Science.gov

Sample records for accepted scientific theory

  1. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  2. Behavioral genetics: scientific and social acceptance.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, David R

    2003-01-01

    Human behavioral genetics can be broadly defined as the attempt to characterize and define the genetic or hereditary basis for human behavior. Examination of the history of these scientific enterprises reveals episodes of controversy, and an apparent distinction between scientific and social acceptance of the genetic nature of such complex behaviors. This essay will review the history and methodology of behavioral genetics research, including a more detailed look at case histories involving behavioral genetic research for aggressive behavior and alcoholism. It includes a discussion of the scientific versus social qualities of the acceptance of behavioral genetics research, as well as the development of a general model for scientific acceptance involving the researchers, the scientific literature, the scientific peer group, the mainstream media, and the public at large. From this model follows a discussion of the means and complications by which behavioral genetics research may be accepted by society, and an analysis of how future studies might be conducted.

  3. University Students' Acceptance of Biological Theories--Is Evolution Really Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Michael L.; Sadler, Kim Cleary

    2011-01-01

    Understanding students' thinking about scientific theories is fundamental to the development of effective instructional strategies designed to foster scientific literacy. We conducted a study to determine student acceptance of important biological theories and to explore the relationships between their acceptance of scientific theories and their…

  4. The Relationship between Popper's Philosophy and the Acceptance of the Vitamin Theory: A Case Study of the Methodology of Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between Karl Popper's philosophy and a 1912 paper by F. G. Hopkins which was instrumental in convincing scientists about merits of the vitamin theory. Concludes that Hopkins' work was convincing because it subjected a theory (which was the center of attention) to the severest possible tests, supporting Popper's position.…

  5. Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Is It a Scientific Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie-Qi

    2004-01-01

    This essay discusses the status of multiple intelligences (MI) theory as a scientific theory by addressing three issues: the empirical evidence Gardner used to establish MI theory, the methodology he employed to validate MI theory, and the purpose or function of MI theory.

  6. "A Human Ethogram: Its Scientific Acceptability and Importance." A Treatise Assessing Modern Theories of Personality Development and Proposing a New Comprehensive Theory of Behavior and Behavioral Development, key chapters and sections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesness, Bradley

    Written by a methodological behaviorist, this treatise critiques neo-Hullian, Freudian, Eriksonian, and Piagetian theories and presents an ethological perspective on behavior and personality development. The critique is extended to cover social learning, cognitive-developmental, neo-Freudian, and Skinnerian theories, as well as the ideas of…

  7. An Abductive Theory of Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    A broad theory of scientific method is sketched that has particular relevance for the behavioral sciences. This theory of method assembles a complex of specific strategies and methods that are used in the detection of empirical phenomena and the subsequent construction of explanatory theories. A characterization of the nature of phenomena is…

  8. Taming theory with thought experiments: Understanding and scientific progress.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    I claim that one way thought experiments contribute to scientific progress is by increasing scientific understanding. Understanding does not have a currently accepted characterization in the philosophical literature, but I argue that we already have ways to test for it. For instance, current pedagogical practice often requires that students demonstrate being in either or both of the following two states: 1) Having grasped the meaning of some relevant theory, concept, law or model, 2) Being able to apply that theory, concept, law or model fruitfully to new instances. Three thought experiments are presented which have been important historically in helping us pass these tests, and two others that cause us to fail. Then I use this operationalization of understanding to clarify the relationships between scientific thought experiments, the understanding they produce, and the progress they enable. I conclude that while no specific instance of understanding (thus conceived) is necessary for scientific progress, understanding in general is. PMID:27474183

  9. Chaos Theory, Philosophically Old, Scientifically New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    Chaos theory has recently become a central area of scientific interest in psychology. This article explores the psychological meaning and deeper philosophical issues and cultural roots surrounding various views of chaos and provides a multicultural perspective of origins and development of the idea of chaos and its relationship to chaos theory.…

  10. Chaos Theory: A Scientific Basis for Alternative Research Methods in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peca, Kathy

    This paper has three purposes. First, it places in scientific perspective the growing acceptance in educational administration research of alternative methods to empiricism by an explication of chaos theory and its assumptions. Second, it demonstrates that chaos theory provides a scientific basis for investigation of complex qualitative variables…

  11. An availability-acceptability theory of suicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1987-09-01

    A theory was proposed to account for the appearance of suicide. The lack of immediate availability of the preferred means for killing oneself and the religious belief that suicide is an unacceptable action both serve to reduce the likelihood of suicide. This theory was tested and confirmed using an ecological analysis of the continental states of the USA. The two variables together accounted for 46 percent of the variation of the suicide rates of the states.

  12. An availability-acceptability theory of suicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1987-09-01

    A theory was proposed to account for the appearance of suicide. The lack of immediate availability of the preferred means for killing oneself and the religious belief that suicide is an unacceptable action both serve to reduce the likelihood of suicide. This theory was tested and confirmed using an ecological analysis of the continental states of the USA. The two variables together accounted for 46 percent of the variation of the suicide rates of the states. PMID:3425207

  13. Effective Field Theories, Reductionism and Scientific Explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Stephan

    Effective field theories have been a very popular tool in quantum physics for almost two decades. And there are good reasons for this. I will argue that effective field theories share many of the advantages of both fundamental theories and phenomenological models, while avoiding their respective shortcomings. They are, for example, flexible enough to cover a wide range of phenomena, and concrete enough to provide a detailed story of the specific mechanisms at work at a given energy scale. So will all of physics eventually converge on effective field theories? This paper argues that good scientific research can be characterised by a fruitful interaction between fundamental theories, phenomenological models and effective field theories. All of them have their appropriate functions in the research process, and all of them are indispensable. They complement each other and hang together in a coherent way which I shall characterise in some detail. To illustrate all this I will present a case study from nuclear and particle physics. The resulting view about scientific theorising is inherently pluralistic, and has implications for the debates about reductionism and scientific explanation.

  14. Scientific Productivity and Idea Acceptance in Nobel Laureates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charyton, Christine; DeDios, Samantha Lynn; Nygren, Thomas Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how new ideas become accepted for Nobel laureates in science. Archival data were collected for 204 Nobel laureates from 1980 to 2009 in physics, chemistry, and medicine or physiology. Acceptance was evaluated for Nobel laureates by Prize area and three key publications in the Nobel laureates' publishing careers: (a) first…

  15. Are ecological and evolutionary theories scientific?

    PubMed

    Murray, B G

    2001-05-01

    Scientists observe nature, search for generalizations, and provide explanations for why the world is as it is. Generalizations are of two kinds. The first are descriptive and inductive, such as Boyle's Law. They are derived from observations and therefore refer to observables (in this case, pressure and volume). The second are often imaginative and form the axioms of a deductive theory, such as Newton's Laws of Motion. They often refer to unobservables (e.g. inertia and gravitation). Biology has many inductive generalizations (e.g. Bergmann's Rule and 'all cells arise from preexisting cells') but few, if any, recognized universal laws and virtually no deductive theory. Many biologists and philosophers of biology have agreed that predictive theory is inappropriate in biology, which is said to be more complex than physics, and that one can have nonpredictive explanations, such as the neo-Darwinian Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. Other philosophers dismiss nonpredictive, explanatory theories, including evolutionary 'theory', as metaphysics. Most biologists do not think of themselves as philosophers or give much thought to the philosophical basis of their research. Nevertheless, their philosophy shows in the way they do research. The plethora of ad hoc (i.e. not universal) hypotheses indicates that biologists are reluctant inductivists in that the search for generalization does not have a high priority. Biologists test their hypotheses by verification. Theoretical physicists, in contrast, are deductive unifiers and test their explanatory hypotheses by falsification. I argue that theoretical biology (concerned with unobservables, such as fitness and natural selection) is not scientific because it lacks universal laws and predictive theory. In order to make this argument, I review the differences between verificationism and falsificationism, induction and deduction, and descriptive and explanatory laws. I show how these differ with a specific example of a

  16. Are ecological and evolutionary theories scientific?

    PubMed

    Murray, B G

    2001-05-01

    Scientists observe nature, search for generalizations, and provide explanations for why the world is as it is. Generalizations are of two kinds. The first are descriptive and inductive, such as Boyle's Law. They are derived from observations and therefore refer to observables (in this case, pressure and volume). The second are often imaginative and form the axioms of a deductive theory, such as Newton's Laws of Motion. They often refer to unobservables (e.g. inertia and gravitation). Biology has many inductive generalizations (e.g. Bergmann's Rule and 'all cells arise from preexisting cells') but few, if any, recognized universal laws and virtually no deductive theory. Many biologists and philosophers of biology have agreed that predictive theory is inappropriate in biology, which is said to be more complex than physics, and that one can have nonpredictive explanations, such as the neo-Darwinian Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. Other philosophers dismiss nonpredictive, explanatory theories, including evolutionary 'theory', as metaphysics. Most biologists do not think of themselves as philosophers or give much thought to the philosophical basis of their research. Nevertheless, their philosophy shows in the way they do research. The plethora of ad hoc (i.e. not universal) hypotheses indicates that biologists are reluctant inductivists in that the search for generalization does not have a high priority. Biologists test their hypotheses by verification. Theoretical physicists, in contrast, are deductive unifiers and test their explanatory hypotheses by falsification. I argue that theoretical biology (concerned with unobservables, such as fitness and natural selection) is not scientific because it lacks universal laws and predictive theory. In order to make this argument, I review the differences between verificationism and falsificationism, induction and deduction, and descriptive and explanatory laws. I show how these differ with a specific example of a

  17. Biosphere 2 aims for scientific acceptance rather than Mars

    PubMed

    Huff, W

    1995-01-01

    Biosphere 2 is now taking a new turn for scientific respect. The new management has created a partnership with Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory to set up a nonprofit consortium to determine the Biosphere's future. The Consortium will emphasize university style basic research, complete with peer review, postdoctoral fellows, and grant applications to federal science agencies. Located in the middle of an Arizona desert near Oracle, Biosphere 2 was designed as a miniature model of Earth. It contains seven "biomes" over 3 acres: an ocean, a desert, a savannah, a rain forest, a marsh, a farm, and human habitat. It completed a highly publicized experiment last year, by keeping eight humans inside the closed system for 2 years.

  18. The Changing Face of Scientific Discourse: Analysis of Genomic and Proteomic Database Usage and Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cecelia

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the growth in use and acceptance of Web-based genomic and proteomic databases (GPD) in scholarly communication. Confirms the role of GPD in the scientific literature cycle, suggests GPD are a storage and retrieval mechanism for molecular biology information, and recommends that existing models of scientific communication be updated to…

  19. Acceptance threshold theory can explain occurrence of homosexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Engel, Katharina C; Männer, Lisa; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Same-sex sexual behaviour (SSB) has been documented in a wide range of animals, but its evolutionary causes are not well understood. Here, we investigated SSB in the light of Reeve's acceptance threshold theory. When recognition is not error-proof, the acceptance threshold used by males to recognize potential mating partners should be flexibly adjusted to maximize the fitness pay-off between the costs of erroneously accepting males and the benefits of accepting females. By manipulating male burying beetles' search time for females and their reproductive potential, we influenced their perceived costs of making an acceptance or rejection error. As predicted, when the costs of rejecting females increased, males exhibited more permissive discrimination decisions and showed high levels of SSB; when the costs of accepting males increased, males were more restrictive and showed low levels of SSB. Our results support the idea that in animal species, in which the recognition cues of females and males overlap to a certain degree, SSB is a consequence of an adaptive discrimination strategy to avoid the costs of making rejection errors.

  20. Three Decades of Anti-evolution Campaign and its Results: Turkish Undergraduates' Acceptance and Understanding of the Biological Evolution Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peker, Deniz; Comert, Gulsum Gul; Kence, Aykut

    2010-06-01

    Even though in the early years of the Republic of Turkey Darwin’s theory of evolution was treated as a scientific theory and taught fairly in schools, despite all the substantial evidence accumulated supporting the theory of evolution since then, Darwin and his ideas today have been scorned by curriculum and education policy makers. Furthermore, Turkish students and academics have been faced with unprecedented creationist propaganda for many years. In this paper, we first provide a glimpse of the theory of evolution and creationism in Turkey, we then report the results of our survey study ( N = 1,098) about the undergraduates’ acceptance and understanding of Darwinian evolution and some of the socioeconomic variables affecting those measures. Our cross sectional study shows that acceptance and understanding of the theory of evolution is quite low. We criticize the current state of evolution education in Turkey and call for a change towards a scientific treatment of the theory evolution in schools.

  1. Conceptual Change in Psychology Students' Acceptance of the Scientific Foundation of the Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsel, Eric; Ashley, Aaron; Baird, Todd; Johnston, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Two studies explored conceptual change in undergraduate psychology students' acceptance of the scientific foundations of the discipline. In Study 1, Introductory Psychology students completed the Psychology as Science questionnaire (PAS) at the beginning and end of the semester and did so from their own (Self Condition) and their instructors'…

  2. The pivotal role of perceived scientific consensus in acceptance of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Gignac, Gilles E.; Vaughan, Samuel

    2013-04-01

    Although most experts agree that CO2 emissions are causing anthropogenic global warming (AGW), public concern has been declining. One reason for this decline is the `manufacture of doubt' by political and vested interests, which often challenge the existence of the scientific consensus. The role of perceived consensus in shaping public opinion is therefore of considerable interest: in particular, it is unknown whether consensus determines people's beliefs causally. It is also unclear whether perception of consensus can override people's `worldviews', which are known to foster rejection of AGW. Study 1 shows that acceptance of several scientific propositions--from HIV/AIDS to AGW--is captured by a common factor that is correlated with another factor that captures perceived scientific consensus. Study 2 reveals a causal role of perceived consensus by showing that acceptance of AGW increases when consensus is highlighted. Consensus information also neutralizes the effect of worldview.

  3. [Comment on “Plate tectonics: Scientific revolution or scientific program?” by Jean-Claude Mareschal] Development of plate tectonics theory: The missing piece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    The recent article by Jean-Claude Mareschal (“Plate Tectonics: Scientific Revolution or Scientific Program?” in Eos, May 19, 1987, p. 529) adds to the interesting literature on the evolution of the theory of plate tectonics. It is curious that an aspect of the general theory that seems to be little considered and mentioned by Mareschal or others who write about the history of development of the theory, but that was vitally important in my own acceptance of the theory, was the discovery of subduction and, to a lesser extent, abduction.

  4. Factors Affecting Acceptance & Use of ReWIND: Validating the Extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Pradeep Kumar; Ali, Faizan; Leong, Lim Chee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explain the factors affecting students' acceptance and usage of a lecture capture system (LCS)--ReWIND--in a Malaysian university based on the extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) model. Technological advances have become an important feature of universities' plans to improve the…

  5. The Scientific Status of Learning Styles Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Daniel T.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Dobolyi, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of learning styles suggest that individuals think and learn best in different ways. These are not differences of ability but rather preferences for processing certain types of information or for processing information in certain types of way. If accurate, learning styles theories could have important implications for instruction because…

  6. Measuring the Acceptance of Evolutionary Theory in Texas 2-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jack; Scott, Joyce A.

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary theory is the central unifying theory of the life sciences. However, acceptance and understanding of the theory have been found to be lacking in the general public, high school, and university populations. Prior research has linked low acceptance of the theory to a poor knowledge base in evolution, to the nature of science, and to…

  7. Extinction of the Dinosuars: Scientific Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Professor Luis Alvarez, a doctor in physics, of the University of California, Berkeley, proposed in 1980 the theory that an asteroid of 10 kilometers in diameter traveling at more than 100,000 kilometers per hour collided with the earth 65 million years ago causing the extenction of the dinosaurs.

  8. Failure to consider a radically new scientific idea or theory.

    PubMed

    Montagne, Michael

    2012-01-01

    From plate tectonics theory to psychoneuroimmunology, to medical uses of marijuana, and controlled drinking by alcoholics, there has been a consistent failure by scientists and medical researchers to consider radically new ideas and theories. A review and analysis of these cases and other examples identified numerous reasons or barriers for this failure. Learning from these episodes of failure requires attention to and reflection on these barriers, an understanding of how the scientific process progresses and scientific knowledge evolves, and a willingness to test and evaluate these new ideas and theories before passing final judgment on them. PMID:23186445

  9. Theory and the scientific basis for forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Clifford; Boyd, Donna C

    2011-11-01

    Forensic anthropology has long been criticized for its lack of a strong theoretical and scientific foundation. This paper addresses this problem by examining the role of theory in forensic anthropology at different hierarchical levels (high-level, middle-range, and low-level) and the relevance of various theoretical concepts (taphonomic, agency, behavioral archaeology, nonlinear systems, and methodological theories) to the interpretation of forensic contexts. Application of these theories to a case study involving the search for the WWII Goettge Patrol illustrates the explanatory power these theories offer to the interpretation of forensic events as the end product of an often complex set of environmental constraints and behavioral interactions and choices. It also emphasizes the importance of case studies in theory building and hypothesis testing. A theoretical foundation does indeed currently exist in forensic anthropology; however, a recognition and broader implementation of anthropological (archaeological) theory is warranted and will further define forensic anthropology as a scientific endeavor.

  10. From scientific theory to classroom practice.

    PubMed

    Dommett, Eleanor J; Devonshire, Ian M; Plateau, Carolyn R; Westwell, Martin S; Greenfield, Susan A

    2011-08-01

    The importance of neuroscience in education is becoming widely recognized by both neuroscientists and educators. However, to date, there has been little effective collaboration between the two groups, resulting in the spread of ideas in education poorly based on neuroscience. For their part, educators are often too busy to develop sufficient scientific literacy, and neuroscientists are put off collaborations with risk of overinterpretation of their work. We designed and led a successful 6-month collaborative project between educators and neuroscientists. The project consisted of a series of seminars on topics chosen by both parties such as the neuroscience of attention, learning, and memory and aimed to create a dialog between the two. Here, we report that all teachers found the seminars relevant to their practice and that the majority felt the information was presented in an accessible manner. Such was the success of the project that teachers felt there were direct changes in their classroom practice as a consequence and that the course should be more widely available. We suggest that this format of co-constructed dialog allows for lucrative collaborations between neuroscientists and educators and may be a step to bridging the waters that separate these intrinsically linked disciplines.

  11. The Earth expansion theory and its transition from scientific hypothesis to pseudoscientific belief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudiro, P.

    2014-06-01

    During the first half of 20th century, the dominant global tectonics model based on Earth contraction had increasing problems accommodating new geological evidence, with the result that alternative geodynamic theories were investigated. Due to the level of scientific knowledge and the limited amount of data available in many scientific disciplines at the time, not only was contractionism considered a valid scientific theory but the debate also included expansionism, mobilism on a fixed-dimension planet, or various combinations of these geodynamic hypotheses. Geologists and physicists generally accepted that planets could change their dimensions, although the change of volume was generally believed to happen because of a contraction, not an expansion. Constant generation of new matter in the universe was a possibility accepted by science, as it was the variation in the cosmological constants. Continental drift, instead, was a more heterodox theory, requiring a larger effort from the geoscientists to be accepted. The new geological data collected in the following decades, an improved knowledge of the physical processes, the increased resolution and penetration of geophysical tools, and the sensitivity of measurements in physics decreased the uncertainty level in many fields of science. Theorists now had less freedom for speculation because their theories had to accommodate more data, and more limiting conditions to respect. This explains the rapid replacement of contracting Earth, expanding Earth, and continental drift theories by plate tectonics once the symmetrical oceanic magnetic striping was discovered, because none of the previous models could explain and incorporate the new oceanographic and geophysical data. Expansionism could survive after the introduction of plate tectonics because its proponents have increasingly detached their theory from reality by systematically rejecting or overlooking any contrary evidence, and selectively picking only the data that

  12. Exploring the Intrinsic Motivation of Hedonic Information Systems Acceptance: Integrating Hedonic Theory and Flow with TAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihuan

    Research on Information Systems (IS) acceptance is substantially focused on extrinsic motivation in workplaces, little is known about the underlying intrinsic motivations of Hedonic IS (HIS) acceptance. This paper proposes a hybrid HIS acceptance model which takes the unique characteristics of HIS and multiple identities of a HIS user into consideration by interacting Hedonic theory, Flow theory with Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The model was empirically tested by a field survey. The result indicates that emotional responses, imaginal responses, and flow experience are three main contributions of HIS acceptance.

  13. Addressing the Lack of Measurement Invariance for the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) was constructed to be a single-factor instrument that assesses an individual's overall acceptance of evolutionary theory. The MATE was validated and the scores resulting from the MATE were found to be reliable for the population of inservice high school biology teachers. However,…

  14. Reliability of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument with University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Michael L.; Sadler, Kim C.

    2007-01-01

    The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument was initially designed to assess high school biology teachers' acceptance of evolutionary theory. To determine if the MATE instrument is reliable with university students, it was administered to students in a non-majors biology course (n = 61) twice over a 3-week period.…

  15. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Intelligence: Influences from Different Disciplines and Scientific Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsson, Anna-Carin; Beach, Dennis; Korp, Helena; Erlandson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 226 Swedish high school teachers from various knowledge domains completed self-report measures of intelligence regarding implicit theories and scientific theories of intelligence. A mixed ANOVA showed that teachers from language, social science and practical disciplines had a significant preference for an incremental theory of…

  16. Postgraduate medical students’ acceptance and understanding of scientific information databases and electronic resources

    PubMed Central

    Azami, Mohammad; Khajouei, Reza; Rakhshani, Safiyeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The significance and validity of web-based scientific databases are increasing dramatically in the scientific community. Moreover, a great number of students use these resources without having sufficient and accurate knowledge and understanding. In order for students to use these databases and electronic resources optimally, identifying the factors that affect the understanding and acceptance of these resources seems necessary. The aim of this study was to determine postgraduate medical students’ acceptance and understanding of these resources. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 311 postgraduate medical students from Kerman University of Medical Science (KMU) in 2013. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire, and the data were analyzed using SPSS. In order to design the model (i.e., the interaction between study variables and to determine the relationships between them in an integrated pattern), LISREL version 8.7 and a structural equation model were used. Descriptive statistics and t-tests also were used in data analysis. Results The results showed that the average components of the perception of usefulness, perception of ease of use, attitude towards use, decision to use, using to perform duties, and using to increase knowledge were 4.31, 4.14, 4.24, 16.27, 20.85, and 16.13 respectively. Accordingly, the average of all these indicators was significantly higher than the assumed amount (p < 0.01). Moreover, the results obtained from factor analysis and the structural equation model indicated that the model of the present study fit the data perfectly. Conclusions Based on the findings of this study, the more these databases are considered useful and easy to use, the more they are used. Therefore, designers of databases and electronic resources can design systems that are both useful and easy to learn by considering the components of the research model. PMID:27123213

  17. Teaching Evolution at A-Level: Is "Intelligent Design" a Scientific Theory That Merits Inclusion in the Biology Syllabus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Charles Darwin supposed that evolution involved a process of gradual change, generated randomly, with the selection and retention over many generations of survival-promoting features. Some theists have never accepted this idea. "Intelligent design" is a relatively recent theory, supposedly based on scientific evidence, which attempts to…

  18. Development and validation of the conceptions of scientific theories test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotham, Joseph C.; Smith, Edward L.

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument for use with elementary and secondary teachers of science that would have the following characteristics: 1) sensitivity to alternative conceptions of particular philosophic aspects of scientific theories, and 2) applicability in inferring understanding of the tentative and revisionary conception of the nature of science. This conception, which has educational and social importance, may be a significant influence in the teaching of science as inquiry. Thus, concern with teachers' conceptions of the nature of science and their teaching served as justification for this study. The instrument, which was applied to samples of preservice elementary teachers, college philosophy of science students, and college chemistry students, consisted of items that were adapted to the contexts of particular scientific theories by prefacing them with a brief description of a theory and episodes drawn from its history. Items were written to discriminate between alternative conceptions of the following philosophic aspects of scientific theories: testing, generation, ontological implications, and choice. Evidence in support of the validity of the instrument constructs was obtained using two approaches: discrimination between contrasting groups and the multi-trait and multi-method matrix of Campbell and Fiske. Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients and standard errors of measurement were computed for the instrument and its subtests. Reliability data indicates that an adequate degree of accuracy may be attributed to instrument scores.

  19. Investigating Acceptance toward Mobile Learning to Assist Individual Knowledge Management: Based on Activity Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Hatala, Marek; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Mobile devices could facilitate human interaction and access to knowledge resources anytime and anywhere. With respect to wide application possibilities of mobile learning, investigating learners' acceptance towards it is an essential issue. Based on activity theory approach, this research explores positive factors for the acceptance of m-learning…

  20. Educational Technology Acceptance across Cultures: A Validation of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology in the Context of Turkish National Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogus, Aytac; Nistor, Nicolae; Riley, Richard W.; Lerche, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh et al., 2003, 2012) proposes a major model of educational technology acceptance (ETA) which has been yet validated only in few languages and cultures. Therefore, this study aims at extending the applicability of UTAUT to Turkish culture. Based on acceptance and cultural data…

  1. Scale and plant invasions: A theory of biotic acceptance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Jarnevich, C.; Chong, G.W.; Evangelista, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the relationship between native and alien plant species richness, cover, and estimated biomass at multiple spatial scales. The large dataset included 70511-m2 subplots, 1443 10-m2 subplots, and 727100-m2 subplots, nested in 727 1000-m2 plots in 37 natural vegetation types in seven states in the central United States. We found that native and alien species richness (averaged across the vegetation types) increased significantly with plot area. Furthermore, the relationship between native and alien species richness became increasingly positive and significant from the plant neighbourhood scale (1-m2) to the 10-m2, 100-m2, and the 1000-m2 scale where over 80% of the vegetation types had positive slopes between native and alien species richness. Both native and alien plant species may be responding to increased resource availability and/or habitat heterogeneity with increased area. We found significant positive relationships between the coefficient of variation of native cover in 1-m2 subplots in a vegetation type (i.e. a measure of habitat heterogeneity), and both the relative cover and relative biomass of alien plant species. At the 1000-m2 scale, we did find weak negative relationships between native species richness and the cover, biomass, and relative cover of alien plant species. However, we found very strong positive relationships between alien species richness and the cover, relative cover, and relative biomass of alien species at regional scales. These results, along with many other field studies in natural ecosystems, show that the dominant genera pattern in invasion ecology at multiple spatial scales is one of "biotic acceptance" where natural ecosystems tend to accommodate the establishment and coexistence of introduced species despite the presence and abundance of native species.

  2. Divine action in the framework of scientific knowledge: From quantum theory to divine action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lameter, Christoph

    During the Enlightenment, many theologians gave up the claim that God could act in the universe because the world was envisioned to be completely describable and governed by scientific laws. Surprisingly the development of quantum theory has resulted in the discovery of limits to causality, the universe is no longer conceived to be a closed system and therefore an account of divine action compatible with scientific theories might be possible now. First, the concept of divine intervention as envisioned in the nineteenth century is investigated and then a survey of the development of quantum theory is provided. The disputed character of the interpretation of quantum theory and of the measurement problem noted. It is suggested that the controversy continues because the straightforward acceptance of quantum theory---as already suggested by von Neumann in 1932---would imply a connection between mind and matter and question the notion of an objective, observer independent universe. It is shown using the literature on quantum theory that other solutions to the measurement problem are questionable on scientific grounds alone. Henry Stapp's recent rearticulation of von Neumann's arguments integrating them with Heisenberg's thinking is then selected as a potential basis for a theory of divine action. Existing theories of divine action are investigated starting with William James's idea of an indeterministic universe and ending with the contemporary approaches by Robert Russell and Nancey Murphy. Contemporary proposals are based on the notion of quantum events. A search is made for a scientific basis for quantum events but it is found that none of the interpretations of quantum theory would be compatible with the proposed idea of quantum events. Finally, a new theory of divine action is proposed understanding divine action as a holistic act, analogous to personal agency, through quantum determination. The universe is creating potentialities that are then collapsed by

  3. Lattice gauge theory on the Intel parallel scientific computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlieb, Steven

    1990-08-01

    Intel Scientific Computers (ISC) has just started producing its third general of parallel computer, the iPSC/860. Based on the i860 chip that has a peak performance of 80 Mflops and with a current maximum of 128 nodes, this computer should achieve speeds in excess of those obtainable on conventional vector supercomputers. The hardware, software and computing techniques appropriate for lattice gauge theory calculations are described. The differences between a staggered fermion conjugate gradient program written under CANOPY and for the iPSC are detailed.

  4. The Model-Based View of Scientific Theories and the Structuring of School Science Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Develaki, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Model theory in contemporary philosophy of science interprets scientific theories as sets of models, and contributes significantly to the understanding of the relation between theories, models, and the real world. The clarification of this relation is fundamental for the understanding of the nature of scientific methods and scientific knowledge…

  5. The Scientific Value of Cognitive Load Theory: A Research Agenda Based on the Structuralist View of Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerjets, Peter; Scheiter, Katharina; Cierniak, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, two methodological perspectives are used to elaborate on the value of cognitive load theory (CLT) as a scientific theory. According to the more traditional critical rationalism of Karl Popper, CLT cannot be considered a scientific theory because some of its fundamental assumptions cannot be tested empirically and are thus not…

  6. The Nature of Scientific Revolutions from the Vantage Point of Chaos Theory: Toward a Formal Model of Scientific Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perla, Rocco J.; Carifio, James

    In sharp contrast to the early positivist view of the nature of science and scientific knowledge, Kuhn argues that the scientific enterprise involves states of continuous, gradual development punctuated by comparatively rare instances of turmoil and change, which ultimately brings about a new stability and a qualitatively changed knowledge base. Although this discontinuous or nonlinear view of scientific knowledge is shared by a number of philosophers of science and science educators currently, Kuhn's description of how progress in science occurs has never been formally modeled from a nonlinear mathematical perspective. In this article, we represent aspects of Kuhn's main thesis and ideas as stated in his classic work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions using catastrophe theory, which is a particular instantiation of chaos theory capable of describing discontinuous phenomenon. Through this catastrophe theory representation we attempt to depict and develop a formal nonlinear model of scientific change. The pedagogical implications of the model developed and presented are discussed.

  7. Perceived Social Acceptance, Theory of Mind and Social Adjustment in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiasse, Catherine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Perceived social acceptance, theory of mind (ToM) and social adjustment were investigated in 45 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) compared with 45 typically developing (TD) preschoolers, matched for developmental age assessed by means of the Differential Scales of Intellectual Efficiency-Revised edition (EDEI-R, Perron-Borelli, 1996).…

  8. Acceptability of a theory of planned behaviour email-based nutrition intervention.

    PubMed

    Kothe, E J; Mullan, B A

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated feasibility and acceptability of a new email-delivered intervention promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in a university-based population of Australian young adults. The study explored whether there are differences in the reported feasibility and acceptability between demographic groups within the population of interest and at three levels of intervention intensity. The email-delivered intervention program consists of an implementation intention 'planning task' and between 3 and 15 short email messages over a 15-day study period. The intervention program was developed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and was designed to modify perceived behavioural control. One hundred and ten participants (mean age = 19.21 years, 25.6% male) completed the feasibility and acceptability questionnaire at Day 15. This questionnaire contained items about all intervention components. High acceptability and feasibility scores were found for all intervention parts and at all levels of intervention intensity. There were few significant differences in the reported acceptability of items between key demographic sub-groups, and no differences in reported acceptability at different levels of intervention intensity. These results suggest that this email-delivered intervention is an acceptable and feasible tool for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption for participants in the target population. PMID:22942273

  9. The Scientific Theory Profile: A Philosophy of Science Model for Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loving, Cathleen

    The model developed for use with science teachers--called the Scientific Theory Profile--consists of placing three well-known philosophers of science on a grid, with the x-axis being their methods for judging theories (rational vs. natural) and the y-axis being their views on scientific theories representing the Truth versus mere models of what…

  10. Perceived social acceptance, theory of mind and social adjustment in children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Fiasse, Catherine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Perceived social acceptance, theory of mind (ToM) and social adjustment were investigated in 45 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) compared with 45 typically developing (TD) preschoolers, matched for developmental age assessed by means of the Differential Scales of Intellectual Efficiency-Revised edition (EDEI-R, Perron-Borelli, 1996). Children's understanding of beliefs and emotions was assessed by means of ToM belief tasks (Nader-Grosbois & Thirion-Marissiaux, 2011) and ToM emotion tasks (Nader-Grosbois & Thirion-Marissiaux, 2011). Seven items from the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for children (PSPCSA, Harter & Pike, 1980) assessed children's perceived social acceptance. Their teachers completed the Social Adjustment for Children Scale (EASE, Hughes, Soares-Boucaud, Hochmann, & Frith, 1997). For both groups together, the results showed that perceived social acceptance mediates the relation between ToM skills and social adjustment. The presence or absence of intellectual disabilities does not moderate the relations either between ToM skills and perceived social acceptance, or between perceived social acceptance and social adjustment. The study did not confirm the difference hypothesis of structural and relational patterns between these three processes in children with ID, but instead supported the hypothesis of a similar structure that develops in a delayed manner. PMID:22705455

  11. Presenting Global Warming and Evolution as Public Health Issues to Encourage Acceptance of Scientific Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Shawn K.; McArthur, Laurence B.; Mabry, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence supporting anthropogenic global warming and evolution by natural selection is considerable, the public does not embrace these concepts. The current study explores the hypothesis that individuals will become more receptive to scientific viewpoints if evidence for evolution and implications of global warming are presented as issues…

  12. Criticism of generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory: A brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2013-11-01

    It is explained why the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown (a transition from free flow to congested traffic) should be the empirical basis for any traffic and transportation theory that can be reliably used for control and optimization in traffic networks. It is shown that the generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory are not consistent with the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown at a highway bottleneck. To these fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory belong (i) Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) theory, (ii) the General Motors (GM) model class (for example, Herman, Gazis et al. GM model, Gipps’s model, Payne’s model, Newell’s optimal velocity (OV) model, Wiedemann’s model, Bando et al. OV model, Treiber’s IDM, Krauß’s model), (iii) the understanding of highway capacity as a particular (fixed or stochastic) value, and (iv) principles for traffic and transportation network optimization and control (for example, Wardrop’s user equilibrium (UE) and system optimum (SO) principles). Alternatively to these generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory, we discuss the three-phase traffic theory as the basis for traffic flow modeling as well as briefly consider the network breakdown minimization (BM) principle for the optimization of traffic and transportation networks with road bottlenecks.

  13. Criticism of generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2015-03-10

    It is explained why the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown (a transition from free flow to congested traffic) should be the empirical basis for any traffic and transportation theory that can be reliable used for control and optimization in traffic networks. It is shown that generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory are not consistent with the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown at a highway bottleneck. To these fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory belong (i) Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) theory, (ii) the General Motors (GM) model class (for example, Herman, Gazis et al. GM model, Gipps’s model, Payne’s model, Newell’s optimal velocity (OV) model, Wiedemann’s model, Bando et al. OV model, Treiber’s IDM, Krauß’s model), (iii) the understanding of highway capacity as a particular stochastic value, and (iv) principles for traffic and transportation network optimization and control (for example, Wardrop’s user equilibrium (UE) and system optimum (SO) principles). Alternatively to these generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory, we discuss three-phase traffic theory as the basis for traffic flow modeling as well as briefly consider the network breakdown minimization (BM) principle for the optimization of traffic and transportation networks with road bottlenecks.

  14. Scientific Theories and Naive Theories as Forms of Mental Representation: Psychologism Revived

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, William F.

    This paper analyzes recent work in psychology on the nature of the representation of complex forms of knowledge with the goal of understanding how theories are represented. The analysis suggests that, as a psychological form of representation, theories are mental structures that include theoretical entities (usually nonobservable), relationships among the theoretical entities, and relationships of the theoretical entities to the phenomena of some domain. A theory explains the phenomena in its domain by providing a conceptual framework for the phenomena that leads to a feeling of understanding in the reader/hearer. The explanatory conceptual framework goes beyond the original phenomena, integrates diverse aspects of the world, and shows how the original phenomena follow from the framework. This analysis is used to argue that mental models are the subclass of theories that use causal/mechanical explanatory frameworks. In addition, an argument is made for a new psychologism in the philosophy of science, in which the mental representation of scientific theories must be taken into account.

  15. Steps, Stages, and Structure: Finding Compensatory Order in Scientific Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutjens, Bastiaan T.; van Harreveld, Frenk; van der Pligt, Joop; Kreemers, Loes M.; Noordewier, Marret K.

    2013-01-01

    Stage theories are prominent and controversial in science. One possible reason for their appeal is that they provide order and predictability. Participants in Experiment 1 rated stage theories as more orderly and predictable (but less credible) than continuum theories. In Experiments 2-5, we showed that order threats increase the appeal of stage…

  16. Steps, stages, and structure: finding compensatory order in scientific theories.

    PubMed

    Rutjens, Bastiaan T; van Harreveld, Frenk; van der Pligt, Joop; Kreemers, Loes M; Noordewier, Marret K

    2013-05-01

    Stage theories are prominent and controversial in science. One possible reason for their appeal is that they provide order and predictability. Participants in Experiment 1 rated stage theories as more orderly and predictable (but less credible) than continuum theories. In Experiments 2-5, we showed that order threats increase the appeal of stage theories of grief (Experiment 2) and moral development (Experiments 4 and 5). Experiment 3 yielded similar results for a stage theory on Alzheimer's disease characterized by predictable decline, suggesting that preference for stage theories is independent of valence. Experiment 4 showed that the effect of threat on theory preference was mediated by the motivated perception of order, and Experiment 5 revealed that it is particularly the fixed order of stages that increases their appeal. PMID:22642712

  17. Qualitative Differences between Naive and Scientific Theories of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtulman, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Philosophers of biology have long argued that Darwin's theory of evolution was qualitatively different from all earlier theories of evolution. Whereas Darwin's predecessors and contemporaries explained adaptation as the transformation of a species' ''essence,'' Darwin explained adaptation as the selective propagation of randomly occurring…

  18. Integrating social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model to explore a behavioral model of telehealth systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-05-01

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities. PMID:24810577

  19. Integrating Social Capital Theory, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Technology Acceptance Model to Explore a Behavioral Model of Telehealth Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities. PMID:24810577

  20. Integrating social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model to explore a behavioral model of telehealth systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-05-07

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.

  1. Determinants of disulfiram acceptance among alcohol patients: a test of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, R G; Prue, D M; Rychtarik, R G

    1987-01-01

    The utility of disulfiram in the treatment of alcohol abuse has been limited by the high frequency with which clients refuse the regimen. The present study identified variables influencing disulfiram acceptance/rejection within the framework of the theory of reasoned action. Eighty male inpatients on an alcohol treatment unit completed a questionnaire operationalizing the components of the model. The theoretical components were then used to predict requests for the drug. Multiple regression analyses revealed significant correlations among components of the model consistent with the assumptions of the theory. In addition, significant differences were found between disulfiram requestors and rejectors in terms of behavioral and normative beliefs about the consequences of being placed on the drug. Implications of these results for the design of effective interventions are discussed.

  2. Effect of implicit theories on judgement of cheating acceptability in physical education: the mediating role of achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Corrion, Karine; D'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Chalabaev, Aïna; Schiano-Lomoriello, Sandrine; Roussel, Peggy; Cury, François

    2010-06-01

    We tested a hypothetical model that examined both the effects of implicit theories of ability on the judgement of cheating acceptability in a physical education context and the mediating role of the achievement goals defined in the social-cognitive model of achievement motivation. Data were collected from 477 middle-school students, who completed measures of implicit theories of ability, achievement goals, and judgement of cheating acceptability in team sports within a cross-sectional design. The results indicated that performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals mediated the relationships between entity theory and the judgement of cheating acceptability, and mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance goals mediated the relationships between incremental theory and the judgement of cheating acceptability. Further research is needed to determine whether these results would be replicated with other moral variables and other contexts.

  3. Three Decades of Anti-Evolution Campaign and Its Results: Turkish Undergraduates' Acceptance and Understanding of the Biological Evolution Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peker, Deniz; Comert, Gulsum Gul; Kence, Aykut

    2010-01-01

    Even though in the early years of the Republic of Turkey Darwin's theory of evolution was treated as a scientific theory and taught fairly in schools, despite all the substantial evidence accumulated supporting the theory of evolution since then, Darwin and his ideas today have been scorned by curriculum and education policy makers. Furthermore,…

  4. Adding Innovation Diffusion Theory to the Technology Acceptance Model: Supporting Employees' Intentions to Use E-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Hsu, Chia-Ning

    2011-01-01

    This study intends to investigate factors affecting business employees' behavioral intentions to use the e-learning system. Combining the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) with the technology acceptance model (TAM), the present study proposes an extended technology acceptance model. The proposed model was tested with data collected from 552…

  5. Addressing the Lack of Measurement Invariance for the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

    2013-09-01

    The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) was constructed to be a single-factor instrument that assesses an individual's overall acceptance of evolutionary theory. The MATE was validated and the scores resulting from the MATE were found to be reliable for the population of inservice high school biology teachers. However, many studies have utilized the MATE for different populations, such as university students enrolled in a biology or genetics course, high school students, and preservice teachers. This is problematic because the dimensionality and reliability of the MATE may not be consistent across populations. It is not uncommon in science education research to find examples where scales are applied to novel populations without proper assessment of the validity and reliability. In order to illustrate this issue, a case study is presented where the dimensionality of the MATE is evaluated for a population of non-science major preservice elementary teachers. With this objective in mind, factor analytic and item response models are fit to the observed data to provide evidence for or against a one-dimensional latent structure and to detect which items do not conform to the theoretical construct for this population. The results of this study call into question any findings and conclusions made using the MATE for a Hispanic population of preservice teachers and point out the error of assuming invariance across substantively different populations.

  6. Using a Celestial Sphere to Test Scientific Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Karl C.; Stewart, Bruce R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an astronomy activity in which students use an apparatus to illustrate the various positions and movements of the sun, earth, planets, stars, and constellations. A test of the heliocentric theory of the solar system is included. (CW)

  7. It's Theories All the Way Down: A Response to Scientific Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, James Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the six principles that the National Research Council's report Scientific Research in Education claims define an enterprise as scientific. I argue that these principles are relatively vacuous generalities because one cannot determine anything about any of them from outside specific theories of specific domains (and domains…

  8. Socioscientific Issues: A Path Towards Advanced Scientific Literacy and Improved Conceptual Understanding of Socially Controversial Scientific Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzino, Dean William

    This thesis investigates the use of socioscientific issues (SSI) in the high school science classroom as an introduction to argumentation and socioscientific reasoning, with the goal of improving students' scientific literacy (SL). Current research is reviewed that supports the likelihood of students developing a greater conceptual understanding of scientific theories as well as a deeper understanding of the nature of science (NOS), through participation in informal and formal forms of argumentation in the context of SSI. Significant gains in such understanding may improve a student's ability to recognize the rigor, legitimacy, and veracity of scientific claims and better discern science from pseudoscience. Furthermore, students that participate in significant SSI instruction by negotiating a range of science-related social issues can make significant gains in content knowledge and develop the life-long skills of argumentation and evidence-based reasoning, goals not possible in traditional lecture-based science instruction. SSI-based instruction may therefore help students become responsible citizens. This synthesis also suggests that that the improvements in science literacy and NOS understanding that develop from sustained engagement in SSI-based instruction will better prepare students to examine and scrutinize socially controversial scientific theories (i.e., evolution, global warming, and the Big Bang).

  9. Factors influencing nurses' acceptance of hospital information systems in Iran: application of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology.

    PubMed

    Sharifian, Roxana; Askarian, Fatemeh; Nematolahi, Mohtaram; Farhadi, Payam

    2014-01-01

    User acceptance is a precondition for successful implementation of hospital information systems (HISs). Increasing investment in information technology by healthcare organisations internationally has made user acceptance an important issue in technology implementation and management. Despite the increased focus on hospital information systems, there continues to be user resistance. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting hospital information systems nurse-user acceptance of HISs, based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), in the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences teaching hospitals. A descriptive-analytical research design was employed to study nurses' adoption and use of HISs. Data collection was undertaken using a cross-sectional survey of nurses (n=303). The research model was examined using the LISREL path confirmatory modeling. The results demonstrated that the nurses' behavioural intention (BI) to use hospital information systems was predicted by Performance Expectancy (PE) (β= 2.34, p<0.01), Effort Expectancy (EE) (β= 2.21, p<0.01), Social Influence (SI) (β= 2.63, p<0.01) and Facilitating Conditions (FC) (β= 2.84, p<0.01). The effects of these antecedents of BI explained 72.8% of the variance in nurses' intention to use hospital information systems (R2 = 0.728). Application of the research model suggested that nurses' acceptance of HISs was influenced by performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions, with performance expectancy having the strongest effect on user intention.

  10. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Pre-Service Teachers' Technology Acceptance: A Validation Study Using Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Tan, Lynde

    2012-01-01

    This study applies the theory of planned behavior (TPB), a theory that is commonly used in commercial settings, to the educational context to explain pre-service teachers' technology acceptance. It is also interested in examining its validity when used for this purpose. It has found evidence that the TPB is a valid model to explain pre-service…

  11. Nuclear energy acceptance and potential role to meet future energy demand. Which technical/scientific achievements are needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Roland

    2012-06-19

    25 years after Chernobyl, the Fukushima disaster has changed the perspectives of nuclear power. The disaster has shed a negative light on the independence, reliability and rigor of the national nuclear regulator and plant operator and the usefulness of the international IAEA guidelines on nuclear safety. It has become clear that, in the light of the most severe earthquake in the history of Japan, the plants at Fukushima Daiichi were not adequately protected against tsunamis. Nuclear acceptance has suffered enormously and has changed the perspectives of nuclear energy dramatically in countries that have a very risk-sensitive population, Germany is an example. The paper analyses the reactions in major countries and the expected impact on future deployment of reactors and on R and D activities. On the positive side, the disaster has demonstrated a remarkable robustness of most of the 14 reactors closest to the epicentre of the Tohoku Seaquake although not designed to an event of level 9.0. Public acceptance can only be regained with a rigorous and worldwide approach towards inherent reactor safety and design objectives that limit the impact of severe accidents to the plant itself (like many of the new Gen III reactors). A widespread release of radioactivity and the evacuation (temporary or permanent) of the population up to 30 km around a facility are simply not acceptable. Several countries have announced to request more stringent international standards for reactor safety. The IAEA should take this move forward and intensify and strengthen the different peer review mission schemes. The safety guidelines and peer reviews should in fact become legally binding for IAEA members. The paper gives examples of the new safety features developed over the last 20 years and which yield much safer reactors with lesser burden to the environment under severe accident conditions. The compatibility of these safety systems with the current concepts for fusion-fission hybrids, which

  12. Nuclear energy acceptance and potential role to meet future energy demand. Which technical/scientific achievements are needed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenkel, Roland

    2012-06-01

    25 years after Chernobyl, the Fukushima disaster has changed the perspectives of nuclear power. The disaster has shed a negative light on the independence, reliability and rigor of the national nuclear regulator and plant operator and the usefulness of the international IAEA guidelines on nuclear safety. It has become clear that, in the light of the most severe earthquake in the history of Japan, the plants at Fukushima Daiichi were not adequately protected against tsunamis. Nuclear acceptance has suffered enormously and has changed the perspectives of nuclear energy dramatically in countries that have a very risk-sensitive population, Germany is an example. The paper analyses the reactions in major countries and the expected impact on future deployment of reactors and on R&D activities. On the positive side, the disaster has demonstrated a remarkable robustness of most of the 14 reactors closest to the epicentre of the Tohoku Seaquake although not designed to an event of level 9.0. Public acceptance can only be regained with a rigorous and worldwide approach towards inherent reactor safety and design objectives that limit the impact of severe accidents to the plant itself (like many of the new Gen III reactors). A widespread release of radioactivity and the evacuation (temporary or permanent) of the population up to 30 km around a facility are simply not acceptable. Several countries have announced to request more stringent international standards for reactor safety. The IAEA should take this move forward and intensify and strengthen the different peer review mission schemes. The safety guidelines and peer reviews should in fact become legally binding for IAEA members. The paper gives examples of the new safety features developed over the last 20 years and which yield much safer reactors with lesser burden to the environment under severe accident conditions. The compatibility of these safety systems with the current concepts for fusion-fission hybrids, which have

  13. The Non-Theoretical View on Educational Theory: Scientific, Epistemological and Methodological Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penalva, José

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the underlying problems of one particular perspective in educational theory that has recently gained momentum: the Wilfred Carr approach, which puts forward the premise that there is no theory in educational research and, consequently, it is a form of practice. The article highlights the scientific, epistemological and…

  14. On Coordinating Theory with Evidence: The Role of Epistemic Commitments in Scientific Reasoning among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeineddin, Ava; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two epistemic commitments on the quality of college students' scientific reasoning in the domain of hydrostatics. These were the commitment to the consistency of theory with prior knowledge and commitment to the consistency of theory with evidence. Participants were 12 sophomore science majors enrolled in a large…

  15. Expansive Learning: Benefits and Limitations of Subject-Scientific Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotluschen, Anke

    2005-01-01

    One critical learning theory that has survived is once again being acclaimed. Subject-scientific theory requires learners to be taken seriously. Their reasons and resistance need to be brought into the open. This requirement was too radical for schools since it does not allow a fixed syllabus. It has borne fruit, however, in continuing education.…

  16. The Impact of Electronic Media Violence: Scientific Theory and Research

    PubMed Central

    Huesmann, L. Rowell

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1960s research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer’s part just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research evidence is critically assessed, and the psychological theory that explains why exposure to violence has detrimental effects for both the short run and long run is elaborated. Finally, the size of the “media violence effect” is compared with some other well known threats to society to estimate how important a threat it should be considered. PMID:18047947

  17. The impact of electronic media violence: scientific theory and research.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L Rowell

    2007-12-01

    Since the early 1960s, research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the Internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer's part, just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research evidence is critically assessed and the psychological theory that explains why exposure to violence has detrimental effects for both the short and long-term is elaborated. Finally the size of the "media violence effect" is compared with some other well-known threats to society to estimate how important a threat it should be considered.

  18. The impact of electronic media violence: scientific theory and research.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L Rowell

    2007-12-01

    Since the early 1960s, research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the Internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer's part, just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research evidence is critically assessed and the psychological theory that explains why exposure to violence has detrimental effects for both the short and long-term is elaborated. Finally the size of the "media violence effect" is compared with some other well-known threats to society to estimate how important a threat it should be considered. PMID:18047947

  19. What if Indigenous Knowledge Contradicts Accepted Scientific Findings?--The Hidden Agenda: Respect, Caring and Passion towards Aboriginal Research in the Context of Applying Western Academic Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    The statement in the title, what if Indigenous Knowledge contradicts accepted scientific findings (Fowler, 2000), is an expression of the dilemma people who research Indigenous Knowledge think they find themselves in when they are confronted with different interpretations of what it means to be human, or, as I may summarize it, with different…

  20. The Development of Genetics in the Light of Thomas Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions.

    PubMed

    Portin, Petter

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a paradigm is in the key position in Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions. A paradigm is the framework within which the results, concepts, hypotheses and theories of scientific research work are understood. According to Kuhn, a paradigm guides the working and efforts of scientists during the time period which he calls the period of normal science. Before long, however, normal science leads to unexplained matters, a situation that then leads the development of the scientific discipline in question to a paradigm shift--a scientific revolution. When a new theory is born, it has either gradually emerged as an extension of the past theory, or the old theory has become a borderline case in the new theory. In the former case, one can speak of a paradigm extension. According to the present author, the development of modern genetics has, until very recent years, been guided by a single paradigm, the Mendelian paradigm which Gregor Mendel launched 150 years ago, and under the guidance of this paradigm the development of genetics has proceeded in a normal fashion in the spirit of logical positivism. Modern discoveries in genetics have, however, created a situation which seems to be leading toward a paradigm shift. The most significant of these discoveries are the findings of adaptive mutations, the phenomenon of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, and, above all, the present deeply critical state of the concept of the gene. PMID:26392355

  1. The Development of Genetics in the Light of Thomas Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions.

    PubMed

    Portin, Petter

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a paradigm is in the key position in Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions. A paradigm is the framework within which the results, concepts, hypotheses and theories of scientific research work are understood. According to Kuhn, a paradigm guides the working and efforts of scientists during the time period which he calls the period of normal science. Before long, however, normal science leads to unexplained matters, a situation that then leads the development of the scientific discipline in question to a paradigm shift--a scientific revolution. When a new theory is born, it has either gradually emerged as an extension of the past theory, or the old theory has become a borderline case in the new theory. In the former case, one can speak of a paradigm extension. According to the present author, the development of modern genetics has, until very recent years, been guided by a single paradigm, the Mendelian paradigm which Gregor Mendel launched 150 years ago, and under the guidance of this paradigm the development of genetics has proceeded in a normal fashion in the spirit of logical positivism. Modern discoveries in genetics have, however, created a situation which seems to be leading toward a paradigm shift. The most significant of these discoveries are the findings of adaptive mutations, the phenomenon of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, and, above all, the present deeply critical state of the concept of the gene.

  2. The coincidence theory of consonance: A re-evaluation based on modern scientific evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, Benjamin Dwight

    The coincidence theory was a theory of consonance advocated by many of the scientists of the period 1550-1800, including Galileo, Mersenne, Descartes, and Euler. It was the first truly scientific explanation of consonance, addressing the way that sound waves interact with each other either constructively or destructively. Within the present century, historians of music and science have turned their attention to the coincidence theory and the important role it played in both fields in the 17th century. Many of these same authors have charged the theory with having had serious faults. However, an investigation of modern scientific evidence reveals that these alleged problems are either answerable or irrelevant to the coincidence theory. Furthermore, a survey of the major theories of consonance since the 18th century shows that the premises of the coincidence theory pervade and underlie many of these more recent theories. Examples of such theories include those of Helmholtz, Lipps, Boomsliter and Creel, and Terhardt. In the process of establishing these theses, many relevant secondary issues are addressed. For example, this dissertation contains a discussion of the different meanings of the word consonance, the relationship between integer ratios and musical intervals, and the similarities between pitch perception and rhythmic perception. Also, several different versions of the coincidence theory are identified and evaluated.

  3. How People Reason: A Grounded Theory Study of Scientific Reasoning about Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shiyu

    Scientific reasoning is crucial in both scientific inquiry and everyday life. While the majority of researchers have studied "how people reason" by focusing on their cognitive processes, factors related to the underpinnings of scientific reasoning are still under-researched. The present study aimed to develop a grounded theory that captures not only the cognitive processes during reasoning but also their underpinnings. In particular, the grounded theory and phenomenographic methodologies were integrated to explore how undergraduate students reason about competing theories and evidence on global climate change. Twenty-six undergraduate students were recruited through theoretical sampling. Constant comparative analysis of responses from interviews and written assessments revealed that participants were mostly drawn to the surface features when reasoning about evidence. While prior knowledge might not directly contribute to participants' performance on evidence evaluation, it affected their level of engagement when reading and evaluating competing arguments on climate issues. More importantly, even though all participants acknowledged the relative correctness of multiple perspectives, they predominantly favored arguments that supported their own beliefs with weak scientific reasoning about the opposing arguments. Additionally, factors such as personal interests, religious beliefs, and reading capacity were also found to have bearings on the way participants evaluated evidence and arguments. In all, this work contributes to the current endeavors in exploring the nature of scientific reasoning. Taking a holistic perspective, it provides an in-depth discussion of factors that may affect or relate to scientific reasoning processes. Furthermore, in comparison with traditional methods used in the literature, the methodological approach employed in this work brought an innovative insight into the investigation of scientific reasoning. Last but not least, this research may

  4. Tendencies of Comprehension and Acceptance of Theory of Evolution: A Study Involving Students from the Faculties of Education and Theology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilen, Kadir; Ercan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the views of students from the Faculty of Education and the Faculty of Theology from the University of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam regarding their comprehension and acceptance of the theory of evolution. A survey model was used involving a quantitative research design. The working group of the study was composed of…

  5. Factors of Online Learning Adoption: A Comparative Juxtaposition of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndubisi, Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Organisational investments in information technologies have increased significantly in the past few decades. All around the globe and in Malaysia particularly, a number of educational institutions are experimenting with e-learning. Adopting the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the technology acceptance model (TAM) this article tries to…

  6. Introduction of the Scientific Method and Atomic Theory to Liberal Arts Chemistry Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohman, James R.

    1998-12-01

    Liberal arts chemistry students often struggle with the application of the scientific method to problem solving in the sciences, in part because of insufficient concrete examples. These same students also tend to have significant difficulty in appreciating the value of weight ratios in chemistry, particularly in the establishment of the laws that led to the atomic theory. A simple classroom exercise utilizing net weights of envelopes containing varying numbers of BB's or paper clips can be used to illustrate and differentiate the steps of the scientific method: observation (with corrections) to get scientific facts, induction to arrive at laws, tentative explanation by hypothesis, experimentation to test the hypothesis, and final establishment of a scientific theory. Since the students participating in this exercise arrive at each of these steps on their own, there is greater appreciation and more effective internalization of the scientific method on their part. The exercise depends upon the discrete nature of the BB's or paper clips (i.e., on the fact that they are individual "particles" of similar properties, and so are useful analogies to atoms). Finally, since weight ratios are used to solve the problem posed by this exercise, it can be used to lead directly into the weight ratios summarized by the laws of constant composition (fixed proportions) and multiple proportions, which in turn lead to Dalton's atomic theory.

  7. The Philosophic Consistency of Science Teachers' Opinions About the Structure of Scientific Laws and Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Ronald

    Investigated was how science teachers conceptualize the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of scientific laws and theories was used as an indicator of the broad "nature of science" concept. Fifty junior high and middle school science teachers in Wisconsin were randomly chosen to respond to a Likert-type opinionaire developed by the…

  8. The Conflicts between Grounded Theory Requirements and Institutional Requirements for Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckerhoff, Jason; Guillemette, Francois

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the conflicts between grounded theory (GT) requirements and institutional requirements for scientific research such as they were experienced by researchers and students. The overview of how GT was originally conceived served as background to the analysis of the problems GT users often faced when they submitted research…

  9. Teaching through Research--Research through Teaching: Comparing Scientific and Subjective Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patry, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Teaching through research has a great potential for Master's studies. The paper presents how this has been done in a particular case, comparing scientific and subjective theories, and how this course was simultaneously used to do research about this topic. The course proved to be a win-win-situation for the students and for the teacher/researcher.…

  10. Use of change management theories in gaining acceptance of telemedicine technology.

    PubMed

    Rufo, Rebecca Zapatochny

    2012-01-01

    The success of telemedicine applications within health care begins with the process of implementing planned change. The attitudes of staff and their willingness to embrace new technology can be positively influenced in order to gain acceptance of new ways to perform tasks. Telemedicine applications have been designed to improve operational efficiency and obtain improved outcomes, but system designers and procurers are dependent upon the organization's leadership to effect attitudinal and behavioral changes that are essential for acceptance and usage of new technology.

  11. Acceptance and Transformation of English Educational Theory in Japan: On Student-Centered Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuwamura, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, various theories and methodologies of English education born in other countries have been practiced, but the result has left a lot to be desired. Still, each theory has its own sociocultural background. When theory goes beyond its culture and locality, it transforms by losing its originality and absorbing new elements from a different…

  12. Historical Scientific Models and Theories as Resources for Learning and Teaching: The Case of Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, Ugo

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a history of research and theories on sliding friction between solids. This history is divided into four phases: from Leonardo da Vinci to Coulomb and the establishment of classical laws of friction; the theories of lubrication and the Tomlinson's theory of friction (1850-1930); the theories of wear, the Bowden and Tabor's synthesis and the birth of Tribology (1930-1980); nanotribology, friction at the atomic scale, and new fields of research (after 1980). Attention is given to recent research, so giving the sense of a topic that is still alive and currently an object of interest, with interpretative controversies. The development of explanatory and visual models is especially stressed, in connection with students' common ideas and with didactic purposes. The history shows that many models proposed in the past have been modified but not abandoned, so that here the scientific evolution has worked more by adding than by eliminating. The last sections discuss problems and proposals on teaching friction and the possible uses in teaching of models, images and theories found in history. Concerning the role of the history in science teaching, the case of friction has particular features, because some recent developments are unknown to most teachers and many results, also not very recent, contrast with the laws usually proposed in textbooks. Here history can supply a number of models, examples and experiments which can constitute useful resources to improve student understanding, joining together objectives of cultural value and of better scientific knowledge.

  13. Decision-making theories as tools for interpreting student behavior during a scientific inquiry simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikenhead, Glen S.

    The study investigated the predictive ability of two sociological theories of group decision making, the social decision scheme (SDS) and the valence distribution (DV) model. The theories were applied to a normal classroom setting of grade-9 and -10 students (N = 159) involved in a scientific inquiry - a simulation of scientific decision making. In their attempt to resolve conceptual conflicts concerning a pendulum's period, the students worked towards a consensus. It was discovered that student beliefs at the end of the simulation deviated from this group consensus. Neither the SDS or the DV theories could account for this result, except in one extreme case. The psychological state of the decision makers (vigilant, hypervigilant, etc.) was mildly associated with this deviation. The predictive function of the SDS and DV models was apparently severely hampered by the natural complexities common to classroom interactions. However, the study did illuminate factors that likely affect conceptual change in the context of classroom group decision making; and the study discovered strategies which students invented in order to maintain their alternative conceptions of motion related to the pendulum, in the face of conflicting evidence. These results are discussed in terms of the students' participation in the scientific inquiry.

  14. The use and acceptance of Other Scientifically Relevant Information (OSRI) in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Patricia L; Willett, Catherine E

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) currently relies on an initial screening battery (Tier 1) consisting of five in vitro and six in vivo assays to evaluate a chemical's potential to interact with the endocrine system. Chemical companies may request test waivers based on Other Scientifically Relevant Information (OSRI) that is functionally equivalent to data gathered in the screening battery or that provides information on a potential endocrine effect. Respondents for 47 of the first 67 chemicals evaluated in the EDSP submitted OSRI in lieu of some or all Tier 1 tests, seeking 412 waivers, of which EPA granted only 93. For 20 of the 47 chemicals, EPA denied all OSRI and required the entire Tier 1 battery. Often, the OSRI accepted was either identical to data generated by the Tier 1 assay or indicated a positive result. Although identified as potential sources of OSRI in EPA guidance, Part 158 guideline studies for pesticide registration were seldom accepted by EPA. The 93 waivers reduced animal use by at least 3325 animals. We estimate 27,731 animals were used in the actual Tier 1 tests, with additional animals being used in preparation for testing. Even with EPA's shift toward applying 21st-century toxicology tools to screening of endocrine disruptors in the future, acceptance of OSRI will remain a primary means for avoiding duplicative testing and reducing use of animals in the EDSP. Therefore, it is essential that EPA develop a consistent and transparent basis for accepting OSRI.

  15. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Relational Frame Theory, and the Third Wave of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Steven C.

    2004-01-01

    The first wave of behavior therapy countered the excesses and scientific weakness of existing nonempirical clinical traditions through empirically studied first-order change efforts linked to behavioral principles targeting directly relevant clinical targets. The second wave was characterized by similar direct change efforts guided by social…

  16. Metaphor in psychosis: on the possible convergence of Lacanian theory and neuro-scientific research

    PubMed Central

    Ribolsi, Michele; Feyaerts, Jasper; Vanheule, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the theories of leading psychiatrists, like Kraepelin and de Clérambault, the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan (1901–1981) formulated an original theory of psychosis, focusing on the subject and on the structuring role of language. In particular, he postulated that language makes up the experience of subjectivity and that psychosis is marked by the absence of a crucial metaphorization process. Interestingly, in contemporary psychiatry there is growing empirical evidence that schizophrenia is characterized by abnormal interpretation of verbal and non-verbal information, with a great difficulty to put such information in the appropriate context. Neuro-scientific contributions have investigated this difficulty suggesting the possibility of interpreting schizophrenia as a semiotic disorder which makes the patients incapable of understanding the figurative meaning of the metaphoric speech, probably due to a dysfunction of certain right hemisphere areas, such as the right temporoparietal junction and the right superior/middle temporal gyrus. In this paper we first review the Lacanian theory of psychosis and neuro-scientific research in the field of symbolization and metaphoric speech. Next, we discuss possible convergences between both approaches, exploring how they might join and inspire one another. Clinical and neurophysiological research implications are discussed. PMID:26089805

  17. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science: Students’ Acceptance of Astrology and Pseudoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugarman, Hannah R.; Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our survey used to collect data during a twenty-year long investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting), contains several questions addressing how students conceptualize astrology, and other pseudoscientific ideas. This poster presents findings from the quantitative analysis of some of these question responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) and half of science majors (52%) consider astrology either "very” or "sort of” scientific. Students performed comparatively better on all other pseudoscientific questions, demonstrating that belief in astrology is pervasive and deeply entrenched. We compare our results to those obtained by the NSF Science Indicators series, and suggest possible reasons for the high susceptibility to belief in astrology. These findings call into question whether our education system is adequately preparing students to be scientifically literate adults. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  18. The Nature of Scientific Revolutions from the Vantage Point of Chaos Theory: Toward a Formal Model of Scientific Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perla, Rocco J.; Carifio, James

    2005-01-01

    In sharp contrast to the early positivist view of the nature of science and scientific knowledge, Kuhn argues that the scientific enterprise involves states of continuous, gradual development punctuated by comparatively rare instances of turmoil and change, which ultimately brings about a new stability and a qualitatively changed knowledge base.…

  19. The Relationship Between College Zoology Students' Religious Beliefs and Their Ability to Objectively View the Scientific Evidence Supporting Evolutionary Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Anne; Baldwin, Beatrice

    An anonymous 12-item, multiple-choice questionnaire was administered to 218 southern college, introductory zoology students prior to and following a study of evolutionary theory to assess their understanding and acceptance of the credibility of the evidence supporting the theory. Key topics addressed were the history of evolutionary thought, basic…

  20. Facilitators and Barriers to Adopting Robotic-Assisted Surgery: Contextualizing the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

    PubMed Central

    BenMessaoud, Christine; Kharrazi, Hadi; MacDorman, Karl F.

    2011-01-01

    Robotic-assisted surgical techniques are not yet well established among surgeon practice groups beyond a few surgical subspecialties. To help identify the facilitators and barriers to their adoption, this belief-elicitation study contextualized and supplemented constructs of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) in robotic-assisted surgery. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 21 surgeons comprising two groups: users and nonusers. The main facilitators to adoption were Perceived Usefulness and Facilitating Conditions among both users and nonusers, followed by Attitude Toward Using Technology among users and Extrinsic Motivation among nonusers. The three main barriers to adoption for both users and nonusers were Perceived Ease of Use and Complexity, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Behavioral Control. This study's findings can assist surgeons, hospital and medical school administrators, and other policy makers on the proper adoption of robotic-assisted surgery and can guide future research on the development of theories and framing of hypotheses. PMID:21283719

  1. Applying the Technology Acceptance Model and flow theory to Cyworld user behavior: implication of the Web2.0 user acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Hee; Kim, Won-Yong; Kim, Won-Young

    2008-06-01

    This study explores attitudinal and behavioral patterns when using Cyworld by adopting an expanded Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A model for Cyworld acceptance is used to examine how various factors modified from the TAM influence acceptance and its antecedents. This model is examined through an empirical study involving Cyworld users using structural equation modeling techniques. The model shows reasonably good measurement properties and the constructs are validated. The results not only confirm the model but also reveal general factors applicable to Web2.0. A set of constructs in the model can be the Web2.0-specific factors, playing as enhancing factor to attitudes and intention.

  2. Reproduction of Social Class in Teacher Education: The Influence of Scientific Theories on Future Teachers' Implicit Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsson, Anna-Carin; Beach, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the influence of a hegemonic class concept in teacher education, more specifically, the changes in the construction of implicit theories of intelligence within future teachers when they were exposed to the scientific g-factor theory of intelligence. A 2 x 2 ANOVA (first versus last semester at the teacher…

  3. Should the Equilibrium Point Hypothesis (EPH) be Considered a Scientific Theory?

    PubMed

    Sainburg, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to discuss factors that limit consideration of the equilibrium point hypothesis as a scientific theory. The EPH describes control of motor neuron threshold through the variable lambda, which corresponds to a unique referent configuration for a muscle, joint, or combination of joints. One of the most compelling features of the equilibrium point hypothesis is the integration of posture and movement control into a single mechanism. While the essential core of the hypothesis is based upon spinal circuitry interacting with peripheral mechanics, the proponents have extended the theory to include the higher-level processes that generate lambda, and in doing so, imposed an injunction against the supraspinal nervous system modeling, computing, or predicting dynamics. This limitation contradicts evidence that humans take account of body and environmental dynamics in motor selection, motor control, and motor adaptation processes. A number of unresolved limitations to the EPH have been debated in the literature for many years, including whether muscle resistance to displacement, measured during movement, is adequate to support this form of control, violations in equifinality predictions, spinal circuits that alter the proposed invariant characteristic for muscles, and limitations in the description of how the complexity of spinal circuitry might be integrated to yield a unique and stable equilibrium position for a given motor neuron threshold. In addition, an important empirical limitation of EPH is the measurement of the invariant characteristic, which needs to be done under a constant central state. While there is no question that the EPH is an elegant and generative hypothesis for motor control research, the claim that this hypothesis has reached the status of a scientific theory is premature.

  4. An Empirical Analysis of Citizens' Acceptance Decisions of Electronic-Government Services: A Modification of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model to Include Trust as a Basis for Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awuah, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding citizens' adoption of electronic-government (e-government) is an important topic, as the use of e-government has become an integral part of governance. Success of such initiatives depends largely on the efficient use of e-government services. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model has provided a…

  5. Theory development in health care informatics: Information and communication technology acceptance model (ICTAM) improves the explanatory and predictive power of technology acceptance models.

    PubMed

    An, Ji-Young

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this web-based study was to explain and predict consumers' acceptance and usage behavior of Internet health information and services. Toward this goal, the Information and Communication Technology Acceptance Model (ICTAM) was developed and tested. Individuals who received a flyer through the LISTSERV of HealthGuide were eligible to participate. The study population was eighteen years old and older who had used Internet health information and services for a minimum of 6 months. For the analyses, SPSS (version 13.0) and AMOS (version 5.0) were employed. More than half of the respondents were women (n = 110, 55%). The average age of the respondents was 35.16 years (S.D. = 10.07). A majority reported at least some college education (n = 126, 63%). All of the observed factors accounted for 75.53% of the total variance explained. The fit indices of the structural model were within an acceptable range: chi2/df = 2.38 (chi2 = 1786.31, df = 752); GFI = .71; RMSEA = .08; CFI = .86; NFI = .78. The results of this study provide empirical support for the continued development of ICTAM in the area of health consumers' information and communication technology acceptance.

  6. Conceptualizing autonomy in the context of chronic physical illness: relating philosophical theories to social scientific perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mars, Godelief M J; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Janssen, Peter P M; van Eijk, Jacques T M

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this article is to conceptualize autonomy in the context of chronic physical illness. To this end, we compare and contrast a selection of contemporary philosophical theories of autonomy with social scientific perspectives on chronic illness, particularly models of disability and symbolic interactionism. The philosophical theories mainly depart from a positive conceptualization of autonomy, which involves actively shaping one's life and identifying with fundamental values. This conceptualization is preferred over a negative conceptualization, which defines autonomy as non-interference, for its compatibility with social models of disability and with the assumption that people are interdependent. Interference may disable, but also enable people with a chronic illness to shape their lives. What matters is that people can realize what they want to realize. We suggest that, in the context of chronic physical illness, autonomy might be conceptualized as correspondence between what people want their lives to be like and what their lives are actually like. Disturbed autonomy might be restored either by expanding opportunities to arrange life or by adjusting how one wants life to be arranged. The grounds for the latter approach might be questioned, first, if people have not adjusted what they want carefully, and second, if reorganization of the material and social environment would have made it unnecessary to adjust one's arrangement of life. PMID:18579631

  7. [The neuron theory: one of the main scientific achievements of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Probst, A; Langui, D

    1994-04-19

    The cell theory, enunciated by Theodor Schwann in 1839, stated that all tissues in the body are composed of individual cells. The theory gained immediate acceptance for all organs except for the nervous system where some basic problems were encountered, among them the difficulties in establishing the relation between nerve cells, nerve fibers and terminal branches. Deiters observations (1865) had provided evidence that the basic structure of a nerve cell was made up of a cell body, protoplasmic prolongations (dendrites), and a single long axon. This helped to define the nerve cell as the basic unit of the nervous tissue but it remained then to understand how the nerve cells are connected since they do not make direct contact through their cell bodies and are separated by the 'neuroglia'. Two fundamentally different views of the organization of neurons arose, one holding that neurons are individual and contiguous units, connected in chains to form specific pathways (His, Forel, Nansen, Ramón y Cajal), the other that thin nerve cell branches from continuous diffuse networks through which the neuronal activity propagates (Gerlach, Golgi). The key technological advance that led to the resolution of most of these uncertainties came in 1873 with the introduction by Camillo Golgi of a new method of staining individual nerve cells. In 1887, Santiago Ramón y Cajal stumbled on the Golgi stain and began an intense study of neuronal morphology throughout the nervous system. As far back as 1887 it was shown that the nervous system is not a mass of fused cells showing a common cytoplasm, but a highly intricate network of discrete cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8191186

  8. [The neuron theory: one of the main scientific achievements of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Probst, A; Langui, D

    1994-04-19

    The cell theory, enunciated by Theodor Schwann in 1839, stated that all tissues in the body are composed of individual cells. The theory gained immediate acceptance for all organs except for the nervous system where some basic problems were encountered, among them the difficulties in establishing the relation between nerve cells, nerve fibers and terminal branches. Deiters observations (1865) had provided evidence that the basic structure of a nerve cell was made up of a cell body, protoplasmic prolongations (dendrites), and a single long axon. This helped to define the nerve cell as the basic unit of the nervous tissue but it remained then to understand how the nerve cells are connected since they do not make direct contact through their cell bodies and are separated by the 'neuroglia'. Two fundamentally different views of the organization of neurons arose, one holding that neurons are individual and contiguous units, connected in chains to form specific pathways (His, Forel, Nansen, Ramón y Cajal), the other that thin nerve cell branches from continuous diffuse networks through which the neuronal activity propagates (Gerlach, Golgi). The key technological advance that led to the resolution of most of these uncertainties came in 1873 with the introduction by Camillo Golgi of a new method of staining individual nerve cells. In 1887, Santiago Ramón y Cajal stumbled on the Golgi stain and began an intense study of neuronal morphology throughout the nervous system. As far back as 1887 it was shown that the nervous system is not a mass of fused cells showing a common cytoplasm, but a highly intricate network of discrete cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. The evolutionary development of the scientific mind: A grounded theory of adventuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Katrina Martin

    Teaching and learning science is hard, and the cognitive skills needed to be successful in science are complex. Science educators have explored a number of different ways to teach and learn science that impacts the widest variety of learners in a classroom. The grounded theory of adventuring explains both why scientific thinking is an evolutionarily important trait and illustrates a common thread throughout a variety of teaching and learning behaviors. Adventuring incorporates the dimensions of exploring, mavericking, and acquiring and applying skills that are the hallmarks of positive science education. The disciplines of psychology, sociology, biology, and ecology are connected in this study in order to fully illustrate the complexities of the subject. By exploring the psychology/sociology of teachers teaching science and students learning science, and connecting that to the biology of the hardware, this study explains how we could be teaching and learning science in a way for which our brains are best suited, and in ways that reach all learners.

  10. John Dewey on theory of learning and inquiry: The scientific method and subject matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Nien

    This study examines the educational debate between Dewey and some of his critics on the merits of learning the scientific method. Four of Dewey's critics---Hutchins, Hirsch, Hirst, and Scheffler criticize Dewey for over-emphasizing the importance of the scientific method and under-emphasizing the importance of subject matter in education. This dissertation argues that these critics misunderstand Dewey's use of the scientific method and its importance in education. It argues that Dewey conceives of the scientific method in two different ways: first as an attitude and second as a tool. It also argues that, by failing to understand this critical distinction, these critics misunderstand the role of the scientific method in education. The dissertation concludes by showing that, educationally, Dewey's ideas of the scientific method have different meanings in different context. It analyzes the scientific method as empirical method, critical thinking, cooperative learning, and creative thinking, and shows the place of subject matter in each of them.

  11. Examining the Intention to Use Technology among Pre-Service Teachers: An Integration of the Technology Acceptance Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined pre-service teachers' self-reported intention to use technology. One hundred fifty-seven participants completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to six constructs from a research model that integrated the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Structural equation modeling was…

  12. Testing a model for parental acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccine in 9- to 18-year-old girls: a theory-guided study.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Diane; O'Connell, Kathleen A

    2012-12-01

    Gardasil is the first vaccine developed to prevent cervical cancer and other diseases caused by certain types of genital human papillomavirus in females, but little is known about parental acceptance of this vaccine. The purpose of this study was to test a model that predicts intention to vaccinate that includes constructs from the health belief model and the theory of reasoned action.

  13. The Effect of Contextual Material on Evolution in the Jordanian Secondary-School Curriculum on Students' Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Baz, Theodora; El-Weher, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect the extent to which contextual material of a unit on "The origin and evolution of living organisms" included in the high-school biology curriculum in Jordan affected students' acceptance of the theory of evolution. The participants of this study consisted of 107 tenth-grade students randomly drawn from three…

  14. Historical Scientific Models and Theories as Resources for Learning and Teaching: The Case of Friction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besson, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a history of research and theories on sliding friction between solids. This history is divided into four phases: from Leonardo da Vinci to Coulomb and the establishment of classical laws of friction; the theories of lubrication and the Tomlinson's theory of friction (1850-1930); the theories of wear, the Bowden and Tabor's…

  15. Theory development in nursing and healthcare informatics: a model explaining and predicting information and communication technology acceptance by healthcare consumers.

    PubMed

    An, Ji-Young; Hayman, Laura L; Panniers, Teresa; Carty, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    About 110 million American adults are looking for health information and services on the Internet. Identification of the factors influencing healthcare consumers' technology acceptance is requisite to understanding their acceptance and usage behavior of online health information and related services. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of the Information and Communication Technology Acceptance Model (ICTAM). From the literature reviewed, ICTAM was developed with emphasis on integrating multidisciplinary perspectives from divergent frameworks and empirical findings into a unified model with regard to healthcare consumers' acceptance and usage behavior of information and services on the Internet.

  16. Scientific Reasoning and Epistemological Commitments: Coordination of Theory and Evidence among College Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeineddin, Ava; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    Reasoning skills are major contributors to academic and everyday life success. Epistemological commitments (ECs) are believed to underlie reasoning processes and, when considered, could do much in delineating the complex nature of scientific reasoning. This study examined the relationship between ECs and scientific reasoning among college science…

  17. An Exploration of Student Internet Use in India: The Technology Acceptance Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusilier, Marcelline; Durlabhji, Subhash

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore behavioral processes involved in internet technology acceptance and use with a sample in India, a developing country that can potentially benefit from greater participation in the web economy. Design/methodology/approach - User experience was incorporated into the technology acceptance model (TAM)…

  18. Explain the Behavior Intention to Use e-Learning Technologies: A Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaqrah, Amin A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the behavior intention to use e-learning technologies. In order to achieve a better view and validate the study, researcher attempts to give details of how technology acceptance models help Jordanian trainees firms in accepting e-learning technology, and how if applied will result more attention to usage…

  19. The Large-scale Structure of Scientific Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosso, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The standard textbook description of the nature of science describes the proposal, testing, and acceptance of a theoretical idea almost entirely in isolation from other theories. The resulting model of science is a kind of piecemeal empiricism that misses the important network structure of scientific knowledge. Only the large-scale description of scientific method can reveal the global interconnectedness of scientific knowledge that is an essential part of what makes science scientific.

  20. Short Lesson Plan Associated with Increased Acceptance of Evolutionary Theory and Potential Change in Three Alternate Conceptions of Macroevolution in Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Joel K.; Perez, Kathryn E.; Downey, Nicholas; Herron, Jon C.; Meir, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduates commonly harbor alternate conceptions about evolutionary biology; these alternate conceptions often persist, even after intensive instruction, and may influence acceptance of evolution. We interviewed undergraduates to explore their alternate conceptions about macroevolutionary patterns and designed a 2-h lesson plan to present evidence that life has evolved. We identified three alternate conceptions during our interviews: that newly derived traits would be more widespread in extant species than would be ancestral traits, that evolution proceeds solely by anagenesis, and that lineages must become more complex over time. We also attempted to measure changes in the alternate conceptions and levels of acceptance of evolutionary theory in biology majors and nonmajors after exposure to the lesson plan. The instrument used to assess understanding had flaws, but our results are suggestive of mixed effects: we found a reduction in the first alternate conception, no change in the second, and reinforcement of the third. We found a small, but significant, increase in undergraduate acceptance of evolutionary theory in two trials of the lesson plan (Cohen's d effect sizes of 0.51 and 0.19). These mixed results offer guidance on how to improve the lesson and show the potential of instructional approaches for influencing acceptance of evolution. PMID:22665588

  1. Short lesson plan associated with increased acceptance of evolutionary theory and potential change in three alternate conceptions of macroevolution in undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Joel K; Perez, Kathryn E; Downey, Nicholas; Herron, Jon C; Meir, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduates commonly harbor alternate conceptions about evolutionary biology; these alternate conceptions often persist, even after intensive instruction, and may influence acceptance of evolution. We interviewed undergraduates to explore their alternate conceptions about macroevolutionary patterns and designed a 2-h lesson plan to present evidence that life has evolved. We identified three alternate conceptions during our interviews: that newly derived traits would be more widespread in extant species than would be ancestral traits, that evolution proceeds solely by anagenesis, and that lineages must become more complex over time. We also attempted to measure changes in the alternate conceptions and levels of acceptance of evolutionary theory in biology majors and nonmajors after exposure to the lesson plan. The instrument used to assess understanding had flaws, but our results are suggestive of mixed effects: we found a reduction in the first alternate conception, no change in the second, and reinforcement of the third. We found a small, but significant, increase in undergraduate acceptance of evolutionary theory in two trials of the lesson plan (Cohen's d effect sizes of 0.51 and 0.19). These mixed results offer guidance on how to improve the lesson and show the potential of instructional approaches for influencing acceptance of evolution.

  2. The Contribution of Bibliometric Methods to a Theory of Scientific Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, William

    2001-01-01

    Some theoretical models of scientific communication suggest science may be understood as a heterogeneous network of social actors and ideational elements. Bibliometric methods provide the means for empirical application of this perspective to investigations of the formal communication system in science. The conceptual-operational links between key…

  3. The Tentativeness of Scientific Theories: Conceptions of Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Jasmine; Abdullah, Nabilah; Lim, Beh Kian

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of sound understanding of Nature of Science (NOS) in promoting scientific literacy among individuals has heightened the need to probe NOS conceptions among various groups. However, the nature of quantitative studies in gauging NOS understanding has left the understanding on few NOS aspects insufficiently informed. This paper aimed…

  4. Theory in Practice: Why "Good Medicine" and "Scientific Medicine" Are Not Necessarily the Same Thing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Camargo, Kenneth, Jr.; Coeli, Claudia Medina

    2006-01-01

    The term "scientific medicine", ubiquitous in medical literature although poorly defined, can be traced to a number of assumptions, three of which are examined in this paper: that medicine is a form of knowledge-driven practice, where the established body of proven medical knowledge determines what doctors do; if what doctors do is either…

  5. Evaluating innovation. Part 1: The concept of progressive scholarly acceptance.

    PubMed

    Schnurman, Zane; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the relevant medical community accepts new therapies is vital to patients, physicians, and society. Increasingly, focus is placed on how medical innovations are evaluated. But recognizing when a treatment has become accepted practice-essentially, acceptance by the scientific community-remains a challenge and a barrierto investigating treatment development. This report aims to demonstrate the theory, method, and limitations of a model for measuring a new metric that the authors term "progressive scholarly acceptance." A model was developed to identify when the scientific community has accepted an innovation, by observing when researchers have moved beyond the initial study of efficacy. This model could enable further investigations into the methods and influences of treatment development.

  6. Do scientific theories affect men’s evaluations of sex crimes?

    PubMed Central

    DAR-NIMROD, ILAN; HEINE, STEVEN J.; CHEUNG, BENJAMIN Y.; SCHALLER, MARK

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary Psychology accounts of gender differences in sexual behaviors in general and men’s sexual aggression in particular, have been criticized for legitimizing males’ sexual misconduct. To empirically assess such critiques, two studies examined how men’s judgments of male sex crimes (solicitation of sex from a prostitute; rape) are influenced by exposure to (a) evolutionary psychological theories, and (b) social-constructivist theories. Across two studies a consistent pattern emerged: compared to a control condition, (a) exposure to evolutionary psychology theories had no observable impact on male judgments of men’s criminal sexual behavior, whereas (b) exposure to social-constructivist theories did affect judgments, leading men to evaluate sex crimes more harshly. Additional results (from Study 2) indicate that this effect is mediated by perceptions of male control over sexual urges. These results have implications, for journalists, educators, and scientists. PMID:21678431

  7. Zombie science: a sinister consequence of evaluating scientific theories purely on the basis of enlightened self-interest.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-09-01

    Although the classical ideal is that scientific theories are evaluated by a careful teasing-out of their internal logic and external implications, and checking whether these deductions and predictions are in-line-with old and new observations; the fact that so many vague, dumb or incoherent scientific theories are apparently believed by so many scientists for so many years is suggestive that this ideal does not necessarily reflect real world practice. In the real world it looks more like most scientists are quite willing to pursue wrong ideas for so long as they are rewarded with a better chance of achieving more grants, publications and status. The classic account has it that bogus theories should readily be demolished by sceptical (or jealous) competitor scientists. However, in practice even the most conclusive 'hatchet jobs' may fail to kill, or even weaken, phoney hypotheses when they are backed-up with sufficient economic muscle in the form of lavish and sustained funding. And when a branch of science based on phoney theories serves a useful but non-scientific purpose, it may be kept-going indefinitely by continuous transfusions of cash from those whose interests it serves. If this happens, real science expires and a 'zombie science' evolves. Zombie science is science that is dead but will not lie down. It keeps twitching and lumbering around so that (from a distance, and with your eyes half-closed) zombie science looks much like the real thing. But in fact the zombie has no life of its own; it is animated and moved only by the incessant pumping of funds. If zombie science is not scientifically-useable--what is its function? In a nutshell, zombie science is supported because it is useful propaganda to be deployed in arenas such as political rhetoric, public administration, management, public relations, marketing and the mass media generally. It persuades, it constructs taboos, it buttresses some kind of rhetorical attempt to shape mass opinion. Indeed, zombie

  8. Zombie science: a sinister consequence of evaluating scientific theories purely on the basis of enlightened self-interest.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-09-01

    Although the classical ideal is that scientific theories are evaluated by a careful teasing-out of their internal logic and external implications, and checking whether these deductions and predictions are in-line-with old and new observations; the fact that so many vague, dumb or incoherent scientific theories are apparently believed by so many scientists for so many years is suggestive that this ideal does not necessarily reflect real world practice. In the real world it looks more like most scientists are quite willing to pursue wrong ideas for so long as they are rewarded with a better chance of achieving more grants, publications and status. The classic account has it that bogus theories should readily be demolished by sceptical (or jealous) competitor scientists. However, in practice even the most conclusive 'hatchet jobs' may fail to kill, or even weaken, phoney hypotheses when they are backed-up with sufficient economic muscle in the form of lavish and sustained funding. And when a branch of science based on phoney theories serves a useful but non-scientific purpose, it may be kept-going indefinitely by continuous transfusions of cash from those whose interests it serves. If this happens, real science expires and a 'zombie science' evolves. Zombie science is science that is dead but will not lie down. It keeps twitching and lumbering around so that (from a distance, and with your eyes half-closed) zombie science looks much like the real thing. But in fact the zombie has no life of its own; it is animated and moved only by the incessant pumping of funds. If zombie science is not scientifically-useable--what is its function? In a nutshell, zombie science is supported because it is useful propaganda to be deployed in arenas such as political rhetoric, public administration, management, public relations, marketing and the mass media generally. It persuades, it constructs taboos, it buttresses some kind of rhetorical attempt to shape mass opinion. Indeed, zombie

  9. Persistent Identifiers in the Publication and Citation of Scientific Data - Theory and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Brase, J.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.; Hildenbrand, B.; Hoeck, H.; Lautenschlager, M.; Sens, I.

    2008-12-01

    In the last decade data driven research has become a third pillar of scientific work alongside with theoretical reasoning and experiment. Greatly increased computing power and storage, together with web services and other electronic resources have facilitated a quantum leap in new research based on the analysis of great amounts of data. However, traditional scientific communication only slowly changes to new media other than an emulation of paper. This leaves many data inaccessible and, in the long run exposes valuable data to the risk of loss. To improve access to data and to create incentives for scientists to make their data accessible, a group of German data centres initiated the project "Publication and Citation of Scientific Data" (STD-DOI) which was funded by the German Science Foundation DFG for the periods 2003-2005 and 2006-2008. In this project the German National Library for Science and Technology (TIB Hannover), together with the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ Potsdam), Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) Bremerhaven, University of Bremen, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, and the DLR German Remote Sensing Data Center set up the first system to assign DOIs to data sets and for their publication. A prerequisite for data to be made available is a proper citation. This means that all fields mandatory for a bibliographic citation are included. In addition, a mechanism is needed that ensures that the location of the referenced data on the internet can be resolved at any time. In the past, this was a problematic issue because URLs are short-lived, many becoming invalid after only a few months. Data publication on the internet therefore needs a system of reliable pointers to a web publication to make these publications citeable. To achieve this persistence of identifiers for their conventional publications many scientific publishers use Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). The identifier is resolved through

  10. Using Multiple Representations to Promote Grade 11 Students' Scientific Understanding of the Particle Theory of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adadan, Emine

    2013-01-01

    This study explored two groups of Grade 11 (age 16-17) students' conceptual understandings about aspects of particle theory before, immediately after, and 3 months after instruction with multiple representations (IMR) and instruction with verbal representations (IVR). Data sources included open-ended questionnaires, interviews, and student…

  11. Reply to Commentators: Scientific and Everyday Theories are of a Piece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwitzgebel, Eric

    Since I cannot in the space allotted address the full range of issues raised in these commentaries, I will focus my attention primarily on one point of difference, regarding the distinction between scientific and everyday theorizing, that fundamentally separates my approach from the approaches of Duschl et al., Gilbert, and Ohlsson (but not, I think, Hewson and Lemberger). At the end of this reply I will briefly address Hewson''s and Lemberger''s commentary and make a few remarks about the increasingly popular term ''model''.

  12. Formative research on the primo vascular system and acceptance by the korean scientific community: the gap between creative basic science and practical convergence technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon Gi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to trace the formative process of primo vascular system (PVS) research over the past decade and to describe the characteristics of the Korean scientific community. By publishing approximately 30 papers in journals ranking in the Science Citation Index (Expanded), the PVS research team actively convinced domestic and international scientists of the anatomical existence of the PVS and its possible application to Korean and Western medicine. In addition, by sharing the PVS observation technique, the team promoted the dissemination and further pursuit of the research. In 2012, however, PVS researchers performed smaller scale research without advancing to a higher level as compared to the early days. The main reasons were found to be the Korean Research and Development policy of supporting creative, small-scale basic research and applied research of Western scientific fields that promised potentially greater success on an extensive scale; the indifference concerning, and the disbelief in, the existence of a new circulatory system were shown by the Western medical community. In addition, the Oriental medical community was apathetic about working with the PVS team. Professors Kwang-Sup Soh and Byung-Cheon Lee were the prime movers of PVS research under difficult conditions. Spurred by their belief in the existence and significance of the PVS, they continued with their research despite insufficient experimental data. The Korean scientific community is not ready to promote the Korea-oriented creative field of the PVS team.

  13. Formative research on the primo vascular system and acceptance by the korean scientific community: the gap between creative basic science and practical convergence technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon Gi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to trace the formative process of primo vascular system (PVS) research over the past decade and to describe the characteristics of the Korean scientific community. By publishing approximately 30 papers in journals ranking in the Science Citation Index (Expanded), the PVS research team actively convinced domestic and international scientists of the anatomical existence of the PVS and its possible application to Korean and Western medicine. In addition, by sharing the PVS observation technique, the team promoted the dissemination and further pursuit of the research. In 2012, however, PVS researchers performed smaller scale research without advancing to a higher level as compared to the early days. The main reasons were found to be the Korean Research and Development policy of supporting creative, small-scale basic research and applied research of Western scientific fields that promised potentially greater success on an extensive scale; the indifference concerning, and the disbelief in, the existence of a new circulatory system were shown by the Western medical community. In addition, the Oriental medical community was apathetic about working with the PVS team. Professors Kwang-Sup Soh and Byung-Cheon Lee were the prime movers of PVS research under difficult conditions. Spurred by their belief in the existence and significance of the PVS, they continued with their research despite insufficient experimental data. The Korean scientific community is not ready to promote the Korea-oriented creative field of the PVS team. PMID:24290796

  14. Historical and cultural aspects of the pineal gland: comparison between the theories provided by Spiritism in the 1940s and the current scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Daher, Jorge C; Iandoli, Decio; Gonçalves, Juliane P B; Lucchetti, Alessandra L G

    2013-01-01

    Significance has been attached to the pineal gland in numerous different cultures and beliefs. One religion that has advanced the role of the pineal gland is Spiritism. The objective of the present study was to compile information on the pineal gland drawing on the books of Francisco Cândido Xavier written through psychography and to carry out a critical analysis of their scientific bases by comparing against evidence in the current scientific literature. A systematic search using the terms "pineal gland" and "epiphysis" was conducted of 12 works allegedly dictated by the spirit "André Luiz". All information on the pineal having potential correlation with the field of medicine and current studies was included. Specialists in the area were recruited to compile the information and draw parallels with the scientific literature. The themes related to the pineal gland were: mental health, reproductive function, endocrinology, relationship with physical activity, spiritual connection, criticism of the theory that the organ exerts no function, and description of a hormone secreted by the gland (reference alluding to melatonin, isolated 13 years later). The historical background for each theme was outlined, together with the theories present in the Spiritist books and in the relevant scientific literature. The present article provides an analysis of the knowledge the scientific community can acquire from the history of humanity and from science itself. The process of formulating hypotheses and scientific theories can benefit by drawing on the cultural aspects of civilization, taking into account so-called non-traditional reports and theories.

  15. Comments Concerning "How to Choose a Theory: Science for Nonscientists."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Questions as tentative and not universally acceptable some of the assumptions put forth by Romer, namely, that a scientific theory: is a deductive exercise; must accord with the facts; ought to be inflexible; is an explanation. (GH)

  16. Students Perception towards the Implementation of Computer Graphics Technology in Class via Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binti Shamsuddin, Norsila

    Technology advancement and development in a higher learning institution is a chance for students to be motivated to learn in depth in the information technology areas. Students should take hold of the opportunity to blend their skills towards these technologies as preparation for them when graduating. The curriculum itself can rise up the students' interest and persuade them to be directly involved in the evolvement of the technology. The aim of this study is to see how deep is the students' involvement as well as their acceptance towards the adoption of the technology used in Computer Graphics and Image Processing subjects. The study will be towards the Bachelor students in Faculty of Industrial Information Technology (FIIT), Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL); Bac. In Multimedia Industry, BSc. Computer Science and BSc. Computer Science (Software Engineering). This study utilizes the new Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to further validate the model and enhance our understanding of the adoption of Computer Graphics and Image Processing Technologies. Four (4) out of eight (8) independent factors in UTAUT will be studied towards the dependent factor.

  17. Special Theory of Relativity, Conceptual Change and History of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, Alberto; Arruda, Sergio M.

    The problem of the learning of Special Theory of Relativity by secondary and college students is analysed. It is stressed that the results of the studies which attempted to evaluate students' learning are ambiguous and intriguing. Also the history of the emergence and acceptance of the theory by the scientific community itself at the beginning of the 20th century is analysed. Three fundamental steps are described: a) the publication of Lorentz's Transformation Equations, their interpretation in the context of the Electron Theory and their consequent acceptance by the scientific community; b) the presentation by Einstein of two postulates, namely the Relativity Principle and Einstein's Principle of the Invariance of the Speed of Light, and their partial acceptance; c) the rejection of the Electron Theory and the final acceptance of the Theory of Relativity simultaneously with the development of the General Theory of Relativity. The analogy between historical and learning processes provides some suggestions to improve the teaching of the theory.

  18. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  19. Similarities and Dissimilarities in Coauthorship Networks: Gestalt Theory as Explanation for Well-Ordered Collaboration Structures and Production of Scientific Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Hildrun

    2002-01-01

    Based on Gestalt theory, the author assumes the existence of a field-force equilibrium to explain how, according to the conciseness principle, mathematically precise gestalts could exist in coauthorship networks. Develops a mathematical function to describe these gestalts in scientific literature and discusses structural characteristics of…

  20. Exploring High School Students' Use of Theory and Evidence in an Everyday Context: The Role of Scientific Thinking in Environmental Science Decision-Making. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang-Ying

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 10th-grade students' use of theory and evidence in evaluating a socio-scientific issue: the use of underground water, after students had received a Science, Technology and Society-oriented instruction. Forty-five male and 45 female students from two intact, single-sex, classes participated in this study. A flow-map method was…

  1. Exploring High School Students' Use of Theory and Evidence in an Everyday Context: The Role of Scientific Thinking in Environmental Science Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang-Ying

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 10th-grade students' use of theory and evidence in evaluating a socio-scientific issue: the use of underground water, after students had received a Science, Technology and Society-oriented instruction. Forty-five male and 45 female students from two intact, single-sex, classes participated in this study. A flow-map method was…

  2. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  3. The Large-Scale Structure of Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosso, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The standard textbook description of the nature of science describes the proposal, testing, and acceptance of a theoretical idea almost entirely in isolation from other theories. The resulting model of science is a kind of piecemeal empiricism that misses the important network structure of scientific knowledge. Only the large-scale description of…

  4. The Role of Pavlov's Theory in North Korea in the Late 1950s: Ideological Struggle in Medicine and Scientification of Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Han, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ock-Joo

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with Pavlov theory in North Korea in the late 1950s, focusing on its role in ideological struggle in medicine and in reinterpretation of traditional medicine. In North Korean Ministry of Health found Pavlov theory to have rich resources which could be used in the construction of the North Korea's socialist medicine. First of all, Pavlov theory provided the North Korean Communist Party with a powerful ideological weapon against capitalist medical thoughts, representing superior socialist medicine based upon Marx-Leninism and dialectical materialism. This paper examines the contents of Pavlov theory introduced in the North Korea from the Soviet Union in the late 1950s. Pavlov theory in the North Korea was not merely a political slogan but a unified medical system of thought, ranging from biological theory on the organism and pathogenesis to clinical theory. Nonetheless, Pavlov theory became Pavlov doctrine in the ideological struggle in healthcare field initiated by Kim Il Sung and the Communist Party. In the process of the ideological struggle, the abducted surgeon Kim Si-Chang was accused and purged of counter-revolutionary and refusal to conform to Pavlov doctrines by the Communist Party in 1959. Interestingly, Pavlov theory was used in reinterpretation of Traditional Medicine in North Korea from unscientific practice to a rich and scientific complementary medicine by connecting the two with common theoretical components such as Pavlov's typology. By the enthusiastic Communist Party members, Pavlov doctrine was introduced, transformed and exploited to build monolithic ideology system in medicine in North Korea in the late 1950s. PMID:24503922

  5. The Role of Pavlov's Theory in North Korea in the Late 1950s: Ideological Struggle in Medicine and Scientification of Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Han, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ock-Joo

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with Pavlov theory in North Korea in the late 1950s, focusing on its role in ideological struggle in medicine and in reinterpretation of traditional medicine. In North Korean Ministry of Health found Pavlov theory to have rich resources which could be used in the construction of the North Korea's socialist medicine. First of all, Pavlov theory provided the North Korean Communist Party with a powerful ideological weapon against capitalist medical thoughts, representing superior socialist medicine based upon Marx-Leninism and dialectical materialism. This paper examines the contents of Pavlov theory introduced in the North Korea from the Soviet Union in the late 1950s. Pavlov theory in the North Korea was not merely a political slogan but a unified medical system of thought, ranging from biological theory on the organism and pathogenesis to clinical theory. Nonetheless, Pavlov theory became Pavlov doctrine in the ideological struggle in healthcare field initiated by Kim Il Sung and the Communist Party. In the process of the ideological struggle, the abducted surgeon Kim Si-Chang was accused and purged of counter-revolutionary and refusal to conform to Pavlov doctrines by the Communist Party in 1959. Interestingly, Pavlov theory was used in reinterpretation of Traditional Medicine in North Korea from unscientific practice to a rich and scientific complementary medicine by connecting the two with common theoretical components such as Pavlov's typology. By the enthusiastic Communist Party members, Pavlov doctrine was introduced, transformed and exploited to build monolithic ideology system in medicine in North Korea in the late 1950s.

  6. The Relevance of Feenberg's Critical Theory of Technology to Critical Visual Literacy: The Case of Scientific and Technical Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northcut, Kathryn M.

    2007-01-01

    Andrew Feenberg's critical theory of technology is an underutilized, relatively unknown resource in technical communication which could be exploited not only for its potential clarification of large social issues that involve our discipline, but also specifically toward the development of a critical theory of illustrations. Applications of…

  7. The Set Point Theory of Well-Being Has Serious Flaws: On the Eve of a Scientific Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Set-point theory is the main research paradigm in the field of subjective well-being (SWB). It has been extended and refined for 30 years to take in new results. The central plank of the theory is that adult set-points do not change, except temporarily in the face of major life events. There was always some "discordant data," including evidence…

  8. Public debates driven by incomplete scientific data: The cases of evolution theory, global warming and H1N1 pandemic influenza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge

    2010-09-01

    Public debates driven by incomplete scientific data where nobody can claim absolute certainty, due to the current state of scientific knowledge, are studied. The cases of evolution theory, global warming and H1N1 pandemic influenza are investigated. The first two are of controversial impact while the third is more neutral and resolved. To adopt a cautious balanced attitude based on clear but inconclusive data appears to be a lose-out strategy. In contrast overstating arguments with incorrect claims which cannot be scientifically refuted appears to be necessary but not sufficient to eventually win a public debate. The underlying key mechanisms of these puzzling and unfortunate conclusions are identified using the Galam sequential probabilistic model of opinion dynamics (Galam, 2002 [4], Galam, 2005 [18], Galam and Jacobs, 2007 [19]). It reveals that the existence of inflexible agents and their respective proportions are the instrumental parameters to determine the faith of incomplete scientific data in public debates. Acting on one’s own inflexible proportion modifies the topology of the flow diagram, which in turn can make irrelevant initial supports. On the contrary focusing on open-minded agents may be useless given some topologies. When the evidence is not as strong as claimed, the inflexibles rather than the data are found to drive the opinion of the population. The results shed a new but disturbing light on designing adequate strategies to win a public debate.

  9. Emphasizing history in communicating scientific debates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Communication to the public of the reality of anthropogenic climate change has been less successful than many expect. The scientists themselves, the media, special interest groups, or the complexity of modern society are often blamed. However a look at past scientific paradigm shifts, in particular the Copernican revolution and the discovery of relativity, shows close parallels with the modern situation. Common aspects include the gradual formation of a scientific consensus in advance of the public; a politically partisan backlash against the new theory that, paradoxically, occurs after the arrival of conclusive supporting evidence; the prevalence of convincing but invalid pseudo-scientific counterarguments; the general failure of "debates" to increase public acceptance of the scientists' position; and, in the case of the heliocentric solar system, a very long time scale to final public acceptance (> 100 years). Greater emphasis on the lessons from such historical parallels, and on the success so far of consensus predictions of global warming made up to and including the first IPCC report in 1990, might be one useful way of enhancing the public's trust in science and scientists and thereby accelerate acceptance of uncomfortable scientific findings.

  10. English Secondary Students' Thinking about the Status of Scientific Theories: Consistent, Comprehensive, Coherent and Extensively Evidenced Explanations of Aspects of the Natural World--Or Just "An Idea Someone Has"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.; Billingsley, Berry; Riga, Fran; Newdick, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Teaching about the nature of science (NOS) is seen as a priority for science education in many national contexts. The present paper focuses on one central issue in learning about NOS: understanding the nature and status of scientific theories. A key challenge in teaching about NOS is to persuade students that scientific knowledge is generally…

  11. Theories about the propagation of yellow fever: the scientific debate in the São Paulo press between 1895 and 1903.

    PubMed

    Lódola, Soraya; Góis Junior, Edivaldo

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the debate over theories about the propagation of yellow fever in the São Paulo press. Our time span was defined as the period between 1895 and 1903, a time that saw high indices of the disease in Brazil. Documentary research involved mass circulation newspapers in São Paulo and medical journals of the period. The empirical data was collected from the Public Archives of the State of São Paulo and from the library of the Faculdade de Saúde Pública at Universidade de São Paulo. It was observed a clash between theories as to the propagation of yellow fever that revealed a symbolic dispute for influence in the formation of the scientific field. PMID:26331639

  12. Exploring high school students' use of theory and evidence in an everyday context: the role of scientific thinking in environmental science decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang-Ying

    2004-11-01

    This study examined 10th-grade students' use of theory and evidence in evaluating a socio-scientific issue: the use of underground water, after students had received a Science, Technology and Society-oriented instruction. Forty-five male and 45 female students from two intact, single-sex, classes participated in this study. A flow-map method was used to assess the participants' conceptual knowledge. The reasoning mode was assessed using a questionnaire with open-ended questions. Results showed that, although some weak to moderate associations were found between conceptual organization in memory and reasoning modes, the students' ability to incorporate theory and evidence was in general inadequate. It was also found that students' reasoning modes were consistent with their epistemological perspectives. Moreover, male and female students appear to have different reasoning approaches.

  13. Theories about the propagation of yellow fever: the scientific debate in the São Paulo press between 1895 and 1903.

    PubMed

    Lódola, Soraya; Góis Junior, Edivaldo

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the debate over theories about the propagation of yellow fever in the São Paulo press. Our time span was defined as the period between 1895 and 1903, a time that saw high indices of the disease in Brazil. Documentary research involved mass circulation newspapers in São Paulo and medical journals of the period. The empirical data was collected from the Public Archives of the State of São Paulo and from the library of the Faculdade de Saúde Pública at Universidade de São Paulo. It was observed a clash between theories as to the propagation of yellow fever that revealed a symbolic dispute for influence in the formation of the scientific field.

  14. Integrating Theory and Practice to Increase Scientific Workforce Diversity: A Framework for Career Development in Graduate Research Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Gutierrez, Belinda; Topp, Sharon; Carnes, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Few, if any, educational interventions intended to increase underrepresented minority (URM) graduate students in biological and behavioral sciences are informed by theory and research on career persistence. Training and Education to Advance Minority Scholars in Science (TEAM-Science) is a program funded by the National Institute of General Medical…

  15. Short Lesson Plan Associated with Increased Acceptance of Evolutionary Theory and Potential Change in Three Alternate Conceptions of Macroevolution in Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Joel K.; Perez, Kathryn E.; Downey, Nicholas; Herron, Jon C.; Meir, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduates commonly harbor alternate conceptions about evolutionary biology; these alternate conceptions often persist, even after intensive instruction, and may influence acceptance of evolution. We interviewed undergraduates to explore their alternate conceptions about macroevolutionary patterns and designed a 2-h lesson plan to present…

  16. Integrating Theory and Practice to Increase Scientific Workforce Diversity: A Framework for Career Development in Graduate Research Training

    PubMed Central

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Gutierrez, Belinda; Topp, Sharon; Carnes, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Few, if any, educational interventions intended to increase underrepresented minority (URM) graduate students in biological and behavioral sciences are informed by theory and research on career persistence. Training and Education to Advance Minority Scholars in Science (TEAM-Science) is a program funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences at the University of Wisconsin–Madison with the twin goals of increasing the number of URM students entering and completing a PhD in BBS and increasing the number of these students who pursue academic careers. A framework for career development in graduate research training is proposed using social cognitive career theory. Based on this framework, TEAM-Science has five core components: 1) mentor training for the research advisor, 2) eight consensus-derived fundamental competencies required for a successful academic career, 3) career coaching by a senior faculty member, 4) an individualized career development plan that aligns students’ activities with the eight fundamental competencies, and 5) a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats personal career analysis. This paper describes the theoretical framework used to guide development of these components, the research and evaluation plan, and early experience implementing the program. We discuss the potential of this framework to increase desired career outcomes for URM graduate trainees in mentored research programs and, thereby, strengthen the effectiveness of such interventions on participants’ career behaviors. PMID:22135370

  17. Integrating theory and practice to increase scientific workforce diversity: a framework for career development in graduate research training.

    PubMed

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Gutierrez, Belinda; Topp, Sharon; Carnes, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Few, if any, educational interventions intended to increase underrepresented minority (URM) graduate students in biological and behavioral sciences are informed by theory and research on career persistence. Training and Education to Advance Minority Scholars in Science (TEAM-Science) is a program funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Madison with the twin goals of increasing the number of URM students entering and completing a PhD in BBS and increasing the number of these students who pursue academic careers. A framework for career development in graduate research training is proposed using social cognitive career theory. Based on this framework, TEAM-Science has five core components: 1) mentor training for the research advisor, 2) eight consensus-derived fundamental competencies required for a successful academic career, 3) career coaching by a senior faculty member, 4) an individualized career development plan that aligns students' activities with the eight fundamental competencies, and 5) a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats personal career analysis. This paper describes the theoretical framework used to guide development of these components, the research and evaluation plan, and early experience implementing the program. We discuss the potential of this framework to increase desired career outcomes for URM graduate trainees in mentored research programs and, thereby, strengthen the effectiveness of such interventions on participants' career behaviors.

  18. Explaining the Intention to Use Technology among Pre-Service Teachers: A Multi-Group Analysis of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Noyes, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Pre-service teachers' self-reported intentions to use information technology were studied. Two hundred and sixty-four participants completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to four constructs (performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions) derived from the Unified Theory of Acceptance…

  19. Belief versus acceptance: why do people not believe in evolution?

    PubMed

    Williams, James D

    2009-11-01

    Despite being an established and accepted scientific theory for 150 years, repeated public polls show that evolution is not believed by large numbers of people. This essay examines why people do not accept evolution and argues that its poor representation in some science textbooks allows misconceptions, established and reinforced in early childhood, to take hold. There is also a lack of up-to-date examples of evidence for evolution in school textbooks. Poor understanding by science graduates and teachers of the nature of science and incorrect definitions by them of key terminology, serve only to undermine efforts to improve public understanding of evolution. This paper has several recommendations, including the introduction of evolution to primary age children and a call to bring evolution back as the central tenet of biology. PMID:19795411

  20. Scientific Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1980-01-01

    The value of communication in the preservation of scientific knowledge is described as it relates to the specialized scientific journals. The discipline of peer review is described as the major factor in keeping the scientific enterprise relatively honest. (SA)

  1. Extending the Technology Acceptance Model: Policy Acceptance Model (PAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Tamra

    There has been extensive research on how new ideas and technologies are accepted in society. This has resulted in the creation of many models that are used to discover and assess the contributing factors. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one that is a widely accepted model. This model examines people's acceptance of new technologies based on variables that directly correlate to how the end user views the product. This paper introduces the Policy Acceptance Model (PAM), an expansion of TAM, which is designed for the analysis and evaluation of acceptance of new policy implementation. PAM includes the traditional constructs of TAM and adds the variables of age, ethnicity, and family. The model is demonstrated using a survey of people's attitude toward the upcoming healthcare reform in the United States (US) from 72 survey respondents. The aim is that the theory behind this model can be used as a framework that will be applicable to studies looking at the introduction of any new or modified policies.

  2. Black holes: theory and observations (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 December 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-07-01

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), "Black holes: theory and observations," was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, on 23 December 2015. The papers collected in this issue were written based on talks given at the session: (1) I D Novikov (Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Astro Space Center, Moscow; The Niels Bohr International Academy, The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen; National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "Black holes, wormholes, and time machines"; (2) A M Cherepashchuk (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow) "Observing stellar-mass and supermassive black holes"; (3) N S Kardashev (Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Astro Space Center, Moscow) "Millimetron space project: a tool for researching black holes and wormholes." Papers written on the basis of oral presentations 1, 2 are published below. • Observing stellar mass and supermassive black holes, A M Cherepashchuk Physics-Uspekhi, 2016, Volume 59, Number 7, Pages 702–712 • Black holes, wormholes, and time machines, I D Novikov Physics-Uspekhi, 2016, Volume 59, Number 7, Pages 713–715

  3. Who accepts responsibility for their transgressions?

    PubMed

    Schumann, Karina; Dweck, Carol S

    2014-12-01

    After committing an offense, transgressors can optimize their chances of reconciling with the victim by accepting responsibility. However, transgressors may be motivated to avoid admitting fault because it can feel threatening to accept blame for harmful behavior. Who, then, is likely to accept responsibility for a transgression? We examined how implicit theories of personality--whether people see personality as malleable (incremental theory) or fixed (entity theory)--influence transgressors' likelihood of accepting responsibility. We argue that incremental theorists may feel less threatened by accepting responsibility because they are more likely to view the situation as an opportunity for them to grow as a person and develop their relationship with the victim. We found support for our predictions across four studies using a combination of real-world and hypothetical offenses, and correlational and experimental methods. These studies therefore identify an important individual difference factor that can lead to more effective responses from transgressors. PMID:25252938

  4. Evolutionary theory in letters to the editor.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eric Orion; Lowe, Clayton Cory

    2015-05-01

    This research note presents the results of a content analysis of 234 letters to the editors that discuss evolutionary theory and were published in American newspapers. We find that letters to the editor both support and hinder the cause of teaching evolutionary theory in American secondary schools. On the one hand, anti-evolutionary theory messages are marginalized in the letters section. This marginalization signals a low level of legitimacy for creationism. It might also contribute to the sense of tension that sustains creationist identities. On the other hand, relatively few letters explicitly note the fact that scientists or the scientific community accept evolution. Interestingly, the obscuration of the scientific community's support for evolutionary theory occurs both in letters supporting and opposing evolutionary theory.

  5. Evolutionary theory in letters to the editor.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eric Orion; Lowe, Clayton Cory

    2015-05-01

    This research note presents the results of a content analysis of 234 letters to the editors that discuss evolutionary theory and were published in American newspapers. We find that letters to the editor both support and hinder the cause of teaching evolutionary theory in American secondary schools. On the one hand, anti-evolutionary theory messages are marginalized in the letters section. This marginalization signals a low level of legitimacy for creationism. It might also contribute to the sense of tension that sustains creationist identities. On the other hand, relatively few letters explicitly note the fact that scientists or the scientific community accept evolution. Interestingly, the obscuration of the scientific community's support for evolutionary theory occurs both in letters supporting and opposing evolutionary theory. PMID:25540333

  6. Effects of an Educational Experience Incorporating an Inventory of Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Jason R.; Alters, Brian

    2011-12-01

    This investigation provides an extensive review of scientific, religious, and otherwise non-scientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution. We also measure the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following an educational experience designed to address an inclusive inventory of factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution (n = 81, pre-test/post-test) n = 37, one-year longitudinal). Acceptance of evolution was measured using the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic programme during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than initial levels both immediately following and over one year after the educational experience. Results reported herein carry implications for future quantitative and qualitative research as well as for cross-disciplinary instruction plans related to evolutionary science and non-scientific factors which may influence student understanding of evolution.

  7. The (Surplus) Value of Scientific Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    Discusses research on scientific communication. Topics include theory-less and formal technical/natural scientific models of scientific communication; social-scientific, power-sensitive models; the sociology of scientific communication; sciences as fields of competition; fraud and deception; potential surplus value across subject information…

  8. Expert scientific evidence in the Israeli court.

    PubMed

    Sahar, A

    2007-06-01

    Most judges, by the very nature of their educational background, are less than sufficiently prepared for the task to fully comprehend the problems in disputes concerning scientific subjects. Judicial cognizance in such matters gives no support. The judge has no recourse but to rely on Expert Evidence. However, such evidence, especially in the adversarial system, requires the ability to evaluate it. Back to square one? Almost. The Israeli court borrowed, and followed for many years, the American solution - the Frye Principle (Frye v. United States, 54 App.D.C. at 47, 293 F. 1013 (1923) 1014) - "the thing from which the deduction is made must be sufficiently established to have gained general acceptance in the particular field in which it belongs " - meaning that an Expert's view is held as true if proven that it had been held by "the scientific community." This solution presented an almost insurmountable problem for novel scientific ideas. The were also exceptions - several Israeli Courts made the rather difficult task of examining the Experts' "working papers", i.e. the "crude" data on which he based his deductions. The model of such effort seems to be the English decision, by Stuart-Smith LJ in Loveday v Renton and Wellcome Foundation Ltd. ( (QBD) 1 Med Law Review, 1990:117). Seventy years after Frye the U.S. Supreme Court reviewed the subject of evaluation of scientific evidence. The new requirements were "... (1) ... whether the theory or technique can be and has been tested; (2) ... whether the theory or technique has been subjected to peer review ... (3) ... the known or potential rate of error of[the] technique; (4) [no requirement of] a particular degree of acceptance of the theory or technique within that [scientific] community, ... and (5) the inquiry is a flexible one, and the focus must be solely on principles and methodology, not on the conclusions that such principles and methodology generate ". Namely - the Judge, guided by intelligence and logic, is

  9. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  10. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  11. [Challenge in scientific publication].

    PubMed

    Volpato, Gilson Luiz; de Freitas, Eliane Gonçalves

    2003-05-01

    We discuss the main problems which make a scientific text difficult to find, to be read or to be accepted by readers. A scientific text is considered a logical argument. Therefore, methods, results and data from literature are premises supporting the conclusions of the work; and in the "Introduction" session, the justification corroborates the objective of the study. This conception makes the text a hermetically coherent structure where only the necessary data should be included (some controversy is still pertinent). In a second step, we show formal mistakes in scientific writing which make texts less attractive. Thus, we give examples of errors or inadequacy of formal aspects of presenting titles, abstracts, results (figures and tables), and grammar mistakes in Portuguese (but also valid for English grammar). After that, we emphasize the need for writing in international language (English) and for publication in periodicals with international impact on the scientific community. Finally, considerations to improve the Brazilian periodicals in the biological area are presented.

  12. Equivalency Theory and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Discusses distance education and the need for an accepted theory. Highlights include theories of independent study; theory of industrialization of teaching; theory of interaction and communication; and equivalency theory that is based on local control, personalized instruction, and telecommunications. (LRW)

  13. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  14. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct. PMID:26273897

  15. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct.

  16. Scientific and Artistic Authority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The differences and similarities between science and art are commonly discussed in various disciplines, e.g. collective versus individual, truth versus imagination, fact versus fiction, and more. Both art and science involve communication. Both artists and scientists have responsibilities of integrity in the arena of intellectual property. However, an artist has a primary responsibility to his/her personal artistic vision and craft. A scientist has a very clearly defined responsibility to scientific method as a collective practice, i.e. generally accepted scientific knowledge, norms of data collection and analysis as well as norms of communication. In presenting a work of art to an audience, it is accepted that different people will interpret the art through different lens. In science communication, we hope that the audience's understanding is in line with scientific interpretation. When science and art meet, how do we come to an understanding of what the intended message should be and how it should or must be received. Accuracy in fact is important in science, as is accuracy of the message whether it is a process, model, image or story. How do we mediate this tension in collaborative projects? How do we celebrate the artistic nature of an artwork based on science when there is tension between the artistic merit and the scientific content? Authority of the artist, scientist, and organization must be satisfied.

  17. Evolution in action in the classroom: Engaging students in scientific practices to develop a conceptual understanding of natural selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Wendy Renae

    Public understanding and acceptance of the theory of evolution in the United States is not commensurate with its acceptance in the scientific community and its role as the central organizing principle of the biological sciences. There are a multitude of factors that affect student understanding of the theory of evolution documented in the literature including the proposition that understanding of evolution is intimately linked to understanding the nature of science. This study describes the development, implementation, and assessment of learning activities that address the process of natural selection and the scientific methodology that illuminates these mechanisms. While pre and post-test scores were higher for students in an Advanced Placement Biology course than students in a general biology course, similar learning gains were observed in both groups. Learning gains were documented in understanding the random nature of mutations and their importance to the process of natural selection, explaining selection as a competitive advantage of one variation over another type and specifically linking this to reproductive success, and in connecting inheritance, variation, and selection to explain the process of natural selection. Acceptance of the scientific validity of the theory of evolution as measured by the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument also increased significantly in both groups over the course of the school year. These findings suggest that the sequence of activities implemented in this study promote conceptual change about the nature of science and the process of evolution by natural selection in students.

  18. Avoiding the Theory Trap When Discussing Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, David

    2006-02-01

    Public opinion polls tell us that we are losing the battle to explain the nature of evolution and its central role in science. One problem, I believe, is letting the opponents of evolution frame the discussion to our disadvantage. Framing involves the selective use of language or context to trigger responses, either support or opposition. As a prime example, we undercut our communications efforts with many nonscientists by defending the `theory of evolution.' Theory is the wrong word to use in addressing the public. In the contemporary U.S., theory means a hunch or idea that has not been established by evidence. It is thus no surprise that polls show that nearly three quarters of U.S. people think that ``evolution is commonly referred to as the theory of evolution because it has not yet been proven scientifically.'' Those who advocate adding ``only a theory'' disclaimers in textbooks know that to call evolution a theory is sufficient to undermine its acceptance.

  19. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current…

  20. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current debate on realism in contemporary analytic philosophy.

  1. Integrated Model for E-Learning Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadiani; Rodziah, A.; Hasan, S. M.; Rusli, A.; Noraini, C.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning is not going to work if the system is not used in accordance with user needs. User Interface is very important to encourage using the application. Many theories had discuss about user interface usability evaluation and technology acceptance separately, actually why we do not make it correlation between interface usability evaluation and user acceptance to enhance e-learning process. Therefore, the evaluation model for e-learning interface acceptance is considered important to investigate. The aim of this study is to propose the integrated e-learning user interface acceptance evaluation model. This model was combined some theories of e-learning interface measurement such as, user learning style, usability evaluation, and the user benefit. We formulated in constructive questionnaires which were shared at 125 English Language School (ELS) students. This research statistics used Structural Equation Model using LISREL v8.80 and MANOVA analysis.

  2. Acceptability of BCG vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mande, R

    1977-01-01

    The acceptability of BCG vaccination varies a great deal according to the country and to the period when the vaccine is given. The incidence of complications has not always a direct influence on this acceptability, which depends, for a very large part, on the risk of tuberculosis in a given country at a given time.

  3. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J. C. , Jr.; Parker, J. V.; Hinckley, W. B.; Hosack, K. W.; Mills, D.; Parsons, W. M.; Scudder, D. W.; Stokes, J. L.; Tabaka, L. J.; Thompson, M. C.; Wysocki, Frederick Joseph; Campbell, T. N.; Lancaster, D. L.; Tom, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  4. Deans in German Universities: Goal Acceptance and Task Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholkmann, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study which explored how deans at German universities accept their new role as manager, and which factors influence the acceptance of this role. Within a framework referring to Locke and Latham's goal setting theory, the acceptance of operative goals implemented in the faculties served as an indicator of how well…

  5. 40 CFR 161.80 - Acceptability of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accepted methods were used, sufficient numbers of measurements were made to achieve statistical reliability... purposes of this part, and the data permit sound scientific judgments to be made. Such data will not...

  6. Scientific Misconduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores scientific fraud, asserting that while few scientists actually falsify results, the field has become so competitive that many are misbehaving in other ways; an example would be unreasonable criticism by anonymous peer reviewers. (EV)

  7. Acceptance procedures: Microfilm printer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Acceptance tests were made for a special order automatic additive color microfilm printer. Tests include film capacity, film transport, resolution, illumination uniformity, exposure range checks, and color cuing considerations.

  8. Do Students Accept Anthropomorphic and Teleological Formulations as Scientific Explanations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungwirth, E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses anthropomorphic explanations and the use of teleological formulations in biology teaching. Examines whether the teachers' use of "pictorial language" is taken at face value by students. (Author/GA)

  9. Examining the acceptance of and resistance to evolutionary psychology.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Carey J; Whitaker, Mitchell B

    2010-06-07

    The field of psychology remains a divided one. Several different sub-disciplines (e.g., developmental, cognitive, behaviorism, social, etc.) form what could be a unified scientific area. However, there is no widely accepted theory of unification. Charles Darwin once theorized that evolutionary theory would change the foundation of psychology; but over the years, evolutionary psychology has been met with hostile resistance from some of the prominent psychologists within the other sub-disciplines. Yet in recent years, all of the divided sub-disciplines of psychology have been slowly implementing evolutionary principles into their literature and research. This slow integration of evolutionary psychology into the other sub-disciplines indicates the possibility of a unified psychology with evolution as its foundation. This paper briefly reviews the literature within each major sub-discipline of psychology to show their implementation of evolutionary psychological theories, indicating the possibility of evolutionary psychology becoming the unifying paradigm upon which the entire field of psychology can be based. A call for action to continue this process is also discussed.

  10. Getting to Darwin: Obstacles to Accepting Evolution by Natural Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thagard, Paul; Findlay, Scott

    2010-06-01

    Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection is central to modern biology, but is resisted by many people. This paper discusses the major psychological obstacles to accepting Darwin’s theory. Cognitive obstacles to adopting evolution by natural selection include conceptual difficulties, methodological issues, and coherence problems that derive from the intuitiveness of alternative theories. The main emotional obstacles to accepting evolution are its apparent conflict with valued beliefs about God, souls, and morality. We draw on the philosophy of science and on a psychological theory of cognitive and emotional belief revision to make suggestions about what can be done to improve acceptance of Darwinian ideas.

  11. PHIGS PLUS for scientific graphics

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1991-01-14

    This paper gives a brief overview of the use of computer graphics standards in the scientific community. It particularly details how how PHIGS PLUS meets the needs of users at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Although standards for computer graphics have improved substantially over the past decade, their acceptance in the scientific community has been slow. As the use and diversity of computers has increased, the scientific graphics libraries have not been able to keep pace with the additional capabilities these new machines offer. Therefore, several organizations have or are now working on converting their scientific libraries to reset upon a portable standard. This paper will address why is transition has been so slow and offer suggestions for future standards work to enhance scientific visualization. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  12. Scientific millenarianism

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1997-12-01

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO{sub 2} warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper.

  13. Maxwell's Scientific Papers.

    PubMed

    Everitt, C W

    1967-04-01

    This article is a review of a reprint of the 1890 commemoration edition of The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell (Dover Publications, Inc., New York), $12.50. Vol. 1, 607 pp.; Vol.2, 806 pp. One hundred and one of Maxwell's shorter papers, articles, speeches, and reviews on electricity and magnetism, the dynamical theory of gases, theory of light, color vision and other optical problems, elastic solids, molecular physics, etc., are in this reprint; his longer treatises on electricity and magnetism, heat, and matter and motion are not included. This review is illustrated with photographs from the Maxwell family archives which have not been published before.

  14. Speaking Scientific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Peter

    1971-01-01

    Suggests changes for science curricula which will improve the understanding...of the scientific language in which the ideas of science and technology are expressed," including increasing the students' facility with numbers, and in the future, an interdisciplinary course demonstrating the approach of physical, biological and behavioral scientists,…

  15. The Development of the Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation: A Case Study of a Scientific Controversy and the Changing Nature of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Berg, Kevin C.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the evidence proffered by Arrhenius, van't Hoff, and Ostwald in favor of the theory of electrolytic dissociation and outlines objections raised by Armstrong, Fitzgerald, and Pickering. Discusses the implication of the controversy revolving around the nature of chemistry in relation to the teaching and learning of chemistry. (KHR)

  16. The Function of Scientific and Humanistic Ideologies in the Counseling Profession from the Perspective of Cognitive-Experiential Self-Theory: A Response to Hansen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suthakaran, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this response, the author addresses Hansen's (2012) call for the counseling profession to substitute science with humanities as its primary ideology. The author uses Epstein's (1994) cognitive-experiential self-theory to show that an equal appreciation for science and humanities is more congruent with a holistic humanistic vision for…

  17. Integrating Scientific Methods and Knowledge into the Teaching of Newton's Theory of Gravitation: An Instructional Sequence for Teachers' and Students' Nature of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Develaki, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The availability of teaching units on the nature of science (NOS) can reinforce classroom instruction in the subject, taking into account the related deficiencies in textbook material and teacher training. We give a sequence of teaching units in which the teaching of Newton's gravitational theory is used as a basis for reflecting on the…

  18. Scientific Claims versus Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides activities that help students to understand the importance of the scientific method. The activities include the science of fusion and cold fusion; a group activity that analyzes and interprets the events surrounding cold fusion; and an application research project concerning a current science issue. (ZWH)

  19. Smaller hospitals accept advertising.

    PubMed

    Mackesy, R

    1988-07-01

    Administrators at small- and medium-sized hospitals gradually have accepted the role of marketing in their organizations, albeit at a much slower rate than larger institutions. This update of a 1983 survey tracks the increasing competitiveness, complexity and specialization of providing health care and of advertising a small hospital's services. PMID:10288550

  20. Students Accepted on Probation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorberbaum, Caroline S.

    This report is a justification of the Dalton Junior College admissions policy designed to help students who had had academic and/or social difficulties at other schools. These students were accepted on probation, their problems carefully analyzed, and much effort devoted to those with low academic potential. They received extensive academic and…

  1. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  2. Integrating Scientific Methods and Knowledge into the Teaching of Newton's Theory of Gravitation: An Instructional Sequence for Teachers' and Students' Nature of Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Develaki, Maria

    2012-06-01

    The availability of teaching units on the nature of science (NOS) can reinforce classroom instruction in the subject, taking into account the related deficiencies in textbook material and teacher training. We give a sequence of teaching units in which the teaching of Newton's gravitational theory is used as a basis for reflecting on the fundamental factors that enter into the cognitive and evaluative processes of science, such as creativity, empirical data, theorising, substantiating and modelling tactics. Distinguishing phases in the evolution of a theory (initial conception and formation, testing, scope and limits of the theory) helps show how the importance of these factors varies from phase to phase, while they continue to interact throughout the whole process. Our concept of how to teach NOS is based on the introduction of such special units, containing direct instruction in NOS elements incorporated into curricular science content, thus giving an initial theoretical basis with which epistemological points of other course material can be correlated during the usual classroom teaching of the subject throughout the school year. The sequence is presented in the form of teaching units that can also be used in teachers' NOS education, extended in this case by more explicit instruction in basic philosophical views of the nature of science and how they relate to and impact on teaching.

  3. Early bases of modern embryology in Spain: microscopical anatomy and the introduction of cell theory and histology in their scientific and social European context.

    PubMed

    Marco-Cuellar, Roberto; Aréchaga, Juan

    2009-01-01

    We present a survey of the introduction and evolution of microscopy techniques in Spain, and the concepts and lines of research developed around this instrument, particularly in the field of Biomedical research. We cover in our article the long period from the XVII Century to the arrival of the great figure of Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1853-1934). We particularly want to mention many of the previously neglected pioneers who certainly paved the route for his discoveries and, we believe that without them, he would never have arrived to his important position in the annals of Biology and Medicine. The historical, scientific and social framework of that period also helped the approach to important biological concepts such as the cell and tissue, which are previous and essential ideas for a correct understanding of Development.

  4. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer.

  5. Bacon, Boole, the EPA, and scientific standards.

    PubMed

    Root, David H

    2003-08-01

    The scientific standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) include the use of retrospective meta-analysis. This analysis entails a use of the theory of probability that is only a simulation and cannot accurately measure the confidence that should be placed in the results. The uncertainty necessary for probability is, in a retrospective study, simulated rather than real. There are three logical forms for establishing a proposition. In the logic of the syllogism, a proposition is established by deduction from assumed propositions. In the logic of the physical sciences, a proposition is established by its ability to predict the outcomes of future experiments. In the logic of the courtroom, a proposition is established by its ability to explain past events. The logic of the courtroom operates under the handicap of working with nonrepeatable events. It is more subject to the preferences of the judge than the logic of the physical sciences or that of the syllogism. Because the logic of the courtroom is less reliable than either the logic of the physical sciences or that of the syllogism, it is the logic of last resort, i.e., it is used only when the other two are not applicable. Under the EPA scientific standards, the logic of the courtroom is accepted for establishing propositions about the physical world. As the logic of the courtroom is less reliable than that of the physical sciences, this practice increases the likelihood of errors.

  6. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  7. Is risk analysis scientific?

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sven Ove; Aven, Terje

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses to what extent risk analysis is scientific in view of a set of commonly used definitions and criteria. We consider scientific knowledge to be characterized by its subject matter, its success in developing the best available knowledge in its fields of study, and the epistemic norms and values that guide scientific investigations. We proceed to assess the field of risk analysis according to these criteria. For this purpose, we use a model for risk analysis in which science is used as a base for decision making on risks, which covers the five elements evidence, knowledge base, broad risk evaluation, managerial review and judgment, and the decision; and that relates these elements to the domains experts and decisionmakers, and to the domains fact-based or value-based. We conclude that risk analysis is a scientific field of study, when understood as consisting primarily of (i) knowledge about risk-related phenomena, processes, events, etc., and (ii) concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and manage risk, in general and for specific applications (the instrumental part).

  8. Erwin Schrödinger and the rise of wave mechanics. I. Schrödinger's scientific work before the creation of wave mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, Jagdish

    1987-11-01

    This article is in three parts. Part I gives an account of Erwin Schrödinger's growing up and studies in Vienna, his scientific work—first in Vienna from 1911 to 1920, then in Zurich from 1920 to 1925—on the dielectric properties of matter, atmospheric electricity and radioactivity, general relativity, color theory and physiological optics, and on kinetic theory and statistical mechanics. Part II deals with the creation of the theory of wave mechanics by Schrödinger in Zurich during the early months of 1926; he laid the foundations of this theory in his first two communications to Annalen der Physik. Part III deals with the early applications of wave mechanics to atomic problems—including the demonstration of equivalence of wave mechanics with the quantum mechanics of Born, Heisenberg, and Jordan, and that of Dirac—by Schrödinger himself and others. The new theory was immediately accepted by the scientific community.

  9. Conceptual Ecology of Evolution Acceptance among Greek Education Students: The Contribution of Knowledge Increase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Katakos, Efstratios; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored the factors related to acceptance of evolutionary theory among students/preservice preschool education teachers using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical frame. We aimed to examine the acceptance and understanding of evolutionary theory and also the relationship of acceptance and understanding of…

  10. Determinants of Mobile Learning Acceptance: An Empirical Investigation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akour, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Scope and method of study: The purpose of this study was to investigate the determinants of mobile learning acceptance in higher education. Mobile learning is a rapidly growing method of learning that utilizes mobile devices to deliver content. Acceptance of mobile learning theory was derived from technology acceptance theories. The study…

  11. On a Bottom-Up Approach to Scientific Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Two popular models of scientific discovery, abduction and the inference to the best explanation (IBE), presuppose that the reason for accepting a hypothetical explanation A comes from the epistemic and/or explanatory force manifested in the fact that observed fact C is an inferred consequence of A. However, not all discoveries take this top-down procedure from A to C, in which the result of discovery A implies the observed fact C. I contend that discovery can be modeled as a bottom-up procedure based on inductive and analogical rules that lead us to infer from C to A. I take the theory of Dignaga, an Indian medieval logician, as a model of this bottom-up approach. My argument has three panels: 1) this bottom-up approach applies to both commonsense and scientific discovery without the assumption that C has to be an inferred consequence of A; 2) this bottom-up approach helps us get around problems that crop up in applying abduction and/or IBE, which means that scientific discovery need not to be modeled exclusively by top-down approaches; and 3) the existence of the bottom-up approach requires a pluralist attitude towards modeling of scientific discovery.

  12. Technological Diffusion within Educational Institutions: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolski, Stacy; Jackson, Sally

    Expectancy models of behavior such as the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) offer guidelines that aid efforts to facilitate use of new technology. These models remind us that both acceptance of and resistance to technology use are grounded in beliefs and norms regarding the technology. Although TAM is widely…

  13. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  14. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  15. A Complexity Approach to Evaluating National Scientific Systems through International Scientific Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelnio, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to contribute to a fuller understanding of how international scientific collaboration has affected national scientific systems. It does this by developing three methodological approaches grounded in social complexity theory and applying them to the evaluation of national scientific systems. The first methodology identifies…

  16. Gerontechnology acceptance by elderly Hong Kong Chinese: a senior technology acceptance model (STAM).

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Chan, Alan Hoi Shou

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a senior technology acceptance model (STAM) aimed at understanding the acceptance of gerontechnology by older Hong Kong Chinese people. The proposed STAM extended previous technology acceptance models and theories by adding age-related health and ability characteristics of older people. The proposed STAM was empirically tested using a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with a sample of 1012 seniors aged 55 and over in Hong Kong. The result showed that STAM was strongly supported and could explain 68% of the variance in the use of gerontechnology. For older Hong Kong Chinese, individual attributes, which include age, gender, education, gerontechnology self-efficacy and anxiety, and health and ability characteristics, as well as facilitating conditions explicitly and directly affected technology acceptance. These were better predictors of gerontechnology usage behaviour (UB) than the conventionally used attitudinal factors (usefulness and ease of use).

  17. The Myth of Scientific Sufficiency in Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, H. Curtis

    Postwar librarians have sacrificed the humanistic basis of librarianship and regard the use of science in librarianship as a settled issue. American librarianship is currently dominated by the physical thinking of scientific systems theory, which includes Bertalanffy's general system theory, Wiener's cybernetics, and the Hartley-Shannon theory of…

  18. Getting to Darwin: Obstacles to Accepting Evolution by Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thagard, Paul; Findlay, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is central to modern biology, but is resisted by many people. This paper discusses the major psychological obstacles to accepting Darwin's theory. Cognitive obstacles to adopting evolution by natural selection include conceptual difficulties, methodological issues, and coherence problems that…

  19. [Scientific Positioning of Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-ming

    2016-03-01

    Whether traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could be categorized as a kind of science or not has been a controversial issue over last century. Part of the confusion is caused by the indistinguishable usage of Chinese words "science" and "scientific" during discussion. According to western academic standards, TCM cannot be considered as pure or conventional science. However, in author's view, the foundation of a majority part of TCM practice is probably scientific, while many TCM theories remain unproved. In this article, medical theories and practices are classified based on scientific content into eight levels: medical science, scientific medicine, medical system, medical theory, medical opinion, medical belief, medical cultism, and medical fraud. Both Western medicine and TCM are positioned in this system accordingly. Currently, the scientific level of TCM is much lower than that of Western medicine, and more research is needed for its improvement.

  20. Effect of the Kinesthetic Conflict on Promoting Scientific Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druyan, Sara

    1997-01-01

    Presents three studies that demonstrate the efficiency of the kinesthetic conflict in promoting the understanding of three scientific concepts among children aged 5-12. Results support Piaget's theory which determines the origins of scientific thinking. Contains 26 references. (DDR)

  1. Climate Change Conceptual Change: Scientific Information Can Transform Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ranney, Michael Andrew; Clark, Dav

    2016-01-01

    Of this article's seven experiments, the first five demonstrate that virtually no Americans know the basic global warming mechanism. Fortunately, Experiments 2-5 found that 2-45 min of physical-chemical climate instruction durably increased such understandings. This mechanistic learning, or merely receiving seven highly germane statistical facts (Experiment 6), also increased climate-change acceptance-across the liberal-conservative spectrum. However, Experiment 7's misleading statistics decreased such acceptance (and dramatically, knowledge-confidence). These readily available attitudinal and conceptual changes through scientific information disconfirm what we term "stasis theory"--which some researchers and many laypeople varyingly maintain. Stasis theory subsumes the claim that informing people (particularly Americans) about climate science may be largely futile or even counterproductive--a view that appears historically naïve, suffers from range restrictions (e.g., near-zero mechanistic knowledge), and/or misinterprets some polarization and (noncausal) correlational data. Our studies evidenced no polarizations. Finally, we introduce HowGlobalWarmingWorks.org--a website designed to directly enhance public "climate-change cognition."

  2. Climate Change Conceptual Change: Scientific Information Can Transform Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ranney, Michael Andrew; Clark, Dav

    2016-01-01

    Of this article's seven experiments, the first five demonstrate that virtually no Americans know the basic global warming mechanism. Fortunately, Experiments 2-5 found that 2-45 min of physical-chemical climate instruction durably increased such understandings. This mechanistic learning, or merely receiving seven highly germane statistical facts (Experiment 6), also increased climate-change acceptance-across the liberal-conservative spectrum. However, Experiment 7's misleading statistics decreased such acceptance (and dramatically, knowledge-confidence). These readily available attitudinal and conceptual changes through scientific information disconfirm what we term "stasis theory"--which some researchers and many laypeople varyingly maintain. Stasis theory subsumes the claim that informing people (particularly Americans) about climate science may be largely futile or even counterproductive--a view that appears historically naïve, suffers from range restrictions (e.g., near-zero mechanistic knowledge), and/or misinterprets some polarization and (noncausal) correlational data. Our studies evidenced no polarizations. Finally, we introduce HowGlobalWarmingWorks.org--a website designed to directly enhance public "climate-change cognition." PMID:26804198

  3. A Social Control Perspective on Scientific Misconduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Edward J.

    1994-01-01

    Some explanations for scientific misconduct are examined, including those based on theories of individual psychopathology, anomie, and alienation. An alternative explanation, drawing on the concept of social control, is presented, and implications for research and policy are examined. (MSE)

  4. Scientific Visualization and Computational Science: Natural Partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uselton, Samuel P.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Scientific visualization is developing rapidly, stimulated by computational science, which is gaining acceptance as a third alternative to theory and experiment. Computational science is based on numerical simulations of mathematical models derived from theory. But each individual simulation is like a hypothetical experiment; initial conditions are specified, and the result is a record of the observed conditions. Experiments can be simulated for situations that can not really be created or controlled. Results impossible to measure can be computed.. Even for observable values, computed samples are typically much denser. Numerical simulations also extend scientific exploration where the mathematics is analytically intractable. Numerical simulations are used to study phenomena from subatomic to intergalactic scales and from abstract mathematical structures to pragmatic engineering of everyday objects. But computational science methods would be almost useless without visualization. The obvious reason is that the huge amounts of data produced require the high bandwidth of the human visual system, and interactivity adds to the power. Visualization systems also provide a single context for all the activities involved from debugging the simulations, to exploring the data, to communicating the results. Most of the presentations today have their roots in image processing, where the fundamental task is: Given an image, extract information about the scene. Visualization has developed from computer graphics, and the inverse task: Given a scene description, make an image. Visualization extends the graphics paradigm by expanding the possible input. The goal is still to produce images; the difficulty is that the input is not a scene description displayable by standard graphics methods. Visualization techniques must either transform the data into a scene description or extend graphics techniques to display this odd input. Computational science is a fertile field for visualization

  5. Replicative Nature of Indian Research, Essence of Scientific Temper, and Future of Scientific Progress*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2004-01-01

    A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature. This is because originality is at a premium here and mediocrity is in great demand. But replication has its merit as well because it helps in corroboration. And that is the bedrock on which many a fancied scientific hypothesis or theory stands, or falls. However, to go from replicative to original research will involve a massive effort to restructure the Indian psyche and an all round effort from numerous quarters. The second part of this paper deals with the essence of scientific temper,which need not have any basic friendship, or animosity, with religion, faith, superstition and other such entities. A true scientist follows two cardinal rules. He is never unwilling to accept the worth of evidence, howsoever damning to the most favourite of his theories. Second, and perhaps more important, for want of evidence, he withholds comment. He says neither yes nor no. Where will Science ultimately lead Man is the third part of this essay. One argument is that the conflict between Man and Science will continue tilleither of them is exhausted or wiped out. The other believes that it is Science which has to be harnessed for Man and not Man used for Science. And with the numerous checks and balances in place, Science will remain an effective tool for man's progress. The essential value-neutrality of Science will have to be supplemented by the values that man has upheld for centuries as fundamental, and which religious thought and moral philosophy have continuously professed. PMID:22815607

  6. Acceptable regret in medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Djulbegovic, B; Hozo, I; Schwartz, A; McMasters, K M

    1999-09-01

    When faced with medical decisions involving uncertain outcomes, the principles of decision theory hold that we should select the option with the highest expected utility to maximize health over time. Whether a decision proves right or wrong can be learned only in retrospect, when it may become apparent that another course of action would have been preferable. This realization may bring a sense of loss, or regret. When anticipated regret is compelling, a decision maker may choose to violate expected utility theory to avoid regret. We formulate a concept of acceptable regret in medical decision making that explicitly introduces the patient's attitude toward loss of health due to a mistaken decision into decision making. In most cases, minimizing expected regret results in the same decision as maximizing expected utility. However, when acceptable regret is taken into consideration, the threshold probability below which we can comfortably withhold treatment is a function only of the net benefit of the treatment, and the threshold probability above which we can comfortably administer the treatment depends only on the magnitude of the risks associated with the therapy. By considering acceptable regret, we develop new conceptual relations that can help decide whether treatment should be withheld or administered, especially when the diagnosis is uncertain. This may be particularly beneficial in deciding what constitutes futile medical care. PMID:10580533

  7. The importance of assessing and communicating scientific consensus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maibach, Edward W.; van der Linden, Sander L.

    2016-09-01

    The spread of influential misinformation, such as conspiracy theories about the existence of a secret, large-scale atmospheric spraying program (SLAP), is contributing to the politicization of science. In an important recent study, Shearer et al (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 084011) employ a novel methodology to quantify the expert consensus of popular SLAP assertions. The authors find that 99% (76/77) of surveyed experts have not encountered any evidence that would support the existence of such a program. Here we argue that this finding is important because a growing body of research has shown that the public’s perception of expert consensus on key societal issues acts an important ‘gateway’ to science acceptance. Furthermore, communicating normative agreement among experts, such as the strong scientific consensus against the existence of a SLAP, can help limit the spread of misinformation and promote more effective public decision-making about science and society.

  8. Family theory and the scientific method.

    PubMed

    Schwartzman, J

    1984-06-01

    The evolution of family interactional research reveals a transformation from the theoretical concerns of a novel cybernetic paradigm to methodological problems of a prior mechanistic one. This change can be understood, within a cybernetic perspective, as an example of the characteristic functioning of adaptive systems attempting to maintain themselves unchanged under changed circumstances. A turn to a focus on method results in theoretical self-correction and the implicit retention of a mechanistic paradigm. This eliminates those most novel aspects of family interactional research that suggested the beginning of a cybernetic paradigm. A mechanistic methodology for family interaction research can be understood as an analogue to ritual in social systems. A primary attribute of ritual, sanctity, self-reflexively defines certain basic premises as unquestionable. By this, it regulates the beliefs of those who act it out, and eliminates the most radial novelty that confronts these beliefs. The evolution of family interactional research and its changing relationship to its methodology is an example of this process, the introduction and rejection of novelty by self-regulating systems. In this case, a challenge to the basic premises of a mechanistic paradigm is subverted, using its method as the arbitrator of validity in family interactional research.

  9. Goethe's Theory of Color and Scientific Intuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, Arthur G.

    1976-01-01

    Summarizes Goethe's color studies and his methods of study. It is proposed that the act of accurate qualitative observation creates the capability in the observer for an intuitive understanding of the physical laws underlying the phenomena under observation. The use of such a method as a basis for laboratory instruction is discussed. (Author/CP)

  10. Pearls of Publishing: Advice for Increasing Your Acceptance Odds.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J; Provencher, Matthew T; Lubowitz, James H

    2016-07-01

    Pearls of wisdom can be a convenient and efficient strategy to improve performance. As Editors, we employ pearls to standardize the review and editorial process, and we offer our own pearls to you to help facilitate acceptance of submitted research manuscripts with the ultimate goal of strengthening scientific conclusions that can affect patient care, and ultimately, improve outcome.

  11. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  12. Pearls of Publishing: Advice for Increasing Your Acceptance Odds.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J; Provencher, Matthew T; Lubowitz, James H

    2016-07-01

    Pearls of wisdom can be a convenient and efficient strategy to improve performance. As Editors, we employ pearls to standardize the review and editorial process, and we offer our own pearls to you to help facilitate acceptance of submitted research manuscripts with the ultimate goal of strengthening scientific conclusions that can affect patient care, and ultimately, improve outcome. PMID:27373169

  13. 76 FR 23323 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM... the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of toxicological and safety testing methods that.../live ). SACATM advises the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative...

  14. Human Sociobiology, Education, and the Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albury, Randall

    1981-01-01

    Examines sociobiology (the biological study of human and animal social behavior on the basis of population genetics), which appears to have rapidly become scientifically acceptable, to determine if it constitutes good science. (PB)

  15. Does expressed acceptance reflect genuine attitudes? A bogus pipeline study of the effects of mortality salience on acceptance of a person with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Grover, Kristin W; Miller, Carol T

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether expressed acceptance of a person with AIDS reflects genuine acceptance or a desire to appear to be accepting. Theory and research on the effects of mortality salience on acceptance of stigmatized people provided the framework for investigating this question. After writing about death or another aversive topic, participants indicated their acceptance of a target with AIDS while connected to physiological equipment that they believed could detect lies (bogus pipeline) or was simply measuring physiological responses to participation in the study. As predicted, participants in the mortality salience/bogus pipeline condition indicated significantly less acceptance of the target with AIDS than participants in the other three conditions, suggesting that acceptance of a person with AIDS is at least partially a result of wanting to appear to be accepting, without necessarily genuinely accepting someone with AIDS.

  16. Science and Society: The Case of Acceptance of Newtonian Optics in the Eighteenth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Cibelle Celestino; Moura, Breno Arsioli

    2012-09-01

    The present paper presents a historical study on the acceptance of Newton's corpuscular theory of light in the early eighteenth century. Isaac Newton first published his famous book Opticks in 1704. After its publication, it became quite popular and was an almost mandatory presence in cultural life of Enlightenment societies. However, Newton's optics did not become popular only via his own words and hands, but also via public lectures and short books with scientific contents devoted to general public (including women) that emerged in the period as a sort of entertainment business. Lectures and writers stressed the inductivist approach to the study of nature and presented Newton's ideas about optics as they were consensual among natural philosophers in the period. The historical case study presented in this paper illustrates relevant aspects of nature of science, which can be explored by students of physics on undergraduate level or in physics teacher training programs.

  17. What Does Galileo's Discovery of Jupiter's Moons Tell Us About the Process of Scientific Discovery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    In 1610, Galileo Galilei discovered Jupiter''smoons with the aid of a new morepowerful telescope of his invention. Analysisof his report reveals that his discoveryinvolved the use of at least three cycles ofhypothetico-deductive reasoning. Galileofirst used hypothetico-deductive reasoning to generateand reject a fixed star hypothesis.He then generated and rejected an ad hocastronomers-made-a-mistake hypothesis.Finally, he generated, tested, and accepted a moonhypothesis. Galileo''s reasoningis modeled in terms of Piaget''s equilibration theory,Grossberg''s theory of neurologicalactivity, a neural network model proposed by Levine &Prueitt, and another proposedby Kosslyn & Koenig. Given that hypothetico-deductivereasoning has played a rolein other important scientific discoveries, thequestion is asked whether it plays a rolein all important scientific discoveries. In otherwords, is hypothetico-deductive reasoningthe essence of the scientific method? Possiblealternative scientific methods, such asBaconian induction and combinatorial analysis,are explored and rejected as viablealternatives. Educational implications of thishypothetico-deductive view of scienceare discussed.

  18. Effects of an Educational Experience Incorporating an Inventory of Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Jason R.; Alters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This investigation provides an extensive review of scientific, religious, and otherwise non-scientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution. We also measure the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following an educational experience designed to address an inclusive inventory of factors identified…

  19. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  20. The Acceptance and Use of a Virtual Learning Environment in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Raaij, Erik M.; Schepers, Jeroen J. L.

    2008-01-01

    The success of a virtual learning environment (VLE) depends to a considerable extent on student acceptance and use of such an e-learning system. After critically assessing models of technology adoption, including the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), TAM2, and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT), we build a conceptual…

  1. The History of UTAUT Model and Its Impact on ICT Acceptance and Usage by Academicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oye, N. D.; Iahad, N. A.; Rahim, N. Ab.

    2014-01-01

    This paper started with the review of the history of technology acceptance model from TRA to UTAUT. The expected contribution is to bring to lime light the current development stage of the technology acceptance model. Based on this, the paper examined the impact of UTAUT model on ICT acceptance and usage in HEIs. The UTAUT model theory was…

  2. Publication ethics and scientific misconduct.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2010-12-01

    To maintain the readers' trust and to uphold the journal's reputation, it is paramount for the entire research, peer reviewer and publication process to follow ethical principles and decisions. Studies involving humans, animals, medical records and human tissues/organs need to be conducted ethically, and the appropriate approvals obtained. The privacy and confidentiality of patients, authors and reviewers should be respected. When required, rights and permissions should be sought. Common forms of scientific misconduct include misappropriation of ideas, violation of generally accepted research practices, failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements, falsification of data, and inappropriate behaviour in relation to misconduct. Authors can expect editorial action to be taken, should duplicate publication, plagiarism and other forms of scientific misconduct be attempted or detected. PMID:21221494

  3. What is meant by the term acceptance of technology and locating the acceptance of the CCS Technology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harz, Mario; Vesper, Anton

    2013-04-01

    abstract: The formal language of logic expresses concepts and statements exactly. The logic of relations can serve as an important ressource for the philosophical analysis of technology and the construction of philosophical propositions about acceptance of technology. The theory of logical relations is used to investigate the theoretical structure of how acceptance of technologies can be revealed. The term "ordered tuple" helps to define the basis of the concept of logical relations. The term "acceptance of technology" refers to neither a thing nor a property; but to a complex relationship. The research refers to the study of the properties of this complex relationship. It examines the properties of reflexivity, total reflexivity, symmetry, transitivity, irreflexivity and asymmetry. Using these properties and the rules for forming converses-relations and partial-relations the question is analyzed: What, in general, is meant by the term "acceptance of technology?" These properties have been observed empirically at a discussion forum for the key players in the Brandenburg discourse on the acceptance of CCS technology. The meeting was held on the 8th of May 2012 in St. Nicholas Church, Cottbus (GER). The pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation is used to locate the acceptance of the CCS technology. With the ideal model of critical discussion as the methodological starting point the term "acceptance" can be defined in terms of the four meta-theoretical principles of the theory. That boils down to the findings that acceptance is the externalization of a positive commitment towards a proposition, acceptance is expressed by the speech act "to accept" and acceptance occurs in the dialogical, interactional setting of a critical discussion with the aim of resolving a difference of opinion. In the study differences of opinion about (descriptive, normative, evaluative) standpoints about the CCS technology from everyday problem-solving discussions are investigated. The

  4. Dissolution test acceptance sampling plans.

    PubMed

    Tsong, Y; Hammerstrom, T; Lin, K; Ong, T E

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) general monograph provides a standard for dissolution compliance with the requirements as stated in the individual USP monograph for a tablet or capsule dosage form. The acceptance rules recommended by USP have important roles in the quality control process. The USP rules and their modifications are often used as an industrial lot release sampling plan, where a lot is accepted when the tablets or capsules sampled are accepted as proof of compliance with the requirement. In this paper, the operating characteristics of the USP acceptance rules are reviewed and compared to a selected modification. The operating characteristics curves show that the USP acceptance rules are sensitive to the true mean dissolution and do not reject a lot or batch that has a large percentage of tablets that dissolve with less than the dissolution specification.

  5. Grounded theory, feminist theory, critical theory: toward theoretical triangulation.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick; Morrow, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Nursing and social science scholars have examined the compatibility between feminist and grounded theory traditions in scientific knowledge generation, concluding that they are complementary, yet not without certain tensions. This line of inquiry is extended to propose a critical feminist grounded theory methodology. The construction of symbolic interactionist, feminist, and critical feminist variants of grounded theory methodology is examined in terms of the presuppositions of each tradition and their interplay as a process of theoretical triangulation.

  6. Conceptual Ecology of the Evolution Acceptance among Greek Education Students: Knowledge, religious practices and social influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we explored some of the factors related to the acceptance of evolution theory among Greek university students training to be teachers in early childhood education, using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical framework. We examined the acceptance of evolution theory and we also looked into the relationship between the acceptance and parents' education level, thinking dispositions and frequency of religious practice as independent variables. Students' moderate acceptance of evolution theory is positively correlated with the frequency of religious practices and thinking dispositions. Our findings indicate that studying a controversial issue such as the acceptance of evolution theory in a multivariate fashion, using conceptual ecology as a theoretical lens to interpret the findings, is informative. They also indicate the differences that exist between societies and how socio-cultural factors such as the nature of religion, as part of the conceptual ecology, influence acceptance of evolution and have an influence on evolution education.

  7. Conceptual Ecology of the Evolution Acceptance among Greek Education Students: Knowledge, Religious Practices and Social Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored some of the factors related to the acceptance of evolution theory among Greek university students training to be teachers in early childhood education, using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical framework. We examined the acceptance of evolution theory and we also looked into the relationship…

  8. Scientific knowledge and modern prospecting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuerburg, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Modern prospecting is the systematic search for specified and generally ill-exposed components of the Earth's crust known as ore. This prospecting depends entirely on reliable, or scientific knowledge for guidance and for recognition of the search objects. Improvement in prospecting results from additions and refinements to scientific knowledge. Scientific knowledge is an ordered distillation of observations too numerous and too complex in themselves for easy understanding and for effective management. The ordering of these observations is accomplished by an evolutionary hierarchy of abstractions. These abstractions employ simplified descriptions consisting of characterization by selected properties, sampling to represent much larger parts of a phenomenon, generalized mappings of patterns of geometrical and numerical relations among properties, and explanation (theory) of these patterns as functional relations among the selected properties. Each abstraction is predicated on the mode of abstraction anticipated for the next higher level, so that research is a deductive process in which the highest level, theory, is indispensible for the growth and refinement of scientific knowledge, and therefore of prospecting methodology. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag.

  9. [Scientific standards in parasitology in historical perspective].

    PubMed

    Lonc, Elzbieta; Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of scientific standards in parasitology was carried out from the perspective of anthropology of knowledge - a new discipline that emerged from non-classical history science in the 1990s. The history of parasitology, its development and limitations, are presented in a broad socio-cultural context, as the answers of scientists to different social needs in historical periods. In parasitological history there are some periods characteristic for all newly emerging disciplines of natural science. The first systematic account of natural phenomena and their interpretations was initiated in the 16th century and continued till the mid 18th century. It was a period when the phenomena could not be explained in a proper way by the existing and accepted theories. The epidemic diseases were one of these phenomena which were interpreted based on ancient ideas, mostly humoral pathology. In the 16th century a new contagium concept of material factors (pathogenes) that could be spread by contact among humans or close association was formed. This hypothesis, however, was not widely accepted because it contradicted the well-established normative concepts in the European academic naturalism. The development of parasitology was stopped because of theoretical barriers and interpretation difficulties (non-materialistic standard of naturalism, humoral pathology and spontaneous theory). In the second half of the 18th century, the theoretical crisis in natural sciences gave a new impulse for many disciplines; among others, parasitology entered in its second stage of development. The collected observations were classified in a new way and in the context of new interpretations. The progress in parasitology was prompted by the intensified urbanization, rapid increase of European population as well as by wars connected with infections and epidemics. It resulted in two competitive research programs (the French and the German). On the basis of the same observations, they advanced

  10. [Scientific standards in parasitology in historical perspective].

    PubMed

    Lonc, Elzbieta; Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of scientific standards in parasitology was carried out from the perspective of anthropology of knowledge - a new discipline that emerged from non-classical history science in the 1990s. The history of parasitology, its development and limitations, are presented in a broad socio-cultural context, as the answers of scientists to different social needs in historical periods. In parasitological history there are some periods characteristic for all newly emerging disciplines of natural science. The first systematic account of natural phenomena and their interpretations was initiated in the 16th century and continued till the mid 18th century. It was a period when the phenomena could not be explained in a proper way by the existing and accepted theories. The epidemic diseases were one of these phenomena which were interpreted based on ancient ideas, mostly humoral pathology. In the 16th century a new contagium concept of material factors (pathogenes) that could be spread by contact among humans or close association was formed. This hypothesis, however, was not widely accepted because it contradicted the well-established normative concepts in the European academic naturalism. The development of parasitology was stopped because of theoretical barriers and interpretation difficulties (non-materialistic standard of naturalism, humoral pathology and spontaneous theory). In the second half of the 18th century, the theoretical crisis in natural sciences gave a new impulse for many disciplines; among others, parasitology entered in its second stage of development. The collected observations were classified in a new way and in the context of new interpretations. The progress in parasitology was prompted by the intensified urbanization, rapid increase of European population as well as by wars connected with infections and epidemics. It resulted in two competitive research programs (the French and the German). On the basis of the same observations, they advanced

  11. Disengagement theory revisited.

    PubMed

    Markson, E W

    1975-01-01

    Cumming and Henry erected the basic frame for a socio-cultural theory of normal aging in their 1961 book, Growing Old. The basic postulates of this theory are reviewed, and the overall structure of the theory briefly examined. Critical data necessary either to accept or reject disengagement theory are not yet available, although useful information has been gathered since the theory first appeared. Part of the difficulty in amassing "proof" or "disproof" is inherent in the intricate and complex nature of the aging process itself. This orienting paper introduced a set of contributtions by other commentators on disengagement theory.

  12. The Scientific Method: Modus Operandi or Supreme Court?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailman, Jack P.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a schema to replace the generally accepted notion of the scientific method being described as an individual scientist's behavior. The schema is described as the summary process by which scientific understanding of the universe is advanced, how knowledge is created and tested, and how workable models emerge. (EB)

  13. SCCR Digital Learning System for Scientific Conceptual Change and Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    She, H. C.; Lee, C. Q.

    2008-01-01

    This study reports an adaptive digital learning project, scientific concept construction and reconstruction (SCCR), that was developed based on the theories of Dual Situated Learning Model (DSLM) and scientific reasoning. In addition, the authors investigated the effects of an SCCR related to a "combustion" topic for sixth grade students…

  14. Evaluating the ethical acceptability of animal research.

    PubMed

    Bout, Henriëtte J; Fentener van Vlissingen, J Martje; Karssing, Edgar D

    2014-11-01

    The ethical acceptability of animal research is typically evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Legislation such as Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes provides guidance for ethical evaluation of animal use proposals but does not dictate the outcome, leaving this determination to the ethical review committees of individual institutions. The authors assess different ethics models and how these are reflected in the guidelines of Directive 2010/63/EU. They also describe a matrix for carrying out harm-benefit analyses of animal use proposals, which they identified by examining the practices of three ethical review committees in the Netherlands. Finally, they discuss how this matrix can be applied by ethical review committees at other institutions.

  15. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  16. Engineers' Non-Scientific Models in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norstrom, Per

    2013-01-01

    Engineers commonly use rules, theories and models that lack scientific justification. Examples include rules of thumb based on experience, but also models based on obsolete science or folk theories. Centrifugal forces, heat and cold as substances, and sucking vacuum all belong to the latter group. These models contradict scientific knowledge, but…

  17. SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

  18. Acceptability of bio-engineered vaccines.

    PubMed

    Danner, K

    1997-01-01

    For hundreds of years bacterial and viral vaccines have been-in a way-bioengineered and were generally well received by the public, the authorities, and the medical profession. Today, additional tools, e.g. molecular biology, enable new approaches to the development of better and safer products. Various vaccines derived from gene technology have now been licensed for commercial use and are acknowledged within the scientific community. Acceptance by the public and the politicians is, however, negatively influenced by the discussions encompassing gene manipulation in man and animals, transgenic plant, and "novel food". Lack of information leads to confusion and fear. Concurrently, the absence of spectacular and life-threatening epidemics limits the perceived value of immune prophylaxis and its benefits. Scientists in institutes and industry are in a position to stimulate acceptability of bio-engineered vaccines by following some simple rule: (1) adherence to the principles of safety; (2) establishment of analytical and control methods; (3) well functioning regulatory and reporting systems; (4) demonstration of usefulness and economic benefits; (5) open communication; and (6) correct and prudent wording. PMID:9023035

  19. College students' use of science content during socioscientific issues negotiation: Impact of evolution understanding and acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Samantha R.

    The purpose of this study was to explore the evolution science content used during college students' negotiation of biology-based socioscientific issues (SSI) and examine how it related to students' conceptual understanding and acceptance of biological evolution. Specific research questions were, (1a) what specific evolutionary science content do college students evoke during SSI negotiation, (1b) what is the depth of the evolutionary science content reflected in college students. SSI negotiation, and (2) what is the nature of the interaction between evolution understanding and evolution acceptance as they relate to depth of use of evolution content during SSI negotiation? The Socioscientific Issues Questionnaire (SSI-Q) was developed using inductive data analysis to examine science content use and to develop a rubric for measuring depth of evolutionary science content use during SSI negotiation. Sixty upper level undergraduate biology and non-biology majors completed the SSI-Q and also the Conceptual Inventory of Natural Selection (CINS: Anderson, Fisher, & Norman, 2002) to measure evolution understanding and the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE: Rutledge & Warden, 1999) to measure evolution acceptance. A multiple regression analysis tested for interaction effects between the predictor variables, evolution understanding and evolution acceptance. Results indicate that college students primarily use science concepts related to evolution to negotiate biology-based SSI: variation in a population, inheritance of traits, differential success, and change through time. The hypothesis that the extent of one's acceptance of evolution is a mitigating factor in how evolution content is evoked during SSI negotiation was supported by the data. This was seen in that evolution was the predominant science content used by participants for each of the three SSI scenarios used in this study and used consistently throughout the three SSI scenarios. In addition to

  20. Psychoacoustic entropy theory and its implications for performance practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohman, Gregory J.

    This dissertation attempts to motivate, derive and imply potential uses for a generalized perceptual theory of musical harmony called psychoacoustic entropy theory. This theory treats the human auditory system as a physical system which takes acoustic measurements. As a result, the human auditory system is subject to all the appropriate uncertainties and limitations of other physical measurement systems. This is the theoretic basis for defining psychoacoustic entropy. Psychoacoustic entropy is a numerical quantity which indexes the degree to which the human auditory system perceives instantaneous disorder within a sound pressure wave. Chapter one explains the importance of harmonic analysis as a tool for performance practice. It also outlines the critical limitations for many of the most influential historical approaches to modeling harmonic stability, particularly when compared to available scientific research in psychoacoustics. Rather than analyze a musical excerpt, psychoacoustic entropy is calculated directly from sound pressure waves themselves. This frames psychoacoustic entropy theory in the most general possible terms as a theory of musical harmony, enabling it to be invoked for any perceivable sound. Chapter two provides and examines many widely accepted mathematical models of the acoustics and psychoacoustics of these sound pressure waves. Chapter three introduces entropy as a precise way of measuring perceived uncertainty in sound pressure waves. Entropy is used, in combination with the acoustic and psychoacoustic models introduced in chapter two, to motivate the mathematical formulation of psychoacoustic entropy theory. Chapter four shows how to use psychoacoustic entropy theory to analyze the certain types of musical harmonies, while chapter five applies the analytical tools developed in chapter four to two short musical excerpts to influence their interpretation. Almost every form of harmonic analysis invokes some degree of mathematical reasoning

  1. Explanation of Police Officers' Information Technology Acceptance Using the Technology Acceptance Model and Social Cognitive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delice, Murat

    2009-01-01

    In the last decades, information technology (IT) has touched every aspect of life. Computers have been used in a great range of fields such as education, government, business, entertainment, and daily life. Similar to other organizations, police organizations use IT systems to improve their effectiveness and performance. However, police…

  2. Scientific progress without increasing verisimilitude: In response to Niiniluoto.

    PubMed

    Rowbottom, Darrell P

    2015-06-01

    First, I argue that scientific progress is possible in the absence of increasing verisimilitude in science's theories. Second, I argue that increasing theoretical verisimilitude is not the central, or primary, dimension of scientific progress. Third, I defend my previous argument that unjustified changes in scientific belief may be progressive. Fourth, I illustrate how false beliefs can promote scientific progress in ways that cannot be explicated by appeal to verisimilitude.

  3. Public Acceptance of Nuclear Energy in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Jose R.; Alonso, Gustavo; Palacios, H. Javier

    2006-07-01

    The nuclear energy is attracting renewed interest of public and policy makers due to his potential role in long term strategies aiming to reduce the risk of global warming and in a more general, to carry out sustainable policies, however, any project of nuclear nature arise concerns about the risks associated with the release of radioactivity during accident conditions, radioactive waste disposal and nuclear weapons proliferation. Then in light of the likeliness for a new nuclear project in Mexico, is necessary to design a strategy to improve the social acceptance of nuclear power. This concern is been boarding since the environmental and economic point of view. The information that can change the perception of nuclear energy towards increase public acceptance, should be an honest debate about the benefits of nuclear energy, of course there are questions and they have to be answered, but in a realistic and scientific way: So thinking in Mexico as a first step it is important to communicate to the government entities and political parties that nuclear energy is a proven asset that it is emission free and safe. Of course besides the guarantee of a proven technology, clean and safe relies the economic fact, and in Mexico this could be the most important aspect to communicate to key people in government. Based in the Laguna Verde survey it is clear that we have to find the adequate means to distribute the real information concerning nuclear technology to the public, because the results shows that Mexican people does not have complete information about nuclear energy, but public can support it when they have enough information. From the IAEA study we can say that in Mexico public acceptance of nuclear energy it s not so bad, is the highest percentage of acceptance of nuclear technology for health, considering benefits to the environment Mexican opposition to build new plants is the second less percentage, and generally speaking 60% of the people accept somehow nuclear

  4. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  5. Scientific and non-scientific challenges for Operational Earthquake Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, W.

    2015-12-01

    Tracking the time evolution of seismic hazard in time windows shorter than the usual 50-years of long-term hazard models may offer additional opportunities to reduce the seismic risk. This is the target of operational earthquake forecasting (OEF). During the OEF development in Italy we identify several challenges that range from pure science to the more practical interface of science with society. From a scientific point of view, although earthquake clustering is the clearest empirical evidence about earthquake occurrence, and OEF clustering models are the most (successfully) tested hazard models in seismology, we note that some seismologists are still reluctant to accept their scientific reliability. After exploring the motivations of these scientific doubts, we also look into an issue that is often overlooked in this discussion, i.e., in any kind of hazard analysis, we do not use a model because it is the true one, but because it is the better than anything else we can think of. The non-scientific aspects are mostly related to the fact that OEF usually provides weekly probabilities of large eartquakes smaller than 1%. These probabilities are considered by some seismologists too small to be of interest or useful. However, in a recent collaboration with engineers we show that such earthquake probabilities may lead to intolerable individual risk of death. Interestingly, this debate calls for a better definition of the still fuzzy boundaries among the different expertise required for the whole risk mitigation process. The last and probably more pressing challenge is related to the communication to the public. In fact, a wrong message could be useless or even counterproductive. Here we show some progresses that we have made in this field working with communication experts in Italy.

  6. WWW: The Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  7. Redefining the "Scientific Method".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiece, Kelly R.; Colosi, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Surveys 15 introductory biology textbooks for their presentation of the scientific method. Teaching the scientific method involves more than simplified steps and subjectivity--human politics, cultural influences, and chance are all a part of science. Presents an activity for students to experience the scientific method. (Contains 34 references.)…

  8. Of moths and men: Theo Lang and the persistence of Richard Goldschmidt's theory of homosexuality, 1916-1960.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, M R

    2000-01-01

    Using an analogy between moths and men, in 1916, Richard Goldschmidt proposed that homosexuality was a case of genetic intersexuality. As he strove to create a unified theory of sex determination that would encompass animals ranging from moths to men, Goldschmidt's doubts grew concerning the association of homosexuality with intersexuality until, in 1931, he dropped homosexuality from his theory of intersexuality. Despite Goldschmidt's explicit rejection of his theory of homosexuality, Theo Lang, a researcher in the Genealogical-Demographic Department of the Institute for Psychiatric Research in Munich, revived it, maintained Goldschmidt's association with it, and argued on its behalf in publications from 1936 to 1960. Lang's appropriation of Goldschmidt's theory did not depend on his resolution of the difficulties Goldschmidt had found with his own theory. Lang and Goldschmidt, I argue, had fundamentally different scientific and social commitments that allowed one to reject this theory of homosexuality and the other to accept it.

  9. Evolution: Theory or Dogma?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, William V.

    In this paper the author examines the question of whether evolution is a theory or a dogma. He refutes the contention that there is a monolithic scientific conspiracy to present evolution as dogma and suggests that his own presentation might be more appropriately entitled "Creationism: Theory or Dogma." (PEB)

  10. The theory of evolution - a jewish perspective.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2010-07-01

    information will be discovered. The theory of evolution is based upon certain facts, many assumptions, speculations, and interpretations, and some fundamental non-evidence-based beliefs. Judaism accepts all experimentally proven facts and observations of the theory of evolution. Judaism accepts some of the assumptions and interpretations embedded in the theory of evolution, but rejects other assumptions and speculations which contradict fundamental Jewish beliefs, and which are anyway not scientifically proven; to those Judaism offers different interpretations. Judaism strongly rejects all the extensions of the theory of evolution beyond natural sciences, which endorse the biological assumption of the "survival of the fittest" in commerce and human societies as a whole by justifying claims of social inequality, sexism, racism, Nazism, eugenics, and other moral-social deviations as "laws of nature".

  11. The Theory of Evolution - A Jewish Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    scientific information will be discovered. The theory of evolution is based upon certain facts, many assumptions, speculations, and interpretations, and some fundamental non-evidence-based beliefs. Judaism accepts all experimentally proven facts and observations of the theory of evolution. Judaism accepts some of the assumptions and interpretations embedded in the theory of evolution, but rejects other assumptions and speculations which contradict fundamental Jewish beliefs, and which are anyway not scientifically proven; to those Judaism offers different interpretations. Judaism strongly rejects all the extensions of the theory of evolution beyond natural sciences, which endorse the biological assumption of the “survival of the fittest” in commerce and human societies as a whole by justifying claims of social inequality, sexism, racism, Nazism, eugenics, and other moral-social deviations as “laws of nature”. PMID:23908780

  12. The theory of evolution - a jewish perspective.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2010-07-01

    information will be discovered. The theory of evolution is based upon certain facts, many assumptions, speculations, and interpretations, and some fundamental non-evidence-based beliefs. Judaism accepts all experimentally proven facts and observations of the theory of evolution. Judaism accepts some of the assumptions and interpretations embedded in the theory of evolution, but rejects other assumptions and speculations which contradict fundamental Jewish beliefs, and which are anyway not scientifically proven; to those Judaism offers different interpretations. Judaism strongly rejects all the extensions of the theory of evolution beyond natural sciences, which endorse the biological assumption of the "survival of the fittest" in commerce and human societies as a whole by justifying claims of social inequality, sexism, racism, Nazism, eugenics, and other moral-social deviations as "laws of nature". PMID:23908780

  13. Undergraduate honors students' images of science: Nature of scientific work and scientific knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Michael L.

    This exploratory study assessed the influence of an implicit, inquiry-oriented nature of science (NOS) instructional approach undertaken in an interdisciplinary college science course on undergraduate honor students' (UHS) understanding of the aspects of NOS for scientific work and scientific knowledge. In this study, the nature of scientific work concentrated upon the delineation of science from pseudoscience and the value scientists place on reproducibility. The nature of scientific knowledge concentrated upon how UHS view scientific theories and how they believe scientists utilize scientific theories in their research. The 39 UHS who participated in the study were non-science majors enrolled in a Honors College sponsored interdisciplinary science course where the instructors took an implicit NOS instructional approach. An open-ended assessment instrument, the UFO Scenario, was designed for the course and used to assess UHS' images of science at the beginning and end of the semester. The mixed-design study employed both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze the open-ended responses. The qualitative techniques of open and axial coding were utilized to find recurring themes within UHS' responses. McNemar's chi-square test for two dependent samples was used to identify whether any statistically significant changes occurred within responses from the beginning to the end of the semester. At the start of the study, the majority of UHS held mixed NOS views, but were able to accurately define what a scientific theory is and explicate how scientists utilize theories within scientific research. Postinstruction assessment indicated that UHS did not make significant gains in their understanding of the nature of scientific work or scientific knowledge and their overall images of science remained static. The results of the present study found implicit NOS instruction even with an extensive inquiry-oriented component was an ineffective approach for modifying UHS

  14. Acceptance of domestic cat mitochondrial DNA in a criminal proceeding.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Kun, Teri J; Netzel, Linda R; Wictum, Elizabeth E; Halverson, Joy L

    2014-11-01

    Shed hair from domestic animals readily adheres to clothing and other contact items, providing a source of transfer evidence for criminal investigations. Mitochondrial DNA is often the only option for DNA analysis of shed hair. Human mitochondrial DNA analysis has been accepted in the US court system since 1996. The murder trial of the State of Missouri versus Henry L. Polk, Jr. represents the first legal proceeding where cat mitochondrial DNA analysis was introduced into evidence. The mitochondrial DNA evidence was initially considered inadmissible due to concerns about the cat dataset and the scientific acceptance of the marker. Those concerns were subsequently addressed, and the evidence was deemed admissible. This report reviews the case in regards to the cat biological evidence and its ultimate admission as generally accepted and reliable. Expansion and saturation analysis of the cat mitochondrial DNA control region dataset supported the initial interpretation of the evidence. PMID:25086413

  15. Imaginary Companions and Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.

    2004-01-01

    Early research on imaginary companions suggests that children who create them do so to compensate for poor social relationships. Consequently, the peer acceptance of children with imaginary companions was compared to that of their peers. Sociometrics were conducted on 88 preschool-aged children; 11 had invisible companions, 16 had personified…

  16. Acceptance of Others (Number Form).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, James R.; Laverty, Grace E.

    As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Acceptance of Others (Number Form) was prepared to determine pupil's attitudes toward classmates. Given a list of all class members, pupils are asked to circle a number from 1…

  17. W-025, acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Roscha, V.

    1994-10-04

    This acceptance test report (ATR) has been prepared to establish the results of the field testing conducted on W-025 to demonstrate that the electrical/instrumentation systems functioned as intended by design. This is part of the RMW Land Disposal Facility.

  18. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  19. Helping Our Children Accept Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Mae

    1984-01-01

    Parents of a child with muscular dystrophy recount their reactions to learning of the diagnosis, their gradual acceptance, and their son's resistance, which was gradually lessened when he was provided with more information and treated more normally as a member of the family. (CL)

  20. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  1. Who accepts first aid training?

    PubMed

    Pearn, J; Dawson, B; Leditschke, F; Petrie, G; Nixon, J

    1980-09-01

    The percentage of individuals trained in first aid skills in the general community is inadequate. We report here a study to investigate factors which influence motivation to accept voluntary training in first aid. A group of 700 randomly selected owners of inground swimming pools (a parental high-risk group) was offered a course of formal first aid instruction. Nine per cent attended the offered training course. The time commitment involved in traditional courses (eight training nights spread over four weeks) is not a deterrent, the same percentage accepting such courses as that who accept a course of one night's instruction. Cost is an important deterrent factor, consumer resistance rising over 15 cost units (one cost unit = the price of a loaf of bread). The level of competent first aid training within the community can be raised by (a) keeping to traditional course content, but (b) by ensuring a higher acceptance rate of first aid courses by a new approach to publicity campaigns, to convince prospective students of the real worth of first aid training. Questions concerning who should be taught first aid, and factors influencing motivation, are discussed.

  2. The dynamic interest in topics within the biomedical scientific community.

    PubMed

    Michon, Frederic; Tummers, Mark

    2009-08-07

    The increase in the size of the scientific community created an explosion in scientific production. We have analyzed the dynamics of biomedical scientific output during 1957-2007 by applying a bibliometric analysis of the PubMed database using different keywords representing specific biomedical topics. With the assumption that increased scientific interest will result in increased scientific output, we compared the output of specific topics to that of all scientific output. This analysis resulted in three broad categories of topics; those that follow the general trend of all scientific output, those that show highly variable output, and attractive topics which are new and grow explosively. The analysis of the citation impact of the scientific output resulted in a typical longtail distribution: the majority of journals and articles are of very low impact. This distribution has remained unchanged since 1957, although the interests of scientists must have shifted in this period. We therefore analyzed the distribution of articles in top journals and lower impact journals over time for the attractive topics. Novelty is rewarded by publication in top journals. Over time more articles are published in low impact journals progressively creating the longtail distribution, signifying acceptance of the topic by the community. There can be a gap of years between novelty and acceptance. Within topics temporary novelty is created with new subtopics. In conclusion, the longtail distribution is the foundation of the scientific output of the scientific community and can be used to examine different aspects of science practice.

  3. The Dynamic Interest in Topics within the Biomedical Scientific Community

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The increase in the size of the scientific community created an explosion in scientific production. We have analyzed the dynamics of biomedical scientific output during 1957–2007 by applying a bibliometric analysis of the PubMed database using different keywords representing specific biomedical topics. With the assumption that increased scientific interest will result in increased scientific output, we compared the output of specific topics to that of all scientific output. This analysis resulted in three broad categories of topics; those that follow the general trend of all scientific output, those that show highly variable output, and attractive topics which are new and grow explosively. The analysis of the citation impact of the scientific output resulted in a typical longtail distribution: the majority of journals and articles are of very low impact. This distribution has remained unchanged since 1957, although the interests of scientists must have shifted in this period. We therefore analyzed the distribution of articles in top journals and lower impact journals over time for the attractive topics. Novelty is rewarded by publication in top journals. Over time more articles are published in low impact journals progressively creating the longtail distribution, signifying acceptance of the topic by the community. There can be a gap of years between novelty and acceptance. Within topics temporary novelty is created with new subtopics. In conclusion, the longtail distribution is the foundation of the scientific output of the scientific community and can be used to examine different aspects of science practice. PMID:19668345

  4. The 9th INS scientific computational programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-06-01

    Twelve groups were accepted as the 9-th INS scientific Computational Programs (ISCP). This ISCP can use full resources of the INS central computer without an operational limitation. The 9-th ISCP started on June/1/92 and ended on March/30/93. Some results were already published in journals or appeared in physical meetings. This is a sum of the used statistics of the 9-th ISCP and reports presented by groups at the 9-th ISCP.

  5. [Editing of articles accepted for publication by the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde].

    PubMed

    Walvoort, H C

    1997-01-01

    The Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde has been publishing medical science in Dutch for 140 years. To bridge the gap between the specialist science and the general medical reader several sections in the accepted papers have to be clarified, simplified and shortened by post acceptance editing. The style and language of the authors is treated with respect. Changes are made if the article does not comply with internationally accepted rules on scientific reporting, if the article can not be understood using currently authoritative general and medical books of reference, and if its language does not comply with generally accepted Dutch rules for grammar and spelling.

  6. Acceptance and commitment therapy and contextual behavioral science: examining the progress of a distinctive model of behavioral and cognitive therapy.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Steven C; Levin, Michael E; Plumb-Vilardaga, Jennifer; Villatte, Jennifer L; Pistorello, Jacqueline

    2013-06-01

    A number of recent authors have compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present article describes ACT as a distinct and unified model of behavior change, linked to a specific strategy of scientific development, which we term "contextual behavioral science." We outline the empirical progress of ACT and describe its distinctive development strategy. A contextual behavioral science approach is an inductive attempt to build more adequate psychological systems based on philosophical clarity; the development of basic principles and theories; the development of applied theories linked to basic ones; techniques and components linked to these processes and principles; measurement of theoretically key processes; an emphasis on mediation and moderation in the analysis of applied impact; an interest in effectiveness, dissemination, and training; empirical testing of the research program across a broad range of areas and levels of analysis; and the creation of a more effective scientific and clinical community. We argue that this is a reasonable approach, focused on long-term progress, and that in broad terms it seems to be working. ACT is not hostile to traditional CBT, and is not directly buoyed by whatever weaknesses traditional CBT may have. ACT should be measured at least in part against its own goals as specified by its own developmental strategy.

  7. Scientific Knowledge Suppresses but Does Not Supplant Earlier Intuitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtulman, Andrew; Valcarcel, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    When students learn scientific theories that conflict with their earlier, naive theories, what happens to the earlier theories? Are they overwritten or merely suppressed? We investigated this question by devising and implementing a novel speeded-reasoning task. Adults with many years of science education verified two types of statements as quickly…

  8. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  9. Sweeteners: consumer acceptance in tea.

    PubMed

    Sprowl, D J; Ehrcke, L A

    1984-09-01

    Sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin were compared for consumer preference, aftertaste, and cost to determine acceptability of the sweeteners. A 23-member taste panel evaluated tea samples for preference and aftertaste. Mean retail cost of the sweeteners were calculated and adjusted to take sweetening power into consideration. Sucrose was the least expensive and most preferred sweetener. No significant difference in preference for fructose and aspartame was found, but both sweeteners were rated significantly lower than sucrose. Saccharin was the most disliked sweetener. Fructose was the most expensive sweetener and aspartame the next most expensive. Scores for aftertaste followed the same pattern as those for preference. Thus, a strong, unpleasant aftertaste seems to be associated with a dislike for a sweetener. From the results of this study, it seems that there is no completely acceptable low-calorie substitute for sucrose available to consumers.

  10. Scientific integrity memorandum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama signed a presidential memorandum on 9 March to help restore scientific integrity in government decision making. The memorandum directs the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to develop a strategy within 120 days that ensures that "the selection of scientists and technology professionals for science and technology positions in the executive branch is based on those individuals' scientific and technological knowledge, credentials, and experience; agencies make available to the public the scientific or technological findings or conclusions considered or relied upon in policy decisions; agencies use scientific and technological information that has been subject to well-established scientific processes such as peer review; and agencies have appropriate rules and procedures to ensure the integrity of the scientific process within the agency, including whistleblower protection."

  11. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  12. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  13. Making sense scientific claims in advertising. A study of scientifically aware consumers.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Rachel E; Tseëlon, Efrat; Weitkamp, Emma L C

    2008-04-01

    Evidence that science is becoming increasingly embedded in culture comes from the proliferation of discourses of ethical consumption, sustainability, and environmental awareness. Al Gore's recent award, along with UN's Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the Nobel peace prize-- provided a recent high profile linking of consumption and science. It is not clear to what extent the public at large engages in evaluating the scientific merits of the arguments about the link between human consumption and global environmental catastrophes. But on a local scale, we are routinely required to evaluate, scientific and pseudoscientific claims in advertising. Since advertising is used to sell products, the discourse of scientifically framed claims is being used to persuade consumers of the benefits of these products. In the case of functional foods and cosmetics, such statements are deployed to promote the health benefits and effectiveness of their products. This exploratory study examines the views of British consumers about the scientific and pseudoscientific claims made in advertisements for foods, with particular reference to functional foods, and cosmetics. The participants in the study all worked in scientific environments, though they were not all scientists. The study found that scientific arguments that were congruent with existing health knowledge tended to be accepted while pseudoscientific knowledge was regarded skeptically and concerns were raised over the accuracy and believability of the pseudoscientific claims. It appears that scientific awareness may play a part in consumers' ability to critically examine scientifically and pseudoscientifically based advertising claims. PMID:19391378

  14. Making sense scientific claims in advertising. A study of scientifically aware consumers.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Rachel E; Tseëlon, Efrat; Weitkamp, Emma L C

    2008-04-01

    Evidence that science is becoming increasingly embedded in culture comes from the proliferation of discourses of ethical consumption, sustainability, and environmental awareness. Al Gore's recent award, along with UN's Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the Nobel peace prize-- provided a recent high profile linking of consumption and science. It is not clear to what extent the public at large engages in evaluating the scientific merits of the arguments about the link between human consumption and global environmental catastrophes. But on a local scale, we are routinely required to evaluate, scientific and pseudoscientific claims in advertising. Since advertising is used to sell products, the discourse of scientifically framed claims is being used to persuade consumers of the benefits of these products. In the case of functional foods and cosmetics, such statements are deployed to promote the health benefits and effectiveness of their products. This exploratory study examines the views of British consumers about the scientific and pseudoscientific claims made in advertisements for foods, with particular reference to functional foods, and cosmetics. The participants in the study all worked in scientific environments, though they were not all scientists. The study found that scientific arguments that were congruent with existing health knowledge tended to be accepted while pseudoscientific knowledge was regarded skeptically and concerns were raised over the accuracy and believability of the pseudoscientific claims. It appears that scientific awareness may play a part in consumers' ability to critically examine scientifically and pseudoscientifically based advertising claims.

  15. [ACCEPTANCE AND COMMITMENT THERAPY (ACT): BEHAVIORISM, MINDFULNESS AND VALUES].

    PubMed

    Coletti, Juan Pablo; Teti, Germán Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades a series of psychological treatments labeled have been developed. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a third generation therapy that essentially seeks to promote the acceptance of private events in opposition to their modification or change, with the aim of promoting cognitive flexibility. Thus, it is intended that the subject be permitted to choose their behavior consistent with personal values. The current work aims to provide overview specific to the contextual conditions that promoted the emergence of ACT, the underlying philosophy and theory, and the particularities of the intervention model. PMID:26323112

  16. There is grandeur in this view of Newton: Charles Darwin, Isaac Newton and Victorian conceptions of scientific virtue.

    PubMed

    Bellon, Richard

    2014-01-01

    For Victorian men of science, the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century represented a moral awakening. Great theoretical triumphs of inductive science flowed directly from a philosophical spirit that embraced the virtues of self-discipline, courage, patience and humility. Isaac Newton exemplified this union of moral and intellectual excellence. This, at least, was the story crafted by scientific leaders like David Brewster, Thomas Chalmers, John Herschel, Adam Sedgwick and William Whewell. Not everyone accepted this reading of history. Evangelicals who decried the 'materialism' of mainstream science assigned a different meaning to Newton's legacy on behalf of their 'scriptural' alternative. High-church critics of science like John Henry Newman, on the other hand, denied that Newton's secular achievements carried any moral significance at all. These debates over Newtonian standards of philosophical behavior had a decisive influence on Charles Darwin as he developed his theory of evolution by natural selection. PMID:25455541

  17. There is grandeur in this view of Newton: Charles Darwin, Isaac Newton and Victorian conceptions of scientific virtue.

    PubMed

    Bellon, Richard

    2014-01-01

    For Victorian men of science, the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century represented a moral awakening. Great theoretical triumphs of inductive science flowed directly from a philosophical spirit that embraced the virtues of self-discipline, courage, patience and humility. Isaac Newton exemplified this union of moral and intellectual excellence. This, at least, was the story crafted by scientific leaders like David Brewster, Thomas Chalmers, John Herschel, Adam Sedgwick and William Whewell. Not everyone accepted this reading of history. Evangelicals who decried the 'materialism' of mainstream science assigned a different meaning to Newton's legacy on behalf of their 'scriptural' alternative. High-church critics of science like John Henry Newman, on the other hand, denied that Newton's secular achievements carried any moral significance at all. These debates over Newtonian standards of philosophical behavior had a decisive influence on Charles Darwin as he developed his theory of evolution by natural selection.

  18. Scientific Journalism in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, the problems of scientific journalism and activities of Armenian science journalists are presented. Scientific journalism in the world, forms of its activities, Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) press-releases and their subjects, ArAS website "Mass Media News" section, annual and monthly calendars of astronomical events, and "Astghagitak" online journal are described. Most interesting astronomical subjects involved in scientific journalism, reasons for non-satisfactory science outreach and possible solutions are discussed.

  19. Spreading Chaos: The Role of Popularizations in the Diffusion of Scientific Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Danette

    2004-01-01

    Scientific popularizations are generally considered translations (often dubious ones) of scientific research for a lay audience. This study explores the role popularizations play within scientific discourse, specifically in the development of chaos theory. The methods included a review of the popular and the semipopular books on chaos theory from…

  20. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  1. Polygraph. Council on Scientific Affairs.

    PubMed

    1986-09-01

    The American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Scientific Affairs has reviewed the data on the validity and accuracy of polygraphy testing as it is applied today. The use of the control question technique in criminal cases is time honored and has seen much scientific study. It is established that classification of guilty can be made with 75% to 97% accuracy, but the rate of false-positives is often sufficiently high to preclude use of this test as the sole arbiter of guilt or innocence. This does not preclude using the polygraph test in criminal investigations as evidence or as another source of information to guide the investigation with full appreciation of the limitations in its use. Application of the polygraph in personnel screening, although gaining in popularity, has not been adequately validated. The few limited studies that have been performed suggest no greater accuracy for the types of testing done for this purpose than for the control question polygraph testing used in criminal cases. The effect of polygraph testing to deter theft and fraud associated with employment has never been measured, nor has its impact on employee morale and productivity been determined. Much more serious research needs to be done before the polygraph should be generally accepted for this purpose.

  2. In Defense of Darwin's Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Bruce G.; Handford, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Examines issues regarding the defensibility and utility of natural selection as a scientific theory, focusing on the process of population change over time. Topics considered include criticisms of Darwinian theory, tautology and the meaning of fitness, the ability of theories to predict and explain, and the sufficiency of natural selection. (DH)

  3. Program Theory Evaluation: Logic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Program theory evaluation, which has grown in use over the past 10 years, assesses whether a program is designed in such a way that it can achieve its intended outcomes. This article describes a particular type of program theory evaluation--logic analysis--that allows us to test the plausibility of a program's theory using scientific knowledge.…

  4. The public's trust in scientific claims regarding offshore oil drilling.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Juliet E; Feezell, Jessica T; Michaud, Kristy E H; Smith, Eric R A N; Smith, Leeanna

    2010-09-01

    Our study examines how individuals decide which scientific claims and experts to believe when faced with competing claims regarding a policy issue. Using an experiment in a public opinion survey, we test the source content and credibility hypotheses to assess how much confidence people have in reports about scientific studies of the safety of offshore oil drilling along the California coast. The results show that message content has a substantial impact. People tend to accept reports of scientific studies that support their values and prior beliefs, but not studies that contradict them. Previous studies have shown that core values influence message acceptance. We find that core values and prior beliefs have independent effects on message acceptance. We also find that the sources of the claims make little difference. Finally, the public leans toward believing reports that oil drilling is riskier than previously believed.

  5. The public's trust in scientific claims regarding offshore oil drilling.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Juliet E; Feezell, Jessica T; Michaud, Kristy E H; Smith, Eric R A N; Smith, Leeanna

    2010-09-01

    Our study examines how individuals decide which scientific claims and experts to believe when faced with competing claims regarding a policy issue. Using an experiment in a public opinion survey, we test the source content and credibility hypotheses to assess how much confidence people have in reports about scientific studies of the safety of offshore oil drilling along the California coast. The results show that message content has a substantial impact. People tend to accept reports of scientific studies that support their values and prior beliefs, but not studies that contradict them. Previous studies have shown that core values influence message acceptance. We find that core values and prior beliefs have independent effects on message acceptance. We also find that the sources of the claims make little difference. Finally, the public leans toward believing reports that oil drilling is riskier than previously believed. PMID:21553598

  6. Darwin and the scientific method

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    There is a contradiction between Darwin's methodology and how he described it for public consumption. Darwin claimed that he proceeded “on true Baconian [inductive] principles and without any theory collected facts on a wholesale scale.” He also wrote, “How odd it is that anyone should not see that all observation must be for or against some view if it is to be of any service!” The scientific method includes 2 episodes. The first consists of formulating hypotheses; the second consists of experimentally testing them. What differentiates science from other knowledge is the second episode: subjecting hypotheses to empirical testing by observing whether or not predictions derived from a hypothesis are the case in relevant observations and experiments. A hypothesis is scientific only if it is consistent with some but not other possible states of affairs not yet observed, so that it is subject to the possibility of falsification by reference to experience. Darwin occupies an exalted place in the history of Western thought, deservedly receiving credit for the theory of evolution. In The Origin of Species, he laid out the evidence demonstrating the evolution of organisms. More important yet is that he discovered natural selection, the process that accounts for the adaptations of organisms and their complexity and diversification. Natural selection and other causal processes of evolution are investigated by formulating and testing hypotheses. Darwin advanced hypotheses in multiple fields, including geology, plant morphology and physiology, psychology, and evolution, and subjected them to severe empirical tests. PMID:19528662

  7. A theory of knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachner, J.

    1984-11-01

    In order to make reliable predictions in any region of human activity, it is necessary to distinguish clearly what is based on experience and what is a construction of intellect. The theory of knowledge developed in the present paper is an attempt to devise a set of axioms that demarcate experience, as the only source of our knowledge of the external world, from the ideas, scientific models, and theories by means of which the scientific predictions are made. After a discussion of the causality in relation to the laws of nature, the axioms of the expounded theory are formulated in the formalism of set theory. The theory is then applied to some problems in physics to demonstrate its usefulness.

  8. Flint and the British Tradition of Relativity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichler, James

    2009-03-01

    Most scientists and scholars are familiar with Sir Arthur Eddington's role in verifying General Relativity in 1919. A few less are aware of his work introducing the theory to the English scientific community. Still less know of Eddington's extensions of relativity theory, especially his attempts to develop a unified field theory. But very few scholars, historians or even physicists are aware of the important role played by other English scientists in the acceptance and development of relativity. In fact, H.T. Flint and his colleagues published more than thirty-five articles in peer reviewed journals in Britain over a period of four decades in an attempt to extend relativity to include electromagnetism and the quantum. Yet his work and that of his close associates is almost completely unknown today, in spite of the fact that he published a book describing his complete unified field theory in the 1960s, well before most quantum theorists even began thinking along the lines of unification. In a world filled with speculations about gravitons, superstrings, quantum loops and other unification models, Flint did it first, but his work has all but disappeared from the scientific consciousness. From Eddington to Flint, the English school of relativists has produced ardent supporters of relativity and numerous advances beyond the standard interpretations of general relativity.

  9. Interrelationships among Employee Participation, Individual Differences, Goal Difficulty, Goal Acceptance, Goal Instrumentality, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukl, Gary A.; Latham, Gary P.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed is a model for goal setting, which is based on Locke's theory that difficult but clear and specific goals, if accepted, will result in higher performance than easy goals, nonspecific goals, or no goals at all. (Author/RK)

  10. Understanding Early Childhood Student Teachers' Acceptance and Use of Interactive Whiteboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kung-Teck; Russo, Sharon; McDowall, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand early childhood student teachers' self-reported acceptance and use of interactive whiteboard (IWB), by employing the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) as the research framework. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 112 student teachers enrolled in science-related…

  11. Trust, Isolation, and Presence: The Virtual Work Environment and Acceptance of Deep Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Laurence Michael

    2013-01-01

    The primary focus of this research was to explore through the use of a grounded theory methodology if the human perceptions of trust, isolation, and presence affected the virtual workers ability to accept deep organizational change. The study found that the virtual workers in the sample defined their acceptance of deep organizational change by…

  12. An Integrated Approach for Preservice Teachers' Acceptance and Use of Technology: UTAUT-PST Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabakçi-Yurdakul, Isil; Ursavas, Ömer Faruk; Becit-Isçitürk, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: In educational systems, teachers and preservice teachers are the keys to the effective use of technology in the teaching and learning processes. Predicting teachers' technology acceptance and use remains an important issue. Models and theories have been developed to explain and predict technology acceptance. The Unified Theory…

  13. Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Collaboration Technology within the Context of Virtual Teamwork Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godin, Joy J.; Leader, Lars F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence electronic collaboration technology acceptance and predicted usage for virtual team collaboration projects in higher education courses. The research combined the unified theory of acceptance and usage of technology (UTAUT) with a virtual team-training model. All 108 participants…

  14. Acceptance of Spousal Death: The Factor of Time in Bereaved Older Adults' Search for Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Wallace Chi Ho; Chan, Cecilia L. W.

    2011-01-01

    Response to the death of a spouse was examined by focusing on acceptance, which was conceptualized as both a process and an outcome. Grounded theory was applied to analyze the experience of 15 bereaved Hong Kong Chinese older adults. The main theme that emerged was time. Acceptance of spousal death was found to be related to the search for meaning…

  15. Educational Technology Acceptance across National and Professional Cultures: A European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nistor, Nicolae; Gögüs, Aytaç; Lerche, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The continuous development of new platforms and environments for technology-enhanced learning emphasizes the increasing importance of research in educational technology acceptance (ETA). Responding to this need, the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) proposes a major ETA model. However, the UTAUT has been so far validated…

  16. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    the local public, we put some effort in informing interested people, media, politicians on all leveles: regional, state, federal state and European. If suspiciousness and distrust are the enemy of acceptance telling the truth and honesty is its best friend. Role of the media The key arguments find their way to the broad public through the media. Therefore the media have to be seen as partners in science communication, not as enterprise strategy proliferators. Journalists want their story: combine the true story with the true scientific content and you have the chance to get your information into the public. Neutrality and credibility also here are vital issues. We never told that CCS is the simple solution for the climate change problem (which it even cannot be) but that it is a bridge technology for some decades which might give us some more time to change energy production and consumption. All our media activities followed this rule.

  17. Scientifically Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Most principals are aware that the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 makes it mandatory for school leaders who depend on federal funding to select and implement programs that are based on scientific research. This publication reviews five documents that offer insights into what is meant by scientifically based research and help school leaders…

  18. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    PubMed

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly.

  19. 3 CFR - Scientific Integrity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Departments and Agencies Science and the scientific process must inform and guide decisions of my..., and protection of national security. The public must be able to trust the science and scientific..., and integrity. By this memorandum, I assign to the Director of the Office of Science and...

  20. Scientific Ability and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Following an introductory definition of "scientific ability and creativity", product-oriented, personality and social psychological approaches to studying scientific ability are examined with reference to competence and performance. Studies in the psychometric versus cognitive psychological paradigms are dealt with in more detail. These two…

  1. Rekindling Scientific Curiosity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coble, Charles R.; Rice, Dale R.

    1983-01-01

    Active involvement in society-related issues can elevate junior high school students' interest not only in the problem being solved but also in related scientific concepts. Examples of how scientific concepts and society-related issues can be taught in the same class are presented, focusing on genetic engineering, water shortage, and others.…

  2. Maintaining continuity through a scientific revolution: a rereading of E. B. Wilson and T. H. Morgan on sex determination and Mendelism.

    PubMed

    Kingsland, Sharon E

    2007-09-01

    A rereading of the American scientific literature on sex determination from 1902 to 1926 leads to a different understanding of the construction of the Mendelian-chromosome theory after 1910. There was significant intellectual continuity, which has not been properly appreciated, underlying this scientific "revolution." After reexamining the relationship between the ideas of key scientists, in particular Edmund B. Wilson and Thomas Hunt Morgan, I argue that, contrary to the historical literature, Wilson and Morgan did not adopt opposing views on Mendelism and sex determination. Rather, each preferred a non-Mendelian explanation of the determination of sex. Around 1910, both integrated the Mendelian and non-Mendelian theories to create a synthetic theory. One problem was the need to avoid an overly deterministic view of sex while also accepting the validity of Mendelism. Morgan's discovery of mutations on the X chromosome takes on different significance when set in the context of the debate about sex determination, and Calvin Bridges's work on sex determination is better seen as a development of Morgan's ideas, rather than a departure from them. Conclusions point to the role of synthesis within fields as a way to advance scientific theories and reflect on the relationship between synthesis and explanatory "pluralism" in biology. PMID:17970422

  3. Acceptance of Evolution Increases with Student Academic Level: A Comparison Between a Secular and a Religious College.

    PubMed

    Paz-Y-Miño C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina

    2009-12-01

    Acceptance of evolution among the general public, high schools, teachers, and scientists has been documented in the USA; little is known about college students' views on evolution; this population is relevant since it transits from a high-school/parent-protective environment to an independent role in societal decisions. Here we compare perspectives about evolution, creationism, and intelligent design (ID) between a secular (S) and a religious (R) college in the Northeastern USA. Interinstitutional comparisons showed that 64% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 42/62% (S/R) nonmajors supported the exclusive teaching of evolution in science classes; 24/29% (S/R) biology majors vs. 26/38% (S/R) nonmajors perceived ID as both alternative to evolution and/or scientific theory about the origin of life; 76% (mean S + R) biology majors and nonmajors accepted evolutionary explanations about the origin of life; 86% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors preferred science courses where human evolution is discussed; 76% (mean S+R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors welcomed questions about evolution in exams and/or thought that such questions should always be in exams; and 66% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 46% (mean S + R) nonmajors admitted they accept evolution openly and/or privately. Intrainstitutional comparisons showed that overall acceptance of evolution among biologists (S or R) increased gradually from the freshman to the senior year, due to exposure to upper-division courses with evolutionary content. College curricular/pedagogical reform should fortify evolution literacy at all education levels, particularly among nonbiologists. PMID:22957109

  4. Acceptance of Evolution Increases with Student Academic Level: A Comparison Between a Secular and a Religious College

    PubMed Central

    Paz-y-Miño C., Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance of evolution among the general public, high schools, teachers, and scientists has been documented in the USA; little is known about college students’ views on evolution; this population is relevant since it transits from a high-school/parent-protective environment to an independent role in societal decisions. Here we compare perspectives about evolution, creationism, and intelligent design (ID) between a secular (S) and a religious (R) college in the Northeastern USA. Interinstitutional comparisons showed that 64% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 42/62% (S/R) nonmajors supported the exclusive teaching of evolution in science classes; 24/29% (S/R) biology majors vs. 26/38% (S/R) nonmajors perceived ID as both alternative to evolution and/or scientific theory about the origin of life; 76% (mean S + R) biology majors and nonmajors accepted evolutionary explanations about the origin of life; 86% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors preferred science courses where human evolution is discussed; 76% (mean S+R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors welcomed questions about evolution in exams and/or thought that such questions should always be in exams; and 66% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 46% (mean S + R) nonmajors admitted they accept evolution openly and/or privately. Intrainstitutional comparisons showed that overall acceptance of evolution among biologists (S or R) increased gradually from the freshman to the senior year, due to exposure to upper-division courses with evolutionary content. College curricular/pedagogical reform should fortify evolution literacy at all education levels, particularly among nonbiologists. PMID:22957109

  5. Thomas Kuhn's 'Structure of Scientific Revolutions' applied to exercise science paradigm shifts: example including the Central Governor Model.

    PubMed

    Pires, Flávio de Oliveira; de Oliveira Pires, Flávio

    2013-07-01

    According to Thomas Kuhn, the scientific progress of any discipline could be distinguished by a pre-paradigm phase, a normal science phase and a revolution phase. The science advances when a scientific revolution takes place after silent period of normal science and the scientific community moves ahead to a paradigm shift. I suggest there has been a recent change of course in the direction of the exercise science. According to the 'current paradigm', exercise would be probably limited by alterations in either central command or peripheral skeletal muscles, and fatigue would be developed in a task-dependent manner. Instead, the central governor model (GCM) has proposed that all forms of exercise are centrally-regulated, the central nervous system would calculate the metabolic cost required to complete a task in order to avoid catastrophic body failure. Some have criticized the CGM and supported the traditional interpretation, but recently the scientific community appears to have begun an intellectual trajectory to accept this theory. First, the increased number of citations of articles that have supported the CGM could indicate that the community has changed the focus. Second, relevant journals have devoted special editions to promote the debate on subjects challenged by the CGM. Finally, scientists from different fields have recognized mechanisms included in the CGM to understand the exercise limits. Given the importance of the scientific community in demarcating a Kuhnian paradigm shift, I suggest that these three aspects could indicate an increased acceptance of a centrally-regulated effort model, to understand the limits of exercise.

  6. Clinician acceptance is the key factor for sustainable telehealth services.

    PubMed

    Wade, Victoria A; Eliott, Jaklin A; Hiller, Janet E

    2014-05-01

    Telehealth, the delivery of health care services at a distance using information and communications technology, has been slow to be adopted and difficult to sustain. Researchers developing theories concerning the introduction of complex change into health care usually take a multifactorial approach; we intentionally sought a single point of intervention that would have maximum impact on implementation. We conducted a qualitative interview study of 36 Australian telehealth services, sampled for maximum variation, and used grounded theory methods to develop a model from which we chose the most important factor affecting the success of telehealth. We propose that clinician acceptance explains much of the variation in the uptake, expansion, and sustainability of Australian telehealth services, and that clinician acceptance could, in most circumstances, overcome low demand, technology problems, workforce pressure, and lack of resourcing. We conclude that our model offers practical advice to those seeking to implement change with limited resources.

  7. Uses and Limitations of Scientific Models: The Periodic Table as an Inductive Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Zvi, Nava; Genut, Sara

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates that scientific laws about nature and their representative models, as taught and described by theory, are often different from the method as practiced. Focuses on the use of the Periodic Table as a scientific model. Contains 26 references. (DDR)

  8. Theory and Experiment in the Quantum-Relativity Revolution (Pais History of Physics Prize 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, Stephen

    2010-02-01

    Does new scientific knowledge come from theory (whose predictions are confirmed by experiment) or from experiment (whose results are explained by theory)? Either can happen, depending on whether theory is ahead of experiment or experiment is ahead of theory at a particular time. In the first case, new theoretical hypotheses are made and their predictions are tested by experiments. But even when the predictions are successful, we can't be sure that some other hypothesis might not have produced the same prediction. In the second case, as in a detective story, there are already enough facts, but several theories have failed to explain them. When a new hypothesis plausibly explains all of the facts, it may be quickly accepted before any further experiments are done. In the quantum- relativity revolution there are examples of both situations. Because of the two-stage development of both relativity (``special,'' then ``general'') and quantum theory (``old,'' then ``quantum mechanics'') in the period 1905-1930, we can make a double comparison of acceptance by prediction and by explanation. A curious anti-symmetry is revealed and discussed. )

  9. The 1950 Joint Scientific Session: Pavlovians as the accusers and the accused.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1997-01-01

    In 1950, Stalin and the Soviet Government prevailed upon the USSR Academy of Sciences and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences to organize the 1950 Joint Scientific Session for the purpose of formalizing the teachings of I.P. Pavlov. During the Session, some of Pavlov's erstwhile students--the Pavlovians--split into accusers and accused. The more prominent of the latter were denounced for deviating from the orthodox Pavlovian path, and urged to admit their mistakes, to work within the framework of Pavlov's theory of higher nervous activity, and to avoid Western influence. Within this context, the travail of the prominent Pavlovian physiologist L. A. Orbeli is discussed. Contemporary Russian historians and scientists, evaluating the consequences of the 1950 Joint Scientific Session, point out its negative effects; namely, the general moral decline of Soviet physiologists pressured to accept a dogmatic ideology, the lowering of the quality of research in physiology, and the self-imposed exclusion of Soviet physiology from the worldwide scientific community. PMID:9062981

  10. Epidemiology and the scientific method.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, A F

    1982-01-01

    This article refutes the claim that the field of epidemiology and community health would benefit from the application of the scientific method. It is argued that the methods of physics are not appropriate for other disciplines. When applied to the social sciences, positivism is a conservatizing force, causing theory to become based on a mere description of social phenomenon. Since it cannot lead to a deep understanding of social phenomena, positivism is incapable of revealing ways in which society could be radically changed. Moreover, such theory is far from neutral. Rather, it is formed and influenced by the forms of life experienced and practiced in the society. This is illustrated by an analysis of the origin of modern physics at the time when society was changing from a feudal to capitalist form of organization. It is concluded that advances will be made in epidemiology and community health when this field breaks from its focus on the individual and incorporates class into its analysis. However, given the interconnection between social structure and social theory, resistance to such a radical change can be expected. PMID:7141777

  11. Mathematical and Scientific Foundations for an Integrative Engineering Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Robin; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Mathematical and Scientific Foundations of Engineering curriculum which emphasizes the mathematical and scientific concepts common to all engineering fields. Scientists and engineers together devised topics and experiments that emphasize the relevance of theory to real-world applications. Presents material efficiently while building…

  12. Developing Scientific Thinking Methods and Applications in Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharaf, Adel

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the early and medieval Islamic scholarship to the development of critical and scientific thinking and how they contributed to the development of an Islamic theory of epistemology and scientific thinking education. The article elucidates how the Qur'an and the Sunna of Prophet Muhammad have also contributed to the…

  13. A "Semantic" View of Scientific Models for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I inspect a "semantic" view of scientific models taken from contemporary philosophy of science-I draw upon the so-called "semanticist family", which frontally challenges the received, syntactic conception of scientific theories. I argue that a semantic view may be of use both for science education in the…

  14. Tobacco industry consumer research on socially acceptable cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Ling, P; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe tobacco industry consumer research to inform the development of more "socially acceptable" cigarette products since the 1970s. Methods: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results: 28 projects to develop more socially acceptable cigarettes were identified from Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, British American Tobacco, and Lorillard tobacco companies. Consumer research and concept testing consistently demonstrated that many smokers feel strong social pressure not to smoke, and this pressure increased with exposure to smoking restrictions. Tobacco companies attempted to develop more socially acceptable cigarettes with less visible sidestream smoke or less odour. When presented in theory, these product concepts were very attractive to important segments of the smoking population. However, almost every product developed was unacceptable in actual product tests or test markets. Smokers reported the complete elimination of secondhand smoke was necessary to satisfy non-smokers. Smokers have also been generally unwilling to sacrifice their own smoking satisfaction for the benefit of others. Many smokers prefer smoke-free environments to cigarettes that produce less secondhand smoke. Conclusions: Concerns about secondhand smoke and clean indoor air policies have a powerful effect on the social acceptability of smoking. Historically, the tobacco industry has been unable to counter these effects by developing more socially acceptable cigarettes. These data suggest that educating smokers about the health dangers of secondhand smoke and promoting clean indoor air policies has been difficult for the tobacco industry to counter with new products, and that every effort should be made to pursue these strategies. PMID:16183968

  15. Predicting the acceptance of advanced rider assistance systems.

    PubMed

    Huth, Véronique; Gelau, Christhard

    2013-01-01

    The strong prevalence of human error as a crash causation factor in motorcycle accidents calls for countermeasures that help tackling this issue. Advanced rider assistance systems pursue this goal, providing the riders with support and thus contributing to the prevention of crashes. However, the systems can only enhance riding safety if the riders use them. For this reason, acceptance is a decisive aspect to be considered in the development process of such systems. In order to be able to improve behavioural acceptance, the factors that influence the intention to use the system need to be identified. This paper examines the particularities of motorcycle riding and the characteristics of this user group that should be considered when predicting the acceptance of advanced rider assistance systems. Founded on theories predicting behavioural intention, the acceptance of technologies and the acceptance of driver support systems, a model on the acceptance of advanced rider assistance systems is proposed, including the perceived safety when riding without support, the interface design and the social norm as determinants of the usage intention. Since actual usage cannot be measured in the development stage of the systems, the willingness to have the system installed on the own motorcycle and the willingness to pay for the system are analyzed, constituting relevant conditions that allow for actual usage at a later stage. Its validation with the results from user tests on four advanced rider assistance systems allows confirming the social norm and the interface design as powerful predictors of the acceptance of ARAS, while the extent of perceived safety when riding without support did not have any predictive value in the present study.

  16. Formulation factors affecting acceptability of oral medicines in children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Ranmal, Sejal; Batchelor, Hannah K; Orlu-Gul, Mine; Ernest, Terry B; Thomas, Iwan W; Flanagan, Talia; Kendall, Richard; Tuleu, Catherine

    2015-08-15

    Acceptability of medicines in children and caregivers affects safety and effectiveness of medicinal treatments. The pharmaceutical industry is required to demonstrate acceptability of new paediatric formulations in target age groups as an integrated part of the development of these products (Kozarewicz, 2014). Two questions arise when trying to tackle this task: "which dosage form to choose for each target age group?" and "how to formulate it once the dosage form is decided?". Inevitably, both the regulator and the developer turn to scientific evidence for answers. Research has emerged in recent years to demonstrate age-appropriateness and patient acceptability of different dosage forms; however, such information is still fragmented and far from satisfactory to define efficient formulation development strategies for a diverse patient subset (Ranmal and Tuleu, 2013). This paper highlights how formulation factors affect the acceptability of different oral medicines in children (Table 1), and it is based on a more extensive review article by Liu et al. (Liu et al., 2014). Gaps in knowledge are highlighted in order to stimulate further research. In some areas, findings from studies conducted in adult populations may provide useful guidance for paediatric development and this is also discussed.

  17. Bias neglect: a blind spot in the evaluation of scientific results.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Brent; Mercier, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Experimenter bias occurs when scientists' hypotheses influence their results, even if involuntarily. Meta-analyses have suggested that in some domains, such as psychology, up to a third of the studies could be unreliable due to such biases. A series of experiments demonstrates that while people are aware of the possibility that scientists can be more biased when the conclusions of their experiments fit their initial hypotheses, they robustly fail to appreciate that they should also be more sceptical of such results. This is true even when participants read descriptions of studies that have been shown to be biased. Moreover, participants take other sources of bias-such as financial incentives-into account, showing that this bias neglect may be specific to theory-driven hypothesis testing. In combination with a common style of scientific reporting, bias neglect could lead the public to accept premature conclusions.

  18. Ethics of scientific publication

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Jharna; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Published scientific research breeds the development of clinical management guidelines and pathways. Currently, scholarly proficiency is assessed using numerous primitive metrics for incentives that can kindle publication of hoax or flawed research content. Such flawed data can lead to wastage of resources, time, and most importantly harm to the society. Authors, editors, and peer reviewers need to be genuine in conducting, analyzing, and publication of scientific research. Institutions need to be aware and utilize advanced metrics to assess the scientific reputation of researchers. This short review discusses in brief the common authorship and editorial ethical issues encountered in scientific publication and the newer metrics available for the assessment of scholarly excellence. Editors and peer reviewers need to be acquainted with the common ethical issues and follow consensus international guidelines on publication ethics to tackle them appropriately. PMID:27722097

  19. Report: Scientific Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of scientific software, including evaluation and selection of commercial software products; program exchanges, catalogs, and other information sources; major data analysis packages; statistics and chemometrics software; and artificial intelligence. (JN)

  20. Anatomy of Scientific Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals great predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society, and may provide a useful basis for policy-making. PMID:25671617

  1. STARPROBE: Scientific rationale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, J. H. (Editor); Randolph, J. E. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The scientific rationale and instrumentation problems in the areas of solar internal dynamics and relativity, solar plasma and particle dynamics, and solar atmosphere structure were studied. Current STARPROBE mission and system design concepts are summarized.

  2. Galileo's tidal theory.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Ron

    2007-03-01

    The aim of Galileo's tidal theory was to show that the tides were produced entirely by the earth's motion and thereby to demonstrate the physical truth of Copernicanism. However, in the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems Galileo did not explain some of the most significant aspects of the theory completely. As a consequence, the way the theory works has long been disputed. Though there exist a number of interpretations in the literature, the most widely accepted are based on ideas that are not explicitly articulated by Galileo in the Dialogue. This essay attempts to understand the way the theory functions in terms of Galilean physics. It is an interpretation of the theory based solely on Galileo's arguments--and one that reveals it to have had some unrecognized consequences. This interpretation indicates that Galileo's theory would not have worked in the manner he described in the Dialogue. PMID:17539198

  3. Galileo's tidal theory.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Ron

    2007-03-01

    The aim of Galileo's tidal theory was to show that the tides were produced entirely by the earth's motion and thereby to demonstrate the physical truth of Copernicanism. However, in the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems Galileo did not explain some of the most significant aspects of the theory completely. As a consequence, the way the theory works has long been disputed. Though there exist a number of interpretations in the literature, the most widely accepted are based on ideas that are not explicitly articulated by Galileo in the Dialogue. This essay attempts to understand the way the theory functions in terms of Galilean physics. It is an interpretation of the theory based solely on Galileo's arguments--and one that reveals it to have had some unrecognized consequences. This interpretation indicates that Galileo's theory would not have worked in the manner he described in the Dialogue.

  4. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an agency... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance....

  5. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  6. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  7. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  8. Apollo experience report environmental acceptance testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, C. H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Environmental acceptance testing was used extensively to screen selected spacecraft hardware for workmanship defects and manufacturing flaws. The minimum acceptance levels and durations and methods for their establishment are described. Component selection and test monitoring, as well as test implementation requirements, are included. Apollo spacecraft environmental acceptance test results are summarized, and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  9. 48 CFR 245.606-3 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 245.606-3..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.606-3 Acceptance. (a) If the schedules are acceptable, the plant clearance...

  10. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  11. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  12. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  13. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  14. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  15. The scientific foundation of anti-psychiatry.

    PubMed

    van Praag, H M

    1978-08-01

    Anti-psychiatry has exerted a substantial influence on the thoughts of workers in the field of mental hygiene; on those of the psychiatrically trained, but even much more on those without psychiatric training. Consequently it seemed important to me to investigate the strength of the foundation of this school of thought. This has been the objective of this study. The point of crystallization of anti-psychiatry is the labelling theory on the origin of deviant behaviour. The scientific status of anti-psychiatry stands or falls with that of the labelling theory. Since this theory has not been formulated in verifiable hypotheses, I ventured to formulate "theses", and then tested these against empirical obtained data. The results of this study were largely negative. The empirical material does not support the labelling theory, and in many cases even contradicts it. Consequently anti-psychiatry--as a model to explain the development of psychological disorders--has not a leg to stand on. The labelling theory has had great merits as a "sensitizing theory". It has given momentum to innovative tendencies in psychiatry. Now that it has proved to be untenable on its principal points, however, it should be abandoned. It has become a rubber check, which has no scientific buying-power. PMID:696382

  16. [Clinical trial data validation and user acceptance testing].

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-long; Dai, Nan

    2015-11-01

    For pharmaceutical industries, clinical data is one of the most valuable deliverables. It is also the basis of analysis, submission, approval, labeling and marketing of a drug product. To ensure the integrity and reliability of clinical data, a scientific standardized quality control (QC) has to be established at each step of a clinical trial. Data validation is conducted to ensure the reasonability and compliance of clinical data by checking data quality before the data is statistically analyzed. This paper focuses on purpose of data validation, creation of data validation plan, rationale of data validation, types of data validation and performance of user acceptance testing on clinical database. PMID:26911047

  17. [Chinese Medicine in Overall Modern Scientific Technologies].

    PubMed

    Tan, Yuan-sheng; Zeng Yong

    2015-10-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) develops with the survival, reproduction, growth, and progressing of the Chinese nation. Scientific technologies not only promote continual progressing of human societies, but also provide new ideas and methods for the development of CM. In recent years, great changes have taken place in CM complying with developing modern scientific technologies, mainly manifested in the depth of CM theories at molecular levels, the combination of syndrome differentiation and disease identification, continuous innovation and development of clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques, diversified dosages of Chinese materia medica, the academic tendency of education patterns, occupational refinement, diversified medical practice modes, and so on.

  18. On the Status of Critical Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Kai

    1992-01-01

    Describes the nature and distinctiveness of critical theory and discusses it according to the viewpoints of Raymond Geuss and Jurgen Habermas. The logical status of a Habermasian critical theory is examined, defended from some traditional criticisms, and contrasted with both historical versions of critical theory and purely scientific theories.…

  19. Framing Innovation: The Role of Distributed Leadership in Gaining Acceptance of Large-Scale Technology Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Henry J.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation of practice utilized a multiple case-study approach to examine distributed leadership within five school districts that were attempting to gain acceptance of a large-scale 1:1 technology initiative. Using frame theory and distributed leadership theory as theoretical frameworks, this study interviewed each district's…

  20. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Acceptance of Biological Evolution in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Özgür

    2013-01-01

    The present research aims to determine whether or not pre-service science teachers in Turkey are resistant to learning about the theory of evolution (TOE), and to understand the reasons for their acceptance or rejection of this theory. Following an intervention process, essay documents were collected from each participant ("N" = 113) and…

  1. Impact of Media Richness and Flow on E-Learning Technology Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Su-Houn; Liao, Hsiu-Li; Pratt, Jean A.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in e-learning technologies parallels a general increase in sophistication by computer users. The use of just one theory or model, such as the technology acceptance model, is no longer sufficient to study the intended use of e-learning systems. Rather, a combination of theories must be integrated in order to fully capture the complexity of…

  2. Domains and Naive Theories

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Noles, Nicholaus S.

    2013-01-01

    Human cognition entails domain-specific cognitive processes that influence memory, attention, categorization, problem-solving, reasoning, and knowledge organization. This review examines domain-specific causal theories, which are of particular interest for permitting an examination of how knowledge structures change over time. We first describe the properties of commonsense theories, and how commonsense theories differ from scientific theories, illustrating with children’s classification of biological and non-biological kinds. We next consider the implications of domain-specificity for broader issues regarding cognitive development and conceptual change. We then examine the extent to which domain-specific theories interact, and how people reconcile competing causal frameworks. Future directions for research include examining how different content domains interact, the nature of theory change, the role of context (including culture, language, and social interaction) in inducing different frameworks, and the neural bases for domain-specific reasoning. PMID:24187603

  3. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  4. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  5. Continuous Creation: Developing a Scientific and Humane Personal Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styers, Steven W.

    1984-01-01

    Human beings must develop both a rational acceptance of unfolding scientific knowledge and an attitude of caring and tolerance for all lives. Supernatural conceptions are almost always exclusive concerning some aspects of reality and have often been the basis for inhumane conduct. Everyday we create our lives. (CS)

  6. Scientific/Techical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chris Leighton, Neutron Scattering Society of American; Mr. J. Ardie Dillen, MRS Director of Finance and Administration

    2012-11-07

    The ACNS provides a focal point for the North American neutron user community, strengthening ties within this diverse group, and promoting neutron research in related disciplines. The conference thus serves a dual role as both a national user meeting and a scientific meeting. As a venue for scientific exchange, the ACNS showcases recent results and provides a forum for scientific discussion of neutron-enabled research in fields as diverse as hard and soft condensed matter, liquids, biology, magnetism, engineering materials, chemical spectroscopy, crystal structure, elementary excitations, fundamental physics, and development of neutron instrumentation. This is achieved through a combination of invited oral presentations, contributed oral presentations, and poster sessions. Adequate opportunity for spontaneous discussion and collaboration is also built into the ACNS program in order to foster free exchange of new scientific ideas and the potential for use of powerful neutron scattering methods beyond the current realms of application. The sixth American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS 2012) provided essential information on the breadth and depth of current neutron-related research worldwide. A strong program of plenary, invited and contributed talks showcased recent scientific results in neutron science in a wide range of fields, including soft and hard condensed matter, biology, chemistry, energy and engineering applications, and neutron physics.

  7. Understanding Technology Adoption: Theory and Future Directions for Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straub, Evan T.

    2009-01-01

    How and why individuals adopt innovations has motivated a great deal of research. This article examines individuals' computing adoption processes through the lenses of three adoption theories: Rogers's innovation diffusion theory, the Concerns-Based Adoption Model, the Technology Acceptance Model, and the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of…

  8. The legal basis for the Danish Committee on Scientific Dishonesty.

    PubMed

    Brydensholt, H H

    2000-01-01

    The author, a High Court Judge, has chaired the Danish Committee on Scientific Dishonesty (DCSD) since its establishment in 1992. The Committee has worked in the health sector, but from 1999 the scope has been broadened to cover all fields of science. The article describes how the work is organised and the experiences gained. It is stressed, that the difficulty in connection with scientific dishonesty is, first and foremost, to organise a system suitable for investigating cases effectively, professionally, and with proper respect to the fundamental legal rights of the parties involved. The Committee has also spent much effort in determining what can be termed scientific dishonesty and what falls outside this category but which may, nevertheless, be characterised as breaching of good scientific practice. It is emphasised that these rules are not arbitrarily established by the Committee, but formulated in accordance with norms general accepted by opinion leaders in the scientific community.

  9. Scientific data visualization software - Trends and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, James D.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific data visualization has finally come of age as an important and accepted discipline. While scientists have been using computer graphics to visualize experimental data and computational results for at least 30 years, recent improvements in cost/performance of graphics workstations, more readily available software, and a new-found identity based on the report "Visualization in Scientific Computing" (McCormick, DeFanti, and Brown, 1987) have solidified the discipline. The thesis here is that scientists are forced to work too hard to create these visualizations, but that the evolving set of visualization tools can greatly reduce the requisite effort. The architecture of a new class of software can lead to a more widespread availability of interactive visualization tools, which can make the process of creating a visualization as simple as doing interactive chart and graph layout.

  10. Antidepressants for children. Is scientific support necessary?

    PubMed

    Fisher, R L; Fisher, S

    1996-02-01

    This article is concerned with issues pertaining to the degree to which clinical therapeutic decisions can reasonably depart from the best available scientific data. There is a tension between the traditions of practitioner autonomy and the boundaries set by research findings. Ambiguity exists as to how much freedom practitioners have to accept or reject the existing scientific paradigm. The nature of the dilemma is explored by analyzing the current problems confronting child psychiatrists and pediatricians who choose to treat depressed children with antidepressants. Despite unanimous literature of double-blind studies indicating that antidepressants are no more effective than placebos in treating depression in children and adolescents, such medications continue to be in wide use. The strategies used to resolve this sort of contradiction are considered, and certain ethical puzzles are appraised. PMID:8596118

  11. Values, standpoints, and scientific/intellectual movements.

    PubMed

    Rolin, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    Feminist standpoint empiricism contributes to the criticism of the value-free ideal by offering a unique analysis of how non-epistemic values can play not only a legitimate but also an epistemically productive role in science. While the inductive risk argument focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the acceptance of hypotheses, standpoint empiricism focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the production of evidence. And while many other analyses of values in science focus on the role of non-epistemic values either in an individual scientist's decision making or in the distribution of research efforts in scientific communities, standpoint empiricism focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the building of scientific/intellectual movements. PMID:27083080

  12. Values, standpoints, and scientific/intellectual movements.

    PubMed

    Rolin, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    Feminist standpoint empiricism contributes to the criticism of the value-free ideal by offering a unique analysis of how non-epistemic values can play not only a legitimate but also an epistemically productive role in science. While the inductive risk argument focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the acceptance of hypotheses, standpoint empiricism focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the production of evidence. And while many other analyses of values in science focus on the role of non-epistemic values either in an individual scientist's decision making or in the distribution of research efforts in scientific communities, standpoint empiricism focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the building of scientific/intellectual movements.

  13. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  14. The future scientific CCD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, J. R.; Elliott, T.; Collins, S.; Marsh, H.; Blouke, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Since the first introduction of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in 1970, CCDs have been considered for applications related to memories, logic circuits, and the detection of visible radiation. It is pointed out, however, that the mass market orientation of CCD development has left largely untapped the enormous potential of these devices for advanced scientific instrumentation. The present paper has, therefore, the objective to introduce the CCD characteristics to the scientific community, taking into account prospects for further improvement. Attention is given to evaluation criteria, a summary of current CCDs, CCD performance characteristics, absolute calibration tools, quantum efficiency, aspects of charge collection, charge transfer efficiency, read noise, and predictions regarding the characteristics of the next generation of silicon scientific CCD imagers.

  15. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Activities in scientific ballooning in Japan during 1998-1999 are reported. The total number of scientific balloons flown in Japan in 1998 and 1999 was sixteen, eight flights in each year. The scientific objectives were observations of high energy cosmic electrons, air samplings at various altitudes, monitoring of atmospheric ozone density, Galactic infrared observations, and test flights of new type balloons. Balloon expeditions were conducted in Antarctica by the National Institute of Polar Research, in Russia, in Canada and in India in collaboration with foreign countries' institutes to investigate cosmic rays, Galactic infrared radiation, and Earth's atmosphere. There were three flights in Antarctica, four flights in Russia, three flights in Canada and two flights in India. Four test balloons were flown for balloon technology, which included pumpkin-type super-pressure balloon and a balloon made with ultra-thin polyethylene film of 3.4 μm thickness.

  16. Etiquette in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vinod

    2013-10-01

    Publishing a scientific article in a journal with a high impact factor and a good reputation is considered prestigious among one's peer group and an essential achievement for career progression. In the drive to get their work published, researchers can forget, either intentionally or unintentionally, the ethics that should be followed in scientific publishing. In an environment where "publish or perish" rules the day, some authors might be tempted to bend or break rules. This special article is intended to raise awareness among orthodontic journal editors, authors, and readers about the types of scientific misconduct in the current publishing scenario and to provide insight into the ways these misconducts are managed by the Committee of Publishing Ethics. Case studies are presented, and various plagiarism detection software programs used by publishing companies are briefly described.

  17. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  18. Making better scientific figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug

    2016-04-01

    In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.

  19. Acceptance in Romantic Relationships: The Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Despite the recent emphasis on acceptance in romantic relationships, no validated measure of relationship acceptance presently exists. To fill this gap, the 20-item Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory (FAPBI; A. Christensen & N. S. Jacobson, 1997) was created to assess separately the acceptability and frequency of both…

  20. Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions between sociology and epistemology.

    PubMed

    Kvasz, Ladislav

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to clarify Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions. We propose to discriminate between a scientific revolution, which is a sociological event of a change of attitude of the scientific community with respect to a particular theory, and an epistemic rupture, which is a linguistic fact consisting of a discontinuity in the linguistic framework in which this theory is formulated. We propose a classification of epistemic ruptures into four types. In the paper, each of these types of epistemic ruptures is illustrated by examples from physics. The classification of epistemic ruptures can be used as a basis for a classification of scientific revolutions and thus for a refinement of our view of the progress of science.

  1. Causal attribution and affective response as mediated by task performance and self-acceptance.

    PubMed

    Green, T D; Bailey, R C; Zinser, O; Williams, D E

    1994-12-01

    Predictions derived from cognitive consistency theories, self-esteem theories, and ego-serving-bias theory concerning how students would make attributional and affective responses to their academic performance were investigated. 202 university students completed a measure of self-acceptance of their college ability and made attributional and affective responses to an hypothetical examination performance. Analyses showed that students receiving positive feedback perceived greater internal causality and responded with greater positive affect than students receiving negative feedback. Self-acceptance did not moderate the attributions or affective reactions. The results supported the ego-serving-bias theory and provided partial support for self-esteem theory. Findings did not support predictions from cognitive-consistency theory.

  2. Recording Scientific Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Bowker, Geof

    2006-01-09

    The way we record knowledge, and the web of technical, formal, and social practices that surrounds it, inevitably affects the knowledge that we record. The ways we hold knowledge about the past - in handwritten manuscripts, in printed books, in file folders, in databases - shape the kind of stories we tell about that past. In this talk, I look at how over the past two hundred years, information technology has affected the nature and production of scientific knowledge. Further, I explore ways in which the emergent new cyberinfrastructure is changing our relationship to scientific practice.

  3. Awe and scientific explanation.

    PubMed

    Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Park, Jun; Gottlieb, Sara

    2016-10-01

    Past research has established a relationship between awe and explanatory frameworks, such as religion. We extend this work, showing (a) the effects of awe on a separate source of explanation: attitudes toward science, and (b) how the effects of awe on attitudes toward scientific explanations depend on individual differences in theism. Across 3 studies, we find consistent support that awe decreases the perceived explanatory power of science for the theistic (Study 1 and 2) and mixed support that awe affects attitudes toward scientific explanations for the nontheistic (Study 3). (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27685153

  4. USGS Scientific Visualization Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Scientific Visualization Laboratory at the National Center in Reston, Va., provides a central facility where USGS employees can use state-of-the-art equipment for projects ranging from presentation graphics preparation to complex visual representations of scientific data. Equipment including color printers, black-and-white and color scanners, film recorders, video equipment, and DOS, Apple Macintosh, and UNIX platforms with software are available for both technical and nontechnical users. The laboratory staff provides assistance and demonstrations in the use of the hardware and software products.

  5. Measuring the effectiveness of scientific gatekeeping

    PubMed Central

    Siler, Kyle; Lee, Kirby; Bero, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is the main institution responsible for the evaluation and gestation of scientific research. Although peer review is widely seen as vital to scientific evaluation, anecdotal evidence abounds of gatekeeping mistakes in leading journals, such as rejecting seminal contributions or accepting mediocre submissions. Systematic evidence regarding the effectiveness—or lack thereof—of scientific gatekeeping is scant, largely because access to rejected manuscripts from journals is rarely available. Using a dataset of 1,008 manuscripts submitted to three elite medical journals, we show differences in citation outcomes for articles that received different appraisals from editors and peer reviewers. Among rejected articles, desk-rejected manuscripts, deemed as unworthy of peer review by editors, received fewer citations than those sent for peer review. Among both rejected and accepted articles, manuscripts with lower scores from peer reviewers received relatively fewer citations when they were eventually published. However, hindsight reveals numerous questionable gatekeeping decisions. Of the 808 eventually published articles in our dataset, our three focal journals rejected many highly cited manuscripts, including the 14 most popular; roughly the top 2 percent. Of those 14 articles, 12 were desk-rejected. This finding raises concerns regarding whether peer review is ill-suited to recognize and gestate the most impactful ideas and research. Despite this finding, results show that in our case studies, on the whole, there was value added in peer review. Editors and peer reviewers generally—but not always—made good decisions regarding the identification and promotion of quality in scientific manuscripts. PMID:25535380

  6. Cognitive Architecture of Common and Scientific Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarábek, Paul

    2010-07-01

    The cognitive architecture of concept is a specific structure consisting of the concept core, concept periphery, the semantic frame as the meaning and the sense of the concept, and the relations among all components of this structure. The model of the cognitive architecture of scientific and common concepts is a conceptual meta-model built upon Vygotsky's concept theory, Fillmore's semantic frame, semantic triangle, on widespread ideas of the structuring of conceptual systems, and the Hestenes' Modeling Theory. The method of semantic mapping of concepts flowing from the model is designed.

  7. Aspartame: scientific evaluation in the postmarketing period.

    PubMed

    Butchko, H H; Stargel, W W

    2001-12-01

    Prior to marketing, the safety of the high-intensity sweetener aspartame for its intended uses as a sweetener and flavor enhancer was demonstrated by the results of over 100 scientific studies in animals and humans. In the postmarketing period, the safety of aspartame was further evaluated through extensive monitoring of intake, postmarketing surveillance of anecdotal reports of alleged health effects, and additional research to evaluate these anecdotal reports and other scientific issues. The results of the extensive intake evaluation in the United States, which was done over an 8-year period, and the results of studies done in other countries demonstrated intakes which were well below the acceptable daily intakes set by the FDA and regulatory bodies in other countries, as well as the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Evaluation of the anecdotal reports of adverse health effects, the first such system for a food additive, revealed that the reported effects were generally mild and also common in the general population and that there was no consistent or unique pattern of symptoms that could be causally linked to consumption of aspartame. Finally, the results of the extensive scientific research done to evaluate these allegations did not show a causal relationship between aspartame and adverse effects. Thus, the weight of scientific evidence confirms that, even in amounts many times what people typically consume, aspartame is safe for its intended uses as a sweetener and flavor enhancer.

  8. Pierre Robin sequence: Subdivision, data, theories, and treatment – Part 3: Prevailing controversial theories related to Pierre Robin sequence

    PubMed Central

    Bütow, Kurt-W; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur; Morkel, Jean A.; Naidoo, Sharan

    2016-01-01

    Context: The disorder currently accepted as Pierre Robin syndrome/anomaly/sequence (PRS) has been plagued by controversy ever since initially being described. Controversy exists not only about the appropriate terminology and etiopathogenesis of the disorder but also about its management. Therefore, clinical findings and treatment outcomes of a large database of 266 PRS cases were compared with the current state of knowledge in the scientific literature related to history, clinical description, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, theories of oligohydramnios, mandibular catch-up growth, midfacial hyperplasia, and the early management. Aim: The aims of Part 3 debate the controversial biological theories relating to PRS. Materials and Methods: Oligo-/poly-hydramnios, mandibular catch-up growth, and midfacial hyperplasia, the three in the literature most prevailing theories related to PRS, have been compared and discussed with the findings provided by this large database of 266 Siebold-Robin sequence (SRS) and Fairbairn-Robin triad (FRT) cases. Results: History and clinical findings evaluated in this database refute the first two theories. Although manifold midfacial appearances were demonstrated in FRT cases, a third of all SRS cases presented with mid-facial hyperplasia. Conclusion: The three main biological theories regarding PRS could not be verified after thorough analysis of the database. PMID:27563605

  9. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation - The Correct Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotas, Ronald

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear Quantum Gravitation provides a clear, definitive Scientific explanation of Gravity and Gravitation. It is harmonious with Newtonian and Quantum Mechanics, and with distinct Scientific Logic. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation has 10 certain, Scientific proofs and 21 more good indications. With this theory the Physical Forces are obviously Unified. See: OBSCURANTISM ON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION? http://www.santilli- Foundation.org/inconsistencies-gravitation.php and Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/einstein/

  10. A proposed model of factors influencing hydrogen fuel cell vehicle acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanina, N. H. Noor; Kwe Lu, Tan; Fadhilah, A. R.

    2016-03-01

    Issues such as environmental problem and energy insecurity keep worsening as a result of energy use from household to huge industries including automotive industry. Recently, a new type of zero emission vehicle, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV) has received attention. Although there are argues on the feasibility of hydrogen as the future fuel, there is another important issue, which is the acceptance of HFCV. The study of technology acceptance in the early stage is a vital key for a successful introduction and penetration of a technology. This paper proposes a model of factors influencing green vehicle acceptance, specifically HFCV. This model is built base on two technology acceptance theories and other empirical studies of vehicle acceptance. It aims to provide a base for finding the key factors influencing new sustainable energy fuelled vehicle, HFCV acceptance which is achieved by explaining intention to accept HFCV. Intention is influenced by attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control from Theory of Planned Behaviour and personal norm from Norm Activation Theory. In the framework, attitude is influenced by perceptions of benefits and risks, and social trust. Perceived behavioural control is influenced by government interventions. Personal norm is influenced by outcome efficacy and problem awareness.

  11. University Acceptance Features in the Open Arab University (Jordan Branch) Amman Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALmahasneh, Ebtisam Z.; ALhabees, Mahmoud A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the experience of the Open Arab University/Jordan branch, in terms of accepted students as well as the graduates from 2002 to 2005, and to conclude on one hand the relation between the students' genders, the majors and the scientific programs, and to study the differences between the number of graduates…

  12. Professional Scientific Societies, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Robert E.; And Others

    Reported are the findings of a study of scientific societies in the United States. Some 449 professional organizations were considered of which 284 conformed to the validation criteria for inclusion. Data gathering was most successful on membership, current dues, society history, and purpose and less successful on topics related to society income…

  13. Professional Scientific Blog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beke, Tamás

    2009-01-01

    The professional blog is a weblog that on the whole meets the requirements of scientific publication. In my opinion it bears a resemblance to digital notice boards, where the competent specialists of the given branch of science can place their ideas, questions, possible solutions and can raise problems. Its most important function can be…

  14. Nursing's Scientific Quest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jean

    1981-01-01

    Examines nursing's changing research practices. Discusses changes in the philosophy of science, dichotomies within nursing, and nursing's changing research tradition. Concludes that a new research tradition can provide nursing with the scientific and social freedom and openness to solve both conceptual and empirical problems. (CT)

  15. Computers in Scientific Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enke, C. G.

    1982-01-01

    Computer applications in scientific instrumentation are traced from early data processing to modern computer-based instruments. Probable pathways toward instruments with increased "intelligence" include, among others, implementation of hierarchical computer networks and microprocessor controllers and the simplification of programing. The…

  16. Program Supports Scientific Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Stephan

    1994-01-01

    Primary purpose of General Visualization System (GVS) computer program is to support scientific visualization of data generated by panel-method computer program PMARC_12 (inventory number ARC-13362) on Silicon Graphics Iris workstation. Enables user to view PMARC geometries and wakes as wire frames or as light shaded objects. GVS is written in C language.

  17. Projecting the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uthe, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the gas laws are an excellent vehicle for introducing the steps of the scientific method. Students can use balloons and a simple apparatus to observe changes in various gas parameters, develop ideas about the changes they see, collect numerical data, test their ideas, derive simple equations for the relationships, and use the…

  18. Scientific Component Technology Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S; Bosl, B; Dahlgren, T; Kumfert, G; Smith, S

    2003-02-07

    The laboratory has invested a significant amount of resources towards the development of high-performance scientific simulation software, including numerical libraries, visualization, steering, software frameworks, and physics packages. Unfortunately, because this software was not designed for interoperability and re-use, it is often difficult to share these sophisticated software packages among applications due to differences in implementation language, programming style, or calling interfaces. This LDRD Strategic Initiative investigated and developed software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address problems of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology is an extension of scripting and object-oriented software development techniques that specifically focuses on the needs of software interoperability. Component approaches based on CORBA, COM, and Java technologies are widely used in industry; however, they do not support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. Our research focused on the unique requirements of scientific computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections among components, language interoperability for scientific languages, and data distribution support for massively parallel SPMD components.

  19. Serendipity and Scientific Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenman, Martin F.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of penicillin is cited in a discussion of the role of serendipity as it relates to scientific discovery. The importance of sagacity as a personality trait is noted. Successful researchers have questioning minds, are willing to view data from several perspectives, and recognize and appreciate the unexpected. (JW)

  20. Scientific Inquiry 'R' Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdeau, Virginia D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the role that informal interpretative programs and facilities can play in providing inquiry-oriented science experiences. Presents two examples of scientific inquiry programs: investigating wetlands and investigating density. In both examples, participants formulate questions, collect data, and attempt to answer their own questions. (DLH)

  1. Scientific Imagination in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stableford, Brian M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the conflict between the religious and scientific imaginations as existing between the intellectual realms of unquestioning faith and constant questioning. Relates this conflict to writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, e.g., Bacon, Kepler, Wilkins, Godwin, Harrington, Campanella, Cyrano, Le Bret, Defoe, Swift, Voltiare,…

  2. Assessing Scientific Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, John M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A method for assessing scientific performance based on relationships displayed numerically in published documents is proposed and illustrated using published documents in pediatric oncology for the period 1979-1982. Contributions of a major clinical investigations group, the Childrens Cancer Study Group, are analyzed. Twenty-nine references are…

  3. Scientific Discovery for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaikowski, Lori; Lichtman, Paul; Quarless, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    The scientific discovery process comes alive for 70 minority students each year at Uniondale High School in New York where students have won top awards for "in-house" projects. Uniondale High School is in a middle-income school district where over 95% of students are from minority groups. Founded in 2000, the Uniondale High School Research Program…

  4. Scientific authorship and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ASIWEL; altenber

    2015-11-01

    In reply to Sahal Yacoob's article “Individual recognition” (Forum, October p15, http://ow.ly/T7QsQ), which described how he was penalized by his previous university in South Africa because his scientific papers had too many authors to qualify for a government subsidy.

  5. Ethics and Scientific Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benos, Dale J.; Fabres, Jorge; Farmer, John; Gutierrez, Jessica P.; Hennessy, Kristin; Kosek, David; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Olteanu, Dragos; Russell, Tara; Wang, Kai

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes the major categories of ethical violations encountered during submission, review, and publication of scientific articles. We discuss data fabrication and falsification, plagiarism, redundant and duplicate publication, conflict of interest, authorship, animal and human welfare, and reviewer responsibility. In each section,…

  6. Scientific Workflows in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaff, A.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Ruiz, J. E.; Santander-Vela, J.

    2012-09-01

    We will soon be facing a new generation of facilities and archives dealing with huge amounts of data (ALMA, LSST, Pan-Starrs, LOFAR, SKA pathfinders,…) where scientific workflows will play an important role in the working methodology of astronomers. While the traditional pipelines tend to produce exploitable products, scientific workflows are aimed at producing scientific insight. Virtual Observatory standards provide the tools to design reproducible scientific workflows. A detailed analysis about the state of the art of workflows involves languages, design tools, execution engines, use cases, etc. A major topic is also the preservation of the workflows and the capability to replay a workflow several years after its design and implementation. Discussions on these topics are being held recently in IVOA forums and are part of the work that is being done in the Wf4Ever project. The purpose of the BoF was to present to the community the work in progress at the IVOA, collect ideas and identify needs not yet addressed.

  7. Scientific and Technical English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaclavik, Jaroslav

    Technical English differs from everyday English because of the specialized contexts in which it is used and because of the specialized interests of scientists and engineers. This text provides exercises in technical and scientific exposition in the following fields: mathematics, physics, temperature effects, mechanics, dynamics, conservation of…

  8. Treatment acceptability among mexican american parents.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Joaquin; Ibanez, Elizabeth S; Spendlove, Stuart J; Pemberton, Joy R

    2007-09-01

    There is a void in the literature with regard to Hispanic parents' views about common interventions for children with behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment acceptability of child management techniques in a Mexican American sample. Parents' acculturation was also examined to determine if it would account for differences in treatment acceptability. Mexican American parents found response cost, a punishment-based technique, more acceptable than positive reinforcement-based techniques (e.g., differential attention). Results suggest that Mexican American parents' acculturation has little impact on acceptability of child management interventions. No association was found between mothers' acculturation and treatment acceptability. However, more acculturated Mexican American fathers viewed token economy as more acceptable than less acculturated fathers. Results are discussed in the context of clinical work and research with Mexican Americans.

  9. Turning Scientific Presentations into Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aruffo, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    To increase students' confidence in giving scientific presentations, students were shown how to present scientific findings as a narrative story. Students who were preparing to give a scientific talk attended a workshop in which they were encouraged to experience the similarities between telling a personal anecdote and presenting scientific data.…

  10. Acceptability of blood and blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, E; Prowse, C; Townsend, E; Spence, A; Hilten, J A van; Lowe, K

    2008-03-01

    Alternatives to donor blood have been developed in part to meet increasing demand. However, new biotechnologies are often associated with increased perceptions of risk and low acceptance. This paper reviews developments of alternatives and presents data, from a field-based experiment in the UK and Holland, on the risks and acceptance of donor blood and alternatives (chemical, genetically modified and bovine). UK groups perceived all substitutes as riskier than the Dutch. There is a negative association between perceived risk and acceptability. Solutions to increasing acceptance are discussed in terms of implicit attitudes, product naming and emotional responses.

  11. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  12. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  13. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  14. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  15. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  17. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  18. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  19. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  20. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  1. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  2. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  3. User Acceptance of Internet Banking Service in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yenyuen, Yee; Yeow, P. H. P.

    The study is the first research in Malaysia that investigates user acceptance of Internet banking service (IBS) based on Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model (Venkatesh, Morris, Davis and Davis, 2003). Two hundred and eighty questionnaires were distributed and collected from two major cities, Kuala Lumpur and Melaka. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data. The results show that Malaysians have intentions of using IBS (mean rating of close to 4.00). Moreover, Malaysians recognize the benefits of IBS by giving a high mean rating (close to 4.00) to performance expectancy. However, they give relative low mean ratings (close to 3.00) on other indicators of Behavioural Intention to Use IBS such as effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and perceived credibility. Recommendations were given to promote a safe, efficient and conducive environment for user adoption of Internet banking.

  4. In acceptance we trust? Conceptualising acceptance as a viable approach to NGO security management.

    PubMed

    Fast, Larissa A; Freeman, C Faith; O'Neill, Michael; Rowley, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    This paper documents current understanding of acceptance as a security management approach and explores issues and challenges non-governmental organisations (NGOs) confront when implementing an acceptance approach to security management. It argues that the failure of organisations to systematise and clearly articulate acceptance as a distinct security management approach and a lack of organisational policies and procedures concerning acceptance hinder its efficacy as a security management approach. The paper identifies key and cross-cutting components of acceptance that are critical to its effective implementation in order to advance a comprehensive and systematic concept of acceptance. The key components of acceptance illustrate how organisational and staff functions affect positively or negatively an organisation's acceptance, and include: an organisation's principles and mission, communications, negotiation, programming, relationships and networks, stakeholder and context analysis, staffing, and image. The paper contends that acceptance is linked not only to good programming, but also to overall organisational management and structures. PMID:23278470

  5. Edward Teller's Scientific Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libby, Stephen B.; Weiss, Morton S.

    2004-08-01

    The young Teller applied the new quantum mechanics theory to understanding molecules. In later years, his interest in nuclear fusion and matter at high energy density meshed naturally with his role in national defense.

  6. PE Metrics: Background, Testing Theory, and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Rink, Judy; Placek, Judith H.; Graber, Kim C.; Fox, Connie; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Park, Youngsik; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    New testing theories, concepts, and psychometric methods (e.g., item response theory, test equating, and item bank) developed during the past several decades have many advantages over previous theories and methods. In spite of their introduction to the field, they have not been fully accepted by physical educators. Further, the manner in which…

  7. The Relationship in Biology between the Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer, Kerstin; Specht, Christiane; Urhahne, Detlef; Mayer, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Informed understandings of nature of science and scientific inquiry are generally accepted goals of biology education. This article points out central features of scientific inquiry with relation to biology and the nature of science in general terms and focuses on the relationship of students' inquiry skills in biology and their beliefs on the…

  8. Improving Scientific Voice in the Science Communication Center at UT Knoxville

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Russel

    2013-01-01

    Many science students believe that scientific writing is most impressive (and most professionally acceptable) when impersonal, dense, complex, and packed with jargon. In particular, they have the idea that legitimate scientific writing must suppress the subjectivity of the human voice. But science students can mature into excellent writers whose…

  9. Probing Preservice Teachers' Understandings of Scientific Knowledge by Using a Vignette in Conjunction with a Paper and Pencil Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how prospective middle school science teachers understood and identified types of scientific knowledge in a presented vignette. Also, their definitions and views of the relationships between types of scientific knowledge (i.e. scientific facts, concepts, generalizations, theories, and scientific laws) were…

  10. A Study on Student Teachers' Misconceptions and Scientifically Acceptable Conceptions about Mass and Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonen, Selahattin

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were considered under three headings. The first was to elicit misconception that science and physics student teachers (pre-service teachers) had about the terms, "inertial mass", "gravitational mass", "gravity", "gravitational force" and "weight". The second was to understand how prior learning affected their misconceptions,…

  11. Fostering Model-Based School Scientific Argumentation Among Prospective Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims both to foster and to assess "school scientific argumentation" among secondary science teachers during their pre-service education. For these purposes, the paper uses the meta-scientific construct of "theoretical model" (proposed by the so-called semantic view of scientific theories from contemporary philosophy of science) in three…

  12. Sherlock Holmes: scientific detective.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Sherlock Holmes was intended by his creator, Arthur Conan Doyle, to be a 'scientific detective'. Conan Doyle criticized his predecessor Edgar Allan Poe for giving his creation - Inspector Dupin - only the 'illusion' of scientific method. Conan Doyle believed that he had succeeded where Poe had failed; thus, he has Watson remark that Holmes has 'brought detection as near an exact science as it will ever be brought into the world.' By examining Holmes' methods, it becomes clear that Conan Doyle modelled them on certain images of science that were popular in mid- to late-19th century Britain. Contrary to a common view, it is also evident that rather than being responsible for the invention of forensic science, the creation of Holmes was influenced by the early development of it.

  13. Toward Scientific Numerical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Bil

    2007-01-01

    Ultimately, scientific numerical models need quantified output uncertainties so that modeling can evolve to better match reality. Documenting model input uncertainties and verifying that numerical models are translated into code correctly, however, are necessary first steps toward that goal. Without known input parameter uncertainties, model sensitivities are all one can determine, and without code verification, output uncertainties are simply not reliable. To address these two shortcomings, two proposals are offered: (1) an unobtrusive mechanism to document input parameter uncertainties in situ and (2) an adaptation of the Scientific Method to numerical model development and deployment. Because these two steps require changes in the computational simulation community to bear fruit, they are presented in terms of the Beckhard-Harris-Gleicher change model.

  14. Trust in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Hummels, H; Roosendaal, H E

    2001-11-01

    Trust is an important phenomenon to reduce organizational complexity and uncertainty. In the literature many types of trust are distinguished. An important framework to understand the variety and development of trust in organisations is provided by Zucker. She distinguishes three types of trust: process-based trust, institutional-based trust, characteristic-based trust. In this article we will add a fourth type: values-based trust. Similarly, it is customary in scientific communication to distinguish four main communication functions: registration, archiving, certification, awareness. These types of trust and communication functions offer somewhat similar classification schemes. In this paper we will elaborate on these classification schemes with the aim to analyse possible similarities or even mapping. Such similarities will allow drawing conclusions on the development of trust in a (virtual) organisation in general and the process of scientific communication as a special kind of a (virtual) organisation in particular.

  15. Rethinking scientific responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Meland, Eivind; Hetlevik, Irene; Strand, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Researchers should be made co-responsible for the wider consequences of their research focus and the application of their findings. This paper describes a meta-reflection procedure that can be used as a tool to enhance scientific responsibility and reflective practice. The point of departure is that scientific practice is situated in power relations, has direction and, consequently, power implications. The contextual preconditions and implications of research should be stated and discussed openly. The reflection method aims at revealing both upstream elements, such as for instance preconceptions, and downstream elements, for example, public consequences of research. The validity of research might improve from such discussions. Validity should preferably be understood as a broader concept than the methodological concerns in science. PMID:21266389

  16. [Communication of scientific fraud].

    PubMed

    Zeitoun, Jean-David; Rouquette, Sébastien

    2012-09-01

    There is for a scientific journal several levels of communication depending of the degree of suspicion or certainty of a case of error or fraud. The task is increasingly difficult for journal editors as disclosed cases of fraud are more common and scientific communication on this topic is growing. Biomedical fraud is fairly little reported by the mainstream press and causes of this low interest are not currently well understood. The difficulty of processing this type of news for journalists appears to be one possible reason. The potentially numerous and significant consequences of fraud on health professionals are poorly documented. Though it is likely to cause a feeling of distrust and create controversy, the impact of fraud on the general public is poorly studied and appears multifactorial.

  17. Scientific Resource EXplorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Z.; Wormuth, A.; Smith, A.; Arca, J.; Lu, Y.; Sayfi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Inquisitive minds in our society are never satisfied with curatedimages released by a typical public affairs office. They always want tolook deeper and play directly on original data. However, most scientificdata products are notoriously hard to use. They are immensely large,highly distributed and diverse in format. In this presentation,we will demonstrate Resource EXplorer (REX), a novel webtop applicationthat allows anyone to conveniently explore and visualize rich scientificdata repositories, using only a standard web browser. This tool leverageson the power of Webification Science (w10n-sci), a powerful enabling technologythat simplifies the use of scientific data on the web platform.W10n-sci is now being deployed at an increasing number of NASA data centers,some of which are the largest digital treasure troves in our nation.With REX, these wonderful scientific resources are open for teachers andstudents to learn and play.

  18. Scientific Computing with Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beazley, D. M.

    Scripting languages have become a powerful tool for the construction of flexible scientific software because they provide scientists with an interpreted programming environment, can be easily interfaced with existing software written in C, C++, and Fortran, and can serve as a framework for modular software construction. In this paper, I describe the process of adding a scripting language to a scientific computing project by focusing on the use of Python with a large-scale molecular dynamics code developed for materials science research at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Although this application is not related to astronomical data analysis, the problems, solutions, and lessons learned may be of interest to researchers who are considering the use of scripting languages with their own projects.

  19. Assessment of Burmese Refugee Students' Meaning Making of Scientific Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croce, Keri-Anne

    2014-01-01

    This two and a half year study examines how non-native English-speaking Burmese refugee students from first to third grades made meaning of scientific informational texts. The study is framed by sociocultural theory and transactional theory. Primary data were drawn from 160 student retellings of scientific informational texts. Secondary data…

  20. [Scientific periodicals: quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Gonzaga; Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a historical literature review on the evaluation of periodicals and the methodology employed for their evaluation. It emphasizes the attention that should be given to the contents of the periodicals and their format based on technical standards in order to reach a global quality of the publications. This paper includes a summary of the most important aspects of the technical standards for periodicals and scientific articles.

  1. Scientific Software Component Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.

    2000-02-16

    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  2. Relationships between acceptance of sour taste and fruit intakes in 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Blossfeld, Ivonne; Collins, Aoife; Boland, Suzanne; Baixauli, Raquel; Kiely, Mairead; Delahunty, Conor

    2007-11-01

    The present study examined whether infants show an acceptance for extreme sour tastes and whether acceptance of sour taste is related to infants' fruit intake. Fruit intake of fifty-three infants at 6, 12 and 18 months was assessed using 3 d food records. Sour acceptance of these infants was studied at 18.1 (SD 1.5) months. Acceptance for four solutions differing in citric acid concentrations (0.00 M, 0.013 M, 0.029 M and 0.065 M) was measured by allowing infants ad libitum ingestion of each solution over brief time periods. The base solution to which citric acid was added was blackcurrant squash diluted in water. Infants' relative intake of each solution was used as a measure of sour acceptance. At 18 months, twelve infants readily accepted the two highest citric acid concentrations, whereas the remaining infants rejected these. Infants who accepted the most sour solutions had a significantly higher fruit intake (P = 0.025) and a higher fruit variety (P = 0.015) at 18 months than the infants who rejected the highly sour taste. Furthermore, infants who accepted the most sour solutions consumed fruits more frequently at 18 months (chi2 5.1; P = 0.024). Infants who accepted the sourest solutions also had a higher fruit intake at 6 months, and a significantly higher increase in their fruit intake from 12 to 18 months. This is the first scientific study that demonstrates the acceptance of sour tastes in some infants at the age of 18 months. Furthermore, the present results suggest a relationship between acceptance of sour tastes and infants' fruit intakes.

  3. 12 CFR 250.164 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 250.164 Section 250.164 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MISCELLANEOUS INTERPRETATIONS Interpretations § 250.164 Bankers' acceptances. (a) Section 207 of the Bank...

  4. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  5. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.103 Market... accordance with FAR 11.103(a), the market acceptability of their items to be offered. (b) The...

  6. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  7. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.103 Market... accordance with FAR 11.103(a), the market acceptability of their items to be offered. (b) The...

  8. 12 CFR 615.5550 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Bankers' Acceptances § 615.5550 Bankers' acceptances. Banks... cooperatives' board of directors, under established policies, may delegate this authority to management....

  9. Mindfulness, Acceptance and Catastrophizing in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Maaike J.; Steinhagen, Hannemike E.; Versteegen, Gerbrig J.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Catastrophizing is often the primary target of the cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronic pain. Recent literature on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) suggests an important role in the pain experience for the concepts mindfulness and acceptance. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of mindfulness and general psychological acceptance on pain-related catastrophizing in patients with chronic pain. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted, including 87 chronic pain patients from an academic outpatient pain center. Results The results show that general psychological acceptance (measured with the AAQ-II) is a strong predictor of pain-related catastrophizing, independent of gender, age and pain intensity. Mindfulness (measured with the MAAS) did not predict levels of pain-related catastrophizing. Discussion Acceptance of psychological experiences outside of pain itself is related to catastrophizing. Thus, acceptance seems to play a role in the pain experience and should be part of the treatment of chronic pain. The focus of the ACT treatment of chronic pain does not necessarily have to be on acceptance of pain per se, but may be aimed at acceptance of unwanted experiences in general. Mindfulness in the sense of “acting with awareness” is however not related to catastrophizing. Based on our research findings in comparisons with those of other authors, we recommend a broader conceptualization of mindfulness and the use of a multifaceted questionnaire for mindfulness instead of the unidimensional MAAS. PMID:24489915

  10. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development.

  11. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  12. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  13. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  14. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  15. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  16. Improving Acceptance of Automated Counseling Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James H.; And Others

    This paper discusses factors that may influence the acceptance of automated counseling procedures by the military. A consensual model of the change process is presented which structures organizational readiness, the change strategy, and acceptance as integrated variables to be considered in a successful installation. A basic introduction to the…

  17. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... supported by market research; (4) Include consideration of items supplied satisfactorily under recent or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a)...

  18. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 1205.326 Section 1205.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 1205.326 Section 1205.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  1. 12 CFR 250.164 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 250.164 Section 250.164... reserve requirements under section 7 of the International Banking Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. 3105). The Board..., Form FR Y-7, are also to be used in the calculation of the acceptance limits applicable to...

  2. 16 CFR 1110.5 - Acceptable certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable certificates. 1110.5 Section 1110.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CERTIFICATES OF COMPLIANCE § 1110.5 Acceptable certificates. A certificate that is in hard copy or...

  3. Enzyme Reactions and Acceptability of Plant Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James K.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview of enzyme reactions which contribute to the character and acceptability of plant foods. A detailed discussion of polyphenoloxidase is also provided as an example of an enzyme which can markedly affect the character and acceptability of such foods. (JN)

  4. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. PMID:22416723

  5. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  6. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  7. [Plagiarism in scientific publications].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2009-01-01

    Similar to what occurs in literature, art and other human endeavours, every scientific report is based in previous work done by others. The new paper should add something original but a basic law of scientific honesty demands that any mention ideas, observations or thinking that has been previously proposed or published by others, should be acknowledged properly in the text and in the references. Plagiarism is identified when the authors of a scientific report use ideas or text that belong to others and present them as original, the previous source is concealed or it is referred to in a different context. The authors of a paper that contains plagiarism have the intention to mislead the readers, pretending to be the original authors of an idea that was expressed previously by others, or to be the owners of results shown by them. Plagiarism is a dishonest behaviour and, when discovered, may have dangerous consequences because the editors of the journal may publish a notice of retraction that will be inserted by Medline in both papers: the plagiarized and the plagiarizer, to be noticed by everyone who accesses to either of them in the Internet. PMID:19399315

  8. NASA scientific integrity policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    On 16 December, NASA became the latest U.S. federal agency to issue a scientific integrity policy. It was issued less than 10 days after the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued its policy on the same topic (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011). The agency policies respond to earlier White House memos on the topic issued in 2009 and 2010. NASA is the fifth federal department or agency that has finalized a scientific integrity policy; the Department of the Interior and the National Science Foundation also have finalized their policies. As Eos went to press, 13 other policies were in near-final draft form, including those from the departments of Agriculture and Energy; the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Labor had indicated that they expected to submit their policies to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) soon, OSTP director John Holdren wrote in a 21 December note on the office's Web site.

  9. The oxygenase-peroxidase theory of Bach and Chodat and its modern equivalents: change and permanence in scientific thinking as shown by our understanding of the roles of water, peroxide, and oxygen in the functioning of redox enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, P

    2007-10-01

    Alexander Bach was both revolutionary politician and biochemist. His earliest significant publication, "Tsar-golod" ("The Tsar of Hunger"), introduced Marxist thought to Russian workers. In exile for 30 years, he moved to study the dialectic of the oxidases. When his theory of oxidases as combinations of oxygenases and peroxidases was developed (circa 1900) the enzyme concept was not fully formulated, and the enzyme/substrate distinction not yet made. Peroxides however were then and remain now significant intermediates, when either free or bound, in oxidase catalyses. The aerobic dehydrogenase/peroxidase/catalase coupled systems which were studied slightly later clarified the Bach model and briefly became an oxidase paradigm. Identification of peroxidase as a metalloprotein, a key step in understanding oxidase and peroxidase mechanisms, postdated Bach's major work. Currently we recognize catalytic organic peroxides in flavoprotein oxygenases; such organic peroxides are also involved in lipid oxidation and tryptophan radical decay. But most physiologically important peroxides are now known to be bound to transition metals (either Fe or Cu) and formed both directly and indirectly (from oxygen). The typical stable metalloprotein peroxide product is the ferryl state. When both peroxide oxidizing equivalents are retained the second equivalent is held as a protein or porphyrin radical. True metal peroxide complexes are unstable. But often water molecules mark the spot where the original peroxide decayed. The cytochrome c oxidase Fe-Cu center can react with either peroxide or oxygen to form the intermediate higher oxidation states P and F. In its resting state water molecules and hydroxyl ions can be seen marking the original location of the oxygen or peroxide molecule. PMID:18021062

  10. Understanding diversity: the importance of social acceptance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jacqueline M; Hamilton, David L

    2015-04-01

    Two studies investigated how people define and perceive diversity in the historically majority-group dominated contexts of business and academia. We hypothesized that individuals construe diversity as both the numeric representation of racial minorities and the social acceptance of racial minorities within a group. In Study 1, undergraduates' (especially minorities') perceptions of campus diversity were predicted by perceived social acceptance on a college campus, above and beyond perceived minority representation. Study 2 showed that increases in a company's representation and social acceptance independently led to increases in perceived diversity of the company among Whites. Among non-Whites, representation and social acceptance only increased perceived diversity of the company when both qualities were high. Together these findings demonstrate the importance of both representation and social acceptance to the achievement of diversity in groups and that perceiver race influences the relative importance of these two components of diversity.

  11. Developmental and Educational Perspectives on Theory Change: To Have and Hold, or To Have and Hone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duschl, Richard A.; Deaak, Gedeon O.; Ellenbogen, Kirsten M.; Holton, Douglas L.

    Eric Schwitzgebel presents an attractive argument for the use of affective indicators to both assess and extend the ''theory theory'' research agenda. A key component of his argument is an account of explanation that can be applied to both children and adults, few of whom possess the attributes and behaviors that warrant being called scientists. The core features of his account include 1) regarding a set of propositions as a theory and 2) subscribing to a theory by accepting and employing this set of propositions to explain events within the theory''s domain. We will argue that this account, while potentially helpful for guiding research on the affective content of explanations, requires elaboration because it (1) does not fully characterize what is distinctive and important about theoretical and scientific thinking, (2) raises questions about different kinds of explanations, such as seen in transitions from common-sense explanations to theoretical explanations; (3) favors individual theorizing to the exclusion of socially mediated theorizing, and (4) raises developmental questions about the nature of explanation-seeking and the capacity to apply evidence to evaluate theories.

  12. Myth, Music, and Science: Teaching the Philosophy of Science through the Use of Non-Scientific Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slowik, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Explores the benefits of utilizing non-scientific examples and analogies in teaching philosophy of science courses. Utilizes a lengthy analogy between musical styles and Kuhn's theory of scientific revolution to demonstrate this strategy. (SOE)

  13. THE TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL: ITS PAST AND ITS FUTURE IN HEALTH CARE

    PubMed Central

    HOLDEN, RICHARD J.; KARSH, BEN-TZION

    2009-01-01

    Increasing interest in end users’ reactions to health information technology (IT) has elevated the importance of theories that predict and explain health IT acceptance and use. This paper reviews the application of one such theory, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), to health care. We reviewed 16 data sets analyzed in over 20 studies of clinicians using health IT for patient care. Studies differed greatly in samples and settings, health ITs studied, research models, relationships tested, and construct operationalization. Certain TAM relationships were consistently found to be significant, whereas others were inconsistent. Several key relationships were infrequently assessed. Findings show that TAM predicts a substantial portion of the use or acceptance of health IT, but that the theory may benefit from several additions and modifications. Aside from improved study quality, standardization, and theoretically motivated additions to the model, an important future direction for TAM is to adapt the model specifically to the health care context, using beliefs elicitation methods. PMID:19615467

  14. The technology acceptance model: its past and its future in health care.

    PubMed

    Holden, Richard J; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2010-02-01

    Increasing interest in end users' reactions to health information technology (IT) has elevated the importance of theories that predict and explain health IT acceptance and use. This paper reviews the application of one such theory, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), to health care. We reviewed 16 data sets analyzed in over 20 studies of clinicians using health IT for patient care. Studies differed greatly in samples and settings, health ITs studied, research models, relationships tested, and construct operationalization. Certain TAM relationships were consistently found to be significant, whereas others were inconsistent. Several key relationships were infrequently assessed. Findings show that TAM predicts a substantial portion of the use or acceptance of health IT, but that the theory may benefit from several additions and modifications. Aside from improved study quality, standardization, and theoretically motivated additions to the model, an important future direction for TAM is to adapt the model specifically to the health care context, using beliefs elicitation methods.

  15. Research Prototype: Automated Analysis of Scientific and Engineering Semantics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.; Follen, Greg (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Physical and mathematical formulae and concepts are fundamental elements of scientific and engineering software. These classical equations and methods are time tested, universally accepted, and relatively unambiguous. The existence of this classical ontology suggests an ideal problem for automated comprehension. This problem is further motivated by the pervasive use of scientific code and high code development costs. To investigate code comprehension in this classical knowledge domain, a research prototype has been developed. The prototype incorporates scientific domain knowledge to recognize code properties (including units, physical, and mathematical quantity). Also, the procedure implements programming language semantics to propagate these properties through the code. This prototype's ability to elucidate code and detect errors will be demonstrated with state of the art scientific codes.

  16. How to respond to referee comments for scientific articles?

    PubMed Central

    Kalemci, Mustafa Serdar; Turna, Burak

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the increasing number of article submissions to scientific journals forces editors to be more selective in their acceptance of papers. Consequently, editors have increased the frequency of their use of scientific referee mechanisms. For many researchers, the publication of a scientific article in a high impact factor journal is a gradual and difficult process. After preparation and submission of a manuscript, one of the most important issue is responding to the comments of referees. However, there is a paucity of published reports in the literature describing how to respond to these comments. The aim of this review is to assist researchers/authors in responding to referee comments as part of the publication process for scientific articles. PMID:26328133

  17. Scientific consensus, the law, and same sex parenting outcomes.

    PubMed

    adams, Jimi; Light, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    While the US Supreme Court was considering two related cases involving the constitutionality of same-sex marriage, one major question informing that decision was whether scientific research had achieved consensus regarding how children of same-sex couples fare. Determining the extent of consensus has become a key aspect of how social science evidence and testimony is accepted by the courts. Here, we show how a method of analyzing temporal patterns in citation networks can be used to assess the state of social scientific literature as a means to inform just such a question. Patterns of clustering within these citation networks reveal whether and when consensus arises within a scientific field. We find that the literature on outcomes for children of same-sex parents is marked by scientific consensus that they experience "no differences" compared to children from other parental configurations.

  18. Teaching peer review and the process of scientific writing.

    PubMed

    Guilford, W H

    2001-12-01

    Many undergraduate and graduate students understand neither the process of scientific writing nor the significance of peer review. In response, some instructors have created writing assignments that teach or mimic parts of the scientific publishing process. However, none fully reproduced peer review and revision of papers together with the writing and publishing process from research to final, accepted draft. In addition, most have been instituted at the graduate rather than undergraduate level. We present a detailed method for teaching undergraduate students the full scientific publishing process, including anonymous peer review, during the process of writing a "term paper." The result is a review article in the format for submission to a major scientific journal. This method has been implemented in the course Cell and Molecular Biology for Engineers at the University of Virginia. Use of this method resulted in improved grades, much higher quality in the final manuscript, greater objectivity in grading, and improved understanding of the importance of peer review.

  19. Scientific knowledge suppresses but does not supplant earlier intuitions.

    PubMed

    Shtulman, Andrew; Valcarcel, Joshua

    2012-08-01

    When students learn scientific theories that conflict with their earlier, naïve theories, what happens to the earlier theories? Are they overwritten or merely suppressed? We investigated this question by devising and implementing a novel speeded-reasoning task. Adults with many years of science education verified two types of statements as quickly as possible: statements whose truth value was the same across both naïve and scientific theories of a particular phenomenon (e.g., "The moon revolves around the Earth") and statements involving the same conceptual relations but whose truth value differed across those theories (e.g., "The Earth revolves around the sun"). Participants verified the latter significantly more slowly and less accurately than the former across 10 domains of knowledge (astronomy, evolution, fractions, genetics, germs, matter, mechanics, physiology, thermodynamics, and waves), suggesting that naïve theories survive the acquisition of a mutually incompatible scientific theory, coexisting with that theory for many years to follow.

  20. String Theory and Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Maldacena, Juan

    2009-02-20

    We will see how gauge theories, in the limit that the number of colors is large, give string theories. We will discuss some examples of particular gauge theories where the corresponding string theory is known precisely, starting with the case of the maximally supersymmetric theory in four dimensions which corresponds to ten dimensional string theory. We will discuss recent developments in this area.

  1. Recognizing Scientific Artifacts in Biomedical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Groza, Tudor; Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Hunter, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Today’s search engines and digital libraries offer little or no support for discovering those scientific artifacts (hypotheses, supporting/contradicting statements, or findings) that form the core of scientific written communication. Consequently, we currently have no means of identifying central themes within a domain or to detect gaps between accepted knowledge and newly emerging knowledge as a means for tracking the evolution of hypotheses from incipient phases to maturity or decline. We present a hybrid Machine Learning approach using an ensemble of four classifiers, for recognizing scientific artifacts (ie, hypotheses, background, motivation, objectives, and findings) within biomedical research publications, as a precursory step to the general goal of automatically creating argumentative discourse networks that span across multiple publications. The performance achieved by the classifiers ranges from 15.30% to 78.39%, subject to the target class. The set of features used for classification has led to promising results. Furthermore, their use strictly in a local, publication scope, ie, without aggregating corpus-wide statistics, increases the versatility of the ensemble of classifiers and enables its direct applicability without the necessity of re-training. PMID:23645987

  2. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices. Of course, scientific/technical software differs from other software categories in a number of important respects, but I nonetheless believe that TDD is quite applicable to the development of such software and has the potential to significantly improve programmer productivity and code quality within the scientific community. After a detailed introduction to TDD, I will present the experience within the Software Systems Support Office (SSSO) in applying the technique to various scientific applications. This discussion will emphasize the various direct and indirect benefits as well as some of the difficulties and limitations of the methodology. I will conclude with a brief description of pFUnit, a unit testing framework I co-developed to support test-driven development of parallel Fortran applications.

  3. ENHANCING STAKEHOLDER ACCEPTANCE OF BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Focht, Will; Albright, Matt; Anex, Robert P., Jr., ed.

    2009-04-21

    This project inquired into the judgments and beliefs of people living near DOE reservations and facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Hanford, Washington; and Los Alamos, Tennessee about bioremediation of subsurface contamination. The purpose of the investigation was to identify strategies based on these judgments and beliefs for enhancing public support of bioremediation. Several methods were used to collect and analyze data including content analysis of transcripts of face-to-face personal interviews, factor analysis of subjective perspectives using Q methodology, and statistical analysis of results from a large-sample randomized telephone survey. Content analysis of interview transcripts identified themes about public perceptions and constructions of contamination risk, risk management, and risk managers. This analysis revealed that those who have no employment relationship at the sites and are not engaged in technical professions are most concerned about contamination risks. We also found that most interviewees are unfamiliar with subsurface contamination risks and how they can be reduced, believe they have little control over exposure, are frustrated with the lack of progress in remediation, are concerned about a lack of commitment of DOE to full remediation, and distrust site managers to act in the public interest. Concern is also expressed over frequent site management turnover, excessive secrecy, ineffective and biased communication, perceived attempts to talk the public into accepting risk, and apparent lack of concern about community welfare. In the telephone survey, we asked respondents who were aware of site contamination about their perceptions of risk from exposure to subsurface contamination. Response analysis revealed that most people believe that they are at significant risk from subsurface contamination but they acknowledge that more education is needed to calibrate risk perceptions against scientific risk assessments. Most rate their personal

  4. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    PubMed Central

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products. PMID:26480043

  5. [From the cell theory to the neuron theory].

    PubMed

    Tixier-Vidal, Andrée

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the cell theory formulated by Schwann (1839) and by Virchow (1855) on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the neuron theory, as formulated by Waldeyer (1891) and by Cajal (1906), are discussed from a historical point of view. Both of them are the result of technical and conceptuel progress. Both of them had to fight against the dominant dogma before being accepted. The cell theory opposed the school of Bichat, the vitalist philosophy and the positivist philosophy of Auguste Comte. The neuron theory, which is clearly based on the cell theory, was mostly concerned with the mode of interneuronal communication; it opposed the concept of contiguity to Golgi's concept of continuity. At present, the cell theory remains central in every field of Biology. By contrast, the neuron theory, which until the middle of the XXth century opened the study of the nervous system to a necessary reductionnist approach, is no longer central to recent developments of neurosciences.

  6. 'Holding' and 'endorsing' claims in the course of scientific activities.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Hugh

    2015-10-01

    My principal aims are to show that holding, adopting and endorsing (definitions of which I provide) are distinct cognitive attitudes that may be taken towards claims at different moments of scientific activities, and that none of them are reducible to acceptance (as defined by Jonathan Cohen); to explore in detail the differences between holding and accepting, using the controversies about GMOs to provide illustrations; and to draw some implications pertinent to democratic decision-making concerning public policies about science and technology, and to the responsibilities that scientists thereby incur. PMID:26386534

  7. Scientific Grid computing.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Peter V

    2005-08-15

    We introduce a definition of Grid computing which is adhered to throughout this Theme Issue. We compare the evolution of the World Wide Web with current aspirations for Grid computing and indicate areas that need further research and development before a generally usable Grid infrastructure becomes available. We discuss work that has been done in order to make scientific Grid computing a viable proposition, including the building of Grids, middleware developments, computational steering and visualization. We review science that has been enabled by contemporary computational Grids, and associated progress made through the widening availability of high performance computing.

  8. The Scientific Case against Astrology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ivan

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the lack of a scientific foundation and scientific evidence favoring astrology. Included are several research studies conducted to examine astrological tenets which yield generally negative results. (Author/DS)

  9. When scientific knowledge becomes scientific discovery: the disappearance of classical conditioning before Pavlov.

    PubMed

    Logan, Cheryl A

    2002-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, scientific materials in experimental physiology changed dramatically. In this context, phenomena that had been widely accepted were lost, sometimes to be reintroduced later as "discoveries." I describe the loss of the phenomenon of classical conditioning, later rediscovered by Ivan Pavlov. In 1896, Austrian physiologist Alois Kreidl demonstrated experimentally that animals anticipate the occurrence of food that is cued by a variety of stimuli. Kreidl stated, moreover, that the fact that animals can be called to food had been widely known to science since the 1830s. I describe Kreidl's work and discuss several factors that may have led to the disappearance of conditioning prior to its rediscovery by Pavlov.

  10. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  11. Approaches to acceptable risk: a critical guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fischhoff, B.; Lichtenstein, S.; Slovic, P.; Keeney, R.; Derby, S.

    1980-12-01

    Acceptable-risk decisions are an essential step in the management of technological hazards. In many situations, they constitute the weak (or missing) link in the management process. The absence of an adequate decision-making methodology often produces indecision, inconsistency, and dissatisfaction. The result is neither good for hazard management nor good for society. This report offers a critical analysis of the viability of various approaches as guides to acceptable-risk decisions. This report seeks to define acceptable-risk decisions and to examine some frequently proposed, but inappropriate, solutions. 255 refs., 22 figs., 25 tabs.

  12. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  13. Chinese Nurses' Acceptance of PDA: A Cross-Sectional Survey Using a Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanling; Xiao, Qian; Sun, Liu; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study explores Chinese nurses' acceptance of PDA, using a questionnaire based on the framework of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). 357 nurses were involved in the study. The results reveal the scores of the nurses' acceptance of PDA were means 3.18~3.36 in four dimensions. The younger of nurses, the higher nurses' title, the longer previous usage time, the more experienced using PDA, and the more acceptance of PDA. Therefore, the hospital administrators may change strategies to enhance nurses' acceptance of PDA, and promote the wide application of PDA.

  14. The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Alexander; Ortner, Tina; Kahr, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience The successful use of bioethanol as a fuel requires its widespread acceptance by consumers. Due to the planned introduction of a 10 per cent proportion of bioethanol in petrol in Austria, the University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria carried out a representative opinion poll to collect information on the population's acceptance of biofuels. Based on this survey, interviews with important stakeholders were held to discuss the results and collect recommendations on how to increase the information level and acceptance. The results indicate that there is a lack of interest and information about biofuels, especially among young people and women. First generation bioethanol is strongly associated with the waste of food resources, but the acceptance of the second generation, produced from agricultural remnants like straw from wheat or corn, is considerably higher. The interviewees see more transparent, objective and less technical information about biofuels as an essential way to raise the information level and acceptance rate. As the production of bioethanol from straw is now economically feasible, there is one major scientific question to answer: In which way does the withdrawal of straw from the fields affect the formation of humus and, therefore, the quality of the soil? An interdisciplinary approach of researchers in the fields of bioethanol production, geoscience and agriculture in combination with political decision makers are required to make the technologies of renewable bioenergy acceptable to the population.

  15. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations

    PubMed Central

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation—that is, the competitiveness of its research system—and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of “markers” of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most “sophisticated” needs of the society. PMID:25493626

  16. Agricultural Information and Scientific Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, J. Stephen, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Six articles discuss the need for increased access to information for agricultural and scientific research in the countries of Zambia, Kenya, Ghana, Turkey, India, and Nigeria. Discussions focus on each country's current scientific and agricultural development and the demand for scientific materials and greater information dissemination. (MAB)

  17. Advancing Scientific Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towne, Lisa, Ed.; Wise, Lauress L., Ed.; Winters, Tina M., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Transforming education into an evidence-based field depends in no small part on a strong base of scientific knowledge to inform educational policy and practice. Advancing Scientific Research in Education makes select recommendations for strengthening scientific education research and targets federal agencies, professional associations, and…

  18. IAHS Third Scientific Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) convened its Third Scientific Assembly in Baltimore, Md., May 10-19, 1989. The Assembly was attended by about 450 scientists and engineers. The attendance was highest from the U.S., as could be expected; 37 were from Canada; 22 each, Netherlands and United Kingdom; 14, Italy; 12, China; 10, Federal Republic of Germany; 8 each from France, the Republic of South Africa, and Switzerland; 7, Austria; 6 each, Finland and Japan; others were scattered among the remainder of 48 countries total.one of the cosponsors and also handled business matters for the Assembly. Other cosponsors included the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP), United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and U.K. Overseas Development Authority (ODA). U.S. federal agencies serving as cosponsors included the Environmental Protection Agency, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, National Weather Service, Department of Agriculture, Department of State, and U.S. Geological Survey.

  19. Metadata in Scientific Dialects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.

    2011-12-01

    Discussions of standards in the scientific community have been compared to religious wars for many years. The only things scientists agree on in these battles are either "standards are not useful" or "everyone can benefit from using my standard". Instead of achieving the goal of facilitating interoperable communities, in many cases the standards have served to build yet another barrier between communities. Some important progress towards diminishing these obstacles has been made in the data layer with the merger of the NetCDF and HDF scientific data formats. The universal adoption of XML as the standard for representing metadata and the recent adoption of ISO metadata standards by many groups around the world suggests that similar convergence is underway in the metadata layer. At the same time, scientists and tools will likely need support for native tongues for some time. I will describe an approach that combines re-usable metadata "components" and restful web services that provide those components in many dialects. This approach uses advanced XML concepts of referencing and linking to construct complete records that include reusable components and builds on the ISO Standards as the "unabridged dictionary" that encompasses the content of many other dialects.

  20. Compendium of Scientific Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, James E

    2003-05-16

    The International Committee supported the proposal of the Chairman of the XVIII International Linac Conference to issue a new Compendium of linear accelerators. The last one was published in 1976. The Local Organizing Committee of Linac96 decided to set up a sub-committee for this purpose. Contrary to the catalogues of the High Energy Accelerators which compile accelerators with energies above 1 GeV, we have not defined a specific limit in energy. Microtrons and cyclotrons are not in this compendium. Also data from thousands of medical and industrial linacs has not been collected. Therefore, only scientific linacs are listed in the present compendium. Each linac found in this research and involved in a physics context was considered. It could be used, for example, either as an injector for high energy accelerators, or in nuclear physics, materials physics, free electron lasers or synchrotron light machines. Linear accelerators are developed in three continents only: America, Asia, and Europe. This geographical distribution is kept as a basis. The compendium contains the parameters and status of scientific linacs. Most of these linacs are operational. However, many facilities under construction or design studies are also included. A special mention has been made at the end for the studies of future linear colliders.