Chen, Jacqueline M; Hamilton, David L
Two studies investigated how people define and perceive diversity in the historically majority-group dominated contexts of business and academia. We hypothesized that individuals construe diversity as both the numeric representation of racial minorities and the social acceptance of racial minorities within a group. In Study 1, undergraduates' (especially minorities') perceptions of campus diversity were predicted by perceived social acceptance on a college campus, above and beyond perceived minority representation. Study 2 showed that increases in a company's representation and social acceptance independently led to increases in perceived diversity of the company among Whites. Among non-Whites, representation and social acceptance only increased perceived diversity of the company when both qualities were high. Together these findings demonstrate the importance of both representation and social acceptance to the achievement of diversity in groups and that perceiver race influences the relative importance of these two components of diversity.
Sharpes, Donald K.; Peramas, Mary M.
Challenging basic principles of constitutional law, advocates of intelligent design are undermining educators' ability to teach evolution in their science classrooms. Because US Supreme Court rulings now prohibit creationist accounts of the origin of life in schools, arguments favoring divine intervention, known as intelligent design, have emerged…
Lorenz, David R
Human behavioral genetics can be broadly defined as the attempt to characterize and define the genetic or hereditary basis for human behavior. Examination of the history of these scientific enterprises reveals episodes of controversy, and an apparent distinction between scientific and social acceptance of the genetic nature of such complex behaviors. This essay will review the history and methodology of behavioral genetics research, including a more detailed look at case histories involving behavioral genetic research for aggressive behavior and alcoholism. It includes a discussion of the scientific versus social qualities of the acceptance of behavioral genetics research, as well as the development of a general model for scientific acceptance involving the researchers, the scientific literature, the scientific peer group, the mainstream media, and the public at large. From this model follows a discussion of the means and complications by which behavioral genetics research may be accepted by society, and an analysis of how future studies might be conducted.
Bernard, H. Russell
A recent poll showed that most people think of science as technology and engineering—life-saving drugs, computers, space exploration, and so on. This was, in fact, the promise of the founders of modern science in the 17th century. It is less commonly understood that social and behavioral sciences have also produced technologies and engineering that dominate our everyday lives. These include polling, marketing, management, insurance, and public health programs. PMID:23213222
Interest has grown in the past few years about the place of social work in science. Questions remain, such as whether social work should be considered a science, and if so, where it fits into the constellation of sciences. This article attempts to shed light on these questions. After briefly considering past and present constructions of science…
Milhabet, I; Verlhiac, J F
Studies of optimism and realism (the accuracy of people's outlook on the future) seek to understand the respective effects of these elements on social approbation. Two experiments examined how comparative optimism (vs. pessimism) and realism (vs. unrealism) interacted to influence the targets' social acceptance based on their perceptions about the future. The results showed that realism, or accuracy of prediction, increased the positive social effects of a comparatively optimistic outlook on the future. In contrast, targets who exhibited comparative pessimism were more socially acceptable when their predictions were unrealistic rather than realistic. This phenomenon was examined by also considering the polarity of the events about which judgments were expressed. These results contribute to the body of research about the relationship between optimism and pessimism and the relationship between optimism and realism.
Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.
The study of the social sciences includes: history, civics, geography, and economics to prepare students for responsible citizenship. The Oregon state standards for social sciences sets out common curriculum goals, content standards, information for Benchmark 1 (grade three), Benchmark 2 (grade five), Benchmark 3 (grade eight), and Certificate of…
Sun, Xiaoling; Kaur, Jasleen; Milojević, Staša; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo
The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitting and merging of social communities in a collaboration network. We find that this social model can account for a number of stylized facts about the relationships between disciplines, scholars, and publications. These results provide strong quantitative support for the key role of social interactions in shaping the dynamics of science. While several “science of science” theories exist, this is the first account for the emergence of disciplines that is validated on the basis of empirical data. PMID:23323212
Cook, Charles Gene
A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia course surveying basic social science skills and information, including scientific method, map usage, evolution, native peoples, social groups, and U.S. Government. Following a standard cover form, a statement of purpose for the course indicates that it is designed to provide…
This presentation discusses concepts and trends in social acceptance of wind energy, profiles recent research findings, and discussions mitigation strategies intended to resolve wind power social acceptance challenges as informed by published research and the experiences of individuals participating in the International Energy Agencies Working Group on Social Acceptance of Wind Energy
Haven, Emmanuel; Khrennikov, Andrei
Preface; Part I. Physics Concepts in Social Science? A Discussion: 1. Classical, statistical and quantum mechanics: all in one; 2. Econophysics: statistical physics and social science; 3. Quantum social science: a non-mathematical motivation; Part II. Mathematics and Physics Preliminaries: 4. Vector calculus and other mathematical preliminaries; 5. Basic elements of quantum mechanics; 6. Basic elements of Bohmian mechanics; Part III. Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Psychology: Basic Questions and Answers: 7. A brief overview; 8. Interference effects in psychology - an introduction; 9. A quantum-like model of decision making; Part IV. Other Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Economics, Finance and Brain Sciences: 10. Financial/economic theory in crisis; 11. Bohmian mechanics in finance and economics; 12. The Bohm-Vigier Model and path simulation; 13. Other applications to economic/financial theory; 14. The neurophysiological sources of quantum-like processing in the brain; Conclusion; Glossary; Index.
MacKenzie, Meagan B.; Kocovski, Nancy L.
Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have been used in social anxiety treatments with initial success. Further research requires the psychometrically sound measurement of mechanisms of change associated with these treatments. This research was conducted to develop and evaluate such a measure, the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action…
Ladd, Gary W.
The purpose of this study was to see if a social learning method for training verbal social skills might influence the social effectiveness of third grade children with low peer acceptance. Children were trained in three verbal skills: asking questions of peers; leading peers (e.g., offering useful suggestions or directions); and, offering…
The growing use of social media by students and staff has led many schools to consider developing acceptable use policies. There is tremendous opportunity for improving education through the use of social media. There is also potential risk because social media can be used to access age inappropriate information and to engage in aggressive online…
Hanson, Carl; West, Joshua; Neiger, Brad; Thackeray, Rosemary; Barnes, Michael; McIntyre, Emily
Background: As social media use grows in popularity, health educators are challenged to think differently about how to communicate with audiences. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore social media use and factors that determine acceptance of social media use among health educators. Methods: A random sample of Certified Health…
Mayer, Robert R.
With the growth of the social sciences, there has been increasing interest in use of their products to shed light on, and solve, some of the pressing social problems of our society. This monograph, the first in a series of studies on social change, reports on an analysis of applications of social change theory and research to programs of…
Scheufele, Dietram A
This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists--driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication--to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.
Scheufele, Dietram A.
This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists—driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication—to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future. PMID:23940341
In the 1970s, when the social science history movement emerged in the United States, leading to the founding of the Social Science History Association, a simultaneous movement arose in which historians looked to cultural anthropology for inspiration. Although both movements involved historians turning to social sciences for theory and method, they reflected very different views of the nature of the historical enterprise. Cultural anthropology, most notably as preached by Clifford Geertz, became a means by which historians could find a theoretical basis in the social sciences for rejecting a scientific paradigm. This article examines this development while also exploring the complex ways cultural anthropology has embraced—and shunned—history in recent years. PMID:26549914
Kertzer, David I
In the 1970s, when the social science history movement emerged in the United States, leading to the founding of the Social Science History Association, a simultaneous movement arose in which historians looked to cultural anthropology for inspiration. Although both movements involved historians turning to social sciences for theory and method, they reflected very different views of the nature of the historical enterprise. Cultural anthropology, most notably as preached by Clifford Geertz, became a means by which historians could find a theoretical basis in the social sciences for rejecting a scientific paradigm. This article examines this development while also exploring the complex ways cultural anthropology has embraced-and shunned-history in recent years.
Clavner, Jerry B.
Social sciences in the community college are at a critical point in their history and development. Except for a few statistical aberrations, enrollment in the social sciences and humanities is declining significantly. The idea of marketing a segment of a college's or university's offerings, particularly when it is not tied to a particular problem…
Sterry, Terry W.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Gartstein, Maria A.; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Vannatta, Kathryn; Noll, Robert B.
This study examined whether children's social behavior mediated the associations between specific dimensions of temperament and peer acceptance, and whether these associations were moderated by gender. We also explored the role of child's age on the associations between temperament and social functioning. Primary caregiver reports of temperament…
Sanchez, Rebecca Polley; Bartel, Chelsea M; Brown, Emily; DeRosier, Melissa
This study tested the acceptability and efficacy of an innovative intelligent tutoring system (ITS), "Adventures Aboard the S.S. GRIN," that translates the evidence-based in-person Social Skills Group Intervention (SSGRIN), into an interactive game-based social tutorial. This randomized controlled pilot trial tested the first half of the…
Peavey, Katherine Owen; Leff, Debra
Five adolescents with visual impairments participated in trust engendering activities in five separate peer focus groups. At the completion of the intervention, four of the students with visual impairments showed marked improvement in their social acceptance and had higher scores on the Social Skills Assessment Tool for Children with Visual…
Smaldino, Paul E; Waring, Timothy M
We agree that evolutionary perspectives may help us organize many divergent realms of the science of human behavior. Nevertheless, an imperative to unite all social science under an evolutionary framework risks turning off researchers who have their own theoretical perspectives that can be informed by evolutionary theory without being exclusively defined by it. We propose a few considerations for scholars interested in joining the evolutionary and social sciences.
The experience(s) of undergraduate research students in the social sciences is under-represented in the literature in comparison to the natural sciences or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). The strength of STEM undergraduate research learning environments is understood to be related to an apprenticeship-mode of learning supported…
Ling, P; Glantz, S
Objective: To describe tobacco industry consumer research to inform the development of more "socially acceptable" cigarette products since the 1970s. Methods: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results: 28 projects to develop more socially acceptable cigarettes were identified from Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, British American Tobacco, and Lorillard tobacco companies. Consumer research and concept testing consistently demonstrated that many smokers feel strong social pressure not to smoke, and this pressure increased with exposure to smoking restrictions. Tobacco companies attempted to develop more socially acceptable cigarettes with less visible sidestream smoke or less odour. When presented in theory, these product concepts were very attractive to important segments of the smoking population. However, almost every product developed was unacceptable in actual product tests or test markets. Smokers reported the complete elimination of secondhand smoke was necessary to satisfy non-smokers. Smokers have also been generally unwilling to sacrifice their own smoking satisfaction for the benefit of others. Many smokers prefer smoke-free environments to cigarettes that produce less secondhand smoke. Conclusions: Concerns about secondhand smoke and clean indoor air policies have a powerful effect on the social acceptability of smoking. Historically, the tobacco industry has been unable to counter these effects by developing more socially acceptable cigarettes. These data suggest that educating smokers about the health dangers of secondhand smoke and promoting clean indoor air policies has been difficult for the tobacco industry to counter with new products, and that every effort should be made to pursue these strategies. PMID:16183968
Lemke, J. L.
Social semiotics suggests that social and cultural formations, including the language and practice of science and the ways in which new generations and communities advance them, develop as an integral part of the evolution of social ecosystems. Some recent models of complex dynamic systems in physics, chemistry, and biology focus more on the…
Stocking, S. Holly
Although the social sciences have become legitimate sources of science news, many journalism instructors of science communication do not believe the social sciences warrant special or required attention in their courses. This is unfortunate, for the social sciences are important enough and different enough to require both their inclusion and…
Curşeu, Petru L.; Schruijer, Sandra G. L.; Fodor, Oana C.
The main aim of this paper is to test the extent to which social acceptance moderates the impact of minority dissent on group cognitive complexity (GCC). We hypothesize that divergent views expressed by a minority increase GCC especially when the group climate is open to divergent contributions (e.g., a socially accepting group climate). We also hypothesize that group size has a non-linear association with GCC in such a way that GCC increases as group size increases from low to average and then GCC decreases as group size further increases from average to high. We test these hypotheses in a sample of 537 students (258 women, with an average age of 23.35) organized in 92 groups that have worked together in the same group throughout the semester, and show that: (1) group size has a decreasing positive association with GCC, (2) both minority dissent and social acceptance are beneficial for GCC and (3) groups with the highest GCC are those that experience minority dissent and develop a socially accepting climate (in which group members can equally participate to the task), allowing the majority to process the dissenting views extensively.
Powers, Kevin Jay
The purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral intention of directors of educational programs in the radiologic sciences to adopt handheld devices to aid in managing student clinical data. Handheld devices were described to participants as a technology representing a class of mobile electronic devices including, but not limited to, personal digital assistants such as a Palm TX, Apple iPod Touch, Apple iPad or Hewlett Packard iPaq, and cellular or smartphones with third generation mobile capabilities such as an Apple iPhone, Blackberry or Android device. The study employed a non-experimental, cross-sectional survey design to determine the potential of adopting handheld technologies based on the constructs of Davis's (1989) Technology Acceptance Model. An online self-report questionnaire survey instrument was used to gather study data from 551 entry level radiologic science programs specializing in radiography, radiation therapy, nuclear medicine and medical sonography. The study design resulted in a single point in time assessment of the relationship between the primary constructs of the Technology Acceptance Model: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and the behavioral intention of radiography program directors to adopt the information technology represented by hand held devices. Study results provide justification for investing resources to promote the adoption of mobile handheld devices in radiologic science programs and study findings serve as a foundation for further research involving technology adoption in the radiologic sciences.
Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged “acceleration” of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them. PMID:23393420
Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged "acceleration" of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them.
Reviews the history of the social sciences in America, indicating that the field is still chiefly a collection of topics, albeit important ones such as mental hospitals, child development, and eugenics. Also indicates that although source materials are vast, synthetic overviews are needed in a number of areas. (JN)
University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real…
Asserts that the social science business is here to stay. The use of survey research, of invoking the learned as a form of symbolic action, of obfuscating the realities of limited budget and limited throughput and limited drive by "researching the problem," all provide a flywheel that shows every sign not merely of stability but of acceleration.…
Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Gross, Allan
Advancements in artificial photosynthesis have the potential to radically transform how societies convert and use energy. Their successful development, however, hinges not only on technical breakthroughs, but also acceptance and adoption by energy users. This article introduces a conceptual framework enabling analysts, planners and even investors to determine environments where artificial photosynthesis may thrive, and those where it may struggle. Drawn from work looking at the barriers and acceptance of solar photovoltaic and wind energy systems, the article proposes that social acceptance has multiple dimensions—socio-political, community and market—that must be met holistically in order for investors and users to embrace new technologies. The article argues that any future market acceptance for artificial photosynthesis will depend upon the prevalence of nine factors, which create conducive environments; the lack of the conditions engenders environments where they will likely be rejected. The conditions are (i) strong institutional capacity; (ii) political commitment; (iii) favourable legal and regulatory frameworks; (iv) competitive installation and/or production costs; (v) mechanisms for information and feedback; (vi) access to financing; (vii) prolific community and/or individual ownership and use; (viii) participatory project siting; and (ix) recognition of externalities or positive public image. PMID:26052424
Robinson, Eric; Tobias, Talia; Shaw, Lucy; Freeman, Elyse; Higgs, Suzanne
In a social eating context individuals tend to match their food intake to that of eating companions, regardless of whether the other person is eating a large amount. However, relatively little is known about the underlying processes of food intake matching. Findings from behavioural mimicry research suggest that individuals may copy how those around them act in order to facilitate social interactions and ingratiate themselves. The present paper reports two studies which were designed to examine whether ingratiation strategies may in part explain social matching of food intake in young females. In Study 1, female dyads completed a problem solving task together whilst having access to chocolate M&M's. We hypothesised that the extent to which individuals have a need to be socially accepted (trait self esteem) and are competent in social interactions (trait empathy) would predict the degree of matching. In Study 2 we directly manipulated the desire to ingratiate by priming social acceptance in half of participants prior to eating popcorn in the presence of a high eating confederate. In Study 1, both self esteem and empathy were associated with degree of matching within female dyads. In Study 2, priming social acceptance reduced the matching effect in females. These findings suggest that desire for social acceptance may be an underlying cause of social matching of food intake.
Singer, Alan, Ed.
A joint publication of the New York and New Jersey State Councils for the Social Studies, "Social Science Docket" presents K-12 teachers with resources covering the social science disciplines, including history, economics, political science, sociology, geography, anthropology, and psychology. Each issue includes theme-related and…
Conte, R.; Gilbert, N.; Bonelli, G.; Cioffi-Revilla, C.; Deffuant, G.; Kertesz, J.; Loreto, V.; Moat, S.; Nadal, J.-P.; Sanchez, A.; Nowak, A.; Flache, A.; San Miguel, M.; Helbing, D.
The increasing integration of technology into our lives has created unprecedented volumes of data on society's everyday behaviour. Such data opens up exciting new opportunities to work towards a quantitative understanding of our complex social systems, within the realms of a new discipline known as Computational Social Science. Against a background of financial crises, riots and international epidemics, the urgent need for a greater comprehension of the complexity of our interconnected global society and an ability to apply such insights in policy decisions is clear. This manifesto outlines the objectives of this new scientific direction, considering the challenges involved in it, and the extensive impact on science, technology and society that the success of this endeavour is likely to bring about.
The relationship between technology and society is a subject of continuing interest, because technological change and its effects confront and challenge society. College students are especially interested in technological change, knowing that they must cope with the pervasive and escalating effect of wide-ranging technological change. The space shuttle represents a technological change. The book's role is to serve as a resource for college faculty and students who are or will be interested in the social science implications of space technology. The book is designed to provide introductory material on a variety of space social topics to help faculty and students pursue teaching, learning, and research. Space technologies, perspectives on individual disciplines (economics, history, international law, philosophy, political science, psychology, and sociology) and interdiscipline approaches are presented.
Fiasse, Catherine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie
Perceived social acceptance, theory of mind (ToM) and social adjustment were investigated in 45 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) compared with 45 typically developing (TD) preschoolers, matched for developmental age assessed by means of the Differential Scales of Intellectual Efficiency-Revised edition (EDEI-R, Perron-Borelli, 1996).…
Pardini, Dustin A.; Barry, Tammy D.; Barth, Joan M.; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen C.
Examining children's perceptions of their social acceptance in conjunction with others' ratings of their peer social standing can enhance our understanding of the heterogeneity in children exhibiting disruptive behavior problems. Using a sample of 213 youth rated in the top 31 percent of their class on aggressive-disruptive behaviors, the current…
Chuong, Kim H; O'Doherty, Kieran C; Secko, David M
Advances in human microbiome research have generated considerable interest in elucidating the role of bacteria in health and the application of microbial ecosystem therapies and probiotics. Fecal transplants involve the introduction of gut microbes from a healthy donor's stool to the patient and have been documented as effective for treating Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and some other gastrointestinal disorders. However, the treatment has encountered regulatory hurdles preventing widespread uptake. We examined dominant representations of fecal transplants in Canadian media and found that fecal transplants are often represented as being inherently disgusting or distasteful (the "ick factor"). This "ick factor" is used to construct different messages about the treatment's social acceptability and legitimacy. We conclude that an over-emphasis on the "ick factor" constrains public discourse from a more nuanced discussion of the social challenges, scientific concerns, and regulatory issues surrounding the treatment.
Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo
Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into
White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.
The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.
Johnson, Wendell G.
The Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), a unit within the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, is the world's largest social science data archive. The data sets in the ICPRS database give the social sciences librarian/subject specialist an opportunity of providing value-added bibliographic…
Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter
Although the clinical utility of the functional analysis is well established, its social acceptability has received minimal attention. The current study assessed the social acceptability of functional analysis procedures among 10 parents and 3 teachers of children who had recently received functional analyses. Participants completed a 9-item questionnaire, and results suggested that functional analysis procedures were socially acceptable.
Cavallo, Ann M. L.; White, Kevin J.; McCall, David
This study explored interrelationships among high school students' views about nature of science (NOS), acceptance of evolution, and conceptual understanding of evolution, and the extent to which these may have shifted from pre- to post-instruction on evolutionary theory. Eighty-one students enrolled in ninth-grade Biology responded to…
The author presents his views in three areas: (1) Looking toward the next century, with an eye to identifying the lines of social change and the ranges of social problems we can expect. (2) Sketching an inherited and persistent view of the application of social-science to social problems. (3) Revision of views in light of understanding social problems and how social-science knowledge bears on them. 7 refs.
Smith, Michael E; Feinman, Gary M; Drennan, Robert D; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian
Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration.
Holme, Petter; Liljeros, Fredrik
Quantitative social science is not only about regression analysis or, in general, data inference. Computer simulations of social mechanisms have an over 60 years long history. They have been used for many different purposes—to test scenarios, to test the consistency of descriptive theories (proof-of-concept models), to explore emergent phenomena, for forecasting, etc. In this essay, we sketch these historical developments, the role of mechanistic models in the social sciences and the influences from the natural and formal sciences. We argue that mechanistic computational models form a natural common ground for social and natural sciences, and look forward to possible future information flow across the social-natural divide.
Hoover, Elizabeth; Renauld, Mia; Edelstein, Michael R.
Background Social science research has been central in documenting and analyzing community discovery of environmental exposure and consequential processes. Collaboration with environmental health science through team projects has advanced and improved our understanding of environmental health and justice. Objective We sought to identify diverse methods and topics in which social scientists have expanded environmental health understandings at multiple levels, to examine how transdisciplinary environmental health research fosters better science, and to learn how these partnerships have been able to flourish because of the support from National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). Methods We analyzed various types of social science research to investigate how social science contributes to environmental health. We also examined NIEHS programs that foster social science. In addition, we developed a case study of a community-based participation research project in Akwesasne in order to demonstrate how social science has enhanced environmental health science. Results Social science has informed environmental health science through ethnographic studies of contaminated communities, analysis of spatial distribution of environmental injustice, psychological experience of contamination, social construction of risk and risk perception, and social impacts of disasters. Social science–environmental health team science has altered the way scientists traditionally explore exposure by pressing for cumulative exposure approaches and providing research data for policy applications. Conclusions A transdisciplinary approach for environmental health practice has emerged that engages the social sciences to paint a full picture of the consequences of contamination so that policy makers, regulators, public health officials, and other stakeholders can better ameliorate impacts and prevent future exposure. Citation Hoover E, Renauld M, Edelstein MR, Brown P. 2015. Social
Richards, N. David, Ed.; Cohen Lois K., Ed.
This bibliographic review of social sciences studies in the field of dentistry is a result of the collaboration of dentists and social and behavioral scientists who volunteered manuscripts to the Commission on Dental Practice of the Federation Dentaire Internationale. The manuscript topics include: (1) social science research on the dental…
Smith, Ruth S.
Traces history of National Technical Information Service (NTIS), charting growth into social science information resource. Acquisition criteria and sources of social science information processed by NTIS, indexing practices and subject classifications of interest to social scientists, and relationships between NTIS and Government Printing Office…
Soltani, Esmail; Bahrainian, Seyed Abdolmajid; Masjedi Arani, Abbas; Farhoudian, Ali; Gachkar, Latif
Background Social anxiety disorder is often related to specific impairment or distress in different areas of life, including occupational, social and family settings. Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the persian version of the social anxiety-acceptance and action questionnaire (SA-AAQ) in university students. Materials and Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 324 students from Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences participated via the cluster sampling method during year 2015. Factor analysis by the principle component analysis method, internal consistency analysis, and convergent and divergent validity were conducted to examine the validity of the SA-AAQ. To calculate the reliability of the SA-AAQ, Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest reliability were used. Results The results from factor analysis by principle component analysis method yielded three factors that were named acceptance, action and non-judging of experience. The three-factor solution explained 51.82% of the variance. Evidence for the internal consistency of SA-AAQ was obtained via calculating correlations between SA-AAQ and its subscales. Support for convergent and discriminant validity of the SA-AAQ via its correlations with the acceptance and action questionnaire - II, social interaction anxiety scale, cognitive fusion questionnaire, believability of anxious feelings and thoughts questionnaire, valued living questionnaire and WHOQOL- BREF was obtained. The reliability of the SA-AAQ via calculating Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest coefficients yielded values of 0.84 and 0.84, respectively. Conclusions The Iranian version of the SA-AAQ has acceptable levels of psychometric properties in university students. The SA-AAQ is a valid and reliable measure to be utilized in research investigations and therapeutic interventions. PMID:27803719
Schubert, András; Somogyi, Anikó
In order to reveal impacts of natural and social sciences on each other, the authors examined connections between fields of medical and social sciences using a search for references and citations of scientific publication. 1. The largest affinity between the medical and social sciences was found between neurosciences and psychology, but there was a significant affinity between clinical sciences and general social sciences, as well. 2. The example of General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes" suggests that in the period 2001-2010 the share of references to social sciences was significantly increased. In the meantime, social science papers in the same topics contained references to Clinical Medicine papers in a constantly high percentage. 3. In the sample under study, the age distribution of social science papers in the references did not differ significantly from that of the other sources. 4. Share of references to social science papers was found to be extremely high among Hungarian General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes". This finding still requires clarification, nevertheless, since e.g. it was not supported by an institutional comparison including the largest Hungarian medical research university. 5. The intensity of the reference/citation mediated information flows between the Hungarian Medical Journal, Orvosi Hetilap and social sciences appears to be in accordance with the current international trends.
Miller, Raymond C.
An interdisciplinary doctoral degree program to prepare community college social science teachers is described. The program includes academic course work, summer practicums, internship, and comprehensive examinations. (RN)
Smith, Michael E.; Feinman, Gary M.; Drennan, Robert D.; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian
Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration. PMID:22547811
Weaver, C. P.; Mooney, Sian; Allen, D.; Beller-Simms, Nancy; Fish, T.; Grambsch, A.; Hohenstein, W.; Jacobs, Kathy; Kenney, Melissa A.; Lane, Meredith A.; Langner, L.; Larson, E.; McGinnis, D. L.; Moss, Richard H.; Nichols, L. G.; Nierenberg, Claudia; Seyller, E. A.; Stern, Paul; Winthrop, R.
US efforts to integrate social and biophysical sciences to address the issue of global change exist within a wider movement to understand global change as a societal challenge and to inform policy. Insights from the social sciences can help transform global change research into action.
Integrating the social studies of science into science education would make explicit the cultures of science, which have been revealed by historians, philosophers, sociologists, and feminist science scholars. These cultures include the institutions of science, the interaction of science and the society in which it is practiced, and the internal culture of science. This pedagogy may be a route to increasing equity in science, by giving women and members of other under-represented groups an appreciation of the factors causing their alienation from the enterprise and the tools to change science for social justice. In this article, I present the theoretical basis of this position, along with the implementation strategies and preliminary assessment for a sophomore level biology course based on this perspective.
Cao, Jianqin; Gu, Ruolei; Bi, Xuejing; Zhu, Xiangru; Wu, Haiyan
Previous studies on social anxiety have demonstrated negative-expectancy bias in social contexts. In this study, we used a paradigm that employed self-relevant positive or negative social feedback, in order to test whether this negative expectancy manifests in event-related potentials (ERPs) during social evaluation among socially anxious individuals. Behavioral data revealed that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) showed more negative expectancy of peer acceptance both in the experiment and in daily life than did the healthy control participants. Regarding ERP results, we found a overally larger P2 for positive social feedback and also a group main effect, such that the P2 was smaller in SAD group. SAD participants demonstrated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) to positive feedback than to negative feedback. In addition, SAD participants showed a more positive ΔFRN (ΔFRN = negative – positive). Furthermore, acceptance expectancy in daily life correlated negatively with ΔFRN amplitude, while the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) score correlated positively with the ΔFRN amplitude. Finally, the acceptance expectancy in daily life fully mediated the relationship between the IAS and ΔFRN. These results indicated that both groups could differentiate between positive and negative social feedback in the early stage of social feedback processing (reflected on the P2). However, the SAD group exhibited a larger FRN to positive social feedback than to negative social feedback, demonstrating their dysfunction in the late stage of social feedback processing. In our opinion, such dysfunction is due to their greater negative social feedback expectancy. PMID:26635659
Cao, Jianqin; Gu, Ruolei; Bi, Xuejing; Zhu, Xiangru; Wu, Haiyan
Previous studies on social anxiety have demonstrated negative-expectancy bias in social contexts. In this study, we used a paradigm that employed self-relevant positive or negative social feedback, in order to test whether this negative expectancy manifests in event-related potentials (ERPs) during social evaluation among socially anxious individuals. Behavioral data revealed that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) showed more negative expectancy of peer acceptance both in the experiment and in daily life than did the healthy control participants. Regarding ERP results, we found a overally larger P2 for positive social feedback and also a group main effect, such that the P2 was smaller in SAD group. SAD participants demonstrated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) to positive feedback than to negative feedback. In addition, SAD participants showed a more positive ΔFRN (ΔFRN = negative - positive). Furthermore, acceptance expectancy in daily life correlated negatively with ΔFRN amplitude, while the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) score correlated positively with the ΔFRN amplitude. Finally, the acceptance expectancy in daily life fully mediated the relationship between the IAS and ΔFRN. These results indicated that both groups could differentiate between positive and negative social feedback in the early stage of social feedback processing (reflected on the P2). However, the SAD group exhibited a larger FRN to positive social feedback than to negative social feedback, demonstrating their dysfunction in the late stage of social feedback processing. In our opinion, such dysfunction is due to their greater negative social feedback expectancy.
Franck, Matthew J.
Criticisms of the various social sciences from within their ranks are not a new thing, but recent years have seen such criticisms reach a pitch that make them hard to ignore. What they seem to have in common is the charge that this or that social science has become an enterprise that serious people have trouble taking seriously, because the most…
Miron, Mary, Ed.
This collection of articles provides an overview of some of the recent social science research projects performed by state agricultural experiment stations. The examples highlight social science's contribution to problem-solving in rural business, industry, farming, communities, government, education, and families. The following programs are…
Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.
This Idaho Social Science Exploratory course of study applies standards-based content knowledge and skills to an enhanced investigation of geography, history, entrepreneurism, and civic engagement at an eighth-grade level. The exploratory course draws upon the disciplines to emphasize concepts and generalizations from the social sciences, promotes…
Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Muñoz, José M; Carreras, María R; Braza, Paloma; García, Ainhoa; Sorozabal, Aizpea; Sánchez-Martín, José R
In this study we examined the effects of social intelligence, empathy, verbal ability and appearance-reality distinction on the level of peer acceptance, as well as the moderating role of gender. Participants were 98 five-year-old children (43 boys and 55 girls; mean age 5 years 3 months for boys and girls). Our results showed a main effect of social intelligence on peer acceptance, as well as several other effects that were moderated by gender: a significant and positive effect of verbal ability on social acceptance was found for boys; appearance-reality distinction was found to have a positive effect on social acceptance in the case of girls; and although empathy had a significant positive effect on social acceptance for both boys and girls, this effect was more pronounced among boys. Our results suggest that abilities promoting peer acceptance are different for boys and girls.
Ross, Victoria L; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R
Faced with a severe drought, the residents of the regional city of Toowoomba, in South East Queensland, Australia were asked to consider a potable wastewater reuse scheme to supplement drinking water supplies. As public risk perceptions and trust have been shown to be key factors in acceptance of potable reuse projects, this research developed and tested a social-psychological model of trust, risk perceptions and acceptance. Participants (N = 380) were surveyed a few weeks before a referendum was held in which residents voted against the controversial scheme. Analysis using structural equation modelling showed that the more community members perceived that the water authority used fair procedures (e.g., consulting with the community and providing accurate information), the greater their sense of shared identity with the water authority. Shared social identity in turn influenced trust via increased source credibility, that is, perceptions that the water authority is competent and has the community's interest at heart. The findings also support past research showing that higher levels of trust in the water authority were associated with lower perceptions of risk, which in turn were associated with higher levels of acceptance, and vice versa. The findings have a practical application for improving public acceptance of potable recycled water schemes.
Engerman, David C
This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.
Addinell, Sue, Comp.; Solomon, Joan, Comp.
Science In a Social CONtext is a series of eight books based on the project SISCON-in-Schools. The books provide a new course in science and society for general studies at sixth-form level. The course has been specially designed to make scientific problems accessible to the non-scientist, as well as to explain the social aspects of science to the…
The federal government has identified a number of multi-agency funding initiatives for science in strategic areas, such as the initiatives on global environmental change and high performance computing, that give some role to the social sciences. Seven strategic areas for social science research are given with potential for federal funding: (1) Democratization. (2) Human Capital. (3) Administrative Science. (4) Cognitive Science. (5) High Performance Computing and Digital Libraries. (6) Human Dimensions of Environmental Change. and (7) Human Genetic Diversity. The first two are addressed in detail and the remainder as a group. 10 refs.
Smith, Emma; White, Patrick
This paper reports the findings of an Economic and Social Research Council-funded study investigating patterns of participation in UK higher education science programmes across two decades. Using data on applications and acceptances to university, the paper describes trends in the proportions of candidates who choose to study science and…
Snell, Joel C.
The issues of premodern, modern, and postmodern can often confuse the social scientists because so much is drawn from modernism as the foundation of the social methodologies. Briefly, the author would like to differentiate the three modernism philosophies and indicate how a coalition of the three may apply to social sciences.
Marsh, Jeanne C.; Reed, Martena
Objective: This article advances understanding of social work science by examining the content and methods of highly utilized or cited journal articles in social work. Methods: A data base of the 100 most frequently cited articles from 79 social work journals was coded and categorized into three primary domains: content, research versus…
Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.
As the wind industry strives to achieve 20% wind energy by 2030, maintaining high levels of social acceptance for wind energy will become increasingly important. Wind Powering America is currently researching stakeholder perspectives in the U.S. market and reviewing findings from wind energy projects around the world to better understand social acceptance barriers. Results from European studies show that acceptance varies widely depending on local community values. A preliminary survey shows similar results in the United States. Further research will be conducted to refine our understanding of key social acceptance barriers and evaluate the best ways to mitigate negative perspectives on wind power.
Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Nakamoto, Jonathan; McKay, Tara
This article reports a short-term longitudinal study focusing on popularity and social acceptance as predictors of academic engagement for a sample of 342 adolescents (approximate average age of 14). These youths were followed for 4 consecutive semesters. Popularity, social acceptance, and aggression were assessed with a peer nomination …
Sherman, B R; Donovan, B R
In a sample of 53 at-risk pregnant adolescents, the relationship between their perceptions of maternal acceptance-rejection in childhood and the nature of their social supports was examined. Perception of acceptance-rejection was significantly correlated with both frequency of interaction with social network members and expectations of their future support. Implications for public health strategies are discussed.
Chang, Lei; Li, Kin Kit; Lei, Li; Liu, Hongyun; Guo, Boliang; Wang, Yan; Fung, Kitty Y.
This study presents a model of maladaptive social interactions that includes both behavioural and communication correlates of peer acceptance and self-perceived social competence. Tested in a sample of 377 Hong Kong secondary school students, verbal and nonverbal aggression contributed concurrently and longitudinally to peer acceptance.…
Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter
Although the clinical utility of the functional analysis is well established, its social acceptability has received minimal attention. The current study assessed the social acceptability of functional analysis procedures among 10 parents and 3 teachers of children who had recently received functional analyses. Participants completed a 9-item…
Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.
Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have. PMID:26440071
Seymour B. Sarason's innovative ideas have influenced much of my work. These same ideas-in particular, his concepts of social settings, behavioral and programmatic regularities, and the universe of alternatives-also serve as the foundation for an action science of social settings. Questions regarding theory, measurement, intervention, and research design and data analysis are central to the development of this action science, and there have been recent innovations in each of these areas. However, future challenges remain for the field. We must continue to move forward to advance an action science of social settings and make a real difference in people's lives.
White, Charles S., Ed.
The agenda for the Social Science Education Consortium conference at Woods Hole (Massachusetts) was designed to continue a tradition of examining scholarship relative to the social sciences in K-12 education. The content focus for this volume, is political science, economics, and sociology. Following a "Foreword" (Matthew T. Downey; Joseph P.…
Ormerod, Milton B.
Suggesting a distinction between student attitudes toward science as a school subject (SUBATT) and toward the social implications of science (SOCATT), reports results of a study using various measures focusing on SOCATT and SUBATT of approximately 2,200 students in 33 schools, including findings related to sex differences. (DS)
Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C
Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one's social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues.
Resnik, David B.; Elliott, Kevin C.
Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one’s social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues. PMID:26193168
Powers, Kevin Jay
The purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral intention of directors of educational programs in the radiologic sciences to adopt handheld devices to aid in managing student clinical data. Handheld devices were described to participants as a technology representing a class of mobile electronic devices including, but not limited to,…
Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, Fairbanks, AK.
The U.S. Congress passed the Arctic Research and Policy Act in 1984 and designated the National Science Foundation (NSF) the lead agency in implementing arctic research policy. In 1989, the parameters of arctic social science research were outlined, emphasizing three themes: human-environment interactions, community viability, and rapid social…
Dietrich, Heike; Zhang, Ying; Klopp, Eric; Brünken, Roland; Krause, Ulrike-Marie; Spinath, Frank M.; Stark, Robin; Spinath, Birgit
The aim of the present study was to introduce a general theoretical model of scientific competencies in higher education and to adapt it to three social sciences, namely psychology, sociology, and political science, by providing evidence from expert interviews and program regulations. Within our general model, we distinguished and specified four…
Each of the authors discussed in this review essay deplores the attempts of scholars in the human sciences to ape their colleagues in the natural sciences and economics. Their criticisms are not dissimilar, nor are they without merit, but it is important to ask the following questions: What would they offer in its place? What kind of…
Previous studies on the social outcome of assertiveness reported mixed findings, failing to support the assumption that assertiveness promotes peer acceptance. In an attempt to provide explanations for the inconsistencies in prior findings, this study proposed making a distinction between proactive and reactive assertiveness and examined the moderating effects of social interest. A total of 441 fifth and sixth graders (232 boys, 209 girls; M age = 10.6 yr., SD = 0.6) participated in the study. Results indicated that proactive assertiveness was positively related to peer acceptance regardless of social interest. By contrast, reactive assertiveness was positively related to peer acceptance but only when social interest is high. When social interest is low, it was negatively associated with peer acceptance.
Vera, Eugenia Roldan; Schupp, Thomas
This essay describes the pertinence of Social Network Analysis (SNA) for the social sciences in general, and discusses its methodological and conceptual implications for comparative research in particular. The authors first present a basic summary of the theoretical and methodological assumptions of SNA, followed by a succinct overview of its…
In September 1965, not long after news broke about a Pentagon-sponsored program to study social conflict in South America, the Social Science Research Council played host to a meeting on overseas research. Feelings were raw. Opposition to the Vietnam War was mounting, and many scholars worried that the Pentagon's studies of conflict and…
Cleary, Edward; Garrido-Pinto, German
Behind differences in style of North and Latin American social scientists lie profound divergences of conceptions of social science and of typical levels of analysis. Important consequences of these differences follow for styles of teaching, research, or community involvement. This paper explores these cleavages and exemplifies how one might teach…
Evolution is the cornerstone of biological sciences, but anti-evolution teaching has become a global controversy since the introduction of evolutionary ideas into the United States high school science curricula in 1914. It is suggested that teachers' attitude toward and acceptance of the theory of evolution will influence their effect of teaching…
Brunson, M.; Schindler, Bruce A.
Contemporary natural resource management requires consideration of the social acceptability of management practices and conditions. Agencies wishing to measure, respond to, and influence social acceptability must understand the nuances of public perception regarding controversial issues. This study explores social acceptability judgments about one such issue: reduction of wildland fuel hazards on federal lands in the western United States. Citizens were surveyed in four locations where fire has been a significant ecological disturbance agent and public land agencies propose to reduce wildland fuel levels and wildfire hazards via prescribed burning, thinning, brush removal, and/or livestock grazing. Respondents in different locations differed in their knowledge about fire and fuel issues as well in their acceptability judgments. Differences are associated with location-specific social and environmental factors as well as individual beliefs. Results argue against using a??one-size-fits-alla?? policies or information strategies about fuels management.
This study introduces a social context model within which peer acceptances of prosocial-leadership, aggression, and social withdrawal were examined as functions of the contextual norms of these behaviors. The major postulate of the model is that the extent to which a behavior permeates a social context facilitates peer acceptance of the behavior. Specific hypotheses with respect to classroom and gender as different social contexts were formulated and supported when tested in a sample of 4,650 Chinese middle school students from 82 classes. The discussion emphasizes the theoretical as well as the methodological need for alternative conceptualizations of peer relations that reflect both individual differences and contextual variations.
Dalrymple, Kristy L.; Herbert, James D.
Despite the demonstrated efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), many individuals do not respond to treatment or demonstrate residual symptoms and impairment posttreatment. Preliminary evidence indicates that acceptance-based approaches (e.g., acceptance and commitment therapy; ACT) can be helpful for a…
Colvin, Alex Don; Bullock, Angela N.
The exponential growth and sophistication of new information and computer technology (ICT) have greatly influenced human interactions and provided new metaphors for understanding the world. The acceptance and integration of ICT into social work field education are examined here using the technological acceptance model. This article also explores…
Kocovski, Nancy L.; Fleming, Jan E.; Rector, Neil A.
Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy (MAGT) for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is based largely on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes et al., 1999), with enhanced mindfulness mostly from Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Segal et al., 2002). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and initial…
Harter, Susan; Pike, Robin
Describes two versions of a new pictorial scale of perceived competence and social acceptance, a downward extension of the Perceived Competence Scale for Children. Both versions, one for preschoolers/kindergarteners and one for first/second graders, tap four domains: cognitive competence, physical competence, peer acceptance, and maternal…
Dearing, Karen F.; Joormann, Jutta; Gotlib, Ian H.
Abstract Low perceived social acceptance is a significant risk factor for emotional difficulties in children. No studies, however, have examined genetic factors that may underlie individual differences in perceived social acceptance. In the present study we examined the relation between polymorphisms on the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met and serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) genes and perceived social acceptance in 103 adolescent girls. Only the COMT polymorphism was related to perceived social acceptance: Val-allele carriers reported greater perceived social acceptance than did homozygous Met-allele carriers. In a subsample of these participants, homozygous Val-allele carriers reported greater maintenance of positive emotions during stress. This, in turn, predicted social acceptance, suggesting that COMT exerts its effects on social functioning through emotion regulation. These data are the first to show an association between COMT and social functioning in children. Future research might profitably examine emotion regulation as a mediator between COMT and social acceptance. PMID:19702491
Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S
The present study investigated longitudinal associations between behavioral and cognitive dimensions of parental social coaching (i.e., advice about how to behave or think about peer challenges) and young adolescents' peer acceptance, and whether such associations are moderated by youths' social skills. Time 1 (T1) participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years; 50% boys; 58.5% European American). Parents gave open-ended reports about their social coaching to hypothetical peer stress scenarios, which were coded from low to high quality on behavioral and cognitive dimensions. Parents and teachers reported on adolescent prosocial behavior (i.e., social-behavioral skills), and adolescents reported on their social appraisals and social self-efficacy (i.e., social-cognitive skills). At T1 (before the first year of middle school) and Time 2 (approximately 10 months later, after the first year of middle school), parents and teachers rated adolescent peer acceptance. Analyses revealed that parents' prosocial behavioral advice and benign cognitive framing independently predicted adolescents' higher peer acceptance prospectively (controlling for earlier levels of peer acceptance). Furthermore, adolescent social skills moderated links between coaching and peer acceptance. Specifically, adolescents with higher, but not lower, social-cognitive skills became more accepted in the context of higher-quality coaching, supporting a "capitalization" pattern, such that these youth may be better able to utilize coaching suggestions. Results underscore the utility of parents' behavioral advice and cognitive framing for adolescent peer adjustment across the middle school transition and suggest that optimal social-coaching strategies may depend in part on adolescent social skill level. (PsycINFO Database Record
Fattore, Giovanni; Agostoni, Carlo
For social interventions aimed at improving nutrition behavior evidence from randomized trials is essential but cannot be the only approach of research activities. Interventions on dietary habits require considerations on food security, economic and environmental sustainability, and a broad meaning of wellbeing which includes, but also goes beyond, health effects. The model of research in nutrition requires a new consideration of observational studies, mainly through different analytical models. Nutrition and food studies need research programs where medical (nutrition and health), psychology (how we behave), economics (how resources are used and their impact on wellbeing) and sociology (how social determinant shape behavior) collaborate.
Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Vitaro, Frank
This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11-14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived social acceptance were assessed using self ratings. While accounting for initial levels of depressive symptoms, peer rejection, and friendlessness at age 11 years, a high probability of being isolated from cliques from age 11 to 13 years predicted depressive symptoms at age 14 years. The link between clique isolation and depressive symptoms was mediated by loneliness, but not by perceived social acceptance. No sex differences were found in the associations between clique isolation and depressive symptoms. These results suggest that clique isolation is a social risk factor for the escalation of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Implications for research and prevention are discussed.
Richmond, Anthony H.
Reviews various theories which combine to produce a paradigm for the analysis of ethnic nationalism. Covers terminology confusion, biosocial theories, modernization theories, Marxist/Leninist theories, internal colonialism, ethnic pluralism, micro-social theories, system theories and multivariate models, development and modernization, power,…
Berdan, Louise E.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social preference and perceived acceptance as moderators of the relation between child temperament and externalizing behavior. Participants included 399 children evaluated at pre-kindergarten and kindergarten assessments. Pre-kindergarten children characterized by high temperamental Surgency/Extraversion were more likely to exhibit hyperactivity and aggression in the kindergarten classroom. In addition, kindergarten perceived acceptance and social preference moderated the relation between pre-kindergarten Surgency/Extraversion and kindergarten hyperactivity for girls only. Girls who were characterized by high temperamental Surgency/Extraversion, high perceived acceptance, and low social preference were at risk for higher levels of teacher-reported and peer-nominated hyperactivity. In contrast, accurately high perceived acceptance was a protective factor for high temperamental Surgency/Extraversion. Findings are discussed in terms of risk and protective factors for externalizing behavior. PMID:18605827
This paper examines the framings that the fields of the social studies of science and science education use for each other. It is shown that the social studies of science frames science education as passive and timeless. Science education frames science studies as a set of representations to better capture how science works. The paper then…
The effectiveness of a therapeutic motor development program in increasing the social adjustment and peer acceptance of seven socially isolated fifth grade children was investigated using a single subject experimental design. The program was based on the games analysis model which allows movement games to be designed for individual motoric,…
Tepeli, Kezban; Yilmaz, Elif
This study was conducted to find an answer to the question of "Do social problem-solving skills of 5-6 years old children differentiate depending on the levels of maternal acceptance rejection?" The participants of the study included 359 5-6 years old children and their mothers. Wally Social Problem-Solving Test and PARQ (Parental…
Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.; Vitaro, Frank
This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11-14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived…
Quinn, John M.; And Others
This study evaluated whether behaviors often taught as part of social skills training for individuals with mental retardation were judged favorably by 61 community judges. Results indicated that the skills of following instructions, accepting criticism, and negotiating were relevant to judgment of social performance and likely to be reinforced by…
Merga, Margaret K.
Increasing recreational reading is a priority in a climate of growing adolescent aliteracy. Raising the social appeal of books has been identified as one potential avenue for arresting this trend. An understanding of the current social acceptability of book reading amongst contemporary adolescents is important in informing an effective approach to…
Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; AbduRahman, Nik Suryani Nik; Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku
Understanding reasons why students use social media has become a major preoccupation of researchers in recent time due to the rate of its adoption among the present generation of students. Some of the few study on social media phenomenon employed a single theory as a framework in order to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of it…
Stacey, Glyn; Stephens, Neil
We describe the experience of conducting intensive social science research at the UK Stem Cell Bank from the viewpoint of both the person conducting the social science research and the Director of the Bank. We detail the initial misunderstandings and concerns held by both and the problems these caused. Then we describe how the relationship developed as the project progressed and shared benefits became apparent. Finally, while acknowledging potential areas of tension between the life and social sciences, we suggest further interaction between the disciplines would prove beneficial for both and speculate as to how this may be achieved. In the discussion we identify a set of learning points from our experience and definitions of social science terminology that may help to inform future engagements between life and social scientists.
Gareau, Frederick H.
Refutes the very concept of a social science. Observes that the disciplines which study man and society are too heavily characterized by diversity, lack of consensus, and dissonance to be considered sciences. Classifies social science as a "non-science" and considers the term "social studies" to be a more honest and descriptive name to attach to…
Austin, C R
Professor Austin explores four main areas in this paper. First of all he outlines the physical development of sex differentiation in the embryo. He develops this by describing the clinical manifestations of abnormality which can appear at that stage. Professor Austin points out that there are relatively few people with abnormalities and that those who do show homosexual tendencies are not noticeably different from the norm in terms of their sexual equipment and hormone levels. It is much more likely that their psychological and social development has a greater influence in differentiating them sexually. The last section of the paper is a synopsis of society's reactions to homosexuality or bisexuality which term in Professor Austin's opinion is more accurate and descriptive of the condition. PMID:691017
Investigates the relationship between information science and the social sciences through a co-citation cluster analysis of a three-year cumulation of the Social Sciences Citation Index. The internal structure of information science clusters is discussed, as well as external linkages to fields of social science. Thirteen references are listed. (BK)
Social science data often contain complex characteristics that standard statistical methods fail to capture. Social surveys assign many questions to respondents, which often consist of mixed-scale variables. Each of the variables can follow a complex distribution outside parametric families and associations among variables may have more complicated structures than standard linear dependence. Therefore, it is not straightforward to develop a statistical model which can approximate structures well in the social science data. In addition, many social surveys have collected data over time and therefore we need to incorporate dynamic dependence into the models. Also, it is standard to observe massive number of missing values in the social science data. To address these challenging problems, this thesis develops flexible nonparametric Bayesian methods for the analysis of social science data. Chapter 1 briefly explains backgrounds and motivations of the projects in the following chapters. Chapter 2 develops a nonparametric Bayesian modeling of temporal dependence in large sparse contingency tables, relying on a probabilistic factorization of the joint pmf. Chapter 3 proposes nonparametric Bayes inference on conditional independence with conditional mutual information used as a measure of the strength of conditional dependence. Chapter 4 proposes a novel Bayesian density estimation method in social surveys with complex designs where there is a gap between sample and population. We correct for the bias by adjusting mixture weights in Bayesian mixture models. Chapter 5 develops a nonparametric model for mixed-scale longitudinal surveys, in which various types of variables can be induced through latent continuous variables and dynamic latent factors lead to flexibly time-varying associations among variables.
Henrickson, Leslie; McKelvey, Bill
Since the death of positivism in the 1970s, philosophers have turned their attention to scientific realism, evolutionary epistemology, and the Semantic Conception of Theories. Building on these trends, Campbellian Realism allows social scientists to accept real-world phenomena as criterion variables against which theories may be tested without denying the reality of individual interpretation and social construction. The Semantic Conception reduces the importance of axioms, but reaffirms the role of models and experiments. Philosophers now see models as “autonomous agents” that exert independent influence on the development of a science, in addition to theory and data. The inappropriate molding effects of math models on social behavior modeling are noted. Complexity science offers a “new” normal science epistemology focusing on order creation by self-organizing heterogeneous agents and agent-based models. The more responsible core of postmodernism builds on the idea that agents operate in a constantly changing web of interconnections among other agents. The connectionist agent-based models of complexity science draw on the same conception of social ontology as do postmodernists. These recent developments combine to provide foundations for a “new” social science centered on formal modeling not requiring the mathematical assumptions of agent homogeneity and equilibrium conditions. They give this “new” social science legitimacy in scientific circles that current social science approaches lack. PMID:12011408
Henrickson, Leslie; McKelvey, Bill
Since the death of positivism in the 1970s, philosophers have turned their attention to scientific realism, evolutionary epistemology, and the Semantic Conception of Theories. Building on these trends, Campbellian Realism allows social scientists to accept real-world phenomena as criterion variables against which theories may be tested without denying the reality of individual interpretation and social construction. The Semantic Conception reduces the importance of axioms, but reaffirms the role of models and experiments. Philosophers now see models as "autonomous agents" that exert independent influence on the development of a science, in addition to theory and data. The inappropriate molding effects of math models on social behavior modeling are noted. Complexity science offers a "new" normal science epistemology focusing on order creation by self-organizing heterogeneous agents and agent-based models. The more responsible core of postmodernism builds on the idea that agents operate in a constantly changing web of interconnections among other agents. The connectionist agent-based models of complexity science draw on the same conception of social ontology as do postmodernists. These recent developments combine to provide foundations for a "new" social science centered on formal modeling not requiring the mathematical assumptions of agent homogeneity and equilibrium conditions. They give this "new" social science legitimacy in scientific circles that current social science approaches lack.
Smyth, Robyn L.; Watzin, Mary C.; Manning, Robert E.
Ecological indicators can facilitate an adaptive management approach, but only if acceptable levels for those indicators have been defined so that the data collected can be interpreted. Because acceptable levels are an expression of the desired state of the ecosystem, the process of establishing acceptable levels should incorporate not just ecological understanding but also societal values. The goal of this research was to explore an approach for defining acceptable levels of ecological indicators that explicitly considers social perspectives and values. We used a set of eight indicators that were related to issues of concern in the Lake Champlain Basin. Our approach was based on normative theory. Using a stakeholder survey, we measured respondent normative evaluations of varying levels of our indicators. Aggregated social norm curves were used to determine the level at which indicator values shifted from acceptable to unacceptable conditions. For seven of the eight indicators, clear preferences were interpretable from these norm curves. For example, closures of public beaches because of bacterial contamination and days of intense algae bloom went from acceptable to unacceptable at 7-10 days in a summer season. Survey respondents also indicated that the number of fish caught from Lake Champlain that could be safely consumed each month was unacceptably low and the number of streams draining into the lake that were impaired by storm water was unacceptably high. If indicators that translate ecological conditions into social consequences are carefully selected, we believe the normative approach has considerable merit for defining acceptable levels of valued ecological system components.
Reio, Thomas G., Jr.
Surveys continue to be one of the primary research methods in social science research, as they have been useful for exploring subjects ranging from attitudes and intentions to motivations and behaviors, to name but a few. Notwithstanding, response rates in survey research continue to decline despite the development of more systematic procedures to…
Holboke, Kathy; And Others
This packet was designed to help teachers maximize a visit to a zoo's Africa exhibit. The packet provides two levels of activities, grades 3-5, and grades 6-8, for use before, during and after the visit. Activities are designed to enhance skills taught in science, social studies, language arts, reading, art, and math. A multi-grade background…
This report provides administrators, project leaders, and researchers with information about major federal regulations governing research in the social sciences. The report is presented in five major chapters. Chapter I identifies the report's limitations. For example, it describes only statutory and regulatory provisions and covers only domestic…
Smith, Allan H., Ed.; Fischer, John L., Ed.
This book is one of a series prepared in connection with the Survey of Behavioral and Social Sciences (BASS) conducted between 1967 and 1969. The primary goal of the report is to provide a balanced statement of the past accomplishments, present status, and future prospects of anthropology. Although selective, the report attempts a great deal: 1)…
Hixson, Vivian Scott
Discusses problems with reviews and criticisms of popular social science books: the quality and background of reviewers, the difficulty of distinguishing between fact and opinion, and the scarcity of competent reviewers. Analyzes reviews of Robert Ardrey's "African Genesis" and "The Territorial Imperative," Konrad Lorenz's "On Aggression," and…
Lopez, Jose M. Cuenca; Caceres, Myriam J. Martin
The new technologies make the appearance of highly motivating and dynamic games with different levels of interaction possible, in which large amounts of data, information, procedures and values are included which are intimately bound with the social sciences. We set out from the hypothesis that videogames may become interesting resources for their…
Pusey, William W., III; Watt, William J.
Ten seniors at Washington and Lee University participated in an undergraduate educational training program during the 1967-1968 school year. The program provided research training in education and the social sciences, and opportunities to work closely with experienced faculty in order to effectively formulate and clarify problems. The projects…
This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…
Somekh, Bridget, Ed.; Lewin, Cathy, Ed.
This book is intended as a resource and an indispensable companion to welcome educators into the community of social science research. While it is recognized that some methodological frameworks are incompatible with others, the overarching premise of the book is to indicate how a wide range of researchers choose a methodology and methods which are…
Poirier, Maben Walter
In this article, the author attempts three things: (a) to describe the main beliefs of the "continental empiricist" epistemology that dominated the study of the social sciences in North America since the mid 1930s; (b) to speak of the influence of this epistemology on the dominant or mainstream school in the study of politics; and (c) to…
What part can science education play in the dismantling of obstacles to social justice in rural places? In this Forum contribution, I use "Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions Between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in their Community"(Zimmerman and Weible 2016) to explicitly position rural education as a project of social justice that seeks full participatory parity for rural citizens. Fraser's (2009) conceptualization of social justice in rural education requires attention to the just distribution of resources, the recognition of the inherent capacities of rural people, and the right to equal participation in democratic processes that lead to opportunities to make decisions affecting local, regional, and global lives. This Forum piece considers the potential of place-based science education to contribute to this project.
What part can science education play in the dismantling of obstacles to social justice in rural places? In this Forum contribution, I use "Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions Between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in their Community"(Zimmerman and Weible 2016) to explicitly position rural education as a project of social justice that seeks full participatory parity for rural citizens. Fraser's (2009) conceptualization of social justice in rural education requires attention to the just distribution of resources, the recognition of the inherent capacities of rural people, and the right to equal participation in democratic processes that lead to opportunities to make decisions affecting local, regional, and global lives. This Forum piece considers the potential of place-based science education to contribute to this project.
During the 1960s, a growing contingent of left-leaning voices claimed that the social sciences suffered mistreatment and undue constraints within the natural science-dominated federal science establishment. According to these critics, the entrenched scientific pecking order in Washington had an unreasonable commitment to the unity of the sciences, which reinforced unacceptable inequalities between the social and the natural sciences. The most important political figure who advanced this critique, together with a substantial legislative proposal for reform, was the Oklahoma Democratic Senator Fred Harris. Yet histories of science and social science have told us surprisingly little about Harris. Moreover, existing accounts of his effort to create a National Social Science Foundation have misunderstood crucial features of this story. This essay argues that Harris's NSSF proposal developed into a robust, historically unique, and increasingly critical liberal challenge to the post-World War II federal science establishment's treatment of the social sciences as "second-class citizens."
The present research aims to determine whether or not pre-service science teachers in Turkey are resistant to learning about the theory of evolution (TOE), and to understand the reasons for their acceptance or rejection of this theory. Following an intervention process, essay documents were collected from each participant ("N" = 113) and…
Glaze, Amanda L.; Goldston, M. Jenice; Dantzler, John
Evolution continues to be a controversial topic around the world but nowhere is this more apparent locally than in the Southeastern region of the USA. In this study, we explored acceptance and rejection of evolution among pre-service science teachers in a teaching college in the rural Southeast and sought to determine (1) what relationships exist…
Jordan, Chester L.
Reported is a study designed to determine the current status of acceptance of science misconceptions by college freshmen with poverty backgrounds and to determine the influence of integrated secondary education on educational development. A sample of 350 students was used as subjects for this study. They were selected to represent four distinct…
Zhang, Wei; Gutierrez, Oscar
Although computers and information technology (IT) have penetrated the field of social work, little research has systematically studied how users respond to this infusion. Information systems researchers have accumulated significant insights into IT acceptance in business organizations after decades of efforts. In this study, users in the social services were assessed for their acceptance of IT. A research model based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior was developed, arguing that attitudes toward using IT, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are important antecedents of intentions to use IT, which affect actual usage. In addition, users consider the benefits that they bring to their organizations and clients through using IT when forming their attitudes toward using IT. Data collected from users of a Homeless Management Information System in a northeastern U.S. state verified the research model. The results suggest new interventions to promote IT acceptance by users in the social services sector.
Presented is a sampling of radio tapes which are available for use in the classroom, to help social science teachers promote a taste for history and other social sciences in a real and dynamic way. (KC)
Klineberg, S L
It is important, at this early stage in the concept development and evaluation of Satellite Power Systems, to explore aspects of contemporary social change that may be expected to complicate the process of achieving the necessary support of the American public for this new technological venture. Current public attitudes make it appear unlikely that a consensus will evolve during the 1980s favoring costly efforts to develop vast new supplies of conventional energy. Opinion polls reveal a pervasive worry over inflation, a broadening of aspirations to encompass quality-of-life concerns, a growing distrust of central governments, large corporations, big science and technology, and a continuing commitment to environmental protection - all of which suggests a social environment that is likely to resist the development of a major new high-technology energy system such as the SPS. Opposition to satellite power will focus on the high front-end development costs, on environmental and technical uncertainties, and on a generalized distrust of large bureaucracies and esoteric technologies. The SPS concept is also likely to be viewed with skepticism by those with vested interests in the long-run uses of coal, shale, fission, fusion, or on-site solar technologies. The growing commitment to energy conservation and the spreading deployment of dispersed renewable-energy systems strongly suggest that the unmet US demand for centrally generated electricity is unlikely to grow sufficiently over the next twenty years to convince a reluctant public of the need for so large an investment of scarce resources in the SPS program. Satellite Power Systems will have a problem in the area of public acceptability.
Santos, António J.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Peceguina, Inês; Daniel, João R.
This study examines the temporal stability (over 3 years) of individual differences in 3 domains relevant to preschool children's social competence: social engagement/motivation, profiles of behavior and personality attributes characteristic of socially competent young children, and peer acceptance. Each domain was measured with multiple…
Burgio, Louis D
In this article the author first attempts to disentangle a number of issues in translational science from a social science perspective. As expected in a fledgling field of study being approached from various disciplines, there are marked differences in the research literature on terminology, definition of terms, and conceptualization of staging of clinical research from the pilot phase to widespread dissemination in the community. The author asserts that translational efforts in the social sciences are at a crossroads, and its greatest challenge involves the movement of interventions gleaned from clinical trials to community settings. Four strategies for reaching this goal are discussed: the use of methods derived from health services research, a yet-to-be-developed strategy where decisions to modify aspects of an intervention derived from a clinical trial are triggered by data-based criteria, community based participatory action research (CBPR), and a hybrid system wherein methods from CBPR and traditional experimental procedures are combined to achieve translation. The author ends on an optimistic note, emphasizing the impressive advances in the area over the existing barriers and calling for a unified interdisciplinary science of translation.
Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E
Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.
Coventry, Lynne M.; Jeske, Debora; Blythe, John M.; Turland, James; Briggs, Pam
Despite their best intentions, people struggle with the realities of privacy protection and will often sacrifice privacy for convenience in their online activities. Individuals show systematic, personality dependent differences in their privacy decision making, which makes it interesting for those who seek to design ‘nudges’ designed to manipulate privacy behaviors. We explore such effects in a cookie decision task. Two hundred and ninety participants were given an incidental website review task that masked the true aim of the study. At the task outset, they were asked whether they wanted to accept a cookie in a message that either contained a social framing ‘nudge’ (they were told that either a majority or a minority of users like themselves had accepted the cookie) or contained no information about social norms (control). At the end of the task, participants were asked to complete a range of personality assessments (impulsivity, risk-taking, willingness to self-disclose and sociability). We found social framing to be an effective behavioral nudge, reducing cookie acceptance in the minority social norm condition. Further, we found personality effects in that those scoring highly on risk-taking and impulsivity were significantly more likely to accept the cookie. Finally, we found that the application of a social nudge could attenuate the personality effects of impulsivity and risk-taking. We explore the implications for those working in the privacy-by-design space. PMID:27656157
Coventry, Lynne M; Jeske, Debora; Blythe, John M; Turland, James; Briggs, Pam
Despite their best intentions, people struggle with the realities of privacy protection and will often sacrifice privacy for convenience in their online activities. Individuals show systematic, personality dependent differences in their privacy decision making, which makes it interesting for those who seek to design 'nudges' designed to manipulate privacy behaviors. We explore such effects in a cookie decision task. Two hundred and ninety participants were given an incidental website review task that masked the true aim of the study. At the task outset, they were asked whether they wanted to accept a cookie in a message that either contained a social framing 'nudge' (they were told that either a majority or a minority of users like themselves had accepted the cookie) or contained no information about social norms (control). At the end of the task, participants were asked to complete a range of personality assessments (impulsivity, risk-taking, willingness to self-disclose and sociability). We found social framing to be an effective behavioral nudge, reducing cookie acceptance in the minority social norm condition. Further, we found personality effects in that those scoring highly on risk-taking and impulsivity were significantly more likely to accept the cookie. Finally, we found that the application of a social nudge could attenuate the personality effects of impulsivity and risk-taking. We explore the implications for those working in the privacy-by-design space.
Considers the role of the social sciences in Europe and elsewhere and the relation between social science and the United Nations organization UNESCO. States that the social sciences are the missing link between reflection and action marking many policy failures and that special emphasis be placed on certain research orientations. (CMK)
Armstrong, Forrest H.
The author claims that the nature of the social sciences is to combine interpretive and empirical approaches in an attempt to understand human thought and behavior. He views the domain of social sciences as being different from that of the humanities or the natural sciences. Social scientists test interpretations by considering the extent to which…
Carter, David G., Sr.
The influence of social science research on educational policy, particularly since the 1954 Brown vs Board of Education decision, has been significant. The paper presents an historical overview of the judicial use of social science data. Three questions are investigated: to what extent has social science influenced judicial decision-making? what…
We present the 'Project Calliope' picosatellite to explore how to use social media to initiate, fund, and engage in scientific research. 'Project Calliope' is a sonified ionospheric detector being launched in 2010 on the "TubeSat" platform. It has no federal or academic contribution, and relies on 'citizen scientists' and such 'citizen journalist' channels as ScientificBlogging.com for its technical and infrastructure support. The fundamental question of whether good science can come from small packages has a mixed answer. We put forth the 'Science2.0' concept of science as play, provide a method for engaging individuals as contributors, discuss the pros and cons of operating a research project with full transparency, and present preliminary K12 outreach results.
Herrero, Juan; Rodríguez, Francisco J; Torres, Andrea
Sexist attitudes have been claimed to play an important role in acceptability of intimate partner violence (IPV). Empirical evidence suggests that sexist individuals are also more accepting of violence in social relationships than non-sexist individuals. Results from multilevel regression models of data from 72,730 respondents of 51 countries around the world showed that (a) both sexism and acceptability of general violence in social relationships were positively related to acceptability of IPV and (b) the highest levels of acceptability of IPV were found among those sexist individuals who also present positive attitudes toward the use of violence in social relationships.
Anastas, Jeane W.
As John Brekke has observed, social work does not use the word "science" to define itself, suggesting a need to articulate a science of social work. This article discusses the science of social work and its relationship to social work practice in the United States, arguing that a "rapprochement" between practice and science…
behaviour (Ackland, 2014). Big Data and in particular, social media data, present both methodological challenges and opportunities in empirical social ...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED ACSPRI 2014 4th International Social Science Methodology Conference Report Elena Mazourenko Joint...interest to the Technology Forecasting and Futures (TFF) Group of JOAD presented at the ACSPRI 4th International Social Science Methodology conference
This paper evaluates the success of a new specialization in library science, Social Information Science, developed by the author at Bar-Ilan University (Israel). The aim of Social Information is to expand the role of the library, to build new Social Information Banks, and to create a new profession, Social Information Scientist. The paper…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between sex, social status and social behavior in a sample of Australian preschool-aged children. Social behavior has emerged as an important predictor of social status for children in middle childhood however, although early childhood may be an optimum period for implementation of…
Berdan, Louise E.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social preference and perceived acceptance as moderators of the relation between child temperament and externalizing behavior. Participants included 399 children evaluated at pre-kindergarten and kindergarten assessments. Pre-kindergarten children characterized by high temperamental…
Montgomery, Katherine L.; Kim, Johnny S.; Franklin, Cynthia
Social workers provide services to a variety of clients and are challenged with finding interventions that meet the multifaceted needs of diverse populations. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is becoming an increasingly popular therapy that offers flexibility and effectiveness in treating challenging cases. The purpose of this review is to…
Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Munoz, Jose M.; Carreras, Maria R.; Braza, Paloma; Garcia, Ainhoa; Sorozabal, Aizpea; Sanchez-Martin, Jose R.
In this study we examined the effects of social intelligence, empathy, verbal ability and appearance-reality distinction on the level of peer acceptance, as well as the moderating role of gender. Participants were 98 five-year-old children (43 boys and 55 girls; mean age 5 years 3 months for boys and girls). Our results showed a main effect of…
Gajar, Anna H.; And Others
The research analyzed the effects of peer tutoring and teacher presentations about handicaps on the social acceptance of 16 mainstreamed educable mentally retarded (EMR) children (10 from primary and 6 from intermediate level classes). In addition, the effect of peer tutoring on reading achievement of EMR students was examined. Results showed that…
Morgan, Robert L.
The article reviewed research on professionals', consumers', and others' judgments of the restrictiveness, social acceptability, and estimated frequency of use of procedures to decrease problem behaviors of disabled persons. Most respondents agreed that more restrictive procedures should be used as a last resort and that less restrictive…
Schwab, Susanne; Huber, Christian; Gebhardt, Markus
We investigated the influence of teacher feedback on the social acceptance of peers with intellectual disabilities and peers without disabilities. A computer task was administered to 601 students in grades 3 and 4. Twenty-six per cent of the students attend an inclusive school; the others are in regular schools without students with special…
Siperstein, Gary N.; And Others
Forty-six intermediate grade students expressed their attitudes toward an unknown mentally retarded student presented in a videotape, and indicated their social acceptance, rejection, or neglect of a mentally retarded peer in their classroom. Children's attitudes toward the videotaped child were related to their sociometric choices of the retarded…
Leavy, Richard L; Adams, Eve M.
Women (N=123) respondents contacted through lesbian, gay, and feminist organizations and establishments completed a research questionnaire. Results showed that age and current involvement in a lesbian relationship were significantly related to self-esteem, self-acceptance, and social support. Participation in feminist activities also correlated…
Lorger, Teja; Schmidt, Majda; Vukman, Karin Bakracevic
This paper aims to shed light on the level of social acceptance among students with learning disabilities (LD) in various secondary school vocational programs in comparison with their peers without disabilities. Our findings are based on an empirical study that comprised 417 students, of whom 85 were students with LD. Based on sociometric analyses…
Shaw, Rhonda; Sullivan, Martin
In the social sciences, debates about the discursive and material constitution of subjectivity and identity no longer appear to be at loggerheads. This has important implications for how we are to construct a framework for thinking about disability ethics. Following recent inroads in disability theory and in the sociology of ethics, we would argue that one of the aims of a disability ethics is not to view disability exclusively as a question of impairment, but to reclaim the social aspects of impairment in conjunction with the embodied aspects of disability. We would also suggest that the social and cultural construction of impairment, or abnormal corporeality, cannot be considered apart from the moral and existential relations that exist between disabled and non-disabled persons. The question we want to raise in this discussion is whether thinking disability ethics through a bioethics framework is adequate to this task.
Barnes, Brenda C.
Online and blended learning platforms are being promoted within laboratory science education under the assumption that students have the necessary skills to navigate online and blended learning environments. Yet little research has examined the use of information and communication technology (ICT) among the laboratory science student population. The purpose of this correlational, survey research study was to explore factors that affect use and acceptance of ICT among laboratory science students through the theoretical lens of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model. An electronically delivered survey drew upon current students and recent graduates (within 2 years) of accredited laboratory science training programs. During the 4 week data collection period, 168 responses were received. Results showed that the UTAUT model did not perform well within this study, explaining 25.2% of the variance in use behavior. A new model incorporating attitudes toward technology and computer anxiety as two of the top variables, a model significantly different from the original UTAUT model, was developed that explained 37.0% of the variance in use behavior. The significance of this study may affect curriculum design of laboratory science training programs wanting to incorporate more teaching techniques that use ICT-based educational delivery, and provide more options for potential students who may not currently have access to this type of training.
Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E
Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession. PMID:14602514
Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E
Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession.
KEDROWICZ, APRIL A.; ROYAL, KENNETH; FLAMMER, KEVEN
Introduction: While social media has the potential to be used to make professional and personal connections, it can also be used inappropriately, with detrimental ramifications for the individual in terms of their professional reputation and even hiring decisions. This research explored students’ and faculty members’ perceptions of the acceptability of various social media postings. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. All students and faculty members at the College of Veterinary Medicine were invited to participate. The sample size included 140 students and 69 faculty members who completed the Social Media Scale (SMS), a 7-point semantic differential scale. The SMS consisted of 12 items that measured the extent to which a variety of behaviors, using social media, constituted acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. Items appearing on the SMS were an amalgamation of modified items previously presented by Coe, Weijs, Muise et al. (2012) and new items generated specifically for this study. The data were collected during the spring semester of 2015 using Qualtrics online survey software and analyzed using t-tests and ANOVA. Results: The results showed that statistically significant differences existed between the students’ and faculty members’ ratings of acceptable behavior, as well as gender differences and differences across class years. Conclusion: These findings have implications for the development of policy and educational initiatives around professional identity management in the social sphere. PMID:27795965
Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Spadacio, Cristiane; Barboza, Renato; Alves, Olga Sofia Fabergé; Viana, Sabrina Daniela Lopes; Rocha, Ane Talita
The development of recent social thinking in health in Brazil is associated with the establishment of the Public Health field and the Brazilian Association of Graduate Studies in Public Health (ABRASCO). The area of Social Sciences in Health was created together with the founding of ABRASCO. This article presents the main aspects related to the establishment and institutionalization of Social Sciences in Health in ABRASCO, based on interviews with its presidents and the coordinators of the Social Sciences Committees from 1995 to 2011. The interviews allowed capturing and analyzing the context in which this field was established and its relevance and history in Public Health as a whole, grouped in five analytical categories: (1) the development of Social Sciences and the Humanities in Health; (2) interdisciplinarity in Public Health; (3) the contribution of Social Sciences to Public Health; (4) Social Sciences in Health and the "traditional" Social Sciences; and (5) challenges for Social Sciences and the Humanities in Health.
Albrecht, Nancy Jean
The gap between a student's home culture and that of classroom science may create challenges for students and families, especially those from recent immigrant cultures, including refugees. As a result, science learning in schools may require a form of cultural border crossing between home cultures and the culture of classroom science. Given this, as educators, how do we make these borders more porous for better science learning experiences? Using the frameworks of funds of knowledge, culturally relevant pedagogy, and socio-constructivism, this study focuses on the perspectives of Somali-American elders and parents about school science. Designed as an in-depth interview study, five purposefully selected participants were interviewed over a period of two years. The guiding questions for the study included: 1) What are the perceptions of Somali elders about school science? and 2) How do Somali elders believe science teaching and learning can facilitate Somali students' engagement in science?. Analysis of the interview data revealed that Somali-American adults have complicated perceptions of school science that include both conflicts and acceptance with current pedagogy and content. For example, science education was highly valued by both individuals and the Somali community, both as a way for individuals to attain economic prosperity and respect, but also as a way to lift up the Somali diaspora, both here and in their native homeland. On the other hand, science was also viewed as an abstract discipline with little connection to students' and families' everyday home lives. Moreover, due to the intrinsic role that Islam plays in traditional and contemporary Somali culture, several areas of science education, including geology, evolution and sex education, were viewed as problematic and unresolvable. Various potential areas of funds of knowledge and culturally relevant pedagogy were discussed including nutrition, food preparation and storage, health education, and
Wong, Nina; Beidel, Deborah C.; Spitalnick, Josh
Objective Two significant challenges for the dissemination of social skills training programs are the need to assure generalizability and provide sufficient practice opportunities. In the case of social anxiety disorder, virtual environments may provide one strategy to address these issues. This study evaluated the utility of an interactive virtual school environment for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in preadolescent children. Method Eleven children with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder between 8 to 12 years old participated in this initial feasibility trial. All children were treated with Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children, an empirically supported treatment for children with social anxiety disorder. However, the in vivo peer generalization sessions and standard parent-assisted homework assignments were substituted by practice in a virtual environment. Results Overall, the virtual environment programs were acceptable, feasible, and credible treatment components. Both children and clinicians were satisfied with using the virtual environment technology, and children believed it was a high quality program overall. Additionally, parents were satisfied with the virtual environment augmented treatment and indicated that they would recommend the program to family and friends. Conclusion Virtual environments are viewed as acceptable and credible by potential recipients. Furthermore, they are easy to implement by even novice users and appear to be useful adjunctive elements for the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder. PMID:24144182
Sarver, Nina Wong; Beidel, Deborah C; Spitalnick, Josh S
Two significant challenges for the dissemination of social skills training programs are the need to assure generalizability and provide sufficient practice opportunities. In the case of social anxiety disorder, virtual environments may provide one strategy to address these issues. This study evaluated the utility of an interactive virtual school environment for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in preadolescent children. Eleven children with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder between 8 to 12 years old participated in this initial feasibility trial. All children were treated with Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children, an empirically supported treatment for children with social anxiety disorder. However, the in vivo peer generalization sessions and standard parent-assisted homework assignments were substituted by practice in a virtual environment. Overall, the virtual environment programs were acceptable, feasible, and credible treatment components. Both children and clinicians were satisfied with using the virtual environment technology, and children believed it was a high-quality program overall. In addition, parents were satisfied with the virtual environment augmented treatment and indicated that they would recommend the program to family and friends. Findings indicate that the virtual environments are viewed as acceptable and credible by potential recipients. Furthermore, they are easy to implement by even novice users and appear to be useful adjunctive elements for the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder.
Logan, John R.; Zhang, Weiwei; Xu, Hongwei
Spatial methods that build upon Geographic Information Systems are spreading quickly across the social sciences. This essay points out that the appropriate use of spatial tools requires more careful thinking about spatial concepts. As easy as it is now to measure distance, it is increasingly important to understand what we think it represents. To interpret spatial patterns, we need spatial theories. We review here a number of key concepts as well as some of the methodological approaches that are now at the disposal of researchers, and illustrate them with studies that reflect the very wide range of problems that use these tools. PMID:20431703
Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Amy S.; Choy-Brown, Mimi; Hertel, Amy Locklear
Recent efforts to identify and promote a distinct science for the discipline of social work have led to an ongoing debate regarding the nature and function of such a science. Central to this debate is a lack of consensus as to how to operationalize a social work science. Drawing from the field of implementation science and its application in…
Haddow, Gaby; Xia, Jianhong; Willson, Michele
This paper reports on the first large-scale quantitative investigation into collaboration, demonstrated in co-authorship, by Australian humanities, arts and social sciences (HASS) researchers. Web of Science data were extracted for Australian HASS publications, with a focus on the softer social sciences, over the period 2004-2013. The findings…
Galambos, Eva C.
This assessment of the future job market for social science graduates is made both generically and separately for certain disciplines. The definition of the social sciences follows the USOE definition and includes: anthropology, archeology, economics, history, geography, political science, sociology, criminology, international relations, urban…
Miller, Scott R.; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma M.
We assessed the extent to which youths' (n = 231) shyness and social acceptance in preadolescence were associated with parents' responsive problem solving 1 year later after controlling for initial levels of parents' problem solving. Teachers (n = 176) completed assessments of youths' shyness and social acceptance, and parents (n = 231 married…
Bukowski, William M.; Sippola, Lorrie; Hoza, Betsy; Newcomb, Andrew F.
Provides a conceptual and empirical analysis of the associations between the fundamental sociometric dimensions of acceptance, rejection, and social preference. Examines whether nomination and rating scale measures index the same constructs. Notes that sociometric ratings measure social preference, but can also yield indicators of acceptance and…
Kim, Junhyoung; Schilling, Mary Lou; Kim, May; Han, Areum
There is a dearth of literature that explores the relationships among leisure satisfaction, acceptance of disability, social relationships, and life satisfaction among adults with intellectual disability from Eastern countries. The purpose of this study was to examine how leisure satisfaction, disability acceptance, and social relationships are…
Nurius, Paula S.; Kemp, Susan P.
Shifts in the ways that science is being undertaken and marshaled toward social change argue for a new kind of professional competence. Taking the view that the science of social work is centrally about the relationship of research to social impact, the authors extend Fong's focus on transdisciplinary and translational approaches to science,…
Flynn, Marilyn L.
Social work as a human services profession has been distinctive for its inclusion of research as a required element of practice and instrument in instigating reform. At the present time, the relationship of social work to science and a redefinition of social work as a science have reentered our national dialogue with new force. This expansion of…
Morrissett, Irving; Stevens, W. William, Jr.
The focus of the volume is on reasons for selecting or not selecting any particular social science content, including history, for inclusion in the elementary and secondary social studies curriculum. Prominent authors from each of the social sciences--among them, Paul Ward, David Easton, and Ronald Lippitt--describe the nature of their disciplines…
Béland, Jean-Pierre; Patenaude, Johane; Legault, Georges A; Boissy, Patrick; Parent, Monelle
The emergence and development of convergent technologies for the purpose of improving human performance, including nanotechnology, biotechnology, information sciences, and cognitive science (NBICs), open up new horizons in the debates and moral arguments that must be engaged by philosophers who hope to take seriously the question of the ethical and social acceptability of these technologies. This article advances an analysis of the factors that contribute to confusion and discord on the topic, in order to help in understanding why arguments that form a part of the debate between transhumanism and humanism result in a philosophical and ethical impasse: 1. The lack of clarity that emerges from the fact that any given argument deployed (arguments based on nature and human nature, dignity, the good life) can serve as the basis for both the positive and the negative evaluation of NBICs. 2. The impossibility of providing these arguments with foundations that will enable others to deem them acceptable. 3. The difficulty of applying these same arguments to a specific situation. 4. The ineffectiveness of moral argument in a democratic society. The present effort at communication about the difficulties of the argumentation process is intended as a necessary first step towards developing an interdisciplinary response to those difficulties.
Even-Tzur, Efrat; Hadar, Uri
This paper presents a theoretical model of parental authority from the vantage point of parental subjecthood, using a roughly Lacanian formulation of what it means to take a (parental) subject position. For Freud, the parental role involves the acceptance of social rules that may, at times, involve a socially acceptable degree of violence. Nevertheless, psychoanalytic discussions have disregarded the parents' subjective experience as agents of the Law and purveyors of threatening authority. The authors elaborate on Freud's and Lacan's ideas and delineate several prime types of parental identifications as agents of Law. The Lacanian theoretical constructs expanded in this discussion include two basic parental positions of authority, termed the Symbolic Father and the Imaginary Father, and one derivative position, called the Perverse Father, which are demonstrated through the story of Dr. Moritz Schreber. The paper discusses how these theoretical constructs bear upon the philosophical conceptualizations of law, violence, and legitimacy.
Noble, Pat, Ed.; And Others
Papers in this publication are collected from a conference on social science concepts and classroom methods which focused on the theories of Jerome Bruner. The first article, entitled "Jerome Bruner," outlines four of Bruner's themes--structure, readiness, intuition, and interest--which relate to cognitive learning. Three…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).
This volume is the result of a study, initiated by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to report on the main trends of social sciences research, not on the results achieved. Part I contains an examination of the present state and perspectives for development of the disciplines of sociology (Lazarsfeld),…
Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.
Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities. PMID:24810577
Nikitin, Jana; Schoch, Simone; Freund, Alexandra M
A study with n = 55 younger (18-33 years, M = 23.67) and n = 58 older (61-85 years, M = 71.44) adults investigated age-related differences in social approach and avoidance motivation and their consequences for the experience of social interactions. Results confirmed the hypothesis that a predominant habitual approach motivation in younger adults shifts toward a stronger avoidance motivation in older adults. Moreover, age and momentary motivation predicted the experience of an actual social interaction. Younger adults reported stronger negative emotions in a rejection situation when striving to approach acceptance rather than avoid rejection. Conversely, older adults reported fewer positive emotions in a rejection situation when they attempted to avoid rejection rather than approach acceptance. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that the same motivation has different consequences for the experience of potentially threatening social situations in younger and older adults. People seem to react emotionally when the achievement of important developmental goals (approaching others in young adulthood, avoiding negative social interactions in older adulthood) is thwarted. Moreover, results suggest that approach and avoidance motivation play an important role for socioemotional development.
Franco, Annie; Malhotra, Neil; Simonovits, Gabor
We studied publication bias in the social sciences by analyzing a known population of conducted studies--221 in total--in which there is a full accounting of what is published and unpublished. We leveraged Time-sharing Experiments in the Social Sciences (TESS), a National Science Foundation-sponsored program in which researchers propose survey-based experiments to be run on representative samples of American adults. Because TESS proposals undergo rigorous peer review, the studies in the sample all exceed a substantial quality threshold. Strong results are 40 percentage points more likely to be published than are null results and 60 percentage points more likely to be written up. We provide direct evidence of publication bias and identify the stage of research production at which publication bias occurs: Authors do not write up and submit null findings.
Haines, Richard F.; Chuang, Sherry L.
Future manned space operations for Space Station Freedom will call for a variety of carefully planned multimedia digital communications, including full-frame-rate color video, to support remote operations of scientific experiments. This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine if video compression is a viable solution to transmission bandwidth constraints. It reports on the impact of different levels of compression and associated calculational parameters on image acceptability to investigators in life-sciences research at ARC. Three nonhuman life-sciences disciplines (plant, rodent, and primate biology) were selected for this study. A total of 33 subjects viewed experimental scenes in their own scientific disciplines. Ten plant scientists viewed still images of wheat stalks at various stages of growth. Each image was compressed to four different compression levels using the Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) standard algorithm, and the images were presented in random order. Twelve and eleven staffmembers viewed 30-sec videotaped segments showing small rodents and a small primate, respectively. Each segment was repeated at four different compression levels in random order using an inverse cosine transform (ICT) algorithm. Each viewer made a series of subjective image-quality ratings. There was a significant difference in image ratings according to the type of scene viewed within disciplines; thus, ratings were scene dependent. Image (still and motion) acceptability does, in fact, vary according to compression level. The JPEG still-image-compression levels, even with the large range of 5:1 to 120:1 in this study, yielded equally high levels of acceptability. In contrast, the ICT algorithm for motion compression yielded a sharp decline in acceptability below 768 kb/sec. Therefore, if video compression is to be used as a solution for overcoming transmission bandwidth constraints, the effective management of the ratio and compression parameters
Chin, George; Myers, James D.; Hoyt, David W.
Located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the High Field Magnetic Resonance Facility (HFMRF) houses 11 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers. Additionally, the Virtual Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Facility (VNMRF) provides on-line Internet access to these HFMRF spectrometers. Through the VNMRF and its suite of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) tools, researchers may collaboratively set the controls of an NMR spectrometer, execute an NMR experiment, acquire data, analyze results, and communicate with other researchers all from the comforts of their home institutions and their own offices. Virtual science laboratories like the VNMRF promote a compelling vision. Consistent with Wulf's notion of a "collaboratory," a virtual science laboratory is a "'center without walls', in which the nation's researchers can perform their research without regard to geographical location." Such a laboratory strives to provide an open research environment in which scientists from different disciplines may collaborate on advanced research using leading-edge instruments and tools, while reducing the physical, organizational, and political boundaries that confront researchers as they amass their collective skills, capabilities, and brainpower to solve the world's most challenging scientific problems. In this article, we describe the social networks that have emerged from the VNMRF and the impacts and influences that CSCW technologies have had upon those networks. The development of social networks depends on various factors including personal and professional objectives, work functions, organizational roles, and afforded collaborative capabilities. As such, our results serve as a useful point of comparison and contrast in the analysis of social networks and CSCW impacts that evolve from scientific contexts as well as from other collaborative settings such as in business and education.
Brown, D F; Spencer, A J; Tolliday, P D
Studies using plaster models of teeth and photographs simulating the full range of occlusal conditions have found high agreement between measures of adolescent social acceptability of these conditions and perceived need for orthodontic treatment. This study examined the association between adolescents' acceptability of their own occlusal condition, severity of malocclusion, and likelihood of undergoing orthodontic treatment. The factors predicting the acceptability of occlusal condition of 13-yr-olds, as assessed by the SASOC scale, were measurements of acceptability of general physical appearance, and the severity of occlusal condition. Variability in SASOC scores appeared to be independent of gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Gender, and severity of occlusal condition were important differences between subjects who had received, planned, or were undergoing orthodontic treatment, and those who had not. Neither SASOC scores nor perceived need for treatment accounted for a significant proportion of the variance between these groups. Although adolescents seeking orthodontic treatment had a greater severity of malocclusion than those not, little difference was observed between these groups in acceptance of occlusal condition.
Santos, António J; Vaughn, Brian E; Peceguina, Inês; Daniel, João R
This study examines the temporal stability (over 3 years) of individual differences in 3 domains relevant to preschool children's social competence: social engagement/motivation, profiles of behavior and personality attributes characteristic of socially competent young children, and peer acceptance. Each domain was measured with multiple indicators. Sociometric status categories (Asher & Dodge, 1986) and reciprocated friendships were derived from sociometric data. Composites for social competence domains were significantly associated across all time points. Within age-periods, social competence domains were associated with both sociometric and friendship status categories; however, neither sociometric status nor reciprocated friendships were stable over time. Nevertheless, analyses examining the social competence antecedents to reciprocated friendship at age-4 and age-5 suggested that more socially competent children in the prior year were more likely to have a reciprocated friendship in the current year. Popular and rejected sociometric status categories were also associated with social competence indicators in prior years, but this was most clearly seen at age-5.
Topics of discussion at the third annual meeting of the Society of Social Studies of Science are presented. Differences in viewpoints and opinions between sociologists, science philosophers who comprise the organization are discussed. (CP)
DePasquale, Nicole; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Darrell, Linda; Boyér, LaPricia Lewis; Ephraim, Patti; Boulware, L Ebony
Live kidney transplantation (LKT) is underused by patients with end-stage renal disease. Easily implementable and effective interventions to improve patients' early consideration of LKT are needed. The Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) social worker intervention (SWI) improved consideration and pursuit of LKT among patients with progressive chronic kidney disease in a recent randomized controlled trial: Patients and their families were invited to meet twice with a social worker to discuss their self-identified barriers to seeking LKT and to identify solutions to barriers. The authors audio recorded and transcribed all social worker visits to assess implementation of the TALK SWI and its acceptability to patients and families. The study social worker adhered to the TALK SWI protocol more than 90 percent of the time. Patients and families discussed medical (for example, long-term risks of transplant), psychological (for example, patients' denial of the severity of their disease), and economic (for example, impact of donation on family finances) concerns regarding LKT. Most patients and families felt that the intervention was helpful. Consistently high adherence to the TALK SWI protocol and acceptability of the intervention among patients and families suggest that the TALK SWI can be feasibly implemented in clinical practice.
The Durkheimian concept of the density of social relationships may prove more fruitful than the historical materialist notion of a social hierarchy for thinking about the social location of epistemic agents in science. To define a scientist's social location in terms of the density of her professional relationships with other scientists permits us…
Siegel, David A
Participating in social network websites entails voluntarily sharing private information, and the explosive growth of social network websites over the last decade suggests shifting views on privacy. Concurrently, new anti-terrorism laws, such as the USA Patriot Act, ask citizens to surrender substantial claim to privacy in the name of greater security. I address two important questions regarding individuals' views on privacy raised by these trends. First, how does prompting individuals to consider security concerns affect their views on government actions that jeopardize privacy? Second, does the use of social network websites alter the effect of prompted security concerns? I posit that prompting individuals to consider security concerns does lead to an increased willingness to accept government actions that jeopardize privacy, but that frequent users of websites like Facebook are less likely to be swayed by prompted security concerns. An embedded survey experiment provides support for both parts of my claim.
Fieldwork as a part of social science research brings the researcher closest to the subject of research. It is a dynamic process where there is an exchange between the researcher, participants, stakeholders, gatekeepers, the community and the larger sociopolitical context in which the research problem is located. Ethical dilemmas that surface during fieldwork often pose a unique challenge to the researcher. This paper is based on field experiences during an action research study conducted with a human rights perspective. It discusses the role conflict that researchers face during fieldwork in a situation of humanitarian crisis. It raises issues pertaining to the need to extend the ethical decision-making paradigm to address ethical dilemmas arising during the course of fieldwork.
Kopparty, S N
Though the impact of social inequality on health conditions is widely known, its impact on the chronic and stigmatized disease, leprosy, has received little attention. Deformity sometimes leads to disabilities and to handicaps causing problems to the patient and his family. In this paper an attempt has been made to understand the impact of social inequality, prevalent in the form of the caste system in India on the deformed leprosy patients and on their families. This impact was examined in terms of the problems faced by the patients. A sample of 150 deformed patients and their families, drawn from two districts in Tamil Nadu, was selected for the study. About 57% of the deformed patients experienced their deformity as a handicap which caused social and economic problems while the rest did not. Of the three caste groups, the Lower Caste group experienced more severe economic problems while the Upper Caste group faced more social problems. The extent of acceptance of deformed patients in their family varied significantly among those facing and not facing problems due to their deformity. The deformed patients without any handicap were accepted in a large majority of their families (82%) regardless of their caste status. In contrast the deformed but handicapped patients were accepted differentially among the three caste groups with the Upper group accepting them in most of their families (80%) while in the Lower group much less number of families (54%) did. All the families of the deformed but not handicapped patients desired to keep their patients till their death irrespective of their caste status. On the contrary, while all the families in the Upper Caste group expressed their willingness to keep their handicapped patients in the family till their death, 10% in the Middle and 22% in the Lower Caste groups did not want to do so. This suggests the gradual marginalization, rejection and dehabilitation of the affected. Thus, one's caste status can be a broad indicator
Cărnuţă, Mihai; Crişan, Liviu G; Vulturar, Romana; Opre, Adrian; Miu, Andrei C
Early life stress (ELS) has been recently associated with blunted cortisol reactivity and emotion dysregulation, but no study until now examined whether these characteristics are related. The main goal of this study was to examine the potential mediator role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between ELS and cortisol reactivity to social threat. Only women who were free of psychiatric and endocrine disorders, had regular menstrual cycle and did not use oral contraceptives were selected for this study (N=62). After filling in ELS and multidimensional emotion dysregulation measures, participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test during which cortisol and autonomic responses were assessed. Most participants (85.5%) reported one or more major stressful events (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, major parental conflicts, death of a family or close friend, severe illness) experienced before age 17. ELS was negatively associated with cortisol reactivity and positively associated with skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity, but it did not influence heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. In addition, ELS was positively related to emotional non-acceptance (i.e., a tendency to develop secondary emotional responses to one's negative emotions), and the latter was negatively related to cortisol responses and positively related to SCL responses. Bootstrapping analyses indicated that emotional non-acceptance was a significant mediator in the relationships between ELS and both cortisol and SCL responses. Emotional non-acceptance is thus one of the psychological mechanisms underlying blunted cortisol and increased sympathetic reactivity in young healthy volunteers with a history of ELS.
Jennings, Todd E.; Eichinger, John
Human-rights education can be realized in the science classroom. Taught from a critical postmodern perspective, science can serve the interest of social justice while embracing a teaching dialectic fostering critical social consciousness. First, science educators must examine scientific theory's role in promoting both human welfare and injustice.…
Dimick, Alexandra Schindel
Social justice education is undertheorized in science education. Given the wide range of goals and purposes proposed within both social justice education and social justice science education scholarship, these fields require reconciliation. In this paper, I suggest a student empowerment framework for conceptualizing teaching and learning social…
Inderbitzen-Pisaruk, Heidi; And Others
Although much attention has been devoted to the study of social competence in the past decade, few researchers have examined the adolescent age group. These two studies examined what behaviors are important for positive peer relations in adolescence. In the first study 1,142 ninth-graders (577 males, M age=14.78; 565 females, M age=14.61) from 7…
Hardus, Madeleine E; Lameira, Adriano R; Wich, Serge A; de Vries, Han; Wahyudi, Rachmad; Shumaker, Robert W; Menken, Steph B J
Hundreds of rehabilitant great apes have been released into the wild, and thousands await release. However, survival rates after release can be as low as 20%. Several factors influence individuals' survival rates, one of which is the capacity to obtain an adequate diet once released. Released individuals are faced with a mixture of familiar and novel foods in an unfamiliar forest; therefore, it is important to understand how they increase acceptance and consumption of novel foods. This is especially vital for omnivorous species, such as wild great apes, which consume several hundred species of different foods. We assessed the effects of repeated exposures and sociality (i.e. co-feeding in the presence of one or more other individuals) on the acceptance and consumption of novel foods by captive orangutans (Pongo sp). Repeated exposures of food (novel, at first) did not cause an increase of acceptance of food; in other words, the orangutans did not start to eat a food item after being exposed to that food more often, but repeated exposures of food increased consumption (i.e. quantity). After repeated exposures, the orangutans also became gradually more familiar with the food, decreasing their explorative behaviour. The presence of co-feeding conspecifics resulted in an increased acceptance of the novel food by orangutans, and they ate a larger amount of said foods than when alone. Repeated exposure and sociality may benefit rehabilitant great apes in augmenting and diversifying diet and, once practiced before release, may accelerate an individuals' adaptation to their new habitat, improving survival chances. Great ape rescue, rehabilitation and reintroduction require large financial and logistic investments; however, their effectiveness may be improved at low cost and low effort through the suggested measures.
Halley, Fred S.
A package of social science programs--Sociology Library (SOLIB)--for small computers provides users with a partial solution to the problems stemming from the heterogeneity of social science applications programs. SOLIB offers a uniform approach to data handling and program documentation; all its programs are written in standard FORTRAN for the IBM…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Curriculum Services.
Intended for use by teachers, consultants and administrators, the booklet discusses social science instruction for gifted students in grades 7-9. An introductory section provides an overview of goals and parameters of the social sciences (psychology, sociology, and anthropology). The scientific research process is described in terms of five steps,…
Sinnema, Claire; Aitken, Graeme
This booklet is a synthesis of research on social sciences teaching that has been shown to have a positive effect on a range of desirable student outcomes: cognitive, skills, participatory and affective outcomes. Education in the social sciences plays an important role in developing students' sense of identity and influencing the ways in which…
Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton
The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…
Buttel, Frederick H.
Examines trends in social science research on biotechnology and agriculture. Discusses role of private industry's biotechnology "hype" in defining social science research policy in universities. Suggests that widespread promotion of biotechnology as "revolutionary" contributed to lack of academic scrutiny. Examines social…
Cheston, T. Stephen; And Others
During the 1970s, efforts to teach and research the social science and humanities aspects of the space program were reintensified. A 1978 survey of faculty suggested the need for a single volume that united introductory material on the various social science disciplines and the classroom experience of faculty already teaching in the field. This…
Jones, Joseph H., Jr.; And Others
Social science concepts are presented as related parts of a systematic approach to understanding and predicting human behavior and implementing programs. This monograph was developed to improve the effectiveness of the change agent in agricultural education by increasing his knowledge in the area of social sciences relating to initiating and…
Louw, Johann; Brown, Cheryl; Muller, Johan; Soudien, Crain
This study describes the results of a survey and a description of instructional technologies in place in the social sciences in South African Universities. Lecturers in the social sciences reported a well-established practice of information and communication technologies (ICTs) use for general purposes (although frequent use tended to be for email…
Benne, Kenneth D.; Birnbaum, Max
This monograph explores aspects of science and technology in contemporary society and suggests methods for teaching about social policy issues which have resulted from scientific and technological developments. Section one offers an argument for teaching about science and social policy; surveys the sociology, politics, and history of contemporary…
Heath, Phillip A.
The current trend to include the relationships of science and technology to human societies in the social studies curriculum is the focus of this ERIC Digest. The Digest discusses: (1) major themes in education on science/technology/society (STS); (2) the rationale for emphasizing STS in the social studies; and (3) how to include STS in the…
Scaff, Lawrence A.
The origins of social science as a discipline are analyzed in terms of the German scientific community before 1920, which tended to define itself according to the theories of Karl Marx or Immanuel Kant. Following a brief introduction about the nature of social science debates in intellectual Germany, section 2 of the paper considers whether the…
Social Science Research Council, New York, NY.
The report summarizes membership, activities, and finances of the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) for the year 1976-1977. SSRC is a nonprofit corporation which has as its purpose the advancement of research in the social sciences. It endeavors to stimulate the development of theory and empirical knowledge concerning human behavior through…
This paper presents the metaphor of engineering and the social sciences located on either side of a chasm and connected by the bridge of information geography. Information geography is not an integral part of engineering and is a new field within geography, a social science discipline. The specialty of information geography is one of the newest in…
Rajiah, Kingston; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Chin, Nang Sue; Num, Kelly Sze Fang
The major cause of cervical cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV) for which vaccination is available. The success HPV vaccination programme largely depend on the degree of knowledge of the healthcare providers who can recommend to the public. Health sciences students as future healthcare providers play a major role in HPV vaccination initiatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, practice and to find out the willingness to pay for HPV vaccination among the health sciences students in a private university. The cross-sectional study was conducted among the university students studying health sciences program using a validated questionnaire to measure their awareness and acceptance of HPV vaccination. The students demonstrated moderate knowledge about HPV infection and vaccination with mean knowledge scores of 9.3 out of 17. Students were showing positive attitude towards HPV vaccination with mean scores of 3.80 out of 5. However, low HPV vaccination uptake rate was reported among the students. Most of the students were willing to recommend HPV vaccine. The participants felt that the cost is the major barrier towards HPV vaccination and they felt the government should cover the cost of vaccination for all. The results of this study may be helpful in establishing educational policies on cervical cancer-related topics in the universities.
Monahan, John; Walker, Laurens
In this essay, we take the publication of the seventh edition of the casebook Social Science in Law (2010) as an opportunity to reflect on continuities and changes that have occurred in the application of social science research to American law over the past quarter-century. We structure these reflections by comparing and contrasting the original edition of the book with the current one. When the first edition appeared, courts' reliance on social science was often confused and always contested. Now, courts' reliance on social science is so common as to be unremarkable. What has changed--sometimes radically--are the substantive legal questions on which social science has been brought to bear.
The National Science Education Standards have outlined flexible processes children perform when engaging in scientific inquiry. Cases narratives are a common component of many university science education courses but rarely are they used as a tool to evaluate the preservice teachers within these courses. This article describes the construction of a positive and negative science teaching case narrative. These case narratives can be used to evaluate the level of acceptance of scientific inquiry teaching in preservice elementary teachers.
Science In a Social CONtext is a series of eight books based on the project SISCON-in-Schools. The books provide a new course in science and society for general studies at sixth-form level. The course has been specially designed to make scientific problems accessible to the non-scientist, as well as to explain the social aspects of science to the…
Science In a Social CONtext is a series of eight books based on the project SISCON-in-Schools. The books provide a new course in science and society for general studies at sixth-form level. The course has been specially designed to make scientific problems accessible to the non-scientist, as well as to explain the social aspects of science to the…
Martínez, Ma Angeles; Cobo, Manuel Jesús; Herrera, Manuel; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique
Objectives: This article reports the first science mapping analysis of the social work field, which shows its conceptual structure and scientific evolution. Methods: Science Mapping Analysis Software Tool, a bibliometric science mapping tool based on co-word analysis and h-index, is applied using a sample of 18,794 research articles published from…
Ormerod, M. B.
Reports the results of research on the attitudes of third year secondary school students toward school science and the social implications of science. Discusses the nature of attitude testing, the process of constructing an attitude scale, and the implications of this study as they relate to the science curriculum. (JR)
Smith, Debbie Michelle; Roberts, Ron
This study examines the social acceptance of young (under-18) pregnancy by assessing people's acceptance of young pregnancy and abortion in relation to deprivation. A cross-sectional survey design was conducted in two relatively affluent and two relatively deprived local authorities in London (n=570). Contrary to previous findings, participants…
This study aims to evaluate primary school Life Sciences (1st, 2nd, and 3rd grades) and Social Sciences (4th, 5th, and 6th grades) course books in terms of gender discrimination. This study is a descriptive study aiming to evaluate the primary school Life Sciences (1st, 2nd, 3rd grades) and Social Sciences (4th, 5th, and 6th grades) course books…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).
Part of a series which provides overviews of social science research and teaching in UNESCO member nations, the document focuses on Bangladesh, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Thailand. One chapter is devoted to each of the five nations. Chapter I discusses social science teaching at major universities in Bangladesh and recommends that research…
Silva, Cibelle Celestino; Moura, Breno Arsioli
The present paper presents a historical study on the acceptance of Newton's corpuscular theory of light in the early eighteenth century. Isaac Newton first published his famous book Opticks in 1704. After its publication, it became quite popular and was an almost mandatory presence in cultural life of Enlightenment societies. However, Newton's optics did not become popular only via his own words and hands, but also via public lectures and short books with scientific contents devoted to general public (including women) that emerged in the period as a sort of entertainment business. Lectures and writers stressed the inductivist approach to the study of nature and presented Newton's ideas about optics as they were consensual among natural philosophers in the period. The historical case study presented in this paper illustrates relevant aspects of nature of science, which can be explored by students of physics on undergraduate level or in physics teacher training programs.
Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Embler, Davon
A number of different types of socially interactive robots are being used as part of interventions with young children with disabilities to promote their joint attention and language skills. Parents' judgments of two dimensions (acceptance and importance) of the social validity of four different social robots were the focus of the study described…
The aim of the study was prosocial behaviors of 5-6 years old children were investigated with regard to parental acceptance-rejection, peer relationships, general social development and social skills. The participants of the study included 277 5-6-year-old Turkish children and their parents. The Child Behavior Scale, Social Skills Form, Marmara…
Akyol, Gulsum; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Traynor, Anne
This study proposed a path model of relationships among understanding and acceptance of evolution, views on nature of science, and self-efficacy beliefs regarding teaching evolution. A total of 415 pre-service science teachers completed a series of self-report instruments for the specified purpose. After the estimation of scale scores using…
Dalrymple, Kristy L; Morgan, Theresa A; Lipschitz, Jessica M; Martinez, Jennifer H; Tepe, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Mark
Depression and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are highly comorbid, resulting in greater severity and functional impairment compared with each disorder alone. Although recently transdiagnostic treatments have been developed, no known treatments have addressed this comorbidity pattern specifically. Preliminary support exists for acceptance-based approaches for depression and SAD separately, and they may be more efficacious for comorbid depression and anxiety compared with traditional cognitive-behavioral approaches. The aim of the current study was to develop and pilot test an integrated acceptance-based behavioral treatment for depression and comorbid SAD. Participants included 38 patients seeking pharmacotherapy at an outpatient psychiatry practice, who received 16 individual sessions of the therapy. Results showed significant improvement in symptoms, functioning, and processes from pre- to post-treatment, as well as high satisfaction with the treatment. These results support the preliminary acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of this treatment in a typical outpatient psychiatry practice, and suggest that further research on this treatment in larger randomized trials is warranted.
Burklund, Lisa J; Torre, Jared B; Lieberman, Matthew D; Taylor, Shelley E; Craske, Michelle G
Previous research has often highlighted hyperactivity in emotion regions to simple, static social threat cues in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Investigation of the neurobiology of SAD using more naturalistic paradigms can further reveal underlying mechanisms and how these relate to clinical outcomes. We used fMRI to investigate responses to novel dynamic rejection stimuli in individuals with SAD (N=70) and healthy controls (HC; N=17), and whether these responses predicted treatment outcomes following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Both HC and SAD groups reported greater distress to rejection compared to neutral social stimuli. At the neural level, HCs exhibited greater activations in social pain/rejection regions, including dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula, to rejection stimuli. The SAD group evidenced a different pattern, with no differences in these rejection regions and relatively greater activations in the amygdala and other regions to neutral stimuli. Greater responses in anterior cingulate cortex and the amygdala to rejection vs. neutral stimuli predicted better CBT outcomes. In contrast, enhanced activity in sensory-focused posterior insula predicted ACT responses.
Ball, John M., Ed.; And Others
This book brings together articles by educators, geographers, social scientists, and those whose competence and interests cross two or more of these fields. Geography as a discipline has played an important part in social studies/social science education. These chapters are representative of current thinking on many facets of the interaction among…
Fischer, Joseph, Ed.
Aiming at the comprehension of schools as social, political, economic, and cultural systems, this book suggests that education does not constitute a separate academic discipline but is dependent upon the social sciences for its elucidation and for its comparative study. The book emphasizes interdisciplinary approaches within four social sciences…
Lau, Chuen-Yen; Swann, Edith M; Singh, Sagri; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Meissner, Helen I; Stansbury, James P
HIV vaccine clinical research occurs within a context where biomedical science and social issues are interlinked. Previous HIV vaccine research has considered behavioral and social issues, but often treated them as independent of clinical research processes. Systematic attention to the intersection of behavioral and social issues within a defined clinical research framework is needed to address gaps, such as those related to participation in trials, completion of trials, and the overall research experience. Rigorous attention to these issues at project inception can inform trial design and conduct by matching research approaches to the context in which trials are to be conducted. Conducting behavioral and social sciences research concurrent with vaccine clinical research is important because it can help identify potential barriers to trial implementation, as well as ultimate acceptance and dissemination of trial results. We therefore propose a conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research and use examples from the behavioral and social science literature to demonstrate how the model can facilitate identification of significant areas meriting additional exploration. Standardized use of the conceptual framework could improve HIV vaccine clinical research efficiency and relevance.
House, James S.
Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…
... ADVISORY Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences..., Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Room 905,...
Zeidler, Dana L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Berson, Michael J.; Fogelman, Aimee L.
Investigates three types of bad science: (1) cultural prejudice based on scientific errors (polygenism, phrenology, reification through intelligence testing); (2) unethical science (Tuskegee syphilis experiments, tobacco companies and research); and (3) unwitting errors (pesticides, chlorofluorocarbons). (Contains 50 references.) (SK)
Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah
Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes.
Matz, Jacob; Brown, Phil; Brody, Julia
The Social Science-Environmental Health Collaborations Conference in May 2016 was a unique gathering of scholars from the social sciences and environmental health sciences, government agency professionals, community organizers and activists, and students. Conference participants described the research and practice of environmental public health as done through a transdisciplinary lens and with a community-based participatory research/community-engaged research model. NIEHS' role in supporting such work has helped create a growing number of social and environmental health scientists who cross boundaries as they work with each other and with community-based organizations.
Cherryholmes, Cleo H.
W. V. O. Quine's analysis of the analytic and synthetic distinction is discussed. The implications of his argument for science are stated as: (1) the importance of formal logic and proofs in science is reduced; (2) the importance of rhetoric in science is recognized; (3) the meaning of words cannot be fixed, and nonexistent identities between…
Klineberg, S. L.
Current public attitudes make it appear unlikely that a consensus will evolve during the 1980s favoring costly efforts to develop vast new supplies of conventional energy. Opinion polls reveal a pervasive worry over inflation, a broadening of aspirations to encompass quality of life concerns, a growing distrust of central governments, large corporations, big science and technology, and a continuing commitment to environmental protection - all of which suggests a social environment that is likely to resist the development of a major new high technology energy system such as the SPS.
Brekke, John S.
Social workers provide more social services to populations across the life span than any other human service profession, including psychiatry, nursing, and psychology. The scientific methodologies and the scientific knowledge relevant to social services have expanded dramatically in the last 30 years. Using the two indicators of the total number…
We are in a new era in American history. Showing a remarkable shift in attitudes toward gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, the United States appears to be embracing a new, more inclusive view of family life. With positive action in two landmark Supreme Court cases and a rapidly growing number of state legislatures, the trends are strong toward full legal recognition of marriages of same-sex partners and parenthood by both partners in committed gay couples rearing children. And, the trend is international. Many people are both astonished and cheered by the accelerating pace of change in acceptance of LGBT people. Surveys now show that about 60% of Americans support marriage equality so that gay couples may wed. Less than a decade ago, that proportion of Americans opposed gay weddings. This article looks at what has changed, and why, as well as how social marketing, among other forces, lifted the curtain on these unmistakable trends.
Cutts, Emily; Kavikondala, Sushma; Salcedo, Alejandra; D'Souza, Karan; Hernandez-Torre, Martin; Anderson, Claire; Tiwari, Agnes; Ho, Kendall; Last, Jason
Background Social media is an asset that higher education students can use for an array of purposes. Studies have shown the merits of social media use in educational settings; however, its adoption in health science education has been slow, and the contributing reasons remain unclear. Objective This multidisciplinary study aimed to examine health science students’ opinions on the use of social media in health science education and identify factors that may discourage its use. Methods Data were collected from the Universitas 21 “Use of social media in health education” survey, distributed electronically among the health science staff and students from 8 universities in 7 countries. The 1640 student respondents were grouped as users or nonusers based on their reported frequency of social media use in their education. Results Of the 1640 respondents, 1343 (81.89%) use social media in their education. Only 462 of the 1320 (35.00%) respondents have received specific social media training, and of those who have not, the majority (64.9%, 608/936) would like the opportunity. Users and nonusers reported the same 3 factors as the top barriers to their use of social media: uncertainty on policies, concerns about professionalism, and lack of support from the department. Nonusers reported all the barriers more frequently and almost half of nonusers reported not knowing how to incorporate social media into their learning. Among users, more than one fifth (20.5%, 50/243) of students who use social media “almost always” reported sharing clinical images without explicit permission. Conclusions Our global, interdisciplinary study demonstrates that a significant number of students across all health science disciplines self-reported sharing clinical images inappropriately, and thus request the need for policies and training specific to social media use in health science education. PMID:28052842
Klamer, Tineke; Ben Allouch, Somaya; Heylen, Dirk
The goal of this study was to improve our understanding about how older people use social robots in domestic environments and in particular whether and how they build relationships with these robots. Three participants interacted with the Nabaztag, a social robot, for a 10-day period in their own home environment. Some of our findings are (1) utilitarian-, hedonic-, and social factors are important when accepting social robots, (2) utilitarian-, hedonic- and social factors are important for building a relationship with the Nabaztag, (3) there is a relationship between name-calling and relationship building and (4) there is a relationship between using non-verbal- and verbal communication and relationship building.
Grassi, S.; Klein, T. M.
Wind energy is one of the most important source of renewable energy characterized by a significant growth in the last decades and giving a more and more relevant contribution to the energy supply. One of the main disadvantages of a faster integration of wind energy into the energy mix is related to the visual impact of wind turbines on the landscape. In addition, the siting of new massive infrastructures has the potential to threaten a community's well-being if new projects are perceived being unfair. The public perception of the impact of wind turbines on the landscape is also crucial for their acceptance. The implementation of wind energy projects is hampered often because of a lack of planning or communication tools enabling a more transparent and efficient interaction between all stakeholders involved in the projects (i.e. developers, local communities and administrations, NGOs, etc.). Concerning the visual assessment of wind farms, a critical gap lies in effective visualization tools to improve the public perception of alternative wind turbines layouts. In this paper, we describe the advantages of a 3D dynamical and interactive visualization platform for an augmented reality to support wind energy planners in order to enhance the social acceptance of new wind energy projects.
Brezavšcek, Alenka; Šparl, Petra; Žnidaršic, Anja
The aim of the paper is to investigate the main factors influencing the adoption and continuous utilization of statistical software among university social sciences students in Slovenia. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), a conceptual model was derived where five external variables were taken into account: statistical software…
Dodd, Sue A.
Some information components associated with social science numeric data bases are outlined, and guidelines, examples, and a uniform vocabulary for the creation of bibliograpic citations are included. (Author/MBR)
Pearson, Adam R; Schuldt, Jonathon P; Romero-Canyas, Rainer
The recent Paris Agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions, adopted by 195 nations at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, signaled unprecedented commitment by world leaders to address the human social aspects of climate change. Indeed, climate change increasingly is recognized by scientists and policymakers as a social issue requiring social solutions. However, whereas psychological research on intrapersonal and some group-level processes (e.g., political polarization of climate beliefs) has flourished, research into other social processes-such as an understanding of how nonpartisan social identities, cultural ideologies, and group hierarchies shape public engagement on climate change-has received substantially less attention. In this article, we take stock of current psychological approaches to the study of climate change to explore what is "social" about climate change from the perspective of psychology. Drawing from current interdisciplinary perspectives and emerging empirical findings within psychology, we identify four distinct features of climate change and three sets of psychological processes evoked by these features that are fundamentally social and shape both individual and group responses to climate change. Finally, we consider how a more nuanced understanding of the social underpinnings of climate change can stimulate new questions and advance theory within psychology.
Burlbaw, Lynn M.; Borowiec, Jonathan B.; James, Robert K.
Describes how senior-level, preservice teacher certification candidates in secondary science and social science methods classes work in teams to prepare instructional materials on a community-based issue (such as the effect of the deposition of arsenic in a creek and small city lake). Argues that such projects provide valuable learning experiences…
Barman, Charles R.; And Others
Science and social science teachers (N=198) were surveyed to determine interest in interdisciplinary instruction, perception of current interdisciplinary approaches, and preferred forms for learning more about interdisciplinary instruction. Results and implications are discussed with listings of process skills identified as important and…
Bayir, Eylem; Cakici, Yilmaz; Ertas, Ozge
Science education researchers recently turned their attention to exploring views about nature of science (NOS). A large body of research indicates that both students and teachers have many naïve views about the NOS. Unfortunately, less attention has been directed at the issue of exploring the views of the scientists. Also, the little research in the literature generally took into consideration NOS views of only natural scientists. This study primarily proposes to explore the views of scientists in both the natural and social sciences regarding the seven target aspects of NOS. The second aim of the study is to find out the similarities and dissimilarities between the views of scientists who majored in social sciences and those who majored in natural sciences in terms of the target aspects of NOS. The sample was 69 scientists representing 5 scientific disciplines from natural and social sciences. Interviews were employed for obtaining data. The data were analyzed by means of cognitive maps. This study revealed that the scientists in the sample have neither completely informed views nor completely naïve views according to contemporary scientific understanding. Their views were a blend of the two in terms of almost all the target aspects of NOS. The views of the scientists in natural science and in social science were not substantially different. The scientists from both groups generally had similar viewpoints. This situation suggested that the scientists' views about NOS are not related to their scientific disciplines.
Gilliland, M. Janice; And Others
A four-week summer project for 100 rural tenth graders in the University of Alabama's Biomedical Sciences Preparation Program (BioPrep) enabled students to acquire and apply social sciences research skills. The students investigated drinking water quality in three rural Alabama counties by interviewing local officials, health workers, and…
Switzer, Thomas; Voss, Burton
Examples of the interface of science and society are offered as several persuasive reasons for integrating science and social studies curriculum in elementary and secondary schools. These reasons include: (1) the search for new personal and societal values as a result of scientific and technological development in prolonging human life, in…
Scharmann, Lawrence C.; Butler, Wilbert, Jr.
Journal writing was introduced as a means to assess student learning and acceptance of evolutionary science in a nonmajors' biology course taught at a community college. Fourteen weeks of instruction were performed, each initiated by student-centered, in-class activities and culminated by a discussion, to elucidate tentative conclusions based on…
The Fort Collins Science Center's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance (PASA) Branch is a team of approximately 22 scientists, technicians, and graduate student researchers. PASA provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and biological analyses in the context of human-natural resource interactions. Resource planners, managers, and policymakers in the U.S. Departments of the Interior (DOI) and Agriculture (USDA), State and local agencies, as well as international agencies use information from PASA studies to make informed natural resource management and policy decisions. PASA scientists' primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to advance performance in policy relevant research areas. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context, involve difficult to access populations, require knowledge of both natural/biological science in addition to social science, and require the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these difficult contexts, PASA researchers apply traditional and state-of-the-art social science methods drawing from the fields of sociology, demography, economics, political science, communications, social-psychology, and applied industrial organization psychology. Social science methods work in concert with our rangeland/agricultural management, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of PASA's research is to enhance natural resource management, agency functions, policies, and decision-making. Our research is organized into four broad areas of study.
Bybee, Rodger W.
Science education reform is an ongoing process. In recent years many have begun to look not only to teachers for change, but they are also insisting on the involvement of administrators, parents, community members, and some business organizations to bring about this change. This book presents facts and insights regarding science education reform…
Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.
This handbook outlines the kindergarten course entitled "Myself and Others in My World." A statement of the California philosophy of history-social science education precedes the handbook's three sections. The first two sections present major goals of the program, an overview of social studies content for grades K-6, and a chart of areas…
Based on a review of economists' debates on mathematical economics, this article discusses a key issue for shaping the science of social work--research methodology. The article describes three important tasks quantitative researchers need to fulfill in order to enhance the scientific rigor of social work research. First, to test theories using…
Hartman, Carl; And Others
The guide, part of a social science learning continuum from first through twelfth grades, contains outlines for two-semester social studies courses for grades 9-12. Three components comprise each section: time allocations for units, instructional objectives, and a content outline. The Grade 9 course, Cultures of the Non-Western World, contains…
Garson, G. David
After years at the periphery of the social sciences, simulation is now emerging as an important and widely used tool for understanding social phenomena. Through simulation, researchers can identify causal effects, specify critical parameter estimates, and clarify the state of the art with respect to what is understood about how processes evolve…
Mason, Cheryl L.; Dralle, Anthony
Discusses the use of personal digital assistants, which are hand-held computers, in history and social science classrooms, explaining that they offer possibilities for greater access to technology at a fraction of the cost of desktop or laptop computers. Describes how removed today's social studies classrooms, students, and teachers are from this…
MacKinnon, David; And Others
An endless debate in social science research focuses on whether or not there is a philosophical basis for justifying the application of scientific methods to social inquiry. A review of the philosophies of various scholars in the field indicates that there is no single procedure for arriving at a valid statement in a scientific inquiry. Natural…
Johnson, Karen S.
Commonalities between the philosophical perspectives of Alfred Schatz, a European phenomenologist, and George Herbert Mead, the father of symbolic interactionism, are discussed, and the two men's potential significance in social science research is examined. Both men were concerned with the question of the nature of social action, believing that…
Morrison, Denton E.; And Others
This bibliography contains 2,124 listings pertaining primarily to the social factors involved with energy. Some entries report physical energy information as it relates to social science analysis. Entries are listed by author with a subject index for cross reference. Subject categories include: aesthetic, humanistic, and literary; agriculture;…
Smelser, Neil J., Ed.; Gerstein, Dean R., Ed.
This commemorative book contains 10 papers that provide a selective sample of behavioral and social science research accomplishments and trends over a 50-year period, and comparisons are made with research presented in the 1933 report, "Recent Social Trends in the United States" (The Ogburn Report). Four chapters in part 1,…
Social Science Research Council, New York, NY.
The Social Science Research Council's activities during its 50th anniversary year are summarized. In addition to presenting detailed accounts from 30 committees which comprise the Council, the report includes a staff essay on social development during early childhood. The report indicates that the Council pursued the advancement of research in the…
Best, Karen; And Others
The guide, part of a social science learning continuum from first through twelfth grades, contains outlines for two-semester social studies courses for grades 6, 7, and 8. The courses focus on the geographic setting, history, and cultures of the Americans and the need for inter-American cooperation. The guides for each course contain three…
Mason, Lance E.
An NCSS Technology Position Statement and Guidelines, published in 2006 (an updated version is published in this issue of "Social Education"), affirms that social studies students should critically examine relations between technology and society. This article describes how teachers can use science fiction to introduce critical questions…
Dobson, Dorothy Tousley; Archer, Sally
This booklet is designed to use the newspaper in the teaching of social studies, language arts, math, and science. Each of these major areas is divided into several topics. Each topic is defined, followed by a list of activities using newspaper articles or pictures to develop the topic. The seven topics for social studies are sociology;…
Background Cash transfer programmes are increasingly recognised as promising and scalable interventions that can promote the health and development of children. However, concerns have been raised about the potential for cash transfers to contribute to social division, jealousy and conflict at a community level. Against this background, and in our interest to promote community participation in cash transfer programmes, we examine local perceptions of a community-led cash transfer programme in Eastern Zimbabwe. Methods We collected and analysed data from 35 individual interviews and three focus group discussions, involving 24 key informants (community committee members and programme implementers), 24 cash transfer beneficiaries, of which four were youth, and 14 non-beneficiaries. Transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis and coding to generate concepts. Results Study participants described the programme as participatory, fair and transparent – reducing the likelihood of jealousy. The programme was perceived to have had a substantial impact on children’s health and education, primarily through aiding parents and guardians to better cater for their children’s needs. Moreover, participants alluded to the potential of the programme to facilitate more transformational change, for example by enabling families to invest money in assets and income generating activities and by promoting a community-wide sense of responsibility for the support of orphaned and vulnerable children. Conclusion Community participation, combined with the perceived impact of the cash transfer programme, led community members to speak enthusiastically about the programme. We conclude that community-led cash transfer programmes have the potential to open up for possibilities of participation and community agency that enable social acceptability and limit social divisiveness. PMID:23587136
This study looks at how beginner teachers learn to teach science for social justice in urban schools. The research questions are: (1) what views do beginner teachers hold about teaching science for social justice in urban schools? (2) How do beginner teachers' views about teaching science for social justice develop as part of their learning? In looking at teacher learning, I take a situative perspective that defines learning as increased participation in a community of practice. I use the case study methodology with five teacher participants as the individual units of analysis. In measuring participation, I draw from mathematics education literature that offers three domains of professional practice: Content, pedagogy and professional identity. In addition, I focus on agency as an important component of increased participation from a social justice perspective. My findings reveal two main tensions that arose as teachers considered what it meant to teach science from a social justice perspective: (1) Culturally responsive teaching vs. "real" science and (2) Teaching science as a political act. In negotiating these tensions, teachers drew on a variety of pedagogical and conceptual tools offered in USE that focused on issues of equity, access, place-based pedagogy, student agency, ownership and culture as a toolkit. Further, in looking at how the five participants negotiated these tensions in practice, I describe four variables that either afforded or constrained teacher agency and consequently the development of their own identity and role as socially just educators. These four variables are: (1) Accessing and activating social, human and cultural capital, (2) reconceptualizing culturally responsive pedagogical tools, (3) views of urban youth and (4) context of participation. This study has implications for understanding the dialectical relationship between agency and social justice identity for beginner teachers who are learning how to teach for social justice. Also
Schur, Joan Brodsky
Most students assume that a thriving society runs smoothly because people abide by the laws. But there are various informal, as well as formal, means of social control such as gossip, ridicule, and shame that function even in complex societies to achieve social control, or conformity to group norms. Good teaching ideas have the potential to lead…
A CURRICULUM GUIDE OUTLINES THE MAJOR CONCEPTS, STRUCTURE, AND METHODS OF ANTHROPOLOGY FOR GRADES K-6. THE FOLLOWING UNIT AREAS ARE INCLUDED--(1) NEEDS AND NEED SATISFACTION, (2) HUMAN PERSONALITY, (3) SOCIAL GROUPS, (4) SOCIAL NETWORKS, (5) HUMAN CULTURE, (6) CHANGE AND EVOLUTION, AND (7) CURRENT CULTURAL CHANGES. A SUMMARY CHART PRESENTS A FLOW…
Warner, Guy C; Blum, Jesse M; Jones, Simon B; Lambert, Paul S; Turner, Kenneth J; Tan, Larry; Dawson, Alison S F; Bell, David N F
The last two decades have seen substantially increased potential for quantitative social science research. This has been made possible by the significant expansion of publicly available social science datasets, the development of new analytical methodologies, such as microsimulation, and increases in computing power. These rich resources do, however, bring with them substantial challenges associated with organizing and using data. These processes are often referred to as 'data management'. The Data Management through e-Social Science (DAMES) project is working to support activities of data management for social science research. This paper describes the DAMES infrastructure, focusing on the data-fusion process that is central to the project approach. It covers: the background and requirements for provision of resources by DAMES; the use of grid technologies to provide easy-to-use tools and user front-ends for several common social science data-management tasks such as data fusion; the approach taken to solve problems related to data resources and metadata relevant to social science applications; and the implementation of the architecture that has been designed to achieve this infrastructure.
Interpersonal distance and gaze provide a wealth of information during face-to-face social interactions. These "proxemic" behaviors offer a window into everyday social cognition by revealing interactants' affective states (e.g., interpersonal attitudes) and cognitive responses (e.g., social attention). Here we provide a brief overview of the social psychological literature in this domain. We focus on new techniques for experimentally manipulating and measuring proxemics, including the use of immersive virtual environments and digital motion capture. We also discuss ways in which these approaches can be integrated with psychophysiological and neuroimaging techniques. Throughout, we argue that contemporary proxemics research provides psychology and neuroscience with a means to study social cognition and behavior as they naturally emerge and unfold in vivo.
Machlis, Gary; Ludwig, Kris; Manfredo, Michael J.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Rechkemmer, Andreas; Duke, Esther
Historical and contemporary experience suggests that science plays an increasingly critical role in governmental and institutional responses to major environmental crises. Recent examples include major western wildfires (2009), the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010), the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), and Hurricane Sandy (2012). The application of science during such crises has several distinctive characteristics, as well as essential requirements if it is to be useful to decision makers. these include scope conditions that include coupled natural/human systems, clear statement of uncertainties and limitations, description of cascading consequences, accurate sense of place, estimates of magnitude of impacts, identification of beneficiaries and those adversely affected, clarity and conciseness, compelling visualization and presentation, capacity to speak "truth to power", and direct access to decision makers. In this chapter, we explore the role and significance of science – including all relevant disciplines and focusing attention on the social sciences – in responding to major environmental crises. We explore several important questions: How is science during crisis distinctive? What social science is most useful during crises? What distinctive characteristics are necessary for social science to make meaningful contributions to emergency response and recovery? How might the social sciences be integrated into the strategic science needed to respond to future crises? The authors, both members of the Department of the Interior's innovative Strategic Sciences Group, describe broad principles of engagement as well as specific examples drawn from history, contemporary efforts (such as during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill), and predictions of environmental crises still to be confronted.
Idlis, G. M.; Tomilin, Konstantin
The archive includes a great number of archive materials, recollections, interviews, letters, diaries, bibliography, internet sources concerning history of bolshevik and stalinist purges against scientists in the USSR since 1917 till 1968. The archive is categorized by few divisions: scientists, university teachers, associate professors, professors, members of the Academy of Science of the USSR, Corresponding-Members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. A great number of research articles and recollections by purged are included. The articles are written not only by historians of science but by scientists also. A great role by P.L. Kapitza in the saving of Soviet science from purges is underlined. The project was realized under the support by SOROS foundation (2000), Russian Foundation for fundamental Research (2002-2004) and Russian State National Foundation (2007).
Levallois, Clement; Clithero, John A; Wouters, Paul; Smidts, Ale; Huettel, Scott A
The social and neural sciences share a common interest in understanding the mechanisms that underlie human behaviour. However, interactions between neuroscience and social science disciplines remain strikingly narrow and tenuous. We illustrate the scope and challenges for such interactions using the paradigmatic example of neuroeconomics. Using quantitative analyses of both its scientific literature and the social networks in its intellectual community, we show that neuroeconomics now reflects a true disciplinary integration, such that research topics and scientific communities with interdisciplinary span exert greater influence on the field. However, our analyses also reveal key structural and intellectual challenges in balancing the goals of neuroscience with those of the social sciences. To address these challenges, we offer a set of prescriptive recommendations for directing future research in neuroeconomics.
Yeong, Foong May
With various internet resources available to students, the main aim of a good university education today should not merely be to provide students with content knowledge, but rather to equip them with essential skills necessary to develop into lifelong learners. Among science educators, repeated calls have been made to promote a more holistic…
Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.
The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.
Bromme, Rainer; Beelmann, Andreas
Many social science-based interventions entail the transfer of evidence-based knowledge to the "target population," because the acquisition and the acceptance of that knowledge are necessary for the intended improvement of behavior or development. Furthermore, the application of a certain prevention program is often legitimated by a reference to science-based reasons such as an evaluation according to scientific standards. Hence, any implementation of evidence-based knowledge and programs is embedded in the public understanding of (social) science. Based on recent research on such public understanding of science, we shall discuss transfer as a process of science communication.
Hsu, D T; Sanford, B J; Meyers, K K; Love, T M; Hazlett, K E; Walker, S J; Mickey, B J; Koeppe, R A; Langenecker, S A; Zubieta, J-K
The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) system, well known for dampening physical pain, is also hypothesized to dampen 'social pain.' We used positron emission tomography scanning with the selective MOR radioligand [(11)C]carfentanil to test the hypothesis that MOR system activation (reflecting endogenous opioid release) in response to social rejection and acceptance is altered in medication-free patients diagnosed with current major depressive disorder (MDD, n=17) compared with healthy controls (HCs, n=18). During rejection, MDD patients showed reduced endogenous opioid release in brain regions regulating stress, mood and motivation, and slower emotional recovery compared with HCs. During acceptance, only HCs showed increased social motivation, which was positively correlated with endogenous opioid release in the nucleus accumbens, a reward structure. Altered endogenous opioid activity in MDD may hinder emotional recovery from negative social interactions and decrease pleasure derived from positive interactions. Both effects may reinforce depression, trigger relapse and contribute to poor treatment outcomes.
Cristea, Ioana A; Valenza, Gaetano; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Szentágotai Tătar, Aurora; Gentili, Claudio; David, Daniel
Few studies investigated the effects of emotion regulation strategies on autonomic parameters in socially anxious individuals. We asked 99 socially anxious participants to give an impromptu speech in front of an audience in a virtual reality environment. In the anticipation phase, they practiced an emotion regulation strategy: negative functional reappraisal, acceptance, negative dysfunctional reappraisal. All strategies led to decreases in parasympathetic activity and increases in heart rate during anticipation. Parasympathetic activity remained low in the recovery phase, while heart rate increased, indicating a possible rebound effect of social performance. Exploratory moderation analysis revealed that for subjects with higher social anxiety, acceptance led to increased parasympathetic activity in the anticipation and recovery phases than negative functional reappraisal. Our results indicate that although globally parasympathetic reactivity seems to be a more general marker of simply attempting to regulate emotions, it could help distinguish between emotion regulation strategies for some participant subgroups.
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville won funding from the federal interagency competition, Leadership Opportunity in Science and Humanities Education, which supported interdisciplinary courses combining the natural sciences and the humanities. The author analyzes her experiences developing a very successful and popular interdisciplinary course, entitled "The Atomic Era," which features a unique combination of physics, sociology and German studies taught jointly by a physicist, a sociologist, and a Germanist. The objectives of the course, the laboratories and demonstrations, instructional goals, ! ! assignments, organization, testing, student and faculty assessment, expenses, and the special challenges of coordinating three faculty members and a wide variety of topics and perspectives are addressed and analyzed.
The Sustainable Development Goals are underpinned by a committment to a world that is just, equitable, inclusive and environmentally sustainable and include goals of ending poverty and hunger; universal access to health, education, water, sanitation, energy and decent work; and reducing the risks and impacts of climate change, biodiversity loss, and marine, forest and land degradation. They seek to reduce inequality between and within countries and achieve gender equality. The SDGs build on the apparent success in meeting many of the Millenium Development Goals, including those of reducing poverty, hunger and debt and providing access to water. The science needed to achieve and monitor most of these goals is social science - an area of scholarship that is traditionally undervalued, underfunded, underepresented misunderstood and lacking in detailed data. This paper will provide an overview of the social science that is needed to support the Sustainable Development Goals, with a particular focus on the challenges of monitoring social data over time and within countries, the importance of research design, and of building capacity and credibility in the social sciences. As an example, the paper will discuss the social science that will be needed to achieve Goal 13: Take urgent actions to combat climate change and its impacts, and measuring targets such as strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity, and raising capacities of women, youth, and marginalized communities to manage and respond climate change.
Dalla Villa, Paolo; Barnard, Shanis; Di Nardo, Antonio; Iannetti, Luigi; Podaliri Vulpiani, Michele; Trentini, Roberto; Serpell, James A; Siracusa, Carlo
Aggressiveness is reported to be the most important public health issue related to both owned and free‑roaming dogs. Common approaches to assess canine aggressiveness are temperament tests. The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether one such test, the Socially Acceptable Behaviour (SAB) test, created to evaluate aggressive and fearful behaviour in dogs in the Netherlands, could be used reliably to assess dog aggression and fear in a population of owned dogs in Central Italy. Reactions to the test were recorded and compared to the owners' perception of their dog's aggressiveness using a validated questionnaire (C‑BARQ). Dogs showing aggressive reactions during the test obtained significantly higher (more aggressive) scores on the C‑BARQ subscales 'stranger‑directed aggression' (SDA p<0.001), 'owner‑directed aggression' (ODA p = 0.03), and 'familiar dog aggression' (FDA p = 0.006), than dogs who did not react aggressively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that 7 of the SAB‑subtests were predictive of the SDA score. The findings indicated that aggression directed toward unfamiliar people can be reliably assessed using the SAB test for a population of Italian pet dogs.
Describes the growth of science as a twofold process: (1) the fragmentation of formal disciplines; and (2) a recombination of the specialties resulting from this fragmentation. Discusses the division of disciplines into specialized subfields that has led to the development of hybrid specialties, and maintains that the concept of hybridization is…
National Collegiate Software Clearinghouse, Raleigh, NC.
This computer software program bibliography available from the National Collegiate Software Clearinghouse (NCSC) includes programs for college students and researchers in anthropology, economics and business, education, English and text analysis, foreign language, general interest, history, management, philosophy and religion, political science,…
Hawkins, J. David
Over the past 25 years the science of prevention of adolescent health and behavior problems has matured as a result of longitudinal studies of predictors of these problems and controlled studies of preventive interventions focused on those predictors that have revealed efficacious prevention strategies. This article builds on three Aaron Rosen…
MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Rabiner, David; Starnes, Rebecca
Examined associations between 7- to 9-year-old boys' experiences with their mothers, beliefs about peers, and peer adjustment over two years. Found that boys' negative behavior with mothers was associated with more negative beliefs about peers and being more aggressive and less well-liked. Beliefs about peers predicted social acceptance and…
Kulkofsky, Sarah; Behrens, Kazuko Y.; Battin, David B.
The present study investigated the relation between characteristics of mother-child reminiscing and children's perceived competence and social acceptance. We focused specifically on conversations for bonding purposes (i.e., conversations that serve the function of maintaining or strengthening the relationship between the child and the mother) as…
Lopez-Williams, Andy; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Seymour, Karen E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Pelham, William E.; Morris, Tracy L.
Sixty-three children between ages 6 and 12 who were enrolled in a summer treatment program for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a study designed to measure the relationship between social behaviors, athletic performance, and peer acceptance. Children were assessed on sport-specific skills of three major…
Harrison, Judith R.; State, Talida M.; Evans, Steven W.; Schamberg, Terah
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct and predictive validity of scores on a measure of social acceptability of class-wide and individual student intervention, the School Intervention Rating Form (SIRF), with high school teachers. Utilizing scores from 158 teachers, exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor (i.e.,…
Chang, Lei; Liu, Hongyun; Fung, Kitty Y.; Wang, Yan; Wen, Zhonglin; Li, Hongli; Farver, JoAnn M.
Tested on a sample of 1,365 Hong Kong primary school students from five grades, teacher preference or the extent to which the classroom teacher likes a child in the class was found to both mediate and, to a lesser extent, moderate the relations between children's social behaviors and peer acceptance across age groups. The mediating effect suggests…
Fantuzzo, John W.; And Others
Examined construct validity of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance and its appropriateness for urban children. Data collected from a sample of 476 African American children of low-income families in a large metropolitan Head Start program failed to produce psychologically meaningful constructs or support for…
Nielsen, A; Korzen, S; Holm, L
The article presents results from a survey that was carried out among participants in a strictly controlled dietary intervention trial in order to investigate and compare the social and cultural acceptability of three different diets. Measures of social and cultural acceptability included liking of diet, social eating events, practical matters surrounding shopping, cooking, eating, understandings of the relationship between diet type, bodyweight and health, and preferences for specific foods. The survey study focuses especially on the acceptability of the diet recommended by American epidemiologist Walter Willett. On most measures the results indicated that a diet based on Willett's recommendations had a generally high level of acceptability. Scepticism related primarily to the health and weight benefits of this diet in comparison with those of the present dietary recommendations in Denmark. The survey also revealed that participants attributed more influence on their body weight to the amount of food they ate than they did to the composition of the diets they followed. While the scope of the study does not allow for the generalizations of results to a general population level, the experimental design provides detailed insight into social and cultural aspects of experiences of strict dietary adherence.
Lee, Robert E.; Craven, Patricia Ann
This article presents the authors' response to Pignotti and Mercer's "Holding Therapy and Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy Are Not Supported and Acceptable Social Work Interventions." Pignotti and Mercer offer a very detailed, informative, scholarly, and eloquently expressed concern about the merit of holding therapies and the danger of offering…
Volkmann, Mark J.; Eichinger, David C.
Focuses on three habits associated with personal values and attitudes, and one habit associated with social skills of doing science. Illustrates four habits of mind, first through a story of modern scientific investigation, then as the basis of school laboratory science experience. Discusses implications related to integration of these four habits…
Mack, Edward B.
This booklet is intended to serve as an introduction to art experiences that relate to studies in social science, natural science, and language arts. It is designed to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of interaction of the abiotic, biotic, and cultural factors of the total environment as manifest in art forms. Each section, presented…
Baca Zinn, Maxine
Suggests that the biased image of Mexican-American women in current literature can be improved by: locating Mexican-American females in precise organizational context; distinguishing between macro- and microanalytical levels; separating social structural from cultural phenomena; and relating Mexican-American women's studies to general feminist…
Gross, Richard E., Ed.; Dynneson, Thomas L., Ed.
This anthology examines the role and current conditions of citizenship in the United States' society. The compilation of essays by eminent social scientists and educators explore the concept of citizenship from various disciplinary perspectives: educational (Thomas L. Dynneson and Richard E. Gross); political (Robert B. Woyach); historical (Kerry…
Leaf, Justin B; Kassardjian, Alyne; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L; Cihon, Joseph H; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John
Today, there are several interventions that can be implemented with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Most of these interventions have limited to no empirical evidence demonstrating their effectiveness, yet they are widely implemented in home, school, university, and community settings. In 1996, Green wrote a chapter in which she outlined three levels of science: evidence science, pseudoscience, and antiscience; professionals were encouraged to implement and recommend only those procedures that would be considered evidence science. Today, an intervention that is commonly implemented with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is Social Thinking®. This intervention has been utilized by behaviorists and non-behaviorists. This commentary will outline Social Thinking® and provide evidence that the procedure, at the current time, qualifies as a pseudoscience and, therefore, should not be implemented with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, especially given the availability of alternatives which clearly meet the standard of evidence science.
Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.
Bunten, Alexis; Arvizu, Shannon
How can museums and other informal learning institutions cultivate greater civic engagement among the visiting public around important social issues? This case study of the National Network of Ocean and Climate Change Interpreters' (NNOCCI) professional learning community illustrates how insights from the social sciences can be productively…
Taylor, Jennifer Anne
This thesis presents a qualitative investigation of the effects of social competence on the participation of students with learning disabilities (LD) in the science learning processes associated with collaborative, guided inquiry learning. An inclusive Grade 2 classroom provided the setting for the study. Detailed classroom observations were the primary source of data. In addition, the researcher conducted two interviews with the teacher, and collected samples of students' written work. The purpose of the research was to investigate: (a) How do teachers and peers mediate the participation of students with LD in collaborative, guided inquiry science activities, (b) What learning processes do students with LD participate in during collaborative, guided inquiry science activities, and (c) What components of social competence support and constrain the participation of students with LD during collaborative, guided inquiry science activities? The findings of the study suggest five key ideas for research and teaching in collaborative, guided inquiry science in inclusive classrooms. First, using a variety of collaborative learning formats (whole-class, small-group, and pairs) creates more opportunities for the successful participation of diverse students with LD. Second, creating an inclusive community where students feel accepted and valued may enhance the academic and social success of students with LD. Third, careful selection of partners for students with LD is important for a positive learning experience. Students with LD should be partnered with academically successful, socially competent peers; also, this study suggested that students with LD experience more success working collaboratively in pairs rather than in small groups. Fourth, a variety of strategies are needed to promote active participation and positive social interactions for students with and without LD during collaborative, guided inquiry learning. Fifth, adopting a general approach to teaching
Nye, Mary Jo
Tacit knowing: 2016 marked the 125th anniversary of the birth of the physical chemist Michael Polanyi, as well as the 40th of his death. This essay discusses his philosophy of science-in particular, his most significant work in this area, Personal Knowledge-from the perspective of his personal biography, as well as its lasting influence on the social sciences. In the photograph: Michael Polanyi at the Fritz Haber Institute in 1968.
Kocovski, Nancy L; Fleming, Jan E; Hawley, Lance L; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Antony, Martin M
The present study investigated mechanisms of change for two group treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD): cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy (MAGT). Participants were treatment completers (n = 37 for MAGT, n = 32 for CBGT) from a randomized clinical trial. Cognitive reappraisal was the hypothesized mechanism of change for CBGT. Mindfulness and acceptance were hypothesized mechanisms of change for MAGT. Latent difference score (LDS) analysis results demonstrate that cognitive reappraisal coupling (in which cognitive reappraisal is negatively associated with the subsequent rate of change in social anxiety) had a greater impact on social anxiety for CBGT than MAGT. The LDS bidirectional mindfulness model (mindfulness predicts subsequent change in social anxiety; social anxiety predicts subsequent change in mindfulness) was supported for both treatments. Results for acceptance were less clear. Cognitive reappraisal may be a more important mechanism of change for CBGT than MAGT, whereas mindfulness may be an important mechanism of change for both treatments.
Hesse, Bradford W; Moser, Richard P; Riley, William T
One of the challenges associated with high-volume, diverse datasets is whether synthesis of open data streams can translate into actionable knowledge. Recognizing that challenge and other issues related to these types of data, the National Institutes of Health developed the Big Data to Knowledge or BD2K initiative. The concept of translating "big data to knowledge" is important to the social and behavioral sciences in several respects. First, a general shift to data-intensive science will exert an influence on all scientific disciplines, but particularly on the behavioral and social sciences given the wealth of behavior and related constructs captured by big data sources. Second, science is itself a social enterprise; by applying principles from the social sciences to the conduct of research, it should be possible to ameliorate some of the systemic problems that plague the scientific enterprise in the age of big data. We explore the feasibility of recalibrating the basic mechanisms of the scientific enterprise so that they are more transparent and cumulative; more integrative and cohesive; and more rapid, relevant, and responsive.
Hesse, Bradford W.; Moser, Richard P.; Riley, William T.
One of the challenges associated with high-volume, diverse datasets is whether synthesis of open data streams can translate into actionable knowledge. Recognizing that challenge and other issues related to these types of data, the National Institutes of Health developed the Big Data to Knowledge or BD2K initiative. The concept of translating “big data to knowledge” is important to the social and behavioral sciences in several respects. First, a general shift to data-intensive science will exert an influence on all scientific disciplines, but particularly on the behavioral and social sciences given the wealth of behavior and related constructs captured by big data sources. Second, science is itself a social enterprise; by applying principles from the social sciences to the conduct of research, it should be possible to ameliorate some of the systemic problems that plague the scientific enterprise in the age of big data. We explore the feasibility of recalibrating the basic mechanisms of the scientific enterprise so that they are more transparent and cumulative; more integrative and cohesive; and more rapid, relevant, and responsive. PMID:26294799
Bohon, W.; Robinson, S.; Arrowsmith, R.; Semken, S. C.
What is black and white and 'read' all over? Facebook, that's what. As of December 2012 Facebook had over 618 million daily users, and over a billion monthly users from around the world (http://newsroom.fb.com/Key-Facts). Twitter has more than 130 million active users and generates as many as 340 million Tweets a day (http://blog.twitter.com/2012/03/twitter-turns-six.html). Social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter are not the future of communication, they are the reality, and scientists (and science organizations) need to become part of the conversation. More than half of the teenage and adult population of the US belongs to a social network or are using another form of social media on a regular basis. This creates an opportunity for organizations to use the well-established functionality and pervasiveness of social media platforms to communicate important scientific information and discoveries. In addition, the informal environment of social media allows scientists to interact with non-scientists in a friendly and non-threatening way that can be used to create engagement scenarios that continue the cycle of discussions, experiments, analysis and conclusions that typify science. Social media also provides scientists with the means and opportunity to improve the way science is viewed by the public while improving general science literacy and integrating scientific discoveries into the fabric of the lives of non-scientists. Many questions remain regarding the best way to utilize the opportunities that social media present. For instance, how can we reach a broader, more diverse audience? What are realistic expectations about the effects of social media? How do we improve the quality of content? How can we use social media to communicate scientific information in innovative ways? And perhaps most importantly, how do we know if we are communicating successfully? The EarthScope National Office will share our experiences creating a social media program from the
Waldhart, Thomas J.; Waldhart, Enid S.
Research studies on communication in the sciences, social sciences, and technology published from 1964 through 1973 are listed in this bibliography. The 1,288 serially-numbered bibliographic items are subdivided into five broad headings: General, Structures of Communication, Discipline Oriented Studies, Communication Barriers, and Communication…
Reversing the rising cost of health and social systems is needed in ageing developed and developing countries. A new model of ageing is advocated by the World Health Organization. This new model asks for more personal health accountability and a more integrated approach on care and preventive cure. Information systems and technologies can play an important role in supporting the changes needed in order to have better and more sustainable health and social care systems. Using value and results for patients as criteria by which systems are accepted by users and by organizations can contribute to a value based competition in health and social care systems. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology is presented, and the pertinence of adding an extension to the theory in order capture Quality of Life improvements expectations is explored.
Belsky, Daniel W; Israel, Salomon
The sequencing of the human genome and the advent of low-cost genome-wide assays that generate millions of observations of individual genomes in a matter of hours constitute a disruptive innovation for social science. Many public use social science datasets have or will soon add genome-wide genetic data. With these new data come technical challenges, but also new possibilities. Among these, the lowest-hanging fruit and the most potentially disruptive to existing research programs is the ability to measure previously invisible contours of health and disease risk within populations. In this article, we outline why now is the time for social scientists to bring genetics into their research programs. We discuss how to select genetic variants to study. We explain how the polygenic architecture of complex traits and the low penetrance of individual genetic loci pose challenges to research integrating genetics and social science. We introduce genetic risk scores as a method of addressing these challenges and provide guidance on how genetic risk scores can be constructed. We conclude by outlining research questions that are ripe for social science inquiry.
Belsky, Daniel W.; Israel, Salomon
The sequencing of the human genome and the advent of low-cost genome-wide assays that generate millions of observations of individual genomes in a matter of hours constitute a disruptive innovation for social science. Many public-use social science datasets have or will soon add genome-wide genetic data. With these new data come technical challenges, but also new possibilities. Among these, the lowest hanging fruit and the most potentially disruptive to existing research programs is the ability to measure previously invisible contours of health and disease risk within populations. In this article, we outline why now is the time for social scientists to bring genetics into their research programs. We discuss how to select genetic variants to study. We explain how the polygenic architecture of complex traits and the low penetrance of individual genetic loci pose challenges to research integrating genetics and social science. We introduce genetic risk scores as a method of addressing these challenges and provide guidance on how genetic risk scores can be constructed. We conclude by outlining research questions that are ripe for social science inquiry. PMID:25343363
Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulou, Penelope
In this study, we explored some of the factors related to the acceptance of evolution theory among Greek university students training to be teachers in early childhood education, using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical framework. We examined the acceptance of evolution theory and we also looked into the relationship between the acceptance and parents' education level, thinking dispositions and frequency of religious practice as independent variables. Students' moderate acceptance of evolution theory is positively correlated with the frequency of religious practices and thinking dispositions. Our findings indicate that studying a controversial issue such as the acceptance of evolution theory in a multivariate fashion, using conceptual ecology as a theoretical lens to interpret the findings, is informative. They also indicate the differences that exist between societies and how socio-cultural factors such as the nature of religion, as part of the conceptual ecology, influence acceptance of evolution and have an influence on evolution education.
Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Elder, John P.
This paper introduces qualitative methods for assessing the acceptability of an intervention. Acceptability refers to determining how well an intervention will be received by the target population and the extent to which the new intervention or its components might meet the needs of the target population and organizational setting. In this paper, we focus on two common qualitative methods for conducting acceptability research and their advantages and disadvantages: focus groups and interviews. We provide examples from our own research and other studies to demonstrate the use of these methods for conducting acceptability research and how one might adapt this approach for oral health research. Finally, we present emerging methods for conducting acceptability research, including the use of community-based participatory research, as well as the utility of conducting acceptability research for assessing the appropriateness of measures in intervention research. PMID:21656958
Rice, Eric; Tulbert, Eve; Cederbaum, Julie; Adhikari, Anamika Barman; Milburn, Norweeta G.
The objective of the study is to use social network analysis to examine the acceptability of a youth-led, hybrid face-to-face and online social networking HIV prevention program for homeless youth. Seven peer leaders (PLs) engaged face-to-face homeless youth (F2F) in the creation of digital media projects (e.g. You Tube videos). PL and F2F…
Finn, Symma; Collman, Gwen
Environmental health sciences research seeks to elucidate environmental factors that put human health at risk. A primary aim is to develop strategies to prevent or reduce exposures and disease occurrence. Given this primary focus on prevention, environmental health sciences research focuses on the populations most at risk such as communities of color and/or low socioeconomic status. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences research programs incorporate the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research to study health disparities. These programs promote community engagement, culturally appropriate communications with a variety of stakeholders, and consideration of the social determinants of health that interact with environmental factors to increase risk. Multidisciplinary research teams that include social and behavioral scientists are essential to conduct this type of research. This article outlines the history of social and behavioral research funding at National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and offers examples of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences-funded projects that exemplify the value of social science to the environmental health sciences.
Wasserman, Jason Adam
Calls for incorporating social science into patient care typically have accounted for neither the logistic constraints of medical training nor the methodological fallacies of utilizing aggregate "social facts" in clinical practice. By elucidating the different epistemic approaches of artistic and scientific practices, this paper illustrates an integrative artistic pedagogy that allows clinical practitioners to generate social scientific insights from actual patient encounters. Although there is no shortage of calls to bring social science into medicine, the more fundamental processes of thinking by which art and science proceed have not been addressed to this end. As such, the art of medical practice is conceptualized as an innate gift, and thus little is done to cultivate it. Yet doing so is more important than ever because uncertainty in diagnosing and treating chronic illnesses, the most significant contemporary mortality risks, suggests a re-expanding role for clinical judgment.
Brandt, Carol B.; Shumar, Wesley; Hammond, Lorie; Carlone, Heidi; Kimmel, Sue; Tschida, Christina
Schooling and science education are embedded within larger socio-cultural, political and economic contexts, influenced by global flows of capital, labor, ideas, and images. In this article we consider the ways in which ethnography traces the web of interactions (circuits), in a rural community and the ways that science inquiry was associated with character education. Our discussion examines the relationship between social fields, habitus, and meritocracy under new and ever-changing neoliberal conditions. These macro-level forces play out in everyday practices in the community and reveal schools, as well as science education, as sites for struggle.
McElhaney, Kathleen B; Antonishak, Jill; Allen, Joseph P
This study examined the dual roles of adolescents' perceptions of social acceptance and sociometric popularity in predicting relative changes over time in adolescents' social functioning. Observational, self-report, and peer report data were obtained from 164 adolescents who were interviewed at age 13 years and then again at age 14 years, as well as their same-sex close friends. Adolescents who felt positively about their own social standing fared well over time, regardless of their level of sociometric popularity. Further, low popularity was particularly problematic for adolescents who failed to see themselves as fitting in. Results suggest that during adolescence, when it becomes increasingly possible for teens to choose their own social niches, it is possible to be socially successful without being broadly popular.
Azadeh, Sayedeh Monireh; Kazemi-Zahrani, Hamid; Besharat, Mohammad Ali
Social anxiety is a psychological disorder which has devastative and pernicious effects on interpersonal relationships and one's psychological flexibility. The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on interpersonal problems and psychological flexibility in female high school students with social anxiety disorder. With a semi-experimental design, the subjects were assessed using the Social Anxiety Scale and clinical interview. The statistical population of the research was high school female students studying in 5 areas of Isfahan. 30 individuals were purposively selected as the sample. The subjects of the research were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy was given in 10 sessions of 90 minutes in the experimental group and the control group did not receive any treatment. Pre-test and post-test scores of Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance & the results showed that after the intervention, there was a significant difference between the scores of the subjects in the experimental and control groups. This means that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy can influence interpersonal problems and their six dimensions and psychological flexibility as well. PMID:26493425
Allen, Heidi G.; Stanton, Tasha R.; Di Pietro, Flavia; Moseley, G. Lorimer
A barrier to dissemination of research is that it depends on the end-user searching for or ‘pulling’ relevant knowledge from the literature base. Social media instead ‘pushes’ relevant knowledge straight to the end-user, via blogs and sites such as Facebook and Twitter. That social media is very effective at improving dissemination seems well accepted, but, remarkably, there is no evidence to support this claim. We aimed to quantify the impact of social media release on views and downloads of articles in the clinical pain sciences. Sixteen PLOS ONE articles were blogged and released via Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and ResearchBlogging.org on one of two randomly selected dates. The other date served as a control. The primary outcomes were the rate of HTML views and PDF downloads of the article, over a seven-day period. The critical result was an increase in both outcome variables in the week after the blog post and social media release. The mean ± SD rate of HTML views in the week after the social media release was 18±18 per day, whereas the rate during the other three weeks was no more than 6±3 per day. The mean ± SD rate of PDF downloads in the week after the social media release was 4±4 per day, whereas the rate during the other three weeks was less than 1±1 per day (p<0.05 for all comparisons). However, none of the recognized measures of social media reach, engagement or virality related to either outcome variable, nor to citation count one year later (p>0.3 for all). We conclude that social media release of a research article in the clinical pain sciences increases the number of people who view or download that article, but conventional social media metrics are unrelated to the effect. PMID:23874810
Allen, Heidi G; Stanton, Tasha R; Di Pietro, Flavia; Moseley, G Lorimer
A barrier to dissemination of research is that it depends on the end-user searching for or 'pulling' relevant knowledge from the literature base. Social media instead 'pushes' relevant knowledge straight to the end-user, via blogs and sites such as Facebook and Twitter. That social media is very effective at improving dissemination seems well accepted, but, remarkably, there is no evidence to support this claim. We aimed to quantify the impact of social media release on views and downloads of articles in the clinical pain sciences. Sixteen PLOS ONE articles were blogged and released via Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and ResearchBlogging.org on one of two randomly selected dates. The other date served as a control. The primary outcomes were the rate of HTML views and PDF downloads of the article, over a seven-day period. The critical result was an increase in both outcome variables in the week after the blog post and social media release. The mean ± SD rate of HTML views in the week after the social media release was 18±18 per day, whereas the rate during the other three weeks was no more than 6±3 per day. The mean ± SD rate of PDF downloads in the week after the social media release was 4±4 per day, whereas the rate during the other three weeks was less than 1±1 per day (p<0.05 for all comparisons). However, none of the recognized measures of social media reach, engagement or virality related to either outcome variable, nor to citation count one year later (p>0.3 for all). We conclude that social media release of a research article in the clinical pain sciences increases the number of people who view or download that article, but conventional social media metrics are unrelated to the effect.
... Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal... State University by the Division Social and Economic Sciences ( 10748). Dates & Times: May 2, 2012; 7 p...; Science, Technology and Society Program; Division of Social and Economic Sciences, Room 990,...
Marsh, Jeanne Cay
John Brekke challenges the field and profession of social work to define and develop the "science of social work". This response to Brekke's paper identifies the premises undergirding a discussion of the science of social work related to (1) a definition of "science";; (2 ) an organizing principle for social work; (3) a…
Cross, Roger T.; Price, Ronald F.
In this paper we continue our search for a socially responsible science education by an examination of the trends in the Science, Technology and Society movement. These trends reflect differing ideological perspectives and result in courses which serve different ends. We identify two major flaws in the movement that inhibits the realization of a schooling in science dedicated to democracy. We propose skills necessary for citizens to participate in debate over issues surrounding the impact of science and technology on society and a teaching stategy to help develop them.
Sebanc, Anne M.; Pierce, Susan L.; Cheatham, Carol L.; Gunnar, Megan R.
Explored how dominance in the competitive MovieViewer (MV) task related to peer preference and assertive behavior, and whether relations differed for boys and girls. Found that sex interacted with dominance rank to explain peer acceptance but not rejection. High ranked boys were accepted more by peers than low ranked boys, while low ranked girls…
Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulou, Penelope
In this study, we explored some of the factors related to the acceptance of evolution theory among Greek university students training to be teachers in early childhood education, using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical framework. We examined the acceptance of evolution theory and we also looked into the relationship…
Canesqui, Ana Maria; Barsaglini, Reni Aparecida
This article analyses the themes and conceptual-theoretical approaches of the social support in the literature from important international journals about social sciences and medicine, and in from 1983 to 2005 are analyzed. 259 international and 57 national abstracts was reading for the identification and computing the relations of the social support with health/disease/care. A deeper conceptual analysis about social support and the theories of social science were reported in an intentional sample of 56 international and 18 national texts. The international literature is based on the social psychology, in the several trends of the sociology and of the political science and less in the anthropology. The national literature dialogues less with the psychosocial theories and more with the sociological and anthropological theories. In this latter literature the social support approaches are concerned with social network theories; reciprocity, exchanges and cultural values. It is concluded that different trends guide the conceptual-theoretical analyses of the social support, being the international literature older, wider, more diversified and empirical, but with scarce anthropological production. The national literature is more reflexive them empirical.
Chaney, Beth; Chaney, Don; Paige, Samantha; Payne-Purvis, Caroline; Tennant, Bethany; Walsh-Childers, Kim; Sriram, PS; Alber, Julia
Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often report inadequate access to comprehensive patient education resources. Objective The purpose of this study was to incorporate community-engagement principles within a mixed-method research design to evaluate the usability and acceptability of a self-tailored social media resource center for medically underserved patients with COPD. Methods A multiphase sequential design (qual → QUANT → quant + QUAL) was incorporated into the current study, whereby a small-scale qualitative (qual) study informed the design of a social media website prototype that was tested with patients during a computer-based usability study (QUANT). To identify usability violations and determine whether or not patients found the website prototype acceptable for use, each patient was asked to complete an 18-item website usability and acceptability questionnaire, as well as a retrospective, in-depth, semistructured interview (quant + QUAL). Results The majority of medically underserved patients with COPD (n=8, mean 56 years, SD 7) found the social media website prototype to be easy to navigate and relevant to their self-management information needs. Mean responses on the 18-item website usability and acceptability questionnaire were very high on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) (mean 4.72, SD 0.33). However, the majority of patients identified several usability violations related to the prototype’s information design, interactive capabilities, and navigational structure. Specifically, 6 out of 8 (75%) patients struggled to create a log-in account to access the prototype, and 7 out of 8 patients (88%) experienced difficulty posting and replying to comments on an interactive discussion forum. Conclusions Patient perceptions of most social media website prototype features (eg, clickable picture-based screenshots of videos, comment tools) were largely positive. Mixed-method stakeholder feedback was
Oakes, Elizabeth H.; Sheldon, Kathleen E.
This annotated bibliography describes the contents and critically evaluates 654 social science books and collections of journal articles in women's studies. The objective is to assist in research and in the organization of undergraduate or graduate courses on women. The resources are presented in nine sections. Section I covers anthropology,…
MacBeth, Tannis M., Ed.
Research indicates that children are especially vulnerable to the effects of television viewing. Taking a psychological, social-science perspective, this book explores how television viewing affects children. Chapter 1, "Introduction," (MacBeth) discusses the issues involved, how researchers go about studying media effects, whether television…
Kachina, Olga A.
This article investigates if WebQuests have been an effective instructional tool for teaching Social Sciences subjects. In order to obtain an answer to this question, a review of scholarly literature from 1995 to the present has been undertaken and action research in 8th grade U.S. history course was conducted. The literature investigation has…
Ormerod, M. B.
Identifies the attitudes of a sample of 2,100 students of age 14+ to the social implications of science. This sample was selected from 30 secondary schools which represent the major regions in England and the major types within each region. (HM)
Current literature on teaching research methodology in the social sciences highlights the changing nature of our world in terms of its complexity and diversity, and points to how this affects the way in which we search for answers to related problems (Brew 2003, 3; Tashakkori and Teddlie 2003, 74). New ways of approaching research problems that…
Jerrim, John; de Vries, Robert
Quantitative social science (QSS) has the potential to make an important contribution to public policy. However it also has a number of limitations. The aim of this paper is to explain these limitations to a non-specialist audience and to identify a number of ways in which QSS research could be improved to better inform public policy.
Croasmun, James T.; Ostrom, Lee
Likert scales are useful in social science and attitude research projects. The General Self-Efficacy Exam is a test used to determine whether factors in educational settings affect participant's learning self-efficacy. The original instrument had 10 efficacy items and used a 4-point Likert scale. The Cronbach's alphas for the original test ranged…
Rengert, Arlene C., Ed.; Monk, Janice J., Ed.
Six units focusing on the effects of spatial change on women are designed to supplement college introductory courses in geography and the social sciences. Unit 1, Woman and Agricultural Landscapes, focuses on how women contributed to landscape change in prehistory, women's impact on the environment, and the hypothesis that women developed…
Janke, Richard V.
Concentrates on describing and illustrating by example the unique BRS features of the online Social Sciences Citation Index. Appendices provide a key to the BRS/SSCI citation elements, BRS standardized language codes, publication type codes, author's classification of BRS/SSCI subject category codes, search examples, and database specifications.…
This article introduces the National Science Foundation as a potential funding source for social work researchers and describes the experience of one faculty member in seeking funding from this source. The author provides an overview of the foundation, discusses its programmatic structure, proposal preparation, selection criteria, and review…
Brown, Carol S.
This document is an evaluation of the social science program in the Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools. The program is a traditional instructional program that grows conceptually with the student and is designed to meet the needs of students and society. The elementary program meets state guidelines and is the expanding horizon program researched…
Knight, Carol Lynn H.
"Critical thinking" has been defined as reasonable, reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do. Since the social sciences require practitioners to ask relevant questions, develop appropriate evaluation criteria, generalize from observed facts, conceptualize hypotheses, and make judgements, critical thinking skills should…
Highlights some current resources for teaching science-related social issues in elementary and secondary classrooms from the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database. Issues covered are varied and include population growth, environmental concerns, bioethical questions, hunger and food resources, water resources, nuclear energy, and…
Social Science Research Council, New York, NY.
Detailed accounts of activities of 19 committees of the Social Science Research Council form the major portion of this annual report. In addition, the Council president's report summarizes the activities, trends, and goals of the Council in areas such as research planning, the improvement of research methodology, and the training of competent…
Wardell, Laurie; And Others
This paper reviews the social science literature dealing with gender relations in marriage and the issues of wife abuse. It is argued that the old anti-woman biases of the literature have not really diminished under the impact of feminism. The sexist assumptions and victim-blaming focus of the new battery literature are examined through…
Bramschreiber, Terry; Westmoreland, David
Science educators often teach topics that are largely resolved in the scientific community yet remain controversial in broader society. In such cases, students may perceive the teacher as biased. We present two exercises that foster more objective learning about the scientific underpinnings of socially controversial topics. The first exercise…
Lopez-Varela, Asuncion, Ed.
This is a unique and groundbreaking collection of questions and answers coming from higher education institutions on diverse fields and across a wide spectrum of countries and cultures. It creates routes for further innovation, collaboration amidst the Sciences (both Natural and Social), the Humanities, and the private and public sectors of…
Dworkin, Ronald M.
Discusses the theoretical basis of court decisions involving school integration, analyzing the relationship between education, constitutional law, and the social sciences. Concludes that court decisions dealing with the equal protection clause are based on interpretive judgments, rather than on causal judgments drawn from statistical theory. (JG)
Solis, Jorge; Kattan, Shlomy; Baquedano-Lopez, Patricia
In this article we examine the socialization of respect in a racially integrated science classroom in Northern California that employed a character education program called Tribes. We focus on the ways scripts derived from this program are enacted during Community Circle activities and how breaches to these scripts and the norms of respectful…
Pike, Mary L., Ed.; Lusignan, Louise, Ed.
This is a selected bibliography of current reference and acquisition tools in the social sciences. The tools include sourcebooks, dictionaries, indexes, conference proceedings, special bibliographies, directories, research reports, and journals. Most citations represent works published since 1970 and new editions of important earlier works.…
in social science we can juxtapose the value of rational- choice theory with the insights from empirical behavioral psychology (e.g., those...intellectual structure needed for causal modeling. An important exception is that econometricians, despite their empiricism , work creatively to infer
It is argued that social scientists have done a disservice to their own work by trying to mold it according to the model of basic natural science. The main recommendation is that they should organize the work according to models which suit their own purposes. (JB)
Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.
This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is designed to help the CDA intern provide learning experiences in the social sciences for young children. The module stipulates competency-based objectives and provides essential information, suggestions, examples and learning activities on three topics related to the…
Begun, James W.; Rieker, Patricia P.
Initial efforts at the University of North Carolina to develop a social science curriculum that is relevant to medical practice are reported. Descriptions of course content, format, teaching strategies, and course evaluation are included with a focus on the question of relevance. (Author/JMD)
This guide is intended to help colleges and universities identify sources of federal funding in the social sciences. Brief summaries of federal program grants for institutions and for individuals are provided. Each summary includes a description of the grant, the amount of money available, and deadlines for applications. Grants for research and…
This article describes, and then applies a newly developed framework for classroom citizenship as an entry point into addressing social justice issues in urban science classrooms. The author provides in-depth descriptions of cogenerative dialogues, coteaching, and cosmopolitanism (3Cs), and presents this triad of tools as an approach to…
An ethnographic case study of issues related to research performance and promotion of research was conducted within the Creative and Performing Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (AHSS) disciplines of a regional university. The purpose of the study was to explore a variety of ways in which the research work of those disciplines could be made…
Boise City Independent School District, ID.
The career activities guide in social science, part of an Idaho State Department of Vocational Education career exploration series for grades 7, 8, and 9, is designed as supplementary material to enrich the regular curriculum. Any one activity in the guide might be used without involving any other activities. The cross-referenced index indicates…
Patriarca, Marco; Chakraborti, Anirban
We discuss several multi-agent models that have their origin in the kinetic exchange theory of statistical mechanics and have been recently applied to a variety of problems in the social sciences. This class of models can be easily adapted for simulations in areas other than physics, such as the modeling of income and wealth distributions in economics and opinion dynamics in sociology.
Harris, Jill S.
In this article, the author discusses how a professor can harness the power of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and use GIS to teach in the social sciences. She shows examples of how GIS can illustrate concepts during lecture or discussion, and provides two specific GIS assignments: one for undergraduate students and the other for graduate…
Arguably the first significant innovation in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum of the second half of the twentieth century was the finite mathematics course. The origins of this course lie in the excitement that arose, in the period around World War II, about applying mathematics to the social sciences. In this article we tell some of that…
Uses previous reviews on the literature on children and television advertising to trace the short history of research from a social science perspective on advertising directed at children. Examines the dimensions that have come to define the field. Argues that nothing in these studies indicates an increasingly sophisticated perspective of the…
Rodriguez, Clara E.
This review of the literature on Puerto Ricans in historical and social science research focuses on major English-language books. The review finds that colonialism has been a major factor in, an orienting influence of, and a focus for critical writing about Puerto Ricans. In general, books published before 1970 were reflective, implicitly or…
The use of hierarchical models in social science research is discussed, with emphasis on causal inference and consideration of the limitations of hierarchical models. The increased use of Gibbs sampling and other Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods in the application of hierarchical models is recommended. (SLD)
Comfort, Richard O.
This paper explores possible answers to the question of why more social science research is not applied to the solution of current problems. A series of interviews in several cities with 45 people, including members of city government and university administrators and faculty, provided the data for this study. In particular, the work of the Urban…
Focuses on geography in secondary education, offering reasons why geography is becoming more popular in schools. Provides four activities that integrate science and social studies through geography. Includes topics such as ecological disasters, monsoons, the ozone layer, and global warming. (CMK)
Pinto, María; Fernández-Pascual, Rosaura; Gómez-Hernández, José A.; Cuevas, Aurora; Granell, Ximo; Puertas, Susana; Guerrero, David; Gómez, Carmen; Palomares, Rocío
This paper examines students' self-assessment of their information literacy, presenting a study involving 1,575 social science students at five Spanish universities. Data were collected and analyzed through a validated instrument that measures the variables of (1) the students' belief in the importance of information literacy skills; (2)…
In this response to Konstantinos Alexakos, Jayson K. Jones, and Victor H. Rodriguez, I will focus primarily on the importance of relationality for the development of a science learner identity. Along the way I will review (1) The cultural dynamics involved with the formation and sustenance of relationships in social life; (2) The methodological…
MacKenzie, Louise; Smith, Alice
These four consumer citizenship curriculum guides for social studies, English, science, and mathematics incorporate consumer education into these subject matter areas in grades 8-12. Each guide is organized around 10 main component/goals. They are basic economics in the marketplace, credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison…
International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).
Three papers on the nonconventional literature and social science libraries were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "Grey Material: A Scandinavian View," Birgitta Bergdahl (Sweden) outlines the etymology and meaning of the concept of "grey literature" (which can include…
I take the opportunity provided by John Brekke's (2012) article to respond to the general assumptions and approaches that may be brought when considering the question of a science of social work. I consider first, what should be our frames of reference, our communities of interest, or our boundaries of inclusion, for such a discussion?…
Tomas, Marina; Castro, Diego
This article presents a research study that focuses on how women manage research teams. More specifically, the study aims to ascertain the perception of female researchers who are leaders of research groups in social sciences with regard to the formation, operation and management of their research teams. Fifteen interviews were carried out, eight…
Walsh, Elizabeth M.; Tsurusaki, Blakely K.
Scientists, educators and stakeholders are grappling with how to best approach climate change education for diverse audiences, a task made difficult due to persistent social controversy. This Perspective examines how sociocultural learning theories can inform the design and implementation of climate change education experiences for learners with varied understandings of and attitudes towards climate change. The literature demonstrates that explicitly addressing learners' social and community experiences, values and knowledge supports understandings of and increased concern about climate change. Science learning environments that situate climate change in its social context can support conceptual understandings, shift attitudes and increase the participation of diverse communities in responding to climate change. Examples are provided of successful programmes that attend to social dimensions and learners' previous experiences, including experiences of social controversy.
Barnes, Brenda C.
Online and blended learning platforms are being promoted within laboratory science education under the assumption that students have the necessary skills to navigate online and blended learning environments. Yet little research has examined the use of information and communication technology (ICT) among the laboratory science student population.…
Arslan, Erdinc; Sahbaz, Umit
The aim of this study is to develop a scale of social acceptance for determining the social acceptance levels of special-needs students, participating in inclusion practices. The target population of the research is 8th grade students of all primary schools in the provincial center of Burdur in the 2008 to 2009 academic year and the target study…
Blackman, D E
Skinner's contributions to psychology provide a unique bridge between psychology conceptualized as a biological science and psychology conceptualized as a social science. Skinner focused on behavior as a naturally occurring biological phenomenon of interest in its own right, functionally related to surrounding events and, in particular (like phylogenesis), subject to selection by its consequences. This essentially biological orientation was further enhanced by Skinner's emphasis on the empirical foundations provided by laboratory-based experimental analyses of behavior, often with nonhuman subjects. Skinner's theoretical writings, however, also have affinity with the traditions of constructionist social science. The verbal behavior of humans is said to be subject, like other behavior, to functional analyses in terms of its environment, in this case its social context. Verbal behavior in turn makes it possible for us to relate to private events, a process that ultimately allows for the development of consciousness, which is thus said to be a social product. Such ideas make contact with aspects of G. H. Mead's social behaviorism and, perhaps of more contemporary impact in psychology, L. Vygotsky's general genetic law of cultural development. Failure to articulate both the biological and the social science aspects of Skinner's theoretical approach to psychology does a disservice to his unique contribution to a discipline that remains fragmented between two intellectual traditions.
Blackman, D E
Skinner's contributions to psychology provide a unique bridge between psychology conceptualized as a biological science and psychology conceptualized as a social science. Skinner focused on behavior as a naturally occurring biological phenomenon of interest in its own right, functionally related to surrounding events and, in particular (like phylogenesis), subject to selection by its consequences. This essentially biological orientation was further enhanced by Skinner's emphasis on the empirical foundations provided by laboratory-based experimental analyses of behavior, often with nonhuman subjects. Skinner's theoretical writings, however, also have affinity with the traditions of constructionist social science. The verbal behavior of humans is said to be subject, like other behavior, to functional analyses in terms of its environment, in this case its social context. Verbal behavior in turn makes it possible for us to relate to private events, a process that ultimately allows for the development of consciousness, which is thus said to be a social product. Such ideas make contact with aspects of G. H. Mead's social behaviorism and, perhaps of more contemporary impact in psychology, L. Vygotsky's general genetic law of cultural development. Failure to articulate both the biological and the social science aspects of Skinner's theoretical approach to psychology does a disservice to his unique contribution to a discipline that remains fragmented between two intellectual traditions. PMID:2037828
Fink, David S.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Cerdá, Magdalena
Population distributions of health emerge from the complex interplay of health-related factors at multiple levels, from the biological to the societal level. Individuals are aggregated within social networks, affected by their locations, and influenced differently across time. From aggregations of individuals, group properties can emerge, including some exposures that are ubiquitous within populations but variant across populations. By combining a focus on social determinants of health with a conceptual framework for understanding how genetics, biology, behavior, psychology, society, and environment interact, a systems science approach can inform our understanding of the underlying causes of the unequal distribution of health across generations and populations, and can help us identify promising approaches to reduce such inequalities. In this paper, we discuss how systems science approaches have already made several substantive and methodological contributions to the study of population health from a social epidemiology perspective. PMID:27642548
Sagarra, Oleguer; Gutierrez-Roig, Mario; Bonhoure, Isabelle; Perelló, Josep
Under the name of Citizen Science, many innovative practices in which volunteers partner up with scientists to pose and answer real-world questions are growing rapidly worldwide. Citizen Science can furnish ready-made solutions with citizens playing an active role. However, this framework is still far from being well established as a standard tool for computational social science research. Here, we present our experience in bridging gap between computational social science and the philosophy underlying Citizen Science, which in our case has taken the form of what we call ``pop-up experiments." These are non-permanent, highly participatory collective experiments which blend features developed by big data methodologies and behavioural experimental protocols with the ideals of Citizen Science. The main issues to take into account whenever planning experiments of this type are classified, discussed and grouped into three categories: infrastructure, public engagement, and the knowledge return for citizens. We explain the solutions we have implemented, providing practical examples grounded in our own experience in an urban context (Barcelona, Spain). Our aim here is that this work will serve as a guideline for groups willing to adopt and expand such in-vivo practices and we hope it opens up the debate regarding the possibilities (and also the limitations) that the Citizen Science framework can offer the study of social phenomena.
Berg, Carla J.; Stratton, Erin; Schauer, Gillian L.; Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Windle, Michael; Kegler, Michelle
Background There has been an increase in non-daily smoking, alternative tobacco product and marijuana use among young adults in recent years. Objectives This study examined perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of cigarettes, cigar products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, electronic cigarettes, and marijuana among young adults and correlates of such perceptions. Methods In Spring 2013, 10,000 students at two universities in the Southeastern United States were recruited to complete an online survey (2,002 respondents), assessing personal, parental, and peer use of each product; and perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of each of these products. Results Marijuana was the most commonly used product in the past month (19.2%), with hookah being the second most commonly used (16.4%). The least commonly used were smokeless tobacco products (2.6%) and electronic cigarettes (4.5%). There were high rates of concurrent product use, particularly among electronic cigarette users. The most positively perceived was marijuana, with hookah and electronic cigarettes being second. While tobacco use and related social factors, related positively, influenced perceptions of marijuana, marijuana use and related social factors were not associated with perceptions of any tobacco product. Conclusions/Importance Marketing efforts to promote electronic cigarettes and hookah to be safe and socially acceptable seem to be effective, while policy changes seem to be altering perceptions of marijuana and related social norms. Research is needed to document the health risks and addictive nature of emerging tobacco products and marijuana and evaluate efforts to communicate such risks to youth. PMID:25268294
Silva, Cibelle Celestino; Moura, Breno Arsioli
The present paper presents a historical study on the acceptance of Newton's corpuscular theory of light in the early eighteenth century. Isaac Newton first published his famous book "Opticks" in 1704. After its publication, it became quite popular and was an almost mandatory presence in cultural life of Enlightenment societies. However, Newton's…
Wilson, William Julius, Ed.
This volume presents the research findings of numerous scholars on the theme, The Ghetto Underclass: Social Science Perspectives. The following 13 articles are included: (1) "The Cost of Racial and Class Exclusion in the Inner City" (L. Wacquant and W. Wilson); (2) "Urban Industrial Transition and the Underclass" (J. Kasarda); (3) "Absent Fathers…
This article offers a critique of the discursive politics represented in attempts to frame social sciences and humanities work in the mould of neoliberal knowledge capitalism. The critique offered is inspired by Foucault's critical thought on neoliberalism and an interpretation of "neoliberal governmentality" that flows from his College…
Vaughn, Sharon; And Others
Teachers' perceptions of behavior and social skills, peer and self-perceptions of social status, and academic achievement were examined for 239 kindergartners in the fall and spring. Students were classified as learning disabled (LD) prior to identification and low, average, and high achievers. Social difficulties of LD students are discussed.…
Gilbert, Jane; Calvert, Sarah
This article reports on a research project designed to explore a group of women scientists' understandings of themselves and science. The project uses an unconventional methodology: - a mixture of conventional qualitative research methods and techniques developed for use in psychotherapy. Its preliminary results appear to contradict some of the assumptions on which much of past work on girls and science education is based. For example, we found that, for the women involved in this project, factors such as the presence in their lives of strong female role models and/or the use of 'girl-friendly' curriculum materials were not important in their decision to continue the study of science to university level. Other factors - some of which were quite unexpected - had a much greater effect. The article outlines the methodology of this project and some of its findings, and explores the implications of these findings for future work on the gender and science education question.
Provides a brief overview of social studies of military science and technology and their limitations. Describes social defense, a nonviolent community resistance to aggression, and some of its implications for science and technology. Presents illustrative findings concerning the kinds of science and technology that would serve a system of social…
Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W
Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists.
Appley, Mortimer H.; Maher, Winifred B.
This is one of five panel reports that have been prepared as part of the first phase of Project 2061, a long-term, multipurpose undertaking of the American Association for the Advancement of Science designed to help reform science, mathematics, and technology education in the United States. Major sections included are: (1) "Orienting…
Lewandowsky, Stephan; Gignac, Gilles E.; Vaughan, Samuel
Although most experts agree that CO2 emissions are causing anthropogenic global warming (AGW), public concern has been declining. One reason for this decline is the `manufacture of doubt' by political and vested interests, which often challenge the existence of the scientific consensus. The role of perceived consensus in shaping public opinion is therefore of considerable interest: in particular, it is unknown whether consensus determines people's beliefs causally. It is also unclear whether perception of consensus can override people's `worldviews', which are known to foster rejection of AGW. Study 1 shows that acceptance of several scientific propositions--from HIV/AIDS to AGW--is captured by a common factor that is correlated with another factor that captures perceived scientific consensus. Study 2 reveals a causal role of perceived consensus by showing that acceptance of AGW increases when consensus is highlighted. Consensus information also neutralizes the effect of worldview.
Hsu, David T; Sanford, Benjamin J; Meyers, Kortni K; Love, Tiffany M; Hazlett, Kathleen E; Walker, Sara J; Mickey, Brian J; Koeppe, Robert A; Langenecker, Scott A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar
The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) system, well known for dampening physical pain, is also hypothesized to dampen “social pain.” We used positron emission tomography scanning with the selective MOR radioligand [11C]carfentanil to test the hypothesis that MOR system activation in response to social rejection and acceptance is altered in medication-free patients diagnosed with current major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 17) compared to healthy controls (HCs, n = 18). During rejection, MDD patients showed reduced MOR activation (e.g., reduced endogenous opioid release) in brain regions regulating stress, mood, and motivation, and slower emotional recovery compared to HCs. During acceptance, only HCs showed increased social motivation, which was positively correlated with MOR activation in the nucleus accumbens, a reward structure. Abnormal MOR function in MDD may hinder emotional recovery from negative social interactions and decrease pleasure derived from positive interactions. Both effects may reinforce depression, trigger relapse, and contribute to poor treatment outcomes. PMID:25600108
Cohen, Alex S.; Mohr, Christine; Ettinger, Ulrich; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Park, Sohee
Schizotypy, defined in terms of commonly occurring personality traits related to the schizophrenia spectrum, has been an important construct for understanding the neurodevelopment and stress-diathesis of schizophrenia. However, as schizotypy nears its sixth decade of application, it is important to acknowledge its impressively rich literature accumulating outside of schizophrenia research. In this article, we make the case that schizotypy has considerable potential as a conceptual framework for understanding individual differences in affective and social functions beyond those directly involved in schizophrenia spectrum pathology. This case is predicated on (a) a burgeoning literature noting anomalies in a wide range of social functioning, affiliative, positive and negative emotional, expressive, and social cognitive systems, (b) practical and methodological features associated with schizotypy research that help facilitate empirical investigation, and (c) close ties to theoretical constructs of central importance to affective and social science (eg, stress diathesis, neural compensation). We highlight recent schizotypy research, ie providing insight into the nature of affective and social systems more generally. This includes current efforts to clarify the neurodevelopmental, neurobiological, and psychological underpinnings of affiliative drives, hedonic capacity, social cognition, and stress responsivity systems. Additionally, we discuss neural compensatory and resilience factors that may mitigate the expression of stress-diathesis and functional outcome, and highlight schizotypy’s potential role for understanding cultural determinants of social and affective functions. PMID:25810057
... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda:...
... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time... of the Assistant Director, Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National...
... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda:...
... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda...
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This article looks at current university reforms in Japan through two slightly different social science prisms: how social science methodologies and theories can help us understand those reforms better and how social science teaching in universities will be affected by the current reform processes. (Contains 3 tables and 7 notes.)
... Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal... University of California--Santa Barbara by the Division of Social and Economic Sciences (10748). Dates.... Frederick Kronz, Program Director; Science, Technology, and Society Program; Division of Social and...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network... promote and publicize the Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet) initiative... Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet) is a trans-NIH initiative to expand the...
Kousser, J. Morgan
Examines definitions of and attitudes toward social science history (SSH), questioning its place in the history and social science curriculum. Reports on a questionnaire (included) sent to members of the Social Science History Association to assess the place of SSH in education. Concludes that SSH is firmly established in several disciplines and…
Although the health sciences have investigated economic and social inequalities in morbidity and mortality for hundreds of years, health inequalities persist and are, by some measures, increasing. This is not simply a situation in which the knowledge exists but is not implemented. Rather, science in general and epidemiology in particular have focused on quantifying the effects of specific agents considered in isolation. This approach is powerful, but, in the absence of ecological concepts that connect parts and wholes, contributes to maintaining health inequalities. By joining movements for human rights and social justice, health scientists can identify research questions that are relevant to public health, develop methods that are appropriate to answering those questions, and contribute to efforts to reduce health inequalities.
The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision.
Hatemi, Peter K; Dawes, Christopher T; Frost-Keller, Amanda; Settle, Jaime E; Verhulst, Brad
There has been growing interest in the use of genetic models to expand the understanding of political preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. Researchers in the social sciences have begun incorporating these models and have revealed that genetic differences account for individual differences in political beliefs, behaviors, and responses to the political environment. The first Integrating Genetics and the Social Sciences Conference, held at Boulder, Colorado in May of 2010, brought together these researchers. As a result, we jointly review the last 5 years of research in this area. In doing so, we explicate the methods, findings, and limitations of behavior genetic approaches, including twin designs, association studies, and genome-wide analyses, in their application toward exploring political preferences.
Haines, Richard F.; Chuang, Sherry L.
Current plans indicate that there will be a large number of life science experiments carried out during the thirty year-long mission of the Biological Flight Research Laboratory (BFRL) on board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Non-human life science experiments will be performed in the BFRL. Two distinct types of activities have already been identified for this facility: (1) collect, store, distribute, analyze and manage engineering and science data from the Habitats, Glovebox and Centrifuge, (2) perform a broad range of remote science activities in the Glovebox and Habitat chambers in conjunction with the remotely located principal investigator (PI). These activities require extensive video coverage, viewing and/or recording and distribution to video displays on board SSF and to the ground. This paper concentrates mainly on the second type of activity. Each of the two BFRL habitat racks are designed to be configurable for either six rodent habitats per rack, four plant habitats per rack, or a combination of the above. Two video cameras will be installed in each habitat with a spare attachment for a third camera when needed. Therefore, a video system that can accommodate up to 12-18 camera inputs per habitat rack must be considered.
Journals published by universities take up a modest part of the scientific literature at the moment, but there are several signs and even more reasons to believe that their significance is rising. Recently, the most significant increase can be detected in social sciences. The top list of university rankings based on journal publishing activity brings into the forefront - beside some obvious favorites (Oxford, Cambridge, Chicago) - some less expected universities, as well.
Recent years have seen the emergence and the gradual rise of French journals digital offers in the fields of human and social sciences. In this article, we will both reconsider the conditions of occurrence of these services and discuss the evolution of their environment. Through the example of several emerging initiatives in the field of scientific publishing, in a context marked by continuity but also rupture, we will try to glimpse the role journals could play in the new digital world being created.
Buxton, Cory A.
The Social Problem Solving through Science (SPSS) project engaged middle school-aged youth in the study of local environmental challenges with implications for human health and well-being, both globally and locally. Students considered environmental risk factors in a series of structured activities to develop background knowledge on environmental…
Mencher, Alan G.
Suggests that it is the social responsibility of scientists and engineers to correct the vast and dangerous misconceptions about themselves, for there is a real danger that festering anti-scientism could eventually destroy science. Although political processes are used to decide community choices, scientific literacy is a continuing necessity. (AL)
Lester, Benjamin T.; Ma, Li; Lee, Okhee; Lambert, Julie
As part of a large-scale instructional intervention research, this study examined elementary students' science knowledge and awareness of social activism with regard to an increased greenhouse effect and global warming. The study involved fifth-grade students from five elementary schools of varying demographic makeup in a large urban school…
Singleton, Laurel R., Ed.
This book contains 45 activities suitable for use in secondary science and social studies classes. Except for the first four activities, which are quick attention getters, all the activities are presented in a standard format. Each begins with an introduction, that provides a brief overview of the activity's content and the teaching strategies…
In laying the groundwork for a co-operative scientific inquiry in the field of learning sciences the following five areas of access to the study are considered in this introductory inquiry statement: 1) genetic sociology (symbolic systems and early socialization); 2) experimental ethnography (the effect of literacy on the structure of skill and…
Dover, Alison G.
A growing body of research explores theoretical models of teaching for social justice in P-12 classrooms and in teacher education. However, many of these models fail to account for the relationship between teachers' social justice frameworks and their classroom practices. In this article, I use vignettes drawn from a recent study of secondary…
Nikitin, Jana; Schoch, Simone; Freund, Alexandra M.
A study with n = 55 younger (18-33 years, M = 23.67) and n = 58 older (61-85 years, M = 71.44) adults investigated age-related differences in social approach and avoidance motivation and their consequences for the experience of social interactions. Results confirmed the hypothesis that a predominant habitual approach motivation in younger adults…
Meece, Darrell; Mize, Jacquelyn
Three aspects of young children's social cognition--accurate encoding of social cues, hostile attributions and response access/generation--were assessed among 128 children (64 girls) attending three-, four-, and five-year-old classrooms (ages ranged from 36 to 73 months). Hostile attributions and the quality of strategy generation were both…
The introspectometer was a "hypothetical machine" Robert K. Merton introduced in the course of a 1956 how-to manual describing an actual research technique, the focused interview. This technique, in turn, formed the basis of wartime morale research and consumer behavior studies as well as perhaps the most ubiquitous social science tool, the focus group. This essay explores a new perspective on Cold War social science made possible by comparing two kinds of apparatuses: one real, the other imaginary. Even as Merton explored the nightmare potential of such machines, he suggested that the clear aim of social science was to build them or their functional equivalent: recording machines to access a person's experiential stream of reality, with the ability to turn this stream into real-time data. In this way, the introspectometer marks and symbolizes a broader entry during the Cold War of science-fiction-style aspirations into methodological prescriptions and procedural manuals. This essay considers the growth of the genre of methodological visions and revisions, painstakingly argued and absorbed, but punctuated by sci-fi aims to transform "the human" and build newly penetrating machines. It also considers the place of the nearly real-, and the artificial "near-substitute" as part of an experimental urge that animated these sciences.
Orive, Ruben; Gerard, Harold B.
A study of the relationship between sociometric choices received by Mexican American and Black children from Anglo peers and the amount of minority parents' contact with own and other ethnic group members indicates that only father contacts were significantly related to the minority child's acceptance. (Author)
Brady, Victoria Popick; Whitman, Sarah M.
Over the past few years, there has been a proliferation of theoretical discussions and empirical research on the use of acceptance and mindfulness-based therapies to treat anxiety disorders. Because these treatment approaches are in their infancy, many clinicians may still be uncertain about how to apply such treatments in their work with clients.…
Frese, Bettina; Moya, Miguel; Megias, Jesus
This study assessed the role of rape myth acceptance (RMA) and situational factors in the perception of three different rape scenarios (date rape, marital rape, and stranger rape). One hundred and eighty-two psychology undergraduates were asked to emit four judgements about each rape situation: victim responsibility, perpetrator responsibility,…
Eckert, Stephen P.
The skill of accepting criticism was taught individually to eight female adults with moderate developmental disabilities. Evaluations, which were based on a ten-item checklist with a three-point scale per item, were conducted during role play situations. Results indicate that the training program was effective for all subjects. (Contains…
Mah, Janet W. T.; Johnston, Charlotte
Behavioral parent training (BPT) is a widely used, evidence-based treatment for externalizing child behaviors. However, the ability of BPT programs to be maximally effective remains limited by relatively low rates of acceptance, attendance, and adherence to treatment. Previous reviews have focused on a variety of demographic and mental health…
Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza
The article analyzes the teaching and learning of social sciences in health sciences courses from the perspective of the curriculum and learning generated by research groups and thesis supervision activities. The author conducts a rereading of the classics and main contemporary scientists, based on the subarea's scientific output and her own personal experience as professor, researcher, and thesis supervisor. The article focuses on the tradition and teaching of the classics in social sciences, the main contemporary social theories, social sciences in health with an emphasis on teaching, and observations on the interface between teaching in social sciences and life sciences. The author concludes by highlighting the importance of work by social scientists in the health field and identifies the following problematic points: difficulties in dealing with mediations between the biological and the social; frequent subordination of foundations to techniques; and ideological and common-sense issues in the teaching and appropriation of Social Sciences in Health.
Using interviews, participant observation, and published documents, this article analyzes the co-construction of robotics and culture in Japan through the technical discourse and practices of robotics researchers. Three cases from current robotics research--the seal-like robot PARO, the Humanoid Robotics Project HRP-2 humanoid, and 'kansei robotics' - show the different ways in which scientists invoke culture to provide epistemological grounding and possibilities for social acceptance of their work. These examples show how the production and consumption of social robotic technologies are associated with traditional crafts and values, how roboticists negotiate among social, technical, and cultural constraints while designing robots, and how humans and robots are constructed as cultural subjects in social robotics discourse. The conceptual focus is on the repeated assembly of cultural models of social behavior, organization, cognition, and technology through roboticists' narratives about the development of advanced robotic technologies. This article provides a picture of robotics as the dynamic construction of technology and culture and concludes with a discussion of the limits and possibilities of this vision in promoting a culturally situated understanding of technology and a multicultural view of science.
Dooley, James J.
It is my pleasure to present this Virtual Special Issue of key social science papers that have been published in the International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control (IJGCC). These papers show that the social science research community has significantly advanced the state-of-the-art from vague discussions about the “acceptance of CCS” to a body of deeply insightful and actionable knowledge about how CCS is likely to be framed and how framing will impact the ultimate deployment of CCS as a means of mitigating anthropogenic climate change. The papers assembled here shed light on core issues such as how do humans make decisions about a new technology like CCS that they have no direct personal experience with and what is it is about “new” technologies that we find unsettling. These papers also speak to what are the best, and for that matter the worst, ways of presenting inherently highly technical information to lay audiences, including insights about the substance of the information, the form in which the information is delivered, and who delivers it. An extended editorial about this virtual special issue is freely available on ScienceDirect. I hope you find the papers contained in this Virtual Issue to be as informative and insightful as I do.
Garforth, Lisa; Kerr, Anne
Recent discussions about disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity in the social sciences have tended to map and critique methods, theories and approaches to knowledge production, but spend less time exploring the ways in which institutional constraints and personal trajectories produce different kinds of disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity. In this paper we present findings on interdisciplinarity from UK research undertaken as part of an EC project on knowledge, gender and institutions. The research involved a small survey (n = 14), in-depth interviews (n = 5), two focus groups (n = 7) and observation of social scientists in one university department between June 2006 and April 2007. We reflect on the unwillingness of social scientists to confront the conditions of our academic labour in an account of our difficulties with gaining access and respondents in this study, before moving on to consider some of the different ways in which interdisciplinarity and disciplinary commitments were related to particular forms of scientific and symbolic capital. We go on to discuss this in relation to the autonomy of academic teaching-and-research staff compared to contract researchers, and consider the implications of our findings for the future of interdisciplinarity and the social sciences.
The past 15 years have witnessed a remarkable increase in both the scale and scope of social and behavioral data available to researchers, leading some to herald the emergence of a new field: ``computational social science.'' Against these exciting developments stands a stubborn fact: that in spite of many thousands of published papers, there has been surprisingly little progress on the ``big'' questions that motivated the field in the first place--questions concerning systemic risk in financial systems, problem solving in complex organizations, and the dynamics of epidemics or social movements, among others. In this talk I highlight some examples of research that would not have been possible just a handful of years ago and that illustrate the promise of CSS. At the same time, they illustrate its limitations. I then conclude with some thoughts on how CSS can bridge the gap between its current state and its potential.
Goske, Marilyn J; Applegate, Kimberly E; Boylan, Jennifer; Butler, Priscilla F; Callahan, Michael J; Coley, Brian D; Farley, Shawn; Frush, Donald P; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Jaramillo, Diego; Johnson, Neil D; Kaste, Sue C; Morrison, Gregory; Strauss, Keith J
Communication campaigns are an accepted method for altering societal attitudes, increasing knowledge, and achieving social and behavioral change particularly within public health and the social sciences. The Image Gently(SM) campaign is a national education and awareness campaign in radiology designed to promote the need for and opportunities to decrease radiation to children when CT scans are indicated. In this article, the relatively new science of social marketing is reviewed and the theoretical basis for an effective communication campaign in radiology is discussed. Communication strategies are considered and the type of outcomes that should be measured are reviewed. This methodology has demonstrated that simple, straightforward safety messages on radiation protection targeted to medical professionals throughout the radiology community, utilizing multiple media, can affect awareness potentially leading to change in practice.
McConnell, Mary C.; And Others
This module is part of an interdisciplinary program designed to educate the general citizenry regarding the issues of science/technology/society that have important consequences for both present and future social policies. Specifically, the program provides an opportunity for students to assess the effects of selected technological innovations in…
Wronski, Stanley P., Ed.; Bragaw, Donald H., Ed.
This publication documents the development of the social studies during the past 50 years. This collection of essays updates major trends in history, political science, sociology, economics, psychology, anthropology, and geography. Unlike two earlier collections, this book has an emphasis on the continuing problems, trends, and issues in both the…
Science has often been viewed, by the majority of our educators and the general public, as being objective and emotionless. Based on this view, our educators teach science in the same manner, objectively and in an abstract form. This manner of teaching has hindered our learners' ability for active learning and distanced them from the subject matter. In this action research, I have examined holistic science pedagogy in conjunction with a constructivism theory. In holistic science pedagogy, scientific knowledge is combined with subjective personal experiences and social issues. There is an interaction between student and scientific data when the student's context, relationships, and lived experiences that play a role in the scientific recognition of the world were incorporated into the learning process. In this pedagogical model, the factual content was viewed from the context of social and ethical implications. By empowering learners with this ability, science knowledge will no longer be exclusive to a select group. This process empowers the general population with the ability to understand scientific knowledge and therefore the ability to make informed decisions based on this knowledge. The goal was to make curriculum developers more conscious of factors that can positively influence the learning process and increase student engagement and understanding within the science classroom. The holistic approach to science pedagogy has enlightened and empowered our adult learners more effectively. Learners became more actively engaged in their own process of learning. Teachers must be willing to listen and implement student suggestions on improving the teaching/learning process. Teachers should be willing to make the effort in connecting with their students by structuring courses so the topics would be relevant to the students in relation to real world and social/ethical and political issues. Holistic science pedagogy strives for social change through the empowerment of
Brush, S. G.
Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.
Thank you Mark for your kind introduction. I am deeply honored to receive this award and to be here to honor the memory of Sam Epstein. If I think back to my time as a graduate student, I remember reading many articles by Sam Epstein and those who worked with him. What I saw was an incredible breadth of applications and a willingness to let the science guide and to address all sorts of questions - questions that extend from understanding animals, plants, the oceans, partitioning at high temperature, fluids in the crust, nebular chemistry, the list goes on and on and on. As a graduate student I struggled and did my best to hang on, but I had dreams of being able to do science following a model specifically like the one he saw Sam had pursued. I had one time to meet Sam and speak with him, and I saw curiosity, decency, and an interested positive outlook that I imagine was part of what led to his enormous impact on the field.
Marcotullio, Peter J.; Hughes, Sara; Sarzynski, Andrea; Pincetl, Stephanie; Sanchez Peña, Landy; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Runfola, Daniel; Seto, Karen C.
This paper outlines the contributions of social science to the study of interactions between urbanization patterns and processes and the carbon cycle, and identifies gaps in knowledge and priority areas for future social scientific research contributions. While previously studied as a unidimensional process, we conceptualize urbanization as a multidimensional, social and biophysical process driven by continuous changes across space and time in various subsystems including biophysical, built environment, and socio-institutional (e.g., economic, political, demographic, behavioral, and sociological). We review research trends and findings focused on the socio-institutional subsystem of the urbanization process, and particularly the dynamics, relationships, and predictions relevant to energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Our findings suggest that a multidimensional perspective of urbanization facilitates a wider spectrum of research relevant to carbon cycle dynamics, even within the socio-institutional subsystem. However, there is little consensus around the details and mechanisms underlying the relationship between urban socio-institutional subsystems and the carbon cycle. We argue that progress in understanding the relationship between urbanization and the carbon cycle may be achieved if social scientists work collaboratively with each other as well as with scientists from other disciplines. From this review, we identify research priorities where collaborative social scientific efforts are necessary in conjunction with other disciplinary approaches to generate a more complete understanding of urbanization as a process and its relationship to the carbon cycle.
Taylor, J. C.
The aviation maintenance community is at a crossroads with respect to implementing the Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP). While there is considerable interest, several key issues have emerged that cast doubt on how to assure a successful implementation, including buy-in from all levels of the company and training for key participants. There are two objectives for the present report. The first is to provide an examination of limits (or more properly, examples) of the degree of acceptability of more problematic events for risk-based decisions within the current ASAP guidelines. The second objective is to apply these limits of community standards to a set of further refined ASAP training scenarios.
Reed, K L
When evaluated for promotion or tenure, faculty members are increasingly judged more on the quality than on the quantity of their scholarly publications. As a result, they want help from librarians in locating all citations to their published works for documentation in their curriculum vitae. Citation analysis using Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index provides a logical starting point in measuring quality, but the limitations of these sources leave a void in coverage of citations to an author's work. This article discusses alternative and additional methods of locating citations to published works.
Tarhini, Ali; Hone, Kate; Liu, Xiaohui
This paper examines the social, organisational and individual factors that may affect students' acceptance of e-learning systems in higher education in a cross-cultural context. A questionnaire was developed based on an extended technology acceptance model (TAM). A total sample of 1173 university students from two private universities in Lebanon…
Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Thomson, Kimberly C.
Past studies have investigated relationships between peer acceptance and peer-rated social behaviors. However, relatively little is known about the manner in which indices of well-being such as optimism and positive affect may predict peer acceptance above and beyond peer ratings of antisocial and prosocial behaviors. Early adolescence--roughly…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).
Part of a series which provides overviews of social science research and teaching in UNESCO member nations, the document focuses on Burma, Mongolia, New Zealand, Philippines, and Singapore. One chapter is devoted to each of the five nations. For each country, the following information is presented: history of social science activity, institutional…
A value judgment says what is good or bad, and value-free social science simply means social science free of value judgments. Yet many sociologists regard value-free social science as undesirable or impossible and readily make value judgments in the name of sociology. Often they display confusion about such matters as the meaning of value-free social science, value judgments internal and external to social science, value judgments as a subject of social science, the relevance of objectivity for value-free social science, and the difference between the human significance of social science and value-free social science. But why so many sociologists are so value-involved - and generally so unscientific - is sociologically understandable: The closest and most distant subjects attract the least scientific ideas. And during the past century sociologists have become increasingly close to their human subject. The debate about value-free social science is also part of an epistemological counterrevolution of humanists (including many sociologists) against the more scientific social scientists who invaded and threatened to expropriate the human subject during the past century.
Kedrowicz, April A.; Royal, Kenneth; Flammer, Keven
Introduction: While social media has the potential to be used to make professional and personal connections, it can also be used inappropriately, with detrimental ramifications for the individual in terms of their professional reputation and even hiring decisions. This research explored students' and faculty members' perceptions of the…
Curl, Angela L.; Simons, Kelsey; Larkin, Heather
The aging of the United States population is creating an increased need for social workers and other helping professionals with training in gerontology. Recent estimates indicate that less than 3% of MSW students are enrolled in an aging concentration, as compared to 19.0% enrolled in children/youth concentrations. This study (N=126) examines…
This article draws on the suggestion that modern technology is "autonomous" in that our social control mechanisms are unable to control technology and instead merely adapt society to integrate new technologies. In this article, I suggest that common law judges tend systematically to support the integration of novel technologies into…
DePasquale, Nicole; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Darrell, Linda; Boyer, LaPricia Lewis; Ephraim, Patti; Boulware, L. Ebony
Live kidney transplantation (LKT) is underused by patients with end-stage renal disease. Easily implementable and effective interventions to improve patients' early consideration of LKT are needed. The Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) social worker intervention (SWI) improved consideration and pursuit of LKT among patients with…
McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja
Research supports the inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classrooms as a way to boost academic and social development, not only for children with disabilities, but also for typically developing children. A wide variety of perspectives and abilities in the classroom builds empathy, understanding, and creativity--all…
This essay is a response to Judy Wajcman's essay 'Life in the fast lane? Towards a sociology of technology and time' (2008: 59-77). In that article Wajcman argued that recent developments in the sociology of temporal change had been marked by a tendency in social theory towards a form of 'science fiction'--a sociological theorizing, she maintains, that bears no real relation to actual, empirically provable developments in the field and should therefore be viewed as not contributing to 'a richer analysis of the relationship between technology and time' (2008: 61). This reply argues that as Wajcman suggests in her essay, there is indeed an 'urgent need for increased dialogue to connect social theory with detailed empirical studies' (2008: 59) but that the most fruitful way to proceed would not be through a constraining of 'science fiction' social theorizing but, rather, through its expansion--and more, that 'science fiction' should take the lead in the process. This essay suggests that the connection between social theory and empirical studies would be strengthened by a wider understanding of the function of knowledge and research in the context of what is termed 'true originality' and 'routine originality'. The former is the domain of social theory and the latter resides within traditional sociological disciplines. It is argued that both need each other to advance our understanding of society, especially in the context of the fast-changing processes of technological development. The example of 'technological determinism' is discussed as illustrative of how 'routine originality' can harden into dogma without the application of 'true originality' to continually question (sometimes through ideas that may appear to border on 'science fiction') comfortable assumptions that may have become 'routine' and shorn of their initial 'originality'.
Matheson, Nina W.
The Missouri Institute of Psychiatry Library Current Contents Service offers free dissemination of ISI's Current Contents: Behavioral, Social and Management Sciences to 144 mental health professionals employed at twelve locations in the Missouri Division of Mental Health system. The service includes free document delivery of up to 100 articles per subscription. Sixty percent of the participants in the project are sharing copies of CCBSMS with their colleagues. Operation of the service is described, and data on degree of use are analyzed by user professional orientation and hospital location. The most frequently cited journal titles are compared to lists of heavily used titles derived from other sources. These lists of titles are offered as empirical guides to frequently consulted behavioral science journals. After six months experience participants appear to be highly satisfied. Ninetytwo percent responding to an evaluative questionnaire want to continue the service another year. PMID:5582098
Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.
Both the natural and social science data communities are attempting to address the long-term sustainability of their data infrastructures in rapidly changing research, technological, and policy environments. Many parts of these communities are also considering how to improve the interoperability and integration of their data and systems across natural, social, health, and other domains. However, these efforts have generally been undertaken in parallel, with little thought about how different sustainability approaches may impact long-term interoperability from scientific, legal, or economic perspectives, or vice versa, i.e., how improved interoperability could enhance—or threaten—infrastructure sustainability. Scientific progress depends substantially on the ability to learn from the legacy of previous work available for current and future scientists to study, often by integrating disparate data not previously assembled. Digital data are less likely than scientific publications to be usable in the future unless they are managed by science-oriented repositories that can support long-term data access with the documentation and services needed for future interoperability. We summarize recent discussions in the social and natural science communities on emerging approaches to sustainability and relevant interoperability activities, including efforts by the Belmont Forum E-Infrastructures project to address global change data infrastructure needs; the Group on Earth Observations to further implement data sharing and improve data management across diverse societal benefit areas; and the Research Data Alliance to develop legal interoperability principles and guidelines and to address challenges faced by domain repositories. We also examine emerging needs for data interoperability in the context of the post-2015 development agenda and the expected set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which set ambitious targets for sustainable development, poverty reduction, and
St John, C.; Marx, S.; Markowitz, E.
Researchers from the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) published "The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public" in 2009. This landmark guide provided climate change communicators a synthesis of the social science research that was pertinent to understanding how people think about climate change and how the practice could be improved. In the fall of 2014 this guide will be rereleased, with a new title, and in a partnership between CRED and ecoAmerica. The updated guide addresses how and why Americans respond in certain ways to climate change and explains how communicators can apply best practices to their own work. The guide, which includes research from a range of social science fields including psychology, anthropology, communications, and behavioral economics, is designed to be useful for experienced and novice communicators alike. Included in the guide are strategies to boost engagement, common mistakes to avoid, and best practices that organizations around the world have used to meaningfully engage individuals and groups on climate change. The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the main findings and tips from the 2014 climate change communication guide. It will provide a deeper look at a few of the key points that are crucial for increasing audience engagement with climate change including understanding how identity shapes climate change, how to lead with solutions, and how to bring the impacts of climate change close to home. It will highlight tips for motivating positive behavior change that will lead people down the path toward solutions. Finally, it will address the benefits and challenges associated with producing a communication guide and insight into synthesizing social science research findings into a usable format for a variety of audiences.
Among non-European regions colonized by Europeans, regions that were relatively richer five centuries ago (like Mexico, Peru, and India) tend to be poorer today, while regions that originally were relatively poorer (like the United States, Chile, and Australia) tend now to be richer. Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (abbreviated AJR) established the generality of this reversal of fortune. Chanda, Cook, and Putterman (abbreviated CCP) have now reanalyzed it, taking as a unit of analysis populations rather than geographic regions. That is, India's population was Indian 500 y ago and is still overwhelmingly Indian today, whereas the United States' population was Native American 500 years ago but is overwhelmingly Old World (especially European) today. Reversals of fortune disappeared when CCP analyzed populations rather than geographic regions: for instance, the geographic region of the modern United States has become relatively richer since AD 1500, but the predominantly European population now occupying the United States was already relatively rich in AD 1500. Evidently, European colonists carried ingredients of wealth with them. I discuss the biological and cultural baggage transported by European immigrants and associated with wealth. Among that baggage, AJR emphasize institutions, CCP emphasize social capital, and I identify many different elements only loosely coupled to each other. This paper discusses the problem, especially acute in the social sciences, of “operationalizing” intuitive concepts (such as mass, temperature, wealth, and innovation) so that they can be measured. Basic concepts tend to be harder to define, operationalize, and measure in the social sciences than in the laboratory sciences. PMID:25385597
In his perspective "Navigating between stealth advocacy and unconscious dogmatism: the challenge of researching the norms, politics and power of global health," Ooms argues that actions taken in the field of global health are dependent not only on available resources, but on the normative premise that guides how these resources are spent. This comment sets out how the application of a predominately biomedical positivist research tradition in global health, has potentially limited understanding of the value judgements underlying decisions in the field. To redress this critical social science, including health policy analysis has much to offer, to the field of global health including on questions of governance. PMID:27239873
This paper aims to discuss how already established principles of research ethics can be incorporated to the ethical review of research projects in Social Sciences, particularly ethnographic studies or studies using the techniques of participant observation and open interviews. The discussion is guided by an analysis of the methodological and ethical procedures used in the production of the ethnographic documentary "Severina's Story". The analysis of the film shows the urgent need to expand the horizons of the debate around research ethics beyond the biomedical fundaments of this field.
This paper outlines the findings of a study in which the concept of electricity was introduced to young children in a child care centre. Three areas were examined: first, the perceived difficulties associated with the teaching of science to very young children (3 5 year olds); second, a discussion of the approach used to teach electricity to young children, and finally, the study and its findings. When the teaching of electricity (through a unit on torches) followed a socially constructed approach to learning, all of the children were able to connect up a simple electric circuit and talk about the electricity flowing around the circuit.
Beck, Ulrich; Sznaider, Natan
This article calls for a re-conceptualization of the social sciences by asking for a cosmopolitan turn. The intellectual undertaking of redefining cosmopolitanism is a trans-disciplinary one, which includes geography, anthropology, ethnology, international relations, international law, political philosophy and political theory, and now sociology and social theory. Methodological nationalism, which subsumes society under the nation-state, has until now made this task almost impossible. The alternative, a 'cosmopolitan outlook', is a contested term and project. Cosmopolitanism must not be equalized with the global (or globalization), with 'world system theory' (Wallerstein), with 'world polity' (Meyer and others), or with 'world-society' (Luhmann). All of those concepts presuppose basic dualisms, such as domestic/foreign or national/international, which in reality have become ambiguous. Methodological cosmopolitanism opens up new horizons by demonstrating how we can make the empirical investigation of border crossings and other transnational phenomena possible.
Beck, Ulrich; Sznaider, Natan
This article calls for a re-conceptualization of the social sciences by asking for a cosmopolitan turn. The intellectual undertaking of redefining cosmopolitanism is a trans-disciplinary one, which includes geography, anthropology, ethnology, international relations, international law, political philosophy and political theory, and now sociology and social theory. Methodological nationalism, which subsumes society under the nation-state, has until now made this task almost impossible. The alternative, a 'cosmopolitan outlook', is a contested term and project. Cosmopolitanism must not be equalized with the global (or globalization), with 'world system theory' (Wallerstein), with 'world polity' (Meyer and others), or with 'world-society' (Luhmann). All of those concepts presuppose basic dualisms, such as domestic/foreign or national/international, which in reality have become ambiguous. Methodological cosmopolitanism opens up new horizons by demonstrating how we can make the empirical investigation of border crossings and other transnational phenomena possible.
Bachrach, Christine A.; Abeles, Ronald P.
Programs within the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have recently taken steps to enhance social science contributions to health research. A June 2000 conference convened by the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research highlighted the role of the social sciences in health research and developed an agenda for advancing such research. The conference and agenda underscored the importance of research on basic social scientific concepts and constructs, basic social science research on the etiology of health and illness, and the application of basic social science constructs in health services, treatment, and prevention research. Recent activities at NIH suggest a growing commitment to social science research and its integration into interdisciplinary multilevel studies of health. PMID:14713689
Rimoldi, Horacio J. A.
The document, written in Spanish, discusses the relationship between research in the social sciences and the role of the university in social science education. The author considers the education of researchers, the application of research, the need for interdisciplinary research methods, and problems involved in cross-cultural studies. He states…
International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).
Six of the nine papers in this collection focus on biological and medical science libraries; the remaining three are concerned with social science libraries. The papers on biological and medical science libraries appear first in this list: (1) "Standards for Medical and Health Care Libraries: Canada" (Jan Greenwood, Canada); (2) "Standards for…
Mantzicopoulos, Panayota; Samarapungavan, Ala; Patrick, Helen
We examine kindergarten children's emerging social meanings about science as a function of their participation in integrated science inquiry and literacy activities associated with the Scientific Literacy Project (SLP). We describe changes in 123 SLP kindergarten children's narrative accounts of learning science in school during three different…
Adams, Amy; Lomax, Geoffrey; Santarini, Anthony
Research suggests that the representation of scientific and medical issues in the traditional media such as newspapers, TV and radio is an important determinant of public opinion and related public policy outcomes, particularly with regard to attitudes toward stem cell research. With the emergence of social media, the discursive space around public policy issues has expanded to include a new demographic of media consumer who is directly involved in political action. However, little is known about the influence of social media on scientific public policy conversations. We analyzed Twitter posts on two topics relating to stem cell science and policy according to the originator and tone of the tweet, and whether the tweet was intended to be neutral or to further a stated policy position. This analysis provides a means for clarifying the role of social media in influencing public opinion of policy issues such as stem cell research and offers organizations a better understanding of how to more effectively apply social media to advancing their stem cell policy positions.
Cutrona, Sarah L; Wagner, Joann; Roblin, Douglas W; Gaglio, Bridget; Williams, Andrew; Torres-Stone, Rosalie; Mazor, Kathleen M
Effective techniques to encourage colorectal cancer screening in underscreened populations have included social support interventions and e-mail reminders from physicians. Personalized e-mail messages to promote colorectal cancer screening within social networks could be even more effective but have not been studied. The authors interviewed 387 e-mail users, aged 42-73 years in Georgia, Hawaii, and Massachusetts. Participants were asked to edit a sample message in which the sender shares a recent colonoscopy experience and urges the recipient to discuss colorectal cancer screening with a doctor. For those reporting willingness to send this message, changes to the message and suggested subject lines were recorded. Edited text was analyzed for content and concordance with original message. The majority of participants (74.4%) were willing to e-mail a modifiable message. Of those willing, 63.5% edited the message. Common edits included deletion (17.7%) or modification (17.4%) of a negatively framed sentence on colon cancer risks and addition or modification of personalizing words (15.6%). Few edits changed the meaning of the message (5.6%), and even fewer introduced factual inaccuracies (1.7%). Modifiable e-mail messages offer a way for screened individuals to promote colorectal cancer screening to social network members. The accuracy and effects of such messages should be further studied.
CUTRONA, SARAH L.; WAGNER, JOANN; ROBLIN, DOUGLAS W.; GAGLIO, BRIDGET; WILLIAMS, ANDREW; TORRES-STONE, ROSALIE; MAZOR, KATHLEEN M.
Effective techniques to encourage colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in underscreened populations have included social support interventions and email reminders from physicians. Personalized email messages to promote CRC screening within social networks could be even more effective, but have not been studied. We interviewed 387 email users, aged 42-73 years in Massachusetts, Hawaii, and Georgia. Participants were asked to edit a sample message in which the sender shares a recent colonoscopy experience and urges the recipient to discuss CRC screening with a doctor. For those reporting willingness to send this message, changes to the message and suggested subject lines were recorded. Edited text was analyzed for content and concordance with original message. The majority of participants (74.4%) were willing to email a modifiable message. Of those willing, 63.5% edited the message. Common edits included deletion (17.7%) or modification (17.4%) of a negatively framed sentence on colon cancer risks and addition or modification of personalizing words (15.6%). Few edits changed the meaning of the message (5.6%) and even fewer introduced factual inaccuracies (1.7%). Modifiable email messages offer a way for screened individuals to promote CRC screening to social network members. Accuracy and impact of such messages should be further studied. PMID:25839968
The focus of this qualitative study is to document two middle school science teachers' perceptions of social justice and how these teachers implement various aspects of social justice in their science instruction. The two teachers teach science in an urban school that serves students from low-income, immigrant, and ethnic minority families. The…
Stojanowski, Christopher M; Duncan, William N
Bioarchaeology is the contextual analysis of biological remains from past societies. It is a young and growing discipline born during the latter half of the twentieth century from its roots in physical anthropology and archaeology. Although often associated with the study of ancient diet and disease, bioarchaeology leverages variable temporal scales and its global scope to provide a uniquely comparative perspective on human life that transcends traditional boundaries of the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Here, we explore the public face of bioarchaeology and consider the trends in publication practices that reflect diversifying research strategies. Bioarchaeology is a popular topic on web-based science news aggregators. However, we identify a disconnect between bioarchaeology's traditional research emphases, emerging research foci, and findings that actually spark the public imagination. A majority of popular news articles emphasize basic discovery or "natural curiosities." Publication data indicate the field also remains regionally focused with relatively little emphasis on nomothetic goals. Nevertheless, bioarchaeology can do more to leverage its historical perspective and corporeal emphasis to engage a number of topics with importance across traditional academic boundaries. Big data, comparative, multi-investigator, interdisciplinary projects on violence, colonialism, and health offer the most obvious potential for driving research narratives in the biological and social sciences. Humanistic approaches that explore emotional connections to the past can also have merit. The diversity of research outlets and products indicates the field must embrace the importance of nontraditional activities in its value structure to maximize our potential in public arenas.
Otto, Robert A., Ed.
This document contains the Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues adopted in 1982 by the National Council for the Social Studies and 10 examplar lessons each keyed to particular guidelines and drawing upon contemporary issues. The premise upon which the guidelines are based is that science is a social issue and that the examination…
Biswas, Animesh; Eriksson, Charli; Halim, Abdul; Dalal, Koustuv
Objectives Social Autopsy (SA) is an innovative strategy where a trained facilitator leads community groups through a structured, standardised analysis of the physical, environmental, cultural and social factors contributing to a serious, non-fatal health event or death. The discussion stimulated by the formal process of SA determines the causes and suggests preventative measures that are appropriate and achievable in the community. Here we explored individual experiences of SA, including acceptance and participant learning, and its effect on rural communities in Bangladesh. The present study had explored the experiences gained while undertaking SA of maternal and neonatal deaths and stillbirths in rural Bangladesh. Design Qualitative assessment of documents, observations, focus group discussions, group discussions and in-depth interviews by content and thematic analyses. Results Each community's maternal and neonatal death was a unique, sad story. SA undertaken by government field-level health workers were well accepted by rural communities. SA had the capability to explore the social reasons behind the medical cause of the death without apportioning blame to any individual or group. SA was a useful instrument to raise awareness and encourage community responses to errors within the society that contributed to the death. People participating in SA showed commitment to future preventative measures and devised their own solutions for the future prevention of maternal and neonatal deaths. Conclusions SA highlights societal errors and promotes discussion around maternal or newborn death. SA is an effective means to deliver important preventative messages and to sensitise the community to death issues. Importantly, the community itself is enabled to devise future strategies to avert future maternal and neonatal deaths in Bangladesh. PMID:27554100
Hayes, Steven C; Levin, Michael E; Plumb-Vilardaga, Jennifer; Villatte, Jennifer L; Pistorello, Jacqueline
A number of recent authors have compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present article describes ACT as a distinct and unified model of behavior change, linked to a specific strategy of scientific development, which we term "contextual behavioral science." We outline the empirical progress of ACT and describe its distinctive development strategy. A contextual behavioral science approach is an inductive attempt to build more adequate psychological systems based on philosophical clarity; the development of basic principles and theories; the development of applied theories linked to basic ones; techniques and components linked to these processes and principles; measurement of theoretically key processes; an emphasis on mediation and moderation in the analysis of applied impact; an interest in effectiveness, dissemination, and training; empirical testing of the research program across a broad range of areas and levels of analysis; and the creation of a more effective scientific and clinical community. We argue that this is a reasonable approach, focused on long-term progress, and that in broad terms it seems to be working. ACT is not hostile to traditional CBT, and is not directly buoyed by whatever weaknesses traditional CBT may have. ACT should be measured at least in part against its own goals as specified by its own developmental strategy.
Pickersgill, Martyn D.
Citizens today are increasingly expected to be knowledgeable about and prepared to engage with biomedical knowledge. In this article, I wish to reframe this ‘public understanding of science’ project, and place fresh emphasis on public understandings of research: an engagement with the everyday laboratory practices of biomedicine and its associated ethics, rather than of specific scientific facts. This is not based on an assumption that non-scientists are ‘ignorant’ and are thus unable to ‘appropriately’ use or debate science; rather, it is underpinned by an empirically-grounded observation that some individuals may be unfamiliar with certain specificities of particular modes of research and ethical frameworks, and, as a consequence, have their autonomy compromised when invited to participate in biomedical investigations. Drawing on the perspectives of participants in my own sociological research on the social and ethical dimensions of neuroscience, I argue that public understandings of biomedical research and its ethics should be developed both at the community level and within the research moment itself, in order to enhance autonomy and promote more socially robust science. Public bioethics will have play a key role in such an endeavour, and indeed will contribute in important ways to the opening up of new spaces of symmetrical engagement between bioethicists, scientists, and wider publics – and hence to the democratisation of the bioethical enterprise. PMID:21673017
Ward, K.; Voiland, A. P.; Carlowicz, M. J.; Simmon, R. B.; Allen, J.; Scott, M.; Przyborski, P. D.
NASA's Earth Observatory (EO) is a 13-year old online publication focusing on the communication of NASA Earth science research, including climate change, weather, geology, oceanography, and solar flares. We serve two primary audiences: the "attentive public"--people interested in and willing to seek out information about science, technology, and the environment--and popular media. We use the EO website (earthobservatory.nasa.gov) to host a variety of content including image-driven stories (natural events and research-based), articles featuring NASA research and, more recently, blogs that give us the ability to increase interaction with our users. For much of our site's history, our communication has been largely one way, and we have relied primarily on traditional online marketing techniques such as RSS and email listservs. As the information ecosystem evolves into one in which many users expect to play a more active role in distributing and even developing content through social media, we've experimented with various social media outlets (blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc.) that offer new opportunities for people to interact with NASA data, scientists, and the EO editorial team. As part of our explorations, we are learning about how, and to what extent, these outlets can be used for interaction and outright promotion and how to achieve those goals with existing personnel and resources.
Barros, Nelson Filice de
The models of teaching social sciences and clinical practice are insufficient for the needs of practical-reflective teaching of social sciences applied to health. The scope of this article is to reflect on the challenges and perspectives of social science education for health professionals. In the 1950s the important movement bringing together social sciences and the field of health began, however weak credentials still prevail. This is due to the low professional status of social scientists in health and the ill-defined position of the social sciences professionals in the health field. It is also due to the scant importance attributed by students to the social sciences, the small number of professionals and the colonization of the social sciences by the biomedical culture in the health field. Thus, the professionals of social sciences applied to health are also faced with the need to build an identity, even after six decades of their presence in the field of health. This is because their ambivalent status has established them as a partial, incomplete and virtual presence, requiring a complex survival strategy in the nebulous area between social sciences and health.
Fourrier, Julie; Deschamps, Matthieu; Droin, Léa; Alaux, Cédric; Fortini, Dominique; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Devillers, James; Aupinel, Pierrick; Decourtye, Axel
Background Juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in honeybee development and the regulation of age-related division of labor. However, honeybees can be exposed to insect growth regulators (IGRs), such as JH analogs developed for insect pest and vector control. Although their side effects as endocrine disruptors on honeybee larval or adult stages have been studied, little is known about the subsequent effects on adults of a sublethal larval exposure. We therefore studied the impact of the JH analog pyriproxyfen on larvae and resulting adults within a colony under semi-field conditions by combining recent laboratory larval tests with chemical analysis and behavioral observations. Oral and chronic larval exposure at cumulative doses of 23 or 57 ng per larva were tested. Results Pyriproxyfen-treated bees emerged earlier than control bees and the highest dose led to a significant rate of malformed adults (atrophied wings). Young pyriproxyfen-treated bees were more frequently rejected by nestmates from the colony, inducing a shorter life span. This could be linked to differences in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles between control and pyriproxyfen-treated bees. Finally, pyriproxyfen-treated bees exhibited fewer social behaviors (ventilation, brood care, contacts with nestmates or food stocks) than control bees. Conclusion Larval exposure to sublethal doses of pyriproxyfen affected several life history traits of the honeybees. Our results especially showed changes in social integration (acceptance by nestmates and social behaviors performance) that could potentially affect population growth and balance of the colony. PMID:26171610
Biscotti, Dina Louise
Autonomy is a social product. Although some might view autonomy as the absence of social interference in individual action, it is in fact produced through social institutions. It enables social actors to act; it is the justification for the allocation of enormous public resources into institutions classified as "public" or "nonprofit;" it can lead to innovation; and, significantly, it is key to the public acceptance of new technologies. In this dissertation, I analyze the social construction of autonomy for academic science in U.S. university-industry agricultural biotechnology research collaborations. University-industry relationships (UIRs) are a site of concern about the influence of commercial interests on academic science. Agricultural biotechnology is a contentious technology that has prompted questions about the ecological and public health implications of genetically-modified plants and animals. It has also spurred awareness of the industrialization of agriculture and accelerating corporate control of the global food system. Through analysis of in-depth interviews with over 200 scientists and administrators from nine U.S. research universities and thirty agricultural biotechnology companies, I find that both the academy and industry have a vested interest in the social construction of the academy as an autonomous space from which claims to objective, disinterested scientific knowledge can be made. These claims influence government regulation, as well as grower and public acceptance of agricultural biotechnology products. I argue that the social production of autonomy for academic science can be observed in narratives and practices related to: (1) the framing of when, how and why academic scientists collaborate with industry, (2) the meanings ascribed to and the uses deemed appropriate for industry monies in academic research, and (3) the dissemination of research results into the public domain through publications and patents. These narratives and practices
This paper finds that the Croatian public's and the social elites' perceptions of science are a mixture of scientific and technological optimism, of the tendency to absolve science of social responsibility, of skepticism about the social effects of science, and of cognitive optimism and skepticism. However, perceptions differ significantly according to the different social roles and the wider value system of the observed groups. The survey data show some key similarities, as well as certain specificities in the configuration of the types of views of the four groups--the public, scientists, politicians and managers. The results suggest that the well-known typology of the four cultures reveals some of the ideologies of the key actors of scientific and technological policy. The greatest social, primarily educational and socio-spatial, differentiation of the perceptions of science was found in the general public.
Yigit, E. Ozlem
Social studies curricula are required in order to prepare to educate children who continue to learn after their formal training, and it is vital that teachers receive an education properly. In Social Studies Education Departments of Education Faculties Science, Technology and Social Change course is convenient to this aim and it contributes to…
Teachers find it difficult to conduct political controversial conversations in the social science classroom and due to an increased use of social media in educational settings new challenges and possibilities are raised. The use of social media causes fundamental changes to the role of the learner who becomes a producer and consumer--a…
Brinkhuis, D.; Peart, L.
Scientific discourse generally takes place in appropriate journals, using the language and conventions of science. That's fine, as long as the discourse remains in scientific circles. It is only outside those circles that the rules and techniques of engaging social media tools gain importance. A young generation of scientists are eager to share their experiences by using social media, but is this effective? And how can we better integrate all outreach & media channels to engage general audiences? How can Facebook, Twitter, Skype and YouTube be used as synergy tools in scientific story telling? Case: during IODP Expedtion 342 (June-July 2012) onboard the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution an onboard educator and videographer worked non-stop fort two months on an integrated outreach plan that tried and tested the limits of all social media tools available to interact with an international public while at sea. The results are spectacular!
Morrison, Emory; Rudd, Elizabeth; Nerad, Maresi
In this article, we analyse findings of the largest, most comprehensive survey of the career paths of social science PhD graduates to date, "Social Science PhDs--Five+Years Out (SS5)". "SS5" surveyed more than 3,000 graduates of U.S. PhD programmes in six social science fields six to ten years after earning their PhD. The…
Lester, Benjamin T.; Ma, Li; Lee, Okhee; Lambert, Julie
As part of a large-scale instructional intervention research, this study examined elementary students’ science knowledge and awareness of social activism with regard to an increased greenhouse effect and global warming. The study involved fifth-grade students from five elementary schools of varying demographic makeup in a large urban school district in the United States. The study was based on the analysis of students’ responses to a writing prompt addressing an increased greenhouse effect and global warming at the beginning of and at the completion of instruction over the school year. The results indicate that students with adequate science knowledge tended to express activism more frequently, and that their expression of activism increased as they gained better science knowledge after the instruction. The results highlight the importance of effective instruction of this contemporary and controversial issue with K-12 students, so that they come to be aware of this societal problem, take action in solving the problem, and become socially responsible youth and adults.
Fisher, W. P., Jr.
In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, scientists appropriated Newton's laws of motion as a model for the conduct of any other field of investigation that would purport to be a science. This early form of a Standard Model eventually informed the basis of analogies for the mathematical expression of phenomena previously studied qualitatively, such as cohesion, affinity, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell is known for his repeated use of a formalized version of this method of analogy in lectures, teaching, and the design of experiments. Economists transferring skills learned in physics made use of the Standard Model, especially after Maxwell demonstrated the value of conceiving it in abstract mathematics instead of as a concrete and literal mechanical analogy. Haavelmo's probability approach in econometrics and R. Fisher's Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought a statistical approach to bear on the Standard Model, quietly reversing the perspective of economics and the social sciences relative to that of physics. Where physicists, and Maxwell in particular, intuited scientific method as imposing stringent demands on the quality and interrelations of data, instruments, and theory in the name of inferential and comparative stability, statistical models and methods disconnected theory from data by removing the instrument as an essential component. New possibilities for reconnecting economics and the social sciences to Maxwell's sense of the method of analogy are found in Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement.
Seidl, Roman; Barthel, Roland
The integration of interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasing role in environmental science. Many scholars have long advocated for a joint effort of scientists from different disciplines (interdisciplinarity) to address the problems of the growing pressure on environmental and human systems (Nature, 2015). Such a need was also recognised for the hydrological sciences (HS) e.g. most recently by Vogel et al. (2015). Vibrant new approaches such as "Panta Rhei" (Montanari et al., 2013) and "Socio-Hydrology" (Sivapalan et al., 2012) discuss and propose options for the deeper involvement of hydrologists in socio-economic questions. While there is widespread consensus that coping with the challenges of global change in water resources requires more consideration of human activity, it still remains unclear which roles the social sciences and the humanities (SSH) should assume in this context. Despite the frequent usage of the term "interdisciplinarity" in related discussions, there seems to be a tendency towards assimilation of socio-economic aspects into hydrological research rather than an opening up for interdisciplinary collaboration with social scientists at eye level. The literature, however, remains vague with respect to the concepts of integration and does not allow confirming this assumed tendency. Moreover, the discourse within the hydrological research community on increasing the consideration of societal aspects in hydrological modelling and research is still led by a comparatively small group. In this contribution we highlight the most interesting results of a survey among hydrologists (with 184 respondents). The survey participants do not think that SSH is presently well integrated into hydrological research. They recognize the need for better cooperation between the two disciplines. When asked about ways to improve the status of cooperation, a higher status and acknowledgment of interdisciplinary research by colleagues do not
Stevens, Stacy Mckimm
There has been much research to suggest that a single-sex college experience for female undergraduate students can increase self-confidence and leadership ability during the college years and beyond. The results of previous studies also suggest that these students achieve in the workforce and enter graduate school at higher rates than their female peers graduating from coeducational institutions. However, some researchers have questioned these findings, suggesting that it is the selectivity level of the colleges rather than the comprised gender of the students that causes these differences. The purpose of this study was to justify the continuation of single-sex educational opportunities for females at the post-secondary level by examining the effects that college selectivity, college type, and time have on the rate of undergraduate females pursuing majors in non-traditional fields. The study examined the percentage of physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science degrees conferred upon females graduating from women's colleges from 1985-2001, as compared to those at comparable coeducational colleges. Sampling for this study consisted of 42 liberal arts women's (n = 21) and coeducational (n = 21) colleges. Variables included the type of college, the selectivity level of the college, and the effect of time on the percentage of female graduates. Doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance testing revealed significant main effects for college selectivity on social science graduates, and time on both life science and math and computer science graduates. Significant interaction was also found between the college type and time on social science graduates, as well as the college type, selectivity level, and time on math and computer science graduates. Implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Rozsa, Gyorgy; Foldi, Tamas
Identifies the role and mechanism of information transfer in the social sciences, and surveys selected, significant institutions and organizations (mostly international), which promote such transfer. (RAA)
This article analyzes the relationship between science and politics in Spain in the early 20th century from the perspective of the Social Contract for Science. The article shows that a genuine social contract for science was instituted in Spain during this period, although some boundary and integrity problems emerged. These problems are analyzed, showing that the boundary problems were a product of the conservative viewpoint on the relationship between science and politics, while the integrity problems involved the activation of networks of influence in the awarding of scholarships to study abroad. Finally, the analysis reveals that these problems did not invalidate the Spanish social contract for science.
Radicchi, Filippo; Vilone, Daniele; Yoon, Sooeyon; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard
Reduction of frustration was the driving force in an approach to social balance as it was recently considered by Antal [T. Antal, P. L. Krapivsky, and S. Redner, Phys. Rev. E 72, 036121 (2005)]. We generalize their triad dynamics to k-cycle dynamics for arbitrary integer k. We derive the phase structure, determine the stationary solutions, and calculate the time it takes to reach a frozen state. The main difference in the phase structure as a function of k is related to k being even or odd. As a second generalization we dilute the all-to-all coupling as considered by Antal to a random network with connection probability w<1. Interestingly, this model can be mapped to a satisfiability problem of computer science. The phase of social balance in our original interpretation then becomes the phase of satisfaction of all logical clauses in the satisfiability problem. In common to the cases we study, the ideal solution without any frustration always exists, but the question actually is as to whether this solution can be found by means of a local stochastic algorithm within a finite time. The answer depends on the choice of parameters. After establishing the mapping between the two classes of models, we generalize the social-balance problem to a diluted network topology for which the satisfiability problem is usually studied. On the other hand, in connection with the satisfiability problem we generalize the random local algorithm to a p-random local algorithm, including a parameter p that corresponds to the propensity parameter in the social balance problem. The qualitative effect of the inclusion of this parameter is a bias towards the optimal solution and a reduction of the needed simulation time.
Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Krishnamurti, Tamar; Davis, Alex; Schwartz, Daniel; Fischhoff, Baruch
The social and behavioural sciences are critical for informing climate- and energy-related policies. We describe a decision science approach to applying those sciences. It has three stages: formal analysis of decisions, characterizing how well-informed actors should view them; descriptive research, examining how people actually behave in such circumstances; and interventions, informed by formal analysis and descriptive research, designed to create attractive options and help decision-makers choose among them. Each stage requires collaboration with technical experts (for example, climate scientists, geologists, power systems engineers and regulatory analysts), as well as continuing engagement with decision-makers. We illustrate the approach with examples from our own research in three domains related to mitigating climate change or adapting to its effects: preparing for sea-level rise, adopting smart grid technologies in homes, and investing in energy efficiency for office buildings. The decision science approach can facilitate creating climate- and energy-related policies that are behaviourally informed, realistic and respectful of the people whom they seek to aid.
Conte, Rosaria; Paolucci, Mario
In the first part of the paper, the field of agent-based modeling (ABM) is discussed focusing on the role of generative theories, aiming at explaining phenomena by growing them. After a brief analysis of the major strengths of the field some crucial weaknesses are analyzed. In particular, the generative power of ABM is found to have been underexploited, as the pressure for simple recipes has prevailed and shadowed the application of rich cognitive models. In the second part of the paper, the renewal of interest for Computational Social Science (CSS) is focused upon, and several of its variants, such as deductive, generative, and complex CSS, are identified and described. In the concluding remarks, an interdisciplinary variant, which takes after ABM, reconciling it with the quantitative one, is proposed as a fundamental requirement for a new program of the CSS. PMID:25071642
Conte, Rosaria; Paolucci, Mario
In the first part of the paper, the field of agent-based modeling (ABM) is discussed focusing on the role of generative theories, aiming at explaining phenomena by growing them. After a brief analysis of the major strengths of the field some crucial weaknesses are analyzed. In particular, the generative power of ABM is found to have been underexploited, as the pressure for simple recipes has prevailed and shadowed the application of rich cognitive models. In the second part of the paper, the renewal of interest for Computational Social Science (CSS) is focused upon, and several of its variants, such as deductive, generative, and complex CSS, are identified and described. In the concluding remarks, an interdisciplinary variant, which takes after ABM, reconciling it with the quantitative one, is proposed as a fundamental requirement for a new program of the CSS.
Song, Jinwoong; Chung, Minkyung; Choi, Eunjeong; Kim, Leekyoung; Cho, Sook-Kyoung
Though there have been several indicator systems to monitor the status quo of science and technology and of scientific literacy, few are especially designed for science culture, especially for its social dimension. Furthermore there is little agreement on how to measure it. In a previous study, an indicator system, SCI (Science Culture Indicators), had been developed to monitor the status quo of the science culture of a nation at both individual and social dimensions. The purpose of this study was to explore a practical way to measure and compare local cities' social foundation of science culture by revising and standardizing the social dimension of SCI and by applying it to five metropolitan cities in Korea. Despite some limits, the results of this study appear not only to reflect the cities' current situations but also to show the strength and weakness of their social foundation of science culture.
During the last two decades, science studies have increasingly been dominated by ideas related to social constructivism and the sociology of scientific knowledge. This paper offers a critical examination of some of the basic claims of this branch of science studies and argues that social constructivists cannot explain some of the most characteristic features of the physical sciences. The implications of social constructivism for science education are considered. I conclude that if education in physics consistently followed the philosophy of sociology of scientific knowledge in its more extreme versions it would mean the end of physics. However, the rejection of social constructivism does not imply a rejection of social or cultural studies of science or their value in science education.
Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the "social brain" that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what "social" means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what "social" means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the "social." The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond.
Shwom, R.; Isenhour, C.; McCright, A.; Robinson, J.; Jordan, R.
The Essential Principles of Climate Science Literacy states that a climate-literate individual can: "understand the essential principles of Earth's climate system, assess scientifically credible information about climate change, communicate about climate and climate change in a meaningful way, and make informed and responsible decisions with regard to actions that may affect climate." We argue that further integration of the social science dimensions of climate change will advance the climate literacy goals of communication and responsible actions. The underlying rationale for this argues: 1) teaching the habits of mind and scientific practices that have synergies across the social and natural sciences can strengthen students ability to understand and assess science in general and that 2) understanding the empirical research on the social, political, and economic processes (including climate science itself) that are part of the climate system is an important step for enabling effective action and communication. For example, while climate literacy has often identified the public's faulty mental models of climate processes as a partial explanation of complacency, emerging research suggests that the public's mental models of the social world are equally or more important in leading to informed and responsible climate decisions. Building student's ability to think across the social and natural sciences by understanding "how we know what we know" through the sciences and a scientific understanding of the social world allows us to achieve climate literacy goals more systematically and completely. To enable this integration we first identify the robust social science insights for the climate science literacy principles that involve social systems. We then briefly identify significant social science contributions to climate science literacy that do not clearly fit within the seven climate literacy principles but arguably could advance climate literacy goals. We conclude
Sinclair, P. W.
The internet and social media have been a critical vector for misinformation on climate change. Scientists have not always been proactive or effective in utilizing the medium to bring attention to the best science, to correct misinformation and overcome urban myths. Similarly, mainstream journalists have been handicapped in dealing with the wide open nature of the medium, and often muted by editorial concerns or budget restrictions. Independent communicators who are highly motivated can make inroads in this area by using the internet's immediacy and connectivity to consistently connect viewers and readers to reliable information. Over the last 4 years, I have developed a series of you tube videos, made deliberately provocative to engage the internet's confrontational culture, but carefully crafted to bring the best science into the freewheeling community. In doing so, I have won the confidence of leading climate scientists, and in some cases assisted them in clarifying their message. This presentation will share simple tips, useful practices, and effective strategies for making complex material more clear and user friendly, and help scientists better convey the stories hidden in their data.
Irwin, Molly; Supplee, Lauren H
There is a growing interest, by researchers, policymakers, and practitioners, in evidence-based policy and practice. As a result, more dollars are being invested in program evaluation in order to establish "what works," and in some cases, funding is specifically tied to those programs found to be effective. However, reproducing positive effects found in research requires more than simply adopting an evidence-based program. Implementation research can provide guidance on which components of an intervention matter most for program impacts and how implementation components can best be implemented. However, while the body of rigorous research on effective practices continues to grow, research on implementation lags behind. To address these issues, the Administration for Children and Families and federal partners convened a roundtable meeting entitled, Improving Implementation Research Methods for Behavioral and Social Science, in the fall of 2010. This special section of the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research includes papers from the roundtable and highlights the role implementation science can play in shedding light on the difficult task of taking evidence-based practices to scale.
Lynnes, C.; Da Silva, D.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Ramachandran, R.
A vast untapped resource of data, tools, information and knowledge lies within the Earth science community. This is due to the fact that it is difficult to share the full spectrum of these entities, particularly their full context. As a result, most knowledge exchange is through person-to-person contact at meetings, email and journal articles, each of which can support only a limited level of detail. We propose the creation of an Earth Science Collaboratory (ESC): a framework that would enable sharing of data, tools, workflows, results and the contextual knowledge about these information entities. The Drupal platform is well positioned to provide the key social networking capabilities to the ESC. As a proof of concept of a rich collaboration mechanism, we have developed a Drupal-based mechanism for graphically annotating and commenting on results images from analysis workflows in the online Giovanni analysis system for remote sensing data. The annotations can be tagged and shared with others in the community. These capabilities are further supplemented by a Research Notebook capability reused from another online analysis system named Talkoot. The goal is a reusable set of modules that can integrate with variety of other applications either within Drupal web frameworks or at a machine level.
Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem
One of the applications applied most nowadays is web based instruction (WBI). Although there are many studies on WBI, no study which researched the relations between beliefs for WBI, WBI tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge (WPCK) of science and technology pre-service teachers was found among these studies. The aim of this…