Science.gov

Sample records for access areas specific

  1. Sealed head access area enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Govi, Aldo R.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder power reactor is provided with a sealed head access area enclosure disposed above the reactor vessel head consisting of a plurality of prefabricated structural panels including a center panel removably sealed into position with inflatable seals, and outer panels sealed into position with semipermanent sealant joints. The sealant joints are located in the joint between the edge of the panels and the reactor containment structure and include from bottom to top an inverted U-shaped strip, a lower layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material, a separator strip defining a test space therewithin, and an upper layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material. The test space is tapped by a normally plugged passage extending to the top of the enclosure for testing the seal or introducing a buffer gas thereinto.

  2. Removing the Barriers: Accessibility Guidelines and Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotler, Stephen R.

    This guide provides guidelines for meeting the accessibility requirements of the Americans with Disabilities (ADA) Act in college and university buildings. The publication is divided into 10 chapters, the first 7 of which present construction drawings, evaluation criteria, and specifications for: (1) site accessibility (external path of travel,…

  3. 50 CFR 648.59 - Sea Scallop Access Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...'s IFQ. (e) Elephant Trunk Sea Scallop Access Area. (1) From March 1, 2007, through February 29, 2012... issued a scallop permit may fish for, possess, or land scallops in or from the area known as the Elephant... Elephant Trunk Sea Scallop Access Area is defined by straight lines connecting the following points in...

  4. 14 CFR § 1203a.103 - Access to security areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Access to security areas. § 1203a.103 Section § 1203a.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA SECURITY AREAS § 1203a.103 Access to security areas. (a) Only those NASA employees, NASA contractor...

  5. 14 CFR 1203a.103 - Access to security areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Access to security areas. 1203a.103 Section 1203a.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA SECURITY AREAS § 1203a.103 Access to security areas. (a) Only those NASA employees, NASA contractor employees,...

  6. 14 CFR 1203a.103 - Access to security areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Access to security areas. 1203a.103 Section 1203a.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA SECURITY AREAS § 1203a.103 Access to security areas. (a) Only those NASA employees, NASA contractor employees,...

  7. 14 CFR 1203a.103 - Access to security areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Access to security areas. 1203a.103 Section 1203a.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA SECURITY AREAS § 1203a.103 Access to security areas. (a) Only those NASA employees, NASA contractor employees,...

  8. 33 CFR 104.107 - Employee access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 104.107 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.107 Employee access area. (a) A ferry or passenger vessel... access area is a defined space, within the area over which the owner or operator has implemented...

  9. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 104.106 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.106 Passenger access area. (a) A ferry, passenger vessel... access area is a defined space, within the area over which the owner or operator has implemented...

  10. 14 CFR 1203a.103 - Access to security areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to security areas. 1203a.103 Section 1203a.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA SECURITY AREAS § 1203a.103 Access to security areas. (a) Only those NASA employees, NASA contractor employees,...

  11. 50 CFR 648.59 - Sea Scallop Access Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sea Scallop Access Areas. 648.59 Section... March 1, 2014, through February 29, 2016 (i.e., fishing year 2014 and 2015), vessels issued scallop... of Closed Area I, defined in § 648.81(a)(1). (4) (c) Closed Area II Access Area—(1) From March...

  12. Accessibility of applications specific integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strip, D. R.

    1986-03-01

    Applications specific integrated circuits (ASICs) open new design opportunities in Sandia component applications. ASICs can be used to overcome many of the constraints that reduce system functionality in Sandia systems. Key constraints in our environment are power consumption, volume, weight, speed, and radiation-hardness. In addition, use of ASICs may reduce the costs of system design, acquisition, and life-cycle maintenance. Design tools for integrated circuits are rapidly simplifying the design of integrated circuits. Just as high level computer languages enabled applications-oriented computer users to take control of their own code development after assembly coding had limited the practicality of user design, in ICC design tools and approaches are enabling the applications-oriented user to design an ASIC with modest training and in a short time period. In order to demonstrate the state of the design systems, we have selected a representative application and, without any formal training or experience in IC design, have designed and fabricated an ASIC. This report details the steps that were followed and the time they took. It is important to emphasize that this project was the first chip designed start-to-finish on the Mentor design stations in Organization 2110; therefore most of the problems encountered were typical of a first pass through a new system. Most of the problems were quickly wrung out by the CAD tools staff; future users of the system should not expect to have the problems recur.

  13. 50 CFR 648.59 - Sea Scallop Access Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... March 1, 2014, through February 28, 2015 (i.e., fishing year 2014), vessels issued scallop permits may....60(c). (c) Closed Area II Access Area—(1) From March 1, 2014, through February 28, 2015 (i.e.... (d) Nantucket Lightship Access Area —(1) From March 1, 2014, through February 28, 2015 (i.e.,...

  14. 33 CFR 105.106 - Public access areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public access areas. 105.106 Section 105.106 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES General § 105.106 Public access areas. (a) A facility...

  15. 32 CFR 552.168 - Fort Lewis Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.168 Fort Lewis Area Access Office. (a) DPTM Range....” Business hours vary dependent on personnel fill, and are available by calling the above numbers. (c... been coordinated and approved, Area Access will determine when called for entry whether the...

  16. 32 CFR 552.168 - Fort Lewis Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.168 Fort Lewis Area Access Office. (a) DPTM Range....” Business hours vary dependent on personnel fill, and are available by calling the above numbers. (c... been coordinated and approved, Area Access will determine when called for entry whether the...

  17. 4. VIEW OF AREA EXCAVATED FOR ACCESS TO MERCURY RETORT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF AREA EXCAVATED FOR ACCESS TO MERCURY RETORT. VIEW SOUTH FROM RETORT. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Mercury Retort, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  18. SERF: a program for accessible surface area calculations.

    PubMed

    Flower, D R

    1997-08-01

    The program SERF has been designed to facilitate the greater use of accessible surface area calculations in the analysis of protein structure, including analysis of surface area changes on binding and complexation. For comparative purposes, the program implements a number of alternative methods for calculating surface areas, including those that approximate residues by single spheres. Algorithmic details, comparative performance, and the software implementation of SERF are discussed.

  19. Automated Verification of Specifications with Typestates and Access Permissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siminiceanu, Radu I.; Catano, Nestor

    2011-01-01

    We propose an approach to formally verify Plural specifications based on access permissions and typestates, by model-checking automatically generated abstract state-machines. Our exhaustive approach captures all the possible behaviors of abstract concurrent programs implementing the specification. We describe the formal methodology employed by our technique and provide an example as proof of concept for the state-machine construction rules. The implementation of a fully automated algorithm to generate and verify models, currently underway, provides model checking support for the Plural tool, which currently supports only program verification via data flow analysis (DFA).

  20. ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN OF PROCESS AND ACCESS AREAS HOT PILOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN OF PROCESS AND ACCESS AREAS HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111679. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. 32 CFR 552.94 - Area access procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Area access procedures. 552.94 Section 552.94 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.94...

  2. 32 CFR 552.94 - Area access procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Area access procedures. 552.94 Section 552.94 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.94...

  3. 32 CFR 552.94 - Area access procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Area access procedures. 552.94 Section 552.94 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.94...

  4. 32 CFR 552.94 - Area access procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Area access procedures. 552.94 Section 552.94 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.94...

  5. 32 CFR 552.94 - Area access procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Area access procedures. 552.94 Section 552.94 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.94...

  6. 32 CFR 552.168 - Fort Lewis Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... complex. (b) Area Access is located in Range Control, Building T-6127, 19th and Tacoma Streets, Main Post... complex without the permit is prohibited. (e) A collective permit will be issued to an organization... processed per § 552.166. (f) Aside from the land commitment coordination time requirement in §...

  7. 32 CFR 552.170 - Camp Bonneville Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Camp Bonneville Area Access Office. 552.170 Section 552.170 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort...

  8. 32 CFR 552.170 - Camp Bonneville Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Camp Bonneville Area Access Office. 552.170 Section 552.170 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort...

  9. 32 CFR 552.170 - Camp Bonneville Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Camp Bonneville Area Access Office. 552.170 Section 552.170 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort...

  10. 32 CFR 552.170 - Camp Bonneville Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Camp Bonneville Area Access Office. 552.170 Section 552.170 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort...

  11. 32 CFR 552.170 - Camp Bonneville Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Camp Bonneville Area Access Office. 552.170 Section 552.170 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and...

  12. Spatial accessibility to specific sport facilities and corresponding sport practice: the RECORD Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity is considered as a major component of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined the relationships between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and sport practice with a sufficient degree of specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the spatial accessibility to specific types of sports facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports after carefully controlling for various individual socio-demographic characteristics and neighborhood socioeconomic variables. Methods Data from the RECORD Study involving 7290 participants recruited in 2007–2008, aged 30–79 years, and residing in the Paris metropolitan area were analyzed. Four categories of sports were studied: team sports, racket sports, swimming and related activities, and fitness. Spatial accessibility to sport facilities was measured with two complementary approaches that both take into account the street network (distance to the nearest facility and count of facilities around the dwelling). Associations between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports were assessed using multilevel logistic regression after adjusting for individual and contextual characteristics. Results High individual education and high household income were associated with the practice of racket sports, swimming or related activities, and fitness over the previous 7 days. The spatial accessibility to swimming pools was associated with swimming and related sports, even after adjustment for individual/contextual factors. The spatial accessibility to facilities was not related to the practice of other sports. High neighborhood income was associated with the practice of a racket sport and fitness. Conclusions Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that integrates educational, financial, and geographical aspects. Our work supports the evidence that strategies to increase participation in sport

  13. Integral imaging for anti-access/area denial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kenny; Mahalanobis, Abhijit; Stanfill, Robert; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-05-01

    There is a growing interest in target detection and tracking in Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2AD) environments, where sensor platforms are at low altitudes and imagery are collected at oblique angles. Targets that are of interest in these scenarios are typically partially or mostly occluded by foliage or other objects. We present experiments to illustrate reconstruction of obscured targets using Integral Imaging, in both synthetically generated data and data collected using a multi-sensor system. We also explore the effects of Integral Imaging on Aided Target Recognition (AiTR), as well as performance improvement on target tracking.

  14. Highball: A high speed, reserved-access, wide area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, David L.; Boncelet, Charles G.; Elias, John G.; Schragger, Paul A.; Jackson, Alden W.

    1990-01-01

    A network architecture called Highball and a preliminary design for a prototype, wide-area data network designed to operate at speeds of 1 Gbps and beyond are described. It is intended for applications requiring high speed burst transmissions where some latency between requesting a transmission and granting the request can be anticipated and tolerated. Examples include real-time video and disk-disk transfers, national filestore access, remote sensing, and similar applications. The network nodes include an intelligent crossbar switch, but have no buffering capabilities; thus, data must be queued at the end nodes. There are no restrictions on the network topology, link speeds, or end-end protocols. The end system, nodes, and links can operate at any speed up to the limits imposed by the physical facilities. An overview of an initial design approach is presented and is intended as a benchmark upon which a detailed design can be developed. It describes the network architecture and proposed access protocols, as well as functional descriptions of the hardware and software components that could be used in a prototype implementation. It concludes with a discussion of additional issues to be resolved in continuing stages of this project.

  15. The choice to access outdoor areas affects the behavior of great apes.

    PubMed

    Kurtycz, Laura M; Wagner, Katherine E; Ross, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor access is often cited as a critical component of appropriate housing for great apes in captivity, and although studies have shown that offering primates choices can improve welfare, choice to access specific areas has been empirically neglected. Behavioral data were collected on chimpanzees and gorillas housed in naturalistic enclosures while (a) restricted to an indoor enclosure and (b) permitted free access to an adjacent outdoor area. To isolate the factor of choice, only the sessions in which apes remained indoors were compared. With choice, chimpanzees showed more frequent social, F(1, 5) = 20.526, p = .006, and self-directed behaviors, F(1, 5) = 13.507, p = .014, and lower inactivity levels, F(1, 5) = 9.239, p = .029. Gorillas were more frequently inactive, F(1, 8) = 22.259, p = .002, and produced lower levels of object manipulation, F(1, 8) = 8.243, p = .021, and feeding, F(1, 8) = 5.407, p = .049. Results are consistent with an association between choice and the expression of species-typical and arousal behaviors in chimpanzees. The effects are less evident in gorillas, but this outcome may be buffered by the species' lower motivation to utilize the outdoor spaces. Findings highlight species-specific reactions to access to choice that may offer insight for enclosure design, management, and nonhuman animal welfare. PMID:24673476

  16. A Work in Progress: Accessible Trails, Campsites, and Other Outdoor Recreation Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John N.

    2001-01-01

    Appointed by the U.S. Access Board, the Recreation Access Advisory Committee developed guidelines for making outdoor recreation facilities and areas accessible to persons with disabilities. Following negative public comment, a regulatory negotiation committee conducted public meetings and devised accessibility guidelines for trails that allowed…

  17. 50 CFR 648.60 - Sea scallop access area program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... specified in § 648.51(a) and (b). (ii) Vessels fishing in the Closed Area I, Closed Area II, and Nantucket... Closed Area I Access Area are 111,540 lb (51 mt) and 36,000 lb (316 mt), respectively. (iii) Closed Area... Area I Access Area are 111,540 lb (51 mt) and 72,000 lb (33 mt), respectively. (2) Increase in...

  18. An evaluation of Access Tier local area network switches.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, John M.; Olsberg, Ronald R.

    2004-06-01

    This reports tabulates the Test and Evaluation results of the Access Class Switch tests conducted by members of Department 9336. About 15 switches were reviewed for use in the enterprise network as access tier switches as defined in a three tier architecture. The Access Switch Tier has several functions including: aggregate customer desktop ports, preserve and apply QoS tags, provide switched LAN access, provide VLAN assignment, as well as others. The typical switch size is 48 or less user ports. The evaluation team reviewed network switch evaluation reports from the Tolly Group as well as other sources. We then used these reports as a starting point to identify particular switches for evaluation. In general we reviewed the products of dominant equipment manufacturers. Also, based on architectural design requirements, the majority of the switches tested were of relatively small monolithic unit variety.

  19. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  20. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  1. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  2. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  3. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  4. No Accession-Specific Effect of Rhizosphere Soil Communities on the Growth and Competition of Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Anna G.; Colón-Carmona, Adán; Kesseli, Rick; Dukes, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Soil communities associated with specific plant species affect individual plants' growth and competitive ability. Limited evidence suggests that unique soil communities can also differentially influence growth and competition at the ecotype level. Previous work with Arabidopsis thaliana has shown that accessions produce distinct and reproducible rhizosphere bacterial communities, with significant differences in both species composition and relative abundance. We tested the hypothesis that soil communities uniquely affect the growth and reproduction of the plant accessions with which they are associated. Specifically, we examined the growth of four accessions when exposed to their own soil communities and the communities generated by each of the other three accessions. To do this we planted focal accessions inside a ring of six plants that created a “background” soil community. We grew focal plants in this design in three separate soil treatments: non-sterile soil, sterilized soil, and “preconditioned” soil. We preconditioned soil by growing accessions in non-sterile soil for six weeks before the start of the experiment. The main experiment was harvested after seven weeks of growth and we recorded height, silique number, and dry weight of each focal plant. Plants grown in the preconditioned soil treatment showed less growth relative to the non-sterile and sterile soil treatments. In addition, plants in the sterile soil grew larger than those in non-sterile soil. However, we saw no interaction between soil treatment and background accession. We conclude that the soil communities have a negative net impact on Arabidopsis thaliana growth, and that the unique soil communities associated with each accession do not differentially affect growth and competition of study species. PMID:22110679

  5. Gateway design specification for fiber optic local area networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This is a Design Specification for a gateway to interconnect fiber optic local area networks (LAN's). The internetworking protocols for a gateway device that will interconnect multiple local area networks are defined. This specification serves as input for preparation of detailed design specifications for the hardware and software of a gateway device. General characteristics to be incorporated in the gateway such as node address mapping, packet fragmentation, and gateway routing features are described.

  6. Specification and Enforcement of Semantic Integrity Constraints in Microsoft Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadashzadeh, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Semantic integrity constraints are business-specific rules that limit the permissible values in a database. For example, a university rule dictating that an "incomplete" grade cannot be changed to an A constrains the possible states of the database. To maintain database integrity, business rules should be identified in the course of database…

  7. Characteristics of Open Access Journals in Six Subject Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, William H.; Linvill, Anne C.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of 663 Open Access (OA) journals in biology, computer science, economics, history, medicine, and psychology, then compare the OA journals with impact factors to comparable subscription journals. There is great variation in the size of OA journals; the largest publishes more than 2,700 articles per year, but half…

  8. Bushwalking and Access: Kosciusko Primitive Area Debate 1943-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The environmental history episode explored in this paper shows how the growth of a culture of bushwalking in New South Wales from the 1920s to the 1950s created a very particular relationship to land use and access. I suggest that the model of extended bushwalking in wild, remote places that was defined then has since become central to the culture…

  9. Quantity and accessibility for specific targeting of receptors in tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Sajid; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Maria; Braun, Gary B.; Doyle, Francis J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2014-06-01

    Synaphic (ligand-directed) targeting of drugs is an important potential new approach to drug delivery, particularly in oncology. Considerable success with this approach has been achieved in the treatment of blood-borne cancers, but the advances with solid tumours have been modest. Here, we have studied the number and availability for ligand binding of the receptors for two targeting ligands. The results show that both paucity of total receptors and their poor availability are major bottlenecks in drug targeting. A tumour-penetrating peptide greatly increases the availability of receptors by promoting transport of the drug to the extravascular tumour tissue, but the number of available receptors still remains low, severely limiting the utility of the approach. Our results emphasize the importance of using drugs with high specific activity to avoid exceeding receptor capacity because any excess drug conjugate would lose the targeting advantage. The mathematical models we describe make it possible to focus on those aspects of the targeting mechanism that are most likely to have a substantial effect on the overall efficacy of the targeting.

  10. 46 CFR 154.340 - Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area. 154.340... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.340 Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area. (a) Each cargo tank must.... by 23.6 in.). (b) Each access into and through a void space or other gas-dangerous space in the...

  11. Publishing in Discipline-Specific Open Access Journals: Opportunities and Outreach for Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaszewski, Robert; Poulin, Sonia; MacDonald, Karen I.

    2013-01-01

    Open access (OA) journals promote the opportunity for peer-reviewed journal articles to be freely accessible. In recent years, the number of OA journals has exploded in all disciplines. Previous studies have identified print-based pedagogical discipline-specific journals outside the field of Library and Information Science (LIS) for librarians to…

  12. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access C Appendix C to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF.... 552, App. C Appendix C to Part 552—Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access...

  13. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  14. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  15. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  16. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  17. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  18. 3. "LAUNCH SILOS; AREA PAVING AND GRADING PLAN." Specifications No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. "LAUNCH SILOS; AREA PAVING AND GRADING PLAN." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-59-73; Drawing No. 5841C-11; D.O. SERIES AW-1525/17; Stamped: RECORD DRAWING AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract No. 6601, Date 18 Sep 59. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Missile Silo Type, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. Access to primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: a realist review

    PubMed Central

    Ford, John A; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P; Steel, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review is to identify and understand the contexts that effect access to high-quality primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. Design A realist review. Data sources MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases and grey literature (from inception to December 2014). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Broad inclusion criteria were used to allow articles which were not specific, but might be relevant to the population of interest to be considered. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed for rigour and relevance and coded for concepts relating to context, mechanism or outcome. Analysis An overarching patient pathway was generated and used as the basis to explore contexts, causal mechanisms and outcomes. Results 162 articles were included. Most were from the USA or the UK, cross-sectional in design and presented subgroup data by age, rurality or deprivation. From these studies, a patient pathway was generated which included 7 steps (problem identified, decision to seek help, actively seek help, obtain appointment, get to appointment, primary care interaction and outcome). Important contexts were stoicism, education status, expectations of ageing, financial resources, understanding the healthcare system, access to suitable transport, capacity within practice, the booking system and experience of healthcare. Prominent causal mechanisms were health literacy, perceived convenience, patient empowerment and responsiveness of the practice. Conclusions Socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas face personal, community and healthcare barriers that limit their access to primary care. Initiatives should be targeted at local contextual factors to help individuals recognise problems, feel welcome, navigate the healthcare system, book appointments easily, access appropriate transport and have sufficient time with professional staff to improve their experience of healthcare; all of which

  20. ProtSA: a web application for calculating sequence specific protein solvent accessibilities in the unfolded ensemble

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Jorge; Bernadó, Pau; Blackledge, Martin; Sancho, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background The stability of proteins is governed by the heat capacity, enthalpy and entropy changes of folding, which are strongly correlated to the change in solvent accessible surface area experienced by the polypeptide. While the surface exposed in the folded state can be easily determined, accessibilities for the unfolded state at the atomic level cannot be obtained experimentally and are typically estimated using simplistic models of the unfolded ensemble. A web application providing realistic accessibilities of the unfolded ensemble of a given protein at the atomic level will prove useful. Results ProtSA, a web application that calculates sequence-specific solvent accessibilities of the unfolded state ensembles of proteins has been developed and made freely available to the scientific community. The input is the amino acid sequence of the protein of interest. ProtSA follows a previously published calculation protocol which uses the Flexible-Meccano algorithm to generate unfolded conformations representative of the unfolded ensemble of the protein, and uses the exact analytical software ALPHASURF to calculate atom solvent accessibilities, which are averaged on the ensemble. Conclusion ProtSA is a novel tool for the researcher investigating protein folding energetics. The sequence specific atom accessibilities provided by ProtSA will allow obtaining better estimates of the contribution of the hydrophobic effect to the free energy of folding, will help to refine existing parameterizations of protein folding energetics, and will be useful to understand the influence of point mutations on protein stability. PMID:19356231

  1. Digital Watermarks Enabling E-Commerce Strategies: Conditional and User Specific Access to Services and Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Jana; Steinebach, Martin; Wohlmacher, Petra; Ackermann, Ralf

    2002-12-01

    Digital watermarking is well known as enabling technology to prove ownership on copyrighted material, detect originators of illegally made copies, monitor the usage of the copyrighted multimedia data and analyze the spread spectrum of the data over networks and servers. Research has shown that data hiding techniques can be applied successfully to other application areas like manipulations recognition. In this paper, we show our innovative approach for integrating watermark and cryptography based methods within a framework of new application scenarios spanning a wide range from dedicated and user specific services, "Try&Buy" mechanisms to general means for long-term customer relationships. The tremendous recent efforts to develop and deploy ubiquitous mobile communication possibilities are changing the demands but also possibilities for establishing new business and commerce relationships. Especially we motivate annotation watermarks and aspects of M-Commerce to show important scenarios for access control. Based on a description of the challenges of the application domain and our latest work we discuss, which methods can be used for establishing services in a fast convenient and secure way for conditional access services based on digital watermarking combined with cryptographic techniques. We introduce an example scenario for digital audio and an overview of steps in order to establish these concepts practically.

  2. Access to artemisinin combination therapy for malaria in remote areas of Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Shunmay; Van Damme, Wim; Socheat, Doung; White, Nicholas J; Mills, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Background Malaria-endemic countries are switching antimalarial drug policy to artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) and the global community are considering the setting up of a global subsidy mechanism in order to make them accessible and affordable. However, specific interventions may be needed to reach remote at-risk communities and to ensure that they are used appropriately. This analysis documents the coverage with ACTs versus artemisinin monotherapies, and the effectiveness of malaria outreach teams (MOTs) and Village Malaria Workers (VMWs) in increasing access to appropriate diagnosis and treatment with ACTs in Cambodia, the first country to switch national antimalarial drug policy to an ACT of artesunate and mefloquine (A+M) in 2000. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in three different types of intervention area: with VMWs, MOTs and no specific interventions. Individuals with a history of fever in the last three weeks were included in the study and completed a questionnaire on their treatment seeking and drug usage behaviour. Blood was taken for a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and data on the household socio-economic status were also obtained. Results In areas without specific interventions, only 17% (42/251) of respondents received a biological diagnosis, 8% (17/206) of respondents who received modern drug did so from a public health facility, and only 8% of them (17/210) received A+M. Worryingly, 78% (102/131) of all artemisinin use in these areas was as a monotherapy. However, both the VMW scheme and MOT scheme significantly increased the likelihood of being seen by a trained provider (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) of 148 and 4 respectively) and of receiving A+M (AORs of 2.7 and 7.7 respectively). Conclusion The coverage rates of appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria were disappointingly low and the use of artemisinin monotherapy alarmingly high. This reflects the fragmented nature of Cambodia's health system in remote areas and the

  3. Specific surface area as a maturity index of lunar fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammage, R. B.; Holmes, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    Mature surface fines have an equilibrium specific surface area of about 0.6 sq m/g the equivalent mean particle size being about 3 microns. The adsorption behavior of inert gases (reversible isotherms) indicates that the particles are also nonporous in the size range of pores from 10 to 3000 A. Apparently, in mature soils there is a balance in the forces which cause fining, attrition, pore filling, and growth of lunar dust grains. Immature, lightly irradiated soils usually have coarser grains which reduce in size as aging proceeds. The specific surface area, determined by nitrogen or krypton sorption at 77 K, is a valuable index of soil maturity.

  4. Using geographic information systems to simulate patient access areas.

    PubMed

    Doi, Shunsuke; Inoue, Takashi; Ide, Hiroo; Nakamura, Toshihito; Fujita, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Takahiro; Takabayashi, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a simulation model with a geographic information system (GIS) to predict the future shortage of beds in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. With a grid square method, we calculated patient numbers for every 500 square meters of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area until 2040 and estimated whether those in need could be admitted to hospitals within an hour's drive from their homes. The simulation demonstrates that after 2025 many patients may not be able to find hospitals within this time framework. The situation will be especially serious in the center of Tokyo and along the railway lines, where many senior citizens reside. We can now apply this innovative GIS method in many fields and especially for the precise estimation of future demands for and supply of medical assistance.

  5. Area Specific Self-Esteem, Values, and Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Donnelly, Joseph; Denny, George

    2004-01-01

    This study examined area-specific self-esteem scores by sexual behavior relative to adolescents' values concerning participation in sexual intercourse as an unmarried teenager. The sample consisted of 332 students in grades 7-12 from a Southern rural school district. Students were asked if they had ever had sexual intercourse (yes/no) and if they…

  6. Advanced Technology Used to Monitor Ground Water in a Restricted Access Area of Fort Riley, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breedlove, J.D.; Finnegan, P.J.; Myers, N.C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this fact sheet is to describe how advanced communication technology is being used to overcome difficulties in collecting reliable ground-water data in areas with restricted access, such as at Fort Riley in northeast Kansas.

  7. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Installation service and maintenance (AR 420-74, FL Reg 350-30) Non-DOD personnel in transit on public-access...) Dog training (not allowed 1 April through 31 July in selected areas) Horseback riding on roads...

  8. Specificity of human cortical areas for reaches and saccades

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Ifat; Schluppeck, Denis; Heeger, David J.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2007-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have identified effector-related regions in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The lateral intraparietal area (LIP), for example, responds preferentially for saccades whereas the parietal reach region (PRR) responds preferentially for arm movements. However, the degree of effector selectivity actually observed is limited; each area contains neurons selective for the non-preferred effector, and many neurons in both areas respond for both effectors. We used fMRI to assess the degree of effector preference at the population level, focusing on topographically organized regions in the human PPC (V7, IPS1 and IPS2). An event-related design adapted from monkey experiments was employed. In each trial, an effector cue preceded the appearance of a spatial target, after which a go-signal instructed subjects to produce the specified movement with the specified effector. Our results show that the degree of effector specificity is limited in many cortical areas, and transitions gradually from saccade to reach preference as one moves through the hierarchy of areas in the occipital, parietal, and frontal cortices. Saccade preference was observed in visual cortex, including early areas and V7. IPS1 exhibited balanced activation to saccades and reaches, whereas IPS2 showed a weak but significant preference for reaches. In frontal cortex, areas near the central sulcus showed a clear and absolute preference for reaches while the Frontal Eye Field (FEF) showed little or no effector selectivity. Although these results contradict many theoretical conclusions about effector specificity, they are compatible with the complex picture arising from electrophysiological studies and also with previous imaging studies that reported largely overlapping saccade and arm related activation. The results are also compatible with theories of efficient coding in cortex. PMID:17460081

  9. 14. "SITE WORK, CIVIL, SITE PLAN." Test Area 1120. Specifications ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. "SITE WORK, CIVIL, SITE PLAN." Test Area 1-120. Specifications No. OC2-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 7 of 148; file no. 1320/58, Rev. C. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338 Rev. C, Date: 16 April 1957. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. Increasing Access and Usability of Remote Sensing Data: The NASA Protected Area Archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Gary N.

    2004-01-01

    Although remote sensing data are now widely available, much of it at low or no-cost, many managers of protected conservation areas do not have the expertise or tools to view or analyze it. Thus access to it by the protected area management community is effectively blocked. The Protected Area Archive will increase access to remote sensing data by creating collections of satellite images of protected areas and packaging them with simple-to-use visualization and analytical tools. The user can easily locate the area and image of interest on a map, then display, roam, and zoom the image. A set of simple tools will be provided so the user can explore the data and employ it to assist in management and monitoring of their area. The 'Phase 1 ' version requires only a Windows-based computer and basic computer skills, and may be of particular help to protected area managers in developing countries.

  11. 50 CFR 648.60 - Sea scallop area access program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES... of Permit History is not eligible to exchange trips between another vessel and the vessel for which a Confirmation of Permit History has been issued. (iii) (4) Area fished. While on a Sea Scallop Access Area...

  12. Comparative approaches to measuring food access in urban areas: the case of Portland, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Andrea L; Bania, Neil; Leete, Laura

    2011-01-01

    GIS methods are used to construct measures of food access for neighbourhoods in the Portland, Oregon, US metropolitan area and the sensitivity of such measures to methodological variation is examined. The level of aggregation of data inputs is varied and the effect of using both Euclidean and street network distances is tested. It is found that, regardless of the level of geographical disaggregation, distance-based measures generate approximately the same conclusions about the distribution of food access in the area. It is also found that, while the relationship between street network and Euclidean distances varies with population density, measures computed with either construct generate the same relative patterns of food access. These findings suggest that results from food access studies employing disparate methodologies can often be compared.

  13. Factors influencing householders' access to improved water in low-income urban areas of Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mahama, Ayisha Matuamo; Anaman, Kwabena Asomanin; Osei-Akoto, Isaac

    2014-06-01

    We analysed householders' access to improved water for drinking and other domestic uses in five selected low-income urban areas of Accra, Ghana using a survey of 1,500 households. Our definitions of improved water were different from those suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). The results revealed that only 4.4% of the respondents had access to improved drinking water compared to 40.7% using the WHO definition. However, 88.7% of respondents had access to improved water for domestic uses compared to 98.3% using the WHO definition. Using logistic regression analysis, we established that the significant determinant of householders' access to improved drinking water was income. However, for access to improved water for other domestic uses, the significant factors were education, income and location of the household. Compared to migrants, indigenous people and people from mixed areas were less likely to have access to improved water for other domestic purposes. For the analysis using the WHO definitions, most of the independent variables were not statistically significant in determining householders' access, and those variables that were significant generated parameter estimates inconsistent with evidence from the literature and anecdotal evidence from officials of public health and water supply companies in Ghana.

  14. 29. "TEST TRACK, STATION '0' THROUGH '200' AREA." Specifications No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. "TEST TRACK, STATION '0' THROUGH '200' AREA." Specifications No. ENG-OC-1-57-75, Drawing No. AF-6009-15, sheet 53 of 96, D.O. Series No. AF 1394/73, Rev. C. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296 Rev. C, Date: 19 NOV 59. Drawing includes plan, section, and details of track. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Increasing Potential Access to Opioid Agonist Treatment in U.S. Treatment Shortage Areas

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Andrew W.; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Gordon, Adam J.; Sorbero, Mark; Burns, Rachel M.; Leslie, Douglas L.; Stein, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid use disorders are a significant public health problem, affecting over 2 million individuals in the US. Although opioid agonist treatment, predominantly offered in licensed methadone clinics, is both effective and cost-effective, many individuals do not receive it. Buprenorphine, approved in 2002 for prescription by waivered physicians, could improve opioid agonist treatment access for individuals unable or unwilling to receive methadone. We examine the extent to which the geographic distribution of waivered physicians has enhanced potential opioid agonist treatment access, particularly in non-metropolitan areas with fewer methadone clinics. We found that while the approximately 90% of counties classified as methadone clinic shortage areas remained constant, buprenorphine shortage areas fell from 99% of counties in 2002 to 51% in 2011, lowering the US population percentage residing in opioid treatment shortage counties to approximately 10%. The increase in buprenorphine-waivered physicians has dramatically increased potential access to opioid agonist treatment, especially in non-metropolitan counties. PMID:26056209

  16. Accessible surface areas as a measure of the thermodynamic parameters of hydration of peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, T; Oobatake, M; Némethy, G; Scheraga, H A

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for the inclusion of the effects of hydration in empirical conformational energy computations on polypeptides. The free energy of hydration is composed of additive contributions of various functional groups. The hydration of each group is assumed to be proportional to the accessible surface area of the group. The constants of proportionality, representing the free energy of hydration per unit area of accessible surface, have been evaluated for seven classes of groups (occurring in peptides) by least-squares fitting to experimental free energies of solution of small monofunctional aliphatic and aromatic molecules. The same method has also been applied to the modeling of the enthalpy and heat capacity of hydration, each of which is computed from the accessible surface area. PMID:3472198

  17. 47 CFR 54.806 - Calculation by the Administrator of interstate access universal service support for areas served...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... access universal service support for areas served by price cap local exchange carriers. 54.806 Section 54...) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Access Universal Service Support Mechanism § 54.806 Calculation by the Administrator of interstate access universal service support for areas served by price cap local...

  18. Access to medicines among internally displaced and non-displaced people in urban areas in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam; Wirtz, Veronika J; Idrovo, Alvaro J; Angulo, Mary Lupe

    2012-12-01

    This study analyzes access to medicines among displaced and non-displaced populations in urban areas in Bucaramanga, Colombia. A household survey was carried out to study access to medicines for self-reported and medically diagnosed health conditions. Multiple Poisson regression with robust variance was used to determine factors associated with access to medicines. Two thousand and sixty individuals from 514 families participated. Only 29.1% (95%CI: 22.04-37.08) of the individuals in the sample with prescriptions and 44.3% (95%CI: 40.42-48.25) with self-reported needs for pharmacotherapy were taking medicines. Greater access was associated with the perceived severity of the illness, higher income, having a health center nearby and not perceiving barriers in accessing services. Social security affiliation and being displaced were not related. Social security coverage alone does not have an effect on access to medicines because it does not include essential medicines that correspond to the health needs of this population. Resolving administrative and geographical barriers is likely to improve access to medicines.

  19. Multi-core fiber technology for highly reliable optical network in access areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Ken-ichi; Lee, Yong; Nomoto, Etsuko; Arimoto, Hideo; Sugawara, Toshiki

    2015-03-01

    A failure recovery system utilizing a multi-core fiber (MCF) link with field programmable gate array-based optical switch units was developed to achieve high capacity and highly reliable optical networks in access areas. We describe the novel MCF link based on a multi-ring structure and a protection scheme to prevent link failures. Fan-in/ -out devices and connectors are also presented to demonstrate the development status of the MCF connection technology for the link. We demonstrated path recovery by switching operation within a sufficiently short time, which is required by ITU-T. The selection of a protecting path as a failure working path was also optimized as the minimum passage of units for low loss transmission. The results we obtained indicate that our proposed link has potential for the network design of highly reliable network topologies in access areas such as data centers, systems in business areas, and fiber to the home systems in residential areas.

  20. A Stateful Multicast Access Control Mechanism for Future Metro-Area-Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei-qiang; Li, Jin-sheng; Hong, Pei-lin

    2003-01-01

    Multicasting is a necessity for a broadband metro-area-network; however security problems exist with current multicast protocols. A stateful multicast access control mechanism, based on MAPE, is proposed. The architecture of MAPE is discussed, as well as the states maintained and messages exchanged. The scheme is flexible and scalable. (Author/AEF)

  1. A Case Study on Accessibility of School in Tribal Areas and Its Implications on Educational Inclusiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajankar, Vishal D.

    2016-01-01

    Schools accessibility has been areas of concern for the development and proliferation of the education system in any developing nation. India is no exception to the same. Since the time India gained independence efforts have been made to provide inclusiveness in the dissemination of educational facilities across the nation. However, geographical…

  2. Planning for airport access: An analysis of the San Francisco Bay area. Technological options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Current transportation technology and expected technological trends are reviewed. These technologies are assessed within the framework of the airport access system in the San Francisco Bay area. Four types of technological options are considered: (1) automotive systems, (2) commuter air systems, (3) automated guideways, and (4) water systems.

  3. Propagation Characteristics in an Underground Shopping Area for 5GHz-band Wireless Access Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itokawa, Kiyohiko; Kita, Naoki; Sato, Akio; Matsue, Hideaki; Mori, Daisuke; Watanabe, Hironobu

    5-GHz band wireless access systems, such as the RLAN (Radio Local Area Network) system of IEEE802.11a, HiperLAN/2, HiSWANa and AWA, are developed and provide transmission rates over 20 Mbps for indoor use. Those 5-GHz access systems are expected to extend service areas from the office to the so-called “hot-spot" in public areas. Underground shopping malls are one of the anticipated service areas for such a nomadic wireless access service. Broadband propagation characteristics are required for radio zone design in an underground mall environment despite previous results obtained by narrow band measurements. This paper presents results of an experimental study on the propagation characteristics for broadband wireless access systems in an underground mall environment. First, broadband propagation path loss is measured and formulated considering human body shadowing. A ray trace simulation is used to clarify the basic propagation mechanism in such a closed environment. Next, a distance dependency of the delay spread during a crowded time period, rush hour, is found to be at most 65 nsec, which is under the permitted maximum value of the present 5-GHz systems. Finally, above propagation characteristics support the result of transmission test carried out by using AWA equipment.

  4. 32 CFR 552.169 - Yakima Training Center Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Yakima Training Center Area Access Office. 552.169 Section 552.169 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and...

  5. 32 CFR 552.169 - Yakima Training Center Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Yakima Training Center Area Access Office. 552.169 Section 552.169 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort...

  6. 32 CFR 552.169 - Yakima Training Center Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Yakima Training Center Area Access Office. 552.169 Section 552.169 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort...

  7. 32 CFR 552.169 - Yakima Training Center Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Yakima Training Center Area Access Office. 552.169 Section 552.169 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort...

  8. 32 CFR 552.169 - Yakima Training Center Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Yakima Training Center Area Access Office. 552.169 Section 552.169 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort...

  9. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  10. Access to Music Education with Regard to Race in Two Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Karen; Allegood, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study examined access to school music instruction with regard to race in two urban areas: Detroit, Michigan, and Washington, DC, in 2009-2010. We found significant differences in the provision of music instruction between schools with high and low proportions of nonwhite enrollment, in categories including curricular offerings,…

  11. 50 CFR 648.60 - Sea scallop access area program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the requirements specified in paragraph (g) of this section. (1) VMS. Each vessel participating in the Sea Scallop Access Area Program must have installed on board an operational VMS unit that meets the...) Reporting. The owner or operator must submit reports through the VMS, as specified in § 648.10(f)(4)(i)....

  12. 50 CFR 648.60 - Sea scallop access area program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...)(8)(i). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 648.60, see the List of CFR... in paragraph (g) of this section. (1) VMS. Each vessel participating in the Sea Scallop Access Area Program must have installed on board an operational VMS unit that meets the minimum performance...

  13. 50 CFR 648.60 - Sea scallop area access program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES... Permit History is not eligible to exchange trips between another vessel and the vessel for which a Confirmation of Permit History has been issued. (A) Trip exchanges involving Elephant Trunk Access Area...

  14. Comparison of Standard Catheters Versus Radial Artery-Specific Catheter in Patients Who Underwent Coronary Angiography Through Transradial Access.

    PubMed

    Chen, On; Goel, Sunny; Acholonu, Michael; Kulbak, Guy; Verma, Shivani; Travlos, Efstratios; Casazza, Richard; Borgen, Elliot; Malik, Bilal; Friedman, Michael; Moskovits, Norbert; Frankel, Robert; Shani, Jacob; Ayzenberg, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    In this prospective, randomized controlled study, we aim to compare the performance outcomes of standard catheters with the radial artery-specific catheter. Over the past decade, transradial cardiac catheterization has gained widespread popularity because of its low complication rates compared with transfemoral access. Operators have the choice of using either standard catheters (used for both transfemoral and transradial approach, with need for separate catheter use for either right or left coronary artery engagement) or a dedicated radial artery catheter, which is specifically designed to engage both coronary arteries through radial artery access. A total of 110 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography at our institution from March 2015 to April 2015 were prospectively randomized to either radial artery-specific Tiger catheter (5Fr; Terumo Interventional Systems, Somerset, New Jersey) versus standard Judkins left and right catheters (5Fr R4, L4; Cordis Corporation, Miami, Florida). The end points of the study included fluoroscopy time, dose-area product, contrast volume used, and total procedure time for the coronary angiography. A total of 57 patients (52%) were randomized to radial artery-specific catheter and 53 (48%) to the standard catheter. Tiger catheter was associated with significantly lower fluoroscopy time (184 ± 91 vs 238 ± 131 seconds, p = 0.015), which was statistically significant. Other outcome measures such as dose-area product (2,882.4 ± 1,471.2 vs 3,524.6 ± 2,111.7 Gy·cm(2), p = 0.07), total contrast volume (48.1 ± 16.1 vs 53.4 ± 18.5 ml, p = 0.114), and total procedure time (337 ± 382 vs 434 ± 137 seconds, p = 0.085) were also lower in single-catheter group, but it did not reach statistical significance. A total of 8 patients (14%) were crossed over from radial-specific catheter arm to standard catheter arm because of substandard image quality and difficulty in coronary engagement. Six patients had to be

  15. Estimating global specific leaf area from MODIS leaf area index and model-simulated foliage mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, P. J.; Yasuoka, Y.; Ito, A.; Dye, D.

    2006-12-01

    Specific leaf area (SLA) is an important leaf trait that is universally correlated positively to leaf nitrogen, leaf turnover rates, relative growth rate and most importantly, photosynthetic capacity. Though SLA is genetically encoded, it is often spatially variable within a species and within a single biome due to variable environmental conditions. However, without a global SLA map, global ecosystem models that use SLA, generally fix a single value for a particular biome. In this study, we develop a methodology to estimate global SLA from a remote sensing-derived key ecosystem variable, leaf area index and foliage mass estimated by a terrestrial ecosystem model SimCYCLE. SimCYCLE uses climatic inputs, land-cover data and biomass-allocation to estimate leaf biomass in a process-based scheme. Model-estimated foliage mass and MODIS leaf area index are assumed to represent the most-accurate ground condition to estimate SLA for the entire globe at 0.5 degree resolution. Validation of estimated specific leaf area is done with a published field-sampled global dataset, and additional field-sampled SLA data collected from published literatures. The validation data is also used for rectification of unrealistic values of estimated SLA to produce a global SLA map, which we strongly believe, would be valuable to improve estimates of carbon dynamic across individual biomes upon assimilation with the ecosystem models.

  16. NPY receptor subtype specification for behavioral adaptive strategies during limited food access.

    PubMed

    Pjetri, E; Adan, R A; Herzog, H; de Haas, R; Oppelaar, H; Spierenburg, H A; Olivier, B; Kas, M J

    2012-02-01

    The neuropeptide Y (NPY) system in the brain regulates a wide variety of behavioral, metabolic and hormonal homeostatic processes required for energy balance control. During times of limited food availability, NPY promotes behavioral hyperactivity necessary to explore and prepare for novel food resources. As NPY can act via 5 different receptor subtypes, we investigated the path through which NPY affects different behavioral components relevant for adaptation to such conditions. We tested NPY Y1 and Y2 receptor knockout mice and their wild-type littermate controls in a daily scheduled limited food access paradigm with unlimited access to running wheel. Here we show that NPY Y1 receptor deficient mice lack the expression of appetitive behavior and that NPY Y2 receptors control the level of hyperactive behavior under these conditions. Thus, receptor specificity determines the differential expression of NPY-mediated behavioral adaptations to overcome a negative energy status.

  17. Specific Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass Substrate Surface Area and Enzymatic Digestibility

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Xiaohui; Grego, Courtnee; Zhang, Xiao

    2013-09-01

    To clarify the specific effect of biomass substrate surface area on its enzymatic digestibility, factors of fiber size reduction and swelling changes were investigated by using poplar substrates with controlled morphological and chemical properties after modified chemical pulping. Results showed that fiber size changes had insignificant influence on enzymatic hydrolysis, although the external surface area increased up to 41% with the reduction of fiber size. Swelling changes caused by increased biomass fiber porosities after PFI refining showed a significant influence on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. It is also found that chemical properties such as xylan and lignin content can influence the swelling effect. Xylan is confirmed to facilitate substrate hydrolysability by swelling, while lignin restricts swelling effect and thus minimizes the enzyme accessibility to substrates.

  18. Does distance decay modelling of supermarket accessibility predict fruit and vegetable intake by individuals in a large metropolitan area?

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Paul L; Dominguez, Fred.; Teklehaimanot, Senait.; Lee, Martin; Brown, Arleen; Goodchild, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity, a major risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, and other chronic diseases is influenced by a person’s local environmental setting. Accessibility to supermarkets has been shown to influence nutritional behaviors and obesity rates; however the specific local environmental conditions and behavioral mechanisms at work in this process remain unclear. Purpose To determine how individual fruit and vegetable consumption behavior was influenced by a distance decay based gravity model of neighborhood geographic accessibility to supermarkets, across neighborhoods in Los Angeles County, independent of other factors that are known to influence nutritional behaviors. Methods A distance decay based accessibility model (gravity model) was specified for a large sample (n=7,514) of urban residents. The associations between their fruit and vegetable consumption patterns and their local accessibility to supermarkets were explored, while controlling for covariates known to influence eating behaviors. Results Significant variation in geographic accessibility and nutritional behavior existed by age, gender, race and ethnicity, education, marital status, poverty status, neighborhood safety and knowledge of nutritional guidelines. Logistic regression showed an independent effect of geographic accessibility to supermarkets, even after the inclusion of known controlling factors. Conclusion A basic gravity model was an effective predictor of fruit and vegetable consumption in an urban population, setting the stage for inclusion of supply and demand parameters, and the ability to estimate local directions and magnitudes of the factors that contribute to the differential obesity rates found in United States urban areas. This knowledge will facilitate more targeted interventions that can help eliminate health disparities. PMID:23395954

  19. Racial composition of residential areas associates with access to pre-ESRD nephrology care.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Suma; Rodriguez, Rudolph A; Austin, Peter C; Saskin, Refik; Fernandez, Alicia; Moist, Louise M; O'Hare, Ann M

    2010-07-01

    Referral to a nephrologist before initiation of chronic dialysis occurs less frequently for blacks than whites, but the reasons for this disparity are incompletely understood. Here, we examined the contribution of racial composition by zip code on access and quality of nephrology care before initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT). We retrospectively studied a cohort study of 92,000 white and black adults who initiated RRT in the United States between June 1, 2005, and October 5, 2006. The percentage of patients without pre-ESRD nephrology care ranged from 30% among those who lived in zip codes with <5% black residents to 41% among those who lived in areas with >50% black residents. In adjusted analyses, as the percentage of blacks in residential areas increased, the likelihood of not receiving pre-ESRD nephrology care increased. Among patients who received nephrology care, the quality of care (timing of care and proportion of patients who received a pre-emptive renal transplant, who initiated therapy with peritoneal dialysis, or who had a permanent hemodialysis access) did not differ by the racial composition of their residential area. In conclusion, racial composition of residential areas associates with access to nephrology care but not with quality of the nephrology care received.

  20. Improving access to computer-based library and drug information services in patient-care areas.

    PubMed

    Tobia, R C; Bierschenk, N F; Knodel, L C; Bowden, V M

    1990-01-01

    A project to increase access to drug and biomedical information through electronic linkage of drug information and library services to three patient-care areas is described. In February 1987, microcomputer work stations were installed in the Bexar County Hospital District's hospital emergency department, medical residents' office, and ambulatory-care clinic, as well as in The University of Texas Health Science Center's library reference area and drug information service office. Drug information was available on compact disk through the Micromedex Computerized Clinical Information System (CCIS) database, which includes DRUGDEX, POISINDEX, EMERGINDEX, and IDENTIDEX. Each work station was also connected to the library's computer via modem, allowing access to the Library Information System, books, journals, audiovisual materials, miniMEDLINE, and an electronic mail system. During the six-month project, the system was used 5487 times by 702 people. The system was successful in providing drug and other information in clinical settings and in introducing clinical staff members to new information technology. To increase access to the system after the project ended, the CD-ROM version was discontinued, and the distributed tape version of CCIS for VAX computers was added to the library's online information system, making drug information more available throughout the campus and teaching hospitals. In 1988-89 an average of 200 people accessed the tape version of CCIS each month. Although it is difficult to replace the convenience of an onsite library, at least some drug and biomedical information needs in the clinical setting can be met through computer networking.

  1. Structural impediments to condom access in a High HIV/STI-risk area.

    PubMed

    Rizkalla, Christine; Bauman, Laurie J; Avner, Jeffrey R

    2010-01-01

    As embarrassment is a known obstacle to condom acquisition, selling condoms from physically inaccessible places that require personnel assistance constitutes a barrier to access. This study investigates the extent of this barrier in the Bronx, a high HIV/STI prevalence county of New York. 75 of 320 listed Bronx pharmacies were sampled via computer randomization. Investigators coded condom placement and physical accessibility within these pharmacies and 140 surrounding stores. 91% of sites sold condoms. In 82%, condoms could not be accessed without assistance. Condoms were physically inaccessible in venues most encountered in the community: grocery stores versus pharmacies (OR=15; 95% CI, 5-48), independent versus chain pharmacies (OR=32; 95% CI, 6-235). They were physically inaccessible more in the lowest SES/highest HIV prevalence areas versus the highest SES/lowest HIV prevalence areas (OR = 4.3, 95% CI, 1.1-17). Findings can inform efforts to increase accessibility of condoms, distribute condoms in alternative settings, and prompt similar investigations in other high-risk communities.

  2. Variation in low food access areas due to data source inaccuracies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Battersby, Sarah E; Bell, Bethany A; Hibbert, James D; Barnes, Timothy L; Liese, Angela D

    2013-12-01

    Several spatial measures of community food access identifying so called "food deserts" have been developed based on geospatial information and commercially-available, secondary data listings of food retail outlets. It is not known how data inaccuracies influence the designation of Census tracts as areas of low access. This study replicated the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) food desert measure and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) non-healthier food retail tract measure in two secondary data sources (InfoUSA and Dun & Bradstreet) and reference data from an eight-county field census covering169 Census tracts in South Carolina. For the USDA ERS food deserts measure accuracy statistics for secondary data sources were 94% concordance, 50-65% sensitivity, and 60-64% positive predictive value (PPV). Based on the CDC non-healthier food retail tracts both secondary data demonstrated 88-91% concordance, 80-86% sensitivity and 78-82% PPV. While inaccuracies in secondary data sources used to identify low food access areas may be acceptable for large-scale surveillance, verification with field work is advisable for local community efforts aimed at identifying and improving food access.

  3. Variation in low food access areas due to data source inaccuracies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Battersby, Sarah E.; Bell, Bethany A.; Hibbert, James D.; Barnes, Timothy L.; Liese, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    Several spatial measures of community food access identifying so called “food deserts” have been developed based on geospatial information and commercially-available, secondary data listings of food retail outlets. It is not known how data inaccuracies influence the designation of Census tracts as areas of low access. This study replicated the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) food desert measure and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) non-healthier food retail tract measure in two secondary data sources (InfoUSA and Dun & Bradstreet) and reference data from an eight-county field census covering169 Census tracts in South Carolina. For the USDA ERS food deserts measure accuracy statistics for secondary data sources were 94% concordance, 50–65% sensitivity, and 60–64% positive predictive value (PPV). Based on the CDC non-healthier food retail tracts both secondary data demonstrated 88–91% concordance, 80–86% sensitivity and 78–82% PPV. While inaccuracies in secondary data sources used to identify low food access areas may be acceptable for large-scale surveillance, verification with field work is advisable for local community efforts aimed at identifying and improving food access. PMID:24367136

  4. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Tominaga, Kazumichi; Takeda, Miwako; Sundquist, Kristina; Nabika, Toru

    2015-06-26

    Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant's address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271) were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (≤313 m) in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations.

  5. 78 FR 20796 - Data Specifications for Collecting Study Area Boundaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... reforms adopted as part of the USF/ICC Transformation Order, 76 FR 73830, November 29, 2011. The Study... various reforms. The original specifications were adopted in the Commission's Connect America Fund; High..., published at 78 FR 5750, January 28, 2013, OMB Control Number 3060-1181, adopting data specifications...

  6. Secure wide area network access to CMS analysis data using the Lustre filesystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourilkov, D.; Avery, P.; Cheng, M.; Fu, Y.; Kim, B.; Palencia, J.; Budden, R.; Benninger, K.; Rodriquez, J. L.; Dilascio, J.; Dykstra, D.; Seenu, N.

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports the design and implementation of a secure, wide area network (WAN), distributed filesystem by the ExTENCI project (Extending Science Through Enhanced National CyberInfrastructure), based on the Lustre filesystem. The system is used for remote access to analysis data from the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and from the Lattice Quantum ChromoDynamics (LQCD) project. Security is provided by Kerberos authentication and authorization with additional fine grained control based on Lustre ACLs (Access Control List) and quotas. We investigate the impact of using various Kerberos security flavors on the I/O rates of CMS applications on client nodes reading and writing data to the Lustre filesystem, and on LQCD benchmarks. The clients can be real or virtual nodes. We are investigating additional options for user authentication based on user certificates.

  7. Improving access to computer-based library and drug information services in patient-care areas.

    PubMed

    Tobia, R C; Bierschenk, N F; Knodel, L C; Bowden, V M

    1990-01-01

    A project to increase access to drug and biomedical information through electronic linkage of drug information and library services to three patient-care areas is described. In February 1987, microcomputer work stations were installed in the Bexar County Hospital District's hospital emergency department, medical residents' office, and ambulatory-care clinic, as well as in The University of Texas Health Science Center's library reference area and drug information service office. Drug information was available on compact disk through the Micromedex Computerized Clinical Information System (CCIS) database, which includes DRUGDEX, POISINDEX, EMERGINDEX, and IDENTIDEX. Each work station was also connected to the library's computer via modem, allowing access to the Library Information System, books, journals, audiovisual materials, miniMEDLINE, and an electronic mail system. During the six-month project, the system was used 5487 times by 702 people. The system was successful in providing drug and other information in clinical settings and in introducing clinical staff members to new information technology. To increase access to the system after the project ended, the CD-ROM version was discontinued, and the distributed tape version of CCIS for VAX computers was added to the library's online information system, making drug information more available throughout the campus and teaching hospitals. In 1988-89 an average of 200 people accessed the tape version of CCIS each month. Although it is difficult to replace the convenience of an onsite library, at least some drug and biomedical information needs in the clinical setting can be met through computer networking. PMID:2405657

  8. Atomic environment energies in proteins defined from statistics of accessible and contact surface areas.

    PubMed

    Delarue, M; Koehl, P

    1995-06-01

    Atomic contact potentials are derived by statistical analysis of atomic surface contact areas versus atom type in a database of non-homologous protein structures. The atomic environment is characterized by the surface area accessible to solvent and the surface of contacts with polar and non-polar atoms. Four types of atoms are considered, namely neutral polar atoms from protein backbones and from protein side-chains, non-polar atoms and charged atoms. Potential energies delta Ej(E) are defined from the preference for an atom of type j to be in a given environment E compared to the expected value if everything was random; Boltzmann's law is then used to transform these preferences into energies. These new potentials very clearly discriminate misfolded from correct structural models. The performance of these potentials are critically assessed by monitoring the recognition of the native fold among a large number of alternative structural folding types (the hide-and-seek procedure), as well as by testing if the native sequence can be recovered from a large number of randomly shuffled sequences for a given 3D fold (a procedure similar to the inverse folding problem). We suggest that these potentials reflect the atomic short range non-local interactions in proteins. To characterise atomic solvation alone, similar potentials were derived as a function of the percentage of solvent-accessible area alone. These energies were found to agree reasonably well with the solvation formalism of Eisenberg and McLachlan.

  9. 77 FR 37402 - Data Specifications for Collecting Study Area Boundaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ..., 76 FR 73830, November 29, 2011, and seeks comment on this proposal. In the USF/ICC Transformation... percent of an incumbent's study area. In the USF/ICC Transformation FNPRM, 76 FR 78384, December 16, 2011... Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63...

  10. 78 FR 5750 - Data Specifications for Collecting Study Area Boundaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... use the data to determine whether unsubsidized competitors offer service within all or a portion of an incumbent LEC's study area, and to phase out support where unsubsidized competitors offer voice and..., 445 12th Street SW., Room CY-B402, Washington, DC 20554. Customers may contact BCPI, Inc. via...

  11. Differential Site Accessibility Mechanistically Explains Subcellular-Specific N-Glycosylation Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ling Yen; Lin, Chi-Hung; Fanayan, Susan; Packer, Nicolle H.; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Glycoproteins perform extra- and intracellular functions in innate and adaptive immunity by lectin-based interactions to exposed glyco-determinants. Herein, we document and mechanistically explain the formation of subcellular-specific N-glycosylation determinants on glycoproteins trafficking through the shared biosynthetic machinery of human cells. LC-MS/MS-based quantitative glycomics showed that the secreted glycoproteins of eight human breast epithelial cells displaying diverse geno- and phenotypes consistently displayed more processed, primarily complex type, N-glycans than the high-mannose-rich microsomal glycoproteins. Detailed subcellular glycome profiling of proteins derived from three breast cell lines (MCF7/MDA468/MCF10A) demonstrated that secreted glycoproteins displayed significantly more α-sialylation and α1,6-fucosylation, but less α-mannosylation, than both the intermediately glycan-processed cell-surface glycoproteomes and the under-processed microsomal glycoproteomes. Subcellular proteomics and gene ontology revealed substantial presence of endoplasmic reticulum resident glycoproteins in the microsomes and confirmed significant enrichment of secreted and cell-surface glycoproteins in the respective subcellular fractions. The solvent accessibility of the glycosylation sites on maturely folded proteins of the 100 most abundant putative N-glycoproteins observed uniquely in the three subcellular glycoproteomes correlated with the glycan type processing thereby mechanistically explaining the formation of subcellular-specific N-glycosylation. In conclusion, human cells have developed mechanisms to simultaneously and reproducibly generate subcellular-specific N-glycosylation using a shared biosynthetic machinery. This aspect of protein-specific glycosylation is important for structural and functional glycobiology and discussed here in the context of the spatio-temporal interaction of glyco-determinants with lectins central to infection and immunity

  12. Wide area network access to CMS data using the LustreTM filesystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. L.; Avery, P.; Brody, T.; Bourilkov, D.; Fu, Y.; Kim, B.; Prescott, C.; Wu, Y.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of the LustreTM cluster filesystem over the wide area network to access Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) data stored on physical devices located hundreds of kilometres away. We describe the experimental testbed and report on the I/O performance of applications writing and reading data on the distributed LustreTM filesystem established across the WAN. We compare the I/O performance of a CMS application to the performance obtained with IOzone, a standard benchmark tool. We then examine the I/O performance of the CMS application running multiple processes on a single server. And compare the Lustre results to results obtained on data stored on local filesystems. Our measurements reveal that the IOzone benchmark tool, accessing data sequentially, can saturate the Gbps network link that connects our Lustre client in Miami Florida to the Lustre storage located in Gainesville, Florida. We also find that the I/O rates of the CMS application is significantly less than what can be obtained with IOzone for sequential access to data.

  13. Chronic Disease Patients’ Experiences With Accessing Health Care in Rural and Remote Areas

    PubMed Central

    Brundisini, F; Giacomini, M; DeJean, D; Vanstone, M; Winsor, S; Smith, A

    2013-01-01

    Background Rurality can contribute to the vulnerability of people with chronic diseases. Qualitative research can identify a wide range of health care access issues faced by patients living in a remote or rural setting. Objective To systematically review and synthesize qualitative research on the advantages and disadvantages rural patients with chronic diseases face when accessing both rural and distant care. Data Sources This report synthesizes 12 primary qualitative studies on the topic of access to health care for rural patients with chronic disease. Included studies were published between 2002 and 2012 and followed adult patients in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Review Methods Qualitative meta-synthesis was used to integrate findings across primary research studies. Results Three major themes were identified: geography, availability of health care professionals, and rural culture. First, geographic distance from services poses access barriers, worsened by transportation problems or weather conditions. Community supports and rurally located services can help overcome these challenges. Second, the limited availability of health care professionals (coupled with low education or lack of peer support) increases the feeling of vulnerability. When care is available locally, patients appreciate long-term relationships with individual clinicians and care personalized by familiarity with the patient as a person. Finally, patients may feel culturally marginalized in the urban health care context, especially if health literacy is low. A culture of self-reliance and community belonging in rural areas may incline patients to do without distant care and may mitigate feelings of vulnerability. Limitations Qualitative research findings are not intended to generalize directly to populations, although meta-synthesis across a number of qualitative studies builds an increasingly robust understanding that is more likely to be transferable. Selected studies

  14. Area Disparity in Children's Perceptions of Access to Tobacco and Cigarette Purchasing Experiences in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Heng; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Fu-Li; Yen, Yea-Yin; Lin, Pi-Li; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Lee, Chien-Hung; Peng, Wu-Der; Chen, Ted; Lu, Di-Lin; Huang, Hsiao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescents who perceive easy access to tobacco are more likely to acquire cigarettes and experience smoking. This study assesses area disparities in perceptions of access to tobacco and cigarette purchasing experiences among schoolchildren. Methods: Data on children's tobacco-related variables were obtained from the Control of…

  15. 33 CFR 125.15 - Access to waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft therein. 125.15 Section 125.15....15 Access to waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor craft....09 to those waterfront facilities, and port and harbor areas, including vessels and harbor...

  16. In vivo protein biotinylation and sample preparation for the proteomic identification of organ- and disease-specific antigens accessible from the vasculature.

    PubMed

    Roesli, Christoph; Neri, Dario; Rybak, Jascha-N

    2006-01-01

    Targeted delivery of bioactive molecules to diseased organs or tissues by means of binding molecules specific to markers of diseases represents a promising area of pharmaceutical intervention. The availability of markers of pathology, ideally accessible from the vasculature, is crucial for such strategies. To this aim, here we present a protocol based on terminal perfusion of mice with a reactive ester derivate of biotin that enables the covalent modification of proteins readily accessible from the bloodstream. Biotinylated proteins from total organ or tissue extracts are (i) purified on streptavidin resin in the presence of strong detergents, (ii) digested on the resin and (iii) subjected to proteomic analysis. This technology is applicable to comparative proteomic investigations of differentially expressed, accessible proteins in numerous animal models having different physiological and pathological processes. PMID:17406232

  17. An Enhanced Variable Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method for Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Residential Care Facilities in Nanjing.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jianhua; Wang, Jinyin; Rui, Yikang; Qian, Tianlu; Wang, Jiechen

    2015-11-13

    Civil administration departments require reliable measures of accessibility so that residential care facility shortage areas can be accurately identified. Building on previous research, this paper proposes an enhanced variable two-step floating catchment area (EV2SFCA) method that determines facility catchment sizes by dynamically summing the population around the facility until the facility-to-population ratio (FPR) is less than the FPR threshold (FPRT). To minimize the errors from the supply and demand catchments being mismatched, this paper proposes that the facility and population catchment areas must both contain the other location in calculating accessibility. A case study evaluating spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in accurately determining catchment sizes and identifying details in the variation of spatial accessibility. The proposed method can be easily applied to assess other public healthcare facilities, and can provide guidance to government departments on issues of spatial planning and identification of shortage and excess areas.

  18. Develop and test a solvent accessible surface area-based model in conformational entropy calculations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junmei; Hou, Tingjun

    2012-05-25

    It is of great interest in modern drug design to accurately calculate the free energies of protein-ligand or nucleic acid-ligand binding. MM-PBSA (molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area) and MM-GBSA (molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area) have gained popularity in this field. For both methods, the conformational entropy, which is usually calculated through normal-mode analysis (NMA), is needed to calculate the absolute binding free energies. Unfortunately, NMA is computationally demanding and becomes a bottleneck of the MM-PB/GBSA-NMA methods. In this work, we have developed a fast approach to estimate the conformational entropy based upon solvent accessible surface area calculations. In our approach, the conformational entropy of a molecule, S, can be obtained by summing up the contributions of all atoms, no matter they are buried or exposed. Each atom has two types of surface areas, solvent accessible surface area (SAS) and buried SAS (BSAS). The two types of surface areas are weighted to estimate the contribution of an atom to S. Atoms having the same atom type share the same weight and a general parameter k is applied to balance the contributions of the two types of surface areas. This entropy model was parametrized using a large set of small molecules for which their conformational entropies were calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G* level taking the solvent effect into account. The weighted solvent accessible surface area (WSAS) model was extensively evaluated in three tests. For convenience, TS values, the product of temperature T and conformational entropy S, were calculated in those tests. T was always set to 298.15 K through the text. First of all, good correlations were achieved between WSAS TS and NMA TS for 44 protein or nucleic acid systems sampled with molecular dynamics simulations (10 snapshots were collected for postentropy calculations): the mean correlation coefficient squares (R²) was 0.56. As to the 20 complexes, the TS

  19. From the Nano- to the Formation Scale: Accessible Reactive Surface Area in a CO2 Saline Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, A.; Cole, D. R.; Sheets, J. M.; Anovitz, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Among the outstanding subsurface science challenges today is the translation of our improved understanding of pore-scale reactive transport and bench-scale geochemical rates of reaction to the prediction of long-term formation response to the sequestration of carbon dioxide. The emergent complexity of CO2-brine-rock interactions, on a large scale, over long periods of time (up to 1000 years) arises from a number of imperfectly understood factors. Of these, the accessibility of reactive surfaces distinguishes natural materials from powders commonly used in reaction rate studies, and geologic heterogeneity requires a workflow that connects samples, not to depths, but to material types that, combined, constitute a subsurface formation. To this end, core samples targeting every lithology type (quartz arenite, quartz-feldspar arenite, hematitic matrix-rich sandstone, clay-silt lens) observed in two bore holes through the Mt. Simon Sandstone of Ohio have been interrogated. Small- and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (SANS, USANS) and mercury and gas porosimetry (MICP, BET) have been used to quantify pore and pore throat distributions, and therefore pore volume accessibility at any given intrusion pressure. Mineral surface area is calculated using high-resolution SEM-BSE imagery combined with energy dispersive X-ray mineral mapping, and then extended beyond the limit of image-based techniques by using BET estimates for specific minerals. Combined, these datasets enable the quantification of mineral-specific, connected surface area as a function of pore/fracture scale. This is a defining feature of a pore-mineral assemblage, the microanalysis analogue of a macroscale lithology. The whole formation is then reconstructed by connecting pore-mineral assemblages to lithologies, defined by permeability/porosity and by mineralogy, and these in turn to the whole vertical extent of the formation using coarser-scale images of whole core. This effort therefore contributes both to

  20. Functional Specificity of the Visual Word Form Area: General Activation for Words and Symbols but Specific Network Activation for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Karen; Fernandes, Myra; Schwindt, Graeme; O'Craven, Kathleen; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    The functional specificity of the brain region known as the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) was examined using fMRI. We explored whether this area serves a general role in processing symbolic stimuli, rather than being selective for the processing of words. Brain activity was measured during a visual 1-back task to English words, meaningful symbols…

  1. Helmsley trust support for telehealth improves access to care in rural and frontier areas.

    PubMed

    Stingley, Shelley; Schultz, Heidi

    2014-02-01

    Rural residents in need of health care face many challenges. In 2009 the Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust created the Rural Healthcare Program to improve access to and quality of care in areas of the upper Midwest challenged by health care workforce shortages and low population density. The program has focused its efforts on telehealth in seven upper Midwestern states. Since 2009 the Rural Healthcare Program has approved $22 million in grants to eighty-five rural hospitals to implement eEmergency services. The service's videoconferencing technology connects rural emergency department staff with emergency physicians and nurses located at the service's "hub." Initial analyses indicate that eEmergency has helped participating rural hospitals increase patients' access to specialists, increase the use of evidence-based treatment, decrease time to transfer a patient to a facility able to provide a higher level of care, and reduce unnecessary patient transfers. This article describes the health care challenges rural communities face and the telehealth projects supported by the Helmsley Trust's Rural Healthcare Program. PMID:24493777

  2. Helmsley trust support for telehealth improves access to care in rural and frontier areas.

    PubMed

    Stingley, Shelley; Schultz, Heidi

    2014-02-01

    Rural residents in need of health care face many challenges. In 2009 the Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust created the Rural Healthcare Program to improve access to and quality of care in areas of the upper Midwest challenged by health care workforce shortages and low population density. The program has focused its efforts on telehealth in seven upper Midwestern states. Since 2009 the Rural Healthcare Program has approved $22 million in grants to eighty-five rural hospitals to implement eEmergency services. The service's videoconferencing technology connects rural emergency department staff with emergency physicians and nurses located at the service's "hub." Initial analyses indicate that eEmergency has helped participating rural hospitals increase patients' access to specialists, increase the use of evidence-based treatment, decrease time to transfer a patient to a facility able to provide a higher level of care, and reduce unnecessary patient transfers. This article describes the health care challenges rural communities face and the telehealth projects supported by the Helmsley Trust's Rural Healthcare Program.

  3. GPU/CPU Algorithm for Generalized Born/Solvent-Accessible Surface Area Implicit Solvent Calculations.

    PubMed

    Tanner, David E; Phillips, James C; Schulten, Klaus

    2012-07-10

    Molecular dynamics methodologies comprise a vital research tool for structural biology. Molecular dynamics has benefited from technological advances in computing, such as multi-core CPUs and graphics processing units (GPUs), but harnessing the full power of hybrid GPU/CPU computers remains difficult. The generalized Born/solvent-accessible surface area implicit solvent model (GB/SA) stands to benefit from hybrid GPU/CPU computers, employing the GPU for the GB calculation and the CPU for the SA calculation. Here, we explore the computational challenges facing GB/SA calculations on hybrid GPU/CPU computers and demonstrate how NAMD, a parallel molecular dynamics program, is able to efficiently utilize GPUs and CPUs simultaneously for fast GB/SA simulations. The hybrid computation principles demonstrated here are generally applicable to parallel applications employing hybrid GPU/CPU calculations.

  4. FreeSASA: An open source C library for solvent accessible surface area calculations

    PubMed Central

    Mitternacht, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Calculating solvent accessible surface areas (SASA) is a run-of-the-mill calculation in structural biology. Although there are many programs available for this calculation, there are no free-standing, open-source tools designed for easy tool-chain integration. FreeSASA is an open source C library for SASA calculations that provides both command-line and Python interfaces in addition to its C API. The library implements both Lee and Richards’ and Shrake and Rupley’s approximations, and is highly configurable to allow the user to control molecular parameters, accuracy and output granularity. It only depends on standard C libraries and should therefore be easy to compile and install on any platform. The library is well-documented, stable and efficient. The command-line interface can easily replace closed source legacy programs, with comparable or better accuracy and speed, and with some added functionality. PMID:26973785

  5. FreeSASA: An open source C library for solvent accessible surface area calculations.

    PubMed

    Mitternacht, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Calculating solvent accessible surface areas (SASA) is a run-of-the-mill calculation in structural biology. Although there are many programs available for this calculation, there are no free-standing, open-source tools designed for easy tool-chain integration. FreeSASA is an open source C library for SASA calculations that provides both command-line and Python interfaces in addition to its C API. The library implements both Lee and Richards' and Shrake and Rupley's approximations, and is highly configurable to allow the user to control molecular parameters, accuracy and output granularity. It only depends on standard C libraries and should therefore be easy to compile and install on any platform. The library is well-documented, stable and efficient. The command-line interface can easily replace closed source legacy programs, with comparable or better accuracy and speed, and with some added functionality.

  6. The Effect of 200 MPa Pressure on Specific Surface Area of Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koszela-Marek, Ewa

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory studies of the 200 MPa pressure effect on specific surface area of clay. The original high-pressure investigation stand was used for the pressure tests. Determination of the specific surface area was performed by the methylene blue adsorption method. The results of the specific surface area test were compared for non-pressurized clays and for clays pressured in a high-pressure chamber. It was found that the specific surface area of pressurized soil clearly increased. This shows that some microstructural changes take place in the soil skeleton of clays.

  7. Development traumatic brain injury computer user interface for disaster area in Indonesia supported by emergency broadband access network.

    PubMed

    Sutiono, Agung Budi; Suwa, Hirohiko; Ohta, Toshizumi; Arifin, Muh Zafrullah; Kitamura, Yohei; Yoshida, Kazunari; Merdika, Daduk; Qiantori, Andri; Iskandar

    2012-12-01

    Disasters bring consequences of negative impacts on the environment and human life. One of the common cause of critical condition is traumatic brain injury (TBI), namely, epidural (EDH) and subdural hematoma (SDH), due to downfall hard things during earthquake. We proposed and analyzed the user response, namely neurosurgeon, general doctor/surgeon and nurse when they interacted with TBI computer interface. The communication systems was supported by TBI web based applications using emergency broadband access network with tethered balloon and simulated in the field trial to evaluate the coverage area. The interface consisted of demography data and multi tabs for anamnesis, treatment, follow up and teleconference interfaces. The interface allows neurosurgeon, surgeon/general doctors and nurses to entry the EDH and SDH patient's data during referring them on the emergency simulation and evaluated based on time needs and their understanding. The average time needed was obtained after simulated by Lenovo T500 notebook using mouse; 8-10 min for neurosurgeons, 12-15 min for surgeons/general doctors and 15-19 min for nurses. By using Think Pad X201 Tablet, the time needed for entry data was 5-7 min for neurosurgeon, 7-10 min for surgeons/general doctors and 12-16 min for nurses. We observed that the time difference was depending on the computer type and user literacy qualification as well as their understanding on traumatic brain injury, particularly for the nurses. In conclusion, there are five data classification for simply TBI GUI, namely, 1) demography, 2) specific anamnesis for EDH and SDH, 3) treatment action and medicine of TBI, 4) follow up data display and 5) teleneurosurgery for streaming video consultation. The type of computer, particularly tablet PC was more convenient and faster for entry data, compare to that computer mouse touched pad. Emergency broadband access network using tethered balloon is possible to be employed to cover the communications systems in

  8. Development traumatic brain injury computer user interface for disaster area in Indonesia supported by emergency broadband access network.

    PubMed

    Sutiono, Agung Budi; Suwa, Hirohiko; Ohta, Toshizumi; Arifin, Muh Zafrullah; Kitamura, Yohei; Yoshida, Kazunari; Merdika, Daduk; Qiantori, Andri; Iskandar

    2012-12-01

    Disasters bring consequences of negative impacts on the environment and human life. One of the common cause of critical condition is traumatic brain injury (TBI), namely, epidural (EDH) and subdural hematoma (SDH), due to downfall hard things during earthquake. We proposed and analyzed the user response, namely neurosurgeon, general doctor/surgeon and nurse when they interacted with TBI computer interface. The communication systems was supported by TBI web based applications using emergency broadband access network with tethered balloon and simulated in the field trial to evaluate the coverage area. The interface consisted of demography data and multi tabs for anamnesis, treatment, follow up and teleconference interfaces. The interface allows neurosurgeon, surgeon/general doctors and nurses to entry the EDH and SDH patient's data during referring them on the emergency simulation and evaluated based on time needs and their understanding. The average time needed was obtained after simulated by Lenovo T500 notebook using mouse; 8-10 min for neurosurgeons, 12-15 min for surgeons/general doctors and 15-19 min for nurses. By using Think Pad X201 Tablet, the time needed for entry data was 5-7 min for neurosurgeon, 7-10 min for surgeons/general doctors and 12-16 min for nurses. We observed that the time difference was depending on the computer type and user literacy qualification as well as their understanding on traumatic brain injury, particularly for the nurses. In conclusion, there are five data classification for simply TBI GUI, namely, 1) demography, 2) specific anamnesis for EDH and SDH, 3) treatment action and medicine of TBI, 4) follow up data display and 5) teleneurosurgery for streaming video consultation. The type of computer, particularly tablet PC was more convenient and faster for entry data, compare to that computer mouse touched pad. Emergency broadband access network using tethered balloon is possible to be employed to cover the communications systems in

  9. Setting Up a Library Accessible Area for the Blind or Visually Impaired: Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Dawn

    1997-01-01

    Discusses library planning for services for blind and visually impaired users, including access needs of patrons, available library space, appropriate adaptive technology, equipment costs and budget resources, Internet access, and staff training. A list of pertinent resources is appended. (LRW)

  10. 15 CFR Appendix III to Subpart P... - Wildlife Management Areas Access Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) around entire key. Little Mullet Key No-access buffer zone (300 feet) around entire key. Big Mullet Key No-motor zone (300 feet) around entire key. Crocodile Lake No-access buffer zone (100 feet) along shoreline between March 1 and October 1. East Harbor Key No-access buffer zone (300 feet)...

  11. 15 CFR Appendix III to Subpart P... - Wildlife Management Areas Access Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) around entire key. Little Mullet Key No-access buffer zone (300 feet) around entire key. Big Mullet Key No-motor zone (300 feet) around entire key. Crocodile Lake No-access buffer zone (100 feet) along shoreline between March 1 and October 1. East Harbor Key No-access buffer zone (300 feet)...

  12. 15 CFR Appendix III to Subpart P... - Wildlife Management Areas Access Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) around entire key. Little Mullet Key No-access buffer zone (300 feet) around entire key. Big Mullet Key No-motor zone (300 feet) around entire key. Crocodile Lake No-access buffer zone (100 feet) along shoreline between March 1 and October 1. East Harbor Key No-access buffer zone (300 feet)...

  13. 15 CFR Appendix III to Subpart P... - Wildlife Management Areas Access Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) around entire key. Little Mullet Key No-access buffer zone (300 feet) around entire key. Big Mullet Key No-motor zone (300 feet) around entire key. Crocodile Lake No-access buffer zone (100 feet) along shoreline between March 1 and October 1. East Harbor Key No-access buffer zone (300 feet)...

  14. 15 CFR Appendix III to Subpart P... - Wildlife Management Areas Access Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) around entire key. Little Mullet Key No-access buffer zone (300 feet) around entire key. Big Mullet Key No-motor zone (300 feet) around entire key. Crocodile Lake No-access buffer zone (100 feet) along shoreline between March 1 and October 1. East Harbor Key No-access buffer zone (300 feet)...

  15. Develop and Test a Solvent Accessible Surface Area-Based Model in Conformational Entropy Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junmei; Hou, Tingjun

    2012-01-01

    It is of great interest in modern drug design to accurately calculate the free energies of protein-ligand or nucleic acid-ligand binding. MM-PBSA (Molecular Mechanics-Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area) and MM-GBSA (Molecular Mechanics-Generalized Born Surface Area) have gained popularity in this field. For both methods, the conformational entropy, which is usually calculated through normal mode analysis (NMA), is needed to calculate the absolute binding free energies. Unfortunately, NMA is computationally demanding and becomes a bottleneck of the MM-PB/GBSA-NMA methods. In this work, we have developed a fast approach to estimate the conformational entropy based upon solvent accessible surface area calculations. In our approach, the conformational entropy of a molecule, S, can be obtained by summing up the contributions of all atoms, no matter they are buried or exposed. Each atom has two types of surface areas, solvent accessible surface area (SAS) and buried SAS (BSAS). The two types of surface areas are weighted to estimate the contribution of an atom to S. Atoms having the same atom type share the same weight and a general parameter k is applied to balance the contributions of the two types of surface areas. This entropy model was parameterized using a large set of small molecules for which their conformational entropies were calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G* level taking the solvent effect into account. The weighted solvent accessible surface area (WSAS) model was extensively evaluated in three tests. For the convenience, TS, the product of temperature T and conformational entropy S, were calculated in those tests. T was always set to 298.15 K through the text. First of all, good correlations were achieved between WSAS TS and NMA TS for 44 protein or nucleic acid systems sampled with molecular dynamics simulations (10 snapshots were collected for post-entropy calculations): the mean correlation coefficient squares (R2) was 0.56. As to the 20 complexes, the TS changes

  16. Educational Specifications for Administrative and Support Areas in School Buildings: Considerations in Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Ronald E.

    1986-01-01

    Educational specifications should contain the following factors for each activity space: objectives, activities, persons to be accommodated, space requirements, spatial relationships, equipment, and special environmental treatments. A list of specifics for administrative areas and food service areas are representative of decisions that must be…

  17. Early Activity in Broca's Area During Reading Reflects Fast Access to Articulatory Codes From Print.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michael; Grainger, Jonathan; Wheat, Katherine L; Millman, Rebecca E; Simpson, Michael I G; Hansen, Peter C; Cornelissen, Piers L

    2015-07-01

    Prior evidence for early activity in Broca's area during reading may reflect fast access to articulatory codes in left inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis (LIFGpo). We put this hypothesis to test using a benchmark for articulatory involvement in reading known as the masked onset priming effect (MOPE). In masked onset priming, briefly presented pronounceable strings of letters that share an initial phoneme with subsequently presented target words (e.g., gilp-GAME) facilitate word naming responses compared with unrelated primes (dilp-GAME). Crucially, these priming effects only occur when the task requires articulation (naming), and not when it requires lexical decisions. A standard explanation of masked onset priming is that it reflects fast computation of articulatory output codes from letter representations. We therefore predicted 1) that activity in left IFG pars opercularis would be modulated by masked onset priming, 2) that priming-related modulation in LIFGpo would immediately follow activity in occipital cortex, and 3) that this modulation would be greater for naming than for lexical decision. These predictions were confirmed in a magnetoencephalography (MEG) priming study. MOPEs emerged in left IFG at ∼100 ms posttarget onset, and the priming effects were more sustained when the task involved articulation.

  18. Accurate single-sequence prediction of solvent accessible surface area using local and global features.

    PubMed

    Faraggi, Eshel; Zhou, Yaoqi; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    We present a new approach for predicting the Accessible Surface Area (ASA) using a General Neural Network (GENN). The novelty of the new approach lies in not using residue mutation profiles generated by multiple sequence alignments as descriptive inputs. Instead we use solely sequential window information and global features such as single-residue and two-residue compositions of the chain. The resulting predictor is both highly more efficient than sequence alignment-based predictors and of comparable accuracy to them. Introduction of the global inputs significantly helps achieve this comparable accuracy. The predictor, termed ASAquick, is tested on predicting the ASA of globular proteins and found to perform similarly well for so-called easy and hard cases indicating generalizability and possible usability for de-novo protein structure prediction. The source code and a Linux executables for GENN and ASAquick are available from Research and Information Systems at http://mamiris.com, from the SPARKS Lab at http://sparks-lab.org, and from the Battelle Center for Mathematical Medicine at http://mathmed.org. PMID:25204636

  19. Target accessibility and signal specificity in live-cell detection of BMP-4 mRNA using molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Won Jong; Santangelo, Philip J; Jo, Hanjoong; Bao, Gang

    2008-03-01

    The ability to visualize mRNA in single living cells and monitor in real-time the changes of mRNA level and localization can provide unprecedented opportunities for biological and disease studies. However, the mRNA detection specificity and sensitivity are critically dependent on the selection of target sequences and their accessibility. We carried out an extensive study of the target accessibility of BMP-4 mRNA using 10 different designs of molecular beacons (MBs), and identified the optimal beacon design. Specifically, for MB design 1 and 8 (MB1 and MB8), the fluorescent intensities from BMP-4 mRNA correlated well with the GFP signal after upregulating BMP-4 and co-expressing GFP using adenovirus, and the knockdown of BMP-4 mRNA using siRNA significantly reduced the beacon signals, demonstrating detection specificity. The beacon specificity was further confirmed using blocking RNA and in situ hybridization. We found that fluorescence signal from MBs depends critically on target sequences; the target sequences corresponding to siRNA sites may not be good sites for beacon-based mRNA detection, and vice versa. Possible beacon design rules are identified and approaches for enhancing target accessibility are discussed. This has significant implications to MB design for live cell mRNA detection.

  20. Economic Insights into Providing Access to Improved Groundwater Sources in Remote, Low-Resource Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, A.; Lazarovitch, N.; Adar, E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is often the most or only feasible drinking water source in remote, low-resource areas. Yet the economics of its development have not been systematically outlined. We applied CBARWI (Cost-Benefit Analysis for Remote Water Improvements), a recently developed Decision Support System, to investigate the economic, physical and management factors related to the costs and benefits of non-networked groundwater supply in remote areas. Synthetic profiles of community water services (n = 17,962), defined across 14 parameters' values and ranges relevant to remote areas, were imputed into the decision framework, and the parameter effects on economic outcomes were investigated through regression analysis (Table 1). Several approaches were included for financing the improvements, after Abramson et al, 2011: willingness-to -pay (WTP), -borrow (WTB) and -work (WTW) in community irrigation (';water-for-work'). We found that low-cost groundwater development approaches are almost 7 times more cost-effective than conventional boreholes fitted with handpumps. The costs of electric, submersible borehole pumps are comparable only when providing expanded water supplies, and off-grid communities pay significantly more for such expansions. In our model, new source construction is less cost-effective than improvement of existing wells, but necessary for expanding access to isolated households. The financing approach significantly impacts the feasibility of demand-driven cost recovery; in our investigation, benefit exceeds cost in 16, 32 and 48% of water service configurations financed by WTP, WTB and WTW, respectively. Regressions of total cost (R2 = 0.723) and net benefit under WTW (R2 = 0.829) along with analysis of output distributions indicate that parameters determining the profitability of irrigation are different from those determining costs and other measures of net benefit. These findings suggest that the cost-benefit outcomes associated with groundwater-based water

  1. Tuneable ultra high specific surface area Mg/Al-CO3 layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunping; Wangriya, Aunchana; Buffet, Jean-Charles; O'Hare, Dermot

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis of tuneable ultra high specific surface area Aqueous Miscible Organic solvent-Layered Double Hydroxides (AMO-LDHs). We have investigated the effects of different solvent dispersion volumes, dispersion times and the number of re-dispersion cycles specific surface area of AMO-LDHs. In particular, the effects of acetone dispersion on two different morphology AMO-LDHs (Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH flowers and Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH plates) was investigated. It was found that the amount of acetone used in the dispersion step process can significantly affect the specific surface area of Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH flowers while the dispersion time in acetone is critical factor to obtain high specific surface area Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH plates. Optimisation of the acetone washing steps enables Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH to have high specific surface area up to 365 m(2) g(-1) for LDH flowers and 263 m(2) g(-1) for LDH plates. In addition, spray drying was found to be an effective and practical drying method to increase the specific surface area by a factor of 1.75. Our findings now form the basis of an effective general strategy to obtain ultrahigh specific surface area LDHs.

  2. Differences in Food Environment Perceptions and Spatial Attributes of Food Shopping between Residents of Low and High Food Access Areas

    PubMed Central

    Sohi, Inderbir; Bell, Bethany A.; Liu, Jihong; Battersby, Sarah E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore potential differences in food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions between residents living in areas with low and high food access. Design A cross-sectional telephone survey to assess food shopping behaviors and perceptions. Data from an eight-county food environment field census used to define the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) healthier food retail tract and USDA ERS (United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service) food desert measure. Participants 968 residents in eight South Carolina counties. Main Outcome Measures Residents’ food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions. Analysis Linear and logistic regression. Results Compared to residents in high food access areas, residents in low food access areas traveled further to their primary food store (USDA ERS: 8.8 vs. 7.1 miles, p=0.03; CDC: 9.2 vs. 6.1 miles, p<0.001), accumulated more total shopping miles per week; CDC 28.0 vs. 15.4 miles, p<0.001) and showed differences in perceived healthy food availability (p<0.001) and shopping access (p<0.001). Conclusions and Implications These findings lend support to ongoing community and policy interventions aimed at reducing food access disparities. PMID:24560861

  3. The Pioneer Transcription Factor FoxA Maintains an Accessible Nucleosome Configuration at Enhancers for Tissue-Specific Gene Activation.

    PubMed

    Iwafuchi-Doi, Makiko; Donahue, Greg; Kakumanu, Akshay; Watts, Jason A; Mahony, Shaun; Pugh, B Franklin; Lee, Dolim; Kaestner, Klaus H; Zaret, Kenneth S

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear DNA wraps around core histones to form nucleosomes, which restricts the binding of transcription factors to gene regulatory sequences. Pioneer transcription factors can bind DNA sites on nucleosomes and initiate gene regulatory events, often leading to the local opening of chromatin. However, the nucleosomal configuration of open chromatin and the basis for its regulation is unclear. We combined low and high levels of micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion along with core histone mapping to assess the nucleosomal configuration at enhancers and promoters in mouse liver. We find that MNase-accessible nucleosomes, bound by transcription factors, are retained more at liver-specific enhancers than at promoters and ubiquitous enhancers. The pioneer factor FoxA displaces linker histone H1, thereby keeping enhancer nucleosomes accessible in chromatin and allowing other liver-specific transcription factors to bind and stimulate transcription. Thus, nucleosomes are not exclusively repressive to gene regulation when they are retained with, and exposed by, pioneer factors.

  4. Computation of Atomic Solvent Accessible Surface Areas and Gradients for the Calculation of Solvation Energy and Forces on Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Michelle; Fennel, Christopher; Coutsias, Evangelos; Dill, Kenneth; Brini, Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    Many models for the calculation of solvation energy and forces on a molecule involve atomic solvent accessible surface areas and their gradients. We present analytical formulas for such areas and gradients which utilize the Delaunay tetrahedrization of a molecule and its subset called the α-complex. These formulas have been implemented in a fast computer program in conjunction with a solvation approach called Semi Explicit Assembly (SEA), and has shown to produce quick and physically accurate results.

  5. An Enhanced Variable Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method for Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Residential Care Facilities in Nanjing

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jianhua; Wang, Jinyin; Rui, Yikang; Qian, Tianlu; Wang, Jiechen

    2015-01-01

    Civil administration departments require reliable measures of accessibility so that residential care facility shortage areas can be accurately identified. Building on previous research, this paper proposes an enhanced variable two-step floating catchment area (EV2SFCA) method that determines facility catchment sizes by dynamically summing the population around the facility until the facility-to-population ratio (FPR) is less than the FPR threshold (FPRT). To minimize the errors from the supply and demand catchments being mismatched, this paper proposes that the facility and population catchment areas must both contain the other location in calculating accessibility. A case study evaluating spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in accurately determining catchment sizes and identifying details in the variation of spatial accessibility. The proposed method can be easily applied to assess other public healthcare facilities, and can provide guidance to government departments on issues of spatial planning and identification of shortage and excess areas. PMID:26580637

  6. An Enhanced Variable Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method for Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Residential Care Facilities in Nanjing.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jianhua; Wang, Jinyin; Rui, Yikang; Qian, Tianlu; Wang, Jiechen

    2015-11-01

    Civil administration departments require reliable measures of accessibility so that residential care facility shortage areas can be accurately identified. Building on previous research, this paper proposes an enhanced variable two-step floating catchment area (EV2SFCA) method that determines facility catchment sizes by dynamically summing the population around the facility until the facility-to-population ratio (FPR) is less than the FPR threshold (FPRT). To minimize the errors from the supply and demand catchments being mismatched, this paper proposes that the facility and population catchment areas must both contain the other location in calculating accessibility. A case study evaluating spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in accurately determining catchment sizes and identifying details in the variation of spatial accessibility. The proposed method can be easily applied to assess other public healthcare facilities, and can provide guidance to government departments on issues of spatial planning and identification of shortage and excess areas. PMID:26580637

  7. Specific surface area of a crushed welded tuff before and after aqueous dissolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Claassen, H.C.

    1994-01-01

    Specific surface areas were measured for several reference minerals (anorthoclase, labradorite and augite), welded tuff and stream sediments from Snowshoe Mountain, near Creede, Colorado. Crushed and sieved tuff had an unexpectedly small variation in specific surface area over a range of size fractions. Replicate surface area measurements of the largest and smallest tuff particle size fractions examined (1-0.3 mm and <0.212 mm) were 2.3 ?? 0.2 m2/g for each size fraction. Reference minerals prepared in the same way as the tuff had smaller specific surface areas than that of the tuff of the same size fraction. Higher than expected tuff specific surface areas appear to be due to porous matrix. Tuff, reacted in solutions with pH values from 2 to 6, had little change in specific surface area in comparison with unreacted tuff. Tuff, reacted with solutions having high acid concentrations (0.1 M hydrochloric acid or sulfuric-hydrofluoric acid), exhibited a marked increase in specific surface area compared to unreacted tuff. ?? 1994.

  8. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  9. Properties that Influence the Specific Surface Areas of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    BIRCH, M. EILEEN; RUDA-EBERENZ, TONI A.; CHAI, MING; ANDREWS, RONNEE; HATFIELD, RANDAL L.

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available carbon nanotubes and nanofibers were analyzed to examine possible relationships between their Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface areas (SSAs) and their physical and chemical properties. Properties found to influence surface area were number of walls/diameter, impurities, and surface functionalization with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Characterization by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis indicates that SSA can provide insight on carbon nanomaterials properties, which can differ vastly depending on synthesis parameters and post-production treatments. In this study, how different properties may influence surface area is discussed. The materials examined have a wide range of surface areas. The measured surface areas differed from product specifications, to varying degrees, and between similar products. Findings emphasize the multiple factors that influence surface area and mark its utility in carbon nanomaterial characterization, a prerequisite to understanding their potential applications and toxicities. Implications for occupational monitoring are discussed. PMID:24029925

  10. Effect of an organic amendment on availability and bio-accessibility of some metals in soils of urban recreational areas.

    PubMed

    Florido, María del Carmen; Madrid, Fernando; Madrid, Luis

    2011-02-01

    A composted biosolid from wastewater treatment was added to soils of two public parks of Sevilla, and successive samples were taken during one year. In one of the parks, a second addition of biosolid was carried out after the first year. The soil contents in metals (pseudo-total) and their plant-available and oral bio-accessible fractions were significantly altered when the soils were amended with biosolid. Increase of the bio-accessible metal contents represents a deterioration of the environmental quality of recreational areas, where hand-to-mouth transfer of pollutants to children is likely to occur, although part of the metals added might be leached by rainfall or irrigation. The limits established in several countries for metal contents of soils in recreational areas are often exceeded after application of the biosolid. A careful study of the metal contents of recycled wastes is thus recommended before being used for green area maintenance.

  11. Assessing spatial and nonspatial factors for healthcare access: towards an integrated approach to defining health professional shortage areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fahui; Luo, Wei

    2005-06-01

    This research considers both spatial and nonspatial factors in examining accessibility to primary healthcare in Illinois. Spatial access emphasizes the importance of geographic barrier between consumer and provider, and nonspatial factors include nongeographic barriers or facilitators such as age, sex, ethnicity, income, social class, education and language ability. The population and socioeconomic data are from the 2000 Census, and the primary care physician data for the same year are provided by the American Medical Association. First, a two-step floating catchment area method implemented in Geographic Information Systems is used to measure spatial accessibility based on travel time. Secondly, the factor analysis method is used to group various sociodemographic variables into three factors: (1) socioeconomic disadvantages, (2) sociocultural barriers and (3) high healthcare needs. Finally, spatial and nonspatial factors are integrated to identify areas with poor access to primary healthcare. The research is intended to develop an integrated approach for defining Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSA) that may help the US Department of Health and Human Services and state health departments improve HPSA designation. PMID:15629681

  12. 40 CFR 55.15 - Specific designation of corresponding onshore areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific designation of corresponding onshore areas. 55.15 Section 55.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.15 Specific designation...

  13. Accessibility to primary health care in Belgium: an evaluation of policies awarding financial assistance in shortage areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many countries, financial assistance is awarded to physicians who settle in an area that is designated as a shortage area to prevent unequal accessibility to primary health care. Today, however, policy makers use fairly simple methods to define health care accessibility, with physician-to-population ratios (PPRs) within predefined administrative boundaries being overwhelmingly favoured. Our purpose is to verify whether these simple methods are accurate enough for adequately designating medical shortage areas and explore how these perform relative to more advanced GIS-based methods. Methods Using a geographical information system (GIS), we conduct a nation-wide study of accessibility to primary care physicians in Belgium using four different methods: PPR, distance to closest physician, cumulative opportunity, and floating catchment area (FCA) methods. Results The official method used by policy makers in Belgium (calculating PPR per physician zone) offers only a crude representation of health care accessibility, especially because large contiguous areas (physician zones) are considered. We found substantial differences in the number and spatial distribution of medical shortage areas when applying different methods. Conclusions The assessment of spatial health care accessibility and concomitant policy initiatives are affected by and dependent on the methodology used. The major disadvantage of PPR methods is its aggregated approach, masking subtle local variations. Some simple GIS methods overcome this issue, but have limitations in terms of conceptualisation of physician interaction and distance decay. Conceptually, the enhanced 2-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method, an advanced FCA method, was found to be most appropriate for supporting areal health care policies, since this method is able to calculate accessibility at a small scale (e.g. census tracts), takes interaction between physicians into account, and considers distance decay. While at

  14. Transcytosis of Listeria monocytogenes across the intestinal barrier upon specific targeting of goblet cell accessible E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Nikitas, Georgios; Deschamps, Chantal; Disson, Olivier; Niault, Théodora; Cossart, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier upon interaction between its surface protein InlA and its species-specific host receptor E-cadherin (Ecad). Ecad, the key constituent of adherens junctions, is typically situated below tight junctions and therefore considered inaccessible from the intestinal lumen. In this study, we investigated how Lm specifically targets its receptor on intestinal villi and crosses the intestinal epithelium to disseminate systemically. We demonstrate that Ecad is luminally accessible around mucus-expelling goblet cells (GCs), around extruding enterocytes at the tip and lateral sides of villi, and in villus epithelial folds. We show that upon preferential adherence to accessible Ecad on GCs, Lm is internalized, rapidly transcytosed across the intestinal epithelium, and released in the lamina propria by exocytosis from where it disseminates systemically. Together, these results show that Lm exploits intrinsic tissue heterogeneity to access its receptor and reveal transcytosis as a novel and unanticipated pathway that is hijacked by Lm to breach the intestinal epithelium and cause systemic infection. PMID:21967767

  15. Access to Health Services Among Slum Dwellers in an Industrial Township and Surrounding Rural Areas: A Rapid Epidemiological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Amitav; Bhawalkar, J.S.; Jadhav, S.L.; Rathod, Hetal; Khedkar, D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The biggest challenge in implementing the primary health care principles is of equitable distribution of health care to all. The rural masses and urban slum dwellers are most vulnerable to lack of access to health care. Aim: To study access to health services among slum dwellers and rural population. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional survey in an urban slum and surrounding rural areas in field practice area of a medical college. Materials and Methods: Structured instrument along with qualitative techniques such as focus group discussions, were used to collect information on access and utilization of health services from 865 individuals of both sexes and all ages selected from urban slums, villages, and indoor and outdoor patients. Access to basic determinants of good health such as housing, water, and sanitation was also elicited. Besides, health needs based on self-reported disease conditions were compiled. Results: More than 50% of respondents were living in poor housing and insanitary conditions. Besides the burden of communicable diseases and malnutrition (especially in children), risk of lifestyle diseases as evidenced by high Body mass index in 25% of adults surveyed was found. Private medical practitioners were more accessible than government facilities. More than 60% sought treatment from private medical facilities for their own ailments (for sickness in children this proportion was 74%). People who visited government facilities were more dissatisfied with the services (30.88%) than those who visited private facilities (18.31%). This difference was significant (OR=1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 2.88; χ2 =15.95, df=1, P=0.007). The main barriers to health care identified were waiting time long, affordability, poor quality of care, distance, and attitude of health workers. Conclusion: The underprivileged in India continue to have poor access to basic determinants of good health as well as to curative services from government sources

  16. 41 CFR 102-76.70 - When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function... Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.70 When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel... in § 102-76.65(a), the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

  17. 41 CFR 102-76.70 - When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function... Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.70 When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel... in § 102-76.65(a), the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

  18. 41 CFR 102-76.70 - When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function... Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.70 When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel... in § 102-76.65(a), the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

  19. 41 CFR 102-76.70 - When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function... Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.70 When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel... in § 102-76.65(a), the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

  20. 41 CFR 102-76.70 - When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an altered area containing a primary function... Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.70 When are the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel... in § 102-76.65(a), the costs of alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to an...

  1. Lexical access in children with and without specific language impairment: a cross-modal picture-word interference study.

    PubMed

    Seiger-Gardner, Liat; Schwartz, Richard G

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined the time course of lexical information availability in 20 adults, 20 children (8;0-10;0) with typical language development, and in 20 children (8;0-10;0) with specific language impairment. A cross-modal picture-word interference paradigm was used in which participants named the pictures as quickly as possible while ignoring the phonologically and semantically related interfering words. A novel early phonological interference effect appeared in all groups. Similar temporal patterns were revealed for the adults and the typical language development group, supporting the notion of similar underlying lexicalization mechanisms. Parametric differences were found in overall response times and errors, with children responding slower and producing more errors than adults. The presence of a phonological facilitation effect suggests that children with specific language impairment utilize phonological primes to ease lexical access. Children with specific language impairment exhibited lingering semantic inhibition and a late semantic inhibition effect suggesting difficulty in processing semantic information. Data from all participants support the cascaded processing model of lexical access.

  2. Lexical access in children with and without specific language impairment: a cross-modal picture-word interference study.

    PubMed

    Seiger-Gardner, Liat; Schwartz, Richard G

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined the time course of lexical information availability in 20 adults, 20 children (8;0-10;0) with typical language development, and in 20 children (8;0-10;0) with specific language impairment. A cross-modal picture-word interference paradigm was used in which participants named the pictures as quickly as possible while ignoring the phonologically and semantically related interfering words. A novel early phonological interference effect appeared in all groups. Similar temporal patterns were revealed for the adults and the typical language development group, supporting the notion of similar underlying lexicalization mechanisms. Parametric differences were found in overall response times and errors, with children responding slower and producing more errors than adults. The presence of a phonological facilitation effect suggests that children with specific language impairment utilize phonological primes to ease lexical access. Children with specific language impairment exhibited lingering semantic inhibition and a late semantic inhibition effect suggesting difficulty in processing semantic information. Data from all participants support the cascaded processing model of lexical access. PMID:22612630

  3. Old Tools for New Problems: Modifying Master Gardener Training to Improve Food Access in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randle, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Extension faces ever-changing problems, which can be addressed by modifying successful tools rather than inventing new ones. The Master Gardener program has proven its effectiveness, but the cost and time commitment can make it inaccessible to rural, low-income communities, where training in home gardening may address issues of food access and…

  4. 78 FR 59475 - Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines; Outdoor Developed Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ..., which were published in the Federal Register on July 23, 2004 (69 FR 44151) and are codified in... provided in camping units with mobility features: Parking spaces for recreational vehicles and other... connect: Accessible elements, spaces, and facilities provided within camping units and picnic units...

  5. Propiconazole Is a Specific and Accessible Brassinosteroid (BR) Biosynthesis Inhibitor for Arabidopsis and Maize

    PubMed Central

    Best, Norman B.; Budka, Joshua S.; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Choe, Sunghwa; Schulz, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal hormones that play pivotal roles during plant development. In addition to the characterization of BR deficient mutants, specific BR biosynthesis inhibitors played an essential role in the elucidation of BR function in plants. However, high costs and limited availability of common BR biosynthetic inhibitors constrain their key advantage as a species-independent tool to investigate BR function. We studied propiconazole (Pcz) as an alternative to the BR inhibitor brassinazole (Brz). Arabidopsis seedlings treated with Pcz phenocopied BR biosynthetic mutants. The steady state mRNA levels of BR, but not gibberellic acid (GA), regulated genes increased proportional to the concentrations of Pcz. Moreover, root inhibition and Pcz-induced expression of BR biosynthetic genes were rescued by 24epi-brassinolide, but not by GA3 co-applications. Maize seedlings treated with Pcz showed impaired mesocotyl, coleoptile, and true leaf elongation. Interestingly, the genetic background strongly impacted the tissue specific sensitivity towards Pcz. Based on these findings we conclude that Pcz is a potent and specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis and an alternative to Brz. The reduced cost and increased availability of Pcz, compared to Brz, opens new possibilities to study BR function in larger crop species. PMID:22590578

  6. Propiconazole is a specific and accessible brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis inhibitor for Arabidopsis and maize.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Thomas; Corvalan, Claudia; Best, Norman B; Budka, Joshua S; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Choe, Sunghwa; Schulz, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal hormones that play pivotal roles during plant development. In addition to the characterization of BR deficient mutants, specific BR biosynthesis inhibitors played an essential role in the elucidation of BR function in plants. However, high costs and limited availability of common BR biosynthetic inhibitors constrain their key advantage as a species-independent tool to investigate BR function. We studied propiconazole (Pcz) as an alternative to the BR inhibitor brassinazole (Brz). Arabidopsis seedlings treated with Pcz phenocopied BR biosynthetic mutants. The steady state mRNA levels of BR, but not gibberellic acid (GA), regulated genes increased proportional to the concentrations of Pcz. Moreover, root inhibition and Pcz-induced expression of BR biosynthetic genes were rescued by 24epi-brassinolide, but not by GA(3) co-applications. Maize seedlings treated with Pcz showed impaired mesocotyl, coleoptile, and true leaf elongation. Interestingly, the genetic background strongly impacted the tissue specific sensitivity towards Pcz. Based on these findings we conclude that Pcz is a potent and specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis and an alternative to Brz. The reduced cost and increased availability of Pcz, compared to Brz, opens new possibilities to study BR function in larger crop species.

  7. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

    1999-03-16

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  8. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen; Yu, Conrad M.; Raley, Norman F.

    1999-01-01

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

  9. Relationships between specific surface area and pore size in electrospun polymer fibre networks

    PubMed Central

    Eichhorn, S. J.; Sampson, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    From consideration of the extent of contact between fibres in electrospun polymer networks, we provide theory relating the specific surface area of the network to the characteristic dimensions of interfibre voids. We show that these properties are strongly influenced by the cross-sectional morphologies of fibres. Whereas porosity has a strong influence on pore dimensions, in the range of porosities typically obtained in real networks, its influence on specific surface area is weak. By considering reference geometries of collapsed ribbons and fibres with circular cross sections, we demonstrate that at a given network porosity, fibre parameters that increase the specific surface area reduce the characteristic dimensions of voids. The implications of the theory, mainly in the context of cell proliferation on electrospun polymer scaffolds, are discussed; the theory has relevance also to future applications of these materials in composites. PMID:19812071

  10. Correlation between relative growth rate and specific leaf area requires associations of specific leaf area with nitrogen absorption rate of roots.

    PubMed

    Osone, Yoko; Ishida, Atsushi; Tateno, Masaki

    2008-07-01

    Close correlations between specific leaf area (SLA) and relative growth rate (RGR) have been reported in many studies. However, theoretically, SLA by itself has small net positive effect on RGR because any increase in SLA inevitably causes a decrease in area-based leaf nitrogen concentration (LNCa), another RGR component. It was hypothesized that, for a correlation between SLA and RGR, SLA needs to be associated with specific nitrogen absorption rate of roots (SAR), which counteracts the negative effect of SLA on LNCa. Five trees and six herbs were grown under optimal conditions and relationships between SAR and RGR components were analyzed using a model based on balanced growth hypothesis. SLA varied 1.9-fold between species. Simulations predicted that, if SAR is not associated with SLA, this variation in SLA would cause a47% decrease in LNCa along the SLA gradient, leading to a marginal net positive effect on RGR. In reality, SAR was positively related to SLA, showing a 3.9-fold variation, which largely compensated for the negative effect of SLA on LNCa. Consequently, LNCa values were almost constant across species and a positive SLA-RGR relationship was achieved. These results highlight the importance of leaf-root interactions in understanding interspecific differences in RGR.

  11. Spatial variability of specific surface area of arable soils in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolowski, S.; Sokolowska, Z.; Usowicz, B.

    2012-04-01

    Evaluation of soil spatial variability is an important issue in agrophysics and in environmental research. Knowledge of spatial variability of physico-chemical properties enables a better understanding of several processes that take place in soils. In particular, it is well known that mineralogical, organic, as well as particle-size compositions of soils vary in a wide range. Specific surface area of soils is one of the most significant characteristics of soils. It can be not only related to the type of soil, mainly to the content of clay, but also largely determines several physical and chemical properties of soils and is often used as a controlling factor in numerous biological processes. Knowledge of the specific surface area is necessary in calculating certain basic soil characteristics, such as the dielectric permeability of soil, water retention curve, water transport in the soil, cation exchange capacity and pesticide adsorption. The aim of the present study is two-fold. First, we carry out recognition of soil total specific surface area patterns in the territory of Poland and perform the investigation of features of its spatial variability. Next, semivariograms and fractal analysis are used to characterize and compare the spatial variability of soil specific surface area in two soil horizons (A and B). Specific surface area of about 1000 samples was determined by analyzing water vapor adsorption isotherms via the BET method. The collected data of the values of specific surface area of mineral soil representatives for the territory of Poland were then used to describe its spatial variability by employing geostatistical techniques and fractal theory. Using the data calculated for some selected points within the entire territory and along selected directions, the values of semivariance were determined. The slope of the regression line of the log-log plot of semi-variance versus the distance was used to estimate the fractal dimension, D. Specific surface area

  12. Tri-peptide reference structures for the calculation of relative solvent accessible surface area in protein amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Topham, Christopher M; Smith, Jeremy C

    2015-02-01

    Relative amino acid residue solvent accessibility values allow the quantitative comparison of atomic solvent-accessible surface areas in different residue types and physical environments in proteins and in protein structural alignments. Geometry-optimised tri-peptide structures in extended solvent-exposed reference conformations have been obtained for 43 amino acid residue types at a high level of quantum chemical theory. Significant increases in side-chain solvent accessibility, offset by reductions in main-chain atom solvent exposure, were observed for standard residue types in partially geometry-optimised structures when compared to non-minimised models built from identical sets of proper dihedral angles abstracted from the literature. Optimisation of proper dihedral angles led most notably to marked increases of up to 54% in proline main-chain atom solvent accessibility compared to literature values. Similar effects were observed for fully-optimised tri-peptides in implicit solvent. The relief of internal strain energy was associated with systematic variation in N, C(α) and C(β) atom solvent accessibility across all standard residue types. The results underline the importance of optimisation of 'hard' degrees of freedom (bond lengths and valence bond angles) and improper dihedral angle values from force field or other context-independent reference values, and impact on the use of standardised fixed internal co-ordinate geometry in sampling approaches to the determination of absolute values of protein amino acid residue solvent accessibility. Quantum chemical methods provide a useful and accurate alternative to molecular mechanics methods to perform energy minimisation of peptides containing non-standard (chemically modified) amino acid residues frequently present in experimental protein structure data sets, for which force field parameters may not be available. Reference tri-peptide atomic co-ordinate sets including hydrogen atoms are made freely available

  13. Transcriptomes of Eight Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions Reveal Core Conserved, Genotype- and Organ-Specific Responses to Flooding Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    van Veen, Hans; Vashisht, Divya; Akman, Melis; Girke, Thomas; Mustroph, Angelika; Reinen, Emilie; Kooiker, Maarten; van Tienderen, Peter; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has increased the frequency and severity of flooding events, with significant negative impact on agricultural productivity. These events often submerge plant aerial organs and roots, limiting growth and survival due to a severe reduction in light reactions and gas exchange necessary for photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. To distinguish molecular responses to the compound stress imposed by submergence, we investigated transcriptomic adjustments to darkness in air and under submerged conditions using eight Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions differing significantly in sensitivity to submergence. Evaluation of root and rosette transcriptomes revealed an early transcriptional and posttranscriptional response signature that was conserved primarily across genotypes, although flooding susceptibility-associated and genotype-specific responses also were uncovered. Posttranscriptional regulation encompassed darkness- and submergence-induced alternative splicing of transcripts from pathways involved in the alternative mobilization of energy reserves. The organ-specific transcriptome adjustments reflected the distinct physiological status of roots and shoots. Root-specific transcriptome changes included marked up-regulation of chloroplast-encoded photosynthesis and redox-related genes, whereas those of the rosette were related to the regulation of development and growth processes. We identified a novel set of tolerance genes, recognized mainly by quantitative differences. These included a transcriptome signature of more pronounced gluconeogenesis in tolerant accessions, a response that included stress-induced alternative splicing. This study provides organ-specific molecular resolution of genetic variation in submergence responses involving interactions between darkness and low-oxygen constraints of flooding stress and demonstrates that early transcriptome plasticity, including alternative splicing, is associated with the ability to cope

  14. Accessing the applicability of polarized protein-specific charge in linear interaction energy analysis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiangyu; Zeng, Juan; Zhang, John Z H; Mei, Ye

    2014-04-01

    The reliability of the linear interaction energy (LIE) depends on the atomic charge model used to delineate the Coulomb interaction between the ligand and its environment. In this work, the polarized protein-specific charge (PPC) implementing a recently proposed fitting scheme has been examined in the LIE calculations of the binding affinities for avidin and β-secretase binding complexes. This charge fitting scheme, termed delta restrained electrostatic potential, bypasses the prevalent numerical difficulty of rank deficiency in electrostatic-potential-based charge fitting methods via a dual-step fitting strategy. A remarkable consistency between the predicted binding affinities and the experimental measurement has been observed. This work serves as a direct evidence of PPC's applicability in rational drug design.

  15. Area-specific migration and recruitment of new neurons in the adult songbird brain.

    PubMed

    Vellema, Michiel; van der Linden, Annemie; Gahr, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    Neuron recruitment has been implicated in morphological and functional plasticity in the adult brain. Whereas mammals restrict neuron recruitment specifically to two regions of known plasticity, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, newborn neurons are found throughout the forebrain of adult songbirds. In order to study the area-specificity of the widespread proliferation and recruitment in the songbird brain, six adult male canaries received repetitive intraperitoneal injections of the mitotic marker BrdU (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine) and were sacrificed after 24 hours to study proliferation or after 38 days to study recruitment. Migration and incorporation of new neurons was apparent throughout many but not all parts of the canary forebrain and was quantitatively related to mitotic levels in the most closely associated proliferative zones. Surprisingly, some areas of the vocal control system sensitive to plastic changes, such as nucleus higher vocal center (HVC) and area X, recruited similar numbers of new neurons as their surrounding brain tissues, employing no specific directional mechanisms. The distribution pattern in and around HVC could best be described by a random displacement model, where cells originating from the overlying lateral ventricle can move independently in any direction. Other plastic song control areas, such as the medial magnocellular nucleus of anterior nidopallium and the robust nucleus of arcopallium, were specifically avoided by migrating neurons, while migration toward the olfactory bulb showed high specificity, similar to the mammalian rostral migratory stream. Thus, different mechanisms appear to organize area-specific neuron recruitment in different recipients of the adult songbird brain, unrelated to global plasticity of brain regions.

  16. G1 phase regulation, area-specific cell cycle control, and cytoarchitectonics in the primate cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lukaszewicz, Agnès; Savatier, Pierre; Cortay, Véronique; Giroud, Pascale; Huissoud, Cyril; Berland, Michel; Kennedy, Henry; Dehay, Colette

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the cell-cycle related mechanisms that lead to the emergence of the primate areas 17 and 18. These areas are characterized by striking differences in cytoarchitectonics and neuron number. We show in vivo that (i) area 17 precursors of supragranular neurons exhibit a shorter cell-cycle duration, a reduced G1 phase and a higher rate of cell-cycle re-entry than area 18 precursors (ii) area-specific levels of expression of Cyclin E (high in area 17, low in area 18) and p27Kip1 (low in area 17, high in area 18) (iii) Ex vivo up and down modulation of Cyclin E and p27Kip1 show that both regulators influence cell-cycle kinetics by modifying rates of cell-cycle progression and cell-cycle re-entry (iv) Modeling the areal differences in cell-cycle parameters suggests that they contribute to areal differences in numbers of precursors and neuron production. PMID:16055060

  17. Availability, accessibility and promotion of smokeless tobacco in a low-income area of Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Schensul, Jean J; Nair, Saritha; Bilgi, Sameena; Cromley, Ellen; Kadam, Vaishali; Mello, Sunitha D; Donta, Balaiah

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of accessibility, product availability, promotions and social norms promotion, factors contributing to the use of smokeless tobacco (ST) products in a typical low-income community of Mumbai community using Geographic Information System (GIS), observational and interview methodologies and to assess implementation of Cigarettes and other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) legislation. Rationale In India, the third largest producer of tobacco in the world, smokeless tobacco products are used by men, women and children. New forms of highly addictive packaged smokeless tobacco products such as gutkha are inexpensive and rates of use are higher in low-income urban communities. These products are known to increase rates of oral cancer and to affect reproductive health and fetal development. Methods The study used a mixed methods approach combining ethnographic and GIS mapping, observation and key informant interviews. Accessibility was defined as density, clustering and distance of residents and schools to tobacco outlets. Observation and interview data with shop owners and community residents produced an archive of products, information on shop histories and income and normative statements. Results Spatial analysis showed high density of outlets with variations across subcommunities. All residents can reach tobacco outlets within 30–100 feet of their homes. Normative statements from 55 respondents indicate acceptance of men’s, women’s and children’s use, and selling smokeless tobacco is reported to be an important form of income generation for some households. Multilevel tobacco control and prevention strategies including tobacco education, community norms change, licensing and surveillance and alternative income generation strategies are needed to reduce accessibility and availability of smokeless tobacco use. PMID:22387521

  18. Risk perception and access to environmental information in four areas in Italy affected by natural or anthropogenic pollution.

    PubMed

    Coi, A; Minichilli, F; Bustaffa, E; Carone, S; Santoro, M; Bianchi, F; Cori, L

    2016-10-01

    A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey in four areas affected by natural or anthropogenic arsenic pollution was conducted in Italy within the framework of the SEpiAs project. A questionnaire, including the exploration of risk perception (RP) regarding environmental hazards and access to and trust in information, was administered to 282 subjects stratified by area, gender and age. The survey was designed to investigate how populations living in polluted areas could adopt prevention-oriented habits, fostered by the awareness of existing risks and, in addition, how increased knowledge of RP and information flows could support researchers in identifying recommendations, and presenting and disseminating HBM results. This study characterizes the four areas in terms of RP and access to and trust in environmental information, and provides insights into the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption. For the data analysis, a combined random forest (RF) and logistic regression approach was carried out. RF was applied to the variables derived from the questionnaire in order to identify the most important in terms of the aims defined. Associations were then tested using Fisher's exact test and assessed with logistic regression in order to adjust for confounders. Results showed that the perception of and personal exposure to atmospheric and water pollution, hazardous industries and waste, hazardous material transportation and waste was higher in geographical areas characterized by anthropogenic pollution. Citizens living in industrial areas appeared to be aware of environmental risks and had more confidence in environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) than in public authorities. In addition, they reported an insufficient circulation of information. Concerning the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption, a high perception of personal exposure to atmospheric pollution and hazardous industries was associated with a lower

  19. Specific surface area effect on adsorption of chlorpyrifos and TCP by soils and modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adsorption of chlorpyrifos and TCP (3,5,6, trichloro-2-pyridinol) was determined in four soils (Mollisol, Inceptisol, Entisol, Alfisol) having different specific surface areas (19–84 m2/g) but rather similar organic matter content (2.4–3.5%). Adsorption isotherms were derived from batch equilibr...

  20. Hoover/Crawford Area Middle School, San Diego Unified School District: Educational Specifications. Final [Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1993

    This document presents the San Diego Unified School District's specifications for planning and designing a new middle school. Information on district parameters, a vision plan, curriculum and instruction concepts, community functions, aesthetic and flexibility considerations, and activity areas are included, as well as summaries of space…

  1. Racial and Socioeconomic Variations in Preadolescent Area-Specific and General Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Bruce R.

    This study of 210 fifth-grade children attempted to assess whether children of varying race, socioeconomic status (SES) and sex differ in their levels of general and area-specific (school, peer, and home) self-esteem. Also investigated was the question of whether children are capable of maintaining differing levels of esteem across the different…

  2. Literacy Mash-Up: Discipline-Specific Practices Empower Content-Area Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostal, Hannah; Gabriel, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe a process for building teachers' capacity to identify, develop, and engage in discipline-specific literacy instruction that supports both content and literacy aims. This process uses three questions to frame inquiry and guide discussions. Addressing these three questions can empower content-area teachers to incorporate…

  3. Evolution of nanostructure and specific surface area during thermally driven dehydration of Mg(OH)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimminger, H.; Habler, G.; Freiberger, N.; Abart, R.

    2016-01-01

    The thermally induced dehydration of micrometer-sized particles of Mg(OH)2 was investigated experimentally at ambient pressure and temperatures ranging from 350 to 1300 °C. Reaction progress is correlated with the evolution of the specific surface area and of the particle internal nanostructure. The maximum specific surface area of about 320 m2/g corresponding to a 70-fold increase relative to the starting material is obtained after heat treatment at 350 °C for about 2 h. This is due to the formation of a highly porous, particle-internal nanostructure comprised of newly crystallized strictly aligned, cube-shaped and nanometer-sized crystals of MgO and about 50 vol% porosity. Associated with the dehydration, intensive fracturing and defoliation occurs parallel to the (0001) plane of the original Mg(OH)2 or (111) of the topotaxially grown MgO. After heat treatment at increasingly higher temperatures, enhanced coarsening and sintering of the MgO crystals and healing of cracks leads to a successive decrease of the specific surface area. After heat treatment at 1300 °C for 2.5 h, the specific surface area has decreased to 5 m2/g close to the value typical for the original Mg(OH)2.

  4. Hepatitis C, a global issue: access to care and new therapeutic and preventive approaches in resource-constrained areas.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Maud; Thursz, Mark

    2014-02-01

    With the advent of all oral direct-acting antiviral drugs with a broad range of genotypic activity and a low incidence of side effects, we are entering an exciting new era in the therapeutics of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, it is not yet clear who will benefit from these innovations: Will the advantages be limited to HCV patients in industrialized nations or could the whole community of HCV-infected individuals be given access to treatment? As the majority of people infected with HCV live in resource-limited settings it is important to overcome the barriers that restrict access to treatment in these areas. Drug costs, public and professional education, simplified diagnostics, and political imperative all need to be addressed before the majority of HCV-infected individuals can benefit from the new generation of HCV antivirals.

  5. Report of the IAU Commission 4 Working Group on standardizing access to ephemerides and File format specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, J.; Acton, A.; Arlot, J.-E.; Bell, , S. A.; Capitaine, N.; Fienga, A.; Folkner, W. M.; Gastineau, M.; Pavlov, D.; Pitjeva, E. V.; Skripnichenko, V. I.; Wallace, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    The IAU Commission 4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides recommends the use of the Spacecraft and Planet Kernel (SPK) file format to provide a uniform format for the position ephemerides of planets and other natural solar system bodies, and the use of the binary Planetary Constants Kernel (PCK) format for the orientation of a body. It further recommends supporting data be stored in a text PCK. These formats are used by the SPICE system developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A new data type, Type 20: Chebyshev (Velocity Only) has been added. Other changes to the specification are new object identification numbers for coordinate time ephemerides, and a set of three new data types that uses the TCB rather than the TDB timescale.

  6. Estimating Dry-Range Water Retention Properties Using Specific Surface Area and Particle-Size Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winfield, K. A.; Nimmo, J. R.

    2001-12-01

    To test whether the slope of the dry-range water retention curve can be correlated directly with particle size and specific surface area, measurements were completed for core samples from the Mojave Desert and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Samples ranged in texture from gravelly sands to silt loams. Each core sample was split into representative, 1-3 g subsamples, with 3 replicates per sample. Specific surface areas were determined by the BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) method of nitrogen adsorption. A chilled mirror hygrometer was used to measure the relative humidity and temperature of each replicate, which were directly implemented in the Kelvin equation to calculate water potentials. Sample weights obtained immediately after the hygrometer measurements, the oven-dry weights, and the original core bulk densities were used to calculate volumetric water contents. For each sample, about 7 points on the retention curve were determined by allowing the replicates to dry for 15 to 120 minutes in a desiccating chamber and by repeating the hygrometer and weight measurements. Measured water potentials fell in the range of -105 to -106 cm-water and volumetric water contents in the range of 0.05 to 0.007 cm3/cm3, typically below the equilibrium water content under laboratory conditions at about 50 % relative humidity and 22 ° C. Measurements of specific surface area ranged from 0.5 to 25 m2/g. At low water potentials water exists as thin films on solid surfaces rather than filling pores, therefore the dry-range retention slope should be dominated by texture, with structure having negligible influence, and should correlate with specific surface area for samples having similar mineralogies. Initial correlations show that the dry-range retention slope becomes steeper as the mean particle size of the sample decreases and as the clay content increases. The slope also approximates a direct linear proportionality to specific surface area. Correlations

  7. Selection of area and specific site for drilling a horizontal well in Calhoun County, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, T.K.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the data collection and analysis procedures used to establish criteria for geologic and engineering studies conducted by BDM to select a general area for more detailed study and a specific site for the drilling of a cooperative well with an industry partner, the Consolidated Natural Gas Development Company (CNGD). The results of detailed geologic studies are presented for two areas in Calhoun County, West Virginia, and one area along the Logan-Boone County line in West Virginia. The effects of Appalachian Basin tectonics and the Rome Trough Rift system were identified on seismic lines made available by (CNGD). These helped to identify and define the trapping mechanisms which had been effective in each area. Engineering analyses of past production histories provided data to support selection of target areas and then to select a specific site that met the project requirements for production, reservoir pressure, and risk. A final site was selected in Lee District at the southwestern margin of the Sand Ridge gas field based on the combination of a geologic trapping mechanism and reservoir pressures which were projected as 580 psi with a stress ratio of 0.53.

  8. Sensitivity of snow density and specific surface area measured by microtomography to different image processing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenmuller, Pascal; Matzl, Margret; Chambon, Guillaume; Schneebeli, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Microtomography can measure the X-ray attenuation coefficient in a 3-D volume of snow with a spatial resolution of a few microns. In order to extract quantitative characteristics of the microstructure, such as the specific surface area (SSA), from these data, the greyscale image first needs to be segmented into a binary image of ice and air. Different numerical algorithms can then be used to compute the surface area of the binary image. In this paper, we report on the effect of commonly used segmentation and surface area computation techniques on the evaluation of density and specific surface area. The evaluation is based on a set of 38 X-ray tomographies of different snow samples without impregnation, scanned with an effective voxel size of 10 and 18 μm. We found that different surface area computation methods can induce relative variations up to 5 % in the density and SSA values. Regarding segmentation, similar results were obtained by sequential and energy-based approaches, provided the associated parameters were correctly chosen. The voxel size also appears to affect the values of density and SSA, but because images with the higher resolution also show the higher noise level, it was not possible to draw a definitive conclusion on this effect of resolution.

  9. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Training (FL Reg 350-30) DEH or Corps of Engineers Real Estate Agreement for commercial use (AR 405-80...) Dog training (not allowed 1 April through 31 July in selected areas) Horseback riding on roads and vehicle tracks Walking, distance running Model airplane and rocket flying Model boating Orienteering...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Training (FL Reg 350-30) DEH or Corps of Engineers Real Estate Agreement for commercial use (AR 405-80...) Dog training (not allowed 1 April through 31 July in selected areas) Horseback riding on roads and vehicle tracks Walking, distance running Model airplane and rocket flying Model boating Orienteering...

  11. Specific surface area of overlapping spheres in the presence of obstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, D. R.

    2013-02-01

    This study considers the random placement of uniform sized spheres, which may overlap, in the presence of another set of randomly placed (hard) spheres, which do not overlap. The overlapping spheres do not intersect the hard spheres. It is shown that the specific surface area of the collection of overlapping spheres is affected by the hard spheres, such that there is a minimum in the specific surface area as a function of the relative size of the two sets of spheres. The occurrence of the minimum is explained in terms of the break-up of pore connectivity. The configuration can be considered to be a simple model of the structure of a porous composite material. In particular, the overlapping particles represent voids while the hard particles represent fillers. Example materials are pervious concrete, metallurgical coke, ice cream, and polymer composites. We also show how the material properties of such composites are affected by the void structure.

  12. A microbial-mineralization approach for syntheses of iron oxides with a high specific surface area.

    PubMed

    Yagita, Naoki; Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2013-04-01

    Of minerals and microbes: A microbial-mineralization-inspired approach was used to facilitate the syntheses of iron oxides with a high specific surface area, such as 253 m(2)g(-1) for maghemite (γ-Fe(2)O(3)) and 148 m(2)g(-1) for hematite (α-Fe(2)O(3)). These iron oxides can be applied to electrode material of lithium-ion batteries, adsorbents, and catalysts.

  13. 30. "CONSTRUCTION PHASING, STATION '50' AREA." Specifications No. ENG043535775, Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. "CONSTRUCTION PHASING, STATION '50' AREA." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-57-75, Drawing No. AF-4502-19, sheet 4 of 5, D.O. Series No. AF 1439/26. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296, Date: 10 NOV. 59. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 28. "CONSTRUCTION PHASING, STATION '0' AREA." Specifications No. OC15775, Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. "CONSTRUCTION PHASING, STATION '0' AREA." Specifications No. OC1-57-75, Drawing No. AF-45-02-19, sheet 3 of 5, D.O. Series No. AF 1439/25, Rev. B. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296 Rev. B, Date: 11/13/59. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Glutamatergic plasticity in medial prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area following extended-access cocaine self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, M. Behnam; Vasudevan, Preethi; Giles, Chad; Purgianto, Anthony; Seubert, Chad; Mantsch, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate signaling in prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area plays an important role in the molecular and behavioral plasticity associated with addiction to drugs of abuse. The current study investigated the expression and postsynaptic density redistribution of glutamate receptors and synaptic scaffolding proteins in dorsomedial and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area after cocaine self-administration. After 14 days of extended-access (6hr/day) cocaine self-administration, rats were exposed to one of three withdrawal regimen for 10 days. Animals either stayed in home cages (Home), returned to self-administration boxes with the levers withdrawn (Box), or underwent extinction training (Extinction). Extinction training was associated with significant glutamatergic plasticity. In dorsomedial prefrontal cortex of the Extinction group, there was an increase in postsynaptic density GluR1, PSD95, and actin proteins; while postsynaptic content of mGluR5 receptor protein decreased and there was no change in NMDAR1, Homer1b/c, or PICK1 proteins. These changes were not observed in ventromedial prefrontal cortex or ventral tegmental area. In ventral tegmental area, Extinction training reversed the decreased postsynaptic density NMDAR1 protein in the Home and Box withdrawal groups. These data suggest that extinction of drug seeking is associated with selective glutamatergic plasticity in prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area that include modulation of receptor trafficking to postsynaptic density. PMID:21855055

  16. AREA RESTRICTIONS, RISK, HARM, AND HEALTH CARE ACCESS AMONG PEOPLE WHO USE DRUGS IN VANCOUVER, CANADA: A SPATIALLY ORIENTED QUALITATIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Ryan; Cooper, Hannah; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Area restrictions prohibiting people from entering drug scenes or areas where they were arrested are a common socio-legal mechanism employed to regulate the spatial practices of people who use drugs (PWUD). To explore how socio-spatial patterns stemming from area restrictions shape risk, harm, and health care access, qualitative interviews and mapping exercises were conducted with 24 PWUD with area restrictions in Vancouver, Canada. Area restrictions disrupted access to health and social resources (e.g., HIV care) concentrated in drug scenes, while territorial stigma prevented PWUD from accessing supports in other neighbourhoods. Rather than preventing involvement in drug-related activities, area restrictions displaced these activities to other locations and increased vulnerability to diverse risks and harms (e.g., unsafe drug use practices, violence). Given the harms stemming from area restrictions there is an urgent need to reconsider this socio-legal strategy. PMID:26241893

  17. Specific surface area determinations on intact drillcores and evaluation of extrapolation methods for rock matrix surfaces.

    PubMed

    André, M; Malmström, M E; Neretnieks, I

    2009-11-01

    Permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel in crystalline bedrock is investigated in several countries. For this storage scenario, the host rock is the third and final barrier for radionuclide migration. Sorption reactions in the crystalline rock matrix have strong retardative effects on the transport of radionuclides. To assess the barrier properties of the host rock it is important to have sorption data representative of the undisturbed host rock conditions. Sorption data is in the majority of reported cases determined using crushed rock. Crushing has been shown to increase a rock samples sorption capacity by creating additional surfaces. There are several problems with such an extrapolation. In studies where this problem is addressed, simple models relating the specific surface area to the particle size are used to extrapolate experimental data to a value representative of the host rock conditions. In this article, we report and compare surface area data of five size fractions of crushed granite and of 100 mm long drillcores as determined by the Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET)-method using N(2)-gas. Special sample holders that could hold large specimen were developed for the BET measurements. Surface area data on rock samples as large as the drillcore has not previously been published. An analysis of this data show that the extrapolated value for intact rock obtained from measurements on crushed material was larger than the determined specific surface area of the drillcores, in some cases with more than 1000%. Our results show that the use of data from crushed material and current models to extrapolate specific surface areas for host rock conditions can lead to over estimation interpretations of sorption ability. The shortcomings of the extrapolation model are discussed and possible explanations for the deviation from experimental data are proposed.

  18. Site-specific stamping of graphene micro-patterns over large areas using flexible stamps.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Hu; Reddy, Kongara M; Padture, Nitin P

    2012-06-15

    Site-specific stamping has the potential of becoming a low-cost, high-throughput method for depositing specific-shaped graphene micro-patterns over large areas on a wide variety of substrates. The use of an approach involving flexible stamps presented here represents an important advance towards reaching that potential. This approach entails lithographic creation (dry etching) of high-quality micro-pillar arrays of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) over large areas. This is followed by embedding the micro-pillar arrays in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and detaching them from the HOPG base. This results in flexible stamps containing embedded HOPG micro-pillar arrays with freshly cleaved stamping surfaces. The flexible HOPG/PDMS stamps are then brought into contact with substrate surfaces to site-specifically stamp graphene or few-layer graphene (FLG) arrays over large areas. The freshly cleaved nature of the micro-pillar surfaces in the flexible stamps, the low elastic modulus of the flexible stamps and the elimination of sidewall deposits on the micro-pillars allow for more uniform stamping, relative to the use of stiff HOPG stamps from earlier studies. This approach has the potential to expand the substrate choice for graphene or FLG stamping to include curved and/or flexible substrates that could have an impact on the burgeoning field of flexible/stretchable electronics. PMID:22595887

  19. Site-specific stamping of graphene micro-patterns over large areas using flexible stamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Hu; Reddy, Kongara M.; Padture, Nitin P.

    2012-06-01

    Site-specific stamping has the potential of becoming a low-cost, high-throughput method for depositing specific-shaped graphene micro-patterns over large areas on a wide variety of substrates. The use of an approach involving flexible stamps presented here represents an important advance towards reaching that potential. This approach entails lithographic creation (dry etching) of high-quality micro-pillar arrays of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) over large areas. This is followed by embedding the micro-pillar arrays in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and detaching them from the HOPG base. This results in flexible stamps containing embedded HOPG micro-pillar arrays with freshly cleaved stamping surfaces. The flexible HOPG/PDMS stamps are then brought into contact with substrate surfaces to site-specifically stamp graphene or few-layer graphene (FLG) arrays over large areas. The freshly cleaved nature of the micro-pillar surfaces in the flexible stamps, the low elastic modulus of the flexible stamps and the elimination of sidewall deposits on the micro-pillars allow for more uniform stamping, relative to the use of stiff HOPG stamps from earlier studies. This approach has the potential to expand the substrate choice for graphene or FLG stamping to include curved and/or flexible substrates that could have an impact on the burgeoning field of flexible/stretchable electronics.

  20. Geographic structure of adelie penguin populations: overlap in colony-specific foraging areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ainley, D.G.; Ribic, C.A.; Ballard, G.; Heath, S.; Gaffney, I.; Karl, B.J.; Barton, K.J.; Wilson, P.R.; Webb, S.

    2004-01-01

    In an investigation of the factors leading to geographic structuring among Ade??lie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) populations, we studied the size and overlap of colony-specific foraging areas within an isolated cluster of colonies. The study area, in the southwestern Ross Sea, included one large and three smaller colonies, ranging in size from 3900 to 135000 nesting pairs, clustered on Ross and Beaufort Islands. We used triangulation of radio signals from transmitters attached to breeding penguins to determine foraging locations and to define colony-specific foraging areas during the chick-provisioning period of four breeding seasons, 1997-2000. Colony populations (nesting pairs) were determined using aerial photography just after egg-laying; reproductive success was estimated by comparing ground counts of chicks fledged to the number of breeding pairs apparent in aerial photos. Foraging-trip duration, meal size, and adult body mass were estimated using RFID (radio frequency identification) tags and an automated reader and weighbridge. Chick growth was assessed by weekly weighing. We related the following variables to colony size: foraging distance, area, and duration; reproductive success; chick meal size and growth rate; and seasonal variation in adult body mass. We found that penguins foraged closest to their respective colonies, particularly at the smaller colonies. However, as the season progressed, foraging distance, duration, and area increased noticeably, especially at the largest colony. The foraging areas of the smaller colonies overlapped broadly, but very little foraging area overlap existed between the large colony and the smaller colonies, even though the foraging area of the large colony was well within range of the smaller colonies. Instead, the foraging areas of the smaller colonies shifted as that of the large colony grew. Colony size was not related to chick meal size, chick growth, or parental body mass. This differed from the year previous to

  1. Inter- and intra-specific scaling of articular surface areas in the hominoid talus

    PubMed Central

    Parr, William C H; Chatterjee, Helen J; Soligo, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The morphology of postcranial articular surfaces is expected to reflect their weight-bearing properties, as well as the stability and mobility of the articulations to which they contribute. Previous studies have mainly confirmed earlier predictions of isometric scaling between articular surface areas and body mass; the exception to this is ‘male-type’, convex articular surface areas, which may scale allometrically due to differences in locomotor strategies within the analysed samples. In the present study, we used new surface scanning technology to quantify more accurately articular surface areas and to test those predictions within the talus of hominoid primates, including modern humans. Our results, contrary to predictions, suggest that there are no generalised rules of articular scaling within the talus of hominoids. Instead, we suggest that articular scaling patterns are highly context-specific, depending on the role of each articulation during locomotion, as well as taxon- and sex-specific differences in locomotion and ontogenetic growth trajectories within any given sample. While this may prove problematic for inferring body mass based on articular surface area, it also offers new opportunities of gaining substantial insights into the locomotor patterns of extinct species. PMID:21323919

  2. Improving prediction of secondary structure, local backbone angles, and solvent accessible surface area of proteins by iterative deep learning.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Rhys; Paliwal, Kuldip; Lyons, James; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Sharma, Alok; Wang, Jihua; Sattar, Abdul; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2015-01-01

    Direct prediction of protein structure from sequence is a challenging problem. An effective approach is to break it up into independent sub-problems. These sub-problems such as prediction of protein secondary structure can then be solved independently. In a previous study, we found that an iterative use of predicted secondary structure and backbone torsion angles can further improve secondary structure and torsion angle prediction. In this study, we expand the iterative features to include solvent accessible surface area and backbone angles and dihedrals based on Cα atoms. By using a deep learning neural network in three iterations, we achieved 82% accuracy for secondary structure prediction, 0.76 for the correlation coefficient between predicted and actual solvent accessible surface area, 19° and 30° for mean absolute errors of backbone φ and ψ angles, respectively, and 8° and 32° for mean absolute errors of Cα-based θ and τ angles, respectively, for an independent test dataset of 1199 proteins. The accuracy of the method is slightly lower for 72 CASP 11 targets but much higher than those of model structures from current state-of-the-art techniques. This suggests the potentially beneficial use of these predicted properties for model assessment and ranking.

  3. Improving prediction of secondary structure, local backbone angles, and solvent accessible surface area of proteins by iterative deep learning

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Rhys; Paliwal, Kuldip; Lyons, James; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Sharma, Alok; Wang, Jihua; Sattar, Abdul; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2015-01-01

    Direct prediction of protein structure from sequence is a challenging problem. An effective approach is to break it up into independent sub-problems. These sub-problems such as prediction of protein secondary structure can then be solved independently. In a previous study, we found that an iterative use of predicted secondary structure and backbone torsion angles can further improve secondary structure and torsion angle prediction. In this study, we expand the iterative features to include solvent accessible surface area and backbone angles and dihedrals based on Cα atoms. By using a deep learning neural network in three iterations, we achieved 82% accuracy for secondary structure prediction, 0.76 for the correlation coefficient between predicted and actual solvent accessible surface area, 19° and 30° for mean absolute errors of backbone φ and ψ angles, respectively, and 8° and 32° for mean absolute errors of Cα-based θ and τ angles, respectively, for an independent test dataset of 1199 proteins. The accuracy of the method is slightly lower for 72 CASP 11 targets but much higher than those of model structures from current state-of-the-art techniques. This suggests the potentially beneficial use of these predicted properties for model assessment and ranking. PMID:26098304

  4. Improving prediction of secondary structure, local backbone angles, and solvent accessible surface area of proteins by iterative deep learning.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Rhys; Paliwal, Kuldip; Lyons, James; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Sharma, Alok; Wang, Jihua; Sattar, Abdul; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2015-01-01

    Direct prediction of protein structure from sequence is a challenging problem. An effective approach is to break it up into independent sub-problems. These sub-problems such as prediction of protein secondary structure can then be solved independently. In a previous study, we found that an iterative use of predicted secondary structure and backbone torsion angles can further improve secondary structure and torsion angle prediction. In this study, we expand the iterative features to include solvent accessible surface area and backbone angles and dihedrals based on Cα atoms. By using a deep learning neural network in three iterations, we achieved 82% accuracy for secondary structure prediction, 0.76 for the correlation coefficient between predicted and actual solvent accessible surface area, 19° and 30° for mean absolute errors of backbone φ and ψ angles, respectively, and 8° and 32° for mean absolute errors of Cα-based θ and τ angles, respectively, for an independent test dataset of 1199 proteins. The accuracy of the method is slightly lower for 72 CASP 11 targets but much higher than those of model structures from current state-of-the-art techniques. This suggests the potentially beneficial use of these predicted properties for model assessment and ranking. PMID:26098304

  5. Mobile Health Access for Diabetics in Rural Areas of Turkey - Results of a Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seker, Emine; Savini, Marco

    Extending the reach of medical professionals in rural areas is one of the goals using mobile health technologies. This paper illustrates the results of a survey conducted in 2008 in Turkey asking medical professionals about their current ICT usage and opinions about using mobile technologies in order to help patients with diabetes. The goal is to reduce the information gap between patients and medical professionals by allowing sending the information electronically using mobile technologies. This will improve both the interaction between various actors and also improve the treatment, as important trends of this chronic disease can be discovered on time.

  6. Risk perception and access to environmental information in four areas in Italy affected by natural or anthropogenic pollution.

    PubMed

    Coi, A; Minichilli, F; Bustaffa, E; Carone, S; Santoro, M; Bianchi, F; Cori, L

    2016-10-01

    A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey in four areas affected by natural or anthropogenic arsenic pollution was conducted in Italy within the framework of the SEpiAs project. A questionnaire, including the exploration of risk perception (RP) regarding environmental hazards and access to and trust in information, was administered to 282 subjects stratified by area, gender and age. The survey was designed to investigate how populations living in polluted areas could adopt prevention-oriented habits, fostered by the awareness of existing risks and, in addition, how increased knowledge of RP and information flows could support researchers in identifying recommendations, and presenting and disseminating HBM results. This study characterizes the four areas in terms of RP and access to and trust in environmental information, and provides insights into the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption. For the data analysis, a combined random forest (RF) and logistic regression approach was carried out. RF was applied to the variables derived from the questionnaire in order to identify the most important in terms of the aims defined. Associations were then tested using Fisher's exact test and assessed with logistic regression in order to adjust for confounders. Results showed that the perception of and personal exposure to atmospheric and water pollution, hazardous industries and waste, hazardous material transportation and waste was higher in geographical areas characterized by anthropogenic pollution. Citizens living in industrial areas appeared to be aware of environmental risks and had more confidence in environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) than in public authorities. In addition, they reported an insufficient circulation of information. Concerning the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption, a high perception of personal exposure to atmospheric pollution and hazardous industries was associated with a lower

  7. A specific area of olfactory cortex involved in stress hormone responses to predator odours.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Kunio; Lu, Zhonghua; Ye, Xiaolan; Olson, David P; Lowell, Bradford B; Buck, Linda B

    2016-04-01

    Instinctive reactions to danger are critical to the perpetuation of species and are observed throughout the animal kingdom. The scent of predators induces an instinctive fear response in mice that includes behavioural changes, as well as a surge in blood stress hormones that mobilizes multiple body systems to escape impending danger. How the olfactory system routes predator signals detected in the nose to achieve these effects is unknown. Here we identify a specific area of the olfactory cortex in mice that induces stress hormone responses to volatile predator odours. Using monosynaptic and polysynaptic viral tracers, we found that multiple olfactory cortical areas transmit signals to hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons, which control stress hormone levels. However, only one minor cortical area, the amygdalo-piriform transition area (AmPir), contained neurons upstream of CRH neurons that were activated by volatile predator odours. Chemogenetic stimulation of AmPir activated CRH neurons and induced an increase in blood stress hormones, mimicking an instinctive fear response. Moreover, chemogenetic silencing of AmPir markedly reduced the stress hormone response to predator odours without affecting a fear behaviour. These findings suggest that AmPir, a small area comprising <5% of the olfactory cortex, plays a key part in the hormonal component of the instinctive fear response to volatile predator scents. PMID:27001694

  8. A specific area of olfactory cortex involved in stress hormone responses to predator odors

    PubMed Central

    Kondoh, Kunio; Lu, Zhonghua; Ye, Xiaolan; Olson, David P.; Lowell, Bradford B.; Buck, Linda B.

    2016-01-01

    Instinctive reactions to danger are critical to the perpetuation of species and are observed throughout the animal kingdom. The scent of predators induces an instinctive fear response in mice that includes behavioral changes as well as a surge in blood stress hormones that mobilizes multiple body systems to escape impending danger1,2. How the olfactory system routes predator signals detected in the nose to achieve these effects is unknown. Here we identify a specific area of the olfactory cortex that induces stress hormone responses to volatile predator odors. Using monosynaptic and polysynaptic viral tracers, we found that multiple olfactory cortical areas transmit signals to hypothalamic CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone) neurons, which control stress hormone levels. However, only one minor cortical area, the amygdalo-piriform transition area (AmPir), contained neurons upstream of CRH neurons that were activated by volatile predator odors. Chemogenetic stimulation of AmPir activated CRH neurons and induced an increase in blood stress hormone, mimicking an instinctive fear response. Moreover, chemogenetic silencing of AmPir markedly reduced the stress hormone response to predator odors without affecting a fear behavior. These findings suggest that AmPir, a small area comprising <5% of the olfactory cortex, plays a key role in the hormonal component of the instinctive fear response to volatile predator scents. PMID:27001694

  9. A specific area of olfactory cortex involved in stress hormone responses to predator odours.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Kunio; Lu, Zhonghua; Ye, Xiaolan; Olson, David P; Lowell, Bradford B; Buck, Linda B

    2016-04-01

    Instinctive reactions to danger are critical to the perpetuation of species and are observed throughout the animal kingdom. The scent of predators induces an instinctive fear response in mice that includes behavioural changes, as well as a surge in blood stress hormones that mobilizes multiple body systems to escape impending danger. How the olfactory system routes predator signals detected in the nose to achieve these effects is unknown. Here we identify a specific area of the olfactory cortex in mice that induces stress hormone responses to volatile predator odours. Using monosynaptic and polysynaptic viral tracers, we found that multiple olfactory cortical areas transmit signals to hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons, which control stress hormone levels. However, only one minor cortical area, the amygdalo-piriform transition area (AmPir), contained neurons upstream of CRH neurons that were activated by volatile predator odours. Chemogenetic stimulation of AmPir activated CRH neurons and induced an increase in blood stress hormones, mimicking an instinctive fear response. Moreover, chemogenetic silencing of AmPir markedly reduced the stress hormone response to predator odours without affecting a fear behaviour. These findings suggest that AmPir, a small area comprising <5% of the olfactory cortex, plays a key part in the hormonal component of the instinctive fear response to volatile predator scents.

  10. Perception of available space during chimpanzee introductions: Number of accessible areas is more important than enclosure size.

    PubMed

    Herrelko, Elizabeth S; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Vick, Sarah-Jane

    2015-01-01

    Restricting animals to different areas of their enclosure, for both brief and extended durations, is a key element of animal management practices. With such restrictions, available space decreases and the choices the animals can make are more limited, particularly in relation to social dynamics. When unfamiliar individuals are introduced to each other, group dynamics can be unpredictable and understanding space usage is important to facilitate successful introductions. We studied the behavioral, welfare-related responses of two groups of zoo-housed chimpanzees (n = 22) as they were introduced to each other and experienced a variety of enclosure restrictions and group composition changes. Our analysis of available space while controlling for chimpanzee density, found that arousal-related scratching and yawning decreased as the number of enclosure areas (separate rooms) available increased, whereas only yawning decreased as the amount of available space (m(2)) increased. Allogrooming, rubbing, and regurgitation/reingestion rates remained constant as both the number of enclosure areas and amount of space changed. Enclosure space is important to zoo-housed chimpanzees, but during introductions, a decrease in arousal-related scratching indicates that the number of accessible areas is more important than the total amount of space available, suggesting that it is important to provide modular enclosures that provide choice and flexible usage, to minimize the welfare impact of short- and long-term husbandry needs.

  11. Novel computer program for fast exact calculation of accessible and molecular surface areas and average surface curvature.

    PubMed

    Tsodikov, Oleg V; Record, M Thomas; Sergeev, Yuri V

    2002-04-30

    New computer programs, SurfRace and FastSurf, perform fast calculations of the solvent accessible and molecular (solvent excluded) surface areas of macromolecules. Program SurfRace also calculates the areas of cavities inaccessible from the outside. We introduce the definition of average curvature of molecular surface and calculate average molecular surface curvatures for each atom in a structure. All surface area and curvature calculations are analytic and therefore yield exact values of these quantities. High calculation speed of this software is achieved primarily by avoiding computationally expensive mathematical procedures wherever possible and by efficient handling of surface data structures. The programs are written initially in the language C for PCs running Windows 2000/98/NT, but their code is portable to other platforms with only minor changes in input-output procedures. The algorithm is robust and does not ignore either multiplicity or degeneracy of atomic overlaps. Fast, memory-efficient and robust execution make this software attractive for applications both in computationally expensive energy minimization algorithms, such as docking or molecular dynamics simulations, and in stand-alone surface area and curvature calculations. PMID:11939594

  12. Perception of available space during chimpanzee introductions: Number of accessible areas is more important than enclosure size.

    PubMed

    Herrelko, Elizabeth S; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Vick, Sarah-Jane

    2015-01-01

    Restricting animals to different areas of their enclosure, for both brief and extended durations, is a key element of animal management practices. With such restrictions, available space decreases and the choices the animals can make are more limited, particularly in relation to social dynamics. When unfamiliar individuals are introduced to each other, group dynamics can be unpredictable and understanding space usage is important to facilitate successful introductions. We studied the behavioral, welfare-related responses of two groups of zoo-housed chimpanzees (n = 22) as they were introduced to each other and experienced a variety of enclosure restrictions and group composition changes. Our analysis of available space while controlling for chimpanzee density, found that arousal-related scratching and yawning decreased as the number of enclosure areas (separate rooms) available increased, whereas only yawning decreased as the amount of available space (m(2)) increased. Allogrooming, rubbing, and regurgitation/reingestion rates remained constant as both the number of enclosure areas and amount of space changed. Enclosure space is important to zoo-housed chimpanzees, but during introductions, a decrease in arousal-related scratching indicates that the number of accessible areas is more important than the total amount of space available, suggesting that it is important to provide modular enclosures that provide choice and flexible usage, to minimize the welfare impact of short- and long-term husbandry needs. PMID:26235989

  13. Characteristics of PAHs adsorbed on street dust and the correlation with specific surface area and TOC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengkun; Li, Yingxia; Liu, Jingling; Xiang, Li; Shi, Jianghong; Yang, Zhifeng

    2010-10-01

    Street dust was collected from five roads with different traffic volumes in the metropolitan area of Beijing and separated into five size fractions. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed on street dust in different size ranges and their correlation with specific surface area and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated. Results show that the concentration of 16-PAHs of sieved samples ranges from 0.27 to 1.30 mg/kg for all the sampling sites. Particles smaller than 40 mum in diameter have the highest 16-PAHs concentration among all of the size ranges for street dust from the four sampling sites with vehicles running on. PAHs with three or four rings account for 68% of the overall 16-PAHs on average. Remarkable positive correlation exists between 16-PAHs concentration and specific surface area with R(2) values from 0.7 to 0.96 for the four sampling sites with vehicles running on. The relationship between the concentration of 16-PAHs and TOC is less clear.

  14. Specificity and efficacy of noradrenaline, serotonin depletion in discrete brain areas of Swiss mice by neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Dailly, Eric; Chenu, Franck; Petit-Demoulière, Benoit; Bourin, Michel

    2006-01-15

    The aim of this work is to define neurotoxins doses to have efficient and specific depletion of noradrenaline (NA), serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission in cortex, striatum, hippocampus and hypothalamus of Swiss mice after intraperitoneal administration of, respectively, N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4) and para-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA). The neurotransmitters concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. The minimal single dose necessary to produce a highly significant decrease of NA levels (p<0.01 in comparison with control group) in hypothalamus (-44%), hippocampus (-91%), striatum (-40%) and cortex (-68%) was 50mg/kg but DA and 5-HT levels were modified, respectively, in hypothalamus and striatum. Three doses of PCPA 300 mg/kg over 3 consecutive days involve a profound depletion of 5-HT transmission in all discrete brain areas but NA and DA levels were also significantly reduced. In conclusion, DSP-4 has a different efficacy in discrete brain areas with a noradrenergic specificity which is not absolute, PCPA has a similar efficacy in all brain areas but is unspecific of 5-HT transmission.

  15. 4H-SiC UV Photo Detector with Large Area and Very High Specific Detectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Feng; Shahid, Aslam; Franz, David; Xin, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jian H.; Zhao, Yuegang; Winer, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    Pt/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes have been fabricated with the device areas up to 1 sq cm. The I-V characteristics and photo-response spectra have been measured and analyzed. For a 5 mm x 5 mm area device leakage current of 1 x 10(exp 15)A at zero bias and 1.2 x 10(exp 14)A at -IV have been established. The quantum efficiency is over 30% from 240nm to 320nm. The specific detectivity, D(sup *), has been calculated from the directly measured leakage current and quantum efficiency data and are shown to be higher than 10(exp 15) cmHz(sup 1/2)/W from 210nm to 350nm with a peak D(sup *) of 3.6 x 10(exp 15)cmH(sup 1/2)/W at 300nm.

  16. Tryptophan exposure and accessibility in the chitooligosaccharide-specific phloem exudate lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). A fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

    2009-10-01

    The exposure and accessibility of the tryptophan residues in the chitooligosaccharide-specific pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin (PPL) have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The emission lambda(max) of native PPL, seen at 338nm was red-shifted to 348nm upon denaturation by 6M Gdn.HCl in the presence of 10mM beta-mercaptoethanol, indicating near complete exposure of the tryptophan residues to the aqueous medium, whereas a blue-shift to 335nm was observed in the presence of saturating concentrations of chitotriose, suggesting that ligand binding leads to a decrease in the solvent exposure of the tryptophan residues. The extent of quenching was maximum with the neutral molecule, acrylamide whereas the ionic species, iodide and Cs(+) led to significantly lower quenching, which could be attributed to the presence of charged amino acid residues in close proximity to some of the tryptophan residues. The Stern-Volmer plot for acrylamide was linear for native PPL and upon ligand binding, but became upward curving upon denaturation, indicating that the quenching occurs via a combination of static and dynamic mechanisms. In time-resolved fluorescence experiments, the decay curves could be best fit to biexponential patterns, for native protein, in the presence of ligand and upon denaturation. In each case both lifetimes systematically decreased with increasing acrylamide concentrations, indicating that quenching occurs predominantly via a dynamic process.

  17. Automated fiber-type-specific cross-sectional area assessment and myonuclei counting in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fujun; Fry, Christopher S.; Mula, Jyothi; Jackson, Janna R.; Lee, Jonah D.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is an exceptionally adaptive tissue that compromises 40% of mammalian body mass. Skeletal muscle functions in locomotion, but also plays important roles in thermogenesis and metabolic homeostasis. Thus characterizing the structural and functional properties of skeletal muscle is important in many facets of biomedical research, ranging from myopathies to rehabilitation sciences to exercise interventions aimed at improving quality of life in the face of chronic disease and aging. In this paper, we focus on automated quantification of three important morphological features of muscle: 1) muscle fiber-type composition; 2) muscle fiber-type-specific cross-sectional area, and 3) myonuclear content and location. We experimentally prove that the proposed automated image analysis approaches for fiber-type-specific assessments and automated myonuclei counting are fast, accurate, and reliable. PMID:24092696

  18. Adsorption of neon and tetrafluoromethane on carbon nanohorn aggregates: differences in specific surface area values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Migone, Aldo

    2008-03-01

    We have measured adsorption isotherms for two different adsorbates, neon and tetrafluoromethane, on dahlia-like carbon nanohorn aggregates. The experiments were performed at similar relative temperatures for both gases. The measurements were conducted to explore the effect of adsorbate diameter on the behavior of the resulting adsorbed systems. We measured the effective specific surface area value of the nanohorn sample using both gases, and we found that this quantity was about 22% smaller when we determined this quantity using tetrafluoromethane, the larger molecule. Isosteric heat and binding energy values were also determined from our measurements. We will compare our experimental results with those from a computer simulation study performed by Prof. M. Calbi. The simulations help us understand the source of the observed differences in the measured specific surface values, as well as the coverage dependence of the isosteric heat of adsorption for both gases.

  19. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon with an ultrahigh specific surface area for superior performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Chao; Zhuang, Jianle; Xiao, Yong; Zheng, Mingtao; Hu, Hang; Dong, Hanwu; Lei, Bingfu; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Yingliang

    2016-04-01

    Owing to its abundant nitrogen content, silk cocoon is a promising precursor for the synthesis of Nitrogen-doped porous carbon (N-PC). Using a simple staged KOH activation, the prepared sample displays particular nanostructure with ultrahigh specific surface area (3841 m2 g-1) and appropriate pore size, providing favorable pathways for transportation and penetration of electrolyte ions. Additionally, the doped nitrogen atoms ensure the samples with pseudocapacitive behavior. Those special characteristics endow N-PCs with high capacity, low resistance, and long-term stability, indicating a wonderful potential for application in energy-storage devices.

  20. Environmental assessment for the Area 5 radioactive waste management site access improvement at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy has prepared an Environmental Assessment which analyzes the potential environmental effects of improving access to its AREA 5 RWMS at the NTS. The EA evaluates the potential impacts of constructing an extension of the Cane Springs Road between Mercury Highway and the 5-01 Road. Three alternative actions are also evaluated: (1) construction of a new road along the existing alignment of the Powerline Road between Mercury Highway and the 5-01 Road, (2) upgrading the existing 5-01 Road, and (3) taking no action. The purpose and need for improving access to the RWMS are addressed in Section 1.0 of the EA. A detailed description of the proposed action and alternatives is in Section 2.0. Section 3.0 describes the affected environment and Section 4.0 the environmental effects of the proposed action and alternatives. Health and transportation effects, accident scenarios, cumulative effects, and other relevant information are found in Sections 5.0 through 12.0 of the EA. DOE determined that the alternative action of upgrading the existing 5-01 Road would best meet the needs of the agency.

  1. [From donor to recipient: transfusion chain specificities in the French ultra-marine areas].

    PubMed

    Richard, P; Ould Amar, K

    2013-05-01

    Besides specific organisational requirements, the transfusional chain in French ultra-marine areas has specificities related to the epidemiology of infectious diseases and to population characteristics. We focus on some of these sociodemographic and medical peculiarities: the challenge of autosufficiency in relation to demographic trends; epidemiologic risks associated to emergent viruses such as dengue and Chikungunya, and the strategies that had been implemented to face last outbreaks; inappropriate selection criteria for eligibility to blood donation (biologic characteristics of Afro-Caribbeans not taken into account for the low hemoglobin deferral threshold; absence of guidelines for the screening of hemoglobinopathies AS/AC, present in 8% of the target population); specific indications for transfusion, such as platelet use in dengue fever or RBC transfusion in sickle cell disease. Due to the high polymorphism of erythrocyte antigens in Afro-Caribbeans, intra-ethnic transfusion facilitates compatibility for common antigens, but is responsible for the emergence of allo-antibodies difficult to identify in the absence of specific antisera or panels; molecular typing of erythrocyte antigens would allow detection of those patients at risk for immunization, expressing variant antigens or lacking high frequency antigens, as well as the characterization of RBC expressing immunogenic so called low frequency antigens. In an era of periodic emergence of new viruses in Europe (dengue, Chikungunya, West Nile virus...) and with the spreading of diseases with high transfusional requirements, such as sickle cell disease, ultra-marine services represent laboratories for the study of future trends and problems in transfusion medicine.

  2. Vision-specific health-related quality of life: content areas for nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Scilley, Kay; Owsley, Cynthia

    2002-08-01

    Nursing home residents have a high prevalence of remediable visual impairment and blindness. Future research on the effectiveness of providing eye care to nursing home residents will need to include a vision-targeted health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument appropriate for this population. The purpose of this study was to identify the core content areas for such an instrument. In-depth interviews on vision-related issues were conducted with 40 residents. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and coded using a standardized protocol. Binocular distance and near visual acuity were assessed using the resident's 'walking around' correction to examine whether one vision-specific HRQOL measure could address the needs of residents with 'good' and 'poor' vision. Overall 1070 vision-related comments were identified. Residents mentioned 315 problem comments that were grouped into 13 categories, including ocular symptoms (18% of comments), reading (15%), general vision (13%), psychological distress (12%), and activities of daily living (ADLs) (7%). Compared to published data on vision-specific content areas most relevant to community based persons, nursing home residents focused more on ocular symptoms and basic ADLs, with no mention of issues related to driving, home care, and finances. The majority of categories mentioned did not differ on the proportion of comments made- by those with 'good' and 'poor' visual acuity, suggesting that one vision-specific HRQOL instrument would be appropriate for residents with varying levels of visual acuity. Future work will focus on developing a vision-specific HRQOL instrument for nursing home residents.

  3. Experiences of Trans Women and Two-Spirit Persons Accessing Women-Specific Health and Housing Services in a Downtown Neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Krüsi, Andrea; Pierre, Leslie; Smith, Adrienne; Small, Will; Shannon, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Little is known about trans womens' experiences accessing gender-segregated health and housing services, particularly services for marginalized individuals living in poverty. As such, we conducted a qualitative investigation into experiences of accessing women-specific health and housing services among trans women and two-spirit persons in a downtown neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. Methods: Between June 2012 and May 2013 interviews were conducted with 32 trans women and two-spirit individuals who had accessed women-specific health and/or housing services. Participants were recruited from four open prospective cohorts of sex workers and individuals who use drugs. Interview data were analyzed using a participatory analysis approach with two participants who were hired as research assistants. Results: Participants were generally able to access women-specific services in the neighborhood. However, there were reports of discrimination related to gender identity, discrimination based on gender expression (e.g., requirement of a feminine gender expression), and lack of staff intervention in harassment from other service users. Conclusion: Trans women and two-spirit persons in our study relied upon services for their health and safety and, therefore, exclusion from women-specific services had potentially severe adverse consequences such as homelessness and sexual violence. Recommendations to improve accessibility, including policy development and procedural recommendations, are put forth. PMID:27575593

  4. A protected area influences genotype-specific survival and the structure of a Canis hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Mahoney, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    It is widely recognized that protected areas can strongly influence ecological systems and that hybridization is an important conservation issue. However, previous studies have not explicitly considered the influence of protected areas on hybridization dynamics. Eastern wolves are a species of special concern and their distribution is largely restricted to a protected population in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada, where they are the numerically dominant canid. We studied intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing survival and cause-specific mortality of hybrid and parental canids in the three-species hybrid zone between eastern wolves, eastern coyotes, and gray wolves in and adjacent to APP. Mortality risk for eastern wolves in areas adjacent to APP was significantly higher than for other sympatric Canis types outside of APP, and for eastern wolves and other canids within APP. Outside of APP, the annual mortality rate of all canids by harvest (24%) was higher than for other causes of death (4-7%). Furthermore, eastern wolves (hazard ratio = 3.5) and nonresidents (transients and dispersing animals, hazard ratio = 2.7) were more likely to die from harvest relative to other Canis types and residents, respectively. Thus, eastern wolves dispersing from APP were especially vulnerable to harvest mortality. For residents, eastern wolf survival was more negatively influenced by increased road density than for other Canis types, further highlighting the sensitivity of eastern wolves to human disturbance. A cycle of dispersal from APP followed by high rates of mortality and hybridization appears to maintain eastern wolves at low density adjacent to APP, limiting the potential for expansion beyond the protected area. However, high survival and numerical dominance of eastern wolves within APP suggest that protected areas can allow rare hybridizing species to persist even if their demographic performance is compromised and barriers to hybridization are largely

  5. Alternatives to project-specific consent for access to personal information for health research: Insights from a public dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Willison, Donald J; Swinton, Marilyn; Schwartz, Lisa; Abelson, Julia; Charles, Cathy; Northrup, David; Cheng, Ji; Thabane, Lehana

    2008-01-01

    Background The role of consent for research use of health information is contentious. Most discussion has focused on when project-specific consent may be waived but, recently, a broader range of consent options has been entertained, including broad opt-in for multiple studies with restrictions and notification with opt-out. We sought to elicit public values in this matter and to work toward an agreement about a common approach to consent for use of personal information for health research through deliberative public dialogues. Methods We conducted seven day-long public dialogues, involving 98 participants across Canada. Immediately before and after each dialogue, participants completed a fixed-response questionnaire rating individuals' support for 3 approaches to consent in the abstract and their consent choices for 5 health research scenarios using personal information. They also rated how confident different safeguards made them feel that their information was being used responsibly. Results Broad opt-in consent for use of personal information garnered the greatest support in the abstract. When presented with specific research scenarios, no one approach to consent predominated. When profit was introduced into the scenarios, consent choices shifted toward greater control over use. Despite lively and constructive dialogues, and considerable shifting in opinion at the individual level, at the end of the day, there was no substantive aggregate movement in opinion. Personal controls were among the most commonly cited approaches to improving people's confidence in the responsible use of their information for research. Conclusion Because no one approach to consent satisfied even a simple majority of dialogue participants and the importance placed on personal controls, a mechanism should be developed for documenting consent choice for different types of research, including ways for individuals to check who has accessed their medical record for purposes other than

  6. Lithium lengthens circadian period of cultured brain slices in area specific manner.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Tomoko; Honma, Sato

    2016-11-01

    Lithium has been used for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). However, the mechanisms how lithium exerts its mood stabilizing effects remain to be studied. The disorder in circadian pacemaking has been suggested as an underlying mechanism of the characteristic mood instability of the BD. Lithium is also known to lengthen the circadian periods. We recently proposed that chronic methamphetamine treatment induced circadian oscillation as a complex oscillator including multiple dopaminergic brain areas, and the complex oscillator regulates behavior rhythm independent from the central circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Sleep-wake pattern of rapid cycling BD exhibits similar rhythm disorganization to methamphetamine treated animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that the dysregulated circadian rhythm in BD patients is caused by desynchronization of sleep-wake rhythms from the central clock in the SCN, and that mood stabilizing effect of lithium is achieved through their resynchronization. In the present experiment, we examined how lithium affects the circadian rhythms of brain areas involved in the complex oscillator as well as the SCN. Here we report that lithium lengthens the circadian periods in the SCN, olfactory bulb, median eminence and substantia nigra with dose and area specific manner. The effective lithium dose was much higher than the plasma levels that are required for lengthening the circadian behavior rhythms as well for therapeutic use. Low dose of lithium did not lengthen the period but enhanced the amplitude of circadian rhythms, which may exert therapeutic effects on BD. PMID:27478137

  7. Task-specific impairments and enhancements induced by magnetic stimulation of human visual area V5.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, V; Ellison, A; Battelli, L; Cowey, A

    1998-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to simulate the effects of highly circumscribed brain damage permanently present in some neuropsychological patients, by reversibly disrupting the normal functioning of the cortical area to which it is applied. By using TMS we attempted to recreate deficits similar to those reported in a motion-blind patient and to assess the specificity of deficits when TMS is applied over human area V5. We used six visual search tasks and showed that subjects were impaired in a motion but not a form 'pop-out' task when TMS was applied over V5. When motion was present, but irrelevant, or when attention to colour and form were required, TMS applied to V5 enhanced performance. When attention to motion was required in a motion-form conjunction search task, irrespective of whether the target was moving or stationary, TMS disrupted performance. These data suggest that attention to different visual attributes involves mutual inhibition between different extrastriate visual areas. PMID:9569672

  8. Effect of Precipitation Conditions on the Specific Surface Area of Neptunium Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    HILL, BENJAMINC.

    2004-06-01

    Neptunium oxalate was precipitated under nominal and bounding HB-Line flowsheet conditions. The nominal case represents expected normal HB-Line operation. The bounding case represents process flowsheet extremes that could occur which are anticipated to decrease particle size and increase surface area. The neptunium oxalate produced under bounding conditions was used to validate the effectiveness of HB-Line calcination conditions. The maximum specific surface area of the neptunium oxide (NpO2) used in gas generation testing was 5.34 m2/g. Experiments were conducted to verify that even under bounding precipitation conditions the SSA of NpO2 produced would remain within the range evaluated during gas generation testing. The neptunium oxalate from nominal and bounding precipitation conditions was calcined at 600 degrees Celsius and 625 degrees Celsius, respectively, to form NpO2. Samples from each batch of neptunium oxalate were calcined for one, two, or four hours. Results indicate that the SSA of NpO2 continues to decrease between one and four hours. After two hours of calcination at 625 degrees Celsius, the SSA of NpO2 from the bounding case meets the surface area requirements for limiting moisture uptake.

  9. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications.

    PubMed

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michele; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-27

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features.

  10. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications

    PubMed Central

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michèle; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09531.001 PMID:26814051

  11. A mean field model of the decrease of the specific surface area of dry snow during isothermal metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legagneux, LoïC.; Domine, Florent

    2005-12-01

    The surface area of snow that is accessible to gases is an essential parameter for quantifying the exchange of trace gases between the snowpack and the atmosphere and is called the specific surface area (SSA). Snow SSA decreases during metamorphism, but this is not described in current snow models owing to the complexity of the physics and geometry of snow. In this paper, we test whether it is possible to model snow SSA changes during isothermal metamorphism without accounting for all the complexity of the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of real snow. We have developed a mean field model of snow metamorphism under isothermal conditions, grounded in the theoretical framework of transient Ostwald ripening and representing snow as a distribution of spherical particles. Analytical expressions of the growth rates of these spheres are obtained, and the evolution of two measurable parameters that characterize snow geometry, the SSA and the distribution of radii of curvature (DRC), are simulated and compared to experimental data obtained by X-ray tomography. The qualitative effects of temperature, snow density, and the condensation coefficient on the rate of SSA decrease are examined. The model predicts very well the rate of evolution of the particle size distribution, which validates our physical description of isothermal metamorphism. In particular, we find that vapor phase diffusion is rate limiting. However, the calculation of the SSA from the DRC appears delicate and evidences too crude approximations in our description of the 3-D geometry of snow. Finally, it is stressed that the initial DRC can greatly influence the rate of SSA decrease, while experimental measurements of the rate of SSA decrease suggest that all snow types evolve in a similar way. It is thus proposed that most natural fresh snows have similar DRCs.

  12. 41 CFR 102-76.85 - What is a primary function area for purposes of providing an accessible route in leased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... function area for purposes of providing an accessible route in leased facilities subject to the standards in § 102-76.65(a)? 102-76.85 Section 102-76.85 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AND CONSTRUCTION Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.85 What is a primary function area for...

  13. 41 CFR 102-76.85 - What is a primary function area for purposes of providing an accessible route in leased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... function area for purposes of providing an accessible route in leased facilities subject to the standards in § 102-76.65(a)? 102-76.85 Section 102-76.85 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AND CONSTRUCTION Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.85 What is a primary function area for...

  14. 41 CFR 102-76.85 - What is a primary function area for purposes of providing an accessible route in leased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... function area for purposes of providing an accessible route in leased facilities subject to the standards in § 102-76.65(a)? 102-76.85 Section 102-76.85 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AND CONSTRUCTION Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.85 What is a primary function area for...

  15. 41 CFR 102-76.85 - What is a primary function area for purposes of providing an accessible route in leased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... function area for purposes of providing an accessible route in leased facilities subject to the standards in § 102-76.65(a)? 102-76.85 Section 102-76.85 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AND CONSTRUCTION Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.85 What is a primary function area for...

  16. 41 CFR 102-76.85 - What is a primary function area for purposes of providing an accessible route in leased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... function area for purposes of providing an accessible route in leased facilities subject to the standards in § 102-76.65(a)? 102-76.85 Section 102-76.85 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AND CONSTRUCTION Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.85 What is a primary function area for...

  17. Stream specificity and asymmetries in feature binding and content-addressable access in visual encoding and memory.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Duong L; Tripathy, Srimant P; Bedell, Harold E; Ögmen, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Human memory is content addressable-i.e., contents of the memory can be accessed using partial information about the bound features of a stored item. In this study, we used a cross-feature cuing technique to examine how the human visual system encodes, binds, and retains information about multiple stimulus features within a set of moving objects. We sought to characterize the roles of three different features (position, color, and direction of motion, the latter two of which are processed preferentially within the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively) in the construction and maintenance of object representations. We investigated the extent to which these features are bound together across the following processing stages: during stimulus encoding, sensory (iconic) memory, and visual short-term memory. Whereas all features examined here can serve as cues for addressing content, their effectiveness shows asymmetries and varies according to cue-report pairings and the stage of information processing and storage. Position-based indexing theories predict that position should be more effective as a cue compared to other features. While we found a privileged role for position as a cue at the stimulus-encoding stage, position was not the privileged cue at the sensory and visual short-term memory stages. Instead, the pattern that emerged from our findings is one that mirrors the parallel processing streams in the visual system. This stream-specific binding and cuing effectiveness manifests itself in all three stages of information processing examined here. Finally, we find that the Leaky Flask model proposed in our previous study is applicable to all three features.

  18. Stream specificity and asymmetries in feature binding and content-addressable access in visual encoding and memory.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Duong L; Tripathy, Srimant P; Bedell, Harold E; Ögmen, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Human memory is content addressable-i.e., contents of the memory can be accessed using partial information about the bound features of a stored item. In this study, we used a cross-feature cuing technique to examine how the human visual system encodes, binds, and retains information about multiple stimulus features within a set of moving objects. We sought to characterize the roles of three different features (position, color, and direction of motion, the latter two of which are processed preferentially within the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively) in the construction and maintenance of object representations. We investigated the extent to which these features are bound together across the following processing stages: during stimulus encoding, sensory (iconic) memory, and visual short-term memory. Whereas all features examined here can serve as cues for addressing content, their effectiveness shows asymmetries and varies according to cue-report pairings and the stage of information processing and storage. Position-based indexing theories predict that position should be more effective as a cue compared to other features. While we found a privileged role for position as a cue at the stimulus-encoding stage, position was not the privileged cue at the sensory and visual short-term memory stages. Instead, the pattern that emerged from our findings is one that mirrors the parallel processing streams in the visual system. This stream-specific binding and cuing effectiveness manifests itself in all three stages of information processing examined here. Finally, we find that the Leaky Flask model proposed in our previous study is applicable to all three features. PMID:26382005

  19. A screening on Specific Learning Disorders in an Italian speaking high genetic homogeneity area.

    PubMed

    Cappa, Claudia; Giulivi, Sara; Schilirò, Antonino; Bastiani, Luca; Muzio, Carlo; Meloni, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to investigate the prevalence of Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) in Ogliastra, an area of the island of Sardinia, Italy. Having experienced centuries of isolation, Ogliastra has become a high genetic homogeneity area, and is considered particularly interesting for studies on different kinds of pathologies. Here we are going to describe the results of a screening carried out throughout 2 consecutive years in 49 second grade classes (24 considered in the first year and 25 in the second year of the study) of the Ogliastra region. A total of 610 pupils (average age 7.54 years; 293 female, 317 male) corresponding to 68.69% of all pupils who were attending second grade in the area, took part in the study. The tool used for the screening was "RSR-DSA. Questionnaire for the detection of learning difficulties and disorders", which allowed the identification of 83 subjects at risk (13.61% of the whole sample involved in the study). These subjects took part in an enhancement training program of about 6 months. After the program, pupils underwent assessment for reading, writing and calculation abilities, as well as cognitive assessment. According to the results of the assessment, the prevalence of SLDs is 6.06%. For what concerns dyslexia, 4.75% of the total sample manifested this disorder either in isolation or in comorbidity with other disorders. According to the first national epidemiological investigation carried out in Italy, the prevalence of dyslexia is 3.1-3.2%, which is lower than the prevalence obtained in the present study. Given the genetic basis of SLDs, this result, together with the presence of several cases of SLD in isolation (17.14%) and with a 3:1 ratio of males to females diagnosed with a SLD, was to be expected in a sample coming from a high genetic homogeneity area. PMID:26296080

  20. Size-Dependent Specific Surface Area of Nanoporous Film Assembled by Core-Shell Iron Nanoclusters

    DOE PAGES

    Antony, Jiji; Nutting, Joseph; Baer, Donald R.; Meyer, Daniel; Sharma, Amit; Qiang, You

    2006-01-01

    Nmore » anoporous films of core-shell iron nanoclusters have improved possibilities for remediation, chemical reactivity rate, and environmentally favorable reaction pathways. Conventional methods often have difficulties to yield stable monodispersed core-shell nanoparticles. We produced core-shell nanoclusters by a cluster source that utilizes combination of Fe target sputtering along with gas aggregations in an inert atmosphere at 7 ∘ C . Sizes of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoclusters are observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The specific surface areas of the porous films obtained from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) process are size-dependent and compared with the calculated data.« less

  1. High specific surface area Mo2C nanoparticles as an efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chaoyun; Sun, Aokui; Xu, Yushuai; Wu, Zhuangzhi; Wang, Dezhi

    2015-11-01

    Mo2C nanoparticles with high specific surface area (120 m2 g-1) are successfully synthesized using a typical and low-cost monosaccharide of glucose via a facile calcination and subsequent reduction process. The HER functions of the obtained Mo2C nanoparticles are investigated and the effect of reduction time in hydrogen is also discussed. It is found that η-MoC can be obtained at 800 °C with a reduction time of 10 min, but the formation of β-Mo2C phase requires more than 20 min. Moreover, the β-Mo2C obtained with a reduction time of 20 min exhibits the best HER activity with a small Tafel slope of 55 mV dec-1 and a large current density of 60 mA cm-2 at -200 mV, which is among the best records over Mo2C-based HER catalysts.

  2. Hydration sequence of swelling clays: evolutions of specific surface area and hydration energy.

    PubMed

    Salles, Fabrice; Douillard, Jean-Marc; Denoyel, Renaud; Bildstein, Olivier; Jullien, Michel; Beurroies, Isabelle; Van Damme, Henri

    2009-05-15

    In order to identify the key steps and the driving force for the hydration process of swelling clays, the water adsorption isotherms and enthalpies were measured on monoionic montmorillonite samples saturated with alkali or calcium ions, and on bi-ionic samples saturated with a sodium-calcium mixture. The specific surface area evolution along the hydration process was determined using a recent interpretation of the experimental adsorption isotherms of swelling solids. Results are interpreted in structural terms. Compared with additional data from sample-controlled thermal analysis (SCTA), the results confirm experimentally that the hydration of Li- and Na-montmorillonite is mainly a cation-controlled process, in contrast with the hydration of Cs samples in which the cation contribution to hydration is negligible, as we have already demonstrated using electrostatic calculations or conductivity measurements. PMID:19303602

  3. Evolution of the Specific Surface Area of Snow in a High Temperature Gradient Metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Baker, I.

    2014-12-01

    The structural evolution of low-density snow under a high temperature gradient over a short period usually takes place in the surface layers during diurnal recrystallization or on a clear, cold night. To relate snow microstructures with their thermal properties, we combined X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT) observations with numerical simulations. Different types of snow were tested over a large range of TGs (100 K m-1- 500 K m-1). The Specific Surface Area (SSA) was used to characterize the temperature gradient metamorphism (TGM). The magnitude of the temperature gradient and the initial snow type both influence the evolution of SSA. The SSA evolution under TGM was dominated by grain growth and the formation of complex surfaces. Fresh snow experienced a logarithmic decrease of SSA with time, a feature been observed previously by others [Calonne et al., 2014; Schneebeli and Sokratov, 2004; Taillandier et al., 2007]. However, for initial rounded and connected snow structures, the SSA will increase during TGM. Understanding the SSA increase is important in order to predict the enhanced uptake of chemical species by snow or increase in snow albedo. Calonne, N., F. Flin, C. Geindreau, B. Lesaffre, and S. Rolland du Roscoat (2014), Study of a temperature gradient metamorphism of snow from 3-D images: time evolution of microstructures, physical properties and their associated anisotropy, The Cryosphere Discussions, 8, 1407-1451, doi:10.5194/tcd-8-1407-2014. Schneebeli, M., and S. A. Sokratov (2004), Tomography of temperature gradient metamorphism of snow and associated changes in heat conductivity, Hydrological Processes, 18(18), 3655-3665, doi:10.1002/hyp.5800. Taillandier, A. S., F. Domine, W. R. Simpson, M. Sturm, and T. A. Douglas (2007), Rate of decrease of the specific surface area of dry snow: Isothermal and temperature gradient conditions, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface (2003-2012), 112(F3), doi: 10.1029/2006JF000514.

  4. Determination of the specific surface area of snow using ozonation of 1,1-diphenylethylene.

    PubMed

    Ray, Debajyoti; Kurková, Romana; Hovorková, Ivana; Klán, Petr

    2011-12-01

    We measured the kinetics of ozonation reaction of 1,1-diphenylethylene (DPE) in artificial snow, produced by shock freezing of DPE aqueous solutions sprayed into liquid nitrogen. It was demonstrated that most of the reactant molecules are in direct (productive) contact with gaseous ozone, thus the technique produces snow with organic molecules largely ejected to the surface of snow grains. The kinetic data were used to evaluate the snow specific surface area (∼70 cm(2) g(-1)). This number is a measure of the availability of the molecules on the surface for chemical reaction with gaseous species. The experimental results were consistent with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type reaction mechanism. DPE represents environmentally relevant compounds such as alkenes which can react with atmospheric ozone, and are relatively abundant in natural snow. For typical atmospheric ozone concentrations in polar areas (20 ppbv), we estimated that half-life of DPE on the surface of snow grains is ∼5 days at submonolayer coverages and -15 °C.

  5. Specific amino acids inhibit food intake via the area postrema or vagal afferents.

    PubMed

    Jordi, Josua; Herzog, Brigitte; Camargo, Simone M R; Boyle, Christina N; Lutz, Thomas A; Verrey, François

    2013-11-15

    To maintain nutrient homeostasis the central nervous system integrates signals that promote or inhibit eating. The supply of vital amino acids is tuned by adjusting food intake according to its dietary protein content. We hypothesized that this effect is based on the sensing of individual amino acids as a signal to control food intake. Here, we show that food intake was most potently reduced by oral L-arginine (Arg), L-lysine (Lys) and L-glutamic acid (Glu) compared to all other 17 proteogenic amino acids in rats. These three amino acids induced neuronal activity in the area postrema and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Surgical lesion of the area postrema abolished the anorectic response to Arg and Glu, whereas vagal afferent lesion prevented the response to Lys. These three amino acids also provoked gastric distension by differentially altering gastric secretion and/or emptying. Importantly, these peripheral mechanical vagal stimuli were dissociated from the amino acids' effect on food intake. Thus, Arg, Lys and Glu had a selective impact on food processing and intake suggesting them as direct sensory input to assess dietary protein content and quality in vivo. Overall, this study reveals novel amino acid-specific mechanisms for the control of food intake and of gastrointestinal function.

  6. Accumulation of waterborne mercury(II) in specific areas of fish brain

    SciTech Connect

    Rouleau, C.; Borg-Neczak, K.; Gottofrey, J.; Tjaelve, H.

    1999-10-01

    The authors used whole-body autoradiography to study the distribution of {sup 203}Hg(II) in the central nervous system of brown (Salmo trutta) and rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout. Fish were either exposed to waterborne Hg(II) for 7 and 21 d or they received an intravenous injection of the metal and were sacrificed 1 and 21 d later. Mercury did not accumulate in the brain after intravenous injection, indicating that the blood-brain barrier is impervious to Hg in plasma. In contrast, Hg was accumulated in specific areas of the grain and spinal cord following water exposure. The specificity of the accumulation sites strongly suggests that waterborne Hg was taken up by water-exposed receptor cells of sensory nerves and subsequently transferred toward the brain by axonal transport, a normal physiological process for the transport of organelles and dissolved neuronal constituents along nerve axons. Accumulation of Hg in ventral horn ganglis is probably the result of leaching of metal from blood into muscle followed by uptake in motor plates. Axonal transport allows waterborne inorganic Hg, and possibly other xenobiotics, to circumvent the blood-brain barrier. Considering the importance of complex behavior in the life of fish, and the well-known deleterious effects of mercury on the nervous system, the toxicological significance of this uptake route needs to be assessed.

  7. Barriers to accessing health care for hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients living in rural areas: perspectives from healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Moore, Heather K; Santibañez, Martha E Burton; Denzen, Ellen M; Carr, Diane W; Murphy, Elizabeth A

    2013-08-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a curative therapy for patients with malignant and nonmalignant bone marrow disorders. Life after transplantation can vary significantly among HCT recipients, who deal with a variety of physical and emotional issues. This presents numerous challenges, particularly for rural recipients who are required to travel long distances to access specialized HCT care. The objective of this study was to better understand barriers to providing care for HCT recipients living in rural areas. This study uses a cross-sectional design to collect primary data via an Internet survey of HCT healthcare providers. The authors analyzed factors restricting post-HCT care and whether having standard post-transplantation care instructions influenced the resources provided to distant-to-care recipients. Respondents reported limited transportation, coordination of care, and distance to facility as major barriers to post-HCT care, regardless of the number of distant-to-care recipients treated annually. HCT centers with standard post-transplantation care instructions were more likely to provide visits from social workers and medical leave resources to distant-to-care recipients. These instructions may improve recipient and local provider ability to make informed decisions regarding post-HCT care. The findings will help guide the development of programs and resources targeted to recipients of HCT who are distant to care.

  8. Adjustment of local conformational flexibility and accessible surface area alterations of Serine128 and Valine183 in mnemiopsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakiminia, Forough; Molakarimi, Maryam; Khalifeh, Khosrow; Jahani, Zohreh; Sajedi, Reza H.; Ranjbar, Bijan

    2016-08-01

    We used a combination of experimental and bioinformatic studies to elucidate the importance of Serine128 and Valine183 on the activity and thermal stability of mnemiopsin 1 by substitution of S128 and V183 with glycine and threonine, respectively (S128G and V183T mutants). Luminescence emissions of S128G and V183T were reduced to 71.6% and 46.6% with respect to the original activity of the wild type protein. According to circular dichroism (CD) measurements, compactness of mutants decreased in comparison with wild type (WT) protein. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicated that Tm values of thermal unfolding are not changed significantly upon mutation. Herein, we suggest that the protein variants unfold through molecular association and intermediate states. Bioinformatic studies revealed that local fluctuation of residues in S128G increased with respect to WT protein. However, S128G mutation leads to increment of the accessible surface area of lysine188. Therefore, this change is thermodynamically favorable. Finally, both experimental and theoretical studies showed a delicate balance between all structural alterations, determining total conformational stability of the protein.

  9. Glacier length, area and volume changes in the Himalaya: an overview and specific examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolch, T.; Bhambri, R.; Kamp, U.; Pieczonka, T.

    2011-12-01

    advancing glaciers. This is consistent with existing studies of the Karakoram glaciers. However, area and length changes show indirect signals only while the mass balance is most directly linked to climate. Debris cover on glaciers which is common throughout the Himalaya further influences glacier melt. Existing studies show that area and length changes are reduced in comparison to debris-free glaciers. Currently no long-term in-situ glacier mass balance measurements exist. Remote sensed derived geodetic mass balance estimations are a suitable tool to improve the knowledge on the reaction of glaciers to climate change. Detailed investigations on the debris-covered glaciers in Khumbu Himalaya based on stereo Corona, ASTER and Cartosat-1 data revealed a specific mass balance of -0.32 ± 0.08 m w.e. a-1 between 1972 and 2007 which is within the global mean. The surface lowering is significant for all glaciers despite thick debris-cover. Consistently, preliminary results of the large debris-covered Zemu Glacier in Sikkim/Eastern Indian Himalaya indicate significant mass loss but only a slight reduction in length. Further analyses are under way and also climatic considerations will be addressed.

  10. Branch age and light conditions determine leaf-area-specific conductivity in current shoots of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Grönlund, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2016-08-01

    Shoot size and other shoot properties more or less follow the availability of light, but there is also evidence that the topological position in a tree crown has an influence on shoot development. Whether the hydraulic properties of new shoots are more regulated by the light or the position affects the shoot acclimation to changing light conditions and thereby to changing evaporative demand. We investigated the leaf-area-specific conductivity (and its components sapwood-specific conductivity and Huber value) of the current-year shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in relation to light environment and topological position in three different tree classes. The light environment was quantified in terms of simulated transpiration and the topological position was quantified by parent branch age. Sample shoot measurements included length, basal and tip diameter, hydraulic conductivity of the shoot, tracheid area and density, and specific leaf area. In our results, the leaf-area-specific conductivity of new shoots declined with parent branch age and increased with simulated transpiration rate of the shoot. The relation to transpiration demand seemed more decisive, since it gave higher R(2) values than branch age and explained the differences between the tree classes. The trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with simulated transpiration was closely related to Huber value, whereas the trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with parent branch age was related to a similar trend in sapwood-specific conductivity. PMID:27217528

  11. Branch age and light conditions determine leaf-area-specific conductivity in current shoots of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Grönlund, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2016-08-01

    Shoot size and other shoot properties more or less follow the availability of light, but there is also evidence that the topological position in a tree crown has an influence on shoot development. Whether the hydraulic properties of new shoots are more regulated by the light or the position affects the shoot acclimation to changing light conditions and thereby to changing evaporative demand. We investigated the leaf-area-specific conductivity (and its components sapwood-specific conductivity and Huber value) of the current-year shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in relation to light environment and topological position in three different tree classes. The light environment was quantified in terms of simulated transpiration and the topological position was quantified by parent branch age. Sample shoot measurements included length, basal and tip diameter, hydraulic conductivity of the shoot, tracheid area and density, and specific leaf area. In our results, the leaf-area-specific conductivity of new shoots declined with parent branch age and increased with simulated transpiration rate of the shoot. The relation to transpiration demand seemed more decisive, since it gave higher R(2) values than branch age and explained the differences between the tree classes. The trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with simulated transpiration was closely related to Huber value, whereas the trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with parent branch age was related to a similar trend in sapwood-specific conductivity.

  12. Prospect inversion for indirect estimation of leaf dry matter content and specific leaf area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Skidmore, A.-K.; Duren, I.-V.; Heiden, U.; Heurich, M.

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of vegetation properties plays an indispensable role in assessments of ecosystem function with leaf dry mater content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA) being two important vegetation properties. Methods for fast, reliable and accurate measurement of LDMC and SLA are still lacking. In this study, the inversion of the PROSPECT radiative transfer model was used to estimate these two leaf parameters. Inversion of PROSPECT traditionally aims at quantifying its direct input parameters rather than identifying the parameters which can be derived indirectly from the input parameters. The technique has been tested here to indirectly model these parameters for the first time. Biophysical parameters such as leaf area, as well as fresh and dry weights of 137 leaf samples were measured during a field campaign in July 2013 in the mixed mountain forests of the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany. Reflectance and transmittance of the leaf samples were measured using an ASD field spec III equipped with an integrating sphere. The PROSPECT model was inverted using a look-up table (LUT) approach for the NIR/SWIR region of the spectrum. The retrieved parameters were evaluated using their calculated R2 and normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) values with the field measurements. Among the retrieved variables the lowest nRMSE (0.0899) was observed for LDMC. For both traits higher R2 values (0.83 for LDMC and 0.89 for SLA) were discovered. The results indicate that the leaf traits studied can be quantified as accurately as the direct input parameters of PROSPECT. The strong correlation between the estimated traits and the NIR/SWIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum suggests that these leaf traits could be assessed at canopy and in the landscape by using hyperspectral remote sensing data.

  13. Density, specific surface area, and correlation length of snow measured by high-resolution penetrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proksch, Martin; Löwe, Henning; Schneebeli, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Precise measurements of snow structural parameters are crucial to understand the formation of snowpacks by deposition and metamorphism and to characterize the stratigraphy for many applications and remote sensing in particular. The area-wide acquisition of structural parameters at high spatial resolution from state-of-the-art methods is, however, still cumbersome, since the time required for a single profile is a serious practical limitation. As a remedy we have developed a statistical model to extract three major snow structural parameters: density, correlation length, and specific surface area (SSA) solely from the SnowMicroPen (SMP), a high-resolution penetrometer, which allows a meter profile to be measured with millimeter resolution in less than 1 min. The model was calibrated by combining SMP data with 3-D microstructural data from microcomputed tomography which was used to reconstruct full-depth snow profiles from different snow climates (Alpine, Arctic, and Antarctic). Density, correlation length, and SSA were derived from the SMP with a mean relative error of 10.6%, 16.4%, and 23.1%, respectively. For validation, we compared the density and SSA derived from the SMP to traditional measurements and near-infrared profiles. We demonstrate the potential of our method by the retrieval of a two-dimensional stratigraphy at Kohnen Station, Antarctica, from a 46 m long SMP transect. The result clearly reveals past depositional and metamorphic events, and our findings show that the SMP can be used as an objective, high-resolution tool to retrieve essential snow structural parameters efficiently in the field.

  14. Structure, specific surface area and thermal conductivity of the snowpack around Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domine, Florent; Gallet, Jean-Charles; Bock, Josué; Morin, Samuel

    2012-07-01

    The structure of the snowpack near Barrow was studied in March-April 2009. Vertical profiles of density, specific surface area (SSA) and thermal conductivity were measured on tundra, lakes and landfast ice. The average thickness was 41 cm on tundra and 21 cm on fast ice. Layers observed were diamond dust or recent wind drifts on top, overlaying wind slabs, occasional faceted crystals and melt-freeze crusts, and basal depth hoar layers. The top layer had a SSA between 45 and 224 m2 kg-1. All layers at Barrow had SSAs higher than at many other places because of the geographical and climatic characteristics of Barrow. In particular, a given snow layer was remobilized several times by frequent winds, which resulted in SSA increases each time. The average snow area index (SAI, the dimensionless vertically integrated SSA) on tundra was 3260, higher than in the Canadian High Arctic or in the Alaskan taiga. This high SAI, combined with low snow temperatures, imply that the Barrow snowpack efficiently traps persistent organic pollutants, as illustrated with simple calculations for PCB 28 and PCB 180. The average thermal conductivity was 0.21 Wm-1 K-1, and the average thermal resistance on tundra was 3.25 m2 K W-1. This low value partly explains why the snow-ground interface was cold, around -19°C. The high SAI and low thermal resistance values illustrate the interplay between climate, snow physical properties, and their potential impact on atmospheric chemistry, and the need to describe these relationships in models of polar climate and atmospheric chemistry, especially in a climate change context.

  15. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-09-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005-2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on

  16. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland☆

    PubMed Central

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-01-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005–2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research

  17. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-09-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005-2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on

  18. Selected School Laws and Standards. A Summary Containing Specific School Laws Relating to Area Schools, Standards for Area Community Colleges and Area Vocational Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines. Area Schools and Career Education Branch.

    This document provides a selected summary of school laws relating to area schools and standards for area community colleges and vocational schools in Iowa. Area schools are authorized to offer the first two years of college work, pre-professional education, vocational and technical training, inservice training and retraining of workers, programs…

  19. Specific Surface versus Electrochemically Active Area of the Carbon/Polypyrrole Capacitor: Correlation of Ion Dynamics Studied by an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance with BET Surface.

    PubMed

    Mosch, Heike L K S; Akintola, Oluseun; Plass, Winfried; Höppener, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S; Ignaszak, Anna

    2016-05-10

    Carbon/polypyrrole (PPy) composites are promising electrode materials for energy storage applications such as lightweight capacitors. Although these materials are composed of relatively inexpensive components, there is a gap of knowledge regarding the correlation between surface, porosity, ion exchange dynamics, and the interplay of the double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance. In this work we evaluate the specific surface area analyzed by the BET method and the area accessible for ions using electrochemical quartz-crystal microbalance (EQCM) for SWCNT/PPy and carbon black Vulcan XC72-R/PPy composites. The study revealed that the polymer has significant influence on the pore size of the composites. Although the BET surface is low for the polypyrrole, the electrode mass change and thus the electrochemical area are large for the polymer-containing electrodes. This indicates that multiple redox active centers in the charged polymer chain are good ion scavengers. Also, for the composite electrodes, the effective charge storage occurs at the polypyrrole-carbon junctions, which are easy to design/multiply by a proper carbon-to-polymer weight ratio. The specific BET surface and electrochemically accessible surface area are both important parameters in calculation of the electrode capacitance. SWCNTs/PPy showed the highest capacitances normalized to the BET and electrochemical surface as compared to the polymer-carbon black. TEM imaging revealed very homogeneous distribution of the nanosized polymer particles onto the CNTs, which facilitates the synergistic effect of the double layer capacitance (CNTs) and pseudocapacitance (polymer). The trend in the electrode mass change in correlation with the capacitance suggest additional effects such as a solvent co-insertion into the polymer and the contribution of the charge associated with the redox activity of oxygen-containing functional groups on the carbon surface. PMID:27082127

  20. Specific Surface versus Electrochemically Active Area of the Carbon/Polypyrrole Capacitor: Correlation of Ion Dynamics Studied by an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance with BET Surface.

    PubMed

    Mosch, Heike L K S; Akintola, Oluseun; Plass, Winfried; Höppener, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S; Ignaszak, Anna

    2016-05-10

    Carbon/polypyrrole (PPy) composites are promising electrode materials for energy storage applications such as lightweight capacitors. Although these materials are composed of relatively inexpensive components, there is a gap of knowledge regarding the correlation between surface, porosity, ion exchange dynamics, and the interplay of the double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance. In this work we evaluate the specific surface area analyzed by the BET method and the area accessible for ions using electrochemical quartz-crystal microbalance (EQCM) for SWCNT/PPy and carbon black Vulcan XC72-R/PPy composites. The study revealed that the polymer has significant influence on the pore size of the composites. Although the BET surface is low for the polypyrrole, the electrode mass change and thus the electrochemical area are large for the polymer-containing electrodes. This indicates that multiple redox active centers in the charged polymer chain are good ion scavengers. Also, for the composite electrodes, the effective charge storage occurs at the polypyrrole-carbon junctions, which are easy to design/multiply by a proper carbon-to-polymer weight ratio. The specific BET surface and electrochemically accessible surface area are both important parameters in calculation of the electrode capacitance. SWCNTs/PPy showed the highest capacitances normalized to the BET and electrochemical surface as compared to the polymer-carbon black. TEM imaging revealed very homogeneous distribution of the nanosized polymer particles onto the CNTs, which facilitates the synergistic effect of the double layer capacitance (CNTs) and pseudocapacitance (polymer). The trend in the electrode mass change in correlation with the capacitance suggest additional effects such as a solvent co-insertion into the polymer and the contribution of the charge associated with the redox activity of oxygen-containing functional groups on the carbon surface.

  1. On-Line Remote Catalog Access and Circulation Control System. Part I: Functional Specifications. Part II: User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., Gaithersburg, MD. Data Processing Div.

    The Ohio State University Libraries On-line Remote Catalog Access and Circulation Control System (LCS) began on-line operations with the conversion of one department library in November 1970. By December all 26 libraries had been converted to the automated system and LCS was fully operational one month ahead of schedule. LCS is designed as a…

  2. Ecological strategies in california chaparral: Interacting effects of soils, climate, and fire on specific leaf area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anacker, Brian; Rajakaruna, Nishanta; Ackerly, David; Harrison, Susan; Keeley, Jon E.; Vasey, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: High values of specific leaf area (SLA) are generally associated with high maximal growth rates in resource-rich conditions, such as mesic climates and fertile soils. However, fire may complicate this relationship since its frequency varies with both climate and soil fertility, and fire frequency selects for regeneration strategies (resprouting versus seeding) that are not independent of resource-acquisition strategies. Shared ancestry is also expected to affect the distribution of resource-use and regeneration traits.Aims: We examined climate, soil, and fire as drivers of community-level variation in a key functional trait, SLA, in chaparral in California.Methods: We quantified the phylogenetic, functional, and environmental non-independence of key traits for 87 species in 115 plots.Results: Among species, SLA was higher in resprouters than seeders, although not after phylogeny correction. Among communities, mean SLA was lower in harsh interior climates, but in these climates it was higher on more fertile soils and on more recently burned sites; in mesic coastal climates, mean SLA was uniformly high despite variation in soil fertility and fire history.Conclusions: We conclude that because important correlations exist among both species traits and environmental filters, interpreting the functional and phylogenetic structure of communities may require an understanding of complex interactive effects.

  3. Monitoring Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 Borehole Logging at 200 East Area Specific Retention Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, D.G.

    1999-07-12

    The Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project's vadose zone monitoring effort for fiscal year (FY) 1999 involves monitoring 30 boreholes for moisture content and gamma-ray emitting radionuclides. The boreholes are associated with specific retention trenches and cribs in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The facilities to be monitored are the 216-A-2, -4, and -7 cribs, the 216-A-18 trench, the 216-B-14 through -19 cribs, the 216-B-20 through -34, -53A, and -58 trenches, the 216-B-35 through -42 trenches, and the 216-C-5 crib. This monitoring plan describes the facilities and the vadose zone at the cribs and trenches to be monitored; the field activities to be accomplished; the constituents of interest and the monitoring methods, including calibration issues; and the quality assurance and quality control requirements governing the monitoring effort. The results from the FY 1999 monitoring will show the current configuration of subsurface contamination and will be compared with past monitoring results to determine whether changes in contaminant distribution have occurred since the last monitoring effort.

  4. Serotonergic changes in specific areas of rat brain associated with activity--stress gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Hellhammer, D H; Hingtgen, J N; Wade, S E; Shea, P A; Aprison, M H

    1983-05-01

    To study serotonergic involvement in the development of gastric lesions following activity wheel stress, three groups of rats (gastric lesions, no gastric lesions, and home--cage controls) were killed following exposure to the experimental procedures. The brains were dissected into eight specific areas and subjected to analyses for serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) using high performance liquid chromatography with EC detection. Lower levels of 5-HT were found in the midbrain, cortex, and hippocampus of rats with gastric lesions compared to either the no lesion group, subjected to shorter periods of activity--stress, or the home--cage control group. Levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA were elevated in the pons/medulla oblongata of both the lesion and the no lesion groups compared to the home--cage controls. Corticosterone levels in blood were also significantly elevated in the lesion group. These data on serotonin changes in the CNS suggest a possible role for this neurotransmitter in stress-induced gastric pathology. PMID:6191350

  5. Upscaling of the specific surface area for reactive transport modelling in fractured rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    The impact of flow heterogeneity on chemical transport from single to multiple fractures, is investigated. The emphasis is on the dynamic nature of the specific surface area (SSA) due to heterogeneity of the flow, relative to a purely geometrical definition. It is shown how to account for SSA as a random variable in modelling multi-component reactions. The flow-dependent SSA is interpreted probabilistically, following inert tracer particles along individual fractures. Upscaling to a fracture network is proposed as a time-domain random walk based on the statistics of SSA for single fractures. Statistics of SSA are investigated for three correlation structures of transmissivity, one classical multi-gaussian, and two non-Gaussian. The coefficient of variation of single fracture SSA decreases monotonously with the distance over the fracture length; the CV of the upscaled SSA reduces further such that after ca 20 fractures it is under 0.1 for a disconnected field, and around 0.2 for connected and multi-gaussian fields. This implies that after 10-20 fractures, uncertainty in SSA is significantly reduced, justifying the use of an effective value. A conservative, lower bound for the dimensionless upscaled effective SSA was found to be 1, suitable for all heterogeneity structures, assuming the cubic hydraulic law applicable.

  6. Development of the specific surface area of snow: Observations from Kohnen Station, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Katharina; Schneebeli, Martin; Birnbaum, Gerit; Tijm-Reijmer, Catharina Helena; Freitag, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    The energy balance in polar regions depends on the albedo of the snow cover. In Antarctica the snow is nearly free of impurities so that the albedo is mainly linked to the grain size, which shows a seasonal evolution due to metamorphic processes at the snow's surface. However, a prediction of grain size evolution only based on the dynamics of snow metamorphism seems not to be sufficient because the surface is sporadically refreshed by new accumulated snow or is redistributed by wind. We present a study in which we investigated the temporal and spatial development of the specific surface area (SSA) of surface snow in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. During seven weeks of the austral summer season 2012/2013 we sampled the snow surface on a daily basis along a 50 meter long profile. Our measurements show a decrease of spatially averaged SSA from 40 m2 kg-1 to 10 m2 kg-1 accompanied by a series of short-time fluctuations. The decrease in SSA corresponds to an increase of optical grain size from 80 μm to 320 μm during the summer period. By analyzing the SSA-development in respect to the weather conditions we conclude that at low accumulation sites like DML, Antarctica, redistribution and erosion processes of the surface snow have a larger impact on grain size respectively albedo evolution than sporadic precipitation events.

  7. Rate of evolution of the specific surface area of surface snow layers.

    PubMed

    Cabanes, Axel; Legagneux, Loïc; Dominé, Florent

    2003-02-15

    The snowpack can impact atmospheric chemistry by exchanging adsorbed or dissolved gases with the atmosphere. Modeling this impact requires the knowledge of the specific surface area (SSA) of snow and its variations with time. We have therefore measured the evolution of the SSA of eight recent surface snow layers in the Arctic and the French Alps, using CH4 adsorption at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The SSA of fresh snow layers was found to decrease with time, from initial values in the range 613-1540 cm2/g to values as low as 257 cm2/g after 6 days. This is explained by snow metamorphism, which causes modifications in crystal shapes, here essentially crystal rounding and the disappearance of microstructures. A parametrization of the rate of SSA decrease is proposed. We fit the SSA decrease to an exponential law and find that the time constant alpha(exp) (day(-1)) depends on temperature according to alpha(exp) = 76.6 exp (-1708/7), with Tin kelvin. Our parametrization predicts that the SSA of a snow layer evolving at -40 degrees C will decrease by a factor of 2 after 14 days, while a similar decrease at -1 degrees C will only require 5 days. Wind was found to increase the rate of SSA decrease, but insufficient data did not allow a parametrization of this effect. PMID:12636262

  8. Evolution of the specific surface area of snow during high-temperature gradient metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan; Baker, Ian

    2014-12-01

    The structural evolution of low-density snow under a high-temperature gradient over a short period usually takes place in the surface layers on clear, cold nights. In this paper, X-ray computed microtomography (microCT) was combined with numerical simulations to investigate the temperature gradient metamorphism (TGM) on different types of snow. Precipitation particles (PP), small rounded particles (RGsr), and large rounded particles (RGlr) were each observed in high-temperature gradients (100-500 K m-1) at a mean temperature of -4°C. The specific surface area (SSA) was used to characterize the TGM, which were influenced by both the magnitude of the temperature gradient and the initial snow structures. PP samples experienced a logarithmic decrease of SSA with time, and the depth hoar structures created under high TGM (500 K m-1) have higher SSA compared to those under lower TGM. Unlike previous observations, for initial rounded and connected structures, like RGlr samples, the SSA increased during TGM. Simulated normal vapor flux distributions for different snow types were used to help understand the structural evolution under TGM. Understanding the SSA increase is important in order to predict the enhanced uptake of chemical species by snow or increase in snow albedo.

  9. Adsorption behaviors of some phenolic compounds onto high specific area activated carbon cloth.

    PubMed

    Ayranci, Erol; Duman, Osman

    2005-09-30

    Adsorption of phenol, hydroquinone, m-cresol, p-cresol and p-nitrophenol from aqueous solutions onto high specific area activated carbon cloth has been studied. The effect of ionization on adsorption of these ionizable phenolic compounds was examined by studying the adsorption from acidic, basic and natural pH solutions. Kinetics of adsorption was followed by in situ UV spectroscopy over a period of 90 min. First-order rate law was found to be valid for the kinetics of adsorption processes and the rate constants were determined. The highest rate constants were obtained for the adsorption from solutions at the natural pH. The lowest rate constants were observed in basic solutions. The rate constants decreased in the order p-nitrophenol approximately m-cresol>p-cresol>hydroquinone approximately phenol. Adsorption isotherms were derived at 30 degrees C and the isotherm data were treated according to Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherm equations. The goodness of fit of experimental data to these isotherm equations was tested and the parameters of equations were determined. The possible interactions of compounds with the carbon surface were discussed considering the charge of the surface and the possible ionization of compounds at acidic, basic and natural pH conditions. PMID:15941619

  10. Roadmap for Teacher Access to Student-Level Longitudinal Data: Key Focus Areas to Ensure Quality Implementation. Data for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Teachers have access to information about the students in their classrooms each year, but schools and districts often cannot provide teachers with longitudinal data (or data linked over time). Given resource constraints in schools and districts, states are best positioned to ensure that teachers have secure access to their students' longitudinal…

  11. Measuring the specific surface area of natural and manmade glasses: effects of formation process, morphology, and particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Papelis, Charalambos; Um, Wooyong; Russel, Charles E.; Chapman, Jenny B.

    2003-03-28

    The specific surface area of natural and manmade solid materials is a key parameter controlling important interfacial processes in natural environments and engineered systems, including dissolution reactions and sorption processes at solid-fluid interfaces. To improve our ability to quantify the release of trace elements trapped in natural glasses, the release of hazardous compounds trapped in manmade glasses, or the release of radionuclides from nuclear melt glass, we measured the specific surface area of natural and manmade glasses as a function of particle size, morphology, and composition. Volcanic ash, volcanic tuff, tektites, obsidian glass, and in situ vitrified rock were analyzed. Specific surface area estimates were obtained using krypton as gas adsorbent and the BET model. The range of surface areas measured exceeded three orders of magnitude. A tektite sample had the highest surface area (1.65 m2/g), while one of the samples of in situ vitrified rock had the lowest surf ace area (0.0016 m2/g). The specific surface area of the samples was a function of particle size, decreasing with increasing particle size. Different types of materials, however, showed variable dependence on particle size, and could be assigned to one of three distinct groups: (1) samples with low surface area dependence on particle size and surface areas approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the surface area of smooth spheres of equivalent size. The specific surface area of these materials was attributed mostly to internal porosity and surface roughness. (2) samples that showed a trend of decreasing surface area dependence on particle size as the particle size increased. The minimum specific surface area of these materials was between 0.1 and 0.01 m2/g and was also attributed to internal porosity and surface roughness. (3) samples whose surface area showed a monotonic decrease with increasing particle size, never reaching an ultimate surface area limit within the particle

  12. Lexical access in children with hearing loss or specific language impairment, using the cross-modal picture-word interference paradigm.

    PubMed

    de Hoog, Brigitte E; Langereis, Margreet C; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-02-01

    In this study we compared lexical access to spoken words in 25 deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs), 13 hard-of-hearing (HoH) children and 20 children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twenty-one age-matched typically developing children served as controls. The children with CIs and the HoH children in the present study had good speech perception abilities. We used a cross-modal picture-word interference paradigm to examine lexical access. Results showed that children with SLI revealed overall slower reaction times and produced more errors than the children with CIs, the HoH children, and the control children. Reaction times of children with CIs and the HoH children did not differ from those of the control children. Thus, problems with spoken language processing, as is the case in children with SLI, seem to affect lexical access more than limitations in auditory perception, as is the fundamental problem in children with hearing loss. We recommend that improvement of lexical access in children with SLI deserves specific attention in therapy and education.

  13. Improving the performance of the PLB index for ligand-binding site prediction using dihedral angles and the solvent-accessible surface area

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan

    2016-01-01

    Protein ligand-binding site prediction is highly important for protein function determination and structure-based drug design. Over the past twenty years, dozens of computational methods have been developed to address this problem. Soga et al. identified ligand cavities based on the preferences of amino acids for the ligand-binding site (RA) and proposed the propensity for ligand binding (PLB) index to rank the cavities on the protein surface. However, we found that residues exhibit different RAs in response to changes in solvent exposure. Furthermore, previous studies have suggested that some dihedral angles of amino acids in specific regions of the Ramachandran plot are preferred at the functional sites of proteins. Based on these discoveries, the amino acid solvent-accessible surface area and dihedral angles were combined with the RA and PLB to obtain two new indexes, multi-factor RA (MF-RA) and multi-factor PLB (MF-PLB). MF-PLB, PLB and other methods were tested using two benchmark databases and two particular ligand-binding sites. The results show that MF-PLB can improve the success rate of PLB for both ligand-bound and ligand-unbound structures, particularly for top choice prediction. PMID:27619067

  14. Improving the performance of the PLB index for ligand-binding site prediction using dihedral angles and the solvent-accessible surface area.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan

    2016-01-01

    Protein ligand-binding site prediction is highly important for protein function determination and structure-based drug design. Over the past twenty years, dozens of computational methods have been developed to address this problem. Soga et al. identified ligand cavities based on the preferences of amino acids for the ligand-binding site (RA) and proposed the propensity for ligand binding (PLB) index to rank the cavities on the protein surface. However, we found that residues exhibit different RAs in response to changes in solvent exposure. Furthermore, previous studies have suggested that some dihedral angles of amino acids in specific regions of the Ramachandran plot are preferred at the functional sites of proteins. Based on these discoveries, the amino acid solvent-accessible surface area and dihedral angles were combined with the RA and PLB to obtain two new indexes, multi-factor RA (MF-RA) and multi-factor PLB (MF-PLB). MF-PLB, PLB and other methods were tested using two benchmark databases and two particular ligand-binding sites. The results show that MF-PLB can improve the success rate of PLB for both ligand-bound and ligand-unbound structures, particularly for top choice prediction. PMID:27619067

  15. 50 CFR Table 50 to Part 679 - Maximum Number of Groundfish Licenses and the Regulatory Area Specification of Groundfish...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum Number of Groundfish Licenses and the Regulatory Area Specification of Groundfish Licenses That May Be Granted to CQEs Representing Specific GOA Communities 50 Table 50 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  16. Enhancing Learning: From Access to Success. Report of the First Experts' Meeting: Defining Areas of Action (Paris, France, March 26-28, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document is a summary of the "First Experts' Meeting: Defining Areas of Action to Enhance Learning--From Access to Success," which took place at UNESCO Headquarters from March 26 to 28, 2007. The meeting brought together some 30 experts from around the world including researchers, educators, educational planners, representatives of United …

  17. Making a semi-convex Focus area in a Focus+Glue+Context map, considering map visibility and transport access points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirako, Y.; Yamamoto, D.; Takahashi, N.

    2016-04-01

    We previously implemented the Focus+Glue+Context map system EMMA that provides local detailed data in Focus, global context data in Context, and connection data between both in the same view. Introducing the Glue area between Focus and Context makes it possible to provide uniform scaling for the two latter areas. This paper enhances EMMA through the implementation of a Focus creation function that considers transportation access points, such as stations and bus stops. The enhanced EMMA searches a route from the current location to the transportation access point, and allows users to identify the spatial relationship between the various locations in a small-scale Context, and view the route from the current location to the transportation access points in a large-scale Focus. However, if Focus is too large because of unnecessary areas used to identify the route, some parts of Context might be hidden by Focus. The proposed system solves this problem by implementing the following functions: (1) it searches stations that are adjacent to the current location and makes a semiconvex Focus that includes the current location and those stations in order for Focus to include really necessary areas. (2) It reduces Focus distortion by setting a fixed point as the center of the Focus area. (3) It smoothens the Focus shape in order to improve visibility in the Glue area. We developed a prototype of the proposed system that implements these functions.

  18. LITERATURE REVIEW OF PUO2 CALCINATION TIME AND TEMPERATURE DATA FOR SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, G.

    2012-03-06

    The literature has been reviewed in December 2011 for calcination data of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) from plutonium oxalate Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} precipitation with respect to the PuO{sub 2} specific surface area (SSA). A summary of the literature is presented for what are believed to be the dominant factors influencing SSA, the calcination temperature and time. The PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} calcination data from this review has been regressed to better understand the influence of calcination temperature and time on SSA. Based on this literature review data set, calcination temperature has a bigger impact on SSA versus time. However, there is still some variance in this data set that may be reflecting differences in the plutonium oxalate preparation or different calcination techniques. It is evident from this review that additional calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} needs to be collected and evaluated to better define the relationship. The existing data set has a lot of calcination times that are about 2 hours and therefore may be underestimating the impact of heating time on SSA. SRNL recommends that more calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} be collected and this literature review data set be augmented to better refine the relationship between PuO{sub 2} SSA and its calcination parameters.

  19. In vivo footprint of a picornavirus internal ribosome entry site reveals differences in accessibility to specific RNA structural elements.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Miragall, Olga; Martínez-Salas, Encarnación

    2007-11-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements were described in picornaviruses as an essential region of the viral RNA. Understanding of IRES function requires a detailed knowledge of each step involved in the internal initiation process, from RNA folding and IRES-protein interaction to ribosome recruitment. Thus, deciphering IRES accessibility to external agents due to RNA structural features, as well as RNA-protein protection within living cells, is of primary importance. In this study, two chemical reagents, dimethylsulfate (DMS) and aminomethylpsoralen, have been used to footprint the entire IRES of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in living cells; these reagents enter the cell membrane and interact with nucleic acids in a structure-dependent manner. For FMDV, as in other picornaviruses, viral infection is dependent on the correct function of the IRES; therefore, the IRES region itself constitutes a useful target of antiviral drugs. Here, the in vivo footprint of a picornavirus IRES element in the context of a biologically active mRNA is shown for the first time. The accessibility of unpaired adenosine and cytosine nucleotides in the entire FMDV IRES was first obtained in vitro by DMS probing; subsequently, this information was used to interpret the footprint data obtained in vivo for the mRNA encompassing the IRES element in the intercistronic space. The results of DMS accessibility and UV-psoralen cross-linking studies in the competitive cellular environment provided evidence for differences in RNA structure from data obtained in vitro, and provided essential information to identify appropriate targets within the FMDV IRES aimed at combating this important pathogen.

  20. Probability analysis of the area which can be irrigated by a specific windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadeesh, A.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper a detailed analysis of the area that can be irrigated by a windmill is presented. The area of crops that can be irrigated by a windmill is generally called command area. To find out command area we need data on monthly evaporation E(mm/month), monthly precipitation R(mm/month), Estimated irrigation efficiency and monthly windmill output W(m/sup 3//month). Before proceeding to find the irrigation required to grow a crop, it is necessary to evaluate the elements which contribute to the water balance.

  1. Summertime evolution of snow specific surface area close to the surface on the Antarctic Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libois, Q.; Picard, G.; Arnaud, L.; Dumont, M.; Lafaysse, M.; Morin, S.; Lefebvre, E.

    2015-12-01

    On the Antarctic Plateau, snow specific surface area (SSA) close to the surface shows complex variations at daily to seasonal scales which affect the surface albedo and in turn the surface energy budget of the ice sheet. While snow metamorphism, precipitation and strong wind events are known to drive SSA variations, usually in opposite ways, their relative contributions remain unclear. Here, a comprehensive set of SSA observations at Dome C is analysed with respect to meteorological conditions to assess the respective roles of these factors. The results show an average 2-to-3-fold SSA decrease from October to February in the topmost 10 cm in response to the increase of air temperature and absorption of solar radiation in the snowpack during spring and summer. Surface SSA is also characterized by significant daily to weekly variations due to the deposition of small crystals with SSA up to 100 m2 kg-1 onto the surface during snowfall and blowing snow events. To complement these field observations, the detailed snowpack model Crocus is used to simulate SSA, with the intent to further investigate the previously found correlation between interannual variability of summer SSA decrease and summer precipitation amount. To this end, some Crocus parameterizations have been adapted to Dome C conditions, and the model was forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis. It successfully matches the observations at daily to seasonal timescales, except for the few cases when snowfalls are not captured by the reanalysis. On the contrary, the interannual variability of summer SSA decrease is poorly simulated when compared to 14 years of microwave satellite data sensitive to the near-surface SSA. A simulation with disabled summer precipitation confirms the weak influence in the model of the precipitation on metamorphism, with only 6 % enhancement. However, we found that disabling strong wind events in the model is sufficient to reconciliate the simulations with the observations. This suggests that

  2. Summertime evolution of snow specific surface area close to the surface on the Antarctic Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libois, Q.; Picard, G.; Arnaud, L.; Dumont, M.; Lafaysse, M.; Morin, S.; Lefebvre, E.

    2015-08-01

    On the Antarctic Plateau, snow specific surface area (SSA) close to the surface shows complex variations at daily to seasonal scales which affect the surface albedo and in turn the surface energy budget of the ice sheet. While snow metamorphism, precipitation and strong wind events are known to drive SSA variations, usually in opposite ways, their relative contributions remain unclear. Here, a comprehensive set of SSA observations at Dome C is analysed with respect to meteorological conditions to assess the respective roles of these factors. The results show an average two-to-three-fold SSA decrease from October to February in the topmost 10 cm, in response to the increase of air temperature and absorption of solar radiation in the snowpack during spring and summer. Surface SSA is also characterised by significant daily to weekly variations, due to the deposition of small crystals with SSA up to 100 m2 kg-1 onto the surface during snowfall and blowing snow events. To complement these field observations, the detailed snowpack model Crocus is used to simulate SSA, with the intent to further investigate the previously found correlation between inter-annual variability of summer SSA decrease and summer precipitation amount. To this end, Crocus parameterizations have been adapted to Dome C conditions, and the model was forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis. It successfully matches the observations at daily to seasonal time scales, except for few cases when snowfalls are not captured by the reanalysis. On the contrary, the inter-annual variability of summer SSA decrease is poorly simulated when compared to 14 years of microwave satellite data sensititve to the near surface SSA. A simulation with disabled summer precipitation confirms the weak influence in the model of the precipitation on metamorphism, with only 6 % enhancement. However we found that disabling strong wind events in the model is sufficient to reconciliate the simulations with the observations. This suggests

  3. Area-Specific Marginal Costing for Electric Utilities: a Case Study of Transmission and Distribution Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orans, Ren

    1990-10-01

    Existing procedures used to develop marginal costs for electric utilities were not designed for applications in an increasingly competitive market for electric power. The utility's value of receiving power, or the costs of selling power, however, depend on the exact location of the buyer or seller, the magnitude of the power and the period of time over which the power is used. Yet no electric utility in the United States has disaggregate marginal costs that reflect differences in costs due to the time, size or location of the load associated with their power or energy transactions. The existing marginal costing methods used by electric utilities were developed in response to the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) in 1978. The "ratemaking standards" (Title 1) established by PURPA were primarily concerned with the appropriate segmentation of total revenues to various classes-of-service, designing time-of-use rating periods, and the promotion of efficient long-term resource planning. By design, the methods were very simple and inexpensive to implement. Now, more than a decade later, the costing issues facing electric utilities are becoming increasingly complex, and the benefits of developing more specific marginal costs will outweigh the costs of developing this information in many cases. This research develops a framework for estimating total marginal costs that vary by the size, timing, and the location of changes in loads within an electric distribution system. To complement the existing work at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) on estimating disaggregate generation and transmission capacity costs, this dissertation focuses on the estimation of distribution capacity costs. While the costing procedure is suitable for the estimation of total (generation, transmission and distribution) marginal costs, the empirical work focuses on the geographic disaggregation of marginal costs related to electric

  4. Neglect of a Neglected Disease in Italy: The Challenge of Access-to-Care for Chagas Disease in Bergamo Area

    PubMed Central

    Repetto, Ernestina Carla; Zachariah, Rony; Kumar, Ajay; Angheben, Andrea; Gobbi, Federico; Anselmi, Mariella; Al Rousan, Ahmad; Torrico, Carlota; Ruiz, Rosa; Ledezma, Gabriel; Buoninsegna, Maria Chiara; Khogali, Mohammed; Van den Bergh, Rafael; De Maio, Gianfranco; Egidi, Ada Maristella; Maccagno, Barbara; Garelli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chagas disease (CD) represents a growing problem in Europe; Italy is one of the most affected countries but there is no national framework for CD and access-to-care is challenging. In 2012 Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) started an intervention in Bergamo province, where many people of Latin American origin (PLAO) are resident. A new model-of-care for CD, initiated by Centre for Tropical Diseases of Sacro Cuore Hospital, Negrar (CTD), the NGO OIKOS and the Bolivian community since 2009 in the same area, was endorsed. Hereby, we aim to describe the prevalence of CD and the treatment management outcomes among PLAO screened from 1st June 2012 to 30th June 2013. Methods Retrospective cohort study using routine program data. Screening sessions were done in Bergamo at OIKOS outpatient service and serological confirmation, staging and treatment for CD was offered at the CTD. MSF provided health education on CD, awareness generation prior to screening days, pre-test and post-test counselling through cultural mediators of Latin American origin. Results Of 1305 PLAO screened, 223(17%) had CD. Among 210 patients eligible for treatment, 102(49%) were lost-to-follow-up before treatment. The median delay from diagnosis to treatment was 4 months (range 0.7–16.6 months). Among 108 started on treatment, 63(58%) completed treatment, 36(33%) interrupted treatment, (33 for drug side-effects, two for patients decision and one due to pregnancy), 6(6%) were lost-to-follow-up and 3(3%) were on treatment at study censuring. Conclusion In this first study focusing on process of care for CD in Italy, less than 30% of patients completed treatment with drop-outs along the cascade of care. There is an urgent need to involve affected communities and local regional health authorities to take part to this model-of-care, adapting it to the local epidemiology. The Italian health authorities should take steps in advocating for a change in the current paradigm. PMID:26406325

  5. Availability and Accessibility of Student-Specific Weight Loss Programs and Other Risk Prevention Health Services on College Campuses

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Sharon; Napolitano, Melissa; Hufnagel, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Background More than one third of college students who are overweight or obese are in need of weight loss programs tailored to college students. However, the availability and accessibility of these programs is unknown. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the availability and ease of access to weight loss programs for students at 10 universities with the largest undergraduate enrollment. Methods The 10 public universities with the largest student bodies with a mean (SD) undergraduate enrollment of 41,122 (7657) students were examined. The websites of the universities were assessed to determine the availability of weight loss programs. Services for high-risk health needs common to university campuses (ie, alcohol and other drugs, victim services, sexual health, and eating disorders) were searched. Results Of the universities searched, 3 (30%, 3/10) offered weight loss programming, however, none met the predetermined criteria. Comparatively, all schools (100%, 10/10) offered no-cost and continual enrollment programming for the other high-risk health needs. Conclusions There are limited weight loss services available to undergraduate students compared with other university services. Collaboration between existing college health service providers is suggested for the delivery of appropriate programming for overweight and obese undergraduates wanting to lose weight. PMID:27278261

  6. Accurate guidance for percutaneous access to a specific target in soft tissues: preclinical study of computer-assisted pericardiocentesis.

    PubMed

    Chavanon, O; Barbe, C; Troccaz, J; Carrat, L; Ribuot, C; Noirclerc, M; Maitrasse, B; Blin, D

    1999-06-01

    In the field of percutaneous access to soft tissues, our project was to improve classical pericardiocentesis by performing accurate guidance to a selected target, according to a model of the pericardial effusion acquired through three-dimensional (3D) data recording. Required hardware is an echocardiographic device and a needle, both linked to a 3D localizer, and a computer. After acquiring echographic data, a modeling procedure allows definition of the optimal puncture strategy, taking into consideration the mobility of the heart, by determining a stable region, whatever the period of the cardiac cycle. A passive guidance system is then used to reach the planned target accurately, generally a site in the middle of the stable region. After validation on a dynamic phantom and a feasibility study in dogs, an accuracy and reliability analysis protocol was realized on pigs with experimental pericardial effusion. Ten consecutive successful punctures using various trajectories were performed on eight pigs. Nonbloody liquid was collected from pericardial effusions in the stable region (5 to 9 mm wide) within 10 to 15 minutes from echographic acquisition to drainage. Accuracy of at least 2.5 mm was demonstrated. This study demonstrates the feasibility of computer-assisted pericardiocentesis. Beyond the simple improvement of the current technique, this method could be a new way to reach the heart or a new tool for percutaneous access and image-guided puncture of soft tissues. Further investigation will be necessary before routine human application.

  7. MATC Machine Shop '84: Specific Skill Needs Assessment for Machine Shops in the Milwaukee Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Keith J.

    Building on previous research on the future skill needs of workers in southeastern Wisconsin, a study was conducted at Milwaukee Area Technical College (MATC) to gather information on the machine tool industry in the Milwaukee area. Interviews were conducted by MATC Machine Shop and Tool and Die faculty with representatives from 135 machine shops,…

  8. ICSW2AN : An Inter-vehicle Communication System Using Mobile Access Point over Wireless Wide Area Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Tae-Young

    This paper presents a prototype of inter-vehicle communication system using mobile access point that internetworks wired or wireless LAN and wireless WAN anywhere. Implemented mobile access point can be equipped with various wireless WAN interfaces such as WCDMA and HSDPA. Mobile access point in the IP mechanism has to process connection setup procedure to one wireless WAN. To show the applicability of the mobile access point to inter-vehicle communication, a simplified V2I2V-based car communication system called ICSW2AN is implemented to evaluate major performance metrics by road test. In addition, results of road test for traffic information service are investigated in view of RTT, latency and server processing time. The experimental result indicates that V2I2V-based car communication system sufficiently can provide time-tolerant traffic information to moving vehicles while more than two mobile devices in restricted spaces such as car, train and ship access wireless Internet simultaneously.

  9. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  10. A direct SAXS approach for the determination of specific surface area of clay in polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Marega, Carla; Causin, Valerio; Saini, Roberta; Marigo, Antonio; Meera, A P; Thomas, Sabu; Devi, K S Usha

    2012-06-28

    The interfacial area between the matrix and the filler is a key parameter which shapes the performance of polymer-based composites and nanocomposites, even though it is difficult to quantify. A very easy SAXS method, based on the Porod equation, is proposed for measuring the specific surface area of nanofillers embedded in a polymer matrix. In order to assess its reliability, this approach was applied to natural rubber- or styrene butadiene-based samples containing different types of montmorillonite clay. A wide range of specific surfaces was detected. SAXS data were compared to complementary X-ray diffraction and TEM information, obtaining a good agreement. Interpretation of the tensile properties by theoretical models and comparison with the literature corroborated the validity of the specific surface area measurement. The possibility to quantify this feature of composites allows the rational design of such materials to be improved. PMID:22646223

  11. 47 CFR 54.806 - Calculation by the Administrator of interstate access universal service support for areas served...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... $650 million, PSAUSS equals the Study Area Above Benchmark Revenues. (d) Calculate the Minimum Delta (MD) by study area. Within each study area the Minimum Delta will be equal to the Preliminary Minimum... Delta (TNMD) by summing all study area Minimum Deltas nationwide. (f) Calculate the Minimum...

  12. 47 CFR 54.806 - Calculation by the Administrator of interstate access universal service support for areas served...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... $650 million, PSAUSS equals the Study Area Above Benchmark Revenues. (d) Calculate the Minimum Delta (MD) by study area. Within each study area the Minimum Delta will be equal to the Preliminary Minimum... Delta (TNMD) by summing all study area Minimum Deltas nationwide. (f) Calculate the Minimum...

  13. 47 CFR 54.806 - Calculation by the Administrator of interstate access universal service support for areas served...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... $650 million, PSAUSS equals the Study Area Above Benchmark Revenues. (d) Calculate the Minimum Delta (MD) by study area. Within each study area the Minimum Delta will be equal to the Preliminary Minimum... Delta (TNMD) by summing all study area Minimum Deltas nationwide. (f) Calculate the Minimum...

  14. 47 CFR 54.806 - Calculation by the Administrator of interstate access universal service support for areas served...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... $650 million, PSAUSS equals the Study Area Above Benchmark Revenues. (d) Calculate the Minimum Delta (MD) by study area. Within each study area the Minimum Delta will be equal to the Preliminary Minimum... Delta (TNMD) by summing all study area Minimum Deltas nationwide. (f) Calculate the Minimum...

  15. Site-specific characterization of Castromil Brownfield area related to gold mining activities.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Serrano Pinto, Luís; Patinha, Carla; Cardoso Fonseca, Edmundo

    2004-03-01

    Castromil is one of the gold mining areas in Portugal that has been abandoned since 1940. This area, which was first mined in Roman times, is located within a Hercynian granite body near the contact with Silurian metasediments. Gold is essentially disseminated along veins in the silicified granite, running NW-SE, related with a shear zone and frequently associated with sulphides (arsenopyrite and basically pyrite). In paragenetic terms, three stages of mineralization are considered: ferro-arseniferous (quartz + arsenopyrite I + pyrite I + pyrrhotite + bismuth), zinciferous (sphalerite + chalcopyrite), and remobilization (arsenopyrite II + galena + gold). Due to the lack of laws and environmental education, Castromil is today a gold mining heritage site where we can detect the consequences of an incautious exploration (tailings, wells and adits located in the old explored zone) and where a residential area is located. In order to characterize the actual state of the old mining area the trace metal contamination of soils and waters by mining activities was investigated. In the studied area 106 soil samples, 15 waters and 20 plants were sampled and analysed. The soil samples were analysed for 32 elements by ICP-AES. Waters were analysed by ionic chromatography and ICP-MS for major and trace elements. Plants were analysed for As, Fe and Pb by AAS. The results are discussed taking into account the risk-based standards for soils and groundwater's (target and intervention values) proposed by Swartjes (1999). The results show elevated concentration of As and Pb which were found in soils collected from agricultural areas. Foodstuff plants species collected in the Castromil agricultural area show high concentrations of As in the leaves (cabbage and lettuce) and in the tubers (potatoes). Groundwaters in the mining area contain high concentrations of As that exceeds the intervention values. The area must to be subject to a remediation process, considering the actual risks to

  16. Site-specific characterization of Castromil Brownfield area related to gold mining activities.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Serrano Pinto, Luís; Patinha, Carla; Cardoso Fonseca, Edmundo

    2004-03-01

    Castromil is one of the gold mining areas in Portugal that has been abandoned since 1940. This area, which was first mined in Roman times, is located within a Hercynian granite body near the contact with Silurian metasediments. Gold is essentially disseminated along veins in the silicified granite, running NW-SE, related with a shear zone and frequently associated with sulphides (arsenopyrite and basically pyrite). In paragenetic terms, three stages of mineralization are considered: ferro-arseniferous (quartz + arsenopyrite I + pyrite I + pyrrhotite + bismuth), zinciferous (sphalerite + chalcopyrite), and remobilization (arsenopyrite II + galena + gold). Due to the lack of laws and environmental education, Castromil is today a gold mining heritage site where we can detect the consequences of an incautious exploration (tailings, wells and adits located in the old explored zone) and where a residential area is located. In order to characterize the actual state of the old mining area the trace metal contamination of soils and waters by mining activities was investigated. In the studied area 106 soil samples, 15 waters and 20 plants were sampled and analysed. The soil samples were analysed for 32 elements by ICP-AES. Waters were analysed by ionic chromatography and ICP-MS for major and trace elements. Plants were analysed for As, Fe and Pb by AAS. The results are discussed taking into account the risk-based standards for soils and groundwater's (target and intervention values) proposed by Swartjes (1999). The results show elevated concentration of As and Pb which were found in soils collected from agricultural areas. Foodstuff plants species collected in the Castromil agricultural area show high concentrations of As in the leaves (cabbage and lettuce) and in the tubers (potatoes). Groundwaters in the mining area contain high concentrations of As that exceeds the intervention values. The area must to be subject to a remediation process, considering the actual risks to

  17. Report of the IAU Commission Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides and File Format Specification: Update September 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, J.; Acton, C.; Arlot, J.-E.; Bell, S.; Capitaine, N.; Fienga, A.; Folkner, W.; Gastineau, M.; Pavlov, D.; Pitjeva, E.; Skripnichenko, V.; Wallace, P.

    2015-08-01

    The IAU Commission 4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides recommends the use of the Spacecraft and Planet Kernel (SPK) file format to provide a uniform format for the position ephemerides of planets and other natural solar system bodies. The Working Group also recommends the use of the binary Planetary Constants Kernel (PCK) format ephemeris file for the orientation of a body. It further recommends supporting data be stored in a text PCK. Since the previous report: - Some minor changes have been made to the formats for the coordinate time ephemeris, data types 20: Chebyshev Polynomials (Velocity Only) and 120: Chebyshev Polynomials (TCB:Velocity Only). - the working group's final report is currently undergoing review by the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to assure it correctly describes these file formats.

  18. Final Update of the IAU Commission 4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides and File Format Specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, James L.

    2015-08-01

    The IAU Commission 4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides recommends the use of the Spacecraft and Planet Kernel (SPK) format to provide a uniform format for the position ephemerides of planets and other natural solar system bodies, and the use of the Planetary Constants Kernel (PCK) for the orientation of these bodies. These formats are used by the SPICE system, developed by the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The working group's final report is currently undergoing final preparations for publication. A long version of this report will be available at the IAU Commission 4 - Ephemerides (or its successor) web site. This long version will contain a full description of that portion of the SPK and PCK formats required to duplicate these file types for this application.

  19. Effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with different specific surface areas on the stability of supported Pt catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Sui, Xu-Lei; Yin, Ge-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Pt/MCNTs catalysts have been synthesized by the microwave-assisted polyol process (MAPP). Effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) with different specific surface areas on the stability of supported Pt catalysts has been investigated. The obtained Pt/MCNTs catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammograms (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and accelerated potential cycling tests (APCT) to present the stability of the catalysts. The experimental results indicate that the original electrochemically active specific surface areas (ESA) and the activity for methanol electrooxidation of the catalysts decrease with the decreasing of the specific surface areas of MCNTs, and the Pt/MCNTs-250 (MCNTs with pristine specific surface of 250 m2 g-1, below the same) catalysts show the best initial electrochemical activity. However, the activity of the Pt/MCNTs-250 is very close to that of the Pt/MCNTs-120 and the stability of the Pt/MCNTs-60 catalyst is the best after 1000 cycles APCT. Considering the factors of the activity and stability comprehensively, the optimized specific surface area of MCNTs in the Pt/MCNTs catalysts is 120 m2 g-1.

  20. Insights into the effect of dilute acid, hot water and alkaline pretreatment on cellulose accessible surface area and overall porosity of Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xianzhi; Wells, Tyrone; Sun, Qining; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-06-19

    Pretreatment is known to render biomass more reactive to cellulase by altering the chemical compositions as well as physical structures of biomass. Simons stain technique along with mercury porosimetry were applied on the acid, neutral, and alkaline pretreated materials to measure the accessible surface area of cellulose and pore size distribution of Populus. Results indicated that acid pretreatment is much more effective than water and alkaline pretreatment in terms of cellulose accessibility increase. Further investigation suggests that lignin does not dictate cellulose accessibility to the extent that hemicellulose does, but it does restrict xylan accessibility which in turn controls the access of cellulase to cellulose. The most interesting finding is that severe acid pretreatment significantly decreases the average pore size, i.e., 90% average size decrease could be observed after 60 min dilute acid pretreatment at 160 °C; moreover, the nano-pore space formed between coated microfibrils is increased after pretreatment, especially for the acid pretreatment, suggesting this particular type of biomass porosity is probably the most fundamental barrier to effective enzymatic hydrolysis.

  1. Insights into the effect of dilute acid, hot water and alkaline pretreatment on cellulose accessible surface area and overall porosity of Populus

    DOE PAGES

    Meng, Xianzhi; Wells, Tyrone; Sun, Qining; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-06-19

    Pretreatment is known to render biomass more reactive to cellulase by altering the chemical compositions as well as physical structures of biomass. Simons stain technique along with mercury porosimetry were applied on the acid, neutral, and alkaline pretreated materials to measure the accessible surface area of cellulose and pore size distribution of Populus. Results indicated that acid pretreatment is much more effective than water and alkaline pretreatment in terms of cellulose accessibility increase. Further investigation suggests that lignin does not dictate cellulose accessibility to the extent that hemicellulose does, but it does restrict xylan accessibility which in turn controls themore » access of cellulase to cellulose. The most interesting finding is that severe acid pretreatment significantly decreases the average pore size, i.e., 90% average size decrease could be observed after 60 min dilute acid pretreatment at 160 °C; moreover, the nano-pore space formed between coated microfibrils is increased after pretreatment, especially for the acid pretreatment, suggesting this particular type of biomass porosity is probably the most fundamental barrier to effective enzymatic hydrolysis.« less

  2. A comparison of specific surface area and crystallization kinetics in compact and porous amorphous solid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, V. J.; Mate, B.; Roriguez-Lazcano, Y.; Galvez, O.; Moreno, M. A.; Escribano, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    In astronomical ices, both compact and porous morphologies can be expected depending on the particular ice history [1]. These different morphologies might be relevant for the interpretation of astronomical observations as demonstrated in recent works [2], where the characteristic ν4 band of NH4+ at 6.85 μm, used in tentative identifications of this ion in astronomical observations, was shown to broaden and virtually disappear, when embedded in compact ice samples. In this work we present a more detailed characterization of the compact ices used in ref. [2], which are produced in the laboratory through the sudden freezing of water droplets on a cold substrate, a procedure similar to that reported by Loerting et al. [3] for the generation of hyperquenched (HQ) glassy water. The present study is based on infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy measurements of the solids. The compactness, specific surface area (SSA), and crystallization kinetics of the HQ samples is compared to that of vapour deposited (VD) ices. SSA values are estimated from the isothermal adsorption of CH4 and CO2 at 40 and 90 K. The rates of crystallization are determined at several temperatures up to 150 K by monitoring the position and width of the OD stretching band of isolated HDO molecules in ice samples with a 4% HDO content (see ref. [4] for a previous application of the method). From these experiments we derive the conclusions that follow. The much higher porosity of the VD samples is immediately evidenced by the IR absorption peak of uncoordinated OH dangling bonds, which is practically absent in the HQ ices. The SSA values for the HQ ices are about one order of magnitude lower than those for VD ices, and likewise, the rates of crystallization, are also found to be lower in HQ than in VD ices. These results, and their likely astrophysical implications, will be discussed at the conference. This work has been funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science under Grants FIS2007-61686 and FIS2010

  3. Optimizing the specific surface area of fly ash-based sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Lee, K T; Bhatia, S; Mohamed, A R; Chu, K H

    2006-01-01

    High performance sorbents for flue gas desulfurization can be synthesized by hydration of coal fly ash, calcium sulfate, and calcium oxide. In general, higher desulfurization activity correlates with higher sorbent surface area. Consequently, a major aim in sorbent synthesis is to maximize the sorbent surface area by optimizing the hydration conditions. This work presents an integrated modeling and optimization approach to sorbent synthesis based on statistical experimental design and two artificial intelligence techniques: neural network and genetic algorithm. In the first step of the approach, the main and interactive effects of three hydration variables on sorbent surface area were evaluated using a full factorial design. The hydration variables of interest to this study were hydration time, amount of coal fly ash, and amount of calcium sulfate and the levels investigated were 4-32 h, 5-15 g, and 0-12 g, respectively. In the second step, a neural network was used to model the relationship between the three hydration variables and the sorbent surface area. A genetic algorithm was used in the last step to optimize the input space of the resulting neural network model. According to this integrated modeling and optimization approach, an optimum sorbent surface area of 62.2m(2)g(-1) could be obtained by mixing 13.1g of coal fly ash and 5.5 g of calcium sulfate in a hydration process containing 100ml of water and 5 g of calcium oxide for a fixed hydration time of 10 h.

  4. Current models broadly neglect specific needs of biodiversity conservation in protected areas under climate change

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Protected areas are the most common and important instrument for the conservation of biological diversity and are called for under the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity. Growing human population densities, intensified land-use, invasive species and increasing habitat fragmentation threaten ecosystems worldwide and protected areas are often the only refuge for endangered species. Climate change is posing an additional threat that may also impact ecosystems currently under protection. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to include the potential impact of climate change when designing future nature conservation strategies and implementing protected area management. This approach would go beyond reactive crisis management and, by necessity, would include anticipatory risk assessments. One avenue for doing so is being provided by simulation models that take advantage of the increase in computing capacity and performance that has occurred over the last two decades. Here we review the literature to determine the state-of-the-art in modeling terrestrial protected areas under climate change, with the aim of evaluating and detecting trends and gaps in the current approaches being employed, as well as to provide a useful overview and guidelines for future research. Results Most studies apply statistical, bioclimatic envelope models and focus primarily on plant species as compared to other taxa. Very few studies utilize a mechanistic, process-based approach and none examine biotic interactions like predation and competition. Important factors like land-use, habitat fragmentation, invasion and dispersal are rarely incorporated, restricting the informative value of the resulting predictions considerably. Conclusion The general impression that emerges is that biodiversity conservation in protected areas could benefit from the application of modern modeling approaches to a greater extent than is currently reflected in the scientific literature. It is

  5. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? 102... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.120 What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? If an agency has a need to be in a specific urban...

  6. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? 102... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.120 What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? If an agency has a need to be in a specific urban...

  7. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  8. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  9. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  10. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  11. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  12. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  13. Tourism and Specific Risk Areas for Cryptococcus gattii, Vancouver Island, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Catharine; MacDougall, Laura; Li, Min

    2008-01-01

    We compared travel histories of case-patients with Cryptococcus gattii infection during 1999–2006 to travel destinations of the general public on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Findings validated and refined estimates of risk on the basis of place of residence and showed no spatial progression of risk areas on this island over time. PMID:18976570

  14. ‘You must carry your wheelchair’ – barriers to accessing healthcare in a South African rural area

    PubMed Central

    Vergunst, Richard; Swartz, Leslie; Mji, Gubela; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Mannan, Hasheem

    2015-01-01

    Background There is international evidence that people with disabilities face barriers when accessing primary healthcare services and that there is inadequate information about effective interventions that work to improve the lives of people with disabilities, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Poor rural residents generally experience barriers to accessing primary healthcare, and these problems are further exacerbated for people with disabilities. Objective In this study, we explore the challenges faced by people with disabilities in accessing healthcare in Madwaleni, a poor rural Xhosa community in South Africa. Design Purposive sampling was done with 26 participants, using semi-structured interviews and content analysis to identify major themes. Results This study showed a number of barriers to healthcare for people with disabilities. These included practical barriers, including geographical and staffing issues, and attitudinal barriers. Conclusions It is suggested that although there are practical barriers that need to be addressed, attitudinal barriers could potentially be addressed more easily and cost effectively. PMID:26434691

  15. Optimization of orbital assignment and specification of service areas in satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Cou-Way; Levis, Curt A.; Buyukdura, O. Merih

    1987-01-01

    The mathematical nature of the orbital and frequency assignment problem for communications satellites is explored, and it is shown that choosing the correct permutations of the orbit locations and frequency assignments is an important step in arriving at values which satisfy the signal-quality requirements. Two methods are proposed to achieve better spectrum/orbit utilization. The first, called the delta S concept, leads to orbital assignment solutions via either mixed-integer or restricted basis entry linear programming techniques; the method guarantees good single-entry carrier-to-interference ratio results. In the second, a basis for specifying service areas is proposed for the Fixed Satellite Service. It is suggested that service areas should be specified according to the communications-demand density in conjunction with the delta S concept in order to enable the system planner to specify more satellites and provide more communications supply.

  16. Misidentification syndromes related to face specific area in the fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Hudson, A J; Grace, G M

    2000-11-01

    The "delusional misidentification syndromes" are a group of uncommon and varied disorders in which, in typical form, the patient thinks that a particular familiar person is someone else or a certain familiar place is a duplicate. Although first identified and considered a memory disorder by Pick, evidence in support of this has been difficult to identify. They have been most often seen in various psychotic and organic brain diseases but lesions have been generally diffuse although the right temporal lobe has been implicated. A patient was investigated who abruptly developed a disorder wherein she misidentified her husband as her deceased sister and claimed that her home was a duplicate of her real home that were typical of Frégoli syndrome and Pick's reduplicative paramnesia, respectively. A discrete area of brain damage, probably ischaemic, in this patient was seen on MRI in the anterior part of the right fusiform gyrus and a smaller area in the nearby anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri with associated parahippocampal and hippocampal atrophy. A high order nervous system function that is devoted to the identification of faces is located in the adjacent midportion of the fusiform gyrus and a similar locus for environmental scenes, termed the parahippocampal place area, is present in the bordering parahippocampal gyrus. The misidentification phenomena in this case can be explained by disruption of the connections of these highly specialised areas with the most anterior inferior and medial part of the right temporal lobe where long term memory and mechanisms for the retrieval of information that are required for the visual recognition of faces and scenes are stored.

  17. Misidentification syndromes related to face specific area in the fusiform gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, A.; Grace, G.

    2000-01-01

    The "delusional misidentification syndromes" are a group of uncommon and varied disorders in which, in typical form, the patient thinks that a particular familiar person is someone else or a certain familiar place is a duplicate. Although first identified and considered a memory disorder by Pick, evidence in support of this has been difficult to identify. They have been most often seen in various psychotic and organic brain diseases but lesions have been generally diffuse although the right temporal lobe has been implicated. A patient was investigated who abruptly developed a disorder wherein she misidentified her husband as her deceased sister and claimed that her home was a duplicate of her real home that were typical of Frégoli syndrome and Pick's reduplicative paramnesia, respectively. A discrete area of brain damage, probably ischaemic, in this patient was seen on MRI in the anterior part of the right fusiform gyrus and a smaller area in the nearby anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri with associated parahippocampal and hippocampal atrophy. A high order nervous system function that is devoted to the identification of faces is located in the adjacent midportion of the fusiform gyrus and a similar locus for environmental scenes, termed the parahippocampal place area, is present in the bordering parahippocampal gyrus. The misidentification phenomena in this case can be explained by disruption of the connections of these highly specialised areas with the most anterior inferior and medial part of the right temporal lobe where long term memory and mechanisms for the retrieval of information that are required for the visual recognition of faces and scenes are stored.

 PMID:11032619

  18. Training of binocular rivalry suppression suggests stimulus-specific plasticity in monocular and binocular visual areas.

    PubMed

    Vergeer, Mark; Wagemans, Johan; van Ee, Raymond

    2016-05-10

    The plasticity of the human brain, as shown in perceptual learning, is generally reflected by improved task performance after training. Here, we show that perceptual suppression can be increased through training. In the first experiment, binocular rivalry suppression of a specific orientation was trained, leading to a relative reduction in sensitivity to the trained orientation. In a second experiment, two orthogonal orientations were suppressed in alternating training blocks, in the left and right eye, respectively. This double-training procedure lead to reduced sensitivity for the orientation that was suppression-trained in each specific eye, implying that training of feature suppression is specific for the eye in which the oriented grating was presented during training. Results of a control experiment indicate that the obtained effects are indeed due to suppression during training, instead of being merely due to the repetitive presentation of the oriented gratings. Visual plasticity is essential for a person's visual development. The finding that plasticity can result in increased perceptual suppression reported here may prove to be significant in understanding human visual development. It emphasizes that for stable vision, not only the enhancement of relevant signals is crucial, but also the reliable and stable suppression of (task) irrelevant signals.

  19. Effect of the sand grain specific surface area on the performance of the tube in-situ combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    Vossoughi, S.; Bartlett, G.; Wilhite, G.P.

    1982-09-01

    The influence of the porous matrix on in-situ combustion has been recognized by many investigators as an important part of the process. Clays are of particular interest because they are abundant in sandstones and affect the combustion process through two mechanisms: large surface area per unit mass and catalytic properties. This study concerns surface area effects on in-situ combustion. Catalytic effects were excluded by conducting experiments using silica sand with variable specific surface area as the porous medium. Studies were made using an in-situ combustion tube and thermogravimetric analysis. In-situ combustion tube runs were made with silica sands of different grain sizes. Specific surface area ranged from 76 to 3332 cm/sup 2//g. This corresponds to average sand particle diameters ranging from 210 to 7.3 microns respectively. All the other variables were kept constant. The combustion front was not self-sustained at low surface area. A strong, sustained combustion front was observed at high surface area. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was applied to the samples taken at 1 to 2 inch intervals ahead of the front to study crude oil distribution. In the case of unsuccessful runs, the amount of the crude oil ahead of the front decreased to a level that sufficient fuel could not be laid down to sustain the front. In the self-sustained run (highest surface area) crude oil content immediately ahead of the front was even higher than the original sand/oil mixture. Therefore a minimum surface area is required to provide conditions for sufficient fuel to be laid down by coking process.

  20. Layer- and area-specific actions of norepinephrine on cortical synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Humberto; Treviño, Mario; Atzori, Marco

    2016-06-15

    The cerebral cortex is a critical target of the central noradrenergic system. The importance of norepinephrine (NE) in the regulation of cortical activity is underscored by clinical findings that involve this catecholamine and its receptor subtypes in the regulation of a large number of emotional and cognitive functions and illnesses. In this review, we highlight diverse effects of the LC/NE system in the mammalian cortex. Indeed, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral studies in the last few decades reveal that NE elicits a mixed repertoire of excitatory, inhibitory, and biphasic effects on the firing activity and transmitter release of cortical neurons. At the intrinsic cellular level, NE can produce a series of effects similar to those elicited by other monoamines or acetylcholine, associated with systemic arousal. At the synaptic level, NE induces numerous acute changes in synaptic function, and ׳gates' the induction of long-term plasticity of glutamatergic synapses, consisting in an enhancement of engaged and relevant cortical synapses and/or depression of unengaged synapses. Equally important in shaping cortical function, in many cortical areas NE promotes a characteristic, most often reversible, increase in the gain of local inhibitory synapses, whose extent and temporal properties vary between different areas and sometimes even between cortical layers of the same area. While we are still a long way from a comprehensive theory of the function of the LC/NE system, its cellular, synaptic, and plastic effects are consistent with the hypothesis that noradrenergic modulation is critical in coordinating the activity of cortical and subcortical circuits for the integration of sensory activity and working memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System.

  1. Synthesis of rose-like boron nitride particles with a high specific surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hongming; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Wen, Guangwu; Zhong, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Bai, Hongwei

    2010-08-15

    Novel rose-like BN nanostructures were synthesized on a large scale via a two-step procedure. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and nitrogen porosimetry. The results show that the obtained rose-like nanostructures are composed of a large amount of h-BN crystalline flakes and have a surface area of 90.31 m{sup 2}/g. A mechanism was proposed to explain the formation process of the rose-like BN nanostructures.

  2. Postsynaptic Target Specific Synaptic Dysfunctions in the CA3 Area of BACE1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Megill, Andrea; Wong, Philip C.; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Lee, Hey-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Beta-amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), a major neuronal β-secretase critical for the formation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, is considered one of the key therapeutic targets that can prevent the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although a complete ablation of BACE1 gene prevents Aβ formation, we previously reported that BACE1 knockouts (KOs) display presynaptic deficits, especially at the mossy fiber (MF) to CA3 synapses. Whether the defect is specific to certain inputs or postsynaptic targets in CA3 is unknown. To determine this, we performed whole-cell recording from pyramidal cells (PYR) and the stratum lucidum (SL) interneurons in the CA3, both of which receive excitatory MF terminals with high levels of BACE1 expression. BACE1 KOs displayed an enhancement of paired-pulse facilitation at the MF inputs to CA3 PYRs without changes at the MF inputs to SL interneurons, which suggests postsynaptic target specific regulation. The synaptic dysfunction in CA3 PYRs was not restricted to excitatory synapses, as seen by an increase in the paired-pulse ratio of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents from SL to CA3 PYRs. In addition to the changes in evoked synaptic transmission, BACE1 KOs displayed a reduction in the frequency of miniature excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs and mIPSCs) in CA3 PYRs without alteration in mEPSCs recorded from SL interneurons. This suggests that the impairment may be more global across diverse inputs to CA3 PYRs. Our results indicate that the synaptic dysfunctions seen in BACE1 KOs are specific to the postsynaptic target, the CA3 PYRs, independent of the input type. PMID:24637500

  3. Region-Specific Summation Patterns Inform the Role of Cortical Areas in Selecting Motor Plans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Steve W C; Calton, Jeffrey L; Lawrence, Bonnie M; Dickinson, Anthony R; Snyder, Lawrence H

    2016-05-01

    Given an instruction regarding which effector to move and what location to move to, simply adding the effector and spatial signals together will not lead to movement selection. For this, a nonlinearity is required. Thresholds, for example, can be used to select a particular response and reject others. Here we consider another useful nonlinearity, a supralinear multiplicative interaction. To help select a motor plan, spatial and effector signals could multiply and thereby amplify each other. Such an amplification could constitute one step within a distributed network involved in response selection, effectively boosting one response while suppressing others. We therefore asked whether effector and spatial signals sum supralinearly for planning eye versus arm movements from the parietal reach region (PRR), the lateral intraparietal area (LIP), the frontal eye field (FEF), and a portion of area 5 (A5) lying just anterior to PRR. Unlike LIP neurons, PRR, FEF, and, to a lesser extent, A5 neurons show a supralinear interaction. Our results suggest that selecting visually guided eye versus arm movements is likely to be mediated by PRR and FEF but not LIP.

  4. Jazz drummers recruit language-specific areas for the processing of rhythmic structure.

    PubMed

    Herdener, Marcus; Humbel, Thierry; Esposito, Fabrizio; Habermeyer, Benedikt; Cattapan-Ludewig, Katja; Seifritz, Erich

    2014-03-01

    Rhythm is a central characteristic of music and speech, the most important domains of human communication using acoustic signals. Here, we investigated how rhythmical patterns in music are processed in the human brain, and, in addition, evaluated the impact of musical training on rhythm processing. Using fMRI, we found that deviations from a rule-based regular rhythmic structure activated the left planum temporale together with Broca's area and its right-hemispheric homolog across subjects, that is, a network also crucially involved in the processing of harmonic structure in music and the syntactic analysis of language. Comparing the BOLD responses to rhythmic variations between professional jazz drummers and musical laypersons, we found that only highly trained rhythmic experts show additional activity in left-hemispheric supramarginal gyrus, a higher-order region involved in processing of linguistic syntax. This suggests an additional functional recruitment of brain areas usually dedicated to complex linguistic syntax processing for the analysis of rhythmical patterns only in professional jazz drummers, who are especially trained to use rhythmical cues for communication.

  5. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  6. EphB receptor forward signaling regulates area-specific reciprocal thalamic and cortical axon pathfinding

    PubMed Central

    Robichaux, Michael A.; Chenaux, George; Ho, Hsin-Yi Henry; Soskis, Michael J.; Dravis, Christopher; Kwan, Kenneth Y.; Šestan, Nenad; Greenberg, Michael Eldon; Henkemeyer, Mark; Cowan, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    In early brain development, ascending thalamocortical axons (TCAs) navigate through the ventral telencephalon (VTel) to reach their target regions in the young cerebral cortex. Descending, deep-layer cortical axons subsequently target appropriate thalamic and subcortical target regions. However, precisely how and when corticothalamic axons (CTAs) identify their appropriate, reciprocal thalamic targets remains unclear. We show here that EphB1 and EphB2 receptors control proper navigation of a subset of TCA and CTA projections through the VTel. We show in vivo that EphB receptor forward signaling and the ephrinB1 ligand are required during the early navigation of L1-CAM+ thalamic fibers in the VTel, and that the misguided thalamic fibers in EphB1/2 KO mice appear to interact with cortical subregion-specific axon populations during reciprocal cortical axon guidance. As such, our findings suggest that descending cortical axons identify specific TCA subpopulations in the dorsal VTel to coordinate reciprocal cortical–thalamic connectivity in the early developing brain. PMID:24453220

  7. Pressure load on specific body areas of gestating sows lying on rubber mats with different softness.

    PubMed

    Schubbert, A; Hartung, E; Schrader, L

    2014-08-01

    Rubber mats offer a possibility to increase lying comfort for sows with positive effects on sow lying behavior and health. However, until now, no information has been reported about the relationship between the softness of rubber mats and the pressure load on certain body areas of sows. We used a total of 68 (40 multiparous, 28 primiparous) German Landrace × German Landrace sows with a BW within the range of 90 to 330 kg (divided in 3 weight classes) to measure peak force and distribution of pressure during lying in the sternal and half recumbent position. Measures were done in an experimental pen that was equipped with a pressure sensor map system (5400 NTL; Tekscan Inc., Boston, MA). Three rubber mats differing in softness (penetration depth: hard mat, 4.0 mm [HM]; soft mat, 14.6 mm [SM]; very soft mat, 43.0 mm [VSM]) were tested and compared to concrete floor (CF) as a reference. Pressure load was analyzed in the sternal position for the sternum, belly, and ham body regions and also in the half recumbent position for the shoulder. For each lying position we determined the body region with the highest pressure load and analyzed the peak force (PF) and the contact area (CA) using a mixed model ANOVA (MIXED procedure of SAS Enterprise, version 4.3., SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) with floor type, weight class of sows, and their interaction as fixed factors. Overall, the highest values for PF in the sternal position were found on the sternum (median: 1.62 N/cm(2)) and in the half recumbent position on the shoulder (median: 2.72 N/cm(2)). In the sternal position PF on the sternum was lower on VSM compared to CF (P = 0.001). In the half-recumbent position PF on the shoulder was lower on VSM compared to CF (P = 0.013) and compared to HM (P = 0.011). The weight of the sows affected PF on the sternum in the sternal position, with lower values in weight class 1 compared to weight class 2 (P = 0.001) and weight class 3 (P = 0.002). Contact area under the sternum was larger on

  8. Input-specific control of reward and aversion in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Stephan; Lim, Byung Kook; Ran, Chen; Huang, Kee Wui; Betley, Michael J; Tye, Kay M; Deisseroth, Karl; Malenka, Robert C

    2012-11-01

    Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons have important roles in adaptive and pathological brain functions related to reward and motivation. However, it is unknown whether subpopulations of VTA dopamine neurons participate in distinct circuits that encode different motivational signatures, and whether inputs to the VTA differentially modulate such circuits. Here we show that, because of differences in synaptic connectivity, activation of inputs to the VTA from the laterodorsal tegmentum and the lateral habenula elicit reward and aversion in mice, respectively. Laterodorsal tegmentum neurons preferentially synapse on dopamine neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens lateral shell, whereas lateral habenula neurons synapse primarily on dopamine neurons projecting to the medial prefrontal cortex as well as on GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric-acid-containing) neurons in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus. These results establish that distinct VTA circuits generate reward and aversion, and thereby provide a new framework for understanding the circuit basis of adaptive and pathological motivated behaviours.

  9. Region-specific contribution of the ventral tegmental area to heroin-induced conditioned immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Lee W; Szczytkowski, Jennifer L; Saurer, Timothy B; Lebonville, Christina; Fuchs, Rita A; Lysle, Donald T

    2014-05-01

    Dopamine receptor stimulation is critical for heroin-conditioned immunomodulation; however, it is unclear whether the ventral tegmental area (VTA) contributes to this phenomenon. Hence, rats received repeated pairings of heroin with placement into a distinct environmental context. At test, they were re-exposed to the previously heroin-paired environment followed by systemic lipopolysaccharide treatment to induce an immune response. Bilateral GABA agonist-induced neural inactivation of the anterior, but not the posterior VTA, prior to context re-exposure inhibited the ability of the heroin-paired environment to suppress peripheral nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α expression, suggesting a role for the anterior VTA in heroin-conditioned immunomodulation.

  10. Subject-specific computational modeling of DBS in the PPTg area

    PubMed Central

    Zitella, Laura M.; Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Yager, Paul; Hudson, Heather M.; Brintz, Katelynn; Duchin, Yuval; Harel, Noam; Vitek, Jerrold L.; Baker, Kenneth B.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) has been proposed to alleviate medically intractable gait difficulties associated with Parkinson's disease. Clinical trials have shown somewhat variable outcomes, stemming in part from surgical targeting variability, modulating fiber pathways implicated in side effects, and a general lack of mechanistic understanding of DBS in this brain region. Subject-specific computational models of DBS are a promising tool to investigate the underlying therapy and side effects. In this study, a parkinsonian rhesus macaque was implanted unilaterally with an 8-contact DBS lead in the PPTg region. Fiber tracts adjacent to PPTg, including the oculomotor nerve, central tegmental tract, and superior cerebellar peduncle, were reconstructed from a combination of pre-implant 7T MRI, post-implant CT, and post-mortem histology. These structures were populated with axon models and coupled with a finite element model simulating the voltage distribution in the surrounding neural tissue during stimulation. This study introduces two empirical approaches to evaluate model parameters. First, incremental monopolar cathodic stimulation (20 Hz, 90 μs pulse width) was evaluated for each electrode, during which a right eyelid flutter was observed at the proximal four contacts (−1.0 to −1.4 mA). These current amplitudes followed closely with model predicted activation of the oculomotor nerve when assuming an anisotropic conduction medium. Second, PET imaging was collected OFF-DBS and twice during DBS (two different contacts), which supported the model predicted activation of the central tegmental tract and superior cerebellar peduncle. Together, subject-specific models provide a framework to more precisely predict pathways modulated by DBS. PMID:26236229

  11. Investigations of a specific surface area of a material on the basis of 222Rn emanation coefficient measurements.

    PubMed

    Morawska, L

    1989-07-01

    A theoretical model of Rn emanation by a crystal lattice into the pore space of a material is presented. This model makes it possible to calculate the pore emanation rate of a material. Measurements of the 222Rn emanation coefficient of lightweight concrete for different grain sizes were performed. Using the results of the measurements and the calculated value of a pore emanation rate, a specific surface area of the material was determined. For non-ground lightweight concrete, this value is (1.40 +/- 0.13) x 10(4) cm2 g-1. It is shown that grinding to grain sizes below 60 microns is required to cause a significant increase of specific surface area and thus of the emanation coefficient. However, these results should be treated only as an estimation because the analysis does not account for the real structure of the lightweight concrete. The aim of this work is to present the possibility of connecting the theoretical calculations with the results of measurements in order to determine the specific surface area of a material. PMID:2745094

  12. Advances in Navy pharmacy information technology: accessing Micromedex via the Composite Healthcare Computer System and local area networks.

    PubMed

    Koerner, S D; Becker, F

    1999-07-01

    The pharmacy profession has long used technology to more effectively bring health care to the patient. Navy pharmacy has embraced technology advances in its daily operations, from computers to dispensing robots. Evolving from the traditional role of compounding and dispensing specialists, pharmacists are establishing themselves as vital team members in direct patient care: on the ward, in ambulatory clinics, in specialty clinics, and in other specialty patient care programs (e.g., smoking cessation). An important part of the evolution is the timely access to the most up-to-date information available. Micromedex, Inc. (Denver, Colorado), has developed a number of computer CD-ROM-based full-text pharmacy, toxicology, emergency medicine, and patient education products. Micromedex is a recognized leader with regard to total pharmaceutical information availability. This article discusses the implementation of Micromedex products within the established Composite Healthcare Computer System and the subsequent use by and effect on the international Navy pharmacy community.

  13. Layer-specific potentiation of network GABAergic inhibition in the CA1 area of the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Colavita, Michelangelo; Terral, Geoffrey; Lemercier, Clement E.; Drago, Filippo; Marsicano, Giovanni; Massa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important functions of GABAergic inhibition in cortical regions is the tight control of spatiotemporal activity of principal neuronal ensembles. However, electrophysiological recordings do not provide sufficient spatial information to determine the spatiotemporal properties of inhibitory plasticity. Using Voltage Sensitive Dye Imaging (VSDI) in mouse hippocampal slices, we demonstrate that GABAA-mediated field inhibitory postsynaptic potentials undergo layer-specific potentiation upon activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu). VSDI recordings allowed detection of pharmacologically isolated GABAA-dependent hyperpolarization signals. Bath-application of the selective group-I mGlu receptor agonist, (S)-3,5-Dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), induces an enhancement of the GABAergic VSDI-recorded signal, which is more or less pronounced in different hippocampal layers. This potentiation is mediated by mGlu5 and downstream activation of IP3 receptors. Our results depict network GABAergic activity in the hippocampal CA1 region and its sub-layers, showing also a novel form of inhibitory synaptic plasticity tightly coupled to glutamatergic activity. PMID:27345695

  14. Adolescent and young adult medicine is a special and specific area of medical practice.

    PubMed

    Steinbeck, Kate; Towns, Susan; Bennett, David

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent and young adult medicine is a concept that has gained traction in the last decade or so. The medical literature has come primarily from oncology. Advances in neuroscience that document continuing brain development into the third decade, and research that shows risk behaviours associated with adolescence both remain and may increase in the third decade, have been two of the drivers in the conversation around linking these two age groups together as a medical practice group. A third driver of importance is transition care in chronic illness, where older adolescents and young adults continue to have difficulties making effective linkages with adult care. The case for specific training in adolescent and young adult medicine, including the developmental concepts behind it, the benefits of the delineation and the particular challenges in the Australian health-care system, are discussed. On balance, there is a strong case for managing the health issues of adolescents and young adults together. This scenario does not fit easily with the age demarcations that are in place in acute care facilities. However, this is less the case in community services and can work in focused private practice. Such a situation suggests that both paediatric and adult physicians might be interested in adolescent and young adult medicine training and practice.

  15. The role of sensory experience in presynaptic development is cortical area specific

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Claire E J; Fox, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The postsynaptic response to a stimulus is dependent on the history of previous activity at that synapse. This short-term plasticity (STP) is a key determinant of neural network function. During postnatal development, many excitatory intracortical synapses switch from strong depression during early postnatal life, to weaker depression and in some cases facilitation in adulthood. However, it is not known whether this developmental switch is an innate feature of synaptic maturation, or whether it requires activity. We investigated this question in the barrel and visual cortex, two widely studied models of experience-dependent plasticity. We have previously defined the time course over which presynaptic development occurs in these two cortical areas, enabling us to make the first direct comparison of the role of sensory experience during synaptic development. We found that maturation of STP in visual cortex was unaffected by dark rearing from before eye opening. In marked contrast, total whisker deprivation completely blocked the developmental decrease in presynaptic release probability (Pr), and the concomitant increase in paired pulse ratio (PPR), which occur in barrel cortex during the third and fourth postnatal weeks. However, the developmental increase in the steady state response to a train of stimuli was unaffected by whisker deprivation. This supports a mechanistic link between Pr and the PPR, but dissociates Pr from the steady state amplitude during repetitive stimulation. Our findings indicate that sensory experience plays a greater role in presynaptic development at L4 to L2/3 excitatory synapses in the barrel cortex than in the visual cortex. PMID:21946850

  16. Site-specific landslide assessment in Alpine area using a reliable integrated monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Saverio; Di Matteo, Lucio; Kieffer, Daniel Scott

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls are one of major cause of landslide fatalities around the world. The present work discusses the reliability of integrated monitoring of displacements in a rockfall within the Alpine region (Salzburg Land - Austria), taking into account also the effect of the ongoing climate change. Due to the unpredictability of the frequency and magnitude, that threatens human lives and infrastructure, frequently it is necessary to implement an efficient monitoring system. For this reason, during the last decades, integrated monitoring systems of unstable slopes were widely developed and used (e.g., extensometers, cameras, remote sensing, etc.). In this framework, Remote Sensing techniques, such as GBInSAR technique (Groung-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar), have emerged as efficient and powerful tools for deformation monitoring. GBInSAR measurements can be useful to achieve an early warning system using surface deformation parameters as ground displacement or inverse velocity (for semi-empirical forecasting methods). In order to check the reliability of GBInSAR and to monitor the evolution of landslide, it is very important to integrate different techniques. Indeed, a multi-instrumental approach is essential to investigate movements both in surface and in depth and the use of different monitoring techniques allows to perform a cross analysis of the data and to minimize errors, to check the data quality and to improve the monitoring system. During 2013, an intense and complete monitoring campaign has been conducted on the Ingelsberg landslide. By analyzing both historical temperature series (HISTALP) recorded during the last century and those from local weather stations, temperature values (Autumn-Winter, Winter and Spring) are clearly increased in Bad Hofgastein area as well as in Alpine region. As consequence, in the last decades the rockfall events have been shifted from spring to summer due to warmer winters. It is interesting to point out that

  17. Size specific steady-state accumulation-area ratio: an improvement for equilibrium-line estimation of small palaeoglaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Zoltán; László, Péter

    2010-09-01

    Characteristic distribution of the steady-state accumulation-area ratio (AAR 0) of valley and corrie glaciers was investigated in a global dataset comprised of 46 glaciers. There is a positive relationship between AAR 0 and glacier area with smaller glaciers having lower values of AAR 0 compared with larger glaciers. The relationship between glacier area (S) and steady-state AAR of studied glaciers can be optimally described by a logarithmic regression equation. This relationship is thought to be a globally valid approximation if the size of the glacier is not smaller than 10 -1 km 2. In the case of palaeoglaciers an AAR 0 value of 0.44 ± 0.07 is best applied on glaciers with areas in the range 0.1-1 km 2, 0.54 ± 0.07 for glaciers covering areas between 1 and 4 km 2 and 0.64 ± 0.04 for glaciers larger than 4 km 2. This assumes insignificant debris cover for the investigated palaeoglaciers. The proposed size-specific AAR 0 values take into account the geometric/hypsometric properties of (palaeo)glaciers. The results have major importance for palaeoglaciological reconstructions in many regions of former marginal/niche glaciation characterized by small former glaciers.

  18. Enhancing the available specific surface area of carbon supports to boost the electroactivity of nanostructured Pt catalysts.

    PubMed

    Holade, Yaovi; Morais, Claudia; Servat, Karine; Napporn, Teko W; Kokoh, K Boniface

    2014-12-14

    We report increasing improvements in the available specific surface area of the commonly used Vulcan XC 72R and Ketjenblack EC-600JD carbons by simple thermal pre-treatment. The treated Vulcan and Ketjenblack substrates have a specific surface area of 322 and 1631 m(2) g(-1), respectively, instead of 262 and 1102 m(2) g(-1) for the as-received materials, which is a 23 and 48% improvement. Subsequently, when used as platinum nanoparticle (3 nm) supports, the electrochemical active surface area is enhanced by factors of 2.2 and 1.2 for treated Vulcan and Ketjenblack carbons, respectively. Furthermore, electrochemical investigations have highlighted a surprisingly improved catalytic activity for the pre-treated Vulcan XC 72R and Ketjenblack EC-600JD supported Pt nanoparticles. In fact, the synthesized nanostructures from the so-called "Bromide Anion Exchange" method exhibit good catalytic activity toward glucose electrooxidation, both in the alkaline medium and the phosphate buffered solution at pH 7.4. More importantly, the present catalysts are four times more active than those in the literature prepared under similar conditions for glucose dehydrogenation at low potential (0.27 V vs. Reversible Hydrogen Electrode). Consequently, these remarkable trends uncovered herein provide ample new strategic routes for the pre-treatment of Vulcan XC 72R and Ketjenblack carbons for widespread uses. PMID:25351933

  19. A GIS-based model to estimate flood consequences and the degree of accessibility and operability of strategic emergency response structures in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, R.; Sole, A.; Adamowski, J.; Mancusi, L.

    2014-11-01

    Efficient decision-making regarding flood risk reduction has become a priority for authorities and stakeholders in many European countries. Risk analysis methods and techniques are a useful tool for evaluating costs and benefits of possible interventions. Within this context, a methodology to estimate flood consequences was developed in this paper that is based on GIS, and integrated with a model that estimates the degree of accessibility and operability of strategic emergency response structures in an urban area. The majority of the currently available approaches do not properly analyse road network connections and dependencies within systems, and as such a loss of roads could cause significant damages and problems to emergency services in cases of flooding. The proposed model is unique in that it provides a maximum-impact estimation of flood consequences on the basis of the operability of the strategic emergency structures in an urban area, their accessibility, and connection within the urban system of a city (i.e. connection between aid centres and buildings at risk), in the emergency phase. The results of a case study in the Puglia region in southern Italy are described to illustrate the practical applications of this newly proposed approach. The main advantage of the proposed approach is that it allows for defining a hierarchy between different infrastructure in the urban area through the identification of particular components whose operation and efficiency are critical for emergency management. This information can be used by decision-makers to prioritize risk reduction interventions in flood emergencies in urban areas, given limited financial resources.

  20. "False" cytotoxicity of ions-adsorbing hydroxyapatite - Corrected method of cytotoxicity evaluation for ceramics of high specific surface area.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Katarzyna; Belcarz, Anna; Pazik, Robert; Sobierajska, Paulina; Han, Tomasz; Wiglusz, Rafal J; Ginalska, Grazyna

    2016-08-01

    An assessment of biomaterial cytotoxicity is a prerequisite for evaluation of its clinical potential. A material is considered toxic while the cell viability decreases under 70% of the control. However, extracts of certain materials are likely to reduce the cell viability due to the intense ions adsorption from culture medium (e.g. highly bioactive ceramics of high surface area). Thus, the standard ISO 10993-5 procedure is inappropriate for cytotoxicity evaluation of ceramics of high specific surface area because biomaterial extract obtained in this method (ions-depleted medium) is not optimal for cell cultures per se. Therefore, a simple test was designed as an alternative to ISO 10993-5 standard for cytotoxicity evaluation of the biomaterials of high surface area and high ions absorption capacity. The method, presented in this paper, included the evaluation of ceramics extract prepared according to corrected procedure. The corrected extract was found not cytotoxic (cell viability above 70%), suggesting that modified method for cytotoxicity evaluation of ions-adsorbing ceramics is more appropriate than ISO 10993-5 standard. For such biomaterials, the term "false" cytotoxicity is more suitable. Moreover, it was noted that NRU assay and microscopic observations should be recommended for cytotoxicity evaluation of ceramics of high surface area. PMID:27157729

  1. Relationship between Maximum Leaf Photosynthesis, Nitrogen Content and Specific Leaf Area in Balearic Endemic and Non‐endemic Mediterranean Species

    PubMed Central

    GULÍAS, JAVIER; FLEXAS, JAUME; MUS, MAURICI; CIFRE, JOSEP; LEFI, ELKADRI; MEDRANO, HIPÓLITO

    2003-01-01

    Gas exchange parameters, leaf nitrogen content and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured in situ on 73 C3 and five C4 plant species in Mallorca, west Mediterranean, to test whether species endemic to the Balearic Islands differed from widespread, non‐endemic Mediterranean species and crops in their leaf traits and trait inter‐relationships. Endemic species differed significantly from widespread species and crops in several parameters; in particular, photosynthetic capacity, on an area basis (A), was 20 % less in endemics than in non‐endemics. Similar differences between endemics and non‐endemics were found in parameters such as SLA and leaf nitrogen content per area (Na). Nevertheless, most of the observed differences were found only within the herbaceous deciduous species. These could be due to the fact that most of the non‐endemic species within this group have adapted to ruderal areas, while none of the endemics occupies this kind of habitat. All the species—including the crops—showed a positive, highly significant correlation between photosynthetic capacity on a mass basis (Am), leaf nitrogen content on a mass basis (Nm) and SLA. However, endemic species had a lower Am for any given SLA and Nm. Hypotheses are presented to explain these differences, and their possible role in reducing the distribution of many endemic Balearic species is discussed. PMID:12805082

  2. "False" cytotoxicity of ions-adsorbing hydroxyapatite - Corrected method of cytotoxicity evaluation for ceramics of high specific surface area.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Katarzyna; Belcarz, Anna; Pazik, Robert; Sobierajska, Paulina; Han, Tomasz; Wiglusz, Rafal J; Ginalska, Grazyna

    2016-08-01

    An assessment of biomaterial cytotoxicity is a prerequisite for evaluation of its clinical potential. A material is considered toxic while the cell viability decreases under 70% of the control. However, extracts of certain materials are likely to reduce the cell viability due to the intense ions adsorption from culture medium (e.g. highly bioactive ceramics of high surface area). Thus, the standard ISO 10993-5 procedure is inappropriate for cytotoxicity evaluation of ceramics of high specific surface area because biomaterial extract obtained in this method (ions-depleted medium) is not optimal for cell cultures per se. Therefore, a simple test was designed as an alternative to ISO 10993-5 standard for cytotoxicity evaluation of the biomaterials of high surface area and high ions absorption capacity. The method, presented in this paper, included the evaluation of ceramics extract prepared according to corrected procedure. The corrected extract was found not cytotoxic (cell viability above 70%), suggesting that modified method for cytotoxicity evaluation of ions-adsorbing ceramics is more appropriate than ISO 10993-5 standard. For such biomaterials, the term "false" cytotoxicity is more suitable. Moreover, it was noted that NRU assay and microscopic observations should be recommended for cytotoxicity evaluation of ceramics of high surface area.

  3. Spatial and temporal variations in leaf area index, specific leaf area and leaf nitrogen of two co-occurring savanna tree species.

    PubMed

    Simioni, Guillaume; Gignoux, Jacques; Le Roux, Xavier; Appé, Raphaëlle; Benest, Daniele

    2004-02-01

    Foliage growth, mass- and area-based leaf nitrogen concentrations (Nm and N a) and specific leaf area (SLA) were surveyed during a complete vegetation cycle for two co-occurring savanna tree species: Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel. ex G. Don) Benth. and Cussonia arborea A. Rich. The study was conducted in the natural reserve of Lamto, Ivory Coast, on isolated and clumped trees. Leaf flush occurred before the beginning of the rainy season. Maximum leaf area index (LAI), computed on a projected canopy basis for individual trees, was similar (mean of about 4) for both species. Seasonal courses of the ratio of actual to maximum LAI were similar for individuals of the same species, but differed between species. For C. febrifuga, clumped trees reached their maximum LAI before isolated trees. The LAI of C. arborea trees did not differ between clumped and isolated individuals, but maximum LAI was reached about 2 months later than for C. febrifuga. Leaf fall was associated with decreasing soil water content for C. arborea. For C. febrifuga, leaf fall started before the end of the rainy period and was independent of changes in soil water content. These features lead to a partial niche separation in time for light resource acquisition between the two species. Although Nm, N a and SLA decreased with time, SLA and N a decreased later in the vegetation cycle for C. arborea than for C. febrifuga. For both species, N a decreased and SLA increased with decreasing leaf irradiance within the canopy, although effects of light on leaf characteristics did not differ between isolated and clumped trees. Given relationships between N a and photosynthetic capacities previously reported for these species, our results show that C. arborea exhibits higher photosynthetic capacity than C. febrifuga during most of the vegetation cycle and at all irradiances. PMID:14676036

  4. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E; Wheeler, Philip M; Johnson, Magnus L

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors' perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median-US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median-US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors' non-use values to fund reef management. PMID:27547521

  5. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Philip M.; Johnson, Magnus L.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors’ perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median—US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median—US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors’ non-use values to fund reef management. PMID:27547521

  6. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E; Wheeler, Philip M; Johnson, Magnus L

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors' perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median-US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median-US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors' non-use values to fund reef management.

  7. Biotemplated synthesis of high specific surface area copper-doped hollow spherical titania and its photocatalytic research for degradating chlorotetracycline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Dan; Zhuang, Huisheng

    2013-01-01

    Copper-doped titania (Cu/TiO2) hollow microspheres were fabricated using the rape pollen as biotemplates via an improved sol-gel method and a followed calcinations process. In the fabricated process, a titanium(IV)-isopropoxide-based sol directly coated onto the surface of rape pollen. Subsequently, after calcinations, rape pollen was removed by high temperature and the hollow microsphere structure was retained. The average diameter of as-obtained hollow microspheres is 15-20 μm and the thickness of shell is approximately 0.6 μm. Knowing from XRD results, the main crystal phase of microspheres is anatase, coupled with rutile. The specific surface area varied between 141.80 m2/g and 172.51 m2/g. This hollow sphere photocatalysts with high specific surface area exhibited stronger absorption ability and higher photoactivity, stimulated by visible light. The degradation process of chlortetracycline (CTC) solution had been studied. The degradated results indicate that CTC could be effective degradated by fabricated hollow spherical materials. And the intermediate products formed in the photocatalytic process had been identified.

  8. An ultra low-power and traffic-adaptive medium access control protocol for wireless body area network.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-06-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of low-power, miniaturized, and autonomous wireless sensor nodes that enable physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real-time feedback with medical diagnosis and consultations. It is the most reliable and cheaper way to take care of patients suffering from chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Some of the most important attributes of WBAN is low-power consumption and delay. This can be achieved by introducing flexible duty cycling techniques on the energy constraint sensor nodes. Stated otherwise, low duty cycle nodes should not receive frequent synchronization and control packets if they have no data to send/receive. In this paper, we introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) by taking into account the traffic information of the sensor nodes. The protocol dynamically adjusts the duty cycle of the sensor nodes according to their traffic-patterns, thus solving the idle listening and overhearing problems. The traffic-patterns of all sensor nodes are organized and maintained by the coordinator. The TaMAC protocol is supported by a wakeup radio that is used to accommodate emergency and on-demand events in a reliable manner. The wakeup radio uses a separate control channel along with the data channel and therefore it has considerably low power consumption requirements. Analytical expressions are derived to analyze and compare the performance of the TaMAC protocol with the well-known beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC, WiseMAC, and SMAC protocols. The analytical derivations are further validated by simulation results. It is shown that the TaMAC protocol outperforms all other protocols in terms of power consumption and delay.

  9. 33 CFR 165.726 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh...

  12. 33 CFR 165.726 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1171 Section 165.1171 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh...

  14. 33 CFR 165.726 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami River, Miami, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Miami... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1311 - Olympic View Resource Area, Tacoma, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Olympic View Resource Area... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District §...

  16. 33 CFR 165.827 - Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eighth Coast Guard District §...

  17. 33 CFR 165.827 - Regulated Navigation Area; Galveston Channel, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eighth Coast Guard District §...

  18. Access to, and use of, water by populations living in a schistosomiasis and fascioliasis co-endemic area of northern Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Krauth, Stefanie J; Musard, Capucine; Traoré, Seïdinan I; Zinsstag, Jakob; Achi, Louise Y; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-09-01

    Water is an essential element of life, but it can also be a source of disease. Apart from direct consumption of unsafe water, direct contact and indirect consumption puts people at risk of many different types of pathogens. Employing a mixed methods approach, consisting of questionnaires and direct observations, we assessed access to, and use of, different water sources by the participants of the district des Savanes in northern Côte d'Ivoire. The use of water sources was put in relation to the potential risk of acquiring schistosomiasis and fascioliasis. Overall, 489 people aged 8 to 82 years participated. While all participants had access to safe water, 63% were in direct contact with unimproved water and 31% directly consumed unsafe water. More than a third of the people who otherwise reported using only improved water for all activities came in contact with unimproved water through crossing open water when going to their workplace, school or other destinations. Self-reported blood in urine - a marker for Schistosoma haematobium with reasonable sensitivity and specificity - was reported by 6% (n=30), self-reported blood in stool - an unspecific marker for Schistosoma mansoni - was reported by 7% (n=35), while blood co-occurring in both urine and stool was reported by another 10% (n=48) of participants. Accessing unimproved water for any activity (including crossing) was associated with higher odds of reporting blood in urine and/or blood in stool (odds ratio: 1.90; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.36). Our results have important rami-fications for intervention programmes targeting neglected tropical diseases, and emphasize the need for a wider supply of safe water to rural populations, since the water supply at the workplace needs to be considered as well next to the water supply at home. Crossing of open water sources is an important risk factor for sustained transmission of schistosomiasis.

  19. 33 CFR 165.1323 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Oregon Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area... REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1323 Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1323 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area... NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1323 Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the...

  1. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  2. State-dependent pattern of Fos protein expression in regionally-specific sites within the preoptic area of the cat.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Benedetto, Luciana; Lagos, Patricia; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2009-04-24

    Clinical and experimental data have shown that the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) is involved in the generation and maintenance of NREM sleep. However, the activity of specific populations of POA neurons during REM sleep, NREM sleep and different waking conditions is still not firmly established. Consequently, we performed a quantitative, regionally-specific analysis of the Fos immunoreactivity of neurons in the POA of the cat during NREM sleep and REM sleep induced by microinjections of carbachol into the nucleus pontis oralis (REMc), as well as during quiet and alert wakefulness. We observed that while the total number of Fos immunoreactive neurons in the POA did not change as a function of these behavioral states, state-specific differences in neuronal activity were detected in restricted regions of the POA. An increase in the number of Fos+ neurons was observed in the rostral tip of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) during NREM (83.4+/-25.6) compared to quiet wakefulness (5.1+/-1.3, p<0.05) but not with the other behavioral states. In the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN), the number of Fos immunoreactive neurons was greater during NREM sleep (39.5+/-6.1) compared with quiet wakefulness (13.5+/-1.4, p<0.05) and REMc (16.2+/-2.0, p<0.05). State-specific Fos immunoreactive neurons were not observed in the ventro-lateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). Finally, there was no significant increase in the number of Fos+ neurons during REMc in any of the subregions of the POA. In conclusion, within the POA, a selective neuronal activation during NREM sleep was found only in the MnPN. In addition, our data suggest a potential role of the SCN in NREM sleep. Finally, based on the distribution of Fos+ neurons in the entire POA, we conclude that the neuronal network involved in the regulation of NREM sleep is dispersed and intermingled with waking-related neurons.

  3. Prediction Enhancement of Residue Real-Value Relative Accessible Surface Area in Transmembrane Helical Proteins by Solving the Output Preference Problem of Machine Learning-Based Predictors.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2015-11-23

    The α-helical transmembrane proteins constitute 25% of the entire human proteome space and are difficult targets in high-resolution wet-lab structural studies, calling for accurate computational predictors. We present a novel sequence-based method called MemBrain-Rasa to predict relative solvent accessibility surface area (rASA) from primary sequences. MemBrain-Rasa features by an ensemble prediction protocol composed of a statistical machine-learning engine, which is trained in the sequential feature space, and a segment template similarity-based engine, which is constructed with solved structures and sequence alignment. We locally constructed a comprehensive database of residue relative solvent accessibility surface area from the solved protein 3D structures in the PDB database. It is searched against for segment templates that are expected to be structurally similar to the query sequence's segments. The segment template-based prediction is then fused with the support vector regression outputs using knowledge rules. Our experiments show that pure machine learning output cannot cover the entire rASA solution space and will have a serious prediction preference problem due to the relatively small size of membrane protein structures that can be used as the training samples. The template-based engine solves this problem very well, resulting in significant improvement of the prediction performance. MemBrain-Rasa achieves a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.733 and mean absolute error of 13.593 on the benchmark dataset, which are 26.4% and 26.1% better than existing predictors. MemBrain-Rasa represents a new progress in structure modeling of α-helical transmembrane proteins. MemBrain-Rasa is available at www.csbio.sjtu.edu.cn/bioinf/MemBrain/.

  4. Higher Education In Michigan: Overcoming Challenges to Expand Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Alisa F.; Erisman, Wendy; Looney, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    This report examines access to higher education in underserved regions of Michigan. This study focuses on specific concerns about postsecondary education access in three geographically diverse areas of the state: suburban Macomb County; the city of Saginaw; and six rural counties in the northeastern Lower Peninsula. The report provides a summary…

  5. 49 CFR 38.83 - Mobility aid accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobility aid accessibility. 38.83 Section 38.83... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.83 Mobility aid accessibility. (a... wheelchair or mobility aid users to reach areas, each with a minimum clear floor space of 48 inches by...

  6. Variation with thermal cycling in microstructure and area specific resistance of a ferritic stainless steel having rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Myoung Youp; Mumm, Daniel R.; Song, Jiunn

    2013-03-01

    Crofer22 APU specimens were prepared by grinding with grit 120 and 400 SiC grinding papers, and were then thermally cycled. The variation in oxidation behavior with thermal cycling was then investigated. Observation of microstructures, measurement of area-specific resistance (ASR), analysis of the atomic percentages of the elements by EDX, and XRD analysis were performed. XRD patterns showed that the (Cr, Mn)3O4 spinel phase grew on the surface of the Crofer22 APU samples ground using grit 120. For the samples ground with grit 400, ASR increased as the number of thermal cycles ( n) increased. Plots of ln (ASR/T) vs. 1/ T for the samples ground with grit 400 after n = 4, 20, and 40 exhibited good linearity, and the apparent activation energies were between 73.4 kJ/mole and 82.5 kJ/mole.

  7. Site specific isolated nanostructure array formation on a large area by broad ion beam without any mask and resist

    SciTech Connect

    Karmakar, Prasanta

    2014-06-09

    We report the formation of isolated nanostructure arrays on a large area via broad ion beam implantation without the aid of any mask or resist. Desired ions have been implanted at specific locations of the prefabricated silicon ripple or triangular structures by exploiting the variation of local ion impact angles. We have shown that the implantation of Fe ions on an O{sup +} ions induced pre fabricated triangular shaped patterned Si surface results in a self-organized periodic array of striped magnetic nanostructures having several micron length and about 50 nm width arranged with a spacial separation of ∼200 nm. The morphology, composition, crystalline structure, and magnetic property of these nanopatterns have been analyzed using high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. A geometrical model has been proposed to explain the fundamental features of such ion-induced nanopattern structures.

  8. Brandon mathematical model describing the effect of calcination and reduction parameters on specific surface area of UO2 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Nguyen Trong; Thuan, Le Ba; Van Khoai, Do; Lee, Jin-Young; Jyothi, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) powder has been widely used to prepare fuel pellets for commercial light water nuclear reactors. Among typical characteristics of the powder, specific surface area (SSA) is one of the most important parameter that determines the sintering ability of UO2 powder. This paper built up a mathematical model describing the effect of the fabrication parameters on SSA of UO2 powders. To the best of our knowledge, the Brandon model is used for the first time to describe the relationship between the essential fabrication parameters [reduction temperature (TR), calcination temperature (TC), calcination time (tC) and reduction time (tR)] and SSA of the obtained UO2 powder product. The proposed model was tested with Wilcoxon's rank sum test, showing a good agreement with the experimental parameters. The proposed model can be used to predict and control the SSA of UO2 powder.

  9. Designing Area Optimized Application-Specific Network-On-Chip Architectures while Providing Hard QoS Guarantees

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Sajid Gul; Mushtaq, Mian Hamza; Khan, Shoab A.; Akram, M. Usman; Jamal, Habib ullah

    2015-01-01

    With the increase of transistors' density, popularity of System on Chip (SoC) has increased exponentially. As a communication module for SoC, Network on Chip (NoC) framework has been adapted as its backbone. In this paper, we propose a methodology for designing area-optimized application specific NoC while providing hard Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees for real time flows. The novelty of the proposed system lies in derivation of a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model which is then used to generate a resource optimal Network on Chip (NoC) topology and architecture while considering traffic and QoS requirements. We also present the micro-architectural design features used for enabling traffic and latency guarantees and discuss how the solution adapts for dynamic variations in the application traffic. The paper highlights the effectiveness of proposed method by generating resource efficient NoC solutions for both industrial and benchmark applications. The area-optimized results are generated in few seconds by proposed technique, without resorting to heuristics, even for an application with 48 traffic flows. PMID:25898016

  10. Pathogen-Specific Epitopes as Epidemiological Tools for Defining the Magnitude of Mycobacterium leprae Transmission in Areas Endemic for Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, John S.; Hacker, Mariana A. V. B.; Costa, Luciana S.; Carvalho, Fernanda M.; Geluk, Annemieke; van der Ploeg-van Schip, Jolien J.; Pontes, Maria A. A.; Gonçalves, Heitor S.; de Morais, Janvier P.; Bandeira, Tereza J. P. G.; Pessolani, Maria C. V.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Pereira, Geraldo M. B.

    2012-01-01

    During recent years, comparative genomic analysis has allowed the identification of Mycobacterium leprae-specific genes with potential application for the diagnosis of leprosy. In a previous study, 58 synthetic peptides derived from these sequences were tested for their ability to induce production of IFN-γ in PBMC from endemic controls (EC) with unknown exposure to M. leprae, household contacts of leprosy patients and patients, indicating the potential of these synthetic peptides for the diagnosis of sub- or preclinical forms of leprosy. In the present study, the patterns of IFN-γ release of the individuals exposed or non-exposed to M. leprae were compared using an Artificial Neural Network algorithm, and the most promising M. leprae peptides for the identification of exposed people were selected. This subset of M. leprae-specific peptides allowed the differentiation of groups of individuals from sites hyperendemic for leprosy versus those from areas with lower level detection rates. A progressive reduction in the IFN-γ levels in response to the peptides was seen when contacts of multibacillary (MB) patients were compared to other less exposed groups, suggesting a down modulation of IFN-γ production with an increase in bacillary load or exposure to M. leprae. The data generated indicate that an IFN-γ assay based on these peptides applied individually or as a pool can be used as a new tool for predicting the magnitude of M. leprae transmission in a given population. PMID:22545169

  11. Regional Webgis User Access Patterns Based on a Weighted Bipartite Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Shen, Y.; Huang, W.; Wu, H.

    2015-07-01

    With the rapid development of geographic information services, Web Geographic Information Systems (WebGIS) have become an indispensable part of everyday life; correspondingly, map search engines have become extremely popular with users and WebGIS sites receive a massive volume of requests for access. These WebGIS users and the content accessed have regional characteristics; to understand regional patterns, we mined regional WebGIS user access patterns based on a weighted bipartite network. We first established a weighted bipartite network model for regional user access to a WebGIS. Then, based on the massive user WebGIS access logs, we clustered geographic information accessed and thereby identified hot access areas. Finally we quantitatively analyzed the access interests of regional users and the visitation volume characteristics of regional user access to these hot access areas in terms of user access permeability, user usage rate, and user access viscosity. Our research results show that regional user access to WebGIS is spatially aggregated, and the hot access areas that regional users accessed are associated with specific periods of time. Most regional user contact with hot accessed areas is variable and intermittent but for some users, their access to certain areas is continuous as it is associated with ongoing or recurrent objectives. The weighted bipartite network model for regional user WebGIS access provides a valid analysis method for studying user behaviour in WebGIS and the proposed access pattern exhibits access interest of regional user is spatiotemporal aggregated and presents a heavy-tailed distribution. Understanding user access patterns is good for WebGIS providers and supports better operational decision-making, and helpful for developers when optimizing WebGIS system architecture and deployment, so as to improve the user experience and to expand the popularity of WebGIS.

  12. Area-specific analysis of the distribution of hypothalamic neurons projecting to the rat ventral tegmental area, with special reference to the GABAergic and glutamatergic efferents

    PubMed Central

    Kalló, Imre; Molnár, Csilla S.; Szöke, Sarolta; Fekete, Csaba; Hrabovszky, Erik; Liposits, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a main regulator of reward and integrates a wide scale of hormonal and neuronal information. Feeding-, energy expenditure-, stress, adaptation- and reproduction-related hypothalamic signals are processed in the VTA and influence the reward processes. However, the neuroanatomical origin and chemical phenotype of neurons mediating these signals to the VTA have not been fully characterized. In this study we have systematically mapped hypothalamic neurons that project to the VTA using the retrograde tracer Choleratoxin B subunit (CTB) and analyzed their putative gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and/or glutamate character with in situ hybridization in male rats. 23.93 ± 3.91% of hypothalamic neurons projecting to the VTA was found in preoptic and 76.27 ± 4.88% in anterior, tuberal and mammillary hypothalamic regions. Nearly half of the retrogradely-labeled neurons in the preoptic, and more than one third in the anterior, tuberal and mammillary hypothalamus appeared in medially located regions. The analyses of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) and glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) mRNA expression revealed both amino acid markers in different subsets of retrogradely-labeled hypothalamic neurons, typically with the predominance of the glutamatergic marker VGLUT2. About one tenth of CTB-IR neurons were GAD65-positive even in hypothalamic nuclei expressing primarily VGLUT2. Some regions were populated mostly by GAD65 mRNA-containing retrogradely-labeled neurons. These included the perifornical part of the lateral hypothalamus where 58.63 ± 19.04% of CTB-IR neurons were GABAergic. These results indicate that both the medial and lateral nuclear compartments of the hypothalamus provide substantial input to the VTA. Furthermore, colocalization studies revealed that these projections not only use glutamate but also GABA for neurotransmission. These GABAergic afferents may underlie important inhibitory mechanism to fine-tune the

  13. State-dependent pattern of Fos protein expression in regionally-specific sites within the preoptic area of the cat.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Benedetto, Luciana; Lagos, Patricia; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2009-04-24

    Clinical and experimental data have shown that the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) is involved in the generation and maintenance of NREM sleep. However, the activity of specific populations of POA neurons during REM sleep, NREM sleep and different waking conditions is still not firmly established. Consequently, we performed a quantitative, regionally-specific analysis of the Fos immunoreactivity of neurons in the POA of the cat during NREM sleep and REM sleep induced by microinjections of carbachol into the nucleus pontis oralis (REMc), as well as during quiet and alert wakefulness. We observed that while the total number of Fos immunoreactive neurons in the POA did not change as a function of these behavioral states, state-specific differences in neuronal activity were detected in restricted regions of the POA. An increase in the number of Fos+ neurons was observed in the rostral tip of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) during NREM (83.4+/-25.6) compared to quiet wakefulness (5.1+/-1.3, p<0.05) but not with the other behavioral states. In the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN), the number of Fos immunoreactive neurons was greater during NREM sleep (39.5+/-6.1) compared with quiet wakefulness (13.5+/-1.4, p<0.05) and REMc (16.2+/-2.0, p<0.05). State-specific Fos immunoreactive neurons were not observed in the ventro-lateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). Finally, there was no significant increase in the number of Fos+ neurons during REMc in any of the subregions of the POA. In conclusion, within the POA, a selective neuronal activation during NREM sleep was found only in the MnPN. In addition, our data suggest a potential role of the SCN in NREM sleep. Finally, based on the distribution of Fos+ neurons in the entire POA, we conclude that the neuronal network involved in the regulation of NREM sleep is dispersed and intermingled with waking-related neurons. PMID:19269274

  14. Site Specific Probabilistic Seismic Hazard and Risk Analysis for Surrounding Communities of The Geysers Geothermal Development Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miah, M.; Hutchings, L. J.; Savy, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a probabilistic seismic hazard and risk analysis from induced and tectonic earthquakes for a 50 km radius area centered on The Geysers, California and for the next ten years. We calculate hazard with both a conventional and physics-based approach. We estimate site specific hazard. We convert hazard to risk of nuisance and damage to structures per year and map the risk. For the conventional PSHA we assume the past ten years is indicative of hazard for the next ten years from M<4.5 earthquakes. Larger earthquakes are added from evaluation of b-values. For the physics-based appraoch, we utilize computations (Heidbach and Altmann, 2013) to calculate pressure as a function of position throughout The Geysers for the next 10 years. We then use another geo-mechanical modeling code (Bachmann et al., 2012) to calculate the number of earthquakes that will occur. We identify amplification factors for specific sites within each geologic unit from recordings of noise. Then, we interpolate within each geologic unit in finely gridded points. All grid points within a unit are weighted by distance from each data collection point. The entire process is repeated for all of the other types of geologic units until the entire area is gridded and assigned a hazard value for every grid points. We found that nuisance and damage risks calculated by both conventional and physics-based approaches provided almost identical results. This is very surprising since they were calculated by completely independent means. The conventional approach used the actual catalog of the past ten years of earthquakes to estimate the hazard for the next ten year. While the physics-based approach used geotechnical modeling to calculate the catalog for the next ten years. Similarly, for the conventional PSHA, we utilized attenuation relations from past earthquakes recorded at the Geysers to translate the ground motion from the source to the site. While for the physics-based approach we calculated ground

  15. [Specific diversity and culicidian nuisance in the villages of N'gatty and Allaba in laguna area of Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Fofana, D; Konan, K L; Djohan, V; Konan, Y L; Koné, A B; Doannio, J M C; N'goran, K E

    2010-12-01

    Entomological surveys were undertaken between June and December 2006 in N'gatty and Allaba. These villages are located in southern Ivory Coast in a laguna area in Dabou department. In these villages, there are large swampy areas, which have caused the multiplication of anthropophilic Culicidae. Mosquitoes have been collected at preimaginal stage at the time of the larval prospecting and at adult stage through human landing catch. Larval collections have been made using the classic method of "dipping". Larvae have been identified to the genus level. Then, they have been bred in the laboratory to identify adults. Adults collection has been made once a month during three consecutive nights by human landing catch inside houses. Adults have been identified to the specific level. Eight genera of mosquitoes have been collected in these two villages: Aedes, Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex, Eretmapodites, Mansonia, Toxorhynchites and Uranotaenia. Twenty-four species have been listed during this stu y. The genus Mansonia is the most predominant with 86% (N = 15,811) and 80% (N = 1,385), respectively, in N'gatty and Allaba. The average biting rate per day varies between N'gatty and Allaba. It is estimated to 308 bites per human per night (b/h/n) in N'gatty and 72 b/h/n in Allaba. In these villages, mosquito nuisance is mainly due to Mansonia with 264 b/h/n and 58 b/h/n, respectively, in N'gatty and Allaba. However, Anopheles gambiae s.l. average rate was 12 b/h/n in N'gatty and 2 b/h/n in Allaba.

  16. Effect of the specific surface area on thermodynamic and kinetic properties of nanoparticle anatase TiO2 in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madej, Edyta; Klink, Stefan; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Ventosa, Edgar; La Mantia, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with a specific surface area of 100 m2 g-1 and 300 m2 g-1 have been investigated as negative insertion electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Galvanostatic intermittent titration (GITT) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to investigate the effect of the specific surface area on the performance of the material. GITT was performed at C/10 rate, followed by an EIS measurement after each relaxation step. Separation of kinetic and thermodynamic contributions to the overpotential of the phase transformation on Li+ (de-)insertion allowed revealing a dependency of both terms on the specific surface area. The material with higher surface area undergoes intrinsic transformation during the initial cycles affecting the thermodynamics of (de-)insertion while the sample with lower surface area shows large and asymmetric kinetic hindrances. For the material with 15 nm particles, Li+ de-insertion appears to have a higher resistance than lithium insertion.

  17. The Role of Indexing in the Research and Development of Digital Libraries: A Call for Closer Examination of Domain-Specific Indexing and Thesaurus Construction To Improve Access to Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Sarah K.

    The purpose of this research is to investigate indexing issues that pertain to the development of digital libraries, including: the identification of sublanguage vocabulary; domain-specific indexing; and other indexing tools. Thesauri are needed for digital libraries in order to improve end-user access. To demonstrate the importance of thesauri to…

  18. 33 CFR 165.1336 - Regulated Navigation Area; Pacific Sound Resources and LockheedShipyard Superfund Sites, Elliott...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1336 Regulated...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1336 - Regulated Navigation Area; Pacific Sound Resources and LockheedShipyard Superfund Sites, Elliott...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1336 Regulated...

  20. Clarifying the role of theory of mind areas during visual perspective taking: Issues of spontaneity and domain-specificity.

    PubMed

    Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin; Weissengruber, Sebastian; Surtees, Andrew; Samson, Dana; Perner, Josef

    2015-08-15

    Visual perspective taking is a fundamental feature of the human social brain. Previous research has mainly focused on explicit visual perspective taking and contrasted brain activation for other- versus self-perspective judgements. This produced a conceptual gap to theory of mind studies, where researchers mainly compared activation for taking another's mental perspective to non-mental control conditions. We compared brain activation for visual perspective taking to activation for non-mental control conditions where the avatar was replaced by directional (arrow, lamp) or non-directional (brick-wall) objects. We found domain-specific activation linked to the avatar's visual perspective in right TPJ, ventral mPFC and ventral precuneus. Interestingly, we found that these areas are spontaneously processing information linked to the other's perspective during self-perspective judgements. Based on a review of the visual perspective taking literature, we discuss how these findings can explain some of the inconsistent/negative results found in previous studies comparing other- versus self-perspective judgements. PMID:25907759

  1. Distinguishing the race-specific effects of income inequality and mortality in U.S. metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Nuru-Jeter, Amani M; Williams, T; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, the association between income inequality and mortality has been fairly consistent. However, few studies have explicitly examined the impact of race. Studies that have either stratified outcomes by race or conducted analyses within race-specific groups suggest that the income inequality/mortality relation may differ for blacks and whites. The factors explaining the association may also differ for the two groups. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression analysis was used to examine associations between study variables. We used three measures of income inequality to examine the association between income inequality and age-adjusted all-cause mortality among blacks and whites separately. We also examined the role of racial residential segregation and concentrated poverty in explaining associations among groups. Metropolitan areas were included if they had a population of at least 100,000 and were at least 10 percent black. There was a positive income inequality/mortality association among blacks and an inverse association among whites. Racial residential segregation completely attenuated the income inequality/mortality relationship for blacks, but was not significant among whites. Concentrated poverty was a significant predictor of mortality rates in both groups but did not confound associations. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Influence of stress, temperature and crystal habit on isothermal densification and specific surface area decrease of new snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleef, S.; Löwe, H.; Schneebeli, M.

    2014-03-01

    Laboratory-based, experimental data for the microstructural evolution of new snow is scarce, though applications would benefit from a quantitative characterization of the main mechanism underlying the initial microstructural changes. To this end we have analyzed the metamorphism and concurrent densification of new snow under isothermal conditions by means of X-ray microtomography and compiled a comprehensive data set of 45 time series covering the practically relevant short time behavior within the first 24-48 h in high temporal resolution. The data set comprises natural and laboratory grown snow and experimental conditions include systematic variations of overburden stress, temperature and crystal habit to address the main influences on specific surface area (SSA) decrease rate and densification rate in a natural snowpack. For all conditions we find a linear increase of the density with the SSA, indicating that metamorphism has a key influence for the densification of new snow. Corroborated by the analysis of the individual influences of external conditions we derive a best-fit parametrization for the SSA decrease rate and the densification rate as required for applications.

  3. Influence of stress, temperature and crystal morphology on isothermal densification and specific surface area decrease of new snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleef, S.; Löwe, H.; Schneebeli, M.

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory-based, experimental data for the microstructural evolution of new snow are scarce, though applications would benefit from a quantitative characterization of the main influences. To this end, we have analyzed the metamorphism and concurrent densification of new snow under isothermal conditions by means of X-ray microtomography and compiled a comprehensive data set of 45 time series. In contrast to previous measurements on isothermal metamorphism on time scales of weeks to months, we analyzed the initial 24-48 h of snow evolution at a high temporal resolution of 3 hours. The data set comprised natural and laboratory-grown snow, and experimental conditions included systematic variations of overburden stress, temperature and crystal habit to address the main influences on specific surface area (SSA) decrease rate and densification rate in a snowpack. For all conditions, we found a linear relation between density and SSA, indicating that metamorphism has an immediate influence for the densification of new snow. The slope of the linear relation, however, depends on the other parameters which were analyzed individually to derive a best-fit parameterization for the SSA decrease rate and densification rate. In the investigated parameter range, we found that the initial value of the SSA constituted the main morphological influence on the SSA decrease rate. In turn, the SSA decrease rate constituted the main influence on the densification rate.

  4. Measuring the specific surface area of snow using optical methods, and application to remote sensing in Antarctica (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domine, F.; Gallet, J.; Morin, S.; Picard, G.; Arnaud, L.; Champollion, N.

    2010-12-01

    The specific surface area (SSA) of snow is a crucial variable to evaluate climatic and chemical aspects of the snow cover. It is related simply to the snow optical diameter d by SSA=6/d ρice, with ρice the density of pure ice. We have developed optical methods based on the IR reflectance of snow to rapidly measure snow SSA in the field. SSA vertical profiles and temporal variations have now been measured in many locations, such as Dome C (Antarctic plateau), Svalbard, Alaska, the North Pole, the Finnish and Canadian taiga, and sites in the French Alps. Distinct trends in vertical SSA profiles are discernable depending on climatic conditions at each site, and preliminary aspects of the relationship between SSA profile and climate will be shown. Snow albedo in the IR depends mostly on SSA, while absorption by impurities mostly determines albedo in the visible. On the Antarctic plateau, where absorption by impurities is negligible, SSA is the main factor in snow albedo throughout the optical range. SSA data obtained at Dome C were used to calculate snow spectral albedo. The comparison of these calculations to MODIS data will be discussed.

  5. The effects of gaps between bridge foils and PETN as a function of PETN density and specific surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D; Roeske, F; Burnham, A

    2007-06-26

    X-ray computer tomography scans of artificially aged PETN seem to indicate shrinkage of material and, by extension, an increased high explosive density, resulting in potential separation of the HE from the header/bridge foil. We have investigated these phenomena by mimicking this shrinkage of material (load density). Thus, we have evaluated various induced gaps between the exploding bridge foil and the PETN in our custom detonators by changing both specific surface area - recognizing crystal morphology changes - and load density. Analyses for these data include absolute function time relative to bridge burst and careful evaluation of the detonation wave breakout curvature, using an electronic streak camera for wave capture, in cases where the bridge foil (exploding bridge wire - EBW style) initiation successfully traverses the gap (a 'go' condition). In addition, a fireset with subnanosecond trigger jitter was used for these tests allowing easy comparison of relative 'go' function times. Using the same test matrix and fine-tuning the induced gap, a second, smaller subset of these experiments were performed to provide additional insight as to what conditions we might expect detonator anomalies/failure.

  6. Snow specific surface area simulation using the one-layer snow model in the Canadian LAnd Surface Scheme (CLASS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, A.; Royer, A.; Montpetit, B.; Bartlett, P. A.; Langlois, A.

    2012-12-01

    Snow grain size is a key parameter for modeling microwave snow emission properties and the surface energy balance because of its influence on the snow albedo, thermal conductivity and diffusivity. A model of the specific surface area (SSA) of snow was implemented in the one-layer snow model in the Canadian LAnd Surface Scheme (CLASS) version 3.4. This offline multilayer model (CLASS-SSA) simulates the decrease of SSA based on snow age, snow temperature and the temperature gradient under dry snow conditions, whereas it considers the liquid water content for wet snow metamorphism. We compare the model with ground-based measurements from several sites (alpine, Arctic and sub-Arctic) with different types of snow. The model provides simulated SSA in good agreement with measurements with an overall point-to-point comparison RMSE of 8.1 m2 kg-1, and a RMSE of 4.9 m2 kg-1 for the snowpack average SSA. The model, however, is limited under wet conditions due to the single-layer nature of the CLASS model, leading to a single liquid water content value for the whole snowpack. The SSA simulations are of great interest for satellite passive microwave brightness temperature assimilations, snow mass balance retrievals and surface energy balance calculations with associated climate feedbacks.

  7. InSAR data produce specific storage estimates for an agricultural area in the San Luis Valley, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, J.; Knight, R. J.; Zebker, H. A.; Schreuder, W.; Agram, P. S.; Lauknes, T.

    2010-12-01

    The San Luis Valley (SLV) is an 8000 km2 region in southern Colorado that is home to a thriving agricultural economy. This valley is currently in a period of extreme drought, with county and state regulators struggling to develop appropriate management policies in order to sustain water levels in the confined aquifer system. The water level from 1970 - 2000 remains a key, but poorly known, component for characterization. Some relevant data, such as water levels measured in wells, were collected during this period and incorporated into a groundwater flow model. However, data with finer spatial and temporal resolution would be very valuable in understanding the behavior and therefore the management of the system. Spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data provide maps of the deformation of the Earth’s surface at a spatial resolution of 50 m; these data are acquired approximately once per month. The deformation measured by InSAR can be related to water levels in the confined aquifer system. However, changes in cm-scale crop structure in agricultural areas lead to signal decorrelation over long periods of time, resulting in low quality data. Here we apply the recently developed small baseline subset (SBAS) analysis to InSAR data collected by the European Space Agency’s ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites over the western SLV for the years 1992-2001. The SBAS measurements show high levels of InSAR correlation, denoting high quality data, in areas between the center pivot irrigation circles, where the lack of water results in little surface vegetation. By using SBAS analysis, we are able to estimate the magnitude of the seasonal deformation and compare it with hydraulic head measurements in nearby wells. We directly compare, at three well locations, specific storage parameters estimated from InSAR data to those estimated using traditional pump test techniques. The InSAR and pump test estimated parameters are: 3.4 x10-5 ft-1 vs. 1.7 x 10-5 ft-1, 2.2 x 10

  8. 50 CFR Table 2a to Part 660... - 2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 2a Table 2a to Part 660, Subpart G Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart G—2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) Link...

  9. 50 CFR Table 1a to Part 660... - 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table 1a to Part 660, Subpart G Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart G—2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) Link...

  10. 50 CFR Table 1a to Part 660... - 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table 1a to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart C—2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)...

  11. 50 CFR Table 2a to Part 660... - 2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 2a Table 2a to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart C—2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)...

  12. Application specific Tester-On-a-Resident-Chip (TORCH{trademark}) - innovation in the area of semiconductor testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, M.; Peterson, T.; Savignon, D.; Campbell, D.

    1997-12-01

    Manufacturers widely recognize testing as a major factor in the cost, producability, and delivery of product in the $100 billion integrated circuit business: {open_quotes}The rapid development of VLSI using sub-micron CMOS technology has suddenly exposed traditional test techniques as a major cost factor that could restrict the development of VLSI devices exceeding 512 pins an operating frequencies above 200 MHz.{close_quotes} -- 1994 Semiconductor Industry Association Roadmap, Design and Test, Summary, pg. 43. This problem increases dramatically for stockpile electronics, where small production quantities make it difficult to amortize the cost of increasingly expensive testers. Application of multiple ICs in Multi-Chip Modules (MCM) greatly multiplies testing problems for commercial and defense users alike. By traditional test methods, each new design requires custom test hardware and software and often dedicated testing equipment costing millions of dollars. Also, physical properties of traditional test systems often dedicated testing equipment costing millions of dollars. Also, physical properties of traditional test systems limit capabilities in testing at-speed (>200 MHz), high-impedance, and high-accuracy analog signals. This project proposed a revolutionary approach to these problems: replace the multi-million dollar external test system with an inexpensive test system integrated onto the product wafer. Such a methodology enables testing functions otherwise unachievable by conventional means, particularly in the areas of high-frequency, at-speed testing, high impedance analog circuits, and known good die assessment. The techniques apply specifically to low volume applications, typical of Defense Programs, where testing costs represent an unusually high proportional of product costs, not easily amortized.

  13. Reference Ranges of Age-Related Prostate-Specific Antigen in Men without Cancer from Beijing Area

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Shun-Xin; Lin, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background To determine the normal ranges of serum age-related prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in men from Beijing area without cancer. Methods In this cross sectional study, form April 2010 to October 2011, 1611 healthy men undergoing a routine health check-up in our hospital and all men received three examinations including serum PSA test, digital rectal ex-amination and transrectal ultrasound. Men with any two abnormal results of the three examinations were undergone a prostate biopsy. Men with any two normal results of the three examinations or with negative biopsy were defined as men without cancer. Men with a prior history of prostate cancer/surgery or with urinary tract infection/obstruction were excluded. 1572 men without cancer were recruited into the study finally and were stratified into 10-year age groups: 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, 70 to 79, and older than 80. Results The median PSA value (95th percentile range) was 0.506(1.565), 1.04(2.920), 1.16(4.113), 1.34(5.561)and 2.975 (7.285) for each age group respectively, and the 25th percentile to 75 percentile was 0.343 to 0.923, 0.663 to 1.580, 0.693 to 2.203, 0.789 to 2.368 and 1.188 to 4.295 respectively. The serum PSA value is directly correlated with age (r=0.314, P<0.001). Conclusions Use the age-related range for PSA increases the sensitivity in younger men and decreases the biopsy rate in older patients. PMID:26171333

  14. Single housing during early adolescence causes time-, area- and peptide-specific alterations in endogenous opioids of rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Granholm, L; Roman, E; Nylander, I

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE A number of experimental procedures require single housing to assess individual behaviour and physiological responses to pharmacological treatments. The endogenous opioids are closely linked to social interaction, especially early in life, and disturbance in the social environment may affect opioid peptides and thereby confound experimental outcome. The aim of the present study was to examine time-dependent effects of single housing on opioid peptides in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Early adolescent Sprague Dawley rats (post-natal day 22) were subjected to either prolonged (7 days) or short (30 min) single housing. Several brain regions were dissected and immunoreactive levels of Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP), dynorphin B and nociception/orphanin FQ, as well as serum corticosterone were measured using RIA. KEY RESULTS Prolonged single housing reduced immunoreactive MEAP in hypothalamus, cortical regions, amygdala, substantia nigra and periaqueductal grey. Short single housing resulted in an acute stress response as indicated by high levels of corticosterone, accompanied by elevated immunoreactive nociceptin/orphanin FQ in medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Neither short nor prolonged single housing affected dynorphin B. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Disruption in social environmental conditions of rats, through single housing during early adolescence, resulted in time-, area- and peptide-specific alterations in endogenous opioids in the brain. These results provide further evidence for an association between early life social environment and opioids. Furthermore, the results have implications for experimental design; in any pharmacological study involving opioid peptides, it is important to distinguish between effects induced by housing and treatment. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http

  15. Accessibility Videos.

    PubMed

    Kurppa, Ari; Nordlund, Marika

    2016-01-01

    It can be difficult to understand accessibility, if you do not have the personal experience. The Accessibility Centre ESKE produced short videos which demonstrate the meaning of accessibility in different situations. Videos will raise accessibility awareness of architects, other planners and professionals in the construction field and maintenance. PMID:27534282

  16. Access to modern contraception.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Michael J; Stanback, John; Shelton, James

    2006-06-01

    Access to modern contraception has become a recognized human right, improving the health and well-being of women, families and societies worldwide. However, contraceptive access remains uneven. Irregular contraceptive supply, limited numbers of service delivery points and specific geographic, economic, informational, psychosocial and administrative barriers (including medical barriers) undermine access in many settings. Widening the range of providers enabled to offer contraception can improve contraceptive access, particularly where resources are most scarce. International efforts to remove medical barriers include the World Health Organization's Medical Eligibility Criteria. Based on the best available evidence, these criteria provide guidance for weighing the risks and benefits of contraceptive choice among women with specific clinical conditions. Clinical job aids can also improve access. More research is needed to further elucidate the pathways for expanding contraceptive access. Further progress in removing medical barriers will depend on systems for improving provider education and promoting evidence-based contraceptive service delivery. PMID:16443395

  17. Assistive Technology for Students with Visual Impairments: In-Service Teacher Training and Its Relationship to Student Access and Usage across Academic Subject Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segers, Kathryn S.

    2014-01-01

    Technology is used in almost every school and classroom today and motivates and intrigues students with vision. This same technology is often not accessible to students with visual impairments and blindness. Assistive technology must be used by students with visual impairments and blindness in order to access a computer, the Internet, and print…

  18. Spatial access disparities to primary health care in rural and remote Australia.

    PubMed

    McGrail, Matthew Richard; Humphreys, John Stirling

    2015-01-01

    Poor spatial access to health care remains a key issue for rural populations worldwide. Whilst geographic information systems (GIS) have enabled the development of more sophisticated access measures, they are yet to be adopted into health policy and workforce planning. This paper provides and tests a new national-level approach to measuring primary health care (PHC) access for rural Australia, suitable for use in macro-level health policy. The new index was constructed using a modified two-step floating catchment area method framework and the smallest available geographic unit. Primary health care spatial access was operationalised using three broad components: availability of PHC (general practitioner) services; proximity of populations to PHC services; and PHC needs of the population. Data used in its measurement were specifically chosen for accuracy, reliability and ongoing availability for small areas. The resultant index reveals spatial disparities of access to PHC across rural Australia. While generally more remote areas experienced poorer access than more populated rural areas, there were numerous exceptions to this generalisation, with some rural areas close to metropolitan areas having very poor access and some increasingly remote areas having relatively good access. This new index provides a geographically-sensitive measure of access, which is readily updateable and enables a fine granulation of access disparities. Such an index can underpin national rural health programmes and policies designed to improve rural workforce recruitment and retention, and, importantly, health service planning and resource allocation decisions designed to improve equity of PHC access.

  19. Drilling Specifications: Well Installations in the 300 Area to Support PNNL’s Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFC) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2008-01-21

    Part of the 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFC) will be installation of a network of high density borings and wells to monitor migration of fluids and contaminants (uranium), both in groundwater and vadose zone, away from an surface infiltration plot (Figure A-1). The infiltration plot will be located over an area of suspected contamination at the former 300 Area South Process Pond (SPP). The SPP is located in the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site, within the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with the support of FH shall stake the well locations prior to the start of drilling. Final locations will be based on accessibility and will avoid any surface or underground structures or hazards as well as surface contamination.

  20. Granting Each Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Linda Lucas

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes federal legislation regarding equal access for students with disabilities and discusses environmental barriers to accessibility in the library media center. Solutions to these design problems are suggested in the following areas: material formats and space requirements; the physical setting, including furniture, floor coverings,…

  1. NASA's UAS NAS Access Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    The vision of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project is "A global transportation system which allows routine access for all classes of UAS." The goal of the UAS Integration in the NAS Project is to "contribute capabilities that reduce technical barriers related to the safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS." This goal will be accomplished through a two-phased approach based on development of system-level integration of key concepts, technologies and/or procedures, and demonstrations of integrated capabilities in an operationally relevant environment. Phase 1 will take place the first two years of the Project and Phase 2 will take place the following three years. The Phase 1 and 2 technical objectives are: Phase 1: Developing a gap analysis between current state of the art and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) UAS Concept of Operations . Validating the key technical areas identified by this Project . Conducting initial modeling, simulation, and flight testing activities . Completing Sub-project Phase 1 deliverables (spectrum requirements, comparative analysis of certification methodologies, etc.) and continue Phase 2 preparation (infrastructure, tools, etc.) Phase 2: Providing regulators with a methodology for developing airworthiness requirements for UAS, and data to support development of certifications standards and regulatory guidance . Providing systems-level, integrated testing of concepts and/or capabilities that address barriers to routine access to the NAS. Through simulation and flight testing, address issues including separation assurance, communications requirements, and human systems integration in operationally relevant environments. The UAS in the NAS Project will demonstrate solutions in specific technology areas, which will address operational/safety issues related to UAS access to the NAS. Since the resource allocation for

  2. 50 CFR Table 3 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10′ N. Lat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10ⲠN. Lat. 3 Table 3 (South) to Part 660, Subpart F Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC...

  3. 50 CFR Table 3 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10′ N. Lat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10ⲠN. Lat. 3 Table 3 (North) to Part 660, Subpart F Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC...

  4. A coupled physical, optical, and photochemical model of snow: relating measurements of specific surface area to snow optical properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, G.; Simpson, W. R.; Taillandier, A.; Domine, F.

    2004-12-01

    Recent experiments and modeling studies have shown that chemical processes in the snow pack have significant impacts on the chemistry of the atmosphere. Solar ultraviolet radiation penetrating the snow pack is the driving force for some of these chemical processes. Therefore, factors controlling photochemical processes in the snowpack need to be understood. Here, we present field investigations of the relationship between physical and optical properties of the snowpack and laboratory studies validating radiation models that predict photochemical reaction rates within the snowpack. A critical parameter in modeling snow photochemistry is the scattering coefficient for the snow. Steve Warren (University of Washington) proposed that the best physical measurement that correlates with scattering is the specific surface area (SSA); however, this correlation has not been tested to our knowledge. Therefore, we performed field experiments comparing optical measurements of scattering and the SSA. The measurement of the snow SSA was achieved by using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method to analyse CH4 adsorption onto snow samples. The optical determination of scattering in the snowpack used a variation of the method of Beaglehole. In this method, the light penetration of a snow sample was measured using decreasing thicknesses of the sample on a black base. In the thin layers, the scattering dominates the light attenuation within the snow. In the thicker layers both the absorption and scattering determine the light attenuation. Kubelka-Munk two-flux theory was used to model the data and calculate the scattering and absorption within the samples. This determination of the scattering was found to be proportional to the measured SSA. This linkage between SSA and optical properties confirms Warren`s hypothesis and allows the literatures of optical and physical properties of snow to be coupled. A laboratory study of the performance of snow radiation models was also carried out. A delta

  5. Observation and modeling of the seasonal evolution of the snow specific surface area at Dome C in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, G.; Libois, Q.; Arnaud, L.; Dumont, M.; Lafaysse, M.; Morin, S.

    2015-12-01

    The specific surface area (SSA) of surface snow evolves in response to meteorological conditions (e.g. temperature and precipitation). It is the main driver of the albedo in the near infrared range where most of the solar energy is absorbed in Antarctica. In turn, albedo change affects snow temperature, which drives SSA evolution rate, and at a larger scale influences the climate of snow-covered regions through snow-albedo feedback loops. Here we present a SSA retrieval method based on in-situ spectral albedo measurements and explore the factors limiting the accuracy of this method. The snowpack model Crocus is also used to simulate SSA evolution, and to investigate the respective role of temperature and precipitation Automatic spectral measurements of the upwelling and downwelling irradiance in the range 800nm - 1050nm are acquired every hour with a spectrophotometer deployed at Dome C since 2012. Spectral albedo is derived from these measurements and is used in conjunction with an asymptotic analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation to retrieve surface SSA estimates representative of the topmost centimeter. The sensitivity analysis of this method shows that the spectro-angular response of the cosine collector used to capture the light, and the uncertainty in the surface roughness are the largest sources of error, and can account for up to 20% uncertainty in SSA retrieval. In contrast, the dark current of the spectrometer, the inter-calibration of the upwelling and downwelling lines are good enough or sufficiently easy to correct not to impact the retrieval. To compare the surface SSA time-series to Crocus simulations, a few adaptations to the Antarctic conditions have been implemented in the model. The results show that the Crocus successfully matches the observations at daily to seasonal time scales, except for a few cases when snowfalls are not present in the meteorological forcing. On the contrary, the inter-annual variability of summer SSA

  6. Low-temperature leaf photosynthesis of a Miscanthus germplasm collection correlates positively to shoot growth rate and specific leaf area

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Xiurong; Kørup, Kirsten; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Petersen, Karen Koefoed; Prade, Thomas; Jeżowski, Stanisław; Ornatowski, Szymon; Górynowicz, Barbara; Spitz, Idan; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The C4 perennial grass miscanthus has been found to be less sensitive to cold than most other C4 species, but still emerges later in spring than C3 species. Genotypic differences in miscanthus were investigated to identify genotypes with a high cold tolerance at low temperatures and quick recovery upon rising temperatures to enable them to exploit the early growing season in maritime cold climates. Suitable methods for field screening of cold tolerance in miscanthus were also identified. Methods Fourteen genotypes of M. sacchariflorus, M. sinensis, M. tinctorius and M. × giganteus were selected and grown under warm (24 °C) and cold (14 °C) conditions in a controlled environment. Dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence, specific leaf area (SLA) and net photosynthetic rate at a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 1000 μmol m–2 s–1 (A1000) were measured. Photosynthetic light and CO2 response curves were obtained from 11 of the genotypes, and shoot growth rate was measured under field conditions. Key Results A positive linear relationship was found between SLA and light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat) across genotypes, and also between shoot growth rate under cool field conditions and A1000 at 14 °C in a climate chamber. When lowering the temperature from 24 to 14 °C, one M. sacchariflorus exhibited significantly higher Asat and maximum photosynthetic rate in the CO2 response curve (Vmax) than other genotypes at 14 °C, except M. × giganteus ‘Hornum’. Several genotypes returned to their pre-chilling A1000 values when the temperature was increased to 24 °C after 24 d growth at 14 °C. Conclusions One M. sacchariflorus genotype had similar or higher photosynthetic capacity than M. × giganteus, and may be used for cultivation together with M. × giganteus or for breeding new interspecies hybrids with improved traits for temperate climates. Two easily measured variables, SLA and shoot growth rate, may be useful for

  7. Automated Image Intelligence Adaptive Sensor Management System for High Altitude Long Endurance UAVs in a Dynamic and Anti-Access Area Denial Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi Young

    The problem we investigate deals with an Image Intelligence (IMINT) sensor allocation schedule for High Altitude Long Endurance UAVs in a dynamic and Anti-Access Area Denial (A2AD) environment. The objective is to maximize the Situational Awareness (SA) of decision makers. The value of SA can be improved in two different ways. First, if a sensor allocated to an Areas of Interest (AOI) detects target activity, then the SA value will be increased. Second, the SA value increases if an AOI is monitored for a certain period of time, regardless of target detections. These values are functions of the sensor allocation time, sensor type and mode. Relatively few studies in the archival literature have been devoted to an analytic, detailed explanation of the target detection process, and AOI monitoring value dynamics. These two values are the fundamental criteria used to choose the most judicious sensor allocation schedule. This research presents mathematical expressions for target detection processes, and shows the monitoring value dynamics. Furthermore, the dynamics of target detection is the result of combined processes between belligerent behavior (target activity) and friendly behavior (sensor allocation). We investigate these combined processes and derive mathematical expressions for simplified cases. These closed form mathematical models can be used for Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs), i.e., target activity detection to evaluate sensor allocation schedules. We also verify these models with discrete event simulations which can also be used to describe more complex systems. We introduce several methodologies to achieve a judicious sensor allocation schedule focusing on the AOI monitoring value. The first methodology is a discrete time integer programming model which provides an optimal solution but is impractical for real world scenarios due to its computation time. Thus, it is necessary to trade off the quality of solution with computation time. The Myopic Greedy

  8. 50 CFR Table 50 to Part 679 - Maximum Number of Groundfish Licenses and the Regulatory Area Specification of Groundfish...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Representing Specific GOA Communities Central GOA Pacific cod endorsed non-trawl groundfish license Community Maximum number of groundfishlicenses that may be granted Western GOA Pacific cod endorsed...

  9. Mesoporous carbon-supported Pd nanoparticles with high specific surface area for cyclohexene hydrogenation: Outstanding catalytic activity of NaOH-treated catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskás, R.; Varga, T.; Grósz, A.; Sápi, A.; Oszkó, A.; Kukovecz, Á.; Kónya, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Extremely high specific surface area mesoporous carbon-supported Pd nanoparticle catalysts were prepared with both impregnation and polyol-based sol methods. The silica template used for the synthesis of mesoporous carbon was removed by both NaOH and HF etching. Pd/mesoporous carbon catalysts synthesized with the impregnation method has as high specific surface area as 2250 m2/g. In case of NaOH-etched impregnated samples, the turnover frequency of cyclohexene hydrogenation to cyclohexane at 313 K was obtained ~ 14 molecules • site- 1 • s- 1. The specific surface area of HF-etched samples was higher compared to NaOH-etched samples. However, catalytic activity was ~ 3-6 times higher on NaOH-etched samples compared to HF-etched samples, which can be attributed to the presence of sodium and surface hydroxylgroups of the catalysts etched with NaOH solution.

  10. Reoperative venous access.

    PubMed

    Juno, Russell J; Knott, Andrew W; Racadio, John; Warner, Brad W

    2003-05-01

    The maintenance of long-term venous access is critical to the livelihood of children in a variety of clinical situations, especially those who are dependent on parenteral nutrition. Whereas the traditional routes of either peripheral or central venous access are initially adequate, most of these sites eventually succumb to the pitfalls associated with long-term venous access. This review provides a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach to the management of reoperative venous access with regard to preoperative planning and imaging and specific techniques in interventional radiology and surgery.

  11. Area- and site-specific geothermal leasing/permitting profiles; updated geothermal leasing/permitting performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Beeland, G.V.; Schumann, E.; Wieland, M.

    1982-02-01

    Sufficient discussion of the elements of the leasing and permitting programs is included to place the information developed in proper context. A table and process flow diagram developed previously which outline the steps in the non-competitive leasing process, is reprinted. Computer printout profiles are presented on 195 identifiable areas in the following states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Sufficient information on the boundaries of these areas is contained in the report to permit identification of their general location on any map of the appropriate state which shows township and range locations.

  12. The specific reactive surface area of granular zero-valent iron in metal contaminant removal: Column experiments and modelling.

    PubMed

    Statham, Tom M; Mason, Lachlan R; Mumford, Kathryn A; Stevens, Geoffrey W

    2015-06-15

    A series of dynamic-flow kinetic experiments were conducted to assess the removal rates of aqueous Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions by zero-valent iron (ZVI), a promising material for inclusion in cold-climate remediation applications. The influence of experimental parameters on contaminant removal rates, including aqueous flow rate, operating temperature, and the concentrations of ZVI, salt and dissolved oxygen, was investigated. A mass transport model has been developed that accounts (i) aqueous-phase dispersion processes, (ii) film diffusion of contaminant ions to the reactive ZVI surface and (iii) the reactive removal mechanism itself. Regression to the experimental data indicated that when oxygen is present in the solution feed Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) removal processes were limited by film diffusion. In de-aerated solutions film diffusion still controls Cu(2+) removal but a first-order surface reaction provides a better model for Zn(2+) kinetics. Using air as the equilibrium feed gas, the reactive proportion of the total surface area for contaminant removal was calculated to be 97% and 64% of the active spherically-assumed geometric area associated with ZVI media for Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), respectively. Relative to a gas absorption area, determined in previous studies, the reactive proportion is less than 0.41% of the unreacted ZVI total surface area. These findings suggest that only part of the iron oxyhydroxide surface is reacting during ZVI based metal contaminant removal. PMID:25839833

  13. The specific reactive surface area of granular zero-valent iron in metal contaminant removal: Column experiments and modelling.

    PubMed

    Statham, Tom M; Mason, Lachlan R; Mumford, Kathryn A; Stevens, Geoffrey W

    2015-06-15

    A series of dynamic-flow kinetic experiments were conducted to assess the removal rates of aqueous Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions by zero-valent iron (ZVI), a promising material for inclusion in cold-climate remediation applications. The influence of experimental parameters on contaminant removal rates, including aqueous flow rate, operating temperature, and the concentrations of ZVI, salt and dissolved oxygen, was investigated. A mass transport model has been developed that accounts (i) aqueous-phase dispersion processes, (ii) film diffusion of contaminant ions to the reactive ZVI surface and (iii) the reactive removal mechanism itself. Regression to the experimental data indicated that when oxygen is present in the solution feed Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) removal processes were limited by film diffusion. In de-aerated solutions film diffusion still controls Cu(2+) removal but a first-order surface reaction provides a better model for Zn(2+) kinetics. Using air as the equilibrium feed gas, the reactive proportion of the total surface area for contaminant removal was calculated to be 97% and 64% of the active spherically-assumed geometric area associated with ZVI media for Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), respectively. Relative to a gas absorption area, determined in previous studies, the reactive proportion is less than 0.41% of the unreacted ZVI total surface area. These findings suggest that only part of the iron oxyhydroxide surface is reacting during ZVI based metal contaminant removal.

  14. Reduction on NOx emissions on urban areas by changing specific vehicle fleets: effects on NO2 and O3 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, M.; Jimenez, P.; Baldasano, J.

    2007-12-01

    The largest amount of NOx emissions in urban areas comes from on-road traffic, which is the largest contributor to urban air pollution (Colvile et al., 2001). Currently different strategies are being tested in order to reduce its effects; many of them oriented to the reduction of the unitary vehicles emissions, by alternative fuels use (such as biofuels, natural gas or hydrogen) or introduction of new technologies (such as hybrid electric vehicles or fuel cells). Atmospheric modelling permits to predict their consequences on tropospheric chemistry (Vautard et al., 2007). Hence, this work assesses the changes on NO2 and O3 concentrations when substituting a 10 per cent of the urban private cars fleets by petrol hybrid electric cars (HEC) or by natural gas cars (NGC) in Madrid and Barcelona urban areas (Spain). These two cities are selected in order to highlight the different patterns of pollutants transport (inland vs. coastal city) and the different responses to emissions reductions. The results focus on a typical summertime episode of air pollution, by means of the Eulerian air quality model ARW- WRF/HERMES/CMAQ, applied with high resolution (1-hr, 1km2) since of the complexity of both areas under study. The detailed emissions scenarios are implemented in the HERMES traffic emissions module, based on the Copert III-EEA/EMEP-CORINAIR (Nztiachristos and Samaras, 2000) methodology. The HEC introduction reduces NOx emissions from on-road traffic in a 10.8 per cent and 8.2 per cent; and the NGC introduction in a 10.3 per cent and 7.8 per cent, for Madrid and Barcelona areas, respectively. The scenarios also affect the NMVOCs reduction (ranging from -3.1 to -6.9 per cent), influencing the tropospheric photochemistry through the NOx/NMVOCs ratio. The abatement of the NO photooxidation but also to the reduction on primary NO2 involves a decrease on NO2 levels centred on urban areas. For example, the NO2 24-hr average concentration in downtown areas reduces up to 8 per

  15. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  16. [Specific Features of Radioactive Pollution of Soils of Catchment Areas of Lake Shablish (Distant Zone of the East Ural Radioactive Trace)].

    PubMed

    Deryagin, V V; Levina, S G; Sutyagin, A A; Parfilova, N S

    2015-01-01

    Specific features of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution and accumulation in soil cuts of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas of Lake Shablish located in a distant zone of the East Ural radioactive trace are considered. Some physical and chemical characteristics of the soils were defined. It is established that the signs typical for the lake ecosystems of distant East-Ural radioactive trace zone which underwent impact of technogenic influence are common for soils of catchment areas of Lake Shablish. The distinctions in some characteristic features of the specific activity of long-living radionuclides for the soils of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas connected with the character of the water regime of soils are shown.

  17. [Specific Features of Radioactive Pollution of Soils of Catchment Areas of Lake Shablish (Distant Zone of the East Ural Radioactive Trace)].

    PubMed

    Deryagin, V V; Levina, S G; Sutyagin, A A; Parfilova, N S

    2015-01-01

    Specific features of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution and accumulation in soil cuts of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas of Lake Shablish located in a distant zone of the East Ural radioactive trace are considered. Some physical and chemical characteristics of the soils were defined. It is established that the signs typical for the lake ecosystems of distant East-Ural radioactive trace zone which underwent impact of technogenic influence are common for soils of catchment areas of Lake Shablish. The distinctions in some characteristic features of the specific activity of long-living radionuclides for the soils of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas connected with the character of the water regime of soils are shown. PMID:26964351

  18. Online Speaking Strategy Assessment for Improving Speaking Ability in the Area of Language for Specific Purposes: The Case of Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phaiboonnugulkij, Malinee; Prapphal, Kanchana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in strategies used in an online language for specific purposes (LSP) speaking test in tourism with two proficiency groups of students, and to investigate the strategies that should be used for low-proficiency students to improve their LSP speaking ability. The Web-based Speaking Test in…

  19. Efficient and equitable design of marine protected areas in Fiji through inclusion of stakeholder-specific objectives in conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Jupiter, Stacy; Adams, Vanessa M

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of protected areas varies, partly because socioeconomic factors are not sufficiently considered in planning and management. Although integrating socioeconomic factors into systematic conservation planning is increasingly advocated, research is needed to progress from recognition of these factors to incorporating them effectively in spatial prioritization of protected areas. We evaluated 2 key aspects of incorporating socioeconomic factors into spatial prioritization: treatment of socioeconomic factors as costs or objectives and treatment of stakeholders as a single group or multiple groups. Using as a case study the design of a system of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) in Kubulau, Fiji, we assessed how these aspects affected the configuration of no-take MPAs in terms of trade-offs between biodiversity objectives, fisheries objectives, and equity in catch losses among fisher stakeholder groups. The achievement of fisheries objectives and equity tended to trade-off concavely with increasing biodiversity objectives, indicating that it is possible to achieve low to mid-range biodiversity objectives with relatively small losses to fisheries and equity. Importantly, the extent of trade-offs depended on the method used to incorporate socioeconomic data and was least severe when objectives were set for each fisher stakeholder group explicitly. We found that using different methods to incorporate socioeconomic factors that require similar data and expertise can result in plans with very different impacts on local stakeholders.

  20. Efficient and equitable design of marine protected areas in Fiji through inclusion of stakeholder-specific objectives in conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Jupiter, Stacy; Adams, Vanessa M

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of protected areas varies, partly because socioeconomic factors are not sufficiently considered in planning and management. Although integrating socioeconomic factors into systematic conservation planning is increasingly advocated, research is needed to progress from recognition of these factors to incorporating them effectively in spatial prioritization of protected areas. We evaluated 2 key aspects of incorporating socioeconomic factors into spatial prioritization: treatment of socioeconomic factors as costs or objectives and treatment of stakeholders as a single group or multiple groups. Using as a case study the design of a system of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) in Kubulau, Fiji, we assessed how these aspects affected the configuration of no-take MPAs in terms of trade-offs between biodiversity objectives, fisheries objectives, and equity in catch losses among fisher stakeholder groups. The achievement of fisheries objectives and equity tended to trade-off concavely with increasing biodiversity objectives, indicating that it is possible to achieve low to mid-range biodiversity objectives with relatively small losses to fisheries and equity. Importantly, the extent of trade-offs depended on the method used to incorporate socioeconomic data and was least severe when objectives were set for each fisher stakeholder group explicitly. We found that using different methods to incorporate socioeconomic factors that require similar data and expertise can result in plans with very different impacts on local stakeholders. PMID:25916976

  1. Appendix: Final Update of the IAU Division A Commission 4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides and File Format Specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, James L.; Acton, Charles; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Bell, Steven A.; Capitaine, Nicole; Fienga, Agnès; Folkner, William M.; Gastineau, Mickaël; Pavlov, Dmitry; Pitjeva, Elena V.; Skripnichenko, Vladimir I.; Wallace, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The IAU Commission 4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides recommends the use of the Spacecraft and Planet Kernel (SPK) format to provide a uniform format for the position ephemerides of planets and other natural solar system bodies, and the use of the Planetary Constants Kernel (PCK) for the orientation of these bodies. These formats are used by the SPICE system, developed by the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The working group's final report is currently undergoing final preparations for publication. A long version of this report will be available at the IAU Commission 4: Ephemerides (or its successor) web site. This long version will contain a full description of that portion of the SPK and PCK formats required to duplicate these file types for this application.

  2. Access to Educational Opportunity in Rural Communities: Alternative Patterns of Delivering Vocational Education in Sparsely Populated Areas. Volume 3: The Northwest Multi-District: A Mobile Facilities Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    Representing the mobile facilities pattern of inter-district cooperation, the Northwest Multi-District case is one of four studies addressing access of rural students to vocational education through inter-school district cooperation. The report identifies essential features of this form of cooperation, details factors facilitating/impeding the…

  3. Do Children in Rural Areas Still Have Different Access to Health Care? Results from a Statewide Survey of Oregon's Food Stamp Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devoe, Jennifer E.; Krois, Lisa; Stenger, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if rural residence is independently associated with different access to health care services for children eligible for public health insurance. Methods: We conducted a mail-return survey of 10,175 families randomly selected from Oregon's food stamp population (46% rural and 54% urban). With a response rate of 31%, we used a…

  4. 50 CFR 25.21 - When and how do we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... advance notice. See 50 CFR 36.42 for procedures on closing Alaska national wildlife refuges. (f) We will... the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access and use or continue a use? 25.21 Section 25.21... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Administrative Provisions § 25.21 When and how...

  5. 50 CFR 25.21 - When and how do we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... advance notice. See 50 CFR 36.42 for procedures on closing Alaska national wildlife refuges. (f) We will... the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access and use or continue a use? 25.21 Section 25.21... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Administrative Provisions § 25.21 When and how...

  6. 50 CFR 25.21 - When and how do we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... advance notice. See 50 CFR 36.42 for procedures on closing Alaska national wildlife refuges. (f) We will... the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access and use or continue a use? 25.21 Section 25.21... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Administrative Provisions § 25.21 When and how...

  7. 50 CFR 25.21 - When and how do we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... advance notice. See 50 CFR 36.42 for procedures on closing Alaska national wildlife refuges. (f) We will... the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access and use or continue a use? 25.21 Section 25.21... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Administrative Provisions § 25.21 When and how...

  8. Health-Care Access in a Rural Area: Perspectives from Russian-Speaking Immigrants, English-Speaking Doctors, and Volunteer Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brua, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Health-care access for immigrants in the United States is often problematic because of language barriers, lack of health insurance, or differing expectations based on divergent medical systems in the U.S. and the immigrants' home countries. Such difficulties are exacerbated when a linguistic-minority population lives in a rural community that has…

  9. VisPort: Web-Based Access to Community-Specific Visualization Functionality [Shedding New Light on Exploding Stars: Visualization for TeraScale Simulation of Neutrino-Driven Supernovae (Final Technical Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M Pauline

    2007-06-30

    The VisPort visualization portal is an experiment in providing Web-based access to visualization functionality from any place and at any time. VisPort adopts a service-oriented architecture to encapsulate visualization functionality and to support remote access. Users employ browser-based client applications to choose data and services, set parameters, and launch visualization jobs. Visualization products typically images or movies are viewed in the user's standard Web browser. VisPort emphasizes visualization solutions customized for specific application communities. Finally, VisPort relies heavily on XML, and introduces the notion of visualization informatics - the formalization and specialization of information related to the process and products of visualization.

  10. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  11. Effects of thyroid status on NEI concentration in specific brain areas related to reproduction during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Carolina; Pennacchio, Gisela Erika; Soaje, Marta; Carreño, Norma Beatriz; Bittencourt, Jakson Cioni; Jahn, Graciela Alma; Celis, María Ester; Valdez, Susana Ruth

    2013-11-01

    We previously showed that short-term hypo- and hyperthyroidism induce changes in neuropeptide glutamic-acid-isoleucine-amide (NEI) concentrations in discrete brain areas in male rats. To investigate the possible effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on NEI concentrations mainly in hypothalamic areas related to reproduction and behavior, female rats were sacrificed at different days of the estrous cycle. Circulating luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured in control, hypothyroid (hypoT, treated with PTU during 7-9 days) and hyperthyroid (hyperT, l-T4 during 4-7 days) animals. Both treatments blunted the LH surge. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism increased estradiol concentrations during proestrus afternoon (P-PM), although hypoT rats showed lower values compared to control during proestrus morning (P-AM). Progesterone levels were higher in all groups at P-PM and in the hyperT during diestrus morning (D2). NEI concentrations were lower in hypoT rats during the estrous cycle except in estrus (E) in the peduncular part of the lateral hypothalamus (PLH). They were also reduced by both treatments in the perifornical part of the lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) during P-PM. Hypothyroidism led to higher NEI concentrations during P-PM in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (OVLT+AVPV). The present results indicate that NEI concentration is regulated in a complex manner by hypo- and hyperthyroidism in the different areas studied, suggesting a correlation between NEI values and the variations of gonadal steroid levels during estrous cycle. These changes could be, in part, responsible for the alterations observed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these pathologies.

  12. Increase in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in specific areas of the mouse brain by acute caffeine administration.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Hyo Young; Cha, Seung Ha; Ryu, Hyun; Jang, Wooyoung; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Caffeine produces a variety of behavioral effects including increased alertness, reduced food intake, anxiogenic effects, and dependence upon repeated exposure. Although many of the effects of caffeine are mediated by its ability to block adenosine receptors, it is possible that other neural substrates, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), may be involved in the effects of caffeine. Indeed, a recent study demonstrated that repeated caffeine administration increases CART in the mouse striatum. However, it is not clear whether acute caffeine administration alters CART in other areas of the brain. To explore this possibility, we investigated the dose- and time-dependent changes in CART immunoreactivity (CART-IR) after a single dose of caffeine in mice. We found that a high dose of caffeine (100 mg/kg) significantly increased CART-IR 2 h after administration in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc), and locus coeruleus (LC), and returned to control levels after 8 h. But this increase was not observed in other brain areas. In addition, caffeine administration at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg appears to produce dose-dependent increases in CART-IR in these brain areas; however, the magnitude of increase in CART-IR observed at a dose of 50 mg/kg was similar or greater than that observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg. This result suggests that CART-IR in AcbSh, dBNST, CeA, PVN, Arc, and LC is selectively affected by caffeine administration.

  13. Increase in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in specific areas of the mouse brain by acute caffeine administration.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Hyo Young; Cha, Seung Ha; Ryu, Hyun; Jang, Wooyoung; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Caffeine produces a variety of behavioral effects including increased alertness, reduced food intake, anxiogenic effects, and dependence upon repeated exposure. Although many of the effects of caffeine are mediated by its ability to block adenosine receptors, it is possible that other neural substrates, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), may be involved in the effects of caffeine. Indeed, a recent study demonstrated that repeated caffeine administration increases CART in the mouse striatum. However, it is not clear whether acute caffeine administration alters CART in other areas of the brain. To explore this possibility, we investigated the dose- and time-dependent changes in CART immunoreactivity (CART-IR) after a single dose of caffeine in mice. We found that a high dose of caffeine (100 mg/kg) significantly increased CART-IR 2 h after administration in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc), and locus coeruleus (LC), and returned to control levels after 8 h. But this increase was not observed in other brain areas. In addition, caffeine administration at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg appears to produce dose-dependent increases in CART-IR in these brain areas; however, the magnitude of increase in CART-IR observed at a dose of 50 mg/kg was similar or greater than that observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg. This result suggests that CART-IR in AcbSh, dBNST, CeA, PVN, Arc, and LC is selectively affected by caffeine administration. PMID:25820086

  14. Transmembrane protein topology mapping by the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM(TM)): application to lipid-specific membrane protein topogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, Mikhail; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Jun; Dowhan, William

    2005-06-01

    We provide an overview of lipid-dependent polytopic membrane protein topogenesis, with particular emphasis on Escherichia coli strains genetically altered in their lipid composition and strategies for experimentally determining the transmembrane organization of proteins. A variety of reagents and experimental strategies are described including the use of lipid mutants and thiol-specific chemical reagents to study lipid-dependent and host-specific membrane protein topogenesis by substituted cysteine site-directed chemical labeling. Employing strains in which lipid composition can be controlled temporally during membrane protein synthesis and assembly provides a means to observe dynamic changes in protein topology as a function of membrane lipid composition.

  15. Awake vs. anesthetized: layer-specific sensory processing in visual cortex and functional connectivity between cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Kristin K; Bennett, Davis V; Hutt, Axel; Williams, James H; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-06-01

    During general anesthesia, global brain activity and behavioral state are profoundly altered. Yet it remains mostly unknown how anesthetics alter sensory processing across cortical layers and modulate functional cortico-cortical connectivity. To address this gap in knowledge of the micro- and mesoscale effects of anesthetics on sensory processing in the cortical microcircuit, we recorded multiunit activity and local field potential in awake and anesthetized ferrets (Mustela putoris furo) during sensory stimulation. To understand how anesthetics alter sensory processing in a primary sensory area and the representation of sensory input in higher-order association areas, we studied the local sensory responses and long-range functional connectivity of primary visual cortex (V1) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Isoflurane combined with xylazine provided general anesthesia for all anesthetized recordings. We found that anesthetics altered the duration of sensory-evoked responses, disrupted the response dynamics across cortical layers, suppressed both multimodal interactions in V1 and sensory responses in PFC, and reduced functional cortico-cortical connectivity between V1 and PFC. Together, the present findings demonstrate altered sensory responses and impaired functional network connectivity during anesthesia at the level of multiunit activity and local field potential across cortical layers.

  16. Are Sport-Specific Profiles of Tendon Stiffness and Cross-Sectional Area Determined by Structural or Functional Integrity?

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Florian; Kösters, Alexander; Müller, Erich; Seynnes, Olivier R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether distinct sets of tendon properties are seen in athletes engaged in sports with contrasting requirements for tendon function and structural integrity. Patellar and Achilles tendon morphology and force-deformation relation were measured by combining ultrasonography, electromyography and dynamometry in elite ski jumpers, distance runners, water polo players and sedentary individuals. Tendon cross-sectional area normalized to body mass2/3 was smaller in water polo players than in other athletes (patellar and Achilles tendon; -28 to -24%) or controls (patellar tendon only; -9%). In contrast, the normalized cross-sectional area was larger in runners (patellar tendon only; +26%) and ski jumpers (patellar and Achilles tendon; +21% and +13%, respectively) than in controls. Tendon stiffness normalized to body mass2/3 only differed in ski jumpers, compared to controls (patellar and Achilles tendon; +11% and +27%, respectively) and to water polo players (Achilles tendon only; +23%). Tendon size appears as an adjusting variable to changes in loading volume and/or intensity, possibly to preserve ultimate strength or fatigue resistance. However, uncoupled morphological and mechanical properties indicate that functional requirements may also influence tendon adaptations. PMID:27362657

  17. Longitudinal analysis of antigen specific response in individuals with Schistosoma mansoni infection in an endemic area of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Matoso, Leonardo Ferreira; Oliveira-Prado, Roberta; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; LoVerde, Philip T.; Kloos, Helmut; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Background Immunoepidemiologic studies have shown a relationship between IgE and IgG4 antibodies with age and with resistance and susceptibility to infection. It is believed that the IgE and IgG4 responses to soluble egg antigen (SEA) can be used for serological analysis of infection and post-treatment status. This study aimed to evaluate the association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and anti-SEA IgG4 and IgE reactivities, and determine whether these reactivities could be used as biomarkers of infection. Methods Between 2001 and 2009, a longitudinal study was performed in which parasitologic and blood specimens and socioeconomic and water-contact information were collected from 127 individuals. All patients positive for S. mansoni infection were treated. Results Schistosomiasis prevalence and the geometric mean of the egg count in 2001 were 59% and 61.05, respectively, decreasing to 26.8% and 8.78 in 2009. IgG4 anti-SEA reactivity in infected individuals was significantly higher than that in uninfected individuals at all time points. Analysis of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) area showed that the IgG4 anti-SEA antibodies were able to predict infection by S. mansoni at each time point. Conclusion IgG4 anti-SEA reactivity can be used as a biomarker for immune monitoring of the presence of infection with S. mansoni in endemic areas. PMID:24189480

  18. Awake vs. anesthetized: layer-specific sensory processing in visual cortex and functional connectivity between cortical areas

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Kristin K.; Bennett, Davis V.; Hutt, Axel; Williams, James H.

    2015-01-01

    During general anesthesia, global brain activity and behavioral state are profoundly altered. Yet it remains mostly unknown how anesthetics alter sensory processing across cortical layers and modulate functional cortico-cortical connectivity. To address this gap in knowledge of the micro- and mesoscale effects of anesthetics on sensory processing in the cortical microcircuit, we recorded multiunit activity and local field potential in awake and anesthetized ferrets (Mustela putoris furo) during sensory stimulation. To understand how anesthetics alter sensory processing in a primary sensory area and the representation of sensory input in higher-order association areas, we studied the local sensory responses and long-range functional connectivity of primary visual cortex (V1) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Isoflurane combined with xylazine provided general anesthesia for all anesthetized recordings. We found that anesthetics altered the duration of sensory-evoked responses, disrupted the response dynamics across cortical layers, suppressed both multimodal interactions in V1 and sensory responses in PFC, and reduced functional cortico-cortical connectivity between V1 and PFC. Together, the present findings demonstrate altered sensory responses and impaired functional network connectivity during anesthesia at the level of multiunit activity and local field potential across cortical layers. PMID:25833839

  19. A Fiscal Analysis of Proposed Education Access Grants in Minneapolis. School Choice Issues in the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Ericca

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the fiscal impact of model legislation that would create Education Access Grants in Minnesota. The legislation would provide grants for low-income students to attend private schools. Specifically, this study examines the effect of implementing Education Access Grants in Minneapolis, the state's largest metropolitan area. It…

  20. Inverse gas chromatography for natural fibre characterisation: Identification of the critical parameters to determine the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area.

    PubMed

    Legras, A; Kondor, A; Heitzmann, M T; Truss, R W

    2015-12-18

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is an alternative technique to determine the specific surface area of natural fibres. Natural fibres have a complex surface chemistry and unique microstructure that challenge the current capabilities to perform surface characterisation. This study investigated the influence of multiple parameters on the measured Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area for samples of flax, kenaf and BioMid(®) cellulose fibres using IGC. The BET surface area of kenaf and flax differed with 0.51m(2)g(-1) and 1.35m(2)g(-1) respectively, the former being similar to the cellulose fibres (0.54m(2)g(-1)). The data was calculated under conditions where the BET equation showed good linearity (R(2)⩾0.995). Repeatability was excellent so that two runs sufficed to obtain representative BET surface area values. The findings showed the choice of solvent was important for all specimens to avoid any misleading data comparison due to molecular orientation effects that impact the adsorbent-adsorbate interactions. The higher surface area of the flax sample, and its higher variability, was correlated with a higher surface roughness observed under optical microscopy. Packing the chromatography column with long or chopped fibres produced results that were statistically insignificant. PMID:26627590

  1. Inverse gas chromatography for natural fibre characterisation: Identification of the critical parameters to determine the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area.

    PubMed

    Legras, A; Kondor, A; Heitzmann, M T; Truss, R W

    2015-12-18

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is an alternative technique to determine the specific surface area of natural fibres. Natural fibres have a complex surface chemistry and unique microstructure that challenge the current capabilities to perform surface characterisation. This study investigated the influence of multiple parameters on the measured Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area for samples of flax, kenaf and BioMid(®) cellulose fibres using IGC. The BET surface area of kenaf and flax differed with 0.51m(2)g(-1) and 1.35m(2)g(-1) respectively, the former being similar to the cellulose fibres (0.54m(2)g(-1)). The data was calculated under conditions where the BET equation showed good linearity (R(2)⩾0.995). Repeatability was excellent so that two runs sufficed to obtain representative BET surface area values. The findings showed the choice of solvent was important for all specimens to avoid any misleading data comparison due to molecular orientation effects that impact the adsorbent-adsorbate interactions. The higher surface area of the flax sample, and its higher variability, was correlated with a higher surface roughness observed under optical microscopy. Packing the chromatography column with long or chopped fibres produced results that were statistically insignificant.

  2. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of four DSM-IV specific phobia subtypes: results from the Korean Epidemiological Catchment Area study.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Hong, Jin Pyo; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Young Moon; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Bae, Jae Nam; Lee, Jun Young; Son, Jung-Woo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2013-10-30

    Although several studies have detected differences in clinical features among specific phobias, there is a shortage of detailed national data on the on the DSM-IV SP subtypes, particularly in the Asian population. To examine the prevalence, demographic and other correlates, and co-morbidities of DSM-IV SP subtypes in a nationwide sample of Korean adults. We recruited 6510 participants aged 18-64 years for this study. Lay interviewers used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess participants. We analyzed socio-demographics, health-related correlates and frequencies of comorbid mental disorders among participants with SP and each subtypes compared to unaffected adults. The prevalence of lifetime DSM-IV SP was 3.8%, and animal phobias were the most prevalent type of SP. Blood-injection-injury phobia was negatively associated with education, whereas situational phobia was positively associated with education. The strongest mental disorder comorbidity was associated with situational phobia; there is a higher probability of comorbid mood (OR=5.73, 95% CI=2.09-15.73), anxiety (OR=7.54, 95% CI=2.34-24.28), and somatoform disorders (OR=7.61, 95% CI=1.64-35.22) with this subtype. Blood-injection-injury phobia was highly associated with alcohol dependence (OR=9.02, 95% CI=3.54-23.02). Specific phobias are heterogeneous with respect to socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidity pattern. Implications of the usefulness of current subtype categories should continue to be investigated.

  3. Response characteristics of the cells of cortical area 21a of the cat with special reference to orientation specificity.

    PubMed

    Wimborne, B M; Henry, G H

    1992-04-01

    1. Extracellular recording using tungsten-in-glass microelectrodes was conducted on 115 neurons in area 21a of fifteen anaesthetized cats. Quantitative analysis using computer-controlled display and collecting routines were used to investigate the excitatory and inhibitory regions of the receptive field and to see if interaction, within and between these regions, contributed to the response properties of the cells. 2. The responses of the cells in the sample appeared to arise from a single, homogeneous class. All cells had single discharge regions which responded with composite ON/OFF firing to a stationary flashing bar. The same region also responded to moving light and dark bars and edges. There was little evidence of inhibition as measured by the suppression of spontaneous or induced firing. Most cells had relatively small receptive fields (primary width: mean = 2.1 +/- 0.9 deg (S.D.); n = 108), all were binocular and were located within 15.0 deg of the visual axes. 3. All cells responded well to slowly moving stimuli but generally failed to respond to stimuli moving faster than 10.0 deg s-1. All responses were bi-directional and, although many showed evidence of length summation, there was no sign of linear summation. 4. Despite the absence of significant sideband inhibition many cells were acutely tuned for orientation (half-width at half-height: mean = 15.6 +/- 5.3 deg; n = 48). To investigate this property further, cells were analysed to assess the effect of changing the length of a moving bar stimulus on the acuteness of the orientation tuning curve. Short bars, of similar length to the width of the receptive field, had orientation tuning curves of equivalent sharpness to those obtained with longer bars. 5. The equivalence of orientation tuning for long and short bars stands in contrast to the results obtained for both simple (S) and complex (C) cells of the striate cortex where tuning for the longer bar is sharper than that for the shorter. The result from

  4. 50 CFR 25.21 - When and how do we open and close areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System to public access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Act of 1962 (16 U.S.C. 460k-460k-4) and this subchapter C. See 50 CFR 36 for details on use and access... Parts 25 and 26 of 50 CFR except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (1) We will... receipt of the determination. The appeals process provided for in 50 CFR 36.41(i) (3) through (5)...

  5. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  6. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  7. Effect of variation of average pore size and specific surface area of ZnO electrode (WE) on efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized with tremendous increase in specific surface area of up to 578 m2/g which was 5.54 m2/g in previous reports (J. Phys. Chem. C 113:14676-14680, 2009). Different mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles with average pore sizes ranging from 7.22 to 13.43 nm and specific surface area ranging from 50.41 to 578 m2/g were prepared through the sol-gel method via a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The hydrolysis rate of zinc acetate was varied using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide. Morphology, crystallinity, porosity, and J-V characteristics of the materials have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and Keithley instruments. PMID:25339855

  8. Does the sound of a barking dog activate its corresponding visual form? An fMRI investigation of modality-specific semantic access.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Jamie; Garcia, Amanda; Binney, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Much remains to be learned about the neural architecture underlying word meaning. Fully distributed models of semantic memory predict that the sound of a barking dog will conjointly engage a network of distributed sensorimotor spokes. An alternative framework holds that modality-specific features additionally converge within transmodal hubs. Participants underwent functional MRI while covertly naming familiar objects versus newly learned novel objects from only one of their constituent semantic features (visual form, characteristic sound, or point-light motion representation). Relative to the novel object baseline, familiar concepts elicited greater activation within association regions specific to the presentation modality. Furthermore, visual form elicited activation within high-level auditory association cortex. Conversely, environmental sounds elicited activation in regions proximal to visual association cortex. Both conditions commonly engaged a putative hub region within lateral anterior temporal cortex. These results support hybrid semantic models in which local hubs and distributed spokes are dually engaged in service of semantic memory. PMID:27289210

  9. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  10. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  11. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  12. Leaching of metal(loid)s from a construction material: influence of the particle size, specific surface area and ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Schmukat, A; Duester, L; Ecker, D; Schmid, H; Heil, C; Heininger, P; Ternes, T A

    2012-08-15

    Construction materials are tested worldwide for a potential release of dangerous substances to prevent adverse effects on humans and biota. It is crucial to identify and understand the processes which are decisive for the release of hazardous substances. The current study compares the results of different test methods. Taking copper slag as model material, the influence of material particle size, eluant composition and ionic strength was tested. Ionic strength and salinity significantly influenced the release of metal(loid)s in the water phase. Furthermore, it was elucidated that colloids can cause methodological artefacts. The available specific surface area exhibited a positive correlation with the release of hazardous substances. The specific surface areas of materials were determined by the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller model (BET) and four other methods. The aluminium foil method showed the best results with regard to the statistical uncertainty, compared to a 3D laser scanning method. With help of the roughness factor λ it is possible to compare the results from surface area measurements with different material particle sizes (0-250 mm). This comparability offers the potential to match the release of metal(loid)s from laboratory studies with field applications and catchment area calculations/modelling, based on the release per m(2). PMID:22683212

  13. The challenges of sustainable access to safe drinking water in rural areas of developing countries: case of Zawtar El-Charkieh, Southern Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Massoud, May A; Al-Abady, Abdolmonim; Jurdi, Mey; Nuwayhid, Iman

    2010-06-01

    Adequate and safe water is important for human health and well-being, economic production, and sustainable development. Failure to ensure the safety of drinking water may expose the community to the risk of outbreaks of waterborne and infectious diseases. Although drinking water is a basic human right, many people do not have access to safe and adequate drinking water or proper sanitation facilities. The authors conducted a study to assess the quantity, cost, continuity, coverage, and quality of drinking water in the village of Zawtar El-Charkieh, Lebanon. Their aim was to identify the challenges of sustainable access to safe drinking water in order to determine the short-term management actions and long-term strategies to improve water quality. Results revealed that contamination of the source, absence of any disinfection method or insufficient dose, poor maintenance operations, and aging of the networks are significant factors contributing to water contamination during the storage and distribution process. Establishing a comprehensive drinking water system that integrates water supply, quality, and management as well as associated educational programs in order to ensure the safety and sustainability of drinking water supplies is essential.

  14. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks

    Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology

    Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

    Background

    With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the

  15. Gaining Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Discusses issues schools and universities have encountered in complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and making their facilities more accessible to the disabled. The ADA's vagueness and the architect's need for understanding the regulations is highlighted. (GR)

  16. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  17. Capital access.

    PubMed

    Towne, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    To maintain their viability, hospitals are being compelled to invest in big capital projects such as information technology and renovation and construction. This gatefold examines the trends in credit and capital, and how they affect hospitals' access to money.

  18. Education and Change in Rich, Poor and National Minority Areas in China: Two Decades of Transition. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Keith M.; Lu, Wang

    2011-01-01

    This study traces education and change over two decades in three areas, Tongzhou on the periphery of Beijing chosen as one of the richest 300 counties in 1990; Ansai in Yan'an which was one of the poorest 300 counties and a famous base for the 8th Route Army at the end of the Long March, and Zhaojue a poor Yi national minority area in the…

  19. The PriA Replication Restart Protein Blocks Replicase Access Prior to Helicase Assembly and Directs Template Specificity through Its ATPase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Manhart, Carol M.; McHenry, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    The PriA protein serves as an initiator for the restart of DNA replication on stalled replication forks and as a checkpoint protein that prevents the replicase from advancing in a strand displacement reaction on forks that do not contain a functional replicative helicase. We have developed a primosomal protein-dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay using a minimal fork substrate composed of synthetic oligonucleotides. We demonstrate that a self-loading reaction, which proceeds at high helicase concentrations, occurs by threading of a preassembled helicase over free 5′-ends, an event that can be blocked by attaching a steric block to the 5′-end or coating DNA with single-stranded DNA binding protein. The specificity of PriA for replication forks is regulated by its intrinsic ATPase. ATPase-defective PriA K230R shows a strong preference for substrates that contain no gap between the leading strand and the duplex portion of the fork, as demonstrated previously. Wild-type PriA prefers substrates with larger gaps, showing maximal activity on substrates on which PriA K230R is inactive. We demonstrate that PriA blocks replicase function on forks by blocking its binding. PMID:23264623

  20. Integrated plant phenotypic responses to contrasting above- and below-ground resources: key roles of specific leaf area and root mass fraction.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Swart, Elferra M; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2015-06-01

    Plants adapt phenotypically to different conditions of light and nutrient supply, supposedly in order to achieve colimitation of these resources. Their key variable of adjustment is the ratio of leaf area to root length, which relies on plant biomass allocation and organ morphology. We recorded phenotypic differences in leaf and root mass fractions (LMF, RMF), specific leaf area (SLA) and specific root length (SRL) of 12 herbaceous species grown in factorial combinations of high/low irradiance and fertilization treatments. Leaf area and root length ratios, and their components, were influenced by nonadditive effects between light and nutrient supply, and differences in the strength of plant responses were partly explained by Ellenberg's species values representing ecological optima. Changes in allocation were critical in plant responses to nutrient availability, as the RMF contribution to changes in root length was 2.5× that of the SRL. Contrastingly, morphological adjustments (SLA rather than LMF) made up the bulk of plant response to light availability. Our results suggest largely predictable differences in responses of species and groups of species to environmental change. Nevertheless, they stress the critical need to account for adjustments in below-ground mass allocation to understand the assembly and responses of communities in changing environments.

  1. Extra- and intrathoracic access.

    PubMed

    Lazarides, Miltos K; Georgakarakos, Efstratios I; Schoretsanitis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    The most complex patients requiring vascular access are those with bilateral central vein occlusions. Endovascular repair of the central lesions when feasible allow upper extremity use for access. When endovascular repair is not feasible, femoral vein transposition should be the next choice. When lower limb access sites have been exhausted or are contraindicated as in obese patients and in patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease, a range of extrathoracic "exotic" extra-anatomic access procedures as the necklace cross-chest arteriovenous (AV) grafts, the ipsilateral axillo-axillary loops, the brachial-jugular AV grafts, the axillo-femoral AV grafts or even intra-thoracic ones as the right atrial AV bypasses represent the vascular surgeon's last resort. The selection among those extra-anatomical chest-wall procedures should be based upon each patient's anatomy or patient-specific factors. PMID:24817469

  2. Access cavity preparation.

    PubMed

    Adams, N; Tomson, P L

    2014-03-01

    Each stage of root canal treatment should be carried out to the highest possible standard. The access cavity is arguably the most important technical stage, as subsequent preparation of the root canal(s) can be severely comprised if this is not well executed. Inadequate access can lead to canals being left untreated, poorly disinfected, difficult to shape and obturate, and may ultimately lead to the failure of the treatment. This paper highlights common features in root canal anatomy and outlines basic principles for locating root canals and producing a good access cavity. It also explores each phase of the preparation in detail and offers suggestions of instruments that have been specifically designed to overcome potential difficulties in the process. Good access design and preparation will result in an operative environment which will facilitate cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canal system in order to maximise success.

  3. Growth of porous anodized alumina on the sputtered aluminum films with 2D-3D morphology for high specific surface area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M. W.; Chung, C. K.

    2014-08-01

    The porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with high-aspect-ratio pore channels is widely used as a template for fabricating nanowires or other one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures. The high specific surface area of AAO can also be applied to the super capacitor and the supporting substrate for catalysis. The rough surface could be helpful to enhance specific surface area but it generally results in electrical field concentration even to ruin AAO. In this article, the aluminum (Al) films with the varied 2D-3D morphology on Si substrates were prepared using magnetron sputtering at a power of 50 W-185 W for 1 h at a working pressure of 2.5 × 10-1 Pa. Then, AAO was fabricated from the different Al films by means of one-step hybrid pulse anodizing (HPA) between the positive 40 V and the negative -2 V (1 s:1 s) for 3 min in 0.3 M oxalic acid at a room temperature. The microstructure and morphology of Al films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope, respectively. Some hillocks formed at the high target power could be attributed to the grain texture growth in the normal orientation of Al(1 1 1). The 3D porous AAO structure which is different from the conventional 2D planar one has been successfully demonstrated using HPA on the film with greatly rough hillock-surface formed at the highest power of 185 W. It offers a potential application of the new 3D AAO to high specific surface area devices.

  4. The effect of air pollution and other environmental stressors on leaf fluctuating asymmetry and specific leaf area of Salix alba L.

    PubMed

    Wuytack, Tatiana; Wuyts, Karen; Van Dongen, Stefan; Baeten, Lander; Kardel, Fatemeh; Verheyen, Kris; Samson, Roeland

    2011-10-01

    We aimed at evaluating the effect of low-level air pollution on leaf area fluctuating asymmetry (FAA) and specific leaf area (SLA) of Salix alba L., taking into account other environmental factors. Cuttings were grown in standardized conditions in the near vicinity of air quality measuring stations in Belgium. Variability of SLA and FAA between measuring stations explained 83% and 7.26%, respectively, of the total variability. FAA was not influenced by air pollution or environmental factors such as shading, herbivory, air temperature and humidity. SLA was increased by an increase in shadow, while NO(x) and O(3) concentrations had only a marginal influence. The influence of SO(2) concentration was negligible. Although our data analysis suggests a relationship between SLA and NO(x)/O(3) concentration, the absence of a straightforward relationship between FAA and SLA and air pollution still questions the usefulness of these bio-indicators for monitoring air pollution.

  5. The effect of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on health behaviors, access to health services, and self-rated health in the United States, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Charters, Thomas J; Harper, Sam; Strumpf, Erin C; Subramanian, S V; Arcaya, Mariana; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-07-01

    The recent housing crisis offers the opportunity to understand the effects of unique indicators of macroeconomic conditions on health. We linked data on the proportion of mortgage borrowers per US metropolitan-area who were at least 90 days delinquent on their payments with individual-level outcomes from a representative sample of 1,021,341 adults surveyed through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) between 2003 and 2010. We estimated the effects of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on individual health behaviors, medical coverage, and health status, as well as whether effects varied by race/ethnicity. Results showed that increases in the metropolitan-area delinquency rate resulted in decreases in heavy alcohol consumption and increases in exercise and health insurance coverage. However, the delinquency rate was also associated with increases in smoking and obesity in some population groups, suggesting the housing crisis may have induced stress-related behavioral change. Overall, the effects of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on population health were relatively modest. PMID:27261531

  6. A Transagency Approach to Enabling Access to Parent-Based Intervention for Language Delay in Areas of Social Disadvantage: A Service Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbard, Deborah; Smith, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Primary language delay remains one of the most prevalent developmental delays in early childhood, particularly in disadvantaged areas. Previous research has established language difficulties and social disadvantage being particular risk factors for adverse outcomes later in life. To help prevent low educational achievement and poorer outcomes,…

  7. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  8. Area-Specific Alterations of Synaptic Plasticity in the 5XFAD Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease: Dissociation between Somatosensory Cortex and Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Crouzin, Nadine; Baranger, Kevin; Cavalier, Mélanie; Marchalant, Yannick; Cohen-Solal, Catherine; Roman, François S.; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Rivera, Santiago; Féron, François; Vignes, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that overproduce the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) have highlighted impairments of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity associated with the progression of the disease. Here we examined whether the characteristics of one of the hallmarks of AD, i.e. Aβ deposition, in both the somatosensory cortex and the hippocampus, correlated with specific losses of synaptic plasticity in these areas. For this, we evaluated the occurrence of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the cortex and the hippocampus of 6-month old 5xFAD transgenic mice that exhibited massive Aβ deposition in both regions but with different features: in cortical areas a majority of Aβ deposits comprised a dense core surrounded by a diffuse corona while such kind of Aβ deposition was less frequently observed in the hippocampus. In order to simultaneously monitor synaptic changes in both areas, we developed a method based on the use of Multi-Electrode Arrays (MEA). When compared with wild-type (WT) mice, basal transmission was significantly reduced in both areas in 5xFAD mice, while short-term synaptic plasticity was unaffected. The induction of long-term changes of synaptic transmission by different protocols revealed that in 5xFAD mice, LTP in the layer 5 of the somatosensory cortex was more severely impaired than LTP triggered in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. We conclude that cortical plasticity is deficient in the 5xFAD model and that this deficit could be correlated with the proportion of diffuse plaques in 5xFAD mice. PMID:24069328

  9. Association of the physical and chemical properties and the cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles: metal ion release, adsorption ability and specific surface area.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masanori; Fujita, Katsuhide; Kato, Haruhisa; Endoh, Shigehisa; Nishio, Keiko; Komaba, Lilian Kaede; Nakamura, Ayako; Miyauchi, Arisa; Kinugasa, Shinichi; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Niki, Etsuo; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2012-04-01

    Association of cellular influences and physical and chemical properties were examined for 24 kinds of industrial metal oxide nanoparticles: ZnO, CuO, NiO, Sb(2)O(3), CoO, MoO(3), Y(2)O(3), MgO, Gd(2)O(3), SnO(2), WO(3), ZrO(2), Fe(2)O(3), TiO(2), CeO(2), Al(2)O(3), Bi(2)O(3), La(2)O(3), ITO, and cobalt blue pigments. We prepared a stable medium dispersion for each nanoparticle and examined the influence on cell viability and oxidative stress together with physical and chemical characterizations. ZnO, CuO, NiO, MgO, and WO(3) showed a large amount of metal ion release in the culture medium. The cellular influences of these soluble nanoparticles were larger than insoluble nanoparticles. TiO(2), SnO(2), and CeO(2) nanoparticles showed strong protein adsorption ability; however, cellular influences of these nanoparticles were small. The primary particle size and the specific surface area seemed unrelated to cellular influences. Cellular influences of metal oxide nanoparticles depended on the kind and concentrations of released metals in the solution. For insoluble nanoparticles, the adsorption property was involved in cellular influences. The primary particle size and specific surface area of metal oxide nanoparticles did not affect directly cellular influences. In conclusion the most important cytotoxic factor of metal oxide nanoparticles was metal ion release.

  10. Evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Brodmann areas in Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease using automated 3-D voxel based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valotassiou, V.; Papatriantafyllou, J.; Sifakis, N.; Karageorgiou, C.; Tsougos, I.; Tzavara, C.; Zerva, C.; Georgoulias, P.

    2009-05-01

    Introduction. Brain perfusion studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been applied in demented patients to provide better discrimination between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim. To assess the perfusion of specific Brodmann (Br) areas of the brain cortex in FTD and AD patients, using NeuroGam processing program to provide 3D voxel-by-voxel cerebral SPECT analysis. Material and methods. We studied 34 consecutive patients. We used the established criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and the specific established criteria for the diagnosis of FTD and AD. All the patients had a neuropsychological evaluation with a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE).Twenty-six patients (16 males, 10 females, mean age 68.76±6.51 years, education 11.81±4.25 years, MMSE 16.69±9.89) received the diagnosis of FTD and 8 patients (all females, mean age 71.25±10.48 years, education 10±4.6 years, MMSE 12.5±3.89) the diagnosis of AD. All the patients underwent a brain SPECT. We applied the NeuroGam Software for the evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Br areas in the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Results. Statistically significant hypoperfusion in FTD compared to AD patients, was found in the following Br areas: 11L (p<0.0001), 11R, 20L, 20R, 32L, 38L, 38R, 44L (p<0.001), 32R, 36L, 36R, 45L, 45R, 47R (p<0.01), 9L, 21L, 39R, 44R, 46R, 47L (p<0.05). On the contrary, AD patients presented significant (p<0.05) hypoperfusion in 7R and 39R Br areas. Conclusion. NeuroGam processing program of brain perfusion SPECT could result in enhanced accuracy for the differential diagnosis between AD and FTD patients.

  11. Geohydrologic data collected from shallow neutron-access boreholes and resultant-preliminary geohydrologic evaluations, Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Blout, D.O.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Loskot, C.L.; Chornack, M.P.

    1994-12-31

    In cooperation with the US Department of Energy, 74 neutron-access boreholes were drilled in and near the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Drilling, coring, sample collection and handling, and lithologic and preliminary geohydrologic data are presented in this report. The boreholes were drilled in a combination of alluvium/colluvium, ash-flow tuff, ash-fall tuff, or bedded tuff to depths of 4.6 to 36.6 meters. Air was used as a drilling medium to minimize disturbance of the water content and water potential of drill cuttings, core, and formation rock. Drill cuttings were collected at approximately 0.6-meter intervals. Core was taken at selected intervals from the alluvium/colluvium using drive-coring methods and from tuff using rotary-coring methods. Nonwelded and bedded tuffs were continuously cored using rotary-coring methods. Gravimetric water-content and water-potential values of core generally were greater than those of corresponding drill cuttings. Gravimetric water-content, porosity, and water-potential values of samples generally decreased, and bulk density values increased, as the degree of welding increased. Grain-density values remained fairly constant with changes in the degree of welding. A high degree of spatial variability in water-content and water-potential profiles was noted in closely spaced boreholes that penetrate similar lithologic subunits and was also noted in adjacent boreholes located in different topographic positions. Variability within a thick lithologic unit usually was small. 18 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  13. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  14. Role of specific interfacial area in controlling properties of immiscible blends of biodegradable polylactide and poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate].

    PubMed

    Ojijo, Vincent; Sinha Ray, Suprakas; Sadiku, Rotimi

    2012-12-01

    Binary blends of two biodegradable polymers: polylactide (PLA), which has high modulus and strength but is brittle, and poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA), which is flexible and tough, were prepared through batch melt mixing. The PLA/PBSA compositions were 100/0, 90/10, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 30/70, 10/90, and 0/100. Fourier-transform infrared measurements revealed the absence of any chemical interaction between the two polymers, resulting in a phase-separated morphology as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs showed that PLA-rich blends had smaller droplet sizes when compared to the PBSA-rich blends, which got smaller with the reduction in PBSA content due to the differences in their melt viscosities. The interfacial area of PBSA droplets per unit volume of the blend reached a maximum in the 70PLA/30PBSA blend. Thermal stability and mechanical properties were not only affected by the composition of the blend, but also by the interfacial area between the two polymers. Through differential scanning calorimetry, it was shown that molten PBSA enhanced crystallization of PLA while the stiff PLA hindered cold crystallization of PBSA. Optimal synergies of properties between the two polymers were found in the 70PLA/30PBSA blend because of the maximum specific interfacial area of the PBSA droplets.

  15. Requirements for performance characterization of C double-layer supercapacitors: Applications to a high specific-area C-cloth material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jianjun; Pell, Wendy G.; Conway, Brian E.

    Electrochemical capacitors, based on the double-layer capacitance of high specific-area C materials, are attracting major fundamental and technological interest as highly reversible, electrical charge-storage and delivery devices, capable of being operated at high power-densities. A variety of applications have been described in the literature, e.g. for cold-start vehicle assist, in hybrid load-leveling configurations with batteries, fuel-cells, as well as directly with internal combustion engines. Additionally, high capacitance C electrodes have been usefully employed as anodes coupled with battery-type cathodes, e.g. Pb/PbO 2, in so-called "asymmetric" capacitor cells. On account of these perceived various applications, requirements for performance evaluation must be developed in systematic and complementary ways. In the present paper, we examine experimentally the following test procedures as exemplified by application to an high specific-area (ca. 2500 m 2 g -1) woven C-cloth capacitor electrode material: (i) evaluation of the specific capacitances as a function of charge/discharge rates employing cyclic-voltammetry and dc charging curves; (ii) as in (i), examination of reversibility and energy-efficiency as a function of electrolyte (H 2SO 4) concentration, i.e. conductivity; (iii) interpretation of effects in (i) and (ii) in terms of distributed resistance and capacitance in the porous C matrix according to the de Levie model; (iv) interpretation of data obtained in (i) in terms of Ragone plots which, for capacitor devices, require special treatment owing to the fundamental dependence of electrode- (or device) potential on state of discharge; (v) interpretation of self-discharge (SD) kinetics in terms of porous-electrode structure. Performance data for the C-electrode are given for capacitative charging up to high "C-rates", extension of operational voltage windows and for SD behaviour.

  16. Access to health care

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Martin; Maltais, Danielle; Hudon, Catherine; Lapointe, Lise; Ntetu, Antoine Lutumba

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore access to health care for patients presenting with multiple chronic conditions and to identify barriers and factors conducive to access. DESIGN Qualitative study with focus groups. SETTING Family practice unit in Chicoutimi (Saguenay), Que. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-five male and female adult patients with at least four chronic conditions but no cognitive disorders or decompensating conditions. METHODS For this pilot study, only three focus group discussions were held. MAIN FINDINGS The main barriers to accessing follow-up appointments included long waits on the telephone, automated telephone-answering systems, and needing to attend at specific times to obtain appointments. The main barriers to specialized care were long waiting times and the need to get prescriptions and referrals from family physicians. Factors reported conducive to access included systematic callbacks and the personal involvement of family physicians. Good communication between family physicians and specialists was also perceived to be an important factor in access. CONCLUSION Systematic callbacks, family physicians’ personal efforts to obtain follow-up visits, and better physician-specialist communication were all suggested as ways to improve access to care for patients with multiple chronic conditions. PMID:16926944

  17. Association study of genes associated to asthma in a specific environment, in an asthma familial collection located in a rural area influenced by different industries.

    PubMed

    Morin, Andréanne; Brook, Jeffrey R; Duchaine, Caroline; Laprise, Catherine

    2012-08-01

    Eight candidate genes selected in this study were previously associated with gene-environment interactions in asthma in an urban area. These genes were analyzed in a familial collection from a founder and remote population (Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean; SLSJ) located in an area with low air levels of ozone but with localized areas of relatively high air pollutant levels, such as sulphur dioxide, when compared to many urban areas. Polymorphisms (SNPs) were extracted from the genome-wide association study (GWAS) performed on the SLSJ familial collection. A transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was performed using the entire family sample (1,428 individuals in 254 nuclear families). Stratification according to the proximity of aluminium, pulp and paper industries was also analyzed. Two genes were associated with asthma in the entire sample before correction (CAT and NQO1) and one was associated after correction for multiple analyses (CAT). Two genes were associated when subjects were stratified according to the proximity of aluminium industries (CAT and NQO1) and one according to the proximity of pulp and paper industries (GSTP1). However, none of them resisted correction for multiple analyses. Given that the spatial pattern of environmental exposures can be complex and inadequately represented by a few stationary monitors and that exposures can also come from sources other than the standard outdoor air pollution (e.g., indoor air, occupation, residential wood smoke), a new approach and new tools are required to measure specific and individual pollutant exposures in order to estimate the real impact of gene-environment interactions on respiratory health. PMID:23066387

  18. Automatically Producing Accessible Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Iorio, Angelo; Feliziani, Antonio Angelo; Mirri, Silvia; Salomoni, Paola; Vitali, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    The "Anywhere, Anytime, Anyway" slogan is frequently associated to e-learning with the aim to emphasize the wide access offered by on-line education. Otherwise, learning materials are currently created to be used with a specific technology or configuration, leaving out from the virtual classroom students who have limited access capabilities and,…

  19. Engaging general practitioners in public-private mix tuberculosis DOTS program in an urban area in Pakistan: need for context-specific approach.

    PubMed

    Pethani, Amin; Zafar, Mubashir; Khan, Adeel Ahmed; Rabbani Sana, Unaib; Ahmed, Sana; Fatmi, Zafar

    2015-03-01

    A public-private mix tuberculosis (TB) DOTS project was implemented to enhance coverage and collaboration between the public and private sectors, with an objective to increase case detection and to improve TB case management in a large urban area. General practitioners (GPs) were trained to provide DOTS services. Patients were diagnosed and treated as per national guidelines and outcomes were reported to national TB control program. Treatment and sputum microscopy were provided free of cost. A total of 94 GPs were trained. In all, 57.4% of trained GPs remained actively involved in the project. Overall treatment success rate of the patients enrolled with the project was 86.3% with 8.7% default patients. Experience suggests that a more stringent selection criteria need to be followed for inclusion of GPs in the program to improve the success of the program. A multifaceted context specific approach is needed while working with private health care providers.

  20. Simulation of the specific surface area of snow using a one-dimensional physical snowpack model: implementation and evaluation for subarctic snow in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, H.-W.; Domine, F.; Simpson, W. R.; Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.

    2010-01-01

    The specific surface area (SSA) of the snow constitutes a powerful parameter to quantify the exchange of matter and energy between the snow and the atmosphere. However, currently no snow physics model can simulate the SSA. Therefore, two different types of empirical parameterizations of the specific surface area (SSA) of snow are implemented into the existing one-dimensional snow physics model CROCUS. The parameterizations are either based on diagnostic equations relating the SSA to parameters like snow type and density or on prognostic equations that describe the change of SSA depending on snow age, snowpack temperature, and the temperature gradient within the snowpack. Simulations with the upgraded CROCUS model were performed for a subarctic snowpack, for which an extensive data set including SSA measurements is available at Fairbanks, Alaska for the winter season 2003/2004. While a reasonable agreement between simulated and observed SSA values is obtained using both parameterizations, the model tends to overestimate the SSA. This overestimation is more pronounced using the diagnostic equations compared to the results of the prognostic equations. Parts of the SSA deviations using both parameterizations can be attributed to differences between simulated and observed snow heights, densities, and temperatures. Therefore, further sensitivity studies regarding the thermal budget of the snowpack were performed. They revealed that reducing the thermal conductivity of the snow or increasing the turbulent fluxes at the snow surfaces leads to a slight improvement of the simulated thermal budget of the snowpack compared to the observations. However, their impact on further simulated parameters like snow height and SSA remains small. Including additional physical processes in the snow model may have the potential to advance the simulations of the thermal budget of the snowpack and, thus, the SSA simulations.

  1. Simulation of the specific surface area of snow using a one-dimensional physical snowpack model: implementation and evaluation for subarctic snow in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, H. W.; Domine, F.; Simpson, W. R.; Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.

    2009-09-01

    The specific surface area (SSA) of the snow constitutes a powerful parameter to quantify the exchange of matter and energy between the snow and the atmosphere. However, currently no snow physics model can simulate the SSA. Therefore, two different types of empirical parameterizations of the specific surface area (SSA) of snow are implemented into the existing one-dimensional snow physics model CROCUS. The parameterizations are either based on diagnostic equations relating the SSA to parameters like snow type and density or on prognostic equations that describe the change of SSA depending on snow age, snowpack temperature, and the temperature gradient within the snowpack. Simulations with the upgraded CROCUS model were performed for a subarctic snowpack, for which an extensive data set including SSA measurements is available at Fairbanks, Alaska for the winter season 2003/2004. While a reasonable agreement between simulated and observed SSA values is obtained using both parameterizations, the model tends to overestimate the SSA. This overestimation is more pronounced using the diagnostic equations compared to the results of the prognostic equations. Parts of the SSA deviations using both parameterizations can be attributed to differences between simulated and observed snow heights, densities, and temperatures. Therefore, further sensitivity studies regarding the thermal budget of the snowpack were performed. They revealed that reducing the heat conductivity of the snow or increasing the turbulent fluxes at the snow surfaces leads to a slight improvement of the simulated thermal budget of the snowpack compared to the observations. However, their impact on further simulated parameters like snow height and SSA remains small. Including additional physical processes in the snow model may have the potential to advance the simulations of the thermal budget of the snowpack and, thus, the SSA simulations.

  2. The particle size distribution, density, and specific surface area of welding fumes from SMAW and GMAW mild and stainless steel consumables.

    PubMed

    Hewett, P

    1995-02-01

    Particle size distributions were measured for fumes from mild steel (MS) and stainless steel (SS); shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) consumables. Up to six samples of each type of fume were collected in a test chamber using a micro-orifice uniform deposit (cascade) impactor. Bulk samples were collected for bulk fume density and specific surface area analysis. Additional impactor samples were collected using polycarbonate substrates and analyzed for elemental content. The parameters of the underlying mass distributions were estimated using a nonlinear least squares analysis method that fits a smooth curve to the mass fraction distribution histograms of all samples for each type of fume. The mass distributions for all four consumables were unimodal and well described by a lognormal distribution; with the exception of the GMAW-MS and GMAW-SS comparison, they were statistically different. The estimated mass distribution geometric means for the SMAW-MS and SMAW-SS consumables were 0.59 and 0.46 micron aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED), respectively, and 0.25 micron AED for both the GMAW-MS and GMAW-SS consumables. The bulk fume densities and specific surface areas were similar for the SMAW-MS and SMAW-SS consumables and for the GMAW-MS and GMAW-SS consumables, but differed between SMAW and GMAW. The distribution of metals was similar to the mass distributions. Particle size distributions and physical properties of the fumes were considerably different when categorized by welding method. Within each welding method there was little difference between MS and SS fumes.

  3. The relationship of leaf photosynthetic traits – Vcmax and Jmax – to leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus, and specific leaf area: a meta-analysis and modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Anthony P; Beckerman, Andrew P; Gu, Lianhong; Kattge, Jens; Cernusak, Lucas A; Domingues, Tomas F; Scales, Joanna C; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Wullschleger, Stan D; Woodward, F Ian

    2014-01-01

    Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between Vcmax and Jmax and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derived from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between Vcmax and Jmax and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of Vcmax and Jmax with leaf N, P, and SLA. Vcmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of Vcmax to leaf N. Jmax was strongly related to Vcmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm−2), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm−2 nearly doubled assimilation rates. Finally, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of Jmax to Vcmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting. PMID:25473475

  4. The relationship of leaf photosynthetic traits - V cmax and J max - to leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus, and specific leaf area: a meta-analysis and modeling study.

    PubMed

    Walker, Anthony P; Beckerman, Andrew P; Gu, Lianhong; Kattge, Jens; Cernusak, Lucas A; Domingues, Tomas F; Scales, Joanna C; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Wullschleger, Stan D; Woodward, F Ian

    2014-08-01

    Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (J max). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between V cmax and J max and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derived from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between V cmax and J max and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of V cmax and J max with leaf N, P, and SLA. V cmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of V cmax to leaf N. J max was strongly related to V cmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm(-2)), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm(-2) nearly doubled assimilation rates. Finally, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of J max to V cmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting.

  5. Testing the dependence of stabilizing effect of osmolytes on the fractional increase in the accessible surface area on thermal and chemical denaturations of proteins.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Safikur; Ali, Syed Ausaf; Islam, Asimul; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Ahmad, Faizan

    2016-02-01

    Here we have generated two different denatured states using heat- and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl)-induced denaturations of three disulfide bond free proteins (barstar, cytochrome-c and myoglobin). We have observed that these two denatured states of barstar and myoglobin are structurally and energetically different, for, heat-induced denatured state contains many un-melted residual structure that has a significant amount of secondary and tertiary interactions. We show that structural properties of the denatured state determine the magnitude of the protein stabilization in terms of Gibbs free energy change (ΔGD°) induced by an osmolyte, i.e., the greater the exposed surface area, the greater is the stabilization. Furthermore, we predicted the m-values (ability of osmolyte to fold or unfold proteins) using Tanford's transfer-free energy model for the transfer of proteins to osmolyte solutions. We observed that, for each protein, m-value is comparable with our experimental data in cases of TMAO (trimethylamine-N-oxide) and sarcosine. However, a significant discrepancy between predicted and experimental m-values were observed in the case of glycine-betaine.

  6. Measuring Spatial Accessibility of Health Care Providers – Introduction of a Variable Distance Decay Function within the Floating Catchment Area (FCA) Method

    PubMed Central

    Groneberg, David A.

    2016-01-01

    We integrated recent improvements within the floating catchment area (FCA) method family into an integrated ‘iFCA`method. Within this method we focused on the distance decay function and its parameter. So far only distance decay functions with constant parameters have been applied. Therefore, we developed a variable distance decay function to be used within the FCA method. We were able to replace the impedance coefficient β by readily available distribution parameter (i.e. median and standard deviation (SD)) within a logistic based distance decay function. Hence, the function is shaped individually for every single population location by the median and SD of all population-to-provider distances within a global catchment size. Theoretical application of the variable distance decay function showed conceptually sound results. Furthermore, the existence of effective variable catchment sizes defined by the asymptotic approach to zero of the distance decay function was revealed, satisfying the need for variable catchment sizes. The application of the iFCA method within an urban case study in Berlin (Germany) confirmed the theoretical fit of the suggested method. In summary, we introduced for the first time, a variable distance decay function within an integrated FCA method. This function accounts for individual travel behaviors determined by the distribution of providers. Additionally, the function inherits effective variable catchment sizes and therefore obviates the need for determining variable catchment sizes separately. PMID:27391649

  7. Measuring Spatial Accessibility of Health Care Providers - Introduction of a Variable Distance Decay Function within the Floating Catchment Area (FCA) Method.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jan; Groneberg, David A

    2016-01-01

    We integrated recent improvements within the floating catchment area (FCA) method family into an integrated 'iFCA`method. Within this method we focused on the distance decay function and its parameter. So far only distance decay functions with constant parameters have been applied. Therefore, we developed a variable distance decay function to be used within the FCA method. We were able to replace the impedance coefficient β by readily available distribution parameter (i.e. median and standard deviation (SD)) within a logistic based distance decay function. Hence, the function is shaped individually for every single population location by the median and SD of all population-to-provider distances within a global catchment size. Theoretical application of the variable distance decay function showed conceptually sound results. Furthermore, the existence of effective variable catchment sizes defined by the asymptotic approach to zero of the distance decay function was revealed, satisfying the need for variable catchment sizes. The application of the iFCA method within an urban case study in Berlin (Germany) confirmed the theoretical fit of the suggested method. In summary, we introduced for the first time, a variable distance decay function within an integrated FCA method. This function accounts for individual travel behaviors determined by the distribution of providers. Additionally, the function inherits effective variable catchment sizes and therefore obviates the need for determining variable catchment sizes separately. PMID:27391649

  8. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  9. Delineation of multiple chlorinated ethene sources in an industrialized area--a forensic field study using compound-specific isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Blessing, Michaela; Schmidt, Torsten C; Dinkel, Rainer; Haderlein, Stefan B

    2009-04-15

    Identification of polluters and the allocation of contaminant sources are key tasks when evaluating complex subsurface contamination with multiple and overlapping plumes, as frequently found in industrial areas. Under certain conditions, compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) may provide decisive information in such environmental litigation studies. Here, we present an illustrative case study highlighting the potential and limitations of using delta13C values of halogenated hydrocarbons (tetrachloroethene and its transformation products) as a keytracer for discriminating different contaminant sources, even in the presence of biodegradation and a complex hydrogeology. A multiple-line-of-evidence approach, including evaluation of historical, hydrological, geochemical, and isotopic data as well as statistical analysis, was applied to unravel the contamination scenario at the site. A key factor was the coverage of a wide area of the contaminant plumes with highly precise delta13C values of chlorinated ethenes in groundwater at trace concentrations in the low microgram per liter range made possible by the application of online purge-and-trap-GC/IRMS. Our work is the first successful example of a forensic isotope field study on chlorinated ethenes in a fractured bedrock aquifer.

  10. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-dialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-dialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency-dialysis access; Chronic kidney failure-dialysis access; Chronic renal failure-dialysis access

  11. Relationship between specific surface area and the dry end of the water retention curve for soils with varying clay and organic carbon contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resurreccion, Augustus C.; Moldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus; Ferré, T. P. A.; Kawamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Toshiko; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2011-06-01

    Accurate description of the soil water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics and biochemical vadose zone processes in arid environments. Soil water retention data corresponding to matric potentials of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate over capillary forces, have also been used to estimate soil specific surface area (SA). In the present study, the dry end of the SWRC was measured with a chilled-mirror dew point psychrometer for 41 Danish soils covering a wide range of clay (CL) and organic carbon (OC) contents. The 41 soils were classified into four groups on the basis of the Dexter number (n = CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing water film thickness at a given matric potential (<-10 MPa) was evaluated. The SA estimated from the dry end of the SWRC (SA_SWRC) was in good agreement with the SA measured with ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (SA_EGME) only for organic soils with n > 10. A strong correlation between the ratio of the two surface area estimates and the Dexter number was observed and applied as an additional scaling function in the TO model to rescale the soil water retention curve at low water contents. However, the TO model still overestimated water film thickness at potentials approaching ovendry condition (about -800 MPa). The semi-log linear Campbell-Shiozawa-Rossi-Nimmo (CSRN) model showed better fits for all investigated soils from -10 to -800 MPa and yielded high correlations with CL and SA. It is therefore recommended to apply the empirical CSRN model for predicting the dry part of the water retention curve (-10 to -800 MPa) from measured soil texture or surface area. Further research should aim to modify the more physically based TO model to obtain better descriptions of the SWRC in the very dry range (-300 to -800 MPa).

  12. Results of 1999 Spectral Gamma-Ray and Neutron Moisture Monitoring of Boreholes at Specific Retention Facilities in the 200 East Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DG Horton; RR Randall

    2000-01-18

    Twenty-eight wells and boreholes in the 200 East Are% Hanford Site, Washington were monitored in 1999. The monitored facilities were past-practice liquid waste disposal facilities and consisted of six cribs and nineteen ''specific retention'' cribs and trenches. Monitoring consisted of spectral gamma-ray and neutron moisture logging. All data are included in Appendix B. The isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on spectral gamma logs from boreholes monitoring the PUREX specific retention facilities; the isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 125}Sb, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on the logs from boreholes at the BC Controlled Area cribs and trenches; and {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 125}Sb were, identified on the logs from boreholes at the BX specific retention trenches. Three boreholes in the BC Controlled Area and one at the BX trenches had previous spectral gamma logs available for comparison with 1999 logs. Two of those logs showed that changes in the subsurface distribution of {sup 137}CS and/or {sup 60}Co had occurred since 1992. Although the changes are not great, they do point to continued movement of contaminants in the vadose zone. The logs obtained in 1999 create a larger baseline for comparison with future logs. Numerous historical gross gamma logs exist from most of the boreholes logged. Qualitative comparison of those logs with the 1999 logs show many substantial changes, most of which reflect the decay of deeper short-lived isotopes, such as {sup 106}Ru and {sup 125}Sb, and the much slower decay of shallower and longer-lived isotopes such as {sup 137}Cs. The radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co have moved in two boreholes since 1992. Given the amount of movement and the half-lives of the isotopes, it is expected that they will decay to insignificant amounts before reaching groundwater. However, gamma ray logging cannot detect many of the contaminants of interest such as {sup 99}Tc, NO

  13. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and access to health care.

    PubMed

    Kirby, James B; Kaneda, Toshiko

    2005-03-01

    Most research on access to health care focuses on individual-level determinants such as income and insurance coverage. The role of community-level factors in helping or hindering individuals in obtaining needed care, however, has not received much attention. We address this gap in the literature by examining how neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with access to health care. We find that living in disadvantaged neighborhoods reduces the likelihood of having a usual source of care and of obtaining recommended preventive services, while it increases the likelihood of having unmet medical need. These associations are not explained by the supply of health care providers. Furthermore, though controlling for individual-level characteristics reduces the association between neighborhood disadvantage and access to health care, a significant association remains. This suggests that when individuals who are disadvantaged are concentrated into specific areas, disadvantage becomes an "emergent characteristic " of those areas that predicts the ability of residents to obtain health care. PMID:15869118

  14. Science information systems: Archive, access, and retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William J.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop technology for the automated characterization and interactive retrieval and visualization of very large, complex scientific data sets. Technologies will be developed for the following specific areas: (1) rapidly archiving data sets; (2) automatically characterizing and labeling data in near real-time; (3) providing users with the ability to browse contents of databases efficiently and effectively; (4) providing users with the ability to access and retrieve system independent data sets electronically; and (5) automatically alerting scientists to anomalies detected in data.

  15. Resilient packet ring media access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thepot, Frederic

    2001-07-01

    The discussion will cover the new initiative to create a new MAC layer standard for resilient packet rings: IEEE 802.17 RPR. The key aspects of the presentation will include a preliminary address of the Metro Area Network today and the current networking technologies such as SONET/SDH which are not optimized to carry IP traffic over Metro MAN. The next segment will cover the options which could change the traditional and expensive layered networking model, and address the real benefits of marrying several technologies like Ethernet, SONET/SDH and IP into one technology. The next part of the discussion will detail the technical advantages a new MAC will bring to the services providers. Lastly a summary of the view and strategy about the acceptance and deployment of this new technology in the next 12 months, specifically, now one defines and develops standards for a Resilient Packet Ring Access Protocol for use in Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks for transfer of data packets at rates scalable to multiple gigabits per second; specifically address the data transmission requirements of carriers that have present and planned fiber optic physical infrastructure in a ring topology; and, defining and developing detailed specifications for using existing and/or new physical layers at appropriate data rates that will support transmission of this access protocol.

  16. In-office survey of children's hazard exposure in the Chicago area: age-specific exposure information and methodological lessons. Pediatric Practice Research Group.

    PubMed

    Senturia, Y D; Binns, H J; Christoffel, K K; Tanz, R R

    1993-06-01

    Anticipatory guidance on injury prevention should reflect the risks children face, yet hazard exposure information is generally unavailable. The objectives of this study were (1) to obtain information on age-specific exposure of Chicago-area children to amusement park rides, sleds, snow discs, bunkbeds, skateboards, fireworks, toboggans, and air guns and (2) to assess methodological issues in gathering exposure information by parental survey in pediatric practices. Questionnaires were received from 679 families, including 1469 children. The proportion of families with at least one exposed child varied: amusement park rides (94%), sleds (67%), snow discs (25%), bunkbeds (24%), skateboards (22%), fireworks (17%), toboggans (15%), and air guns and rifles (6%). Use of skateboards, air guns and rifles, and bunkbeds was highest in males. Use of skateboards, air guns and rifles, and snow discs peaked among young adolescents (ages 10 to 14), whereas use of sleds, toboggans and amusement park rides peaked among young children (ages 5 to 9) and young adolescents. Use of bunkbeds peaked among young children. Log linear analyses found: the likelihood of exposure to sleds and snow discs was highest in rural communities and for families owning their own home; toboggan exposure was highest among home owners; air gun and rifle exposure was highest in rural areas; fireworks exposure decreased with increased paternal education; exposure to skateboards was highest in single family dwellings and suburban home owners. This study generates the only available current estimates for use of these products, and demonstrates that in-office parental surveys concerning exposure are feasible. The findings can help guide future hazard exposure research and may affect anticipatory guidance in some settings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Photoperiodic Condition Is Associated with Region-Specific Expression of GNRH1 mRNA in the Preoptic Area of the Male Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)1

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Tyler J.; Bernard, Daniel J.; Ball, Gregory F.

    2009-01-01

    Many seasonally breeding avian species exhibit marked changes in hypothalamic content of gonadotropin-releasing vhormone 1 (GNRH1) protein that are reflective of breeding condition. We recently cloned the GNRH1 cDNA in European starlings and demonstrated that changes in GNRH1 mRNA levels occur with a time course similar to what has been observed with GNRH1 protein. However, we did not previously resolve whether these differences were attributable to changes in the number of cells expressing the gene. Herein, we investigated photoperiod-induced changes in the number and distribution of GNRH1 mRNA-expressing cells in the preoptic area of male starlings. GNRH1 mRNA-expressing cell number was significantly greater in breeding birds than in nonbreeding birds. Starlings maintained in short nonstimulatory day length (i.e., prebreeding) showed intermediate cell numbers. Detailed analysis of the rostrocaudal and mediolateral distribution revealed that breeding birds had greater numbers of cells expressing GNRH1 mRNA in the medial intermediate, mediocaudal, and lateral intermediate preoptic area compared with prebreeding and nonbreeding birds. These data demonstrate that photoperiodic changes in reproductive state in starlings are associated with region-specific alterations in the number of cells expressing the GNRH1 gene. It remains to be determined whether these changes reflect quantitative differences in gene expression among an otherwise stable population of cells or a phenotypic switch in which cells gain or lose the ability to make GNRH1 mRNA in response to environmental cues. PMID:19516022

  18. Photoperiodic condition is associated with region-specific expression of GNRH1 mRNA in the preoptic area of the male starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Tyler J; Bernard, Daniel J; Ball, Gregory F

    2009-10-01

    Many seasonally breeding avian species exhibit marked changes in hypothalamic content of gonadotropin-releasing vhormone 1 (GNRH1) protein that are reflective of breeding condition. We recently cloned the GNRH1 cDNA in European starlings and demonstrated that changes in GNRH1 mRNA levels occur with a time course similar to what has been observed with GNRH1 protein. However, we did not previously resolve whether these differences were attributable to changes in the number of cells expressing the gene. Herein, we investigated photoperiod-induced changes in the number and distribution of GNRH1 mRNA-expressing cells in the preoptic area of male starlings. GNRH1 mRNA-expressing cell number was significantly greater in breeding birds than in nonbreeding birds. Starlings maintained in short nonstimulatory day length (i.e., prebreeding) showed intermediate cell numbers. Detailed analysis of the rostrocaudal and mediolateral distribution revealed that breeding birds had greater numbers of cells expressing GNRH1 mRNA in the medial intermediate, mediocaudal, and lateral intermediate preoptic area compared with prebreeding and nonbreeding birds. These data demonstrate that photoperiodic changes in reproductive state in starlings are associated with region-specific alterations in the number of cells expressing the GNRH1 gene. It remains to be determined whether these changes reflect quantitative differences in gene expression among an otherwise stable population of cells or a phenotypic switch in which cells gain or lose the ability to make GNRH1 mRNA in response to environmental cues. PMID:19516022

  19. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  20. Geophysical Logs, Specific Capacity, and Water Quality of Four Wells at Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) Property, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Bird, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the remediation of properties on the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site in Lansdale, Pa., the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2006-07 collected data in four monitor wells at the Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) property. During this period, USGS collected and analyzed borehole geophysical and video logs of three new monitor wells (Rogers 4, Rogers 5, and Rogers 6) ranging in depth from 80 to 180 feet, a borehole video log and additional heatpulse-flowmeter measurements (to quantify vertical borehole flow) in one existing 100-foot deep well (Rogers 3S), and water-level data during development of two wells (Rogers 5 and Rogers 6) to determine specific capacity. USGS also summarized results of passive-diffusion bag sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the four wells. These data were intended to help understand the groundwater system and the distribution of VOC contaminants in groundwater at the property.