to health information technology (IT) has elevated the importance of theories that predict and explain health IT acceptance and use. This paper reviews the application of one such theory, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), to health care. We reviewed 16 data sets analyzed in over 20 studies of clinicians using health IT for patient care. Studies differed greatly in samples and settings, health ITs studied, research models, relationships tested, and construct operationalization. Certain TAM relationships were consistently found to be significant, whereas others were inconsistent. Several key relationships were infrequently assessed. Findings show that TAM predicts a substantial portion of the use or acceptance of health IT, but that the theory may benefit from several additions and modifications. Aside from improved study quality, standardization, and theoretically motivated additions to the model, an important future direction for TAM is to adapt the model specifically to the health care context, using beliefs elicitation methods. PMID:19615467

  3. The technology acceptance model: its past and its future in health care.

    PubMed

    Holden, Richard J; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2010-02-01

    Increasing interest in end users' reactions to health information technology (IT) has elevated the importance of theories that predict and explain health IT acceptance and use. This paper reviews the application of one such theory, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), to health care. We reviewed 16 data sets analyzed in over 20 studies of clinicians using health IT for patient care. Studies differed greatly in samples and settings, health ITs studied, research models, relationships tested, and construct operationalization. Certain TAM relationships were consistently found to be significant, whereas others were inconsistent. Several key relationships were infrequently assessed. Findings show that TAM predicts a substantial portion of the use or acceptance of health IT, but that the theory may benefit from several additions and modifications. Aside from improved study quality, standardization, and theoretically motivated additions to the model, an important future direction for TAM is to adapt the model specifically to the health care context, using beliefs elicitation methods.

  4. A Multi-Dimensional Classification Model for Scientific Workflow Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Plale, Beth

    2010-04-05

    Workflows have been used to model repeatable tasks or operations in manufacturing, business process, and software. In recent years, workflows are increasingly used for orchestration of science discovery tasks that use distributed resources and web services environments through resource models such as grid and cloud computing. Workflows have disparate re uirements and constraints that affects how they might be managed in distributed environments. In this paper, we present a multi-dimensional classification model illustrated by workflow examples obtained through a survey of scientists from different domains including bioinformatics and biomedical, weather and ocean modeling, astronomy detailing their data and computational requirements. The survey results and classification model contribute to the high level understandingof scientific workflows.

  5. Modeling the acceptance of clinical information systems among hospital medical staff: an extended TAM model.

    PubMed

    Melas, Christos D; Zampetakis, Leonidas A; Dimopoulou, Anastasia; Moustakis, Vassilis

    2011-08-01

    Recent empirical research has utilized the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to advance the understanding of doctors' and nurses' technology acceptance in the workplace. However, the majority of the reported studies are either qualitative in nature or use small convenience samples of medical staff. Additionally, in very few studies moderators are either used or assessed despite their importance in TAM based research. The present study focuses on the application of TAM in order to explain the intention to use clinical information systems, in a random sample of 604 medical staff (534 physicians) working in 14 hospitals in Greece. We introduce physicians' specialty as a moderator in TAM and test medical staff's information and communication technology (ICT) knowledge and ICT feature demands, as external variables. The results show that TAM predicts a substantial proportion of the intention to use clinical information systems. Findings make a contribution to the literature by replicating, explaining and advancing the TAM, whereas theory is benefited by the addition of external variables and medical specialty as a moderator. Recommendations for further research are discussed.

  6. Uncertainty in urban stormwater quality modelling: the effect of acceptability threshold in the GLUE methodology.

    PubMed

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2008-04-01

    Uncertainty analysis in integrated urban drainage modelling is of growing importance in the field of water quality. However, only few studies deal with uncertainty quantification in urban drainage modelling; furthermore, the few existing studies mainly focus on quantitative sewer flow modelling rather than uncertainty in water quality aspects. In this context, the generalised likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) methodology was applied for the evaluation of the uncertainty of an integrated urban drainage model and some of its subjective hypotheses have been explored. More specifically, the influence of the subjective choice of the acceptability threshold has been detected in order to gain insights regarding its effect on the model results. The model has been applied to the Savena case study (Bologna, Italy) where water quality and quantity data were available. The model results show a strong influence of the acceptability threshold selection and confirm the importance of modeller's experience in the application of GLUE uncertainty analysis.

  7. Extending the Technology Acceptance Model to Explore the Intention to Use Second Life for Enhancing Healthcare Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Meyrick; Herold, David Kurt; Choo, Tat-Ming; Chan, Kitty

    2012-01-01

    Learners need to have good reasons to engage and accept e-learning. They need to understand that unless they do, the outcomes will be less favourable. The technology acceptance model (TAM) is the most widely recognized model addressing why users accept or reject technology. This study describes the development and evaluation of a virtual…

  8. Multi-Resolution Modeling of Large Scale Scientific Simulation Data

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, C; Abdulla, G; Critchlow, T

    2002-02-25

    Data produced by large scale scientific simulations, experiments, and observations can easily reach tera-bytes in size. The ability to examine data-sets of this magnitude, even in moderate detail, is problematic at best. Generally this scientific data consists of multivariate field quantities with complex inter-variable correlations and spatial-temporal structure. To provide scientists and engineers with the ability to explore and analyze such data sets we are using a twofold approach. First, we model the data with the objective of creating a compressed yet manageable representation. Second, with that compressed representation, we provide the user with the ability to query the resulting approximation to obtain approximate yet sufficient answers; a process called adhoc querying. This paper is concerned with a wavelet modeling technique that seeks to capture the important physical characteristics of the target scientific data. Our approach is driven by the compression, which is necessary for viable throughput, along with the end user requirements from the discovery process. Our work contrasts existing research which applies wavelets to range querying, change detection, and clustering problems by working directly with a decomposition of the data. The difference in this procedures is due primarily to the nature of the data and the requirements of the scientists and engineers. Our approach directly uses the wavelet coefficients of the data to compress as well as query. We will provide some background on the problem, describe how the wavelet decomposition is used to facilitate data compression and how queries are posed on the resulting compressed model. Results of this process will be shown for several problems of interest and we will end with some observations and conclusions about this research.

  9. Uses and Limitations of Scientific Models: The Periodic Table as an Inductive Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Zvi, Nava; Genut, Sara

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates that scientific laws about nature and their representative models, as taught and described by theory, are often different from the method as practiced. Focuses on the use of the Periodic Table as a scientific model. Contains 26 references. (DDR)

  10. Enhancing scientific reasoning by refining students' models of multivariable causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keselman, Alla

    Inquiry learning as an educational method is gaining increasing support among elementary and middle school educators. In inquiry activities at the middle school level, students are typically asked to conduct investigations and infer causal relationships about multivariable causal systems. In these activities, students usually demonstrate significant strategic weaknesses and insufficient metastrategic understanding of task demands. Present work suggests that these weaknesses arise from students' deficient mental models of multivariable causality, in which effects of individual features are neither additive, nor constant. This study is an attempt to develop an intervention aimed at enhancing scientific reasoning by refining students' models of multivariable causality. Three groups of students engaged in a scientific investigation activity over seven weekly sessions. By creating unique combinations of five features potentially involved in earthquake mechanism and observing associated risk meter readings, students had to find out which of the features were causal, and to learn to predict earthquake risk. Additionally, students in the instructional and practice groups engaged in self-directed practice in making scientific predictions. The instructional group also participated in weekly instructional sessions on making predictions based on multivariable causality. Students in the practice and instructional conditions showed small to moderate improvement in their attention to the evidence and in their metastrategic ability to recognize effective investigative strategies in the work of other students. They also demonstrated a trend towards making a greater number of valid inferences than the control group students. Additionally, students in the instructional condition showed significant improvement in their ability to draw inferences based on multiple records. They also developed more accurate knowledge about non-causal features of the system. These gains were maintained

  11. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM). Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor) typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module) models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding. PMID:21951817

  12. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models.

    PubMed

    Hunt, C Anthony; Ropella, Glen E P; Lam, Tai ning; Gewitz, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM). Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor) typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module) models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding. PMID:21951817

  13. An Investigation of the Integrated Model of User Technology Acceptance: Internet User Samples in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusilier, Marcelline; Durlabhji, Subhash; Cucchi, Alain

    2008-01-01

    National background of users may influence the process of technology acceptance. The present study explored this issue with the new, integrated technology use model proposed by Sun and Zhang (2006). Data were collected from samples of college students in India, Mauritius, Reunion Island, and United States. Questionnaire methodology and…

  14. Perceived Convenience in an Extended Technology Acceptance Model: Mobile Technology and English Learning for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Yan, Chi-Fang; Tseng, Ju-Shih

    2012-01-01

    Since convenience is one of the features for mobile learning, does it affect attitude and intention of using mobile technology? The technology acceptance model (TAM), proposed by David (1989), was extended with perceived convenience in the present study. With regard to English language mobile learning, the variables in the extended TAM and its…

  15. Invariance of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model Across Gender and Age Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the likelihood of a TAME (extended technology acceptance model), in which the interrelationships among computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, intention to use and self-reported use of computer-mediated technology were tested. In addition, the gender- and age-invariant of its causal structure were evaluated. The…

  16. Extended TAM Model: Impacts of Convenience on Acceptance and Use of Moodle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hsiao-hui; Chang, Yu-ying

    2013-01-01

    The increasing online access to courses, programs, and information has shifted the control and responsibility of learning process from instructors to learners. Learners' perceptions of and attitudes toward e-learning constitute a critical factor to the success of such system. The purpose of this study is to take TAM (technology acceptance model)…

  17. The technology acceptance model: predicting nurses' intention to use telemedicine technology (eICU).

    PubMed

    Kowitlawakul, Yanika

    2011-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine factors and predictors that influence nurses' intention to use the eICU technology, to examine the applicability of the Technology Acceptance Model in explaining nurses' intention to use the eICU technology in healthcare settings, and to provide psychometric evidence of the measurement scales used in the study. The study involved 117 participants from two healthcare systems. The Telemedicine Technology Acceptance Model was developed based on the original Technology Acceptance Model that was initially developed by Fred Davis in 1986. The eICU Acceptance Survey was used as an instrument for the study. Content validity was examined, and the reliability of the instrument was tested. The results show that perceived usefulness is the most influential factor that influences nurses' intention to use the eICU technology. The principal factors that influence perceived usefulness are perceived ease of use, support from physicians, and years working in the hospital. The model fit was reasonably adequate and able to explain 58% of the variance (R = 0.58) in intention to use the eICU technology with the nursing sample.

  18. Examining the Factors That Contribute to Successful Database Application Implementation Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nworji, Alexander O.

    2013-01-01

    Most organizations spend millions of dollars due to the impact of improperly implemented database application systems as evidenced by poor data quality problems. The purpose of this quantitative study was to use, and extend, the technology acceptance model (TAM) to assess the impact of information quality and technical quality factors on database…

  19. Improving sleep with mindfulness and acceptance: a metacognitive model of insomnia.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jason C; Ulmer, Christi S; Manber, Rachel

    2012-11-01

    While there is an accumulating evidence to suggest that therapies using mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches have benefits for improving the symptoms of insomnia, it is unclear how these treatments work. The goal of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for the cognitive mechanisms of insomnia based upon mindfulness and acceptance approaches. The existing cognitive and behavioral models of insomnia are first reviewed and a two-level model of cognitive (primary) and metacognitive (secondary) arousal is presented in the context of insomnia. We then focus on the role of metacognition in mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies, followed by a review of these therapies in the treatment of insomnia. A conceptual framework is presented detailing the mechanisms of metacognition in the context of insomnia treatments. This model proposes that increasing awareness of the mental and physical states that are present when experiencing insomnia symptoms and then learning how to shift mental processes can promote an adaptive stance to one's response to these symptoms. These metacognitive processes are characterized by balanced appraisals, cognitive flexibility, equanimity, and commitment to values and are posited to reduce sleep-related arousal, leading to remission from insomnia. We hope that this model will further the understanding and impact of mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches to insomnia.

  20. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions. 200.926c Section 200.926c Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT...

  1. Understanding Student Teachers' Behavioural Intention to Use Technology: Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Validation and Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kung-Teck; Osman, Rosma bt; Goh, Pauline Swee Choo; Rahmat, Mohd Khairezan

    2013-01-01

    This study sets out to validate and test the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in the context of Malaysian student teachers' integration of their technology in teaching and learning. To establish factorial validity, data collected from 302 respondents were tested against the TAM using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation…

  2. Unified Performance and Power Modeling of Scientific Workloads

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Shuaiwen; Barker, Kevin J.; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2013-11-17

    It is expected that scientific applications executing on future large-scale HPC must be optimized not only in terms of performance, but also in terms of power consumption. As power and energy become increasingly constrained resources, researchers and developers must have access to tools that will allow for accurate prediction of both performance and power consumption. Reasoning about performance and power consumption in concert will be critical for achieving maximum utilization of limited resources on future HPC systems. To this end, we present a unified performance and power model for the Nek-Bone mini-application developed as part of the DOE's CESAR Exascale Co-Design Center. Our models consider the impact of computation, point-to-point communication, and collective communication

  3. The Model-Based View of Scientific Theories and the Structuring of School Science Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Develaki, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Model theory in contemporary philosophy of science interprets scientific theories as sets of models, and contributes significantly to the understanding of the relation between theories, models, and the real world. The clarification of this relation is fundamental for the understanding of the nature of scientific methods and scientific knowledge…

  4. An opinion diffusion model with decision-making groups: The influence of the opinion's acceptability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhichao; Xiong, Yang; Xu, Yiwen

    2016-11-01

    An opinion dynamic model with decision-making groups was proposed to study the process of adopting new opinions or ideas by individuals. The opinion's acceptability is introduced to distinguish the general character of different opinions. The simulation results on a free-scale network demonstrate that when two opinions have similar acceptability, the opinion supported by more decision-making groups in the beginning will eventually win the support of more agents, whereas an opinion supported by fewer decision-making groups in the beginning may be supported by the majority at the end only if it has better acceptability, and if the tolerance threshold of the society is higher than a specific value.

  5. Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Mehos, M. S.; Kearney, D. W.; McMahan, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    As deployment of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) systems ramps up, the need for reliable and robust performance acceptance test guidelines for the solar field is also amplified. Project owners and/or EPC contractors often require extensive solar field performance testing as part of the plant commissioning process in order to ensure that actual solar field performance satisfies both technical specifications and performance guaranties between the involved parties. Performance test code work is currently underway at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in collaboration with the SolarPACES Task-I activity, and within the ASME PTC-52 committee. One important aspect of acceptance testing is the selection of a robust technology performance model. NREL1 has developed a detailed parabolic trough performance model within the SAM software tool. This model is capable of predicting solar field, sub-system, and component performance. It has further been modified for this work to support calculation at subhourly time steps. This paper presents the methodology and results of a case study comparing actual performance data for a parabolic trough solar field to the predicted results using the modified SAM trough model. Due to data limitations, the methodology is applied to a single collector loop, though it applies to larger subfields and entire solar fields. Special consideration is provided for the model formulation, improvements to the model formulation based on comparison with the collected data, and uncertainty associated with the measured data. Additionally, this paper identifies modeling considerations that are of particular importance in the solar field acceptance testing process and uses the model to provide preliminary recommendations regarding acceptable steady-state testing conditions at the single-loop level.

  6. Current Scientific Evidence for a Polarized Cardiovascular Endurance Training Model.

    PubMed

    Hydren, Jay R; Cohen, Bruce S

    2015-12-01

    Recent publications have provided new scientific evidence for a modern aerobic or cardiovascular endurance exercise prescription that optimizes the periodization cycle and maximizes potential endurance performance gains in highly trained individuals. The traditional threshold, high volume, and high-intensity training models have displayed limited improvement in actual race pace in (highly) trained individuals while frequently resulting in overreaching or overtraining (physical injury and psychological burnout). A review of evidence for replacing these models with the proven polarized training model seems warranted. This review provides a short history of the training models, summarizes 5 key studies, and provides example training programs for both the pre- and in-season periods. A polarized training program is characterized by an undulating nonlinear periodization model with nearly all the training time spent at a "light" (≤13) and "very hard" (≥17) pace with very limited time at "hard" (14-16) or race pace (6-20 Rating of Perceived Exertion [RPE] scale). To accomplish this, the polarization training model has specific high-intensity workouts separated by one or more long slow distance workouts, with the exercise intensity remaining below ventilatory threshold (VT) 1 and/or blood lactate of less than 2 mM (A.K.A. below race pace). Effect sizes for increasing aerobic endurance performance for the polarized training model are consistently superior to that of the threshold training model. Performing a polarized training program may be best accomplished by: going easy on long slow distance workouts, avoiding "race pace" and getting after it during interval workouts. PMID:26595137

  7. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    PubMed

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  8. Social trust, risk perceptions and public acceptance of recycled water: testing a social-psychological model.

    PubMed

    Ross, Victoria L; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-05-01

    Faced with a severe drought, the residents of the regional city of Toowoomba, in South East Queensland, Australia were asked to consider a potable wastewater reuse scheme to supplement drinking water supplies. As public risk perceptions and trust have been shown to be key factors in acceptance of potable reuse projects, this research developed and tested a social-psychological model of trust, risk perceptions and acceptance. Participants (N = 380) were surveyed a few weeks before a referendum was held in which residents voted against the controversial scheme. Analysis using structural equation modelling showed that the more community members perceived that the water authority used fair procedures (e.g., consulting with the community and providing accurate information), the greater their sense of shared identity with the water authority. Shared social identity in turn influenced trust via increased source credibility, that is, perceptions that the water authority is competent and has the community's interest at heart. The findings also support past research showing that higher levels of trust in the water authority were associated with lower perceptions of risk, which in turn were associated with higher levels of acceptance, and vice versa. The findings have a practical application for improving public acceptance of potable recycled water schemes. PMID:24603028

  9. Social trust, risk perceptions and public acceptance of recycled water: testing a social-psychological model.

    PubMed

    Ross, Victoria L; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-05-01

    Faced with a severe drought, the residents of the regional city of Toowoomba, in South East Queensland, Australia were asked to consider a potable wastewater reuse scheme to supplement drinking water supplies. As public risk perceptions and trust have been shown to be key factors in acceptance of potable reuse projects, this research developed and tested a social-psychological model of trust, risk perceptions and acceptance. Participants (N = 380) were surveyed a few weeks before a referendum was held in which residents voted against the controversial scheme. Analysis using structural equation modelling showed that the more community members perceived that the water authority used fair procedures (e.g., consulting with the community and providing accurate information), the greater their sense of shared identity with the water authority. Shared social identity in turn influenced trust via increased source credibility, that is, perceptions that the water authority is competent and has the community's interest at heart. The findings also support past research showing that higher levels of trust in the water authority were associated with lower perceptions of risk, which in turn were associated with higher levels of acceptance, and vice versa. The findings have a practical application for improving public acceptance of potable recycled water schemes.

  10. The acceptance of in silico models for REACH: Requirements, barriers, and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In silico models have prompted considerable interest and debate because of their potential value in predicting the properties of chemical substances for regulatory purposes. The European REACH legislation promotes innovation and encourages the use of alternative methods, but in practice the use of in silico models is still very limited. There are many stakeholders influencing the regulatory trajectory of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) models, including regulators, industry, model developers and consultants. Here we outline some of the issues and challenges involved in the acceptance of these methods for regulatory purposes. PMID:21982269

  11. Modeling aspects of human memory for scientific study.

    SciTech Connect

    Caudell, Thomas P.; Watson, Patrick; McDaniel, Mark A.; Eichenbaum, Howard B.; Cohen, Neal J.; Vineyard, Craig Michael; Taylor, Shawn Ellis; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Morrow, James Dan; Verzi, Stephen J.

    2009-10-01

    Working with leading experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience and computational intelligence, SNL has developed a computational architecture that represents neurocognitive mechanisms associated with how humans remember experiences in their past. The architecture represents how knowledge is organized and updated through information from individual experiences (episodes) via the cortical-hippocampal declarative memory system. We compared the simulated behavioral characteristics with those of humans measured under well established experimental standards, controlling for unmodeled aspects of human processing, such as perception. We used this knowledge to create robust simulations of & human memory behaviors that should help move the scientific community closer to understanding how humans remember information. These behaviors were experimentally validated against actual human subjects, which was published. An important outcome of the validation process will be the joining of specific experimental testing procedures from the field of neuroscience with computational representations from the field of cognitive modeling and simulation.

  12. Adding Innovation Diffusion Theory to the Technology Acceptance Model: Supporting Employees' Intentions to Use E-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Hsu, Chia-Ning

    2011-01-01

    This study intends to investigate factors affecting business employees' behavioral intentions to use the e-learning system. Combining the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) with the technology acceptance model (TAM), the present study proposes an extended technology acceptance model. The proposed model was tested with data collected from 552…

  13. The Effects of a Modified Treatment Package with and without Feeder Modeling on One Child's Acceptance of Novel Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiverling, Laura; Harclerode, Whitney; Williams, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if sequential presentation with feeder modeling would lead to an increase in bites accepted of new foods compared to sequential presentation without feeder modeling in a typically developing 4-year-old boy with food selectivity. The participant's acceptance of novel foods increased both in the modeling and…

  14. Acceptance and commitment therapy and contextual behavioral science: examining the progress of a distinctive model of behavioral and cognitive therapy.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Steven C; Levin, Michael E; Plumb-Vilardaga, Jennifer; Villatte, Jennifer L; Pistorello, Jacqueline

    2013-06-01

    A number of recent authors have compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present article describes ACT as a distinct and unified model of behavior change, linked to a specific strategy of scientific development, which we term "contextual behavioral science." We outline the empirical progress of ACT and describe its distinctive development strategy. A contextual behavioral science approach is an inductive attempt to build more adequate psychological systems based on philosophical clarity; the development of basic principles and theories; the development of applied theories linked to basic ones; techniques and components linked to these processes and principles; measurement of theoretically key processes; an emphasis on mediation and moderation in the analysis of applied impact; an interest in effectiveness, dissemination, and training; empirical testing of the research program across a broad range of areas and levels of analysis; and the creation of a more effective scientific and clinical community. We argue that this is a reasonable approach, focused on long-term progress, and that in broad terms it seems to be working. ACT is not hostile to traditional CBT, and is not directly buoyed by whatever weaknesses traditional CBT may have. ACT should be measured at least in part against its own goals as specified by its own developmental strategy.

  15. Report for the Office of Scientific and Technical Information: Population Modeling of the Emergence and Development of Scientific Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bettencourt, L. M. A.; Castillo-Chavez, C.; Kaiser, D.; Wojick, D. E.

    2006-10-04

    coarse-grained approach to modeling the time-evolution of scientific fields mathematically, through adaptive models of contagion. That is, our models are inspired by epidemic contact processes, but take into account the social interactions and processes whereby scientific ideas spread - social interactions gleaned from close empirical study of historical cases. Variations in model parameters can increase or hamper the speed at which a field develops. In this way, models for the spread of 'infectious' ideas can be used to identify pressure points in the process of innovation that may allow for the evaluation of possible interventions by those responsible for promoting innovation, such as funding agencies. This report is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces and discusses the population model used here to describe the dynamics behind the establishment of scientific fields. The approach is based on a succinct (coarse) description of contact processes between scientists, and is a simplified version of a general class of models developed in the course of this work. We selected this model based primarily on its ability to treat a wide range of data patterns efficiently, across several different scientific fields. We also describe our methods for estimating parameter values, our optimization techniques used to match the model to data, and our method of generating error estimates. Section 3 presents brief accounts of six case studies of scientific evolution, measured by the growth in number of active authors over time, and shows the results of fitting our model to these data, including extrapolations to the near future. Section 4 discusses these results and provides some perspectives on the values and limitations of the models used. We also discuss topics for further research which should improve our ability to predict (and perhaps influence) the course of future scientific research. Section 5 provides more detail on the broad class of epidemic models developed as part of

  16. Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, people use the Internet to satisfy health-related information and communication needs. In Malaysia, Internet use for health management has become increasingly significant due to the increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, in particular among urban women and their desire to stay healthy. Past studies adopted the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Health Belief Model (HBM) independently to explain Internet use for health-related purposes. Although both the TAM and HBM have their own merits, independently they lack the ability to explain the cognition and the related mechanism in which individuals use the Internet for health purposes. Objective This study aimed to examine the influence of perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use based on the HBM. Drawing on the TAM, it also tested the mediating effects of perceived usefulness of the Internet for health information and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for the relationship between health-related factors, namely perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use. Methods Data obtained for the current study were collected using purposive sampling; the sample consisted of women in Malaysia who had Internet access. The partial least squares structural equation modeling method was used to test the research hypotheses developed. Results Perceived health risk (β=.135, t 1999=2.676) and health consciousness (β=.447, t 1999=9.168) had a positive influence on health-related Internet use. Moreover, perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health-related purposes partially mediated the influence of health consciousness on health-related Internet use (β=.025, t 1999=3.234), whereas the effect of perceived health risk on health-related Internet use was fully mediated by perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude (β=.029, t 1999=3.609). These results suggest the central role of

  17. Tacit Beginnings Towards a Model of Scientific Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Rory J.

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an examination of the role tacit knowledge plays in understanding, and to provide a model to make such knowledge identifiable. To do this I first consider the needs of society, the ubiquity of information in our world and the future demands of the science classroom. I propose the use of more implicit or tacit understandings as foundational elements for the development of student knowledge. To justify this proposition I consider a wide range of philosophical and psychological perspectives on knowledge. Then develop a Model of Scientific Knowledge, based in large part on a similar model created by Paul Ernest (Social constructivism as a philosophy of mathematics, SUNY Press, Albany, NY, 1998a; Situated cognition and the learning of mathematics, University of Oxford Department of Educational Studies, Oxford, 1998b). Finally, I consider the work that has been done by those in fields beyond education and the ways in which tacit knowledge can be used as a starting point for knowledge building.

  18. An Empirical Assessment of a Technology Acceptance Model for Apps in Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Briz-Ponce, Laura; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José

    2015-11-01

    The evolution and the growth of mobile applications ("apps") in our society is a reality. This general trend is still upward and the app use has also penetrated the medical education community. However, there is a lot of unawareness of the students' and professionals' point of view about introducing "apps" within Medical School curriculum. The aim of this research is to design, implement and verify that the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) can be employed to measure and explain the acceptance of mobile technology and "apps" within Medical Education. The methodology was based on a survey distributed to students and medical professionals from University of Salamanca. This model explains 46.7% of behavioral intention to use mobile devise or "apps" for learning and will help us to justify and understand the current situation of introducing "apps" into the Medical School curriculum. PMID:26411928

  19. An Empirical Assessment of a Technology Acceptance Model for Apps in Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Briz-Ponce, Laura; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José

    2015-11-01

    The evolution and the growth of mobile applications ("apps") in our society is a reality. This general trend is still upward and the app use has also penetrated the medical education community. However, there is a lot of unawareness of the students' and professionals' point of view about introducing "apps" within Medical School curriculum. The aim of this research is to design, implement and verify that the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) can be employed to measure and explain the acceptance of mobile technology and "apps" within Medical Education. The methodology was based on a survey distributed to students and medical professionals from University of Salamanca. This model explains 46.7% of behavioral intention to use mobile devise or "apps" for learning and will help us to justify and understand the current situation of introducing "apps" into the Medical School curriculum.

  20. A comprehensive examination of the model underlying acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Vowles, Kevin E; Sowden, Gail; Ashworth, Julie

    2014-05-01

    The therapeutic model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is reasonably well-established as it applies to chronic pain. Several studies have examined measures of single ACT processes, or subsets of processes, and have almost uniformly indicated reliable relations with patient functioning. To date, however, no study has performed a comprehensive examination of the entire ACT model, including all of its component processes, as it relates to functioning. The present study performed this examination in 274 individuals with chronic pain presenting for an assessment appointment. Participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires, assessing multiple aspects of the ACT model, as well as pain intensity, disability, and emotional distress. Initial exploratory factor analyses examined measures of the ACT model and measures of patient functioning separately with each analysis identifying three factors. Next, the fit of a model including ACT processes on the one hand and patient functioning on the other was examined using Structural Equation Modeling. Overall model fit was acceptable and indicated moderate correlations among the ACT processes themselves, as well as significant relations with pain intensity, emotional distress, and disability. These analyses build on the existing literature by providing, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive evaluation of the ACT theoretical model in chronic pain to date.

  1. Results of an emergency response atmospheric dispersion model comparison using a state accepted statistical protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Ciolek, J.T. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant, located approximately 26 km northwest of downtown Denver, Colorado, has developed an emergency response atmospheric dispersion model for complex terrain applications. Plant personnel would use the model, known as the Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) (Hodgin 1985) to project plume impacts and provide off-site protective action recommendations to the State of Colorado should a hazardous material release occur from the facility. The Colorado Department of Health (CDH) entered into an interagency agreement with the Rocky Flats Plant prime contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats, and the US Department of Energy to evaluate TRAC as an acceptable emergency response tool. After exhaustive research of similar evaluation processes from other emergency response and regulatory organizations, the interagency committee devised a formal acceptance process. The process contains an evaluation protocol (Hodgin and Smith 1992), descriptions of responsibilities, an identified experimental data set to use in the evaluation, and judgment criteria for model acceptance. The evaluation protocol is general enough to allow for different implementations. This paper explains one implementation, shows protocol results for a test case, and presents results of a comparison between versions of TRAC with different wind Field codes: a two dimensional mass consistent code called WINDS (Fosberg et al. 1976) that has been extended to three dimensions, and a fully 3 dimensional mass conserving code called NUATMOS (Ross and Smith 1987, Ross et al. 1988).

  2. Applying the Extended Technology Acceptance Model to the Use of Clickers in Student Learning: Some Evidence from Macroeconomics Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies the extended technology acceptance model (exTAM) in information systems research to the use of clickers in student learning. The technology acceptance model (TAM) posits that perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of technology influence users' attitudes toward using and intention to use technology. Research subsequent…

  3. The Acceptance Model of Intuitive Eating: A Comparison of Women in Emerging Adulthood, Early Adulthood, and Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating (Avalos & Tylka, 2006) posits that body acceptance by others helps women appreciate their body and resist adopting an observer's perspective of their body, which contribute to their eating intuitively/adaptively. We extended this model by integrating body mass index (BMI) into its structure and…

  4. Thomas Kuhn's 'Structure of Scientific Revolutions' applied to exercise science paradigm shifts: example including the Central Governor Model.

    PubMed

    Pires, Flávio de Oliveira; de Oliveira Pires, Flávio

    2013-07-01

    According to Thomas Kuhn, the scientific progress of any discipline could be distinguished by a pre-paradigm phase, a normal science phase and a revolution phase. The science advances when a scientific revolution takes place after silent period of normal science and the scientific community moves ahead to a paradigm shift. I suggest there has been a recent change of course in the direction of the exercise science. According to the 'current paradigm', exercise would be probably limited by alterations in either central command or peripheral skeletal muscles, and fatigue would be developed in a task-dependent manner. Instead, the central governor model (GCM) has proposed that all forms of exercise are centrally-regulated, the central nervous system would calculate the metabolic cost required to complete a task in order to avoid catastrophic body failure. Some have criticized the CGM and supported the traditional interpretation, but recently the scientific community appears to have begun an intellectual trajectory to accept this theory. First, the increased number of citations of articles that have supported the CGM could indicate that the community has changed the focus. Second, relevant journals have devoted special editions to promote the debate on subjects challenged by the CGM. Finally, scientists from different fields have recognized mechanisms included in the CGM to understand the exercise limits. Given the importance of the scientific community in demarcating a Kuhnian paradigm shift, I suggest that these three aspects could indicate an increased acceptance of a centrally-regulated effort model, to understand the limits of exercise.

  5. Theory development in nursing and healthcare informatics: a model explaining and predicting information and communication technology acceptance by healthcare consumers.

    PubMed

    An, Ji-Young; Hayman, Laura L; Panniers, Teresa; Carty, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    About 110 million American adults are looking for health information and services on the Internet. Identification of the factors influencing healthcare consumers' technology acceptance is requisite to understanding their acceptance and usage behavior of online health information and related services. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of the Information and Communication Technology Acceptance Model (ICTAM). From the literature reviewed, ICTAM was developed with emphasis on integrating multidisciplinary perspectives from divergent frameworks and empirical findings into a unified model with regard to healthcare consumers' acceptance and usage behavior of information and services on the Internet.

  6. Modelling Facebook Usage among University Students in Thailand: The Role of Emotional Attachment in an Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the factors that influenced the use of Facebook among university students. Using an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) with emotional attachment (EA) as an external variable, a sample of 498 students from a public-funded Thailand university were surveyed on their responses to five variables hypothesized…

  7. Measuring the Moderating Effect of Gender and Age on E-Learning Acceptance in England: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach for an Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhini, Ali; Hone, Kate; Liu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    The success of an e-learning intervention depends to a considerable extent on student acceptance and use of the technology. Therefore, it has become imperative for practitioners and policymakers to understand the factors affecting the user acceptance of e-learning systems in order to enhance the students' learning experience. Based on an extended…

  8. Fostering Model-Based School Scientific Argumentation Among Prospective Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims both to foster and to assess "school scientific argumentation" among secondary science teachers during their pre-service education. For these purposes, the paper uses the meta-scientific construct of "theoretical model" (proposed by the so-called semantic view of scientific theories from contemporary philosophy of science) in three…

  9. Building the Scientific Modeling Assistant: An interactive environment for specialized software design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    The construction of scientific software models is an integral part of doing science, both within NASA and within the scientific community at large. Typically, model-building is a time-intensive and painstaking process, involving the design of very large, complex computer programs. Despite the considerable expenditure of resources involved, completed scientific models cannot easily be distributed and shared with the larger scientific community due to the low-level, idiosyncratic nature of the implemented code. To address this problem, we have initiated a research project aimed at constructing a software tool called the Scientific Modeling Assistant. This tool provides automated assistance to the scientist in developing, using, and sharing software models. We describe the Scientific Modeling Assistant, and also touch on some human-machine interaction issues relevant to building a successful tool of this type.

  10. Variation transmission model for setting acceptance criteria in a multi-staged pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Montes, Richard O

    2012-03-01

    Pharmaceutical manufacturing processes consist of a series of stages (e.g., reaction, workup, isolation) to generate the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Outputs at intermediate stages (in-process control) and API need to be controlled within acceptance criteria to assure final drug product quality. In this paper, two methods based on tolerance interval to derive such acceptance criteria will be evaluated. The first method is serial worst case (SWC), an industry risk minimization strategy, wherein input materials and process parameters of a stage are fixed at their worst-case settings to calculate the maximum level expected from the stage. This maximum output then becomes input to the next stage wherein process parameters are again fixed at worst-case setting. The procedure is serially repeated throughout the process until the final stage. The calculated limits using SWC can be artificially high and may not reflect the actual process performance. The second method is the variation transmission (VT) using autoregressive model, wherein variation transmitted up to a stage is estimated by accounting for the recursive structure of the errors at each stage. Computer simulations at varying extent of variation transmission and process stage variability are performed. For the scenarios tested, VT method is demonstrated to better maintain the simulated confidence level and more precisely estimate the true proportion parameter than SWC. Real data examples are also presented that corroborate the findings from the simulation. Overall, VT is recommended for setting acceptance criteria in a multi-staged pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  11. Development of a prediction model on the acceptance of electronic laboratory notebooks in academic environments.

    PubMed

    Kloeckner, Frederik; Farkas, Robert; Franken, Tobias; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Documentation of research data plays a key role in the biomedical engineering innovation processes. It makes an important contribution to the protection of intellectual property, the traceability of results and fulfilling the regulatory requirement. Because of the increasing digitalization in laboratories, an electronic alternative to the commonly-used paper-bound notebooks could contribute to the production of sophisticated documentation. However, compared to in an industrial environment, the use of electronic laboratory notebooks is not widespread in academic laboratories. Little is known about the acceptance of an electronic documentation system and the underlying reasons for this. Thus, this paper aims to establish a prediction model on the potential preference and acceptance of scientists either for paper-based or electronic documentation. The underlying data for the analysis originate from an online survey of 101 scientists in industrial, academic and clinical environments. Various parameters were analyzed to identify crucial factors for the system preference using binary logistic regression. The analysis showed significant dependency between the documentation system preference and the supposed workload associated with the documentation system (p<0.006; odds ratio=58.543) and an additional personal component. Because of the dependency of system choice on specific parameters it is possible to predict the acceptance of an electronic laboratory notebook before implementation.

  12. Evaluation of teledermatology adoption by health-care professionals using a modified Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Orruño, Estibalitz; Gagnon, Marie Pierre; Asua, José; Ben Abdeljelil, Anis

    2011-01-01

    We examined the main factors affecting the intention of physicians to use teledermatology using a modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The investigation was carried out during a teledermatology pilot study conducted in Spain. A total of 276 questionnaires were sent to physicians by email and 171 responded (62%). Cronbach's alpha was acceptably high for all constructs. Theoretical variables were well correlated with each other and with the dependent variable (Intention to Use). Logistic regression indicated that the original TAM model was good at predicting physicians' intention to use teledermatology and that the variables Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use were both significant (odds ratios of 8.4 and 7.4, respectively). When other theoretical variables were added, the model was still significant and it also became more powerful. However, the only significant predictor in the modified model was Facilitators with an odds ratio of 9.9. Thus the TAM was good at predicting physicians' intention to use teledermatology. However, the most important variable was the perception of Facilitators to using the technology (e.g. infrastructure, training and support).

  13. Acceptability of telemedicine and other cancer genetic counseling models of service delivery in geographically remote settings.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Eileen; Lamb, Amanda; Grillo, Barbara; Lucas, Lee; Miesfeldt, Susan

    2014-04-01

    This work examined acceptability of cancer genetic counseling models of service delivery among Maine residents at risk for hereditary cancer susceptibility disorders. Pre-counseling, participants ranked characteristics reflecting models of care from most to least important including: mode-of-communication (in-person versus telegenetics), provider level of training (genetic specialty versus some training/experience), delivery format (one-on-one versus group counseling), and location (local versus tertiary service requiring travel). Associations between models of care characteristic rankings and patient characteristics, including rural residence, perceived cancer risk, and perceived risk for a hereditary cancer risk susceptibility disorder were examined. A total of 149/300 (49.7% response rate) individuals from 11/16 Maine counties responded; 30.8% were from rural counties; 92.2% indicated that an important/the most important model of care characteristic is provider professional qualifications. Among other characteristics, 65.1% ranked one-on-one counseling as important/the most important. In-person and local counseling were ranked the two least important characteristics (51.8% and 52.1% important/the most important, respectively). Responses did not vary by patient characteristics with the exception of greater acceptance of group counseling among those at perceived high personal cancer risk. Cancer telegenetic services hold promise for access to expert providers in a one-on-one format for rurally remote clients.

  14. Computational model of collective nest selection by ants with heterogeneous acceptance thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Naoki; O'shea-Wheller, Thomas A.; Doran, Carolina; Franks, Nigel R.

    2015-01-01

    Collective decision-making is a characteristic of societies ranging from ants to humans. The ant Temnothorax albipennis is known to use quorum sensing to collectively decide on a new home; emigration to a new nest site occurs when the number of ants favouring the new site becomes quorate. There are several possible mechanisms by which ant colonies can select the best nest site among alternatives based on a quorum mechanism. In this study, we use computational models to examine the implications of heterogeneous acceptance thresholds across individual ants in collective nest choice behaviour. We take a minimalist approach to develop a differential equation model and a corresponding non-spatial agent-based model. We show, consistent with existing empirical evidence, that heterogeneity in acceptance thresholds is a viable mechanism for efficient nest choice behaviour. In particular, we show that the proposed models show speed–accuracy trade-offs and speed–cohesion trade-offs when we vary the number of scouts or the quorum threshold. PMID:26543578

  15. Computational model of collective nest selection by ants with heterogeneous acceptance thresholds.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Naoki; O'shea-Wheller, Thomas A; Doran, Carolina; Franks, Nigel R

    2015-06-01

    Collective decision-making is a characteristic of societies ranging from ants to humans. The ant Temnothorax albipennis is known to use quorum sensing to collectively decide on a new home; emigration to a new nest site occurs when the number of ants favouring the new site becomes quorate. There are several possible mechanisms by which ant colonies can select the best nest site among alternatives based on a quorum mechanism. In this study, we use computational models to examine the implications of heterogeneous acceptance thresholds across individual ants in collective nest choice behaviour. We take a minimalist approach to develop a differential equation model and a corresponding non-spatial agent-based model. We show, consistent with existing empirical evidence, that heterogeneity in acceptance thresholds is a viable mechanism for efficient nest choice behaviour. In particular, we show that the proposed models show speed-accuracy trade-offs and speed-cohesion trade-offs when we vary the number of scouts or the quorum threshold. PMID:26543578

  16. The Coastal Zone: Man and Nature. An Application of the Socio-Scientific Reasoning Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maul, June Paradise; And Others

    The curriculum model described here has been designed by incorporating the socio-scientific reasoning model with a simulation design in an attempt to have students investigate the onshore impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) gas and oil development. The socio-scientific reasoning model incorporates a logical/physical reasoning component as…

  17. An Elaboration Likelihood Model Based Longitudinal Analysis of Attitude Change during the Process of IT Acceptance via Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Woong-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to gain insight into attitude changes occurring during IT acceptance from the perspective of elaboration likelihood model (ELM). In particular, the primary target of this study was the process of IT acceptance through an education program. Although the Internet and computers are now quite ubiquitous, and…

  18. An Investigation of Employees' Use of E-Learning Systems: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Chen, Yen-Hsun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the technology acceptance model to examine the employees' attitudes and acceptance of electronic learning (e-learning) systems in organisations. This study examines four factors (organisational support, computer self-efficacy, prior experience and task equivocality) that are believed to influence…

  19. An Exploration of Student Internet Use in India: The Technology Acceptance Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusilier, Marcelline; Durlabhji, Subhash

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore behavioral processes involved in internet technology acceptance and use with a sample in India, a developing country that can potentially benefit from greater participation in the web economy. Design/methodology/approach - User experience was incorporated into the technology acceptance model (TAM)…

  20. Investigating Students' Acceptance and Self-Efficacy of E-Learning at Al-Aqsa University Based on TAM Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdi, Hasan Rebhi

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the influence of E-learning Self-Efficacy (ELSE) on the acceptance of e-learning by using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). According to the TAM which used as the theoretical basis, both of the Perceived Usefulness (PU) and the Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU) influence directly the end user's Behavioral Intention…

  1. Testing the Electronic Personal Health Record Acceptance Model by Nurses for Managing Their Own Health

    PubMed Central

    Trinkoff, A.M.; Storr, C.L.; Wilson, M.L.; Gurses, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To our knowledge, no evidence is available on health care professionals’ use of electronic personal health records (ePHRs) for their health management. We therefore focused on nurses’ personal use of ePHRs using a modified technology acceptance model. Objectives To examine (1) the psychometric properties of the ePHR acceptance model, (2) the associations of perceived usefulness, ease of use, data privacy and security protection, and perception of self as health-promoting role models to nurses’ own ePHR use, and (3) the moderating influences of age, chronic illness and medication use, and providers’ use of electronic health record (EHRs) on the associations between the ePHR acceptance constructs and ePHR use. Methods A convenience sample of registered nurses, those working in one of 12 hospitals in the Maryland and Washington, DC areas and members of the nursing informatics community (AMIA and HIMSS), were invited to respond to an anonymous online survey; 847 responded. Multiple logistic regression identified associations between the model constructs and ePHR use, and the moderating effect. Results Overall, ePHRs were used by 47%. Sufficient reliability for all scales was found. Three constructs were significantly related to nurses’ own ePHR use after adjusting for covariates: usefulness, data privacy and security protection, and health-promoting role model. Nurses with providers that used EHRs who perceived a higher level of data privacy and security protection had greater odds of ePHR use than those whose providers did not use EHRs. Older nurses with a higher self-perception as health-promoting role models had greater odds of ePHR use than younger nurses. Conclusions Nurses who use ePHRs for their personal health might promote adoption by the general public by serving as health-promoting role models. They can contribute to improvements in patient education and ePHR design, and serve as crucial resources when working with their

  2. Electronic Health Record Patient Portal Adoption by Health Care Consumers: An Acceptance Model and Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The future of health care delivery is becoming more citizen centered, as today’s user is more active, better informed, and more demanding. Worldwide governments are promoting online health services, such as electronic health record (EHR) patient portals and, as a result, the deployment and use of these services. Overall, this makes the adoption of patient-accessible EHR portals an important field to study and understand. Objective The aim of this study is to understand the factors that drive individuals to adopt EHR portals. Methods We applied a new adoption model using, as a starting point, Ventkatesh's Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology in a consumer context (UTAUT2) by integrating a new construct specific to health care, a new moderator, and new relationships. To test the research model, we used the partial least squares (PLS) causal modelling approach. An online questionnaire was administrated. We collected 360 valid responses. Results The statistically significant drivers of behavioral intention are performance expectancy (beta=.200; t=3.619), effort expectancy (beta=.185; t=2.907), habit (beta=.388; t=7.320), and self-perception (beta=.098; t=2.285). The predictors of use behavior are habit (beta=0.206; t=2.752) and behavioral intention (beta=0.258; t=4.036). The model explained 49.7% of the variance in behavioral intention and 26.8% of the variance in use behavior. Conclusions Our research helps to understand the desired technology characteristics of EHR portals. By testing an information technology acceptance model, we are able to determine what is more valued by patients when it comes to deciding whether to adopt EHR portals or not. The inclusion of specific constructs and relationships related to the health care consumer area also had a significant impact on understanding the adoption of EHR portals. PMID:26935646

  3. Development of a Health Information Technology Acceptance Model Using Consumers’ Health Behavior Intention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For effective health promotion using health information technology (HIT), it is mandatory that health consumers have the behavioral intention to measure, store, and manage their own health data. Understanding health consumers’ intention and behavior is needed to develop and implement effective and efficient strategies. Objective To develop and verify the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in health care by describing health consumers’ behavioral intention of using HIT. Methods This study used a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design. We extended TAM by adding more antecedents and mediating variables to enhance the model’s explanatory power and to make it more applicable to health consumers’ behavioral intention. Additional antecedents and mediating variables were added to the hypothetical model, based on their theoretical relevance, from the Health Belief Model and theory of planned behavior, along with the TAM. We undertook structural equation analysis to examine the specific nature of the relationship involved in understanding consumers’ use of HIT. Study participants were 728 members recruited from three Internet health portals in Korea. Data were collected by a Web-based survey using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results The overall fitness indices for the model developed in this study indicated an acceptable fit of the model. All path coefficients were statistically significant. This study showed that perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected health consumers’ attitude and behavioral intention. Health consumers’ health status, health belief and concerns, subjective norm, HIT characteristics, and HIT self-efficacy had a strong indirect impact on attitude and behavioral intention through the mediators of perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. Conclusions An extended TAM in the HIT arena was found to be valid to describe health

  4. Using the Scientific Method to Engage Mathematical Modeling: An Investigation of pi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Lester A. C.; Ng, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how to use the scientific method as the framework to introduce mathematical model. Two interdisciplinary activities, targeted for students in grade 6 or grade 7, are explained to show the application of the scientific method while building a mathematical model to investigate the relationship between the…

  5. Bridging Scientific Model Outputs with Emergency Response Needs in Catastrophic Earthquake Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannes, Tay W.

    2010-01-01

    In emergency management, scientific models are widely used for running hazard simulations and estimating losses often in support of planning and mitigation efforts. This work expands utility of the scientific model into the response phase of emergency management. The focus is on the common operating picture as it gives context to emergency…

  6. The Scientific Theory Profile: A Philosophy of Science Model for Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loving, Cathleen

    The model developed for use with science teachers--called the Scientific Theory Profile--consists of placing three well-known philosophers of science on a grid, with the x-axis being their methods for judging theories (rational vs. natural) and the y-axis being their views on scientific theories representing the Truth versus mere models of what…

  7. Scientific Inquiry Based Professional Development Models in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corlu, Mehmet Ali; Corlu, M. Sencer

    2012-01-01

    Scientific inquiry helps students develop critical thinking abilities and enables students to think and construct knowledge like a scientist. The study describes a method course implementation at a major public teachers college in Turkey. The main goal of the course was to improve research and teaching abilities of prospective physics teachers…

  8. Intention to use and actual use of electronic information resources: further exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).

    PubMed

    Tao, Donghua

    2009-11-14

    Following up a previous study that examined public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that the determinants of intention-to-use significantly predict actual use behavior. Direct impact of perceived usefulness and indirect impact of perceived ease of use to both behavior intention and actual behavior indicated the importance of ease of use at the early stage of technology acceptance. Non-significant intention-behavior relationship prompted thoughts on the measurement of actual behavior and multidimensional characteristics of the intention construct.

  9. Comparing Cognitive, Metacognitive, and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Models of Depression: a Longitudinal Study Survey.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Francisco J; Odriozola-González, Paula

    2015-06-16

    This study analyzed the interrelationships between key constructs of cognitive therapy (CT; depressogenic schemas), metacognitive therapy (MCT; dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT; psychological inflexibility) in the prediction of depressive symptoms. With a lapse of nine months, 106 nonclinical participants responded twice to an anonymous online survey containing the following questionnaires: the Depression subscale of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS), the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale Revised (DAS-R), the Positive beliefs, Negative beliefs and Need to control subscales of the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30), and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - II (AAQ-II). Results showed that when controlling for baseline levels of depressive symptoms and demographic variables, psychological inflexibility longitudinally mediated the effect of depressogenic schemas (path ab = .023, SE = .010; 95% BC CI [.008, .048]) and dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs on depressive symptoms (positive metacognitive beliefs: path ab = .052, SE = .031; 95% BC CI [.005, .134]; negative metacognitive beliefs: path ab = .087, SE = .049; 95% BC CI [.016, .214]; need to control: path ab = .087, SE = .051; 95% BC CI [.013, .220]). Results are discussed emphasizing the role of psychological inflexibility in the CT and MCT models of depression.

  10. Consumer acceptance and stability of spray dried betanin in model juices.

    PubMed

    Kaimainen, Mika; Laaksonen, Oskar; Järvenpää, Eila; Sandell, Mari; Huopalahti, Rainer

    2015-11-15

    Spray dried beetroot powder was used to colour model juices, and the consumer acceptance of the juices and stability of the colour during storage at 60 °C, 20 °C, 4 °C, and -20 °C were studied. The majority of the consumers preferred the model juices coloured with anthocyanins or beetroot extract over model juices coloured with spray dried beetroot powder. The consumers preferred more intensely coloured samples over lighter samples. Spray dried betanin samples were described as 'unnatural' and 'artificial' whereas the colour of beetroot extract was described more 'natural' and 'real juice'. No beetroot-derived off-odours or off-flavours were perceived in the model juices coloured with beetroot powder. Colour stability in model juices was greatly dependent on storage temperature with better stability at lower temperatures. Colour stability in the spray dried powder was very good at 20 °C. Betacyanins from beetroot could be a potential colourant for food products that are stored cold. PMID:25977043

  11. Consumer acceptance and stability of spray dried betanin in model juices.

    PubMed

    Kaimainen, Mika; Laaksonen, Oskar; Järvenpää, Eila; Sandell, Mari; Huopalahti, Rainer

    2015-11-15

    Spray dried beetroot powder was used to colour model juices, and the consumer acceptance of the juices and stability of the colour during storage at 60 °C, 20 °C, 4 °C, and -20 °C were studied. The majority of the consumers preferred the model juices coloured with anthocyanins or beetroot extract over model juices coloured with spray dried beetroot powder. The consumers preferred more intensely coloured samples over lighter samples. Spray dried betanin samples were described as 'unnatural' and 'artificial' whereas the colour of beetroot extract was described more 'natural' and 'real juice'. No beetroot-derived off-odours or off-flavours were perceived in the model juices coloured with beetroot powder. Colour stability in model juices was greatly dependent on storage temperature with better stability at lower temperatures. Colour stability in the spray dried powder was very good at 20 °C. Betacyanins from beetroot could be a potential colourant for food products that are stored cold.

  12. ICT & OTs: a model of information and communications technology acceptance and utilisation by occupational therapists (part 2).

    PubMed

    Schaper, Louise; Pervan, Graham

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in this paper describes the development, empirical validation and analysis of a model of technology acceptance by Australian occupational therapists. The study described involved the collection of quantitative data through a national survey. The theoretical significance of this work is that it uses a thoroughly constructed research model, with one of the largest sample sizes ever tested (n=1605), to extend technology acceptance research into the health sector. Results provide strong support for the model. This work reveals the complexity of the constructs and relationships that influence technology acceptance and highlights the need to include sociotechnical and system issues in studies of technology acceptance in healthcare to improve information system implementation success in this arena. The results of this study have practical and theoretical implications for health informaticians and researchers in the field of health informatics and information systems, tertiary educators, Commonwealth and State Governments and the allied health professions.

  13. Modeling the Uptake of Scientific Information by the Public and Opinion Flow in Society (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowsky, S.; Brown, G. D.; Cook, J.

    2013-12-01

    Improved communication of scientific findings requires knowledge not only of how people process information, but also how such information spreads through society and how people's opinions are shaped by those of others. Recent advances in cognitive science have yielded mathematical modeling techniques that permit the detailed analysis of individuals' cognition as well as the behavior of communities in the aggregate. We present two case studies that highlight the insights that can be derived from mathematical models of cognition: We show how rational processing of information (i.e., Bayesian hypothesis revision) can nonetheless give rise to seemingly 'irrational' belief updating, as for example when acceptance of human-caused global warming decreases among conservatives in response to evidence for human-caused global warming. We also show in an agent-based simulation how social norms can lead to polarization of societies. The model assumes that agents located within a social network observe the behavior of neighbours and infer from their behavior the social distribution of particular attitudes (e.g. towards climate change). Agents are assumed to dislike behaviours that are extreme within their neighbourhood (social extremeness aversion), and hence have a tendency to conform. However, agents are also assumed to prefer choices that are consistent with their own true beliefs (authenticity preference). Expression of attitudes reflects a compromise between these opposing principles. The model sheds light on the role of perceived rather than actual social consensus on attitudes to climate change. This is particularly relevant given the widespread perception among those who reject climate science that the percentage of the public that is sharing their beliefs is much higher than it actually is.

  14. Where there's smoke: Cigarette use, social acceptability, and spatial approaches to multilevel modeling.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Heather A

    2015-09-01

    I contribute to understandings of how context is related to individual outcomes by assessing the added value of combining multilevel and spatial modeling techniques. This methodological approach leads to substantive contributions to the smoking literature, including improved clarity on the central contextual factors and the examination of one manifestation of the social acceptability hypothesis. For this analysis I use restricted-use natality data from the Vital Statistics, and county-level data from the 2005-9 ACS. Critically, the results suggest that spatial considerations are still relevant in a multilevel framework. In addition, I argue that spatial processes help explain the relationships linking racial/ethnic minority concentration to lower overall odds of smoking. PMID:26188587

  15. WHERE THERE’S SMOKE: CIGARETTE USE, SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY, AND SPATIAL APPROACHES TO MULTILEVEL MODELING

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    I contribute to understandings of how context is related to individual outcomes by assessing the added value of combining multilevel and spatial modeling techniques. This methodological approach leads to substantive contributions to the smoking literature, including improved clarity on the central contextual factors and the examination of one manifestation of the social acceptability hypothesis. For this analysis I use restricted-use natality data from the Vital Statistics, and county-level data from the 2005–9 ACS. Critically, the results suggest that spatial considerations are still relevant in a multilevel framework. In addition, I argue that spatial processes help explain the relationships linking racial/ethnic minority concentration to lower overall odds of smoking. PMID:26188587

  16. Human dimension in scientific models in high-mountain climate change and risk projects: Peruvian-Swiss experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicuña, Luis; Jurt, Christine; Minan, Fiorella; Huggel, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Models in a range of scientific disciplines are increasingly seen as indispensable for successful adaptation. Governments as well as international organizations and cooperations put their efforts in basing their adaptation projects on scientific results. Thereby, it is critical that scientific models are first put into the particular context in which they will be applied. This paper addresses the experience of the project 'Glaciers 513- Climate change adaptation and disaster risk management for glacier retreat in the Andes' conducted in the districts of Carhuaz (Ancash region) and Santa Teresa (Cusco region) in Peru. The Peruvian and the Swiss governments put their joint efforts in an adaptation project in the context of climate change and the retreat of the glaciers. The project is led by a consortium of Care Peru and the University of Zurich with additional Swiss partners and its principal aim is to improve the capacity for integral adaptation and reduce the risk of disasters from glaciers and high-mountain areas, and effects of climate change, particularly in the regions of Cusco and Ancash. The paper shows how the so called "human dimension" on the one hand, and models from a range of disciplines, including climatology, glaciology, and hydrology on the other hand, were conceptualized and perceived by the different actors involved in the project. Important aspects have been, among others, the role of local knowledge including ancestral knowledge, demographic information, socio-economic indicators as well as the social, political and cultural framework and the historical background. Here we analyze the role and context of local knowledge and the historical background. The analysis of the implications of the differences and similarities of the perceptions of a range of actors contributes to the discussion about how, and to what extent scientific models can be contextualized, what kind of information can be helpful for the contextualization and how it can be

  17. Science Teacher Candidates' Perceptions about Roles and Nature of Scientific Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenilmez Turkoglu, Ayse; Oztekin, Ceren

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scientific models have important roles in science and science education. For scientists, they provide a means for generating new knowledge or function as an accessible summary of scientific studies. In science education, on the other hand, they are accessible representations of abstract concepts, and are also organizational frameworks…

  18. Mass Media and Global Warming: A Public Arenas Model of the Greenhouse Effect's Scientific Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuzil, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Uses the Public Arenas model to examine the historical roots of the greenhouse effect issue as communicated in scientific literature from the early 1800s to modern times. Utilizes a constructivist approach to discuss several possible explanations for the rise and fall of global warming as a social problem in the scientific arena. (PA)

  19. A Causal Model for the Development of Scientific Reasoning in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuessy, Carol L.

    A model for the development of scientific reasoning in adolescents was formulated largely upon the basis of Piagetian theory. Included as potential determinants of scientific reasoning were: experience; age; locus of control; field dependence-independence (FID); rigidity/flexibility; intelligence quotient (IQ); and sex. Causal relationships…

  20. The development of a model for predicting passenger acceptance of short-haul air transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1977-01-01

    Meaningful criteria and methodology for assessing, particularly in the area of ride quality, the potential acceptability to the traveling public of present and future transportation systems were investigated. Ride quality was found to be one of the important variables affecting the decision of users of air transportation, and to be influenced by several environmental factors, especially motion, noise, pressure, temperature, and seating. Models were developed to quantify the relationship of subjective comfort to all of these parameters and then were exercised for a variety of situations. Passenger satisfaction was found to be strongly related to ride quality and was so modeled. A computer program was developed to assess the comfort and satisfaction levels of passengers on aircraft subjected to arbitrary flight profiles over arbitrary terrain. A model was deduced of the manner in which passengers integrate isolated segments of a flight to obtain an overall trip comfort rating. A method was established for assessing the influence of other links (e.g., access, terminal conditions) in the overall passenger trip.

  1. The acceptance model of intuitive eating: a comparison of women in emerging adulthood, early adulthood, and middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Augustus-Horvath, Casey L; Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-01-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating (Avalos & Tylka, 2006) posits that body acceptance by others helps women appreciate their body and resist adopting an observer's perspective of their body, which contribute to their eating intuitively/adaptively. We extended this model by integrating body mass index (BMI) into its structure and investigating it with emerging (ages 18-25 years old, n = 318), early (ages 26-39 years old, n = 238), and middle (ages 40-65 years old, n = 245) adult women. Multiple-group analysis revealed that this model fit the data for all age groups. Body appreciation and resistance to adopt an observer's perspective mediated the body acceptance by others-intuitive eating link. Body acceptance by others mediated the social support-body appreciation and BMI-body appreciation links. Early and middle adult women had stronger negative BMI-body acceptance by others and BMI-intuitive eating relationships and a stronger positive body acceptance by others-body appreciation relationship than emerging adult women. Early adult women had a stronger positive resistance to adopt observer's perspective-body appreciation relationship than emerging and middle adult women.

  2. Struggles with learning about scientific models in a middle school science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loper, Suzanna Jane

    Two important goals in science education are teaching students about the nature of science and teaching students to do scientific inquiry. Learning about scientific models is central to both of these endeavors, but studies have shown that students have very flawed and limited understandings of the nature and purposes of scientific models (Carey & Smith, 1993; Grosslight, Unger, & Jay, 1991; Lederman, 1992). In this dissertation I investigate the processes of teaching and learning about scientific models in an 8th grade classroom in an urban middle school. In order to do so, I examine recordings of student and teacher talk about models across a period of two months in which students completed two independent inquiry projects, using the Inquiry Island software and curriculum (Eslinger, 2004; Shimoda, White, & Frederiksen, 2002; White, Shimoda, & Frederiksen, 2000). My analysis draws on video records of small-group work and whole-class interactions, as well as on students' written work. I find that in this classroom, students struggled to understand the nature and purpose of scientific models. I analyze episodes in the classroom talk in which models appeared to be a source of trouble or confusion, and describe the ways in which the teacher attempted to respond to these troubles. I find that in many cases students appeared to be able to produce scientific models of the proper form, yet still struggled with displaying an understanding of what a model was, or of the functions of models in scientific research. I propose directions for further research and curriculum development in order to build on these findings. In particular, I argue, we need to design ways to help students engage in scientific modeling as a social and communicative practice, and to find ways to build from their everyday reasoning and argumentation practices. My research also reinforces the importance of looking at classroom talk, not just pre- and post-assessments, in order to understand teaching and

  3. Evaluating innovation. Part 1: The concept of progressive scholarly acceptance.

    PubMed

    Schnurman, Zane; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the relevant medical community accepts new therapies is vital to patients, physicians, and society. Increasingly, focus is placed on how medical innovations are evaluated. But recognizing when a treatment has become accepted practice-essentially, acceptance by the scientific community-remains a challenge and a barrierto investigating treatment development. This report aims to demonstrate the theory, method, and limitations of a model for measuring a new metric that the authors term "progressive scholarly acceptance." A model was developed to identify when the scientific community has accepted an innovation, by observing when researchers have moved beyond the initial study of efficacy. This model could enable further investigations into the methods and influences of treatment development.

  4. A Quantitative Examination of User Experience as an Antecedent to Student Perception in Technology Acceptance Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Rory

    2013-01-01

    Internet-enabled mobile devices have increased the accessibility of learning content for students. Given the ubiquitous nature of mobile computing technology, a thorough understanding of the acceptance factors that impact a learner's intention to use mobile technology as an augment to their studies is warranted. Student acceptance of mobile…

  5. Determinants of Intention to Use eLearning Based on the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punnoose, Alfie Chacko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find some of the predominant factors that determine the intention of students to use eLearning in the future. Since eLearning is not just a technology acceptance decision but also involves cognition, this study extended its search beyond the normal technology acceptance variables into variables that could affect…

  6. Empirical Testing of a Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: An Exploratory Study of Educational Wikis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xun

    2010-01-01

    This study extended the technology acceptance model and empirically tested the new model with wikis, a new type of educational technology. Based on social cognitive theory and the theory of planned behavior, three new variables, wiki self-efficacy, online posting anxiety, and perceived behavioral control, were added to the original technology…

  7. Learning with Interactive Whiteboards: Determining the Factors on Promoting Interactive Whiteboards to Students by Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Eylem; Güler, Çetin; Çelik, H. Eray; Tatli, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors which might affect the intention to use interactive whiteboards (IWBs) by university students, using Technology Acceptance Model by the structural equation modeling approach. The following hypothesis guided the current study: H1. There is a positive relationship between IWB…

  8. Discovery of the faithfulness gene: a model of transmission and transformation of scientific information.

    PubMed

    Green, Eva G T; Clémence, Alain

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the diffusion and transformation of scientific information in everyday discussions. Based on rumour models and social representations theory, the impact of interpersonal communication and pre-existing beliefs on transmission of the content of a scientific discovery was analysed. In three experiments, a communication chain was simulated to investigate how laypeople make sense of a genetic discovery first published in a scientific outlet, then reported in a mainstream newspaper and finally discussed in groups. Study 1 (N=40) demonstrated a transformation of information when the scientific discovery moved along the communication chain. During successive narratives, scientific expert terminology disappeared while scientific information associated with lay terminology persisted. Moreover, the idea of a discovery of a faithfulness gene emerged. Study 2 (N=70) revealed that transmission of the scientific message varied as a function of attitudes towards genetic explanations of behaviour (pro-genetics vs. anti-genetics). Pro-genetics employed more scientific terminology than anti-genetics. Study 3 (N=75) showed that endorsement of genetic explanations was related to descriptive accounts of the scientific information, whereas rejection of genetic explanations was related to evaluative accounts of the information.

  9. [The Technology Acceptance Model and Its Application in a Telehealth Program for the Elderly With Chronic Illnesses].

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Ping

    2015-06-01

    Many technology developments hold the potential to improve the quality of life of people and make life easier and more comfortable. New technologies have been well accepted by most people. Information sharing in particular is a major catalyst of change in our current technology-based society. Technology has widely innovated life and drastically changed lifestyles. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), a model developed to address the rapid advances in computer technology, is used to explain and predict user acceptance of new information technology. In the past, businesses have used the TAM as an assessment tool to predict user acceptance when introducing new technology products. They have also used external factors in the model to influence user perceptions and beliefs and to ensure the successful spread of new technologies. Informatization plays a critical role in healthcare services. Due to the rapid aging of populations and upward trends in the incidence of chronic illness, requirements for long-term care have increased in both quality and quantity. Therefore, there has been an increased emphasis on integrating healthcare and information technology. However, most elderly are significantly less adept at technology use than the general population. Therefore, we reexamined the effect that the essential concepts in a TAM exerted on technology acceptance. In the present study, the technology acceptance experience with regard to telehealth of the elderly was used as an example to explain how the revised technology acceptance model (TAM 2) may be effectively applied to enhance the understanding of technology care among nurses. The results may serve as a reference for future research on healthcare-technology use in long-term care or in elderly populations.

  10. GeoPro: Technology to Enable Scientific Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    C. Juan

    2004-02-09

    Development of the ground-water flow model for the Death Valley Regional Groundwater Flow System (DVRFS) required integration of numerous supporting hydrogeologic investigations. The results from recharge, discharge, hydraulic properties, water level, pumping, model boundaries, and geologic studies were integrated to develop the required conceptual and 3-D framework models, and the flow model itself. To support the complex modeling process and the needs of the multidisciplinary DVRFS team, a hardware and software system called GeoPro (Geoscience Knowledge Integration Protocol) was developed. A primary function of GeoPro is to manage the large volume of disparate data compiled for the 100,000-square-kilometer area of southern Nevada and California. The data are primarily from previous investigations and regional flow models developed for the Nevada Test Site and Yucca Mountain projects. GeoPro utilizes relational database technology (Microsoft SQL Server{trademark}) to store and manage these tabular point data, groundwater flow model ASCII data, 3-D hydrogeologic framework data, 2-D and 2.5-D GIS data, and text documents. Data management consists of versioning, tracking, and reporting data changes as multiple users access the centralized database. GeoPro also supports the modeling process by automating the routine data transformations required to integrate project software. This automation is also crucial to streamlining pre- and post-processing of model data during model calibration. Another function of GeoPro is to facilitate the dissemination and use of the model data and results through web-based documents by linking and allowing access to the underlying database and analysis tools. The intent is to convey to end-users the complex flow model product in a manner that is simple, flexible, and relevant to their needs. GeoPro is evolving from a prototype system to a production-level product. Currently the DVRFS pre- and post-processing modeling tools are being re

  11. Formative research on the primo vascular system and acceptance by the korean scientific community: the gap between creative basic science and practical convergence technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon Gi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to trace the formative process of primo vascular system (PVS) research over the past decade and to describe the characteristics of the Korean scientific community. By publishing approximately 30 papers in journals ranking in the Science Citation Index (Expanded), the PVS research team actively convinced domestic and international scientists of the anatomical existence of the PVS and its possible application to Korean and Western medicine. In addition, by sharing the PVS observation technique, the team promoted the dissemination and further pursuit of the research. In 2012, however, PVS researchers performed smaller scale research without advancing to a higher level as compared to the early days. The main reasons were found to be the Korean Research and Development policy of supporting creative, small-scale basic research and applied research of Western scientific fields that promised potentially greater success on an extensive scale; the indifference concerning, and the disbelief in, the existence of a new circulatory system were shown by the Western medical community. In addition, the Oriental medical community was apathetic about working with the PVS team. Professors Kwang-Sup Soh and Byung-Cheon Lee were the prime movers of PVS research under difficult conditions. Spurred by their belief in the existence and significance of the PVS, they continued with their research despite insufficient experimental data. The Korean scientific community is not ready to promote the Korea-oriented creative field of the PVS team.

  12. Formative research on the primo vascular system and acceptance by the korean scientific community: the gap between creative basic science and practical convergence technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon Gi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to trace the formative process of primo vascular system (PVS) research over the past decade and to describe the characteristics of the Korean scientific community. By publishing approximately 30 papers in journals ranking in the Science Citation Index (Expanded), the PVS research team actively convinced domestic and international scientists of the anatomical existence of the PVS and its possible application to Korean and Western medicine. In addition, by sharing the PVS observation technique, the team promoted the dissemination and further pursuit of the research. In 2012, however, PVS researchers performed smaller scale research without advancing to a higher level as compared to the early days. The main reasons were found to be the Korean Research and Development policy of supporting creative, small-scale basic research and applied research of Western scientific fields that promised potentially greater success on an extensive scale; the indifference concerning, and the disbelief in, the existence of a new circulatory system were shown by the Western medical community. In addition, the Oriental medical community was apathetic about working with the PVS team. Professors Kwang-Sup Soh and Byung-Cheon Lee were the prime movers of PVS research under difficult conditions. Spurred by their belief in the existence and significance of the PVS, they continued with their research despite insufficient experimental data. The Korean scientific community is not ready to promote the Korea-oriented creative field of the PVS team. PMID:24290796

  13. Physician Acceptance of a Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Treatment Model for Hypertension Management in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven M; Hasan, Michaela; Huebschmann, Amy G; Penaloza, Richard; Schorr-Ratzlaff, Wagner; Sieja, Amber; Roscoe, Nicholai; Trinkley, Katy E

    2015-09-01

    Physician-pharmacist collaborative care (PPCC) is effective in improving blood pressure (BP) control, but primary care provider (PCP) engagement in such models has not been well-studied. The authors analyzed data from PPCC referrals to 108 PCPs, for patients with uncontrolled hypertension, assessing the proportion of referral requests approved, disapproved, and not responded to, and reasons for disapproval. Of 2232 persons with uncontrolled hypertension, PPCC referral requests were sent for 1516 (67.9%): 950 (62.7%) were approved, 406 (26.8%) were disapproved, and 160 (10.6%) received no response. Approval rates differed widely by PCP with a median approval rate of 75% (interquartile range, 41%-100%). The most common reasons for disapproval were: PCP prefers to manage hypertension (19%), and BP controlled per PCP (18%); 8% of cases were considered too complex for PPCC. Provider acceptance of a PPCC hypertension clinic was generally high and sustained but varied widely among PCPs. No single reason for disapproval predominated.

  14. Local model of a scientific collaboration in physics network compared with the global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roohi, A. A.; Shirazi, A. H.; Kargaran, A.; Jafari, G. R.

    2010-12-01

    We have constructed a collaboration network for physicists based in Iran working in different disciplines. By discussing properties like collaborators per author, shortest path, betweenness, and the concept of power in networks for this local model, and comparing with the global model, we understand how a developing country in the Middle East is contributing to the scientific growth in the world statistically. In this comparison, we found some properties of the local model which were not in accordance with the standard global society of science, which should be considered in developing the future policies. Our results show significant differences in factors like the degree and the diameter of the networks. Even though the diversity of disciplines is low in contrast with the rest of the world according to the diameter of networks, people are reluctant to collaborate as their degree shows.

  15. An Open Simulation System Model for Scientific Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Anthony D.

    1995-01-01

    A model for a generic and open environment for running multi-code or multi-application simulations - called the open Simulation System Model (OSSM) - is proposed and defined. This model attempts to meet the requirements of complex systems like the Numerical Propulsion Simulator System (NPSS). OSSM places no restrictions on the types of applications that can be integrated at any state of its evolution. This includes applications of different disciplines, fidelities, etc. An implementation strategy is proposed that starts with a basic prototype, and evolves over time to accommodate an increasing number of applications. Potential (standard) software is also identified which may aid in the design and implementation of the system.

  16. Scientific Benefits of Space Science Models Archiving at Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Berrios, David; Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; MacNeice, Peter J.; Maddox, Marlo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre

    2009-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) hosts a set of state-of-the-art space science models ranging from the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. CCMC provides a web-based Run-on-Request system, by which the interested scientist can request simulations for a broad range of space science problems. To allow the models to be driven by data relevant to particular events CCMC developed a tool that automatically downloads data from data archives and transform them to required formats. CCMC also provides a tailored web-based visualization interface for the model output, as well as the capability to download the simulation output in portable format. CCMC offers a variety of visualization and output analysis tools to aid scientists in interpretation of simulation results. During eight years since the Run-on-request system became available the CCMC archived the results of almost 3000 runs that are covering significant space weather events and time intervals of interest identified by the community. The simulation results archived at CCMC also include a library of general purpose runs with modeled conditions that are used for education and research. Archiving results of simulations performed in support of several Modeling Challenges helps to evaluate the progress in space weather modeling over time. We will highlight the scientific benefits of CCMC space science model archive and discuss plans for further development of advanced methods to interact with simulation results.

  17. Integrating social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model to explore a behavioral model of telehealth systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-05-01

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities. PMID:24810577

  18. Integrating Social Capital Theory, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Technology Acceptance Model to Explore a Behavioral Model of Telehealth Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities. PMID:24810577

  19. Integrating social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model to explore a behavioral model of telehealth systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-05-07

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.

  20. Process-Response Modeling and the Scientific Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichter, Lynn S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the process-response model (PRM) in its theoretical and practical forms. Describes how geologists attempt to reconstruct the process from the response (the geologic phenomenon) being studied. (TW)

  1. Research article: Watershed management councils and scientific models: Using diffusion literature to explain adoption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, M.D.; Burkardt, N.; Clark, B.T.

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature on the diffusion of innovations concentrates either specifically on public adoption of policy, where social or environmental conditions are the dependent variables for adoption, or on private adoption of an innovation, where emphasis is placed on the characteristics of the innovation itself. This article uses both the policy diffusion literature and the diffusion of innovation literature to assess watershed management councils' decisions to adopt, or not adopt, scientific models. Watershed management councils are a relevant case study because they possess both public and private attributes. We report on a survey of councils in the United States that was conducted to determine the criteria used when selecting scientific models for studying watershed conditions. We found that specific variables from each body of literature play a role in explaining the choice to adopt scientific models by these quasi-public organizations. The diffusion of innovation literature contributes to an understanding of how organizations select models by confirming the importance of a model's ability to provide better data. Variables from the policy diffusion literature showed that watershed management councils that employ consultants are more likely to use scientific models. We found a gap between those who create scientific models and those who use these models. We recommend shrinking this gap through more communication between these actors and advancing the need for developers to provide more technical assistance.

  2. Designing a Technology-Enhanced Learning Environment to Support Scientific Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2010-01-01

    Modeling of a natural phenomenon is of value in science learning and increasingly emphasized as an important component of science education. However, previous research has shown that secondary school students encounter difficulties when engaging in modeling activities and need substantial support in order to create meaningful scientific models.…

  3. Promoting and Supporting Scientific Argumentation in the Classroom: The Evaluate-Alternatives Instructional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Victor; Grooms, Jonathon

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an instructional model that science teachers can use to promote and support student engagement in scientific argumentation. This model is called the evaluate-alternatives instructional model and it is grounded in current research on argumentation in science education (e.g., Berland and Reiser 2009; McNeill and Krajcik 2006;…

  4. SCIENTIFIC UNCERTAINTIES IN ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY MODELS II: SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS IN THE CONUS DOMAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we present the response of model results to different scientific treatments in an effort to quantify the uncertainties caused by the incomplete understanding of mercury science and by model assumptions in atmospheric mercury models. Two sets of sensitivity simulati...

  5. Designing a Programming-Based Approach for Modelling Scientific Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Gordon; Hoyles, Celia; Noss, Richard

    2005-01-01

    We describe an iteratively designed sequence of activities involving the modelling of one-dimensional collisions between moving objects based on programming in ToonTalk. Students aged 13-14 years in two settings (London and Cyprus) investigated a number of collision situations, classified into six classes based on the relative velocities and…

  6. Tacit Beginnings towards a Model of Scientific Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Rory J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an examination of the role tacit knowledge plays in understanding, and to provide a model to make such knowledge identifiable. To do this I first consider the needs of society, the ubiquity of information in our world and the future demands of the science classroom. I propose the use of more implicit or…

  7. Scientific and conceptual flaws of coercive treatment models in addiction.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Susanne; van der Eijk, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    In conceptual debates on addiction, neurobiological research has been used to support the idea that addicted drug users lack control over their addiction-related actions. In some interpretations, this has led to coercive treatment models, in which, the purpose is to 'restore' control. However, neurobiological studies that go beyond what is typically presented in conceptual debates paint a different story. In particular, they indicate that though addiction has neurobiological manifestations that make the addictive behaviour difficult to control, it is possible for individuals to reverse these manifestations through their own efforts. Thus, addicted individuals should not be considered incapable of making choices voluntarily, simply on the basis that addiction has neurobiological manifestations, and coercive treatment models of addiction should be reconsidered in this respect.

  8. Data Relationships: Towards a Conceptual Model of Scientific Data Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourcle, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    As the amount of data, types of processing and storage formats increase, the total number of record permutations increase dramatically. The result is an overwhelming number of records that make identifying the best data object to answer a user's needs more difficult. The issue is further complicated as each archive's data catalog may be designed around different concepts - - anything from individual files to be served, series of similarly generated and processed data, or something entirely different. Catalogs may not only be flat tables, but may be structured as multiple tables with each table being a different data series, or a normalized structure of the individual data files. Merging federated search results from archives with different catalog designs can create situations where the data object of interest is difficult to find due to an overwhelming number of seemingly similar or entirely unwanted records. We present a reference model for discussing data catalogs and the complex relationships between similar data objects. We show how the model can be used to improve scientist's ability to quickly identify the best data object for their purposes and discuss technical issues required to use this model in a federated system.

  9. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Pre-Service Teachers' Technology Acceptance: A Validation Study Using Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Tan, Lynde

    2012-01-01

    This study applies the theory of planned behavior (TPB), a theory that is commonly used in commercial settings, to the educational context to explain pre-service teachers' technology acceptance. It is also interested in examining its validity when used for this purpose. It has found evidence that the TPB is a valid model to explain pre-service…

  10. Efficiency of the Technology Acceptance Model to Explain Pre-Service Teachers' Intention to Use Technology: A Turkish Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Ursavas, Omer Faruk; Bahcekapili, Ekrem

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the efficiency of the technology acceptance model (TAM) to explain pre-service teachers' intention to use technology in Turkey. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 197 pre-service teachers from a Turkish university completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to four constructs…

  11. Factors of Online Learning Adoption: A Comparative Juxtaposition of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndubisi, Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Organisational investments in information technologies have increased significantly in the past few decades. All around the globe and in Malaysia particularly, a number of educational institutions are experimenting with e-learning. Adopting the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the technology acceptance model (TAM) this article tries to…

  12. A Quantitative Study of Faculty Perceptions and Attitudes on Asynchronous Virtual Teamwork Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolusky, G. Anthony

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study used a web-based questionnaire to assess the attitudes and perceptions of online and hybrid faculty towards student-centered asynchronous virtual teamwork (AVT) using the technology acceptance model (TAM) of Davis (1989). AVT is online student participation in a team approach to problem-solving culminating in a written…

  13. Validating the Technology Acceptance Model in the Context of the Laboratory Information System-Electronic Health Record Interface System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquino, Cesar A.

    2014-01-01

    This study represents a research validating the efficacy of Davis' Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by pairing it with the Organizational Change Readiness Theory (OCRT) to develop another extension to the TAM, using the medical Laboratory Information Systems (LIS)--Electronic Health Records (EHR) interface as the medium. The TAM posits that it is…

  14. Spud 1.0: generalising and automating the user interfaces of scientific computer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, D. A.; Farrell, P. E.; Gorman, G. J.; Maddison, J. R.; Wilson, C. R.; Kramer, S. C.; Shipton, J.; Collins, G. S.; Cotter, C. J.; Piggott, M. D.

    2009-03-01

    The interfaces by which users specify the scenarios to be simulated by scientific computer models are frequently primitive, under-documented and ad-hoc text files which make using the model in question difficult and error-prone and significantly increase the development cost of the model. In this paper, we present a model-independent system, Spud, which formalises the specification of model input formats in terms of formal grammars. This is combined with an automated graphical user interface which guides users to create valid model inputs based on the grammar provided, and a generic options reading module, libspud, which minimises the development cost of adding model options. Together, this provides a user friendly, well documented, self validating user interface which is applicable to a wide range of scientific models and which minimises the developer input required to maintain and extend the model interface.

  15. Spud 1.0: generalising and automating the user interfaces of scientific computer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, D. A.; Farrell, P. E.; Gorman, G. J.; Maddison, J. R.; Wilson, C. R.; Kramer, S. C.; Shipton, J.; Collins, G. S.; Cotter, C. J.; Piggott, M. D.

    2008-07-01

    The interfaces by which users specify the scenarios to be simulated by scientific computer models are frequently primitive, under-documented and ad-hoc text files which make using the model in question difficult and error-prone and significantly increase the development cost of the model. In this paper, we present a model-independent system, Spud, which formalises the specification of model input formats in terms of formal grammars. This is combined with an automated graphical user interface which guides users to create valid model inputs based on the grammar provided, and a generic options reading module which minimises the development cost of adding model options. Together, this provides a user friendly, well documented, self validating user interface which is applicable to a wide range of scientific models and which minimises the developer input required to maintain and extend the model interface.

  16. Investigating IT Faculty Resistance to Learning Management System Adoption Using Latent Variables in an Acceptance Technology Model.

    PubMed

    Bousbahi, Fatiha; Alrazgan, Muna Saleh

    2015-01-01

    To enhance instruction in higher education, many universities in the Middle East have chosen to introduce learning management systems (LMS) to their institutions. However, this new educational technology is not being used at its full potential and faces resistance from faculty members. To investigate this phenomenon, we conducted an empirical research study to uncover factors influencing faculty members' acceptance of LMS. Thus, in the Fall semester of 2014, Information Technology faculty members were surveyed to better understand their perceptions of the incorporation of LMS into their courses. The results showed that personal factors such as motivation, load anxiety, and organizational support play important roles in the perception of the usefulness of LMS among IT faculty members. These findings suggest adding these constructs in order to extend the Technology acceptance model (TAM) for LMS acceptance, which can help stakeholders of the university to implement the use of this system. This may assist in planning and evaluating the use of e-learning.

  17. Investigating IT Faculty Resistance to Learning Management System Adoption Using Latent Variables in an Acceptance Technology Model.

    PubMed

    Bousbahi, Fatiha; Alrazgan, Muna Saleh

    2015-01-01

    To enhance instruction in higher education, many universities in the Middle East have chosen to introduce learning management systems (LMS) to their institutions. However, this new educational technology is not being used at its full potential and faces resistance from faculty members. To investigate this phenomenon, we conducted an empirical research study to uncover factors influencing faculty members' acceptance of LMS. Thus, in the Fall semester of 2014, Information Technology faculty members were surveyed to better understand their perceptions of the incorporation of LMS into their courses. The results showed that personal factors such as motivation, load anxiety, and organizational support play important roles in the perception of the usefulness of LMS among IT faculty members. These findings suggest adding these constructs in order to extend the Technology acceptance model (TAM) for LMS acceptance, which can help stakeholders of the university to implement the use of this system. This may assist in planning and evaluating the use of e-learning. PMID:26491712

  18. Investigating IT Faculty Resistance to Learning Management System Adoption Using Latent Variables in an Acceptance Technology Model

    PubMed Central

    Bousbahi, Fatiha; Alrazgan, Muna Saleh

    2015-01-01

    To enhance instruction in higher education, many universities in the Middle East have chosen to introduce learning management systems (LMS) to their institutions. However, this new educational technology is not being used at its full potential and faces resistance from faculty members. To investigate this phenomenon, we conducted an empirical research study to uncover factors influencing faculty members' acceptance of LMS. Thus, in the Fall semester of 2014, Information Technology faculty members were surveyed to better understand their perceptions of the incorporation of LMS into their courses. The results showed that personal factors such as motivation, load anxiety, and organizational support play important roles in the perception of the usefulness of LMS among IT faculty members. These findings suggest adding these constructs in order to extend the Technology acceptance model (TAM) for LMS acceptance, which can help stakeholders of the university to implement the use of this system. This may assist in planning and evaluating the use of e-learning. PMID:26491712

  19. Experiencing Scientific Inquiry and Pedagogy: A Model for Inservice Training for Science Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, David L.; Ramsey, Linda L.

    This study was designed to investigate the effect on teachers and their students of a model of professional development that immerses teachers in scientific inquiry appropriate to their classrooms while modeling the use of reform-based pedagogical strategies for teaching science. The course was designed and team taught as a collaborative effort…

  20. Evaluation of Student Models on Current Socio-Scientific Topics Based on System Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuhoglu, Hasret

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to 1) enable primary school students to develop models that will help them understand and analyze a system, through a learning process based on system dynamics approach, 2) examine and evaluate students' models related to socio-scientific issues using certain criteria. The research method used is a case study. The study sample…

  1. Identifying Multiple Levels of Discussion-Based Teaching Strategies for Constructing Scientific Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Grant; Clement, John

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to identify specific types of discussion-based strategies that two successful high school physics teachers using a model-based approach utilized in attempting to foster students' construction of explanatory models for scientific concepts. We found evidence that, in addition to previously documented dialogical strategies that…

  2. A Teaching Model for Scaffolding 4th Grade Students' Scientific Explanation Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation…

  3. The Nature of Scientific Revolutions from the Vantage Point of Chaos Theory: Toward a Formal Model of Scientific Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perla, Rocco J.; Carifio, James

    2005-01-01

    In sharp contrast to the early positivist view of the nature of science and scientific knowledge, Kuhn argues that the scientific enterprise involves states of continuous, gradual development punctuated by comparatively rare instances of turmoil and change, which ultimately brings about a new stability and a qualitatively changed knowledge base.…

  4. Using the UTAUT Model to Examine the Acceptance Behavior of Synchronous Collaboration to Support Peer Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yi Chun; Huang, Yong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The teaching of translation has received considerable attention in recent years. Research on translation in collaborative learning contexts, however, has been less studied. In this study, we use a tool of synchronous collaboration to assist students in experiencing a peer translation process. Afterward, the unified theory of acceptance and use of…

  5. Adult Role Models: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Outcomes for Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarossi, Lisa; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Dean, Randa; Perez, Amanda; Rivera, Angelic

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the feasibility and acceptability of a parent sexuality education program led by peer educators in community settings. They also report the results of an outcome evaluation with 71 parents who were randomized to the intervention or a control group and surveyed one month prior to and six months after the four-week intervention.…

  6. Exploring Students' Intention to Use LINE for Academic Purposes Based on Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van De Bogart, Willard; Wichadee, Saovapa

    2015-01-01

    The LINE application is often conceived as purely social space; however, the authors of this paper wanted to determine if it could be used for academic purposes. In this study, we examined how undergraduate students accepted LINE in terms of using it for classroom-related activities (e.g., submit homework, follow up course information queries,…

  7. Integrating Telemedicine for Disaster Response: Testing the Emergency Telemedicine Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is little evidence that technology acceptance is well understood in healthcare. The hospital environment is complex and dynamic creating a challenge when new technology is introduced because it impacts current processes and workflows which can significantly affect patient care delivery and outcomes. This study tested the effect…

  8. WebCT--The Quasimoderating Effect of Perceived Affective Quality on an Extending Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Franco, Manuel J.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived affective quality is an attractive area of research in Information System. Specifically, understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic individual factors and interaction effects that influence Information and Communications Technology (ICT) acceptance and adoption--in higher education--continues to be a focal interest in learning research.…

  9. An Investigation of University Student Readiness Towards M-Learning Using Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Shakeel; Bhatti, Zeeshan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    M-learning is learning delivered via mobile devices and mobile technology. The research indicates that this medium of learning has potential to enhance formal as well as informal learning. However, acceptance of m-learning greatly depends upon the personal attitude of students towards this medium; therefore this study focuses only on the…

  10. The Large-scale Structure of Scientific Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosso, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The standard textbook description of the nature of science describes the proposal, testing, and acceptance of a theoretical idea almost entirely in isolation from other theories. The resulting model of science is a kind of piecemeal empiricism that misses the important network structure of scientific knowledge. Only the large-scale description of scientific method can reveal the global interconnectedness of scientific knowledge that is an essential part of what makes science scientific.

  11. Developing scientific confidence in HTS-derived prediction models: lessons learned from an endocrine case study.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony; Popken, Douglas; Marty, M Sue; Rowlands, J Craig; Patlewicz, Grace; Goyak, Katy O; Becker, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    High throughput (HTS) and high content (HCS) screening methods show great promise in changing how hazard and risk assessments are undertaken, but scientific confidence in such methods and associated prediction models needs to be established prior to regulatory use. Using a case study of HTS-derived models for predicting in vivo androgen (A), estrogen (E), thyroid (T) and steroidogenesis (S) endpoints in endocrine screening assays, we compare classification (fitting) models to cross validation (prediction) models. The more robust cross validation models (based on a set of endocrine ToxCast™ assays and guideline in vivo endocrine screening studies) have balanced accuracies from 79% to 85% for A and E, but only 23% to 50% for T and S. Thus, for E and A, HTS results appear promising for initial use in setting priorities for endocrine screening. However, continued research is needed to expand the domain of applicability and to develop more robust HTS/HCS-based prediction models prior to their use in other regulatory applications. Based on the lessons learned, we propose a framework for documenting scientific confidence in HTS assays and the prediction models derived therefrom. The documentation, transparency and the scientific rigor involved in addressing the elements in the proposed Scientific Confidence Framework could aid in discussions and decisions about the prediction accuracy needed for different applications. PMID:24845243

  12. Test of the technology acceptance model for a Web-based information system in a Hong Kong Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Emily Yee Man; Sachs, John

    2006-12-01

    The modified technology acceptance model was used to predict actual Blackboard usage (a web-based information system) in a sample of 57 Hong Kong student teachers whose mean age was 27.8 yr. (SD = 6.9). While the general form of the model was supported, Application-specific Self-efficacy was a more powerful predictor of system use than Behavioural Intention as predicted by the theory of reasoned action. Thus in this cultural and educational context, it has been shown that the model does not fully mediate the effect of Self-efficacy on System Use. Also, users' Enjoyment exerted considerable influence on the component variables of Usefulness and Ease of Use and on Application-specific Self-efficacy, thus indirectly influencing system usage. Consequently, efforts to gain students' acceptance and, therefore, use of information systems such as Blackboard must pay adequate attention to users' Self-efficacy and motivational variables such as Enjoyment.

  13. Stress exposure and generation: A conjoint longitudinal model of body dysmorphic symptoms, peer acceptance, popularity, and victimization.

    PubMed

    Webb, Haley J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Mastro, Shawna

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the bidirectional (conjoint) longitudinal pathways linking adolescents' body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms with self- and peer-reported social functioning. Participants were 367 Australian students (45.5% boys, mean age=12.01 years) who participated in two waves of a longitudinal study with a 12-month lag between assessments. Participants self-reported their symptoms characteristic of BDD, and perception of peer acceptance. Classmates reported who was popular and victimized in their grade, and rated their liking (acceptance) of their classmates. In support of both stress exposure and stress generation models, T1 victimization was significantly associated with more symptoms characteristic of BDD at T2 relative to T1, and higher symptom level at T1 was associated with lower perceptions of peer acceptance at T2 relative to T1. These results support the hypothesized bidirectional model, whereby adverse social experiences negatively impact symptoms characteristic of BDD over time, and symptoms also exacerbate low perceptions of peer-acceptance. PMID:27236472

  14. Stress exposure and generation: A conjoint longitudinal model of body dysmorphic symptoms, peer acceptance, popularity, and victimization.

    PubMed

    Webb, Haley J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Mastro, Shawna

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the bidirectional (conjoint) longitudinal pathways linking adolescents' body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms with self- and peer-reported social functioning. Participants were 367 Australian students (45.5% boys, mean age=12.01 years) who participated in two waves of a longitudinal study with a 12-month lag between assessments. Participants self-reported their symptoms characteristic of BDD, and perception of peer acceptance. Classmates reported who was popular and victimized in their grade, and rated their liking (acceptance) of their classmates. In support of both stress exposure and stress generation models, T1 victimization was significantly associated with more symptoms characteristic of BDD at T2 relative to T1, and higher symptom level at T1 was associated with lower perceptions of peer acceptance at T2 relative to T1. These results support the hypothesized bidirectional model, whereby adverse social experiences negatively impact symptoms characteristic of BDD over time, and symptoms also exacerbate low perceptions of peer-acceptance.

  15. Science teacher candidates' perceptions about roles and nature of scientific models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yenilmez Turkoglu, Ayse; Oztekin, Ceren

    2016-05-01

    Background: Scientific models have important roles in science and science education. For scientists, they provide a means for generating new knowledge or function as an accessible summary of scientific studies. In science education, on the other hand, they are accessible representations of abstract concepts, and are also organizational frameworks to teach and learn inaccessible facts. As being indispensable parts of learning and doing science, use of scientific models in science classes should be reinforced. At this point, uncovering pre-service science teachers' (PSTs) understandings of scientific models are of great importance since they will design and conduct teaching situations for their students. Purpose: The study aimed to provide an answer to the research question: What understandings do PSTs possess about scientific models? Sample: The sample of the study consisted of 14 PSTs enrolled in an Elementary Science Education program in a public university in Ankara, Turkey. Design and methods: Data were collected by using an open-item instrument and semi-structured interviews, and were analyzed by using qualitative data analysis methods. Results: Findings showed that PSTs held fragmented views of models by having informed views in some aspects while having naïve views on others. That is, although they displayed a constructivist orientation by acknowledging the presence of multiple models for the same phenomenon depending on scientists' perspectives or creativity involved in the production of scientific knowledge, PSTs also expressed logical positivist views by believing that models should be close to the real phenomena that they represent. Findings further revealed that PSTs generally conceptualized models' materialistic uses, yet they did not think much about their theoretical and conceptual uses. It was observed that roles like reifying and visualizing were overestimated and models were dominantly characterized as three-dimensional representations

  16. Articulating uncertainty as part of scientific argumentation during model-based exoplanet detection tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Sun; Pallant, Amy; Pryputniewicz, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Teaching scientific argumentation has emerged as an important goal for K-12 science education. In scientific argumentation, students are actively involved in coordinating evidence with theory based on their understanding of the scientific content and thinking critically about the strengths and weaknesses of the cited evidence in the context of the investigation. We developed a one-week-long online curriculum module called "Is there life in space?" where students conduct a series of four model-based tasks to learn how scientists detect extrasolar planets through the “wobble” and transit methods. The simulation model allows students to manipulate various parameters of an imaginary star and planet system such as planet size, orbit size, planet-orbiting-plane angle, and sensitivity of telescope equipment, and to adjust the display settings for graphs illustrating the relative velocity and light intensity of the star. Students can use model-based evidence to formulate an argument on whether particular signals in the graphs guarantee the presence of a planet. Students' argumentation is facilitated by the four-part prompts consisting of multiple-choice claim, open-ended explanation, Likert-scale uncertainty rating, and open-ended uncertainty rationale. We analyzed 1,013 scientific arguments formulated by 302 high school student groups taught by 7 teachers. We coded these arguments in terms of the accuracy of their claim, the sophistication of explanation connecting evidence to the established knowledge base, the uncertainty rating, and the scientific validity of uncertainty. We found that (1) only 18% of the students' uncertainty rationale involved critical reflection on limitations inherent in data and concepts, (2) 35% of students' uncertainty rationale reflected their assessment of personal ability and knowledge, rather than scientific sources of uncertainty related to the evidence, and (3) the nature of task such as the use of noisy data or the framing of

  17. Students' Views of Scientific Models and Modeling: Do Representational Characteristics of Models and Students' Educational Levels Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential impact of the representational characteristics of models and students' educational levels on students' views of scientific models and modeling (VSMM). An online multimedia questionnaire was designed to address three major aspects of VSMM, namely the nature of models, the nature of modeling, and the purpose of models. The three scales of representational characteristics included modality, dimensionality, and dynamics. A total of 102 eighth graders and 87 eleventh graders were surveyed. Both quantitative data and written responses were analyzed. The influence of the representational characteristics seemed to be more salient on the nature of models and the purpose of models. Some interactions between the educational levels and the representational characteristics showed that the high school students were more likely to recognize textual representations and pictorial representations as models, while also being more likely to appreciate the differences between 2D and 3D models. However, some other differences between educational levels did not necessarily suggest that the high school students attained more sophisticated VSMM. For instance, in considering what information should be included in a model, students' attention to particular affordances of the representation can lead to a more naive view of modeling. Implications for developing future questionnaires and for teaching modeling are suggested in this study.

  18. Scientific and Artistic Authority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The differences and similarities between science and art are commonly discussed in various disciplines, e.g. collective versus individual, truth versus imagination, fact versus fiction, and more. Both art and science involve communication. Both artists and scientists have responsibilities of integrity in the arena of intellectual property. However, an artist has a primary responsibility to his/her personal artistic vision and craft. A scientist has a very clearly defined responsibility to scientific method as a collective practice, i.e. generally accepted scientific knowledge, norms of data collection and analysis as well as norms of communication. In presenting a work of art to an audience, it is accepted that different people will interpret the art through different lens. In science communication, we hope that the audience's understanding is in line with scientific interpretation. When science and art meet, how do we come to an understanding of what the intended message should be and how it should or must be received. Accuracy in fact is important in science, as is accuracy of the message whether it is a process, model, image or story. How do we mediate this tension in collaborative projects? How do we celebrate the artistic nature of an artwork based on science when there is tension between the artistic merit and the scientific content? Authority of the artist, scientist, and organization must be satisfied.

  19. A Teaching Model for Scaffolding 4th Grade Students' Scientific Explanation Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation writing activity, Concept mapping, and an Interpretive explanation writing activity, is introduced in a 4th grade science class to see if it would improve students' scientific explanations and understanding. A quasi-experimental design, including a non-randomized comparison group and a pre- and post-test design, was adopted for this study. An experimental group of 25 students were taught using the DCI teaching model, while a comparison group received a traditional lecture teaching. A rubric and content analysis was used to assess students' scientific explanations. The independent sample t test was used to measure difference in conceptual understanding between the two groups, before and after instruction. Then, the paired t test analysis was used to understand the promotion of the DCI teaching model. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better than students in the comparison group, both in scientific concept understanding and explanation. Suggestions for using concept mapping and writing activities (the DCI teaching model) in science classes are provided in this study.

  20. Middle-School Science Students' Scientific Modelling Performances Across Content Areas and Within a Learning Progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberger, Yael M.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on students' ability to transfer modelling performances across content areas, taking into consideration their improvement of content knowledge as a result of a model-based instruction. Sixty-five sixth grade students of one science teacher in an urban public school in the Midwestern USA engaged in scientific modelling practices that were incorporated into a curriculum focused on the nature of matter. Concept-process models were embedded in the curriculum, as well as emphasis on meta-modelling knowledge and modelling practices. Pre-post test items that required drawing scientific models of smell, evaporation, and friction were analysed. The level of content understanding was coded and scored, as were the following elements of modelling performance: explanation, comparativeness, abstraction, and labelling. Paired t-tests were conducted to analyse differences in students' pre-post tests scores on content knowledge and on each element of the modelling performances. These are described in terms of the amount of transfer. Students significantly improved in their content knowledge for the smell and the evaporation models, but not for the friction model, which was expected as that topic was not taught during the instruction. However, students significantly improved in some of their modelling performances for all the three models. This improvement serves as evidence that the model-based instruction can help students acquire modelling practices that they can apply in a new content area.

  1. The Effects of Science Models on Students' Understanding of Scientific Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglin, Riki Susan

    This action research study investigated how the use of science models affected fifth-grade students' ability to transfer their science curriculum to a deeper understanding of scientific processes. This study implemented a variety of science models into a chemistry unit throughout a 6-week study. The research question addressed was: In what ways do using models to learn and teach science help students transfer classroom knowledge to a deeper understanding of the scientific processes? Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through pre- and post-science interest inventories, observations field notes, student work samples, focus group interviews, and chemistry unit tests. These data collection tools assessed students' attitudes, engagement, and content knowledge throughout their chemistry unit. The results of the data indicate that the model-based instruction program helped with students' engagement in the lessons and understanding of chemistry content. The results also showed that students displayed positive attitudes toward using science models.

  2. Science Teaching Reform through Professional Development: Teachers' Use of a Scientific Classroom Discourse Community Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elizabeth B.; Baker, Dale R.; Helding, Brandon A.

    2015-01-01

    This report outlines a 2-year investigation into how secondary science teachers used professional development (PD) to build scientific classroom discourse communities (SCDCs). Observation data, teacher, student, and school demographic information were used to build a hierarchical linear model. The length of time that teachers received PD was the…

  3. On the scientific status of cognitive appraisal models of anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    McNally, R J

    2001-05-01

    The cognitive paradigm for understanding and treating anxiety disorders comprises two distinct and potentially incompatible approaches: appraisal and information-processing. Advocates of the latter approach have sharply criticized the scientific adequacy of the appraisal models popularized by cognitive therapists. The purpose of this essay is to provide a reappraisal of these critiques of appraisal, and to defend an argument for methodological pluralism.

  4. Students' Evaluation of the Credibility of Scientific Models that Represent Natural Entities and Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore learners' evaluation of the credibility of scientific models that represent natural entities and phenomena. Participants were 845 students in grades 9-11 (aged 15-17 years) and 108 prospective science teachers in Oman, totaling 953 students. A survey called Epistemologies about the Credibility of…

  5. The Impact of Subjective Norm and Facilitating Conditions on Pre-Service Teachers' Attitude toward Computer Use: A Structural Equation Modeling of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This study examined pre-service teachers' self-report on their attitude toward computer use. Participants were 285 pre-service teachers at a teacher training institution in Singapore. They completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to five constructs which formed a research model using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a…

  6. SAF - Sets and Fields parallel I/O and scientific data modeling system

    2005-07-01

    SAF is being developed as part of the Data Models and Formats (DMF) component of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). SAF represents a revolutionary approach to interoperation of high performance, scientific computing applications based upon rigorous, math oriented data modeling principles. Previous technologies have required all applications to use the same data structures and/or mesh objects to represent scientific data or lead to an ever expanding set of incrementally different data structures and/or meshmore » objects. SAF addresses this problem by providing a small set of mathematical building blocks, sets, relations and fields, out of which a wide variety of scientific data can be characterized. Applications literally model their data by assembling these building blocks. Sets and fields building blocks are at once, both primitive and abstract: * They are primitive enough to model a wide variety of scientific data. * They are abstract enough to model the data in terms of what it represents in a mathematical or physical sense independent of how it is represented in an implementation sense. For example, while there are many ways to represent the airflow over the wing of a supersonic aircraft in a computer program, there is only one mathematical/physical interpretation: a field of 3D velocity vectors over a 2D surface. This latter description is immutable. It is independent of any particular representation or implementation choices. Understanding this what versus how relationship, that is what is represented versus how it is represented, is key to developing a solution for large scale integration of scientific software.« less

  7. SAF - Sets and Fields parallel I/O and scientific data modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    Matzke, Robb; Illescas, Eric; Espen, Peter; Jones, Jake S.; Sjaardema, Gregory; Miller, Mark C.; Schoof, Larry A.; Reus, James F.; Arrighi, William; Hitt, Ray T.; O'Brien, Matthew J.

    2005-07-01

    SAF is being developed as part of the Data Models and Formats (DMF) component of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). SAF represents a revolutionary approach to interoperation of high performance, scientific computing applications based upon rigorous, math oriented data modeling principles. Previous technologies have required all applications to use the same data structures and/or mesh objects to represent scientific data or lead to an ever expanding set of incrementally different data structures and/or mesh objects. SAF addresses this problem by providing a small set of mathematical building blocks, sets, relations and fields, out of which a wide variety of scientific data can be characterized. Applications literally model their data by assembling these building blocks. Sets and fields building blocks are at once, both primitive and abstract: * They are primitive enough to model a wide variety of scientific data. * They are abstract enough to model the data in terms of what it represents in a mathematical or physical sense independent of how it is represented in an implementation sense. For example, while there are many ways to represent the airflow over the wing of a supersonic aircraft in a computer program, there is only one mathematical/physical interpretation: a field of 3D velocity vectors over a 2D surface. This latter description is immutable. It is independent of any particular representation or implementation choices. Understanding this what versus how relationship, that is what is represented versus how it is represented, is key to developing a solution for large scale integration of scientific software.

  8. Integrating a geographic information system, a scientific visualization system and an orographic precipitation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, L.; Knapp, L.

    1996-01-01

    Investigating natural, potential, and man-induced impacts on hydrological systems commonly requires complex modelling with overlapping data requirements, and massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrological studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modelling, spatial analysis and flexible, intuitive displays. There is a general requirement for a set of capabilities to support scientific analysis which, at this time, can only come from an integration of several software components. Integration of geographic information systems (GISs) and scientific visualization systems (SVSs) is a powerful technique for developing and analysing complex models. This paper describes the integration of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS and a SVS. The combination of these individual components provides a robust infrastructure which allows the scientist to work with the full dimensionality of the data and to examine the data in a more intuitive manner.

  9. Spud and FLML: generalising and automating the user interfaces of scientific computer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, D. A.; Farrell, P. E.; Maddison, J. R.; Gorman, G. J.; Wilson, C. R.; Kramer, S. C.; Shipton, J.; Collins, G. S.; Cotter, C. J.; Piggott, M. D.

    2009-04-01

    The interfaces by which users specify the scenarios to be simulated by scientific computer models are frequently primitive, under-documented and ad-hoc text files which make using the model in question difficult and error-prone and significantly increase the development cost of the model. We present a model-independent system, Spud[1], which formalises the specification of model input formats in terms of formal grammars. This is combined with an automatically generated graphical user interface which guides users to create valid model inputs based on the grammar provided, and a generic options reading module which minimises the development cost of adding model options. We further present FLML, the Fluidity Markup Language. FLML applies Spud to the Imperial College Ocean Model (ICOM) resulting in a graphically driven system which radically improves the usability of ICOM. As well as a step forward for ICOM, FLML illustrates how the Spud system can be applied to an existing complex ocean model highlighting the potential of Spud as a user interface for other codes in the ocean modelling community. [1] Ham, D. A. et.al, Spud 1.0: generalising and automating the user interfaces of scientific computer models, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 1, 125-146, 2008.

  10. EcoCasting: Using NetLogo models of aquatic ecosystems to teach scientific inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzby, C. K.; Jona, K.

    2010-12-01

    The EcoCasting project from the Office of STEM Education Partnerships (OSEP) at Northwestern University has developed a computer model-based curriculum for high school environmental science classes to study complexity in aquatic ecosystems. EcoCasting aims to deliver cutting edge scientific research on bioaccumulation in invaded Great Lakes food webs to high school classes. Scientists and environmental engineers at Northwestern are investigating unusual bioaccumulation patterns in invaded food webs of the Great Lakes. High school students are exploring this authentic data to understand what is causing the anomalies in the data. Students use a series of NetLogo agent-based models of an aquatic ecosystem to study how toxins accumulate in the food web. Using these models, students learn about predator-prey relationships, bioaccumulation, and invasive species. Students are confronted with contradictory data collected by scientists and investigate alternative food web mechanisms at work. By studying the individual variables, students learn common scientific principles. When multiple variables are combined in a unifying model, students learn that the interactions lead to unexpected outcomes. Students learn about the complexity of the ecosystem and gain proficiency interpreting computer models and scientific data collection in this curriculum. Model of aquatic food chain

  11. Mediating objects: scientific and public functions of models in nineteenth-century biology.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the scientific and public functions of two- and three-dimensional models in the context of three episodes from nineteenth-century biology. I argue that these models incorporate both data and theory by presenting theoretical assumptions in the light of concrete data or organizing data through theoretical assumptions. Despite their diverse roles in scientific practice, they all can be characterized as mediators between data and theory. Furthermore, I argue that these different mediating functions often reflect their different audiences that included specialized scientists, students, and the general public. In this sense, models in nineteenth-century biology can be understood as mediators between theory, data, and their diverse audiences.

  12. [AGIKO (Clinical Research Fellow); a training model aimed at enhancement of clinical scientific research].

    PubMed

    van Rees-Wortelboer, M M; Lamberts, S W; Klasen, E C

    1997-06-21

    The enhancement of clinical scientific research in the Netherlands is being stimulated to a substantial extent by the introduction and stimulation of a training model aimed at the combined training of physicians to both a general practitioner or specialist and a clinical researcher, the AGIKO (Clinical Research Fellow). The model has been recognized by the Central College for Recognition and Registration of Medical Specialists. Extra stimulation by the section Medical Sciences of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (MW-NWO) makes it possible to appoint AGIKOs on second or third flows of funds but also within the first flow of funds. During the last two years, 25 AGIKO applications from ten medical specialisms have been approved. The AGIKO model may help to meet (expected) needs for future clinical-medical research workers in specific research areas.

  13. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for weight control: Model, evidence, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Jason; Kendra, Kathleen E.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral weight loss programs achieve substantial short-term weight loss; however attrition and poor weight loss maintenance remain significant problems. Recently, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been used in an attempt to improve long-term outcomes. This conceptual article outlines the standard behavioral and ACT approach to weight control, discusses potential benefits and obstacles to combing approaches, briefly reviews current ACT for weight control outcome research, and highlights significant empirical questions that remain. The current evidence suggests that ACT could be useful as an add-on treatment, or in a combined format, for improving long-term weight loss outcomes. Larger studies with longer follow-up are needed as well as studies that aim to identify how best to combine standard treatments and ACT and also who would benefit most from these approaches. PMID:25419510

  14. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  15. Examples of Video to Communicate Scientific Findings to Non-Scientists-Bayesian Ecological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorman, M.; Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T.; Qian, S.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) provides information about (1) water-quality conditions and how those conditions vary locally, regionally, and nationally, (2) water-quality trends, and (3) factors that affect those conditions. As part of the NAWQA Program, the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE) study examined the vulnerability and resilience of streams to urbanization. Completion of the EUSE study has resulted in over 20 scientific publications. Video podcasts are being used in addition to these publications to communicate the relevance of these scientific findings to more general audiences such as resource managers, educational groups, public officials, and the general public. An example of one of the podcasts is a film about the results of modeling the effects urbanization on stream ecology. The film describes some of the results of the EUSE ecological modeling effort and the advantages of the Bayesian and multi-level statistical modeling approaches, while relating the science to fly fishing. The complex scientific discussion combined with the lighter, more popular activity of fly fishing leads to an entertaining forum while educating viewers about a complex topic. This approach is intended to represent the scientists as interesting people with diverse interests. Video can be an effective scientific communication tool for presenting scientific findings to a broad audience. The film is available for access from the EUSE website (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/urban/html/podcasts.html). Additional films are planned to be released in 2012 on other USGS project results and programs.

  16. Open Knee: Open Source Modeling & Simulation to Enable Scientific Discovery and Clinical Care in Knee Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Erdemir, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Virtual representations of the knee joint can provide clinicians, scientists, and engineers the tools to explore mechanical function of the knee and its tissue structures in health and disease. Modeling and simulation approaches such as finite element analysis also provide the possibility to understand the influence of surgical procedures and implants on joint stresses and tissue deformations. A large number of knee joint models are described in the biomechanics literature. However, freely accessible, customizable, and easy-to-use models are scarce. Availability of such models can accelerate clinical translation of simulations, where labor intensive reproduction of model development steps can be avoided. The interested parties can immediately utilize readily available models for scientific discovery and for clinical care. Motivated by this gap, this study aims to describe an open source and freely available finite element representation of the tibiofemoral joint, namely Open Knee, which includes detailed anatomical representation of the joint's major tissue structures, their nonlinear mechanical properties and interactions. Three use cases illustrate customization potential of the model, its predictive capacity, and its scientific and clinical utility: prediction of joint movements during passive flexion, examining the role of meniscectomy on contact mechanics and joint movements, and understanding anterior cruciate ligament mechanics. A summary of scientific and clinically directed studies conducted by other investigators are also provided. The utilization of this open source model by groups other than its developers emphasizes the premise of model sharing as an accelerator of simulation-based medicine. Finally, the imminent need to develop next generation knee models are noted. These are anticipated to incorporate individualized anatomy and tissue properties supported by specimen-specific joint mechanics data for evaluation, all acquired in vitro from varying age

  17. The Scientific Method: Modus Operandi or Supreme Court?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailman, Jack P.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a schema to replace the generally accepted notion of the scientific method being described as an individual scientist's behavior. The schema is described as the summary process by which scientific understanding of the universe is advanced, how knowledge is created and tested, and how workable models emerge. (EB)

  18. An Empirical Analysis of Citizens' Acceptance Decisions of Electronic-Government Services: A Modification of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model to Include Trust as a Basis for Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awuah, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding citizens' adoption of electronic-government (e-government) is an important topic, as the use of e-government has become an integral part of governance. Success of such initiatives depends largely on the efficient use of e-government services. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model has provided a…

  19. Selecting models for a respiratory protection program: What can we learn from the scientific literature?

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ronald E.; Janssen, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Background An unbiased source of comparable respirator performance data would be helpful in setting up a hospital respiratory protection program. Methods The scientific literature was examined to assess the extent to which performance data (respirator fit, comfort and usability) from N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) models are available to assist with FFR model selection and procurement decisions. Results Ten studies were identified that met the search criteria for fit, whereas 5 studies met the criteria for comfort and usability. Conclusion Analysis of these studies indicated that it is difficult to directly use the scientific literature to inform the FFR selection process because of differences in study populations, methodologies, and other factors. Although there does not appear to be a single best fitting FFR, studies demonstrate that fit testing programs can be designed to successfully fit nearly all workers with existing products. Comfort and usability are difficult to quantify. Among the studies found, no significant differences were noted. PMID:25499425

  20. Are opinions based on science: modelling social response to scientific facts.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Tagüeña-Martínez, Julia; Kaski, Kimmo K; Barrio, Rafael A

    2012-01-01

    As scientists we like to think that modern societies and their members base their views, opinions and behaviour on scientific facts. This is not necessarily the case, even though we are all (over-) exposed to information flow through various channels of media, i.e. newspapers, television, radio, internet, and web. It is thought that this is mainly due to the conflicting information on the mass media and to the individual attitude (formed by cultural, educational and environmental factors), that is, one external factor and another personal factor. In this paper we will investigate the dynamical development of opinion in a small population of agents by means of a computational model of opinion formation in a co-evolving network of socially linked agents. The personal and external factors are taken into account by assigning an individual attitude parameter to each agent, and by subjecting all to an external but homogeneous field to simulate the effect of the media. We then adjust the field strength in the model by using actual data on scientific perception surveys carried out in two different populations, which allow us to compare two different societies. We interpret the model findings with the aid of simple mean field calculations. Our results suggest that scientifically sound concepts are more difficult to acquire than concepts not validated by science, since opposing individuals organize themselves in close communities that prevent opinion consensus.

  1. Are Opinions Based on Science: Modelling Social Response to Scientific Facts

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Tagüeña-Martínez, Julia; Kaski, Kimmo K.; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2012-01-01

    As scientists we like to think that modern societies and their members base their views, opinions and behaviour on scientific facts. This is not necessarily the case, even though we are all (over-) exposed to information flow through various channels of media, i.e. newspapers, television, radio, internet, and web. It is thought that this is mainly due to the conflicting information on the mass media and to the individual attitude (formed by cultural, educational and environmental factors), that is, one external factor and another personal factor. In this paper we will investigate the dynamical development of opinion in a small population of agents by means of a computational model of opinion formation in a co-evolving network of socially linked agents. The personal and external factors are taken into account by assigning an individual attitude parameter to each agent, and by subjecting all to an external but homogeneous field to simulate the effect of the media. We then adjust the field strength in the model by using actual data on scientific perception surveys carried out in two different populations, which allow us to compare two different societies. We interpret the model findings with the aid of simple mean field calculations. Our results suggest that scientifically sound concepts are more difficult to acquire than concepts not validated by science, since opposing individuals organize themselves in close communities that prevent opinion consensus. PMID:22905117

  2. Pragmatism, mathematical models, and the scientific ideal of prediction and control.

    PubMed

    Moore, J

    2015-05-01

    Mathematical models are often held to be valuable, if not necessary, for theories and explanations in the quantitative analysis of behavior. The present review suggests that mathematical models primarily derived from the observation of functional relations do indeed contribute to the scientific value of theories and explanations, even though the final form of the models appears to be highly abstract. However, mathematical models not primarily so derived risk being essentialist in character, based on a particular view of formal causation. Such models invite less effective and frequently mentalistic theories and explanations of behavior. Models may be evaluated in terms of both (a) the verbal processes responsible for their origin and development and (b) the prediction and control engendered by the theories and explanations that incorporate the models, however indirect or abstract that prediction and control may be. Overall, the present review suggests that technological application and theoretical contemplation may be usefully viewed as continuous and overlapping forms of scientific activity, rather than dichotomous and mutually exclusive.

  3. Pragmatism, mathematical models, and the scientific ideal of prediction and control.

    PubMed

    Moore, J

    2015-05-01

    Mathematical models are often held to be valuable, if not necessary, for theories and explanations in the quantitative analysis of behavior. The present review suggests that mathematical models primarily derived from the observation of functional relations do indeed contribute to the scientific value of theories and explanations, even though the final form of the models appears to be highly abstract. However, mathematical models not primarily so derived risk being essentialist in character, based on a particular view of formal causation. Such models invite less effective and frequently mentalistic theories and explanations of behavior. Models may be evaluated in terms of both (a) the verbal processes responsible for their origin and development and (b) the prediction and control engendered by the theories and explanations that incorporate the models, however indirect or abstract that prediction and control may be. Overall, the present review suggests that technological application and theoretical contemplation may be usefully viewed as continuous and overlapping forms of scientific activity, rather than dichotomous and mutually exclusive. PMID:25596451

  4. The bootstrapped model--Lessons for the acceptance of intellectual technology.

    PubMed

    Lovie, A D

    1987-09-01

    This paper is intended as a non-technical introduction to a growing aspect of what has been termed 'intellectual technology'. The particular area chosen is the use of simple linear additive models for judgement and decision making purposes. Such models are said to either outperform, or perform at least as well as, the human judges on which they are based, hence they are said to 'bootstrap' such human inputs. Although the paper will provide a fairly comprehensive list of recent applications of such models, from postgraduate selection to judgements of marital happiness, the work will concentrate on the topic of Credit Scoring as an exemplar - that is, the assignment of credit by means of a simple additive rule. The paper will also present a simple system, due to Dawes, of classifying such models according to the form and source of their weights. The paper further discusses the reasons for bootstrapping and that other major phenomenon of such models - that is, the one can rarely distinguish between the prescriptions of such models, however the weights have been arrived at. It is argued that this 'principle of the flat maximum' allows us to develop a technology of judgement. The paper continues with a brief historical survey of the reactions of human experts to such models and their superiority, and suggestions for a better mix of expert and model on human engineering lines. Finally, after a brief comparison between expert systems and linear additive models, the paper concludes with a brief survey of possible future developments. A short Appendix describes two applications of such models.

  5. The VIS-AD data model: Integrating metadata and polymorphic display with a scientific programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, William L.; Dyer, Charles R.; Paul, Brian E.

    1994-01-01

    The VIS-AD data model integrates metadata about the precision of values, including missing data indicators and the way that arrays sample continuous functions, with the data objects of a scientific programming language. The data objects of this data model form a lattice, ordered by the precision with which they approximate mathematical objects. We define a similar lattice of displays and study visualization processes as functions from data lattices to display lattices. Such functions can be applied to visualize data objects of all data types and are thus polymorphic.

  6. Analyzing Ocean Tracks: A model for student engagement in authentic scientific practices using data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumhansl, K.; Krumhansl, R.; Brown, C.; DeLisi, J.; Kochevar, R.; Sickler, J.; Busey, A.; Mueller-Northcott, J.; Block, B.

    2013-12-01

    The collection of large quantities of scientific data has not only transformed science, but holds the potential to transform teaching and learning by engaging students in authentic scientific work. Furthermore, it has become imperative in a data-rich world that students gain competency in working with and interpreting data. The Next Generation Science Standards reflect both the opportunity and need for greater integration of data in science education, and emphasize that both scientific knowledge and practice are essential elements of science learning. The process of enabling access by novice learners to data collected and used by experts poses significant challenges, however, recent research has demonstrated that barriers to student learning with data can be overcome by the careful design of data access and analysis tools that are specifically tailored to students. A group of educators at Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) and scientists at Stanford University's Hopkins Marine Station are collaborating to develop and test a model for student engagement with scientific data using a web-based platform. This model, called Ocean Tracks: Investigating Marine Migrations in a Changing Ocean, provides students with the ability to plot and analyze tracks of migrating marine animals collected through the Tagging of Pacific Predators program. The interface and associated curriculum support students in identifying relationships between animal behavior and physical oceanographic variables (e.g. SST, chlorophyll, currents), making linkages between the living world and climate. Students are also supported in investigating possible sources of human impact to important biodiversity hotspots in the Pacific Ocean. The first round of classroom testing revealed that students were able to easily access and display data on the interface, and collect measurements from the animal tracks and oceanographic data layers. They were able to link multiple types of data to draw powerful

  7. Integrating a geographic information system, a scientific visualization system, and a precipitation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, L.E.; Knapp, L.K.

    1996-01-01

    Investigating natural, potential, and human-induced impacts on hydrologic systems commonly requires complex modeling with overlapping data requirements, plus massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrologic studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modeling and spatial analysis with a flexible, intuitive display. Integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and scientific visualization systems (SVS) provides such an infrastructure. This paper describes an integrated system consisting of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS, and an SVS. The results of this study provide a basis for improving the understanding of hydro-climatic processes in mountainous regions. An additional benefit of the integrated system, the value of which is often underestimated, is the improved ability to communicate model results, leading to a broader understanding of the model assumptions, sensitivities, and conclusions at a management level.Investigating natural, potential, and human-induced impacts on hydrologic systems commonly requires complex modeling with overlapping data requirements, plus massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrologic studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modeling and spatial analysis with a flexible, intuitive display. Integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and scientific visualization systems (SVS) provides such an infrastructure. This paper describes an integrated system consisting of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS, and an SVS. The results of this study provide a basis for improving the understanding of hydro-climatic processes in mountainous regions. An additional benefit of the integrated system, the value of which is often underestimated, is the improved ability to

  8. Modeling nurses' attitude toward using automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems: an extension of the technology acceptance model.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Rodríguez, Tomás; Romero-Alonso, María Mercedes

    2013-05-01

    This article analyzes the attitude of nurses toward the use of automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems and identifies influencing factors. Understanding these factors provides an opportunity to explore actions that might be taken to boost adoption by potential users. The theoretical grounding for this research is the Technology Acceptance Model. The Technology Acceptance Model specifies the causal relationships between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude toward using, and actual usage behavior. The research model has six constructs, and nine hypotheses were generated from connections between these six constructs. These constructs include perceived risks, experience level, and training. The findings indicate that these three external variables are related to the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems, and therefore, they have a significant influence on attitude toward the use of these systems.

  9. A tale of two slinkies: learning about scientific models in a student-driven classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Punit; Berggren, Calvin; Livezey, Jesse; Olf, Ryan

    2014-11-01

    We describe a set of conceptual activities and hands-on experiments based around understanding the dynamics of a slinky that is hung vertically and released from rest. The motion, or lack thereof, of the bottom of the slinky after the top is dropped sparks students' curiosity by challenging their expectations and provides context for learning about scientific model building. This curriculum helps students learn about the model building process by giving them an opportunity to enlist their collective intellectual and creative resources to develop and explore two different physical models of the falling slinky system. By engaging with two complementary models, students not only have the opportunity to understand an intriguing phenomenon from multiple perspectives, but also learn deeper lessons about the nature of scientific understanding, the role of physical models, and the experience of doing science. The activities we present were part of a curriculum developed for a week-long summer program for incoming freshmen as a part of the Compass Project at UC Berkeley, but could easily be implemented in a wide range of classrooms at the high school or introductory college level.

  10. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    PubMed

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable. PMID:20002228

  11. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    PubMed Central

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-01-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable. PMID:20002228

  12. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Model code provisions for use in... Portions of the CABO One and Two Family Dwelling Code, 1992 Edition, including the 1993 amendments, with... Chapter 3. (e) Materials standards Chapter 26. (f) Construction components Part III. (g) Glass Chapter...

  13. Improving Technology Acceptance Modeling for Disadvantaged Communities Using a Systems Engineering Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jordan L.

    2013-01-01

    Developing nations are poised to spend billions on information and communication technology (ICT) innovation in 2020. A study of the historical adoption of ICT in developing nations has indicated that their adoption patterns do not follow typical technology innovation adoption models. This study addressed the weaknesses found in existing…

  14. Parental modelling and prompting effects on acceptance of a novel fruit in 2-4-year-old children are dependent on children's food responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Blissett, Jackie; Bennett, Carmel; Fogel, Anna; Harris, Gillian; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-02-14

    Few children consume the recommended portions of fruit or vegetables. This study examined the effects of parental physical prompting and parental modelling in children's acceptance of a novel fruit (NF) and examined the role of children's food-approach and food-avoidance traits on NF engagement and consumption. A total of 120 caregiver-child dyads (fifty-four girls, sixty-six boys) participated in this study. Dyads were allocated to one of the following three conditions: physical prompting but no modelling, physical prompting and modelling or a modelling only control condition. Dyads ate a standardised meal containing a portion of a fruit new to the child. Parents completed measures of children's food approach and avoidance. Willingness to try the NF was observed, and the amount of the NF consumed was measured. Physical prompting but no modelling resulted in greater physical refusal of the NF. There were main effects of enjoyment of food and food fussiness on acceptance. Food responsiveness interacted with condition such that children who were more food responsive had greater NF acceptance in the prompting and modelling conditions in comparison with the modelling only condition. In contrast, children with low food responsiveness had greater acceptance in the modelling control condition than in the prompting but no modelling condition. Physical prompting in the absence of modelling is likely to be detrimental to NF acceptance. Parental use of physical prompting strategies, in combination with modelling of NF intake, may facilitate acceptance of NF, but only in food-responsive children. Modelling consumption best promotes acceptance in children with low food responsiveness.

  15. A participative model for undertaking and evaluating scientific communication in Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Astorina, Alba; Tomasoni, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Public communication of Science and Technology (PCST) is an integral part of the mission of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) and widely carried out among the scientific community. Recently it has also become a research field investigating practices, channels, tools and models of public engagement and their impact on the relation between Science and Society. Understanding such aspects is increasingly considered relevant for an effective and aware outreach. Within this context, CNR has adopted some innovative communication approaches addressed to different publics, such as stakeholders, users, media, young people and the general public, using participative methodologies. Besides being practices of communication promoting the scientific culture, such initiatives aim at understanding the models at the basis of the relationship between the scientific community and the public. To what extent do scientists put their communication and involvement strategies in discussion? Do they use to have a real exchange with their publics in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the participatory techniques they adopt in communicating and disseminating their activities? In this paper we present a case study of a communication and educational proposal recently developed by CNR in order to promote a mutual exchange between Education/School and Research, that are the most important actors in the production and the revision of the scientific knowledge. The proposal brings an ongoing CNR research project (its steps, subjects, tools, activities, costs etc) in classrooms, making use of interactive Earth Sciences workshops conducted directly by researchers. The ongoing CNR project shared with students studies Innovative Methodologies of Earth Observation supporting the Agricultural sector in Lombardy. It aims at exploiting the Aerospace Earth Observation (EO) tools to develop dedicated agricultural downstream services that will bring added economic value and benefits for Lombardy

  16. Model and Processes of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Chronic Pain Including a Closer Look at the Self.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin; McCracken, Lance M

    2016-02-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is one of the so called "third-wave" cognitive behavioral therapies. It has been increasingly applied to chronic pain, and there is accumulating evidence to support its effectiveness. ACT is based on a model of general human functioning called the psychological flexibility (PF) model. Most facets of the PF model have been examined in chronic pain. However, a potential key facet related to "self" appears underappreciated. Indeed, a positive or healthy sense of self seems essential to our well-being, and there have been numerous studies of the self in chronic pain. At the same time, these studies are not currently well organized or easy to summarize. This lack of clarity and integration creates barriers to progress in this area of research. PF with its explicit inclusion of self-related therapeutic processes within a broad, integrative, theoretical model may help. The current review summarizes the PF model in the context of chronic pain with a specific emphasis on the parts of the model that address self-related processes. PMID:26803836

  17. Model and Processes of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Chronic Pain Including a Closer Look at the Self.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin; McCracken, Lance M

    2016-02-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is one of the so called "third-wave" cognitive behavioral therapies. It has been increasingly applied to chronic pain, and there is accumulating evidence to support its effectiveness. ACT is based on a model of general human functioning called the psychological flexibility (PF) model. Most facets of the PF model have been examined in chronic pain. However, a potential key facet related to "self" appears underappreciated. Indeed, a positive or healthy sense of self seems essential to our well-being, and there have been numerous studies of the self in chronic pain. At the same time, these studies are not currently well organized or easy to summarize. This lack of clarity and integration creates barriers to progress in this area of research. PF with its explicit inclusion of self-related therapeutic processes within a broad, integrative, theoretical model may help. The current review summarizes the PF model in the context of chronic pain with a specific emphasis on the parts of the model that address self-related processes.

  18. Stepping into the Unknown: Three Models for the Teaching and Learning of the Opening Sections of Scientific Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Hedda; Yarden, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Different genres of scientific articles have begun to diffuse into science curricula. Among them, adapted primary literature (APL) retains the characteristics of scientific research articles, while adapting their contents to the knowledge level of students in the 11th to 12th grades. We present three models for the teaching and learning of the…

  19. Selenium, copper and iron in veterinary medicine-From clinical implications to scientific models.

    PubMed

    Humann-Ziehank, Esther

    2016-09-01

    Diseases related to copper, selenium or iron overload or deficiency are common and well-described in large animal veterinary medicine. Some of them certainly have the potential to serve as useful animal models for ongoing research in the field of trace elements. Obvious advantages of large animal models compared to laboratory animal models like rats and mice are the option of long-term, consecutive examinations of progressive deficient or toxic stages and the opportunity to collect various, high volume samples for repeated measurements. Nevertheless, close cooperation between scientific disciplines is necessary as scientists using high sophisticated analytical methods and equipment are not regularly in touch with scientists working with large animal diseases. This review will give an introduction into some typical animal diseases related to trace elements and will present approaches where the animal diseases were used already as a model for interdisciplinary research.

  20. Historical Scientific Models and Theories as Resources for Learning and Teaching: The Case of Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, Ugo

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a history of research and theories on sliding friction between solids. This history is divided into four phases: from Leonardo da Vinci to Coulomb and the establishment of classical laws of friction; the theories of lubrication and the Tomlinson's theory of friction (1850-1930); the theories of wear, the Bowden and Tabor's synthesis and the birth of Tribology (1930-1980); nanotribology, friction at the atomic scale, and new fields of research (after 1980). Attention is given to recent research, so giving the sense of a topic that is still alive and currently an object of interest, with interpretative controversies. The development of explanatory and visual models is especially stressed, in connection with students' common ideas and with didactic purposes. The history shows that many models proposed in the past have been modified but not abandoned, so that here the scientific evolution has worked more by adding than by eliminating. The last sections discuss problems and proposals on teaching friction and the possible uses in teaching of models, images and theories found in history. Concerning the role of the history in science teaching, the case of friction has particular features, because some recent developments are unknown to most teachers and many results, also not very recent, contrast with the laws usually proposed in textbooks. Here history can supply a number of models, examples and experiments which can constitute useful resources to improve student understanding, joining together objectives of cultural value and of better scientific knowledge.

  1. Reliability and acceptability of a five-station multiple mini-interview model for residency program recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Julian Diaz; Oluwasanjo, Adetokunbo; Wasser, Thomas; Donato, Anthony; Alweis, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background Standard interviews are used by most residency programs in the United States for assessment of aptitude of the non-cognitive competencies, but variability of interviewer skill, interviewer bias, interviewer leniency or stringency, and context specificity limit reliability. Aim To investigate reliability and acceptability of five-station multiple mini-interview (MMI) model for resident selection into an internal medicine residency program in the United States. Setting One independent academic medical center. Participants Two hundred and thirty-seven applicants and 17 faculty interviewers. Program description Five, 10-min MMI stations with five different interviewers blinded to the candidate's records and one traditional 20-min interview with the program director. Candidates were rated on two items: interpersonal and communication skills, and overall performance. Program evaluation Generalizability data showed that the reliability of our process was high (>0.9). The results of anonymous surveys demonstrated that both applicants and interviewers consider the MMI as a fair and more effective tool to evaluate non-cognitive traits, and prefer the MMI to standard interviews. Discussion The MMI process for residency interviews can generate reliable interview results using only five stations, and it is acceptable and preferred over standard interview modalities by the applicants and faculty members of one US residency program. PMID:24392211

  2. Regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models for pharmaceuticals and chemicals: expert opinions on the state of affairs and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne W A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bakker, Wieger E; Beken, Sonja; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M; Koëter, Herman B W M; Krul, Cyrille

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals and chemicals are subjected to regulatory safety testing accounting for approximately 25% of laboratory animal use in Europe. This testing meets various objections and has led to the development of a range of 3R models to Replace, Reduce or Refine the animal models. However, these models must overcome many barriers before being accepted for regulatory risk management purposes. This paper describes the barriers and drivers and options to optimize this acceptance process as identified by two expert panels, one on pharmaceuticals and one on chemicals. To untangle the complex acceptance process, the multilevel perspective on technology transitions is applied. This perspective defines influences at the micro-, meso- and macro level which need alignment to induce regulatory acceptance of a 3R model. This paper displays that there are many similar mechanisms within both sectors that prevent 3R models from becoming accepted for regulatory risk assessment and management. Shared barriers include the uncertainty about the value of the new 3R models (micro level), the lack of harmonization of regulatory requirements and acceptance criteria (meso level) and the high levels of risk aversion (macro level). In optimizing the process commitment, communication, cooperation and coordination are identified as critical drivers.

  3. NASA's Climate in a Box: Desktop Supercomputing for Open Scientific Model Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, G. S.; Seablom, M. S.; Lee, T. J.; McConaughy, G. R.; Syed, R.; Oloso, A.; Kemp, E. M.; Greenseid, J.; Smith, R.

    2009-12-01

    NASA's High Performance Computing Portfolio in cooperation with its Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction program intends to make its climate and earth science models more accessible to a larger community. A key goal of this effort is to open the model development and validation process to the scientific community at large such that a natural selection process is enabled and results in a more efficient scientific process. One obstacle to others using NASA models is the complexity of the models and the difficulty in learning how to use them. This situation applies not only to scientists who regularly use these models but also non-typical users who may want to use the models such as scientists from different domains, policy makers, and teachers. Another obstacle to the use of these models is that access to high performance computing (HPC) accounts, from which the models are implemented, can be restrictive with long wait times in job queues and delays caused by an arduous process of obtaining an account, especially for foreign nationals. This project explores the utility of using desktop supercomputers in providing a complete ready-to-use toolkit of climate research products to investigators and on demand access to an HPC system. One objective of this work is to pre-package NASA and NOAA models so that new users will not have to spend significant time porting the models. In addition, the prepackaged toolkit will include tools, such as workflow, visualization, social networking web sites, and analysis tools, to assist users in running the models and analyzing the data. The system architecture to be developed will allow for automatic code updates for each user and an effective means with which to deal with data that are generated. We plan to investigate several desktop systems, but our work to date has focused on a Cray CX1. Currently, we are investigating the potential capabilities of several non-traditional development environments. While most NASA and NOAA models are

  4. Does attainment of Piaget's formal operational level of cognitive development predict student understanding of scientific models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, Richard Dennis, II

    Knowledge of scientific models and their uses is a concept that has become a key benchmark in many of the science standards of the past 30 years, including the proposed Next Generation Science Standards. Knowledge of models is linked to other important nature of science concepts such as theory change which are also rising in prominence in newer standards. Effective methods of instruction will need to be developed to enable students to achieve these standards. The literature reveals an inconsistent history of success with modeling education. These same studies point to a possible cognitive development component which might explain why some students succeeded and others failed. An environmental science course, rich in modeling experiences, was used to test both the extent to which knowledge of models and modeling could be improved over the course of one semester, and more importantly, to identify if cognitive ability was related to this improvement. In addition, nature of science knowledge, particularly related to theories and theory change, was also examined. Pretest and posttest results on modeling (SUMS) and nature of science (SUSSI), as well as data from the modeling activities themselves, was collected. Cognitive ability was measured (CTSR) as a covariate. Students' gain in six of seven categories of modeling knowledge was at least medium (Cohen's d >.5) and moderately correlated to CTSR for two of seven categories. Nature of science gains were smaller, although more strongly correlated with CTSR. Student success at creating a model was related to CTSR, significantly in three of five sub-categories. These results suggest that explicit, reflective experience with models can increase student knowledge of models and modeling (although higher cognitive ability students may have more success), but successfully creating models may depend more heavily on cognitive ability. This finding in particular has implications in the grade placement of modeling standards and

  5. Exercise motives and positive body image in physically active college women and men: Exploring an expanded acceptance model of intuitive eating.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Homan, Kristin J

    2015-09-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating posits that body acceptance by others facilitates body appreciation and internal body orientation, which contribute to intuitive eating. Two domains of exercise motives (functional and appearance) may also be linked to these variables, and thus were integrated into the model. The model fit the data well for 406 physically active U.S. college students, although some pathways were stronger for women. Body acceptance by others directly contributed to higher functional exercise motives and indirectly contributed to lower appearance exercise motives through higher internal body orientation. Functional exercise motives positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to body appreciation. Whereas body appreciation positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to intuitive eating for women, only the latter association was evident for men. To benefit positive body image and intuitive eating, efforts should encourage body acceptance by others and emphasize functional and de-emphasize appearance exercise motives. PMID:26281958

  6. From Stories to Scientific Models and Back: Narrative framing in modern macroscopic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Hans U.

    2015-04-01

    Narrative in science learning has become an important field of inquiry. Most applications of narrative are extrinsic to science-such as when they are used for creating affect and context. Where they are intrinsic, they are often limited to special cases and uses. To extend the reach of narrative in science, a hypothesis of narrative framing of natural and technical scenes is formulated. The term narrative framing is used in a double sense, to represent (1) the enlisting of narrative intelligence in the perception of phenomena and (2) the telling of stories that contain conceptual elements used in the creation of scientific models of these phenomena. The concrete case for narrative framing is made by conceptual analyses of simple stories of natural phenomena and of products related to modern continuum thermodynamics that reveal particular figurative structures. Importantly, there is evidence for a medium-scale perceptual gestalt called force of nature that is structured metaphorically and narratively. The resulting figurative conceptual structure gives rise to the notion of natural agents acting and suffering in storyworlds. In order to show that formal scientific models are deeply related to these storyworlds, a link between using (i.e. simulating) models and storytelling is employed. This link has recently been postulated in studies of narrative in computational science and economics.

  7. 3D-manufactured patient-specific models of congenital heart defects for communication in clinical practice: feasibility and acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Biglino, Giovanni; Capelli, Claudio; Wray, Jo; Schievano, Silvia; Leaver, Lindsay-Kay; Khambadkone, Sachin; Giardini, Alessandro; Derrick, Graham; Jones, Alexander; Taylor, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the communication potential of three-dimensional (3D) patient-specific models of congenital heart defects and their acceptability in clinical practice for cardiology consultations. Design This was a questionnaire-based study in which participants were randomised into two groups: the ‘model group’ received a 3D model of the cardiac lesion(s) being discussed during their appointment, while the ‘control group’ had a routine visit. Setting Outpatient clinic, cardiology follow-up visits. Participants 103 parents of children with congenital heart disease were recruited (parental age: 43±8 years; patient age: 12±6 years). In order to have a 3D model made, patients needed to have a recent cardiac MRI examination; this was the crucial inclusion criterion. Interventions Questionnaires were administered to the participants before and after the visits and an additional questionnaire was administered to the attending cardiologist. Main outcome measures Rating (1–10) for the liking of the 3D model, its usefulness and the clarity of the explanation received were recorded, as well as rating (1–10) of the parental understanding and their engagement according to the cardiologist. Furthermore, parental knowledge was assessed by asking them to mark diagrams, tick keywords and provide free text answers. The duration of consultations was recorded and parent feedback collected. Results Parents and cardiologists both found the models to be very useful and helpful in engaging the parents in discussing congenital heart defects. Parental knowledge was not associated with their level of education (p=0.2) and did not improve following their visit. Consultations involving 3D models lasted on average 5 min longer (p=0.02). Conclusions Patient-specific models can enhance engagement with parents and improve communication between cardiologists and parents, potentially impacting on parent and patient psychological adjustment following treatment. However, in

  8. Regulatory acceptance of animal models of disease to support clinical trials of medicines and advanced therapy medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, Joy; Silva Lima, Beatriz

    2015-07-15

    The utility of animal models of disease for assessing the safety of novel therapeutic modalities has become an increasingly important topic of discussion as research and development efforts focus on improving the predictive value of animal studies to support accelerated clinical development. Medicines are approved for marketing based upon a determination that their benefits outweigh foreseeable risks in specific indications, specific populations, and at specific dosages and regimens. No medicine is 100% safe. A medicine is less safe if the actual risks are greater than the predicted risks. The purpose of preclinical safety assessment is to understand the potential risks to aid clinical decision-making. Ideally preclinical studies should identify potential adverse effects and design clinical studies that will minimize their occurrence. Most regulatory documents delineate the utilization of conventional "normal" animal species to evaluate the safety risk of new medicines (i.e., new chemical entities and new biological entities). Animal models of human disease are commonly utilized to gain insight into the pathogenesis of disease and to evaluate efficacy but less frequently utilized in preclinical safety assessment. An understanding of the limitations of the animal disease models together with a better understanding of the disease and how toxicity may be impacted by the disease condition should allow for a better prediction of risk in the intended patient population. Importantly, regulatory authorities are becoming more willing to accept and even recommend data from experimental animal disease models that combine efficacy and safety to support clinical development.

  9. Regulatory acceptance of animal models of disease to support clinical trials of medicines and advanced therapy medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, Joy; Silva Lima, Beatriz

    2015-07-15

    The utility of animal models of disease for assessing the safety of novel therapeutic modalities has become an increasingly important topic of discussion as research and development efforts focus on improving the predictive value of animal studies to support accelerated clinical development. Medicines are approved for marketing based upon a determination that their benefits outweigh foreseeable risks in specific indications, specific populations, and at specific dosages and regimens. No medicine is 100% safe. A medicine is less safe if the actual risks are greater than the predicted risks. The purpose of preclinical safety assessment is to understand the potential risks to aid clinical decision-making. Ideally preclinical studies should identify potential adverse effects and design clinical studies that will minimize their occurrence. Most regulatory documents delineate the utilization of conventional "normal" animal species to evaluate the safety risk of new medicines (i.e., new chemical entities and new biological entities). Animal models of human disease are commonly utilized to gain insight into the pathogenesis of disease and to evaluate efficacy but less frequently utilized in preclinical safety assessment. An understanding of the limitations of the animal disease models together with a better understanding of the disease and how toxicity may be impacted by the disease condition should allow for a better prediction of risk in the intended patient population. Importantly, regulatory authorities are becoming more willing to accept and even recommend data from experimental animal disease models that combine efficacy and safety to support clinical development. PMID:25814257

  10. Scientific Modeling for Inquiring Teachers Network (SMIT'N): The Influence on Elementary Teachers' Views of Nature of Science, Inquiry, and Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Townsend, J. Scott; Donnelly, Lisa A.; Hanson, Deborah L.; Tira, Praweena; White, Orvil

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings from a K-6 professional development program that emphasized scientific inquiry and nature of science within the theme of scientific modeling. During the 2-week summer workshop and follow up school year workshops, the instruction modeled a 5-E learning cycle approach. Pre and posttesting measured teachers' views…

  11. Examining the Intention to Use Technology among Pre-Service Teachers: An Integration of the Technology Acceptance Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined pre-service teachers' self-reported intention to use technology. One hundred fifty-seven participants completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to six constructs from a research model that integrated the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Structural equation modeling was…

  12. A model of "integrated scientific method" and its application for the analysis of instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusbult, Craig Francis

    A model of 'integrated scientific method' (ISM) was constructed as a framework for describing the process of science in terms of activities (formulating a research problem, and inventing and evaluating actions--such as selecting and inventing theories, evaluating theories, designing experiments, and doing experiments--intended to solve the problem) and evaluation criteria (empirical, conceptual, and cultural-personal). Instead of trying to define the scientific method, ISM is intended to serve as a flexible framework that--by varying the characteristics of its components, their integrated relationships, and their relative importance can be used to describe a variety of scientific methods, and a variety of perspectives about what constitutes an accurate portrayal of scientific methods. This framework is outlined visually and verbally, followed by an elaboration of the framework and my own views about science, and an evaluation of whether ISM can serve as a relatively neutral framework for describing a wide range of science practices and science interpretations. ISM was used to analyze an innovative, guided inquiry classroom (taught by Susan Johnson, using Genetics Construction Kit software) in which students do simulated scientific research by solving classical genetics problems that require effect-to-cause reasoning and theory revision. The immediate goal of analysis was to examine the 'science experiences' of students, to determine how the 'structure of instruction' provides opportunities for these experiences. Another goal was to test and improve the descriptive and analytical utility of ISM. In developing ISM, a major objective was to make ISM educationally useful. A concluding discussion includes controversies about "the nature of science" and how to teach it, how instruction can expand opportunities for student experience, and how goal-oriented intentional learning (using ISM might improve the learning, retention, and transfer of thinking skills. Potential

  13. Policy Issues in Accessibility and Interoperability of Scientific Data: Experiences from the Carbon Modeling Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishor, P.; Peckham, S. D.; Gower, S. T.; Batzli, S.

    2010-12-01

    Large-scale terrestrial ecosystem modeling is highly parameterized, and requires lots of historical data. Routine model runs can easily utlize hundreds of Gigabytes, even Terabytes of data on tens, perhaps hundreds of parameters. It is a given that no one modeler can or does collect all the required data. All modelers depend upon other scientists, and governmental and research agencies for their data needs. This is where data accessibility and interoperability become crucial for the success of the project. Having well-documented and quality data available in a timely fashion can greatly assist a project's progress, while the converse can bring the project to a standstill, leading to a large amount of wasted staff time and resources. Data accessibility is a complex issue -- at best, it is an unscientific composite of a variety of factors: technological, legal, cultural, semantic, and economic. In reality, it is a concept that most scientists only worry about when they need some data, and mostly never after their project is complete. The exigencies of the vetting, review and publishing processes overtake the long-term view of making one's own data available to others with the same ease and openness that was desired when seeking data from others. This presentation describes our experience with acquiring data for our carbon modeling efforts, dealing with federal, state and local agencies, variety of data formats, some published, some not so easy to find, and documentation that ranges from excellent to non-existent. A set of indicators are proposed to place and determine the accessibility of scientific data -- those we are seeking and those we are producing -- in order to bring some transparency and clarity that can make data acquisition and sharing easier. The paper concludes with a proposal to utilize a free, open and well-recognized data marks such as CC0 (CC-Zero), Public Domain Dedication License, and CC-BY created by Creative Commons that would advertize the

  14. Built To Last: Using Iterative Development Models for Sustainable Scientific Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiak, M. E.; Truslove, I.; Savoie, M.

    2013-12-01

    In scientific research, software development exists fundamentally for the results they create. The core research must take focus. It seems natural to researchers, driven by grant deadlines, that every dollar invested in software development should be used to push the boundaries of problem solving. This system of values is frequently misaligned with those of the software being created in a sustainable fashion; short-term optimizations create longer-term sustainability issues. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) has taken bold cultural steps in using agile and lean development and management methodologies to help its researchers meet critical deadlines, while building in the necessary support structure for the code to live far beyond its original milestones. Agile and lean software development and methodologies including Scrum, Kanban, Continuous Delivery and Test-Driven Development have seen widespread adoption within NSIDC. This focus on development methods is combined with an emphasis on explaining to researchers why these methods produce more desirable results for everyone, as well as promoting developers interacting with researchers. This presentation will describe NSIDC's current scientific software development model, how this addresses the short-term versus sustainability dichotomy, the lessons learned and successes realized by transitioning to this agile and lean-influenced model, and the current challenges faced by the organization.

  15. Factors That Influence the Acceptance of Telemetry by Emergency Medical Technicians in Ambulances: An Application of the Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Ki Young

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to verify the effects of patient factors perceived by emergency medical technicians (EMTs) as well as their social and organizational factors on prehospital telemetry use intention based on the technology use intention and elaboration likelihood models. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective empirical study. Questionnaires were developed on the basis of clinical factors of 72,907 patients assessed by prehospital telemetry from January 1, 2009 to April 30, 2012 by reviewing their prehospital medical care records and in-hospital medical records. Questionnaires regarding the social and organizational factors of EMTs were created on the basis of a literature review. To verify which factors affect the utilization of telemetry, we developed a partial least-squares route model on the basis of each characteristic. In total, 136 EMTs who had experience in using prehospital telemetry were surveyed from April 1 to April 7, 2013. Reliability, validity, hypotheses, and the model goodness of fit of the study tools were tested. Results: The clinical factors of the patients (path coefficient=−0.12; t=2.38), subjective norm (path coefficient=0.18; t=2.63), and job fit (path coefficient=0.45; t=5.29) positively affected the perceived usefulness (p<0.010). Meanwhile, the clinical factors of the patients (path coefficients=−0.19; t=4.46), subjective norm (path coefficient=0.08; t=1.97), loyalty incentives (path coefficient=−0.17; t=3.83), job fit (path coefficient=−0.32; t=7.06), organizational facilitations (path coefficient=0.08; t=1.99), and technical factors (i.e., usefulness and ease of use) positively affected attitudes (path coefficient=0.10, 0.58; t=2.62, 5.81; p<0.010). Attitudes and perceived usefulness significantly positively affected use intention. Conclusions: Factors that influence the use of telemetry by EMTs in ambulances included patients' clinical factors, as well as complex organizational and

  16. Analysis of the technology acceptance model in examining hospital nurses' behavioral intentions toward the use of bar code medication administration.

    PubMed

    Song, Lunar; Park, Byeonghwa; Oh, Kyeung Mi

    2015-04-01

    Serious medication errors continue to exist in hospitals, even though there is technology that could potentially eliminate them such as bar code medication administration. Little is known about the degree to which the culture of patient safety is associated with behavioral intention to use bar code medication administration. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model, this study evaluated the relationships among patient safety culture and perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and behavioral intention to use bar code medication administration technology among nurses in hospitals. Cross-sectional surveys with a convenience sample of 163 nurses using bar code medication administration were conducted. Feedback and communication about errors had a positive impact in predicting perceived usefulness (β=.26, P<.01) and perceived ease of use (β=.22, P<.05). In a multiple regression model predicting for behavioral intention, age had a negative impact (β=-.17, P<.05); however, teamwork within hospital units (β=.20, P<.05) and perceived usefulness (β=.35, P<.01) both had a positive impact on behavioral intention. The overall bar code medication administration behavioral intention model explained 24% (P<.001) of the variance. Identified factors influencing bar code medication administration behavioral intention can help inform hospitals to develop tailored interventions for RNs to reduce medication administration errors and increase patient safety by using this technology.

  17. Tectonic plates, difficulties for pupils to link models and scientific data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David-Ameline, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    In a secondary school in the west of France, I teach Biology and Geology to young pupils from 12 to 15 years old. This poster deals with the difficulties that pupils have to link the scientific data concerning the plate tectonics and the models. I choose to reproduce for pupils some situations that faced some first scientific people as they discovered arguments for the plate tectonics. For example, they have to discover the thickness of the plates by studying the speed of the seismic waves regarding the deepness. That means that they have to construct a curve starting with a table and then to analyze it. The first step is linked to math lessons and is quite easy for them. But the second one needs to mix the curve with its signification. This point is particularly hard and as we correct it, it appears like one moment of « pure science » because they seem to discover something none did before, with the power of their brain ! The second work on this subject is to study the representations of the subduction at an oceanic trench and of the mid-ocean ridge. They first look for drawing explaining what happens for the plates in those places and then they look for proofs that permitted to create those drawings. They really need help to make the difference between scientific data (pictures, curves...) and other drawings similar to the one they choose. For this subject working with documents is not easy because pupils have to ask themselves « what kind of document is it ?» before going further into their thinking. Nevertheless, they often succeed in those works because the teacher helps them a little. Those subjects open their eyes on what science is for a geological theme. It's also a good method to make them having fun doing science and to make them being seduced by making science.

  18. A Statistical Reconstruction of Bivariate Climate from Tree Ring Width Measurements Using Scientifically Motivated Process Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipton, J.; Hooten, M.; Pederson, N.; Tingley, M.; Bishop, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to reconstruct historical climate is important to understanding how climate has changed in the past. The instrumental record of temperature and precipitation only spans the most recent centuries. Thus, reconstructions of the climate features are typically based on proxy archives. The proxy archives integrate climate information through biological, geological, physical, and chemical processes. Tree ring widths provide one of the most spatially and temporally rich sources of high quality climate proxy data. However, the statistical reconstruction of paleoclimate from tree ring widths is quite challenging because the climate signal is inherently multi-dimensional while tree ring widths are a one dimensional data source. We propose a Bayesian Hierarchical model using a non-linear, scientifically motivated tree ring growth models to reconstruct multivariate climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation) in the Hudson Valley region of New York. Our proposed model extends and enhances former methods in a number of ways. We allow for species-specific responses to climate, which further constrains the many-to-one relationship between tree rings and climate. The resulting model allows for prediction of reasonable climate scenarios given tree ring widths. We explore a natural model selection framework that weighs the influence of multiple candidate growth models in terms of their predictive ability. To enable prediction backcasts, the climate variables are modeled with an underlying continuous time latent process. The continuous time process allows for added flexibility in the climate response through time at different temporal scales and enables investigation of differences in climate between the reconstruction period and the instrumental period. Validation of the model's predictive abilities is achieved through a pseudo-proxy simulation experiment where the quality of climate predictions are measured by out of sample performance based on a proper local scoring

  19. Health research access to personal confidential data in England and Wales: assessing any gap in public attitude between preferable and acceptable models of consent.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark J; Taylor, Natasha

    2014-12-01

    England and Wales are moving toward a model of 'opt out' for use of personal confidential data in health research. Existing research does not make clear how acceptable this move is to the public. While people are typically supportive of health research, when asked to describe the ideal level of control there is a marked lack of consensus over the preferred model of consent (e.g. explicit consent, opt out etc.). This study sought to investigate a relatively unexplored difference between the consent model that people prefer and that which they are willing to accept. It also sought to explore any reasons for such acceptance.A mixed methods approach was used to gather data, incorporating a structured questionnaire and in-depth focus group discussions led by an external facilitator. The sampling strategy was designed to recruit people with different involvement in the NHS but typically with experience of NHS services. Three separate focus groups were carried out over three consecutive days.The central finding is that people are typically willing to accept models of consent other than that which they would prefer. Such acceptance is typically conditional upon a number of factors, including: security and confidentiality, no inappropriate commercialisation or detrimental use, transparency, independent overview, the ability to object to any processing considered to be inappropriate or particularly sensitive.This study suggests that most people would find research use without the possibility of objection to be unacceptable. However, the study also suggests that people who would prefer to be asked explicitly before data were used for purposes beyond direct care may be willing to accept an opt out model of consent if the reasons for not seeking explicit consent are accessible to them and they trust that data is only going to be used under conditions, and with safeguards, that they would consider to be acceptable even if not preferable.

  20. Mathematical Modeling in Science: Using Spreadsheets to Create Mathematical Models and Address Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Robert M.; Leonard, William H.

    2005-01-01

    In science, inquiry is used as students explore important and interesting questions concerning the world around them. In mathematics, one contemporary inquiry approach is to create models that describe real phenomena. Creating mathematical models using spreadsheets can help students learn at deep levels in both science and mathematics, and give…

  1. Testing a model for parental acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccine in 9- to 18-year-old girls: a theory-guided study.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Diane; O'Connell, Kathleen A

    2012-12-01

    Gardasil is the first vaccine developed to prevent cervical cancer and other diseases caused by certain types of genital human papillomavirus in females, but little is known about parental acceptance of this vaccine. The purpose of this study was to test a model that predicts intention to vaccinate that includes constructs from the health belief model and the theory of reasoned action.

  2. NRLMSISE-00 Empirical Model of the Atmosphere: Statistical Comparisons and Scientific Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Picone, J. M.; Hedin, A. E.; Drob, D. P.

    2001-01-01

    The new NRLMSISE-00 model and the associated NRLMSIS database now include the following data: (1) total mass density from satellite accelerometers and from orbit determination, including the Jacchia and Barlier data; (2) temperature from incoherent scatter radar, and; (3) molecular oxygen number density, [O2], from solar ultraviolet occultation aboard the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). A new component, 'anomalous oxygen,' allows for appreciable O(+) and hot atomic oxygen contributions to the total mass density at high altitudes and applies primarily to drag estimation above 500 km. Extensive tables compare our entire database to the NRLMSISE-00, MSISE-90, and Jacchia-70 models for different altitude bands and levels of geomagnetic activity. We also investigate scientific issues related to the new data sets in the NRLMSIS database. Especially noteworthy is the solar activity dependence of the Jacchia data, with which we investigate a large O(+) contribution to the total mass density under the combination of summer, low solar activity, high latitudes, and high altitudes. Under these conditions, except at very low solar activity, the Jacchia data and the Jacchia-70 model indeed show a significantly higher total mass density than does MSISE-90. However, under the corresponding winter conditions, the MSIS-class models represent a noticeable improvement relative to Jacchia-70 over a wide range of F(sub 10.7). Considering the two regimes together, NRLMSISE-00 achieves an improvement over both MSISE-90 and Jacchia-70 by incorporating advantages of each.

  3. Novel developments in benthic modelling to address scientific and policy challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Artioli, Yuri; Bruggeman, Jorn; Aldridge, John; Blackford, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the role of benthic systems in supporting, regulating and providing marine ecosystem services requires better understanding of their functioning and their response and resilience to stressors. Novel observational methods for the investigation of dynamics of benthic-pelagic coupling in shelf seas are being developed and new data is being collected. Therefore there is an increasing demand for robust representation of benthic processes in marine biogeochemical and ecosystem models, which would improve our understanding of whole systems and benthic-pelagic coupling, rather than act as mere closure terms for pelagic models. However, for several decades development of benthic models has lagged behind their pelagic counterparts. To address contemporary scientific, policy and societal challenges, the biogeochemical and ecological model ERSEM (European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model), including its benthic sub-model, was recently recoded in a scalable and modular format adopting the approach of FABM (Framework for Aquatic Biogeochemical Models). Within the Shelf Sea Biogeochemistry research programme, a series of additional processes have been included, such as a sedimentary carbonate system, a resuspendable fluff layer, and the simulation of advective sediments. It was shown that the inclusion of these processes changes the dynamics of benthic-pelagic fluxes as well as modifying the benthic food web. Comparison of model results with in-situ data demonstrated a general improvement of model performance and highlighted the importance of the benthic system in overall ecosystem dynamics. As an example, our simulations have shown that inclusion of a resuspendable fluff layer facilitates regeneration of inorganic nutrients in the water column due to degradation of resuspended organic material by pelagic bacteria. Moreover, the composition of fluff was found to be important for trophic interactions, and therefore indirectly affects benthic community composition. Where

  4. Quantitative and qualitative variation of fat in model vanilla custard desserts: effects on sensory properties and consumer acceptance.

    PubMed

    Tomaschunas, Maja; Köhn, Ehrhard; Bennwitz, Petra; Hinrichs, Jörg; Busch-Stockfisch, Mechthild

    2013-06-01

    The effects of variation in fat content (0.1% to 15.8%) and type of fat, using different types of milk, dairy cream, or vegetable fat cream, on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of starch-based vanilla model custards were studied. Descriptive analysis with trained panelists and consumer testing with untrained assessors were applied. Descriptive data were related to hedonic data using principal component analysis to determine drivers of liking and disliking. Results demonstrated an increasing effect of fat concerning visual and oral thickness, creamy flavor, and fat-related texture properties, as well as a decreasing effect concerning yellow color and surface shine. A lack of fat caused moderate intensities in pudding-like flavor attributes and an intensive jelly texture. Adding a vegetable fat cream led to lower intensities in attributes yellow color, cooked flavor, thick, and jelly texture, whereas intensities in vegetable fat flavor and fat-related texture properties increased. All consumers favored custards with medium fat contents, being high in pudding-like and vegetable fat flavor as well as in fat-related texture attributes. Nonfat custards were rejected due to jelly texture and moderate intensities in pudding-flavor attributes. High-fat samples were liked by some consumers, but their high intensities in thickness, white color, and creamy flavor also drove disliking for others.

  5. An expert panel report of a proposed scientific model demonstrating the effectiveness of antibacterial handwash products.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Dupont, Herbert L; Massaro, Joseph; Sack, David; Schaffner, Donald W

    2012-10-01

    In 2005, a US Food and Drug Administration Nonprescription Drug Advisory Committee (NDAC) review of consumer antiseptic handwash product studies concluded that the data regarding existing products failed to demonstrate any association between specific log reductions of bacteria achieved by antiseptic handwashing and reduction of infection. The NDAC recommended that consumer antibacterial handwashing products should demonstrate a reduction in infection compared with non-antibacterial handwash products. In response to the NDAC review, a consumer product industry-sponsored expert panel meeting was held in October 2007 to review new methods for assessing the efficacy of antibacterial handwashes. The expert panel reviewed a newly proposed model for linking the effectiveness of antibacterial handwashing to infection reduction and made recommendations for conducting future studies designed to demonstrate the efficacy of antibacterial handwash formulations. The panel concluded that using the surrogate infection model to demonstrate efficacy has a sound scientific basis, that the use of Shigella flexneri as a test organism coupled with a modified hand contamination procedure is supported by published data, and that the model represents a realistic test for the efficacy of consumer antibacterial handwash products. This article summarizes the expert panel's deliberations, conclusions, and recommendations.

  6. Effects of `Environmental Chemistry' Elective Course Via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry Model on Some Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çalik, Muammer; Özsevgeç, Tuncay; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Artun, Hüseyin; Küçük, Zeynel

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of `environmental chemistry' elective course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry (TESI) model on senior science student teachers' (SSSTs) conceptions of environmental chemistry concepts/issues, attitudes toward chemistry, and technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) levels. Within one group pre-test-post-test design, the study was conducted with 117 SSSTs (68 females and 49 males—aged 21-23 years) enrolled in an `environmental chemistry' elective course in the spring semester of 2011-2012 academic-years. Instruments for data collection comprised of Environmental Chemistry Conceptual Understanding Questionnaire, TPACK survey, and Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences Questionnaire. Significant increases in the SSSTs' conceptions of environmental chemistry concepts/issues, attitudes toward chemistry, and TPACK levels are attributed to the SSSTs learning how to use the innovative technologies in the contexts of the `environmental chemistry' elective course and teaching practicum. The study implies that the TESI model may serve a useful purpose in experimental science courses that use the innovative technologies. However, to generalize feasibility of the TESI model, it should be evaluated with SSSTs in diverse learning contexts.

  7. Rocky Flats Closure: the Role of Models in Facilitating Scientific Communication With Stakeholder Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.L.; Choppin, G.R.; Dayton, C.S.; Janecky, D.R.; Lane, L.J.; Paton, I.

    2009-05-28

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) was a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) environmental cleanup site for a previous manufacturing plant that made components for the U.S. nuclear weapons arsenal. The facility was shut down in 1989 to address environmental and safety concerns, and left behind a legacy of contaminated facilities, soils, surface and ground water. In 1995, the Site contractor established the Actinide Migration Evaluation (AME) advisory group to provide advice and technical expertise on issues of actinide behavior and mobility in the air, surface water, groundwater, and soil. Through a combination of expert judgment supported by state-of-the-art scientific measurements, it was shown that under environmental conditions at Rocky Flats, plutonium and americium form insoluble oxides that adhere to small soil, organic, and mineral particles and colloids, or are colloidal materials themselves. A series of models ranging from conceptual, geostatistical, and large-scale wind and surface water erosion models were used to guide stakeholder interactions. The nature of these models, and their use in public communication is described.

  8. An expert panel report of a proposed scientific model demonstrating the effectiveness of antibacterial handwash products.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Dupont, Herbert L; Massaro, Joseph; Sack, David; Schaffner, Donald W

    2012-10-01

    In 2005, a US Food and Drug Administration Nonprescription Drug Advisory Committee (NDAC) review of consumer antiseptic handwash product studies concluded that the data regarding existing products failed to demonstrate any association between specific log reductions of bacteria achieved by antiseptic handwashing and reduction of infection. The NDAC recommended that consumer antibacterial handwashing products should demonstrate a reduction in infection compared with non-antibacterial handwash products. In response to the NDAC review, a consumer product industry-sponsored expert panel meeting was held in October 2007 to review new methods for assessing the efficacy of antibacterial handwashes. The expert panel reviewed a newly proposed model for linking the effectiveness of antibacterial handwashing to infection reduction and made recommendations for conducting future studies designed to demonstrate the efficacy of antibacterial handwash formulations. The panel concluded that using the surrogate infection model to demonstrate efficacy has a sound scientific basis, that the use of Shigella flexneri as a test organism coupled with a modified hand contamination procedure is supported by published data, and that the model represents a realistic test for the efficacy of consumer antibacterial handwash products. This article summarizes the expert panel's deliberations, conclusions, and recommendations. PMID:22300895

  9. Modeling and analysis of hybrid pixel detector deficiencies for scientific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahim, Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Hoff, James R.; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-08-01

    Semiconductor hybrid pixel detectors often consist of a pixellated sensor layer bump bonded to a matching pixelated readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The sensor can range from high resistivity Si to III-V materials, whereas a Si CMOS process is typically used to manufacture the ROIC. Independent, device physics and electronic design automation (EDA) tools are used to determine sensor characteristics and verify functional performance of ROICs respectively with significantly different solvers. Some physics solvers provide the capability of transferring data to the EDA tool. However, single pixel transient simulations are either not feasible due to convergence difficulties or are prohibitively long. A simplified sensor model, which includes a current pulse in parallel with detector equivalent capacitor, is often used; even then, spice type top-level (entire array) simulations range from days to weeks. In order to analyze detector deficiencies for a particular scientific application, accurately defined transient behavioral models of all the functional blocks are required. Furthermore, various simulations, such as transient, noise, Monte Carlo, inter-pixel effects, etc. of the entire array need to be performed within a reasonable time frame without trading off accuracy. The sensor and the analog front-end can be modeling using a real number modeling language, as complex mathematical functions or detailed data can be saved to text files, for further top-level digital simulations. Parasitically aware digital timing is extracted in a standard delay format (sdf) from the pixel digital back-end layout as well as the periphery of the ROIC. For any given input, detector level worst-case and best-case simulations are performed using a Verilog simulation environment to determine the output. Each top-level transient simulation takes no more than 10-15 minutes. The impact of changing key parameters such as sensor Poissonian shot noise, analog front-end bandwidth, jitter due to

  10. Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Pixel Detector Deficiencies for Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fahim, Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Hoff, James R.; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-08-28

    Semiconductor hybrid pixel detectors often consist of a pixellated sensor layer bump bonded to a matching pixelated readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The sensor can range from high resistivity Si to III-V materials, whereas a Si CMOS process is typically used to manufacture the ROIC. Independent, device physics and electronic design automation (EDA) tools are used to determine sensor characteristics and verify functional performance of ROICs respectively with significantly different solvers. Some physics solvers provide the capability of transferring data to the EDA tool. However, single pixel transient simulations are either not feasible due to convergence difficulties or are prohibitively long. A simplified sensor model, which includes a current pulse in parallel with detector equivalent capacitor, is often used; even then, spice type top-level (entire array) simulations range from days to weeks. In order to analyze detector deficiencies for a particular scientific application, accurately defined transient behavioral models of all the functional blocks are required. Furthermore, various simulations, such as transient, noise, Monte Carlo, inter-pixel effects, etc. of the entire array need to be performed within a reasonable time frame without trading off accuracy. The sensor and the analog front-end can be modeling using a real number modeling language, as complex mathematical functions or detailed data can be saved to text files, for further top-level digital simulations. Parasitically aware digital timing is extracted in a standard delay format (sdf) from the pixel digital back-end layout as well as the periphery of the ROIC. For any given input, detector level worst-case and best-case simulations are performed using a Verilog simulation environment to determine the output. Each top-level transient simulation takes no more than 10-15 minutes. The impact of changing key parameters such as sensor Poissonian shot noise, analog front-end bandwidth, jitter due to

  11. Perceptions of a Specific Family Communication Application among Grandparents and Grandchildren: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Ho, Yi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have noted that the use of social networks sites (SNSs) can enhance social interaction among the elderly and that the motivation for the elderly to use SNSs is to keep in contact with remote friends and family or the younger generation. Memotree is designed to promote intergenerational family communication. The system incorporates the Family Tree design concept and provides family communication mechanisms based on the Family Communication Scale. In addition, the system optimizes hardware and interface use to conform to the specific needs of older and substantially younger individuals. Regarding the impact of variables on SNS with respect to the interaction of usability variables in the construction of a cross-generational communication platform, we adopted the TAM model and Chung et al.'s suggestions to promote user acceptance of the proposed Memotree system. A total of 39 grandchildren and 39 grandparents met the criteria and were included in the study. The elderly and young respondents revealed substantial willingness to use and/or satisfaction with using the Memotree system. Empirical results indicate that technology affordances and perceived ease of use have a positive impact on perceived usefulness, while perceived ease of use is affected by technology affordances. Internet self-efficacy and perceived usefulness have a positive impact on the user's behavioral intention toward the system. In addition, this study investigated age as a moderating variable in the model. The results indicate that grandchildren have a larger significant effect on the path between perceived usefulness and behavioral intention than grandparents. This study proposes a more complete framework for investigating the user's behavioral intention and provides a more appropriate explanation of related services for cross-generational interaction with SNS services. PMID:27270915

  12. Perceptions of a Specific Family Communication Application among Grandparents and Grandchildren: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Ho, Yi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have noted that the use of social networks sites (SNSs) can enhance social interaction among the elderly and that the motivation for the elderly to use SNSs is to keep in contact with remote friends and family or the younger generation. Memotree is designed to promote intergenerational family communication. The system incorporates the Family Tree design concept and provides family communication mechanisms based on the Family Communication Scale. In addition, the system optimizes hardware and interface use to conform to the specific needs of older and substantially younger individuals. Regarding the impact of variables on SNS with respect to the interaction of usability variables in the construction of a cross-generational communication platform, we adopted the TAM model and Chung et al.’s suggestions to promote user acceptance of the proposed Memotree system. A total of 39 grandchildren and 39 grandparents met the criteria and were included in the study. The elderly and young respondents revealed substantial willingness to use and/or satisfaction with using the Memotree system. Empirical results indicate that technology affordances and perceived ease of use have a positive impact on perceived usefulness, while perceived ease of use is affected by technology affordances. Internet self-efficacy and perceived usefulness have a positive impact on the user’s behavioral intention toward the system. In addition, this study investigated age as a moderating variable in the model. The results indicate that grandchildren have a larger significant effect on the path between perceived usefulness and behavioral intention than grandparents. This study proposes a more complete framework for investigating the user’s behavioral intention and provides a more appropriate explanation of related services for cross-generational interaction with SNS services. PMID:27270915

  13. Perceptions of a Specific Family Communication Application among Grandparents and Grandchildren: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Ho, Yi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have noted that the use of social networks sites (SNSs) can enhance social interaction among the elderly and that the motivation for the elderly to use SNSs is to keep in contact with remote friends and family or the younger generation. Memotree is designed to promote intergenerational family communication. The system incorporates the Family Tree design concept and provides family communication mechanisms based on the Family Communication Scale. In addition, the system optimizes hardware and interface use to conform to the specific needs of older and substantially younger individuals. Regarding the impact of variables on SNS with respect to the interaction of usability variables in the construction of a cross-generational communication platform, we adopted the TAM model and Chung et al.'s suggestions to promote user acceptance of the proposed Memotree system. A total of 39 grandchildren and 39 grandparents met the criteria and were included in the study. The elderly and young respondents revealed substantial willingness to use and/or satisfaction with using the Memotree system. Empirical results indicate that technology affordances and perceived ease of use have a positive impact on perceived usefulness, while perceived ease of use is affected by technology affordances. Internet self-efficacy and perceived usefulness have a positive impact on the user's behavioral intention toward the system. In addition, this study investigated age as a moderating variable in the model. The results indicate that grandchildren have a larger significant effect on the path between perceived usefulness and behavioral intention than grandparents. This study proposes a more complete framework for investigating the user's behavioral intention and provides a more appropriate explanation of related services for cross-generational interaction with SNS services.

  14. The Relationship between Students' Perception of the Scientific Models and Their Alternative Conceptions of the Lunar Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Su-Kyeong

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal whether there were differences in the understanding of scientific models according to their conceptions of lunar phases. The participants were 252 10th grader in South Korea. They were asked to respond SUMS (Students Understanding of Models in Science) instrument and to draw and explain why the different lunar…

  15. The Roles of Embedded Monitoring Requests and Questions in Improving Mental Models of Computer-Based Scientific Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathorn, Lesley G.; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has shown that people are likely to skim information presented digitally with the resultant deleterious effect on accurate mental models of the text. Teaching monitoring strategies and presenting text with adjunct questions are effective strategies for improving the mental models of readers of scientific text, but the two strategies…

  16. Ozone Monitoring Instrument flight-model on-ground calibration from a scientific point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobber, M.; Dirksen, R.; Levelt, P.; van den Oord, B.; Jaross, G.; Kowalewski, M.; Mount, G.; Heath, D.; Hilsenrath, E.; de Vries, J.

    2003-04-01

    In 2002 the on-ground calibration of the flight-model of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), scheduled for launch in January 2004 on the EOS-AURA satellite, was performed by the industrial contractor in close cooperation with the Principal Investigator team from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) and the scientific Calibration Working Group with members from The Netherlands, Finland, and the United States. OMI will observe the Earth in nadir with a field of view of 114 degrees, providing a daily Earth coverage. The instrument observes the sun once per day via one of three on-board diffusers, and once per week and month via one of the other two diffusers, respectively, to monitor the diffuser degradation. The instrument is equipped with an internal white light source for detector calibration purposes. This presentation will focus on the measurements, analyses and preliminary results of the on-ground calibration from a scientific perspective, which are particularly important for meeting the scientific objectives of the OMI instrument. The OMI instrument is operated in flight at close to vacuum pressure and at temperatures of the CCD detectors and the instrument optical bench of 266 K and 265 K, respectively. Special attention is therefor given to the methods for obtaining a flight-representative on-ground calibration of the instrument. The OMI instrument has a large observational swath field of view of 114 degrees and a high spectral resolution. For this reason the on-ground calibration of the swath angle dependence of the radiometric calibration and the calibration description of spectral instrument features are discussed in the presentation. The spectral instrument features are important in view of the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) retrieval technique used for the OMI instrument. They originate from the innovative polarisation scrambling device in the Earth mode and from the three on-board diffusers in the sun mode

  17. [Brazilian scientific production on the Family Health Strategy and the change in the model of care].

    PubMed

    Silva, Livia Angeli; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Chaves, Sônia Cristina Lima

    2013-01-01

    The variety of existing studies addressing the Family Health Strategy (ESF) and its role in the reorientation of the model of care in the country has motivated the systematization of the advances and limitations described in these studies. Thus, this study, from a review of the scientific production on this theme, analyzed if the ESF has been able to modify the model of care. Forty-one articles from the Scielo database published between 2002 and 2010 that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were analyzed. They were fully analyzed in terms of political-institutional, organizational or technical-care dimensions. The results show that despite the improvement in the work process in primary care, its replacement aspect was not seen in the majority of the studies. Universal expansion of access to the health services, extension of coverage and focus were predominant. The changes are observed when analyzed in light of the demand, with better attendance and connectivity. The most evident limits are in the lack of focus on health needs, as in the territorial issue, community participation and the social determinants addressed in an intersectoral way. Different degrees of the implementation of strategy were identified, though they have not yet resulted in system reorganization at local level. PMID:23338512

  18. A Path Analysis of Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes to Computer Use: Applying and Extending the Technology Acceptance Model in an Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine pre-service teachers' attitudes to computers. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) framework by adding subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological complexity as external variables. Results show that the TAM and subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological…

  19. Analysis of Utility and Use of a Web-Based Tool for Digital Signal Processing Teaching by Means of a Technological Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toral, S. L.; Barrero, F.; Martinez-Torres, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study about the development of a structural and measurement model for the technological acceptance (TAM) of a web-based educational tool. The aim consists of measuring not only the use of this tool, but also the external variables with a significant influence in its use for planning future improvements. The tool,…

  20. Modeling the Interrelationships among Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding and Acceptance of Evolution, Their Views on Nature of Science and Self-Efficacy Beliefs regarding Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyol, Gulsum; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Traynor, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study proposed a path model of relationships among understanding and acceptance of evolution, views on nature of science, and self-efficacy beliefs regarding teaching evolution. A total of 415 pre-service science teachers completed a series of self-report instruments for the specified purpose. After the estimation of scale scores using…

  1. Assessing the Intention to Use Technology among Pre-Service Teachers in Singapore and Malaysia: A Multigroup Invariance Analysis of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Lee, Chwee Beng; Chai, Ching Sing; Wong, Su Luan

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the pre-service teachers' self-reported future intentions to use technology in Singapore and Malaysia. A survey was employed to validate items from past research. Using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a research framework, 495 pre-service teachers from Singapore and Malaysia responded to an 11-item questionnaires…

  2. Exploring Attitudes towards Computer Use among Pre-Service Teachers from Singapore and the UK: A Multi-Group Invariance Test of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Noyes, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to compare the pre-service teachers from Singapore and the UK on their self-reported attitude towards computer use (ATCU) by employing the technology acceptance model (TAM) as the research framework. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 395 pre-service teachers completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses…

  3. Slash Writers and Guinea Pigs as Models for a Scientific Multiliteracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores alternative approaches to the conception of scientific literacy, drawing on cultural studies and emerging practices in language arts as its framework. The paper reviews historic tensions in the understanding of scientific literacy and then draws on the multiliteracies movement in language arts to suggest a scientific…

  4. The Experimental Social Scientific Model in Speech Communication Research: Influences and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy

    A substantial number of published articles in speech communication research today is experimental/social scientific in nature. It is only in the past decade that scholars have begun to put the history of communication under the lens. Early advocates of the adoption of the method of social scientific inquiry were J. A. Winans, J. M. O'Neill, and C.…

  5. Toward a Model of Social Influence that Explains Minority Student Integration into the Scientific Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Students from several ethnic minority groups are underrepresented in the sciences, indicating that minority students more frequently drop out of the scientific career path than nonminority students. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that minority students do not integrate into the scientific community at the same…

  6. Engaging Fifth Graders in Scientific Modeling to Learn about Evaporation and Condensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hokayem, Hayat; Schwarz, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Reform efforts in science education have aimed at fostering scientific literacy by helping learners meaningfully engage in scientific practices to make sense of the world. In this paper, we report on our second year of unit implementation that has investigated 34 fifth grade students' (10-year-olds) learning about evaporation and condensation…

  7. Trends and biases in global scientific literature about ecological niche models.

    PubMed

    Vaz, U L; Cunha, H F; Nabout, J C

    2015-11-01

    Recently, ecological niche models have been employed to investigate the potential geographical distribution of species. However, it is necessary to analyze the vast number of publications on this topic to understand the trends and biases of research using ecological niche models (ENMs). Therefore, this study aims to investigate trends in the scientific literature regarding studies on ENMs. For the quantitative analysis of the literature on ENMs, we performed a search in the Thomson ISI (Web of Science) database between 1991 and 2013. The search identified 3042 papers containing preselected keywords in either the title or abstract. The results showed that the number of papers has increased over the years (r=0.77, P<0.001), with a sharp increase in recent years, highlighting the widespread use of the ENMs. There was an increase in the diversity of journals that published papers about ENMs (r=0.97, P<0.001). The research was conducted in different countries, predominantly the United States of America (550 papers), and the most commonly used method was the Maximum Entropy method (312 papers). Regarding the taxonomic group, most research has been conducted on plants (402 papers, or 28.36% of the total). There was no relationship between the modeling method used and the taxonomic group studied (χ2=4.8, P=0.15). Finally, the wide availability of biological, environmental and computational resources has elicited the broad use of tools for ENMs. Despite the conceptual discussions of the ENMs, this method is currently the most effective way to evaluate the potential geographical distribution of species, and to predict the distribution under different environmental conditions (i.e., future or past scenarios).

  8. Angular sensitivity of modeled scientific silicon charge-coupled devices to initial electron direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plimley, Brian; Coffer, Amy; Zhang, Yigong; Vetter, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Previously, scientific silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with 10.5-μm pixel pitch and a thick (650 μm), fully depleted bulk have been used to measure gamma-ray-induced fast electrons and demonstrate electron track Compton imaging. A model of the response of this CCD was also developed and benchmarked to experiment using Monte Carlo electron tracks. We now examine the trade-off in pixel pitch and electronic noise. We extend our CCD response model to different pixel pitch and readout noise per pixel, including pixel pitch of 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 10.5 μm, 20 μm, and 40 μm, and readout noise from 0 eV/pixel to 2 keV/pixel for 10.5 μm pixel pitch. The CCD images generated by this model using simulated electron tracks are processed by our trajectory reconstruction algorithm. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm defines the expected angular sensitivity as a function of electron energy, CCD pixel pitch, and readout noise per pixel. Results show that our existing pixel pitch of 10.5 μm is near optimal for our approach, because smaller pixels add little new information but are subject to greater statistical noise. In addition, we measured the readout noise per pixel for two different device temperatures in order to estimate the effect of temperature on the reconstruction algorithm performance, although the readout is not optimized for higher temperatures. The noise in our device at 240 K increases the FWHM of angular measurement error by no more than a factor of 2, from 26° to 49° FWHM for electrons between 425 keV and 480 keV. Therefore, a CCD could be used for electron-track-based imaging in a Peltier-cooled device.

  9. Re-examining the role of attitude in information system acceptance: a model from the satisfaction-dissatisfaction perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bin; Zhou, Shasha

    2016-05-01

    This study attempts to re-examine the role of attitude in voluntary information system (IS) acceptance and usage, which has often been discounted in the previous technology acceptance research. We extend the unidimensional view of attitude into a bidimensional one, because of the simultaneous existence of both positive and negative evaluation towards IS in technology acceptance behaviour. In doing so, attitude construct is divided into two components: satisfaction as the positive attitudinal component and dissatisfaction as the negative attitudinal component. We argue that satisfaction and dissatisfaction will interactively affect technology usage intention. Besides, we explore the predictors of satisfaction and dissatisfaction based on the disconfirmation theory. Empirical results from a longitudinal study on bulletin board system (BBS) usage confirm the interaction effect of satisfaction and dissatisfaction on usage intention. Moreover, perceived task-related value has a significant effect on satisfaction, while perceived personal value has a significant effect on dissatisfaction. We also discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of our findings.

  10. Fostering Third-Grade Students' Use of Scientific Models with the Water Cycle: Elementary teachers' conceptions and practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Tina; Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura; Schwarz, Christina V.

    2015-10-01

    Elementary teachers play a crucial role in supporting and scaffolding students' model-based reasoning about natural phenomena, particularly complex systems such as the water cycle. However, little research exists to inform efforts in supporting elementary teachers' learning to foster model-centered, science learning environments. To address this need, we conducted an exploratory multiple-case study using qualitative research methods to investigate six 3rd-grade teachers' pedagogical reasoning and classroom instruction around modeling practices (construct, use, evaluate, and revise) and epistemic considerations of scientific modeling (generality/abstraction, evidence, mechanism, and audience). Study findings show that all teachers emphasized a subset of modeling practices-construction and use-and the epistemic consideration of generality/abstraction. There was observable consistency between teachers' articulated conceptions of scientific modeling and their classroom practices. Results also show a subset of the teachers more strongly emphasized additional epistemic considerations and, as a result, better supported students to use models as sense-making tools as well as representations. These findings provide important evidence for developing elementary teacher supports to scaffold students' engagement in scientific modeling.

  11. Model University Policy Regarding Faculty Publication in Scientific and Technical Scholarly Journals: A Background Paper and Review of the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public-Access Computer Systems Review, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents and discusses a model policy regarding faculty publishing in scientific and technical journals that was developed by the Triangle Research Library Network (North Carolina). Highlights include the current scholarly communication system, including incompatibility between the goals of academic researchers and the goals of publishers;…

  12. The Relationship between Learners' Distrust of Scientific Models, Their Spatial Ability, and the Vividness of Their Mental Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the nature of the relationship between learners' distrust of scientific models that represent unseen entities and phenomena, their spatial ability, and the vividness of their mental images. The sample consisted of 302 tenth grade students in the Sultanate of Oman. Three measures were used for this…

  13. Elementary School Students' Emotions When Exploring an Authentic Socio-Scientific Issue through the Use of Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaou, Chr. Th.; Evagorou, M.; Lymbouridou, Chr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the belief that emotions are important in the learning process, research in the area of emotions and learning, especially in science, is scant. Modelling and SSI argumentation have shared with respect to the emphasis in recent science standards reports as core scientific practices that need to be part of science teaching and learning. Even…

  14. Effects of '"Environmental Chemistry" Elective Course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry Model on Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çalik, Muammer; Özsevgeç, Tuncay; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Artun, Hüseyin; Küçük, Zeynel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of "environmental chemistry" elective course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry (TESI) model on senior science student teachers' (SSSTs) conceptions of environmental chemistry concepts/issues, attitudes toward chemistry, and technological pedagogical content knowledge…

  15. Learner Differences in Perceived Satisfaction of an Online Learning: An Extension to the Technology Acceptance Model in an Arabic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azawei, Ahmed; Lundqvist, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Online learning constitutes the most popular distance-learning method, with flexibility, accessibility, visibility, manageability and availability as its core features. However, current research indicates that its efficacy is not consistent across all learners. This study aimed to modify and extend the factors of the Technology Acceptance Model…

  16. Personal Learning Environments Acceptance Model: The Role of Need for Cognition, e-Learning Satisfaction and Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Barrio-García, Salvador; Arquero, José L.; Romero-Frías, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    As long as students use Web 2.0 tools extensively for social purposes, there is an opportunity to improve students' engagement in Higher Education by using these tools for academic purposes under a Personal Learning Environment approach (PLE 2.0). The success of these attempts depends upon the reactions and acceptance of users towards e-learning…

  17. A Model of Acceptance of Web 2.0 in Learning in Higher Education: A Case Study of Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usoro, Abel; Echeng, Razep; Majewski, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Though a few empirical studies on acceptance of Web 2.0 as a social networking tool in teaching and learning exist, apparently none consider students' and faculties' views from different cultures, which is the focus of this study. This article reports on a pilot study that begins to fill this gap by investigating the perceptions,…

  18. E-Learning and the University of Huelva: A Study of WebCT and the Technological Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, R. Arteaga; Hueros, A. Duarte; Ordaz, M. Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that determine the acceptance of the WebCT learning system among students of the faculties of Business and Education Sciences at the University of Huelva, and to verify the direct and indirect effects of these factors. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 226 students at the…

  19. Water-balance uncertainty in Honduras: a limits-of-acceptability approach to model evaluation using a time-variant rating curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerberg, I.; Guerrero, J.-L.; Beven, K.; Seibert, J.; Halldin, S.; Lundin, L.-C.; Xu, C.-Y.

    2009-04-01

    The climate of Central America is highly variable both spatially and temporally; extreme events like floods and droughts are recurrent phenomena posing great challenges to regional water-resources management. Scarce and low-quality hydro-meteorological data complicate hydrological modelling and few previous studies have addressed the water-balance in Honduras. In the alluvial Choluteca River, the river bed changes over time as fill and scour occur in the channel, leading to a fast-changing relation between stage and discharge and difficulties in deriving consistent rating curves. In this application of a four-parameter water-balance model, a limits-of-acceptability approach to model evaluation was used within the General Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) framework. The limits of acceptability were determined for discharge alone for each time step, and ideally a simulated result should always be contained within the limits. A moving-window weighted fuzzy regression of the ratings, based on estimated uncertainties in the rating-curve data, was used to derive the limits. This provided an objective way to determine the limits of acceptability and handle the non-stationarity of the rating curves. The model was then applied within GLUE and evaluated using the derived limits. Preliminary results show that the best simulations are within the limits 75-80% of the time, indicating that precipitation data and other uncertainties like model structure also have a significant effect on predictability.

  20. The Large-Scale Structure of Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosso, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The standard textbook description of the nature of science describes the proposal, testing, and acceptance of a theoretical idea almost entirely in isolation from other theories. The resulting model of science is a kind of piecemeal empiricism that misses the important network structure of scientific knowledge. Only the large-scale description of…

  1. [Evaluation of scientific production in different subareas of Public Health: limits of the current model and contributions to the debate].

    PubMed

    Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira; Martin, Denise; Camargo Jr, Kenneth Rochel de; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Cláudia Medina

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the limits of the quantitative evaluation model for scientific production in Public Health. An analysis of the scientific production of professors from the various subareas of Public Health was performed for 2010-2012. Distributions of the mean annual score for professors were compared according to subareas. The study estimated the likelihood that 60% of the professors in the graduate studies programs scored P50 (Very Good) or higher in their area. Professors of Epidemiology showed a significantly higher median annual score. Graduate studies programs whose faculty included at least 60% of Epidemiology professors and fewer than 10% from the subarea Social and Human Sciences in Health were significantly more likely to achieve a "Very Good" classification. The observed inequalities in scientific production between different subareas of Public Health point to the need to rethink their evaluation in order to avoid reproducing iniquities that have harmful consequences for the field's diversity.

  2. Is it acceptable to use animals to model obese humans? A critical discussion of two arguments against the use of animals in obesity research.

    PubMed

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Olsson, I Anna S; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Animal use in medical research is widely accepted on the basis that it may help to save human lives and improve their quality of life. Recently, however, objections have been made specifically to the use of animals in scientific investigation of human obesity. This paper discusses two arguments for the view that this form of animal use, unlike some other forms of animal-based medical research, cannot be defended. The first argument leans heavily on the notion that people themselves are responsible for developing obesity and so-called 'lifestyle' diseases; the second involves the claim that animal studies of obesity's causes and therapies distract attention from preventive efforts. Drawing on both empirical data and moral reasoning, we argue that the relevant attributions of responsibility and claims about distraction are not plausible, and that, therefore, there is no reason to single out the use of animals in obesity research as especially problematic.

  3. Promoting the Understanding of Scientific Reasoning, Mathematical Modeling and Data Analysis: A Course for Astrophysics Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Dennis; Ford, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NSF-supported “AstroCom NYC” program, a collaboration of the City University of New York, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and Columbia University has the explicit goal of increasing the participation of underrepresented minorities in astronomy and astrophysics by providing pedagogical mentoring and research experiences to undergraduate students. To supplement AstroCom scholars' undergraduate course work, and as a gateway to summer astrophysics research opportunities, we implemented a course called “Methods of Scientific Research” (MSR). The semester-long MSR course emphasizes the study of data using computers and other digital tools in a laboratory environment that encourages collaborative and active learning. We enroll early physical science majors and deliberately seek to inculcate habits of mind needed for science research, including assigning physical meaning to variables and measurements; engaging in mathematical modeling; quantifying error; eliminating bias; proposing hypotheses; creating predictions; testing predictions. Using laptop computers interfaced with probeware, students collect and analyze data using graphing software. Students study concepts such as motion, temperature, magnetism, electricity, gas pressure, and force with open-ended investigations where large data sets can be readily collected and replicated during a course meeting. Students are guided to examine data for patterns and trends, to make meaning of descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, maximum and minimum values, correlation coefficients and root mean square error values, and in general to understand, judge, and describe the studied phenomena based on data. A secondary goal of the course is to familiarize students with the facilities at AMNH, where they will do summer research as part of AstroCom NYC, in an effort to build a sense of belonging and to help them begin to self-identify as a scientist. We will discuss some our activities and

  4. Soliciting scientific information and beliefs in predictive modeling and adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Post-normal science requires public engagement and adaptive corrections in addressing issues with high complexity and uncertainty. An adaptive management framework is presented for the improved management of natural resources and environments through a public participation process. The framework solicits the gathering and transformation and/or modeling of scientific information but also explicitly solicits the expression of participant beliefs. Beliefs and information are compared, explicitly discussed for alignments or misalignments, and ultimately melded back together as a "knowledge" basis for making decisions. An effort is made to recognize the human or participant biases that may affect the information base and the potential decisions. In a separate step, an attempt is made to recognize and predict the potential "winners" and "losers" (perceived or real) of any decision or action. These "winners" and "losers" include present human communities with different spatial, demographic or socio-economic characteristics as well as more dispersed or more diffusely characterized regional or global communities. "Winners" and "losers" may also include future human communities as well as communities of other biotic species. As in any adaptive management framework, assessment of predictions, iterative follow-through and adaptation of policies or actions is essential, and commonly very difficult or impossible to achieve. Recognizing beforehand the limits of adaptive management is essential. More generally, knowledge of the behavioral and economic sciences and of ethics and sociology will be key to a successful implementation of this adaptive management framework. Knowledge of biogeophysical processes will also be essential, but by definition of the issues being addressed, will always be incomplete and highly uncertain. The human dimensions of the issues addressed and the participatory processes used carry their own complexities and uncertainties. Some ideas and principles are

  5. Scientific Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1980-01-01

    The value of communication in the preservation of scientific knowledge is described as it relates to the specialized scientific journals. The discipline of peer review is described as the major factor in keeping the scientific enterprise relatively honest. (SA)

  6. Local stakeholders' acceptance of model-generated data used as a communication tool in water management: The Rönneå Study.

    PubMed

    Alkan Olsson, Johanna; Berg, Karin

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to increase the knowledge of local stakeholders' acceptance of model-generated data when used as a communication tool in water quality management. The Rönneå catchment in the southwest of Sweden was chosen as the study area. The results indicate the model-generated data served as a uniting factor. Simultaneously, the stakeholders were concerned with presented data, the main problems being sources of pollution, which were not accounted for, lack of trustworthiness when measuring pollution, and the uncertainty of the impact of natural variation and delayed effects. Four clusters of factors were identified as influencing stakeholders' acceptance of the model-generated data: confidence in its practical applications, confidence in the people involved in or providing material for the dialog (such as experts, decision-makers, and media), the social characteristics of the participants (such as age and profession), and the way of communicating the data (such as tone of communication, group composition, duration, and geographical scope of the dialog). The perception of the fairness of the practical application of given model-generated data was also an important factor for acceptance.

  7. Freva - Freie Univ Evaluation System Framework for Scientific Infrastructures in Earth System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadow, Christopher; Illing, Sebastian; Kunst, Oliver; Schartner, Thomas; Kirchner, Ingo; Rust, Henning W.; Cubasch, Ulrich; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The Freie Univ Evaluation System Framework (Freva - freva.met.fu-berlin.de) is a software infrastructure for standardized data and tool solutions in Earth system science. Freva runs on high performance computers to handle customizable evaluation systems of research projects, institutes or universities. It combines different software technologies into one common hybrid infrastructure, including all features present in the shell and web environment. The database interface satisfies the international standards provided by the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). Freva indexes different data projects into one common search environment by storing the meta data information of the self-describing model, reanalysis and observational data sets in a database. This implemented meta data system with its advanced but easy-to-handle search tool supports users, developers and their plugins to retrieve the required information. A generic application programming interface (API) allows scientific developers to connect their analysis tools with the evaluation system independently of the programming language used. Users of the evaluation techniques benefit from the common interface of the evaluation system without any need to understand the different scripting languages. Facilitation of the provision and usage of tools and climate data automatically increases the number of scientists working with the data sets and identifying discrepancies. The integrated web-shell (shellinabox) adds a degree of freedom in the choice of the working environment and can be used as a gate to the research projects HPC. Plugins are able to integrate their e.g. post-processed results into the database of the user. This allows e.g. post-processing plugins to feed statistical analysis plugins, which fosters an active exchange between plugin developers of a research project. Additionally, the history and configuration sub-system stores every analysis performed with the evaluation system in a database

  8. Using combined hydrological variables for extracting functional signatures of catchments to better assess the acceptability of model structures in conceptual catchment modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fovet, O.; Hrachowitz, M.; RUIZ, L.; Gascuel-odoux, C.; Savenije, H.

    2013-12-01

    While most hydrological models reproduce the general flow dynamics of a system, they frequently fail to adequately mimic system internal processes. This is likely to make them inadequate to simulate solutes transport. For example, the hysteresis between storage and discharge, which is often observed in shallow hard-rock aquifers, is rarely well reproduced by models. One main reason is that this hysteresis has little weight in the calibration because objective functions are based on time series of individual variables. This reduces the ability of classical calibration/validation procedures to assess the relevance of the conceptual hypothesis associated with hydrological models. Calibrating models on variables derived from the combination of different individual variables (like stream discharge and groundwater levels) is a way to insure that models will be accepted based on their consistency. Here we therefore test the value of this more systems-like approach to test different hypothesis on the behaviour of a small experimental low-land catchment in French Brittany (ORE AgrHys) where a high hysteresis is observed on the stream flow vs. shallow groundwater level relationship. Several conceptual models were applied to this site, and calibrated using objective functions based on metrics of this hysteresis. The tested model structures differed with respect to the storage function in each reservoir, the storage-discharge function in each reservoir, the deep loss expressions (as constant or variable fraction), the number of reservoirs (from 1 to 4) and their organization (parallel, series). The observed hysteretic groundwater level-discharge relationship was not satisfactorily reproduced by most of the tested models except for the most complex ones. Those were thus more consistent, their underlying hypotheses are probably more realistic even though their performance for simulating observed stream flow was decreased. Selecting models based on such systems-like approach is

  9. BioLab: Using Yeast Fermentation as a Model for the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigage, Helen K.; Neilson, Milton C.; Greeder, Michele M.

    This document presents a science experiment demonstrating the scientific method. The experiment consists of testing the fermentation capabilities of yeasts under different circumstances. The experiment is supported with computer software called BioLab which demonstrates yeast's response to different environments. (YDS)

  10. Using a Simple "Escherichia Coli" Growth Curve Model to Teach the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKernan, Lisa N.

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of teaching in the sciences is not only conveying knowledge in the discipline, but also developing essential critical thinking, data analysis, and scientific writing skills. I outline an exercise that can be done easily as part of a microbiology laboratory course. It teaches the nature of the research process, from asking questions…

  11. Scientific and non-scientific challenges for Operational Earthquake Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, W.

    2015-12-01

    Tracking the time evolution of seismic hazard in time windows shorter than the usual 50-years of long-term hazard models may offer additional opportunities to reduce the seismic risk. This is the target of operational earthquake forecasting (OEF). During the OEF development in Italy we identify several challenges that range from pure science to the more practical interface of science with society. From a scientific point of view, although earthquake clustering is the clearest empirical evidence about earthquake occurrence, and OEF clustering models are the most (successfully) tested hazard models in seismology, we note that some seismologists are still reluctant to accept their scientific reliability. After exploring the motivations of these scientific doubts, we also look into an issue that is often overlooked in this discussion, i.e., in any kind of hazard analysis, we do not use a model because it is the true one, but because it is the better than anything else we can think of. The non-scientific aspects are mostly related to the fact that OEF usually provides weekly probabilities of large eartquakes smaller than 1%. These probabilities are considered by some seismologists too small to be of interest or useful. However, in a recent collaboration with engineers we show that such earthquake probabilities may lead to intolerable individual risk of death. Interestingly, this debate calls for a better definition of the still fuzzy boundaries among the different expertise required for the whole risk mitigation process. The last and probably more pressing challenge is related to the communication to the public. In fact, a wrong message could be useless or even counterproductive. Here we show some progresses that we have made in this field working with communication experts in Italy.

  12. "It's all about acceptance": A qualitative study exploring a model of positive body image for people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy; Ditor, David S

    2015-09-01

    Using modified constructivist grounded theory, the purpose of the present study was to explore positive body image experiences in people with spinal cord injury. Nine participants (five women, four men) varying in age (21-63 years), type of injury (C3-T7; complete and incomplete), and years post-injury (4-36 years) were recruited. The following main categories were found: body acceptance, body appreciation and gratitude, social support, functional gains, independence, media literacy, broadly conceptualizing beauty, inner positivity influencing outer demeanour, finding others who have a positive body image, unconditional acceptance from others, religion/spirituality, listening to and taking care of the body, managing secondary complications, minimizing pain, and respect. Interestingly, there was consistency in positive body image characteristics reported in this study with those found in previous research, demonstrating universality of positive body image. However, unique characteristics (e.g., resilience, functional gains, independence) were also reported demonstrating the importance of exploring positive body image in diverse groups. PMID:26002149

  13. "It's all about acceptance": A qualitative study exploring a model of positive body image for people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy; Ditor, David S

    2015-09-01

    Using modified constructivist grounded theory, the purpose of the present study was to explore positive body image experiences in people with spinal cord injury. Nine participants (five women, four men) varying in age (21-63 years), type of injury (C3-T7; complete and incomplete), and years post-injury (4-36 years) were recruited. The following main categories were found: body acceptance, body appreciation and gratitude, social support, functional gains, independence, media literacy, broadly conceptualizing beauty, inner positivity influencing outer demeanour, finding others who have a positive body image, unconditional acceptance from others, religion/spirituality, listening to and taking care of the body, managing secondary complications, minimizing pain, and respect. Interestingly, there was consistency in positive body image characteristics reported in this study with those found in previous research, demonstrating universality of positive body image. However, unique characteristics (e.g., resilience, functional gains, independence) were also reported demonstrating the importance of exploring positive body image in diverse groups.

  14. An extension of the extended parallel process model (EPPM) in television health news: the influence of health consciousness on individual message processing and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyehyun

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of health consciousness in processing TV news that contains potential health threats and preventive recommendations. Based on the extended parallel process model (Witte, 1992), relationships among health consciousness, perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived response efficacy, perceived self-efficacy, and message acceptance/rejection were hypothesized. Responses collected from 175 participants after viewing four TV health news stories were analyzed using the bootstrapping analysis (Preacher & Hayes, 2008). Results confirmed three mediators (i.e., perceived severity, response efficacy, self-efficacy) in the influence of health consciousness on message acceptance. A negative association found between health consciousness and perceived susceptibility is discussed in relation to characteristics of health conscious individuals and optimistic bias of health risks. PMID:21416420

  15. Developing Students' Reflections on the Function and Status of Mathematical Modeling in Different Scientific Practices: History as a Provider of Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models and mathematical modeling play different roles in the different areas and problems in which they are used. The function and status of mathematical modeling and models in the different areas depend on the scientific practice as well as the underlying philosophical and theoretical position held by the modeler(s) and the…

  16. Self Acceptance and the Selection of a Marital Partner - An Assessment of the SVR Model of Murstein.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Zahava

    1986-01-01

    Mate selection is often explained by either the homogenity or the complementary need model. The Stimulus-Value-Response (SVR) model for integration of the two models was assessed in the present study. The sample included 48 engaged Israeli couples. Results support the SVR model and confirm earlier research in this area. Conceptual and…

  17. Examining the Influence of Subjective Norm and Facilitating Conditions on the Intention to Use Technology among Pre-Service Teachers: A Structural Equation Modeling of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined pre-service teachers' self-reported behavioral intentions to use technology. Three hundred and fourteen participants completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to six constructs from a research model that extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) by including facilitating conditions and subjective norm.…

  18. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  19. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  20. Evaluating the ethical acceptability of animal research.

    PubMed

    Bout, Henriëtte J; Fentener van Vlissingen, J Martje; Karssing, Edgar D

    2014-11-01

    The ethical acceptability of animal research is typically evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Legislation such as Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes provides guidance for ethical evaluation of animal use proposals but does not dictate the outcome, leaving this determination to the ethical review committees of individual institutions. The authors assess different ethics models and how these are reflected in the guidelines of Directive 2010/63/EU. They also describe a matrix for carrying out harm-benefit analyses of animal use proposals, which they identified by examining the practices of three ethical review committees in the Netherlands. Finally, they discuss how this matrix can be applied by ethical review committees at other institutions.

  1. Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC): Using innovative tools and services to support worldwide space weather scientific communities and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, A. M.; Bakshi, S.; Berrios, D.; Chulaki, A.; Evans, R. M.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Lee, H.; MacNeice, P. J.; Maddox, M. M.; Mays, M. L.; Mullinix, R. E.; Ngwira, C. M.; Patel, K.; Pulkkinen, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Shim, J.; Taktakishvili, A.; Zheng, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) was established to enhance basic solar terrestrial research and to aid in the development of models for specifying and forecasting conditions in the space environment. In achieving this goal, CCMC has developed and provides a set of innovative tools varying from: Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) web -based dissemination system for space weather information, Runs-On-Request System providing access to unique collection of state-of-the-art solar and space physics models (unmatched anywhere in the world), Advanced Online Visualization and Analysis tools for more accurate interpretation of model results, Standard Data formats for Simulation Data downloads, and recently Mobile apps (iPhone/Android) to view space weather data anywhere to the scientific community. The number of runs requested and the number of resulting scientific publications and presentations from the research community has not only been an indication of the broad scientific usage of the CCMC and effective participation by space scientists and researchers, but also guarantees active collaboration and coordination amongst the space weather research community. Arising from the course of CCMC activities, CCMC also supports community-wide model validation challenges and research focus group projects for a broad range of programs such as the multi-agency National Space Weather Program, NSF's CEDAR (Coupling, Energetics and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions), GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) and Shine (Solar Heliospheric and INterplanetary Environment) programs. In addition to performing research and model development, CCMC also supports space science education by hosting summer students through local universities; through the provision of simulations in support of classroom programs such as Heliophysics Summer School (with student research contest) and CCMC Workshops; training next generation of junior scientists in space weather forecasting; and educating

  2. [Challenge in scientific publication].

    PubMed

    Volpato, Gilson Luiz; de Freitas, Eliane Gonçalves

    2003-05-01

    We discuss the main problems which make a scientific text difficult to find, to be read or to be accepted by readers. A scientific text is considered a logical argument. Therefore, methods, results and data from literature are premises supporting the conclusions of the work; and in the "Introduction" session, the justification corroborates the objective of the study. This conception makes the text a hermetically coherent structure where only the necessary data should be included (some controversy is still pertinent). In a second step, we show formal mistakes in scientific writing which make texts less attractive. Thus, we give examples of errors or inadequacy of formal aspects of presenting titles, abstracts, results (figures and tables), and grammar mistakes in Portuguese (but also valid for English grammar). After that, we emphasize the need for writing in international language (English) and for publication in periodicals with international impact on the scientific community. Finally, considerations to improve the Brazilian periodicals in the biological area are presented.

  3. Comparison between Utsu's and Vere-Jones' aftershocks model by means of a computer simulation based on the acceptance-rejection sampling of von Neumann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, J.; Morales-Esteban, A.; González, E.; Martínez-Álvarez, F.

    2016-07-01

    In this research, a new algorithm for generating a stochastic earthquake catalog is presented. The algorithm is based on the acceptance-rejection sampling of von Neumann. The result is a computer simulation of earthquakes based on the calculated statistical properties of each zone. Vere-Jones states that an earthquake sequence can be modeled as a series of random events. This is the model used in the proposed simulation. Contrariwise, Utsu indicates that the mainshocks are special geophysical events. The algorithm has been applied to zones of Chile, China, Spain, Japan, and the USA. This allows classifying the zones according to Vere-Jones' or Utsu's model. The results have been quantified relating the mainshock with the largest aftershock within the next 5 days (which has been named as Bath event). The results show that some zones fit Utsu's model and others Vere-Jones'. Finally, the fraction of seismic events that satisfy certain properties of magnitude and occurrence is analyzed.

  4. High school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics: a structural equation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-05-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates these relationships by considering theoretical and empirical evidences can empower researchers to discuss these relationships more comprehensively. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and their attitudes toward physics. Sample: A total of 632 high school students participated in this study; however, 269 female and 229 male (a total of 498) high school students' data were used. Design and methods: Three distinct instruments that measure scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics were combined into a unique questionnaire form and it was distributed to high school students. To explore the relationships among these variables, structural equation modeling was used. Results: The results showed that scientific epistemological belief dimensions uncovered by the nature of knowing (source and justification) significantly and positively related to both self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward other important physics dimensions. Additionally, self-efficacy in learning physics significantly and positively predicted attitudes toward multiple physics dimensions (importance, comprehension and requirement). However, epistemological belief dimensions related to the nature of knowledge (certainty and development) did not have significant impact on self-efficacy in learning physics or attitudes toward physics. Conclusions: This study concludes that there are positive and significant relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific

  5. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Modeling Exhaust Dispersion for Specifying Acceptable Exhaust/Intake Design (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on specifying acceptable exhaust and intake designs. It also provides various quantitative approaches that can be used to determine expected concentration levels resulting from exhaust system emissions. In addition, the guide describes methodologies that can be employed to operate laboratory exhaust systems in a safe and energy efficient manner by using variable air volume (VAV) technology. The guide, one in a series on best practices for laboratories, was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, the guides contain information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories. Studies show a direct relationship between indoor air quality and the health and productivity of building occupants. Historically, the study and protection of indoor air quality focused on emission sources emanating from within the building. For example, to ensure that the worker is not exposed to toxic chemicals, 'as manufactured' and 'as installed' containment specifications are required for fume hoods. However, emissions from external sources, which may be re-ingested into the building through closed circuiting between the building's exhaust stacks and air intakes, are an often overlooked aspect of indoor air quality.

  6. NOAA People Empowered Products (PeEP): Combining social media with scientific models to provide eye-witness confirmed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codrescu, S.; Green, J. C.; Redmon, R. J.; Denig, W. F.; Kihn, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    NOAA products and alerts rely on combinations of models and data to provide the public with information regarding space and terrestrial weather hazards. This operational paradigm, while effective, neglects an abundant free source of measurements: millions of eyewitnesses viewing weather events. Here we present a prototype product that combines user reports with scientific model output and discuss the possibilities for creating a generic PeEP framework for use in a wide range of applications. We demonstrate the capabilities of a proto-PeEP that combines the OVATION prime auroral model running at the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center with Twitter reports of observable aurora. The combined product displays the model aurora in real time on Google Earth with markers showing the location and text of tweets from people actually observing the aurora. We discuss how the application can be extended and incorporated to other space weather products such as ionospheric induced GPS errors and radiation related satellite anomalies.

  7. Gender and Acceptance of E-Learning: A Multi-Group Analysis Based on a Structural Equation Model among College Students in Chile and Spain

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate whether the adoption of e-learning in two universities, and in particular, the relationship between the perception of external control and perceived ease of use, is different because of gender differences. The study was carried out with participating students in two different universities, one in Chile and one in Spain. The Technology Acceptance Model was used as a theoretical framework for the study. A multi-group analysis method in partial least squares was employed to relate differences between groups. The four main conclusions of the study are: (1) a version of the Technology Acceptance Model has been successfully used to explain the process of adoption of e-learning at an undergraduate level of study; (2) the finding of a strong and significant relationship between perception of external control and perception of ease of use of the e-learning platform; (3) a significant relationship between perceived enjoyment and perceived ease of use and between results demonstrability and perceived usefulness is found; (4) the study indicates a few statistically significant differences between males and females when adopting an e-learning platform, according to the tested model. PMID:26465895

  8. Gender and Acceptance of E-Learning: A Multi-Group Analysis Based on a Structural Equation Model among College Students in Chile and Spain.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Correa, Patricio E; Arenas-Gaitán, Jorge; Rondán-Cataluña, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate whether the adoption of e-learning in two universities, and in particular, the relationship between the perception of external control and perceived ease of use, is different because of gender differences. The study was carried out with participating students in two different universities, one in Chile and one in Spain. The Technology Acceptance Model was used as a theoretical framework for the study. A multi-group analysis method in partial least squares was employed to relate differences between groups. The four main conclusions of the study are: (1) a version of the Technology Acceptance Model has been successfully used to explain the process of adoption of e-learning at an undergraduate level of study; (2) the finding of a strong and significant relationship between perception of external control and perception of ease of use of the e-learning platform; (3) a significant relationship between perceived enjoyment and perceived ease of use and between results demonstrability and perceived usefulness is found; (4) the study indicates a few statistically significant differences between males and females when adopting an e-learning platform, according to the tested model.

  9. Gender and Acceptance of E-Learning: A Multi-Group Analysis Based on a Structural Equation Model among College Students in Chile and Spain.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Correa, Patricio E; Arenas-Gaitán, Jorge; Rondán-Cataluña, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate whether the adoption of e-learning in two universities, and in particular, the relationship between the perception of external control and perceived ease of use, is different because of gender differences. The study was carried out with participating students in two different universities, one in Chile and one in Spain. The Technology Acceptance Model was used as a theoretical framework for the study. A multi-group analysis method in partial least squares was employed to relate differences between groups. The four main conclusions of the study are: (1) a version of the Technology Acceptance Model has been successfully used to explain the process of adoption of e-learning at an undergraduate level of study; (2) the finding of a strong and significant relationship between perception of external control and perception of ease of use of the e-learning platform; (3) a significant relationship between perceived enjoyment and perceived ease of use and between results demonstrability and perceived usefulness is found; (4) the study indicates a few statistically significant differences between males and females when adopting an e-learning platform, according to the tested model. PMID:26465895

  10. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  11. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct. PMID:26273897

  12. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct.

  13. The outstation model of rehabilitation as practiced in Central Australia: the case for its recognition and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gillian; Ray, Tristan; McFarland, Blair

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the model of care provided by the Ilpurla remote outstation rehabilitation program in Australia's Northern Territory. Reflections are offered about the cultural antecedents of the model, and how it addresses the needs of young Indigenous people. Data describing client numbers, length of stay, the underlying approach to rehabilitation, and the practices of the program are presented. The paper aims to promote an understanding of the outstation model of care, highlight difficulties between programs and their funding sources, and encourages recognition of its importance in the response to drug and alcohol use-related problems among Indigenous people.

  14. A Technology-Enhanced Unit of Modeling Static Electricity: Integrating scientific explanations and everyday observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ji; Linn, Marcia C.

    2011-08-01

    What trajectories do students follow as they connect their observations of electrostatic phenomena to atomic-level visualizations? We designed an electrostatics unit, using the knowledge integration framework to help students link observations and scientific ideas. We analyze how learners integrate ideas about charges, charged particles, energy, and observable events. We compare learning enactments in a typical school and a magnet school in the USA. We use pre-tests, post-tests, embedded notes, and delayed post-tests to capture the trajectories of students' knowledge integration. We analyze how visualizations help students grapple with abstract electrostatics concepts such as induction. We find that overall students gain more sophisticated ideas. They can interpret dynamic, interactive visualizations, and connect charge- and particle-based explanations to interpret observable events. Students continue to have difficulty in applying the energy-based explanation.

  15. Perspective: adopting an asset bundles model to support and advance minority students' careers in academic medicine and the scientific pipeline.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2012-11-01

    The authors contend that increasing diversity in academic medicine, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics requires the adoption of a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students as they navigate the scientific pipeline. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity contingencies to offer a conceptual model for targeting the critical areas in which minority students may need additional support to continue toward careers in science. Their proposed asset bundles model is grounded in the central premise that making greater progress in recruiting and retaining minorities likely requires institutions to respond simultaneously to various social cues that signal devaluation of certain identities (e.g., gender, race, socioeconomic status). The authors define "asset bundles" as the specific sets of abilities and resources individuals develop that help them succeed in educational and professional tasks, including but not limited to science and research. The model consists of five asset bundles, each of which is supported in the research literature as a factor relevant to educational achievement and, the authors contend, may lead to improved and sustained diversity: educational endowments, science socialization, network development, family expectations, and material resources. Using this framework, they suggest possible ways of thinking about the task of achieving diversity as well as guideposts for next steps. Finally, they discuss the feasibility of implementing such an approach. PMID:23018329

  16. Perspective: adopting an asset bundles model to support and advance minority students' careers in academic medicine and the scientific pipeline.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2012-11-01

    The authors contend that increasing diversity in academic medicine, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics requires the adoption of a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students as they navigate the scientific pipeline. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity contingencies to offer a conceptual model for targeting the critical areas in which minority students may need additional support to continue toward careers in science. Their proposed asset bundles model is grounded in the central premise that making greater progress in recruiting and retaining minorities likely requires institutions to respond simultaneously to various social cues that signal devaluation of certain identities (e.g., gender, race, socioeconomic status). The authors define "asset bundles" as the specific sets of abilities and resources individuals develop that help them succeed in educational and professional tasks, including but not limited to science and research. The model consists of five asset bundles, each of which is supported in the research literature as a factor relevant to educational achievement and, the authors contend, may lead to improved and sustained diversity: educational endowments, science socialization, network development, family expectations, and material resources. Using this framework, they suggest possible ways of thinking about the task of achieving diversity as well as guideposts for next steps. Finally, they discuss the feasibility of implementing such an approach.

  17. Perspective: Adopting an Asset Bundle Model to Support and Advance Minority Students’ Careers in Academic Medicine and the Scientific Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2012-01-01

    The authors contend that increasing diversity in the scientific pipeline (e.g., academic medicine, science, technology, engineering and mathematics) requires a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity contingencies to offer a conceptual model for targeting the critical areas in which minority students may need additional support in order to continue toward a career in science. Their proposed asset bundles model is grounded in the central premise that making greater progress in recruiting and retaining minorities likely requires institutions to respond simultaneously to various social cues that signal devaluation of certain identities (e.g., gender, race, or socioeconomic status). The authors define “asset bundles” as the specific sets of abilities and resources individuals develop that help them succeed in educational and professional tasks, including but not limited to science and research. The model consists of five asset bundles, each of which is supported in the research literature as a factor relevant to educational achievement and, the authors contend, may lead to improved and sustained diversity: educational endowments, science socialization, network development, family expectations, and material resources. Using this framework, they suggest possible ways of thinking about the task of achieving diversity as well as guideposts for next steps. Finally, they discuss the feasibility of implementing such an approach. PMID:23018329

  18. Taming theory with thought experiments: Understanding and scientific progress.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    I claim that one way thought experiments contribute to scientific progress is by increasing scientific understanding. Understanding does not have a currently accepted characterization in the philosophical literature, but I argue that we already have ways to test for it. For instance, current pedagogical practice often requires that students demonstrate being in either or both of the following two states: 1) Having grasped the meaning of some relevant theory, concept, law or model, 2) Being able to apply that theory, concept, law or model fruitfully to new instances. Three thought experiments are presented which have been important historically in helping us pass these tests, and two others that cause us to fail. Then I use this operationalization of understanding to clarify the relationships between scientific thought experiments, the understanding they produce, and the progress they enable. I conclude that while no specific instance of understanding (thus conceived) is necessary for scientific progress, understanding in general is. PMID:27474183

  19. AMERICAN JOINT COMMITTEE ON CANCER ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR INCLUSION OF RISK MODELS FOR INDIVIDUALIZED PROGNOSIS IN THE PRACTICE OF PRECISION MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Michael W.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Amin, Mahul; Lu, Ying; Moons, Karel G; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Gimotty, Phyllis A.; Guinney, Justin; Halabi, Susan; Lazar, Alexander J.; Mahar, Alyson L.; Patel, Tushar; Sargent, Daniel J.; Weiser, Martin R.; Compton, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has increasingly recognized the need for more personalized probabilistic predictions than those delivered by ordinal staging systems, particularly through the use of accurate risk models or calculators. However, judging the quality and acceptability of a risk model is complex. The AJCC Precision Medicine Core conducted a two-day meeting to discuss characteristics necessary for a quality risk model in cancer patients. More specifically, the committee established inclusion and exclusion criteria necessary for a risk model to potentially be endorsed by the AJCC. This committee reviewed and discussed relevant literature before creating a checklist unique to this need of AJCC risk model endorsement. The committee identified 13 inclusion and 3 exclusion criteria for AJCC risk model endorsement in cancer. The emphasis centered on performance metrics, implementation clarity, and clinical relevance. The facilitation of personalized probabilistic predictions for cancer patients holds tremendous promise, and these criteria will hopefully greatly accelerate this process. Moreover, these criteria might be useful for a general audience when trying to judge the potential applicability of a published risk model in any clinical domain. PMID:26784705

  20. Refining animal models in fracture research: seeking consensus in optimising both animal welfare and scientific validity for appropriate biomedical use

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Jorg A; Goodship, Allen; Arnoczky, Steven; Pearce, Simon; Price, Jill; Claes, Lutz; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Hofmann-Amtenbrinck, Margarethe; Schneider, Erich; Müller-Terpitz, R; Thiele, F; Rippe, Klaus-Peter; Grainger, David W

    2007-01-01

    Background In an attempt to establish some consensus on the proper use and design of experimental animal models in musculoskeletal research, AOVET (the veterinary specialty group of the AO Foundation) in concert with the AO Research Institute (ARI), and the European Academy for the Study of Scientific and Technological Advance, convened a group of musculoskeletal researchers, veterinarians, legal experts, and ethicists to discuss, in a frank and open forum, the use of animals in musculoskeletal research. Methods The group narrowed the field to fracture research. The consensus opinion resulting from this workshop can be summarized as follows: Results & Conclusion Anaesthesia and pain management protocols for research animals should follow standard protocols applied in clinical work for the species involved. This will improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. A database should be established to facilitate selection of anaesthesia and pain management protocols for specific experimental surgical procedures and adopted as an International Standard (IS) according to animal species selected. A list of 10 golden rules and requirements for conduction of animal experiments in musculoskeletal research was drawn up comprising 1) Intelligent study designs to receive appropriate answers; 2) Minimal complication rates (5 to max. 10%); 3) Defined end-points for both welfare and scientific outputs analogous to quality assessment (QA) audit of protocols in GLP studies; 4) Sufficient details for materials and methods applied; 5) Potentially confounding variables (genetic background, seasonal, hormonal, size, histological, and biomechanical differences); 6) Post-operative management with emphasis on analgesia and follow-up examinations; 7) Study protocols to satisfy criteria established for a "justified animal study"; 8) Surgical expertise to conduct surgery on animals; 9) Pilot studies as a critical part of model validation and powering of the definitive study design; 10) Criteria

  1. Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Complex Networked Systems: A Program Plan for DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D L

    2009-05-01

    Many complex systems of importance to the U.S. Department of Energy consist of networks of discrete components. Examples are cyber networks, such as the internet and local area networks over which nearly all DOE scientific, technical and administrative data must travel, the electric power grid, social networks whose behavior can drive energy demand, and biological networks such as genetic regulatory networks and metabolic networks. In spite of the importance of these complex networked systems to all aspects of DOE's operations, the scientific basis for understanding these systems lags seriously behind the strong foundations that exist for the 'physically-based' systems usually associated with DOE research programs that focus on such areas as climate modeling, fusion energy, high-energy and nuclear physics, nano-science, combustion, and astrophysics. DOE has a clear opportunity to develop a similarly strong scientific basis for understanding the structure and dynamics of networked systems by supporting a strong basic research program in this area. Such knowledge will provide a broad basis for, e.g., understanding and quantifying the efficacy of new security approaches for computer networks, improving the design of computer or communication networks to be more robust against failures or attacks, detecting potential catastrophic failure on the power grid and preventing or mitigating its effects, understanding how populations will respond to the availability of new energy sources or changes in energy policy, and detecting subtle vulnerabilities in large software systems to intentional attack. This white paper outlines plans for an aggressive new research program designed to accelerate the advancement of the scientific basis for complex networked systems of importance to the DOE. It will focus principally on four research areas: (1) understanding network structure, (2) understanding network dynamics, (3) predictive modeling and simulation for complex networked systems

  2. Student Attitudes towards and Use of ICT in Course Study, Work and Social Activity: A Technology Acceptance Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Rob; Thorpe, Mary; Conole, Grainne

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of information and communication technology (ICT) in higher education has been explored largely in relation to student experience of coursework and university life. Students' lives and experience beyond the university have been largely unexplored. Research into student experience of ICT used a validated model--the technology…

  3. Predicting the Use of Paired Programming: Applying the Attitudes of Application Development Managers through the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zecca, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Business managers who look for ways to cut costs face difficult questions about the efficiency and effectiveness of software engineering practices that are used to complete projects on time, on specification, and within budget (Johnson, 1995; Lindstrom & Jeffries, 2004). Theoretical models such as the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) have linked…

  4. Toward a new model of scientific publishing: discussion and a proposal.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, Dwight J; Baker, Chris I

    2011-01-01

    The current system of publishing in the biological sciences is notable for its redundancy, inconsistency, sluggishness, and opacity. These problems persist, and grow worse, because the peer review system remains focused on deciding whether or not to publish a paper in a particular journal rather than providing (1) a high-quality evaluation of scientific merit and (2) the information necessary to organize and prioritize the literature. Online access has eliminated the need for journals as distribution channels, so their primary current role is to provide authors with feedback prior to publication and a quick way for other researchers to prioritize the literature based on which journal publishes a paper. However, the feedback provided by reviewers is not focused on scientific merit but on whether to publish in a particular journal, which is generally of little use to authors and an opaque and noisy basis for prioritizing the literature. Further, each submission of a rejected manuscript requires the entire machinery of peer review to creak to life anew. This redundancy incurs delays, inconsistency, and increased burdens on authors, reviewers, and editors. Finally, reviewers have no real incentive to review well or quickly, as their performance is not tracked, let alone rewarded. One of the consistent suggestions for modifying the current peer review system is the introduction of some form of post-publication reception, and the development of a marketplace where the priority of a paper rises and falls based on its reception from the field (see other articles in this special topics). However, the information that accompanies a paper into the marketplace is as important as the marketplace's mechanics. Beyond suggestions concerning the mechanisms of reception, we propose an update to the system of publishing in which publication is guaranteed, but pre-publication peer review still occurs, giving the authors the opportunity to revise their work following a mini pre

  5. Statistical validation of engineering and scientific models : bounds, calibration, and extrapolation.

    SciTech Connect

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Hills, Richard Guy

    2005-04-01

    Numerical models of complex phenomena often contain approximations due to our inability to fully model the underlying physics, the excessive computational resources required to fully resolve the physics, the need to calibrate constitutive models, or in some cases, our ability to only bound behavior. Here we illustrate the relationship between approximation, calibration, extrapolation, and model validation through a series of examples that use the linear transient convective/dispersion equation to represent the nonlinear behavior of Burgers equation. While the use of these models represents a simplification relative to the types of systems we normally address in engineering and science, the present examples do support the tutorial nature of this document without obscuring the basic issues presented with unnecessarily complex models.

  6. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  7. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  8. Establishment and metabolic analysis of a model microbial community for understanding trophic and electron accepting interactions of subsurface anaerobic environments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Communities of microorganisms control the rates of key biogeochemical cycles, and are important for biotechnology, bioremediation, and industrial microbiological processes. For this reason, we constructed a model microbial community comprised of three species dependent on trophic interactions. The three species microbial community was comprised of Clostridium cellulolyticum, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, and Geobacter sulfurreducens and was grown under continuous culture conditions. Cellobiose served as the carbon and energy source for C. cellulolyticum, whereas D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens derived carbon and energy from the metabolic products of cellobiose fermentation and were provided with sulfate and fumarate respectively as electron acceptors. Results qPCR monitoring of the culture revealed C. cellulolyticum to be dominant as expected and confirmed the presence of D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens. Proposed metabolic modeling of carbon and electron flow of the three-species community indicated that the growth of C. cellulolyticum and D. vulgaris were electron donor limited whereas G. sulfurreducens was electron acceptor limited. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. cellulolyticum, D. vulgaris, and G. sulfurreducens can be grown in coculture in a continuous culture system in which D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens are dependent upon the metabolic byproducts of C. cellulolyticum for nutrients. This represents a step towards developing a tractable model ecosystem comprised of members representing the functional groups of a trophic network. PMID:20497531

  9. The Role of Scientific Modeling Criteria in Advancing Students' Explanatory Ideas of Magnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Brown, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Student construction of models is a strong focus of current research and practice in science education. In order to study in detail the interactions between students' model generation and evaluation and their development of explanatory ideas to account for magnetic phenomena, a multi-session teaching experiment was conducted with a small number of…

  10. A geometric graph model for citation networks of exponentially growing scientific papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zheng; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Liu, Qi; Li, Jianping

    2016-08-01

    In citation networks, the content relativity of papers is a precondition of engendering citations, which is hard to model by a topological graph. A geometric graph is proposed to predict some features of the citation networks with exponentially growing papers, which addresses the precondition by using coordinates of nodes to model the research contents of papers, and geometric distances between nodes to diversities of research contents between papers. Citations between modeled papers are drawn according to a geometric rule, which addresses the precondition as well as some other factors engendering citations, namely academic influences of papers, aging of those influences, and incomplete copying of references. Instead of cumulative advantage of degree, the model illustrates that the scale-free property of modeled networks arises from the inhomogeneous academic influences of modeled papers. The model can also reproduce some other statistical features of citation networks, e.g. in- and out-assortativities, which show the model provides a suitable tool to understand some aspects of citation networks by geometry.

  11. Validating animal models for preclinical research: a scientific and ethical discussion.

    PubMed

    Varga, Orsolya E; Hansen, Axel K; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I Anna S

    2010-06-01

    The use of animals to model humans in biomedical research relies on the notion that basic processes are sufficiently similar across species to allow extrapolation. Animal model validity is discussed in terms of the similarity between the model and the human condition it is intended to model, but no formal validation of models is applied. There is a stark contrast here with the use of non-animal alternatives in toxicology and safety studies, for which an extensive validation is required. We discuss both the potential and the limitations of validating preclinical animal models for proof-of-concept studies, by using an approach similar to that applied to alternative non-animal methods in toxicology and safety testing. A major challenge in devising a validation system for animal models is the lack of a clear gold standard with which to compare results. While a complete adoption of the validation approach for alternative methods is probably inappropriate for research animal models, key features, such as making data available for external validation and defining a strategy to run experiments in a way that permits meaningful retrospective analysis, remain highly relevant.

  12. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    PubMed

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly.

  13. Developing Students' Reflections on the Function and Status of Mathematical Modeling in Different Scientific Practices: History as a Provider of Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2013-09-01

    Mathematical models and mathematical modeling play different roles in the different areas and problems in which they are used. The function and status of mathematical modeling and models in the different areas depend on the scientific practice as well as the underlying philosophical and theoretical position held by the modeler(s) and the practitioners in the extra-mathematical domain. For students to experience the significance of different scientific practices and cultures for the function and status of mathematical modeling in other sciences, students need to be placed in didactical situations where such differences are exposed and made into explicit objects of their reflections. It can be difficult to create such situations in the teaching of contemporary science in which modeling is part of the culture. In this paper we show how history can serve as a means for students to be engaged in situations in which they can experience and be challenged to reflect upon and criticize, the use of modeling and the significance of the context for the function and status of modeling and models in scientific practices. We present Nicolas Rashevsky's model of cell division from the 1930s together with a discussion of disagreement between him and some biologists as one such episode from the past. We illustrate how a group of science students at Roskilde University, through their work with this historical case, experienced that different scientific cultures have different opinions of the value of a model as an instrument for gaining scientific knowledge; that the explanatory power of a model is linked not only to the context of its use, but also to the underlying philosophical and theoretical position held by the modeler(s) and the scientists discussing the model and its use. The episode's potential to challenge students to reflect upon and criticize the modeling process and the function of models in an extra mathematical domain is discussed with respect to the notions of

  14. Lowering the Barrier to Cross-Disciplinary Scientific Data Access via a Brokering Service Built Around a Unified Data Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindholm, D. M.; Wilson, A.

    2012-12-01

    The steps many scientific data users go through to use data (after discovering it) can be rather tedious, even when dealing with datasets within their own discipline. Accessing data across domains often seems intractable. We present here, LaTiS, an Open Source brokering solution that bridges the gap between the source data and the user's code by defining a unified data model plus a plugin framework for "adapters" to read data from their native source, "filters" to perform server side data processing, and "writers" to output any number of desired formats or streaming protocols. A great deal of work is being done in the informatics community to promote multi-disciplinary science with a focus on search and discovery based on metadata - information about the data. The goal of LaTiS is to go that last step to provide a uniform interface to read the dataset into computer programs and other applications once it has been identified. The LaTiS solution for integrating a wide variety of data models is to return to mathematical fundamentals. The LaTiS data model emphasizes functional relationships between variables. For example, a time series of temperature measurements can be thought of as a function that maps a time to a temperature. With just three constructs: "Scalar" for a single variable, "Tuple" for a collection of variables, and "Function" to represent a set of independent and dependent variables, the LaTiS data model can represent most scientific datasets at a low level that enables uniform data access. Higher level abstractions can be built on top of the basic model to add more meaningful semantics for specific user communities. LaTiS defines its data model in terms of the Unified Modeling Language (UML). It also defines a very thin Java Interface that can be implemented by numerous existing data interfaces (e.g. NetCDF-Java) such that client code can access any dataset via the Java API, independent of the underlying data access mechanism. LaTiS also provides a

  15. Establishment and metabolic analysis of a model microbial community for understanding trophic and electron accepting interactions of subsurface anaerobic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Lance D; Mosher, Jennifer J; Venkateswaran, Amudhan; Yang, Zamin Koo; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Podar, Mircea; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Keller, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Communities of microorganisms control the rates of key biogeochemical cycles, and are important for biotechnology, bioremediation, and industrial microbiological processes. For this reason, we constructed a model microbial community comprised of three species dependent on trophic interactions. The three species microbial community was comprised of Clostridium cellulolyticum, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, and Geobacter sulfurreducens and was grown under continuous culture conditions. Cellobiose served as the carbon and energy source for C. cellulolyticum, whereas D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens derived carbon and energy from the metabolic products of cellobiose fermentation and were provided with sulfate and fumarate respectively as electron acceptors.

  16. Students Perception towards the Implementation of Computer Graphics Technology in Class via Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binti Shamsuddin, Norsila

    Technology advancement and development in a higher learning institution is a chance for students to be motivated to learn in depth in the information technology areas. Students should take hold of the opportunity to blend their skills towards these technologies as preparation for them when graduating. The curriculum itself can rise up the students' interest and persuade them to be directly involved in the evolvement of the technology. The aim of this study is to see how deep is the students' involvement as well as their acceptance towards the adoption of the technology used in Computer Graphics and Image Processing subjects. The study will be towards the Bachelor students in Faculty of Industrial Information Technology (FIIT), Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL); Bac. In Multimedia Industry, BSc. Computer Science and BSc. Computer Science (Software Engineering). This study utilizes the new Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to further validate the model and enhance our understanding of the adoption of Computer Graphics and Image Processing Technologies. Four (4) out of eight (8) independent factors in UTAUT will be studied towards the dependent factor.

  17. The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) Phase 2: scientific objectives and experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Rowley, David; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Chandler, Mark A.; Hunter, Stephen J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pound, Matthew; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) is a co-ordinated international climate modelling initiative to study and understand climate and environments of the Late Pliocene, as well as their potential relevance in the context of future climate change. PlioMIP examines the consistency of model predictions in simulating Pliocene climate and their ability to reproduce climate signals preserved by geological climate archives. Here we provide a description of the aim and objectives of the next phase of the model intercomparison project (PlioMIP Phase 2), and we present the experimental design and boundary conditions that will be utilized for climate model experiments in Phase 2. Following on from PlioMIP Phase 1, Phase 2 will continue to be a mechanism for sampling structural uncertainty within climate models. However, Phase 1 demonstrated the requirement to better understand boundary condition uncertainties as well as uncertainty in the methodologies used for data-model comparison. Therefore, our strategy for Phase 2 is to utilize state-of-the-art boundary conditions that have emerged over the last 5 years. These include a new palaeogeographic reconstruction, detailing ocean bathymetry and land-ice surface topography. The ice surface topography is built upon the lessons learned from offline ice sheet modelling studies. Land surface cover has been enhanced by recent additions of Pliocene soils and lakes. Atmospheric reconstructions of palaeo-CO2 are emerging on orbital timescales, and these are also incorporated into PlioMIP Phase 2. New records of surface and sea surface temperature change are being produced that will be more temporally consistent with the boundary conditions and forcings used within models. Finally we have designed a suite of prioritized experiments that tackle issues surrounding the basic understanding of the Pliocene and its relevance in the context of future climate change in a discrete way.

  18. The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) Phase 2: Scientific Objectives and Experimental Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Rowley, David; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Chandler, Mark A.; Hunter, Stephen J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pound, Matthew; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) is a co-ordinated international climate modelling initiative to study and understand climate and environments of the Late Pliocene, as well as their potential relevance in the context of future climate change. PlioMIP examines the consistency of model predictions in simulating Pliocene climate and their ability to reproduce climate signals preserved by geological climate archives. Here we provide a description of the aim and objectives of the next phase of the model intercomparison project (PlioMIP Phase 2), and we present the experimental design and boundary conditions that will be utilized for climate model experiments in Phase 2. Following on from PlioMIP Phase 1, Phase 2 will continue to be a mechanism for sampling structural uncertainty within climate models. However, Phase 1 demonstrated the requirement to better understand boundary condition uncertainties as well as uncertainty in the methodologies used for data-model comparison. Therefore, our strategy for Phase 2 is to utilize state-of-the-art boundary conditions that have emerged over the last 5 years. These include a new palaeogeographic reconstruction, detailing ocean bathymetry and land-ice surface topography. The ice surface topography is built upon the lessons learned from offline ice sheet modelling studies. Land surface cover has been enhanced by recent additions of Pliocene soils and lakes. Atmospheric reconstructions of palaeo-CO2 are emerging on orbital timescales, and these are also incorporated into PlioMIP Phase 2. New records of surface and sea surface temperature change are being produced that will be more temporally consistent with the boundary conditions and forcings used within models. Finally we have designed a suite of prioritized experiments that tackle issues surrounding the basic understanding of the Pliocene and its relevance in the context of future climate change in a discrete way.

  19. Scientific publications about DNA structure-function and PCR technique in Costa Rica: a historic view (1953-2003).

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, Federico J

    2004-09-01

    The spreading of knowledge depends on the access to the information and its immediate use. Models are useful to explain specific phenomena. The scientific community accepts some models in Biology after a period of time, once it has evidence to support it. The model of the structure and function of the DNA proposed by Watson & Crick (1953) was not the exception, since a few years later the DNA model was finally accepted. In Costa Rica, DNA function was first mentioned in 1970, in the magazine Biologia Tropical (Tropical Biology Magazine), more than 15 years after its first publication in a scientific journal. An opposite situation occurs with technical innovations. If the efficiency of a new scientific technique is proved in a compelling way, then the acceptance by the community comes swiftly. This was the case of the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. The first PCR machine in Costa Rica arrived in 1991, only three years after its publication.

  20. Sensitivity Analysis of earth and environmental models: a systematic review to guide scientific advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, Thorsten; Pianosi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Sensitivity Analysis (SA) investigates how the variation in the output of a numerical model can be attributed to variations of its input factors. SA is increasingly being used in earth and environmental modelling for a variety of purposes, including uncertainty assessment, model calibration and diagnostic evaluation, dominant control analysis and robust decision-making. Here we provide some practical advice regarding best practice in SA and discuss important open questions based on a detailed recent review of the existing body of work in SA. Open questions relate to the consideration of input factor interactions, methods for factor mapping and the formal inclusion of discrete factors in SA (for example for model structure comparison). We will analyse these questions using relevant examples and discuss possible ways forward. We aim at stimulating the discussion within the community of SA developers and users regarding the setting of good practices and on defining priorities for future research.

  1. Scientific Visualization to Study Flux Transfer Events at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastatter, Lutz; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Sibeck, David G.; Berrios, David H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present results of modeling of reconnection at the dayside magnetopause with subsequent development of flux transfer event signatures. The tools used include new methods that have been added to the suite of visualization methods that are used at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). Flux transfer events result from localized reconnection that connect magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma with magnetospheric fields and plasma and results in flux rope structures that span the dayside magnetopause. The onset of flux rope formation and the three-dimensional structure of flux ropes are studied as they have been modeled by high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the dayside magnetosphere of the Earth. We show that flux transfer events are complex three-dimensional structures that require modern visualization and analysis techniques. Two suites of visualization methods are presented and we demonstrate the usefulness of those methods through the CCMC web site to the general science user.

  2. Exotic models may offer unique opportunities to decipher specific scientific question: the case of Xenopus olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Gascuel, Jean; Amano, Tosikazu

    2013-09-01

    The fact that olfactory systems are highly conserved in all animal species from insects to mammals allow the generalization of findings from one species to another. Most of our knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of the olfactory system comes from data obtained in a very limited number of biological models such as rodents, Zebrafish, Drosophila, and a worm, Caenorhabditis elegans. These models have proved useful to answer most questions in the field of olfaction, and thus concentrating on these few models appear to be a pragmatic strategy. However, the diversity of the organization and physiology of the olfactory system amongst phyla appear to be greater than generally assumed and the four models alone may not be sufficient to address all the questions arising from the study of olfaction. In this article, we will illustrate the idea that we should take advantage of biological diversity to address specific scientific questions and will show that the Xenopus olfactory system is a very good model to investigate: first, olfaction in aerial versus aquatic conditions and second, mechanisms underlying postnatal reorganization of the olfactory system especially those controlled by tyroxine hormone.

  3. Implementing an acceptance and commitment therapy group protocol with veterans using VA's stepped care model of pain management.

    PubMed

    Cosio, David; Schafer, Tracy

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend previous findings; further demonstrating the effectiveness of an ACT outpatient, group-based treatment for Veterans who suffer from mixed idiopathic, chronic, non-cancer pain. This course of treatment utilized the VA's Stepped Care Model of Pain Management as a framework. A sample of 50 Veterans who participated in an ACT for chronic pain group intervention was evaluated after completing a pain health education program at a Midwestern VA Medical Center between February 16, 2010 and November 9, 2010. All participants completed a standard set of pre- and post-intervention measures. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to evaluate the impact of the manualized intervention on Veterans' scores. The current study found a significant difference in measures of pain interference, illness-focused coping, and global distress upon completion of the intervention. Findings suggest that ACT is an effective treatment for Veterans with chronic pain as a secondary consultative service.

  4. Scientific development of a massively parallel ocean climate model. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Semtner, A.J.; Chervin, R.M.

    1996-09-01

    Over the last three years, very significant advances have been made in refining the grid resolution of ocean models and in improving the physical and numerical treatments of ocean hydrodynamics. Some of these advances have occurred as a result of the successful transition of ocean models onto massively parallel computers, which has been led by Los Alamos investigators. Major progress has been made in simulating global ocean circulation and in understanding various ocean climatic aspects such as the effect of wind driving on heat and freshwater transports. These steps have demonstrated the capability to conduct realistic decadal to century ocean integrations at high resolution on massively parallel computers.

  5. The (Surplus) Value of Scientific Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    Discusses research on scientific communication. Topics include theory-less and formal technical/natural scientific models of scientific communication; social-scientific, power-sensitive models; the sociology of scientific communication; sciences as fields of competition; fraud and deception; potential surplus value across subject information…

  6. A Scientific Cognitive-Behavioral Model of Tinnitus: Novel Conceptualizations of Tinnitus Distress

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Laurence; Handscomb, Lucy; Hoare, Derek J.; Hall, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of psychological factors in tinnitus distress has been formally recognized for almost three decades. The psychological understanding of why tinnitus can be a distressing condition posits that it becomes problematic when it acquires an emotive significance through cognitive processes. Principle therapeutic efforts are directed at reducing or removing the cognitive (and behavioral) obstacles to habituation. Here, the evidence relevant to a new psychological model of tinnitus is critically reviewed. The model posits that patients’ interpretations of tinnitus and the changes in behavior that result are given a central role in creating and maintaining distress. The importance of selective attention and the possibility that this leads to distorted perception of tinnitus is highlighted. From this body of evidence, we propose a coherent cognitive-behavioral model of tinnitus distress that is more in keeping with contemporary psychological theories of clinical problems (particularly that of insomnia) and which postulates a number of behavioral processes that are seen as cognitively mediated. This new model provides testable hypotheses to guide future research to unravel the complex mechanisms underpinning tinnitus distress. It is also well suited to define individual symptomatology and to provide a framework for the delivery of cognitive-behavioral therapy. PMID:25339938

  7. Models, Their Application, and Scientific Anticipation: Ludwig Boltzmann's Work as Tacit Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Richard Henry

    2011-01-01

    Ludwig Boltzmann's work in theoretical physics exhibits an approach to the construction of theory that he transmitted to the succeeding generation by example. It involved the construction of clear models, allowed more than one, and was not based solely on the existing facts, with the intent of examining and criticizing the assumptions that made…

  8. The Wheel Model of STEAM Education Based on Traditional Korean Scientific Contents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Pyoung Won

    2016-01-01

    The Korean STEAM education pursues a convergent human resources education, but there are shortcomings associated with it due to the fact that it excludes the Humanities in its curriculum. This study embodies the accomplishments from the design and field application of the STEAM education model that has added Humanities fields (history, geography,…

  9. Models and Moves: Focusing on Dimensions of Causal Complexity To Achieve Deeper Scientific Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David N.; Grotzer, Tina A.

    This paper presents the results of a research project based on the Understandings of Consequence Project. This study motivated students to engage in inquiry in science classrooms. The complexity of the models is divided into four categories--underlying causality, relational causality, probabilistic causality, and emergent causality--and provides…

  10. Using a Modeling Approach To Explore Scientific Epistemology with High School Biology Students. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartier, Jennifer

    This paper describes a study of high school students' participation in the construction and revision of explanatory models as they attempted to account for a variety of inheritance phenomena observed in computer-generated "fruit flies". Throughout the course students were encouraged to explore epistemological issues related to the assessment and…

  11. Model-Driven Development for scientific computing. An upgrade of the RHEEDGr program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniluk, Andrzej

    2009-11-01

    Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) is the software engineering discipline, which considers models as the most important element for software development, and for the maintenance and evolution of software, through model transformation. Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) is the approach for software development under the Model-Driven Engineering framework. This paper surveys the core MDA technology that was used to upgrade of the RHEEDGR program to C++0x language standards. New version program summaryProgram title: RHEEDGR-09 Catalogue identifier: ADUY_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUY_v3_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 21 263 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 266 982 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Code Gear C++ Builder Computer: Intel Core Duo-based PC Operating system: Windows XP, Vista, 7 RAM: more than 1 MB Classification: 4.3, 7.2, 6.2, 8, 14 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED) is a very useful technique for studying growth and surface analysis of thin epitaxial structures prepared by the Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). The RHEED technique can reveal, almost instantaneously, changes either in the coverage of the sample surface by adsorbates or in the surface structure of a thin film. Solution method: The calculations are based on the use of a dynamical diffraction theory in

  12. Web-based environmental simulation: bridging the gap between scientific modeling and decision-making.

    PubMed

    Buytaert, Wouter; Baez, Selene; Bustamante, Macarena; Dewulf, Art

    2012-02-21

    Data availability in environmental sciences is growing rapidly. Conventional monitoring systems are collecting data at increasing spatial and temporal resolutions; satellites provide a constant stream of global observations, and citizen scientist generate local data with electronic gadgets and cheap devices. There is a need to process this stream of heterogeneous data into useful information, both for science and for decision-making. Advances in networking and computer technologies increasingly enable accessing, combining, processing, and visualizing these data. This Feature reflects upon the role of environmental models in this process. We consider models as the primary tool for data processing, pattern identification, and scenario analysis. As such, they are an essential element of science-based decision-making. The new technologies analyzed here have the potential to turn the typical top-down flow of information from scientists to users into a much more direct, interactive approach. This may accelerate the dissemination of environmental information to a larger community of users. It may also facilitate harvesting feedback, and evaluating simulations and predictions from different perspectives. However, the evolution poses challenges, not only to model development but also to the communication of model results and their assumptions, shortcomings, and errors.

  13. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT): the foundation of the therapeutic model and an overview of its contribution to the treatment of patients with chronic physical diseases.

    PubMed

    Prevedini, Anna Bianca; Presti, Giovambattista; Rabitti, Elisa; Miselli, Giovanni; Moderato, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, treatment of chronic illnesses, such as stroke, cancer, chronic heart and respiratory diseases, osteoarthritis, diabetes, and so forth, account for the largest part of expenses in western countries national health systems. Moreover, these diseases are by far the leading causes of mortality in the world, representing 60% of all deaths. Any treatment aimed at targeting them might engage an individual for a large portion of his/her life so that personal and environmental factors can play a crucial role in modulating the person's quality of life and functioning, on top of any medical cure. Anxiety, depression, and distress for examples are not rare in patients with chronic diseases. Therefore, Cognitive and Behavior Therapy research has largely contributed in the last decades in identifying and programming interventions on such aspects as real and perceived social and family support, coping abilities, locus of control, self-efficacy that might help patients living with their chronic disease. More recently, third generation Cognitive-Behavior-Therapies, such as Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) and Acceptance, and Commitment Therapy (ACT) focused their attention and research efforts on developing intervention models targeting the needs of patients with a chronic disease. This paper has three aims. First is to briefly introduce ACT epistemological (Functional Contextualism) and theoretical (Relational Frame Theory) foundations as a stand point for understanding the peculiarity of ACT as a modern form of Clinical Behavior Analysis. The second aim is to introduce ACT clinical model and its six core processes (acceptance, defusion, present moment, self as a context, values and committed action) as both accountable, in their continuum, for psychological flexibility and inflexibility. Third, to present a brief overview of studies and outcomes of ACT intervention protocols and

  14. University Students' Acceptance of Biological Theories--Is Evolution Really Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Michael L.; Sadler, Kim Cleary

    2011-01-01

    Understanding students' thinking about scientific theories is fundamental to the development of effective instructional strategies designed to foster scientific literacy. We conducted a study to determine student acceptance of important biological theories and to explore the relationships between their acceptance of scientific theories and their…

  15. Acceptability of BCG vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mande, R

    1977-01-01

    The acceptability of BCG vaccination varies a great deal according to the country and to the period when the vaccine is given. The incidence of complications has not always a direct influence on this acceptability, which depends, for a very large part, on the risk of tuberculosis in a given country at a given time.

  16. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J. C. , Jr.; Parker, J. V.; Hinckley, W. B.; Hosack, K. W.; Mills, D.; Parsons, W. M.; Scudder, D. W.; Stokes, J. L.; Tabaka, L. J.; Thompson, M. C.; Wysocki, Frederick Joseph; Campbell, T. N.; Lancaster, D. L.; Tom, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  17. Scientific visualization tools for the ISTP project: Mission planning, data analysis and model interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peredo, M.; Goodrich, C. C.; McNabb, D.; Kulkarni, R.; Lyon, J.

    1995-01-01

    Visualization tools are being developed to meet the challenges of mission planning and data analysis presented by the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program. ISTP encompasses a large number of spacecraft, multiple ground-based observatories, and several theoretical investigations, with the goal of understanding the global behavior of the solar wind/magnetosphere/ionosphere system. The tools include three-dimensional displays of key boundaries in geospace along with spacecraft trajectories, which can be animated and synchronized to universal time. Magnetic field models and MHD simulation results can be invoked to reveal the magnetic topology or to identify magnetic conjunctions between spacecraft and/or ground-based facilities. Simultaneous displays of satellite trajectories, spacecraft-borne observations, and model predictions are available to facilitate data processing and interpretation efforts. The current status of these tools is described, and their implementation at the ISTP Science Planning and Operations Facility and distribution to the entire ISTP community are discussed.

  18. LWS Proposal to Provide Scientific Guidance and Modeling Support for the Ionospheric Mapping Mission. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Arthur D.

    2005-01-01

    A data assimilation system for specifying the thermospheric density has been developed over the last several years. This system ingests GRACE/CHAMP-type in situ as well as SSULI/SSUSI remote sensing observations while making use of a physical model, the Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere Model (CTIM) (Fuller-Rowel1 et al., 1996). The Kalman filter was implemented as the backbone to the data assimilation system, which provides a statistically 'best' estimate as well as an estimate of the error in its state. The system was tested using a simulated thermosphere and observations. CHAMP data were then used to provide the system with a real data source. The results of this study are herein.

  19. SCIENTIFIC UNCERTAINTIES IN ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY MODELS III: BOUNDARY AND INITIAL CONDITIONS, MODEL GRID RESOLUTION, AND HG(II) REDUCTION MECHANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study we investigate the CMAQ model response in terms of simulated mercury concentration and deposition to boundary/initial conditions (BC/IC), model grid resolution (12- versus 36-km), and two alternative Hg(II) reduction mechanisms. The model response to the change of g...

  20. Software Engineering Support of the Third Round of Scientific Grand Challenge Investigations: Earth System Modeling Software Framework Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, Bryan; Zhou, Shu-Jia; Higgins, Glenn; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges in large-scale climate modeling, as well as in high-performance computing in other scientific fields, is that of effectively integrating many software models from multiple contributors. A software framework facilitates the integration task, both in the development and runtime stages of the simulation. Effective software frameworks reduce the programming burden for the investigators, freeing them to focus more on the science and less on the parallel communication implementation. while maintaining high performance across numerous supercomputer and workstation architectures. This document surveys numerous software frameworks for potential use in Earth science modeling. Several frameworks are evaluated in depth, including Parallel Object-Oriented Methods and Applications (POOMA), Cactus (from (he relativistic physics community), Overture, Goddard Earth Modeling System (GEMS), the National Center for Atmospheric Research Flux Coupler, and UCLA/UCB Distributed Data Broker (DDB). Frameworks evaluated in less detail include ROOT, Parallel Application Workspace (PAWS), and Advanced Large-Scale Integrated Computational Environment (ALICE). A host of other frameworks and related tools are referenced in this context. The frameworks are evaluated individually and also compared with each other.

  1. 40 CFR 161.80 - Acceptability of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accepted methods were used, sufficient numbers of measurements were made to achieve statistical reliability... purposes of this part, and the data permit sound scientific judgments to be made. Such data will not...

  2. Scientific computation and mathematical modeling. Final technical report, 11 January 1985-10 January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Miller; Sell; Weinberger

    1986-02-17

    This is the final technical report for an equipment grant that provided microcomputers in individual offices to be used as research tools by faculty in the School of Mathematics and participants in the programs of the Institute for Mathematics and Its Applications. Many research projects are underway; also mathematical software is being developed for use in the Dynamical Systems, Stochastic Modeling and Combinatorics Laboratories. The microcomputers will soon be linked by an Ethernet and are serving as terminals for access to the University's CRAY 2 supercomputer.

  3. Scientific Misconduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores scientific fraud, asserting that while few scientists actually falsify results, the field has become so competitive that many are misbehaving in other ways; an example would be unreasonable criticism by anonymous peer reviewers. (EV)

  4. The standard model and some new directions. [for scientific theory of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blandford, R. D.; Rees, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    A 'standard' model of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), based upon a massive black hole surrounded by a thin accretion disk, is defined. It is argued that, although there is good evidence for the presence of black holes and orbiting gas, most of the details of this model are either inadequate or controversial. Magnetic field may be responsible for the confinement of continuum and line-emitting gas, for the dynamical evolution of accretion disks and for the formation of jets. It is further argued that gaseous fuel is supplied in molecular form and that this is responsible for thermal re-radiation, equatorial obscuration and, perhaps, the broad line gas clouds. Stars may also supply gas close to the black hole, especially in low power AGN and they may be observable in discrete orbits as probes of the gravitational field. Recent observations suggest that magnetic field, stars, dusty molecular gas and orientation effects must be essential components of a complete description of AGN. The discovery of quasars with redshifts approaching 5 is an important clue to the mechanism of galaxy formation.

  5. From scientific discovery to health outcomes: A synergistic model of doctoral nursing education.

    PubMed

    Michael, Melanie J; Clochesy, John M

    2016-05-01

    Across the globe, health system leaders and stakeholder are calling for system-level reforms in education, research, and practice to accelerate the uptake and application of new knowledge in practice and to improve health care delivery and health outcomes. An evolving bi-dimensional research-practice focused model of doctoral nursing education in the U.S. is creating unprecedented opportunities for collaborative translational and investigative efforts for nurse researchers and practitioners. The nursing academy must commit to a shared goal of preparing future generations of nurse scientists and practitioners with the capacity and motivation to work together to accelerate the translation of evidence into practice in order to place nursing at the forefront of health system improvement efforts and advance the profession.

  6. Gender perspective in medicine: a vital part of medical scientific rationality. A useful model for comprehending structures and hierarchies within medical science

    PubMed Central

    Risberg, Gunilla; Hamberg, Katarina; Johansson, Eva E

    2006-01-01

    Background During the past few decades, research has reported gender bias in various areas of clinical and academic medicine. To prevent such bias, a gender perspective in medicine has been requested, but difficulties and resistance have been reported from implementation attempts. Our study aimed at analysing this resistance in relation to what is considered good medical research. Method We used a theoretical model, based on scientific competition, to understand the structures of scientific medicine and how they might influence the resistance to a gender perspective in medicine. The model was originally introduced to discuss how pluralism improves rationality in the social sciences. Results The model provided a way to conceptualise different fields of research in medicine: basic research, applied research, medical philosophy, and 'empowering' research. It clarified how various research approaches within medicine relate to each other, and how they differ and compete. It also indicated why there might be conflicts between them: basic and applied research performed within the biomedical framework have higher status than gender research and other research approaches that are performed within divergent research paradigms. Conclusion This hierarchy within medical research contributes to the resistance to a gender perspective, causing gender bias and making medical scientific rationality suboptimal. We recommend that the theoretical model can be applied in a wider medical context when different and hierarchically arranged research traditions are in conflict. In this way, the model might contribute to shape a medical community where scientific pluralism is acknowledged to enlarge, not to disturb, the scientific rationality of medicine. PMID:16928283

  7. Ensuring animal welfare while meeting scientific aims using a murine pneumonia model of septic shock.

    PubMed

    Huet, Olivier; Ramsey, Debbie; Miljavec, Sandra; Jenney, Adam; Aubron, Cecile; Aprico, Andrea; Stefanovic, Nada; Balkau, Beverley; Head, Geoff A; de Haan, Judy B; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P F

    2013-06-01

    With animal models, death as an intentional end point is ethically unacceptable. However, in the study of septic shock, death is still considered the only relevant end point. We defined eight humane end points into four stages of severity (from healthy to moribund) and used to design a clinically relevant scoring tool, termed "the mouse clinical assessment score for sepsis" (M-CASS). The M-CASS was used to enable a consistent approach to the assessment of disease severity. This allowed an ethical and objective assessment of disease after which euthanasia was performed, instead of worsening suffering. The M-CASS displayed a high internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.97) with a high level of agreement and an intraclass correlation coefficient equal to 0.91. The plasma levels of cytokines and markers of oxidative stress were all associated with the M-CASS score (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.05). The M-CASS allows tracking of disease progression and animal welfare requirements.

  8. Ensuring animal welfare while meeting scientific aims using a murine pneumonia model of septic shock.

    PubMed

    Huet, Olivier; Ramsey, Debbie; Miljavec, Sandra; Jenney, Adam; Aubron, Cecile; Aprico, Andrea; Stefanovic, Nada; Balkau, Beverley; Head, Geoff A; de Haan, Judy B; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P F

    2013-06-01

    With animal models, death as an intentional end point is ethically unacceptable. However, in the study of septic shock, death is still considered the only relevant end point. We defined eight humane end points into four stages of severity (from healthy to moribund) and used to design a clinically relevant scoring tool, termed "the mouse clinical assessment score for sepsis" (M-CASS). The M-CASS was used to enable a consistent approach to the assessment of disease severity. This allowed an ethical and objective assessment of disease after which euthanasia was performed, instead of worsening suffering. The M-CASS displayed a high internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.97) with a high level of agreement and an intraclass correlation coefficient equal to 0.91. The plasma levels of cytokines and markers of oxidative stress were all associated with the M-CASS score (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.05). The M-CASS allows tracking of disease progression and animal welfare requirements. PMID:23603767

  9. Acceptance procedures: Microfilm printer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Acceptance tests were made for a special order automatic additive color microfilm printer. Tests include film capacity, film transport, resolution, illumination uniformity, exposure range checks, and color cuing considerations.

  10. Expanding HIV testing and counselling into communities: Feasibility, acceptability, and effects of an integrated family planning/HTC service delivery model by Village Health Teams in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Brunie, Aurélie; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Akol, Angela; Mercer, Sarah; Chen, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Improving HIV testing and counselling (HTC) requires a range of strategies. This article reports on HTC service delivery by Village Health Teams (VHTs) in Uganda in the context of a model integrating this new component into pre-existing family planning services. Eight health centres from matched pairs were randomly allocated to intervention or control. After being trained, 36 VHTs reporting to selected facilities in the intervention group started offering HTC along with family planning, while VHTs in the control group provided family planning only. Proficiency testing was conducted as external quality assurance. A survey of all 36 VHTs and 137 family planning clients in the intervention group and 119 clients in the control group and a review of record data were conducted after 10 months. Survey responses by VHTs and their clients in the intervention group demonstrate knowledge of counselling messages and safe testing. External quality assessment results provide additional evidence of competency. Eighty per cent of the family planning clients surveyed in the intervention group received an HIV test during the intervention; 27% of those were first-time testers. More clients had ever tested for HIV in the intervention group compared with the control; clients also retested more often. Findings indicate that this model is feasible and acceptable for expanding quality HTC into communities. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number [NCT02244398].

  11. Do Students Accept Anthropomorphic and Teleological Formulations as Scientific Explanations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungwirth, E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses anthropomorphic explanations and the use of teleological formulations in biology teaching. Examines whether the teachers' use of "pictorial language" is taken at face value by students. (Author/GA)

  12. The influence of a Classroom Model of Scientific Scholarship on Four Girls' Trajectories of Identification with Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Melissa Sunshine

    This study examines the teacher's role in shaping the identity construction resources available in a classroom and the ways in which individual students take up, modify, and appropriate those resources to construct themselves as scientists through interaction with their teacher and peers. Drawing on frameworks of identity construction and social positioning, I propose that the locally-negotiated classroom-level cultural model of what it means to be a "good" science student forms the arena in which students construct a sense of their own competence at, affiliation with, and interest in science. The setting for this study was a 6th grade science class at a progressive urban elementary school whose population roughly represents the ethnic and socioeconomic diversity of the state of California. The teacher was an experienced science and math teacher interested in social justice and inquiry teaching. Drawing from naturalistic observations, video and artifact analysis, survey data, and repeated interviews with students and the teacher, I demonstrated what it meant to be a "good" science student in this particular cultural community by analyzing what was required, reinforced, and rewarded in this classroom. Next, I traced the influence of this particular classroom's conception of what it meant to be good at science on the trajectories of identification with science of four 6th grade girls selected to represent a variety of stances towards science, levels of classroom participation, and personal backgrounds. Scientific scholarship in this class had two parts: values related to science as a discipline, and a more generic set of school-related values one might see in any classroom. Different meanings of and values for science were indexed in the everyday activities of the classroom: science as a language for describing the natural world, science as a set of rhetorical values, science as an adult social community, and science as a place for mess and explosions. Among school

  13. PHIGS PLUS for scientific graphics

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1991-01-14

    This paper gives a brief overview of the use of computer graphics standards in the scientific community. It particularly details how how PHIGS PLUS meets the needs of users at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Although standards for computer graphics have improved substantially over the past decade, their acceptance in the scientific community has been slow. As the use and diversity of computers has increased, the scientific graphics libraries have not been able to keep pace with the additional capabilities these new machines offer. Therefore, several organizations have or are now working on converting their scientific libraries to reset upon a portable standard. This paper will address why is transition has been so slow and offer suggestions for future standards work to enhance scientific visualization. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  14. Anatomy of Scientific Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals great predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society, and may provide a useful basis for policy-making. PMID:25671617

  15. Improving Acceptance of Automated Counseling Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James H.; And Others

    This paper discusses factors that may influence the acceptance of automated counseling procedures by the military. A consensual model of the change process is presented which structures organizational readiness, the change strategy, and acceptance as integrated variables to be considered in a successful installation. A basic introduction to the…

  16. Scientific millenarianism

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1997-12-01

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO{sub 2} warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper.

  17. Model-Driven Development for scientific computing. Computations of RHEED intensities for a disordered surface. Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniluk, Andrzej

    2010-03-01

    Scientific computing is the field of study concerned with constructing mathematical models, numerical solution techniques and with using computers to analyse and solve scientific and engineering problems. Model-Driven Development (MDD) has been proposed as a means to support the software development process through the use of a model-centric approach. This paper surveys the core MDD technology that was used to develop an application that allows computation of the RHEED intensities dynamically for a disordered surface. New version program summaryProgram title: RHEED1DProcess Catalogue identifier: ADUY_v4_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUY_v4_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31 971 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 039 820 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Embarcadero C++ Builder Computer: Intel Core Duo-based PC Operating system: Windows XP, Vista, 7 RAM: more than 1 GB Classification: 4.3, 7.2, 6.2, 8, 14 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADUY_v3_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 2394 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No Nature of problem: An application that implements numerical simulations should be constructed according to the CSFAR rules: clear and well-documented, simple, fast, accurate, and robust. A clearly written, externally and internally documented program is much easier to understand and modify. A simple program is much less prone to error and is more easily modified than one that is complicated. Simplicity and clarity also help make the program flexible. Making the program fast has economic benefits. It also allows flexibility because some of the features that make a program efficient can be traded off for

  18. A survey of university students' perceptions of learning management systems in a low-resource setting using a technology acceptance model.

    PubMed

    Chipps, Jennifer; Kerr, Jane; Brysiewicz, Petra; Walters, Fiona

    2015-02-01

    Learning management systems have been widely advocated for the support of distance learning. In low-resource settings, the uptake of these systems by students has been mixed. This study aimed to identify, through the use of the Technology Acceptance Model, the individual, organizational, and technological factors that could be influencing the use of learning management systems. A simple quantitative descriptive survey was conducted of nursing and health science students at a university in South Africa as part of their first exposure to a learning management system. A total of 274 respondents (56.7%) completed the survey questionnaire, made up of 213 nursing respondents (87.7%) and 61 health sciences respondents (25%). Overall, the respondents found the learning management system easy to use and useful for learning. There were significant differences between the two groups of respondents, with the respondents from health sciences being both younger and more computer literate. The nursing respondents, who received more support and orientations, reported finding the learning management system more useful. Recommendations are made for training and support to ensure uptake.

  19. Speaking Scientific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Peter

    1971-01-01

    Suggests changes for science curricula which will improve the understanding...of the scientific language in which the ideas of science and technology are expressed," including increasing the students' facility with numbers, and in the future, an interdisciplinary course demonstrating the approach of physical, biological and behavioral scientists,…

  20. Development of Models To Relate Microbiological and Headspace Volatile Parameters in Stored Atlantic Salmon to Acceptance and Willingness To Prepare the Product by Senior Consumers.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Ma, Li M; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-12-01

    Microbial spoilage of salmon occurs during extended refrigerated storage and is often accompanied by unpleasant aromas. When spoilage is detected, it is assumed that consumers will reject the product for consumption. Because sensory panels of trained individuals or consumers are expensive and labor intensive, identification of microbiological or chemical indicators to characterize the extent to which fish has spoiled is needed when experimental process and storage treatments are being evaluated. A consumer panel of 53 senior citizens (60 to 85 years of age) evaluated in duplicate raw salmon subjected to 10 storage conditions, and the fish quality was targeted to range from fresh to very spoiled. This population group was chosen because they would be expected to have a greater prevalence of olfactory impairments and higher odor thresholds than the general population; in turn, a shorter safety margin or time period between product rejection due to spoilage and the generation of Clostridium botulinum toxins would be likely. Low hedonic scores for aroma and overall acceptance (2 or 3 of 9), corresponding to "dislike very much" to "dislike moderately," did not equate with unwillingness to prepare the sample for consumption by up to seven panelists (13%) when the product was presumed to have already been purchased. Despite these outliers, significant models (P = 0.0000) were developed for the willingness of consumers to prepare the sample for consumption and the sample's aerobic and anaerobic microbiological populations and two volatile peaks with Kovats indices of 640 and 753. However, these models revealed that the levels of microbiological and chemical markers must be very high before some consumers would reject the sample; hence, spoilage detection by smell would likely not be an adequate safeguard against consuming salmon in which C. botulinum toxin had been generated.

  1. Development of Models To Relate Microbiological and Headspace Volatile Parameters in Stored Atlantic Salmon to Acceptance and Willingness To Prepare the Product by Senior Consumers.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Ma, Li M; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-12-01

    Microbial spoilage of salmon occurs during extended refrigerated storage and is often accompanied by unpleasant aromas. When spoilage is detected, it is assumed that consumers will reject the product for consumption. Because sensory panels of trained individuals or consumers are expensive and labor intensive, identification of microbiological or chemical indicators to characterize the extent to which fish has spoiled is needed when experimental process and storage treatments are being evaluated. A consumer panel of 53 senior citizens (60 to 85 years of age) evaluated in duplicate raw salmon subjected to 10 storage conditions, and the fish quality was targeted to range from fresh to very spoiled. This population group was chosen because they would be expected to have a greater prevalence of olfactory impairments and higher odor thresholds than the general population; in turn, a shorter safety margin or time period between product rejection due to spoilage and the generation of Clostridium botulinum toxins would be likely. Low hedonic scores for aroma and overall acceptance (2 or 3 of 9), corresponding to "dislike very much" to "dislike moderately," did not equate with unwillingness to prepare the sample for consumption by up to seven panelists (13%) when the product was presumed to have already been purchased. Despite these outliers, significant models (P = 0.0000) were developed for the willingness of consumers to prepare the sample for consumption and the sample's aerobic and anaerobic microbiological populations and two volatile peaks with Kovats indices of 640 and 753. However, these models revealed that the levels of microbiological and chemical markers must be very high before some consumers would reject the sample; hence, spoilage detection by smell would likely not be an adequate safeguard against consuming salmon in which C. botulinum toxin had been generated. PMID:26613910

  2. Scientific workflow and support for high resolution global climate modeling at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantharaj, V.; Mayer, B.; Wang, F.; Hack, J.; McKenna, D.; Hartman-Baker, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) facilitates the execution of computational experiments that require tens of millions of CPU hours (typically using thousands of processors simultaneously) while generating hundreds of terabytes of data. A set of ultra high resolution climate experiments in progress, using the Community Earth System Model (CESM), will produce over 35,000 files, ranging in sizes from 21 MB to 110 GB each. The execution of the experiments will require nearly 70 Million CPU hours on the Jaguar and Titan supercomputers at OLCF. The total volume of the output from these climate modeling experiments will be in excess of 300 TB. This model output must then be archived, analyzed, distributed to the project partners in a timely manner, and also made available more broadly. Meeting this challenge would require efficient movement of the data, staging the simulation output to a large and fast file system that provides high volume access to other computational systems used to analyze the data and synthesize results. This file system also needs to be accessible via high speed networks to an archival system that can provide long term reliable storage. Ideally this archival system is itself directly available to other systems that can be used to host services making the data and analysis available to the participants in the distributed research project and to the broader climate community. The various resources available at the OLCF now support this workflow. The available systems include the new Jaguar Cray XK6 2.63 petaflops (estimated) supercomputer, the 10 PB Spider center-wide parallel file system, the Lens/EVEREST analysis and visualization system, the HPSS archival storage system, the Earth System Grid (ESG), and the ORNL Climate Data Server (CDS). The ESG features federated services, search & discovery, extensive data handling capabilities, deep storage access, and Live Access Server (LAS) integration. The scientific workflow enabled on

  3. Manufacturing models permitting roll out/scale out of clinically led autologous cell therapies: regulatory and scientific challenges for comparability.

    PubMed

    Hourd, Paul; Ginty, Patrick; Chandra, Amit; Williams, David J

    2014-08-01

    Manufacturing of more-than-minimally manipulated autologous cell therapies presents a number of unique challenges driven by complex supply logistics and the need to scale out production to multiple manufacturing sites or near the patient within hospital settings. The existing regulatory structure in Europe and the United States imposes a requirement to establish and maintain comparability between sites. Under a single market authorization, this is likely to become an unsurmountable burden beyond two or three sites. Unless alternative manufacturing approaches can be found to bridge the regulatory challenge of comparability, realizing a sustainable and investable business model for affordable autologous cell therapy supply is likely to be extremely demanding. Without a proactive approach by the regulators to close this "translational gap," these products may not progress down the development pipeline, threatening patient accessibility to an increasing number of clinician-led autologous cellular therapies that are already demonstrating patient benefits. We propose three prospective manufacturing models for the scale out/roll out of more-than-minimally manipulated clinically led autologous cell therapy products and test their prospects for addressing the challenge of product comparability with a selected expert reference panel of US and UK thought leaders. This paper presents the perspectives and insights of the panel and identifies where operational, technological and scientific improvements should be prioritized. The main purpose of this report is to solicit feedback and seek input from key stakeholders active in the field of autologous cell therapy in establishing a consensus-based manufacturing approach that may permit the roll out of clinically led autologous cell therapies.

  4. Scientific Claims versus Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides activities that help students to understand the importance of the scientific method. The activities include the science of fusion and cold fusion; a group activity that analyzes and interprets the events surrounding cold fusion; and an application research project concerning a current science issue. (ZWH)

  5. Using Exoplanet Models to Explore NGSS and the Nature of Science and as a Tool for Understanding the Scientific Results from NIRCam/JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Higgins, Michelle L.; Lebofsky, Nancy R.

    2014-11-01

    Our Solar System is no longer unique. To date, about 1,800 planets are known to orbit over 1,100 other stars and nearly 50% are in multiple-planet systems. Planetary systems seem [to be] fairly common and astronomers are now finding Earth-sized planets in the Goldilocks Zone, suggesting there may be other habitable planets. To this end, characterizing the atmospheric chemistries of such planets is a major science goal of the NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope.For NIRCam's E/PO program with the Girl Scouts of the USA, we have produced scale models and associated activities to compare the size, scale, and dynamics of the Solar System with several exoplanet systems. Our models illustrate the techniques used to investigate these systems: radial velocity, transits, direct observations, and gravitational microlensing. By comparing and contrasting these models, we place our Solar System in a more cosmic context and enable discussion of current questions within the scientific community: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Is our present definition of a planet a good definition in the context of other planetary systems? Are there other planets/moons that might harbor life as we know it?These models are appropriate for use in classrooms and conform to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) through the Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe and Crosscutting Concepts—Patterns Scale, Portion, and Quantity; and Systems and System Models. NGSS also states that the Nature of Science (NOS) should be an “essential part” of science education. NOS topics include, for example, understanding that scientific investigations use a variety of methods, that scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, that scientific explanations are open to revision in light of new evidence, and an understanding the nature of scientific models.

  6. Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Saffer, Shelley I.

    2014-12-01

    This is a final report of the DOE award DE-SC0001132, Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation. This document describes the achievements of the goals, and resulting research made possible by this award.

  7. The Effect of Using the Constructivist Learning Model in Teaching Science on the Achievement and Scientific Thinking of 8th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qarareh, Ahmed O.

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the effect of using constructivist learning model in teaching science, especially in the subject of light: its nature, mirrors, lens, and properties, on the achievement of eighth-grade students and their scientific thinking. The study sample consisted of (136) male and female 8th graders were chosen from two basic…

  8. Smaller hospitals accept advertising.

    PubMed

    Mackesy, R

    1988-07-01

    Administrators at small- and medium-sized hospitals gradually have accepted the role of marketing in their organizations, albeit at a much slower rate than larger institutions. This update of a 1983 survey tracks the increasing competitiveness, complexity and specialization of providing health care and of advertising a small hospital's services. PMID:10288550

  9. Students Accepted on Probation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorberbaum, Caroline S.

    This report is a justification of the Dalton Junior College admissions policy designed to help students who had had academic and/or social difficulties at other schools. These students were accepted on probation, their problems carefully analyzed, and much effort devoted to those with low academic potential. They received extensive academic and…

  10. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  11. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  12. Expert scientific evidence in the Israeli court.

    PubMed

    Sahar, A

    2007-06-01

    Most judges, by the very nature of their educational background, are less than sufficiently prepared for the task to fully comprehend the problems in disputes concerning scientific subjects. Judicial cognizance in such matters gives no support. The judge has no recourse but to rely on Expert Evidence. However, such evidence, especially in the adversarial system, requires the ability to evaluate it. Back to square one? Almost. The Israeli court borrowed, and followed for many years, the American solution - the Frye Principle (Frye v. United States, 54 App.D.C. at 47, 293 F. 1013 (1923) 1014) - "the thing from which the deduction is made must be sufficiently established to have gained general acceptance in the particular field in which it belongs " - meaning that an Expert's view is held as true if proven that it had been held by "the scientific community." This solution presented an almost insurmountable problem for novel scientific ideas. The were also exceptions - several Israeli Courts made the rather difficult task of examining the Experts' "working papers", i.e. the "crude" data on which he based his deductions. The model of such effort seems to be the English decision, by Stuart-Smith LJ in Loveday v Renton and Wellcome Foundation Ltd. ( (QBD) 1 Med Law Review, 1990:117). Seventy years after Frye the U.S. Supreme Court reviewed the subject of evaluation of scientific evidence. The new requirements were "... (1) ... whether the theory or technique can be and has been tested; (2) ... whether the theory or technique has been subjected to peer review ... (3) ... the known or potential rate of error of[the] technique; (4) [no requirement of] a particular degree of acceptance of the theory or technique within that [scientific] community, ... and (5) the inquiry is a flexible one, and the focus must be solely on principles and methodology, not on the conclusions that such principles and methodology generate ". Namely - the Judge, guided by intelligence and logic, is

  13. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  14. On a Bottom-Up Approach to Scientific Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Two popular models of scientific discovery, abduction and the inference to the best explanation (IBE), presuppose that the reason for accepting a hypothetical explanation A comes from the epistemic and/or explanatory force manifested in the fact that observed fact C is an inferred consequence of A. However, not all discoveries take this top-down procedure from A to C, in which the result of discovery A implies the observed fact C. I contend that discovery can be modeled as a bottom-up procedure based on inductive and analogical rules that lead us to infer from C to A. I take the theory of Dignaga, an Indian medieval logician, as a model of this bottom-up approach. My argument has three panels: 1) this bottom-up approach applies to both commonsense and scientific discovery without the assumption that C has to be an inferred consequence of A; 2) this bottom-up approach helps us get around problems that crop up in applying abduction and/or IBE, which means that scientific discovery need not to be modeled exclusively by top-down approaches; and 3) the existence of the bottom-up approach requires a pluralist attitude towards modeling of scientific discovery.

  15. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  16. A Model for Beliefs, Tool Acceptance Levels and Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Science and Technology Preservice Teachers towards Web Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    One of the applications applied most nowadays is web based instruction (WBI). Although there are many studies on WBI, no study which researched the relations between beliefs for WBI, WBI tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge (WPCK) of science and technology pre-service teachers was found among these studies. The aim of this…

  17. Technology Acceptance in an Academic Context: Faculty Acceptance of Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Shanan G.; Harris, Michael L.; Colaric, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors surveyed faculty from a college of business and a college of education regarding their attitudes toward online education. Results of the survey were examined to determine the degree to which the technology acceptance model was able to adequately explain faculty acceptance of online education. Results indicate that perceived usefulness…

  18. Conception et validation d'un modele d'analyse et de suivi pour une politique energetique durable et acceptable de l'energie eolienne: Une etude comparative France-Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurtey, Evariste

    In this research, we built a conceptual model of a sustainable and acceptable wind power policy that we tried to validate through the case study of France and Quebec in the wind energy sector. Our qualitative and comparative approach helps us to illustrate the interaction of institutional variables studied, including the national context of emergence, the balance of power between pressure groups, the supranational and exogenous influences, level of political commitment, policy and regulatory instruments, social acceptance and energy policy mechanisms. The research confirms that the neo-corporatism is present in France as in Quebec. With the unfavorable energy context (low cost of electricity tariff, lack of electricity demand, and an already low zero carbon electric mix), it is an important factor explaining : 1) the 20 years delay accumulated by France and Quebec in the development of wind projects or industrial sector; 2) the 10% limited penetration scale given to wind energy. We also demonstrate that the political commitment to develop wind energy fluctuates with the government majority, the energy context or the influence of pressure groups. This manifests itself in a lack of continuity of policies and tariff instruments used. In both national case studies, the results also show that balanced policies and regulations ensure sustainable development of wind energy only if they allow a sufficient market size. The search results also illustrates that the conceptual division made between acceptance of wind sector, acceptance of ownership, local acceptance is very instructive. Social controversies, though multifactorial, are connected to both a critique of the development model too industrial and private, territorial dilemmas (closed environment), energy context (electric surplus in Quebec), or related to strategic planning system and centralized decision. An important issue for a more acceptable wind policy in the future will come to a greater plurality of ownership

  19. Beyond the Scientific Method: Model-Based Inquiry as a New Paradigm of Preference for School Science Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windschitl, Mark; Thompson, Jessica; Braaten, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    One hundred years after its conception, the scientific method continues to reinforce a kind of cultural lore about what it means to participate in inquiry. As commonly implemented in venues ranging from middle school classrooms to undergraduate laboratories, it emphasizes the testing of predictions rather than ideas, focuses learners on material…

  20. Engaging Students in Scientific Practices: What Does Constructing and Revising Models Look Like in the Science Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcik, Joseph; Merritt, Joi

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)--now in development--will be based on "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" released by the National Research Council last summer. The "Framework" identifies seven scientific and engineering practices that should be used in science classrooms. These practices reflect the multiple ways in which…

  1. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  2. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  3. Acceptance Test Plan for ANSYS Software

    SciTech Connect

    CREA, B.A.

    2000-10-25

    This plan governs the acceptance testing of the ANSYS software (Full Mechanical Release 5.5) for use on Project Word Management Contract (PHMC) computer systems (either UNIX or Microsoft Windows/NT). There are two phases to the acceptance testing covered by this test plan: program execution in accordance with the guidance provided in installation manuals; and ensuring results of the execution are consistent with the expected physical behavior of the system being modeled.

  4. The Acceptance and Use of Computer Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzis, Vasileios; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2011-01-01

    The effective development of a computer based assessment (CBA) depends on students' acceptance. The purpose of this study is to build a model that demonstrates the constructs that affect students' behavioral intention to use a CBA. The proposed model, Computer Based Assessment Acceptance Model (CBAAM) is based on previous models of technology…

  5. Development of MINISAT 01 Scientific Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J.; Alfageme, R.

    2001-03-01

    The MINISAT design is a modular concept, and accordingly the Scientific Payload of Mission 01 is a self-contained Payload Module (PLM). This philosophy offers the advantage that the Payload and the Platform may be assembled independently and coupled together at a later stage. The mechanical, thermal, power and data interfaces have to be secured along the design and development phases. The MINISAT 01 PLM with three instruments, EURD, LEGRI and CPLM, integrates on a structural tray a dozen of equipment supplied by more than ten participant Institutions. The Assembly, Integration and Verifications (AIV) of the PLM, was performed at INTA, providing the common structural, harnessing and thermal control subsystems. In this paper an overview is presented of the PLM layout of the different models and the qualification and acceptance testing.

  6. Is risk analysis scientific?

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sven Ove; Aven, Terje

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses to what extent risk analysis is scientific in view of a set of commonly used definitions and criteria. We consider scientific knowledge to be characterized by its subject matter, its success in developing the best available knowledge in its fields of study, and the epistemic norms and values that guide scientific investigations. We proceed to assess the field of risk analysis according to these criteria. For this purpose, we use a model for risk analysis in which science is used as a base for decision making on risks, which covers the five elements evidence, knowledge base, broad risk evaluation, managerial review and judgment, and the decision; and that relates these elements to the domains experts and decisionmakers, and to the domains fact-based or value-based. We conclude that risk analysis is a scientific field of study, when understood as consisting primarily of (i) knowledge about risk-related phenomena, processes, events, etc., and (ii) concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and manage risk, in general and for specific applications (the instrumental part).

  7. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer.

  8. SAP Minutes No.2015-03 for FIFRA meeting held 9/15-17/2015. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding development of a spatial aquatic model(SAM)for pesticide risk assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On September 15-17th, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “Development of a Spatial Aquatic Model (SAM) for Pesticide Risk Assessment”. The goal of SAM is to impr...

  9. The Dogma of "The" Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wivagg, Dan; Allchin, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Points out major problems with the scientific method as a model for learning about methodology in science and suggests teaching about the scientists' toolbox to remedy problems with the conventional scientific method. (KHR)

  10. A simple object-oriented and open-source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global climate system – Hector v1.0

    DOE PAGES

    Hartin, Corinne A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Schwarber, Adria; Link, Robert P.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in the policy and scientific communities. They are used for climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe Hector v1.0, an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global-scale earth system processes. Hector has a three-part main carbon cycle: a one-pool atmosphere, land, and ocean. The model's terrestrial carbon cycle includes primary production and respiration fluxes, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. Hector actively solves the inorganicmore » carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air–sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the global historical trends of atmospheric [CO2], radiative forcing, and surface temperatures. The model simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) with equivalent rates of change of key variables over time compared to current observations, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), and models from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Hector's flexibility, open-source nature, and modular design will facilitate a broad range of research in various areas.« less

  11. A simple object-oriented and open-source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global climate system – Hector v1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Hartin, Corinne A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Schwarber, Adria; Link, Robert P.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in the policy and scientific communities. They are used for climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe Hector v1.0, an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global-scale earth system processes. Hector has a three-part main carbon cycle: a one-pool atmosphere, land, and ocean. The model's terrestrial carbon cycle includes primary production and respiration fluxes, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. Hector actively solves the inorganic carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air–sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the global historical trends of atmospheric [CO2], radiative forcing, and surface temperatures. The model simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) with equivalent rates of change of key variables over time compared to current observations, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), and models from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Hector's flexibility, open-source nature, and modular design will facilitate a broad range of research in various areas.

  12. STOL ride quality criteria - Passenger acceptance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    The ability to mathematically model human reaction to variables involved in transportation systems offers a very desirable tool both for the prediction of passenger acceptance of proposed systems, and for establishing acceptance criteria for the system designer. As a first step in the development of a general model for STOL systems, a mathematical formulation is presented which accepts as inputs nine variables felt to be important in flight under STOL-type conditions and presents an index of human response as the output. The variables used are three linear motions, three angular motions, pressure, temperature and noise level. The results are used to establish specifications for stability augmentation systems to improve the ride quality of existing STOL aircraft.

  13. Preclinical Models Provide Scientific Justification and Translational Relevance for Moving Novel Therapeutics into Clinical Trials for Pediatric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Langenau, David M; Sweet-Cordero, Alejandro; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Dyer, Michael A

    2015-12-15

    Despite improvements in survival rates for children with cancer since the 1960s, progress for many pediatric malignancies has slowed over the past two decades. With the recent advances in our understanding of the genomic landscape of pediatric cancer, there is now enthusiasm for individualized cancer therapy based on genomic profiling of patients' tumors. However, several obstacles to effective personalized cancer therapy remain. For example, relatively little data from prospective clinical trials demonstrate the selective efficacy of molecular-targeted therapeutics based on somatic mutations in the patient's tumor. In this commentary, we discuss recent advances in preclinical testing for pediatric cancer and provide recommendations for providing scientific justification and translational relevance for novel therapeutic combinations for childhood cancer. Establishing rigorous criteria for defining and validating druggable mutations will be essential for the success of ongoing and future clinical genomic trials for pediatric malignancies.

  14. Pearls of Publishing: Advice for Increasing Your Acceptance Odds.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J; Provencher, Matthew T; Lubowitz, James H

    2016-07-01

    Pearls of wisdom can be a convenient and efficient strategy to improve performance. As Editors, we employ pearls to standardize the review and editorial process, and we offer our own pearls to you to help facilitate acceptance of submitted research manuscripts with the ultimate goal of strengthening scientific conclusions that can affect patient care, and ultimately, improve outcome.

  15. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  16. Pearls of Publishing: Advice for Increasing Your Acceptance Odds.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J; Provencher, Matthew T; Lubowitz, James H

    2016-07-01

    Pearls of wisdom can be a convenient and efficient strategy to improve performance. As Editors, we employ pearls to standardize the review and editorial process, and we offer our own pearls to you to help facilitate acceptance of submitted research manuscripts with the ultimate goal of strengthening scientific conclusions that can affect patient care, and ultimately, improve outcome. PMID:27373169

  17. Synergy between scientific advancement and technological innovation, illustrated by a mechanism-based model characterizing sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Ng, Chee M; List, James F; Pfister, Marc

    2010-09-01

    Advances in experimental medicine and technological innovation during the past century have brought tremendous progress in modern medicine and generated an ever-increasing amount of data from bench and bedside. The desire to extend scientific knowledge motivates effective data integration. Technological innovation makes this possible, which in turn accelerates the advancement in science. This mutually beneficial interaction is illustrated by the development of an expanded mechanism-based model for understanding a novel mechanism, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 SGLT2 inhibition for potential treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Sherlock Holmes: scientific detective.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Sherlock Holmes was intended by his creator, Arthur Conan Doyle, to be a 'scientific detective'. Conan Doyle criticized his predecessor Edgar Allan Poe for giving his creation - Inspector Dupin - only the 'illusion' of scientific method. Conan Doyle believed that he had succeeded where Poe had failed; thus, he has Watson remark that Holmes has 'brought detection as near an exact science as it will ever be brought into the world.' By examining Holmes' methods, it becomes clear that Conan Doyle modelled them on certain images of science that were popular in mid- to late-19th century Britain. Contrary to a common view, it is also evident that rather than being responsible for the invention of forensic science, the creation of Holmes was influenced by the early development of it.

  19. 76 FR 23323 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM... the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of toxicological and safety testing methods that.../live ). SACATM advises the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative...

  20. The effects of a socioscientific issues instructional model in secondary agricultural education on students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoulders, Catherine Woglom

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a socioscientific issues-based instructional model on secondary agricultural education students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. This study utilized a pre-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design to assess the impacts of a nine-week unit that incorporated a socioscientific issue into instruction on secondary agriculture students' agriscience content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. The population for this study was Florida's secondary students enrolled in agricultural education. The accessible population was students enrolled in Agriscience Foundations classes in Florida. A convenience sample of Florida's Agriscience Foundations teachers attending a summer professional development or Chapter Officer Leadership Training session was taken. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to determine the impact the treatment had on students' agriscience content knowledge on distal and proximal assessments, as well as on students' scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills related to number of argumentation justifications and quality of those justifications, and views of the nature of science. Paired-samples t tests were also conducted to determine whether the treatment yielded results with middle school or high school students. Statistical analysis found significant improvements in students' agriscience content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, and argumentation skills. High school students' scores resulted in significant improvements in proximal content knowledge assessments and argumentation justification quality. Middle school students' scores resulted in significant improvements in proximal content knowledge assessments and scientific reasoning ability. No significant difference was found between students' views of the nature of science before and after

  1. Human Sociobiology, Education, and the Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albury, Randall

    1981-01-01

    Examines sociobiology (the biological study of human and animal social behavior on the basis of population genetics), which appears to have rapidly become scientifically acceptable, to determine if it constitutes good science. (PB)

  2. Updates to watershed modeling in the Potholes Reservoir basin, Washington-a supplement to Scientific Investigation Report 2009-5081

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A previous collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Bureau of Reclamation resulted in a watershed model for four watersheds that discharge into Potholes Reservoir, Washington. Since the model was constructed, two new meteorological sites have been established that provide more reliable real-time information. The Bureau of Reclamation was interested in incorporating this new information into the existing watershed model developed in 2009, and adding measured snowpack information to update simulated results and to improve forecasts of runoff. This report includes descriptions of procedures to aid a user in making model runs, including a description of the Object User Interface for the watershed model with details on specific keystrokes to generate model runs for the contributing basins. A new real-time, data-gathering computer program automates the creation of the model input files and includes the new meteorological sites. The 2009 watershed model was updated with the new sites and validated by comparing simulated results to measured data. As in the previous study, the updated model (2012 model) does a poor job of simulating individual storms, but a reasonably good job of simulating seasonal runoff volumes. At three streamflow-gaging stations, the January 1 to June 30 retrospective forecasts of runoff volume for years 2010 and 2011 were within 40 percent of the measured runoff volume for five of the six comparisons, ranging from -39.4 to 60.3 percent difference. A procedure for collecting measured snowpack data and using the data in the watershed model for forecast model runs, based on the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction method, is described, with an example that uses 2004 snow-survey data.

  3. Guidelines for incorporating scientific knowledge and practice on rare diseases into higher education: neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses as a model disorder.

    PubMed

    Cismondi, Inés Adriana; Kohan, Romina; Adams, Heather; Bond, Mike; Brown, Rachel; Cooper, Jonathan D; de Hidalgo, Perla K; Holthaus, Sophia-Martha Kleine; Mole, Sara E; Mugnaini, Julia; de Ramirez, Ana María Oller; Pesaola, Favio; Rautenberg, Gisela; Platt, Frances M; Noher de Halac, Inés

    2015-10-01

    This article addresses the educational issues associated with rare diseases (RD) and in particular the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (NCLs, or CLN diseases) in the curricula of Health Sciences and Professional's Training Programs. Our aim is to develop guidelines for improving scientific knowledge and practice in higher education and continuous learning programs. Rare diseases (RD) are collectively common in the general population with 1 in 17 people affected by a RD in their lifetime. Inherited defects in genes involved in metabolism are the commonest group of RD with over 8000 known inborn errors of metabolism. The majority of these diseases are neurodegenerative including the NCLs. Any professional training program on NCL must take into account the medical, social and economic burdens related to RDs. To address these challenges and find solutions to them it is necessary that individuals in the government and administrative authorities, academia, teaching hospitals and medical schools, the pharmaceutical industry, investment community and patient advocacy groups all work together to achieve these goals. The logistical issues of including RD lectures in university curricula and in continuing medical education should reflect its complex nature. To evaluate the state of education in the RD field, a summary should be periodically up dated in order to assess the progress achieved in each country that signed up to the international conventions addressing RD issues in society. It is anticipated that auditing current practice will lead to higher standards and provide a framework for those educators involved in establishing RD teaching programs world-wide.

  4. Fostering Third-Grade Students' Use of Scientific Models with the Water Cycle: Elementary Teachers' Conceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vo, Tina; Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura; Schwarz, Christina V.

    2015-01-01

    Elementary teachers play a crucial role in supporting and scaffolding students' model-based reasoning about natural phenomena, particularly complex systems such as the water cycle. However, little research exists to inform efforts in supporting elementary teachers' learning to foster model-centered, science learning environments. To address this…

  5. Effects of an Educational Experience Incorporating an Inventory of Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Jason R.; Alters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This investigation provides an extensive review of scientific, religious, and otherwise non-scientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution. We also measure the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following an educational experience designed to address an inclusive inventory of factors identified…

  6. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  7. Publication ethics and scientific misconduct.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2010-12-01

    To maintain the readers' trust and to uphold the journal's reputation, it is paramount for the entire research, peer reviewer and publication process to follow ethical principles and decisions. Studies involving humans, animals, medical records and human tissues/organs need to be conducted ethically, and the appropriate approvals obtained. The privacy and confidentiality of patients, authors and reviewers should be respected. When required, rights and permissions should be sought. Common forms of scientific misconduct include misappropriation of ideas, violation of generally accepted research practices, failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements, falsification of data, and inappropriate behaviour in relation to misconduct. Authors can expect editorial action to be taken, should duplicate publication, plagiarism and other forms of scientific misconduct be attempted or detected. PMID:21221494

  8. Dissolution test acceptance sampling plans.

    PubMed

    Tsong, Y; Hammerstrom, T; Lin, K; Ong, T E

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) general monograph provides a standard for dissolution compliance with the requirements as stated in the individual USP monograph for a tablet or capsule dosage form. The acceptance rules recommended by USP have important roles in the quality control process. The USP rules and their modifications are often used as an industrial lot release sampling plan, where a lot is accepted when the tablets or capsules sampled are accepted as proof of compliance with the requirement. In this paper, the operating characteristics of the USP acceptance rules are reviewed and compared to a selected modification. The operating characteristics curves show that the USP acceptance rules are sensitive to the true mean dissolution and do not reject a lot or batch that has a large percentage of tablets that dissolve with less than the dissolution specification.

  9. Scientific Final Report: COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    William J. Gutowski; Joseph M. Prusa, Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz

    2012-04-09

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the 'physics' of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

  10. Acceptance of Swedish e-health services

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Mary-Louise; Loria, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate older people’s acceptance of e-health services, in order to identify determinants of, and barriers to, their intention to use e-health. Method: Based on one of the best-established models of technology acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), in-depth exploratory interviews with twelve individuals over 45 years of age and of varying backgrounds are conducted. Results: This investigation could find support for the importance of usefulness and perceived ease of use of the e-health service offered as the main determinants of people’s intention to use the service. Additional factors critical to the acceptance of e-health are identified, such as the importance of the compatibility of the services with citizens’ needs and trust in the service provider. Most interviewees expressed positive attitudes towards using e-health and find these services useful, convenient, and easy to use. Conclusion: E-health services are perceived as a good complement to traditional health care service delivery, even among older people. These people, however, need to become aware of the e-health alternatives that are offered to them and the benefits they provide. PMID:21289860

  11. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Self-Efficacy in Learning Physics and Attitudes toward Physics: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates…

  12. Ab initio Based Modeling of Radiation Effects in Multi-Component Alloys: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dane Morgan

    2010-06-10

    The project began March 13, 2006, allocated for three years, and received a one year extension from March 13, 2009 to March 12, 2010. It has now completed 48 of 48 total months. The project was focused on using ab initio methods to gain insights into radiation induced segregation (RIS) in Ni-Fe-Cr alloys. The project had the following key accomplishments • Development of a large database of ab initio energetics that can be used by many researchers in the future for increased understanding of this system. For example, we have the first calculations showing a dramatic stabilization effect of Cr-Cr interstitial dumbbells in Ni. • Prediction of both vacancy and interstitial diffusion constants for Ni-Cr and Ni-Fe for dilute Cr and Fe. This work included generalization of widely used multifrequency models to make use of ab initio derived energetics and thermodynamics. • Prediction of qualitative trends of RIS from vacancy and interstitial mechanisms, suggesting the two types of defect fluxes drive Cr RIS in opposite directions. • Detailed kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of diffusion by vacancy mechanism in Ni-Cr as a function of Cr concentration. The results demonstrate that Cr content can have a significant effect on RIS. • Development of a quantitative RIS transport model, including models for thermodynamic factors and boundary conditions.

  13. NOAA People Empowered Products (PeEP): Combining social media with scientific models to provide eye-witness confirmed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codrescu, S.; Green, J. C.; Redmon, R. J.; Minor, K.; Denig, W. F.; Kihn, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA products and alerts rely on combinations of models and data to provide the public with information regarding space and terrestrial weather phenomena and hazards. This operational paradigm, while effective, neglects an abundant free source of measurements: millions of eyewitnesses viewing weather events. We demonstrate the capabilities of a prototype People Empowered Product (PeEP) that combines the OVATION prime auroral model running at the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center with Twitter reports of observable aurora. We introduce an algorithm for scoring Tweets based on keywords to improve the signal to noise of this dynamic data source. We use the location of the aurora derived from this new database of crowd sourced observations to validate the OVATION model for use in auroral forecasting. The combined product displays the model aurora in real time with markers showing the location and text of tweets from people actually observing the aurora. We discuss how the application might be extended to other space weather products such as radiation related satellite anomalies.

  14. The Application of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Predict the Role of Drug Transporters: Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuzhuo; Hsu, Vicky; Grimstein, Manuela; Zhang, Lei; Arya, Vikram; Sinha, Vikram; Grillo, Joseph A; Zhao, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Transporters play an important role in drug absorption, disposition, and drug action. The evaluation of drug transporters requires a comprehensive understanding of transporter biology and pharmacology. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models may offer an integrative platform to quantitatively evaluate the role of drug transporters and its interplay with other drug disposition processes such as passive drug diffusion and elimination by metabolizing enzymes. To date, PBPK modeling and simulations integrating drug transporters lag behind that for drug-metabolizing enzymes. In addition, predictive performance of PBPK has not been well established for predicting the role of drug transporters in the pharmacokinetics of a drug. To enhance overall predictive performance of transporter-based PBPK models, it is necessary to have a detailed understanding of transporter biology for proper representation in the models and to have a quantitative understanding of the contribution of transporters in the absorption and metabolism of a drug. This article summarizes PBPK-based submissions evaluating the role of drug transporters to the Office of Clinical Pharmacology of the US Food and Drug Administration. PMID:27385170

  15. Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms: Views of Three Artificial Intelligence Concepts Used in Modeling Scientific Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Sunal, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Students' conceptions of three major artificial intelligence concepts used in the modeling of systems in science, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms were investigated before and after a higher education science course. Students initially explored their prior ideas related to the three concepts through active tasks. Then,…

  16. Conceptual and Adoption of Technology Acceptance Model in Digital Information Resources Usage by Undergraduates: Implication to Higher Institutions Education in Delta and Edo of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urhiewhu, Lucky Oghenetega; Emojorho, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The article paper was on conceptual and theoretical framework of digital information resources usage by undergraduates: Implication to higher institutions education in Delta and Edo of Nigeria. It revealed the concept of digital information resources [DIRs] and model theory that related to the study. Finding shows that DIRs are use to low extent…

  17. Scientific Basis of Auriculotherapy: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Terral, Claudie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Using a modern scientific basis, this article examines clinical findings and experimentally reproducible data that demonstrate reliably the objective reality of the auriculotherapy procedures initiated by Paul Nogier, MD, of Lyon, France. Objective: The aims of this review are to: (1) identify the Chinese acupoints and all relevant related subjects; (2) offer a critical analysis of different auricle cartographies or ear maps; and (3) evaluate evidence for auriculotherapy with respect to the constant progress of our knowledge of nervous-system organization. Discussion: Acupuncture points have lower electrical impedance than nonacupoints. This was demonstrated by Niboyet and Terral, utilizing a sinusoidal current with the technical arrangements of different equivalent circuits made at Unit 103 of the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Montpellier, France. This work demonstrated that physical behavior associated with acupuncture corresponds to a specific histologic structure located within the dermis termed the neurovascular complex (NVC). The concept of using sham points for testing acupuncture needs to be criticized. A reproducible experimental model of analgesia has been produced using the hind limb of a rabbit; this model is a proven demonstration of the positive action of acupuncture on pain. Acupuncture analgesia is a technique that has been used effectively by Chinese researchers in the 1970s for surgical applications. The different ear maps may have to be significantly modified because of the paucity of scientific validation of most of the localizations of organs or functions and, particularly, of nervous structures. Increased knowledge about complex nervous interactions should facilitate formulation of some scientifically acceptable hypothesis to explain the action of auriculotherapy. Conclusions: More scientific research should be performed to improve the scientific credibility of auriculotherapy. PMID

  18. Development of visual programming techniques to integrate theoretical modeling into the scientific planning and instrument operations environment of ISTP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Charles C.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this project is to investigate the use of visualization software based on the visual programming and data-flow paradigms to meet the needs of the SPOF and through it the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) science community. Specific needs we address include science planning, data interpretation, comparisons of data with simulation and model results, and data acquisition. Our accomplishments during the twelve month grant period are discussed below.

  19. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  20. The role of research efficiency in the evolution of scientific productivity and impact: An agent-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Xiao-Pu; Hadzibeganovic, Tarik

    2016-02-01

    We introduce an agent-based model to investigate the effects of production efficiency (PE) and hot field tracing capability (HFTC) on productivity and impact of scientists embedded in a competitive research environment. Agents compete to publish and become cited by occupying the nodes of a citation network calibrated by real-world citation datasets. Our Monte-Carlo simulations reveal that differences in individual performance are strongly related to PE, whereas HFTC alone cannot provide sustainable academic careers under intensely competitive conditions. Remarkably, the negative effect of high competition levels on productivity can be buffered by elevated research efficiency if simultaneously HFTC is sufficiently low.