Science.gov

Sample records for access article distributed

  1. Publisher's Note: EPL and Open Access Articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancarani, Barbara; Brassac, Catherine; Burr, Frédéric; Dose, Volker; King, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    In May 2007 the EPLA Board of Directors welcomed the CERN initiative for the creation of a Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3) and agreed to enter into negotiations to enable high energy physics papers to be published in EPL with selective open access. At a subsequent meeting in August 2007, the Board decided to offer substantial initial discount while open access remained a small fraction of the content of EPL. A necessary precursor to negotiation with SCOAP3 is a general open access policy. The Directors agreed that this policy should offer a free-to-read option for all authors in all sections of EPL and so provide fair opportunities across the broad range of physics covered by EPL. The policy for the journal should allow individual authors, their institutions, funding agencies or sponsoring consortia to pay for published articles to be freely available to all, permanently. The Board stressed the importance of maintaining EPL as a refereed journal with robust and reliable content, in contrast to a repository or preprint server. EPL would remain a subscription journal for content that is not free to read and authors, institutions or funding agencies may choose to pay for their articles to be open access. As an initial step in this open access venture, a single-article fee of € 1000 ( 1330) can now be paid by individuals who choose to have their article published free to all. This pricing, which is substantially discounted, ensures that EPL remains competitive with other similar journals. EPL will continue to ensure this policy is sustainable although the journal must remain financially viable and the pricing scheme will be under continual review. At this stage we welcome enquires concerning an institutional membership fee that would allow that institute to pay in advance for open access publications in EPL for authors from that institute. The fee would follow a band structure, based on the number of articles that

  2. Citation Advantage of Open Access Articles

    PubMed Central

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2006-01-01

    Open access (OA) to the research literature has the potential to accelerate recognition and dissemination of research findings, but its actual effects are controversial. This was a longitudinal bibliometric analysis of a cohort of OA and non-OA articles published between June 8, 2004, and December 20, 2004, in the same journal (PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). Article characteristics were extracted, and citation data were compared between the two groups at three different points in time: at “quasi-baseline” (December 2004, 0–6 mo after publication), in April 2005 (4–10 mo after publication), and in October 2005 (10–16 mo after publication). Potentially confounding variables, including number of authors, authors' lifetime publication count and impact, submission track, country of corresponding author, funding organization, and discipline, were adjusted for in logistic and linear multiple regression models. A total of 1,492 original research articles were analyzed: 212 (14.2% of all articles) were OA articles paid by the author, and 1,280 (85.8%) were non-OA articles. In April 2005 (mean 206 d after publication), 627 (49.0%) of the non-OA articles versus 78 (36.8%) of the OA articles were not cited (relative risk = 1.3 [95% Confidence Interval: 1.1–1.6]; p = 0.001). 6 mo later (mean 288 d after publication), non-OA articles were still more likely to be uncited (non-OA: 172 [13.6%], OA: 11 [5.2%]; relative risk = 2.6 [1.4–4.7]; p < 0.001). The average number of citations of OA articles was higher compared to non-OA articles (April 2005: 1.5 [SD = 2.5] versus 1.2 [SD = 2.0]; Z = 3.123; p = 0.002; October 2005: 6.4 [SD = 10.4] versus 4.5 [SD = 4.9]; Z = 4.058; p < 0.001). In a logistic regression model, controlling for potential confounders, OA articles compared to non-OA articles remained twice as likely to be cited (odds ratio = 2.1 [1.5–2.9]) in the first 4–10 mo after publication (April 2005), with the odds ratio increasing

  3. Citation advantage of open access articles.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2006-05-01

    Open access (OA) to the research literature has the potential to accelerate recognition and dissemination of research findings, but its actual effects are controversial. This was a longitudinal bibliometric analysis of a cohort of OA and non-OA articles published between June 8, 2004, and December 20, 2004, in the same journal (PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). Article characteristics were extracted, and citation data were compared between the two groups at three different points in time: at "quasi-baseline" (December 2004, 0-6 mo after publication), in April 2005 (4-10 mo after publication), and in October 2005 (10-16 mo after publication). Potentially confounding variables, including number of authors, authors' lifetime publication count and impact, submission track, country of corresponding author, funding organization, and discipline, were adjusted for in logistic and linear multiple regression models. A total of 1,492 original research articles were analyzed: 212 (14.2% of all articles) were OA articles paid by the author, and 1,280 (85.8%) were non-OA articles. In April 2005 (mean 206 d after publication), 627 (49.0%) of the non-OA articles versus 78 (36.8%) of the OA articles were not cited (relative risk = 1.3 [95% Confidence Interval: 1.1-1.6]; p = 0.001). 6 mo later (mean 288 d after publication), non-OA articles were still more likely to be uncited (non-OA: 172 [13.6%], OA: 11 [5.2%]; relative risk = 2.6 [1.4-4.7]; p < 0.001). The average number of citations of OA articles was higher compared to non-OA articles (April 2005: 1.5 [SD = 2.5] versus 1.2 [SD = 2.0]; Z = 3.123; p = 0.002; October 2005: 6.4 [SD = 10.4] versus 4.5 [SD = 4.9]; Z = 4.058; p < 0.001). In a logistic regression model, controlling for potential confounders, OA articles compared to non-OA articles remained twice as likely to be cited (odds ratio = 2.1 [1.5-2.9]) in the first 4-10 mo after publication (April 2005), with the odds ratio increasing to 2.9 (1.5-5.5) 10

  4. Nation Radiobiology Archives Distributed Access

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S. K.; Prather, J. C.; Ligotke, E. K.; Watson, C. R.

    1992-06-01

    NRADA1.1 is a supplement to NRADA1.0. This version eliminates several bugs, and includes a few new features. The diskettes consist of a distributed subset of information representative of the extensive NRA databases and database access software maintained at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory which provide an introduction to the scope and style of the NRA Information Systems. Information in the NRA Summary, Inventory, and Bibliographic database is available upon request. Printed reports have been provided in the past. The completion of the NRADA1.1 is the realization of a long standing goal of the staff and advisory committee. Information may be easily distributed to the user in an electronic form which preserves the relationships between the various databases.

  5. Nation Radiobiology Archives Distributed Access

    1992-06-01

    NRADA1.1 is a supplement to NRADA1.0. This version eliminates several bugs, and includes a few new features. The diskettes consist of a distributed subset of information representative of the extensive NRA databases and database access software maintained at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory which provide an introduction to the scope and style of the NRA Information Systems. Information in the NRA Summary, Inventory, and Bibliographic database is available upon request. Printed reports have been provided inmore » the past. The completion of the NRADA1.1 is the realization of a long standing goal of the staff and advisory committee. Information may be easily distributed to the user in an electronic form which preserves the relationships between the various databases.« less

  6. Open Access to Research Articles and Data: Library Roles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Heather

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, a handful of key developments have caused scholars and researchers to rethink not only the way they conduct their work, but also the way in which they communicate it to others. The advent of the Internet has provided unprecedented opportunities for immediate, cost effective global connectivity, opening up new possibilities for collaboration and communication. This has resulted in scholarship increasingly being conducted in the online environment, and a vast amount of new digital information being generated and made widely available to those interested in using it. Additionally, the Internet is a dynamic environment, with new channels for producing and sharing information in a myriad of formats emerging frequently.In higher education, the momentum of the burgeoning movement towards "open" sharing of information of all kinds continues to gain traction. In particular, advancements in the areas of opening up access to articles and reserch data are increasingly visible. In both of these areas, academic and research libraries are playing important, central roles in promoting the awareness of the potential costs and benefits of a more open research environment, as well as defining new roles for libraries in this digital environment.As this push for grater openness continues, these fronts are intersecting in interesting and potentially transformative ways. The Open Access and Open Data movements share fundamental philosophical commonalities that make collaboration a natural outcome. Both movements place a premium on reducing barriers to discovering and accessing pertinent digital information. Perhaps even more significantly, both explicitly recognize that enabling productive use of digital information is key to unlocking its full value. As a result of these shared priorities, there are a wide variety of common strategies that libraries can take to help advance research, presenting new opportunities for deeper collaboration to take place.This talk will

  7. Distributed Access to Administrative Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Eugene

    1987-01-01

    Administrators, faculty, and staff should have electronic access to records needed to perform their jobs, and students should have access to their own records--course registration and addresses. User-directed analysis and reporting are discussed and the security and audit issues are examined. (Author/MLW)

  8. National Radiobiology Archives Distributed Access user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, C.; Smith, S. ); Prather, J. )

    1991-11-01

    This User's Manual describes installation and use of the National Radiobiology Archives (NRA) Distributed Access package. The package consists of a distributed subset of information representative of the NRA databases and database access software which provide an introduction to the scope and style of the NRA Information Systems.

  9. Distribution of Articles in Written Composition among Malaysian ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahim, Mia Emily Abdul; Rahim, Emma Marini Abdul; Ning, Chia Han

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the distribution patterns of the English grammar articles (a, an, and the) as well as the distributions of their colligation patterns in written compositions of English among Malaysian ESL learners. This paper reports the results of a corpus-based study on articles used by these learners. The method used in this…

  10. Accessible Article: Involving People with Learning Disabilities in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)

  11. Method for Accessing Distributed Heterogeneous Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    A scenario of relational, hierarchial, and network data bases is presented and a distributed access view integrated data base system (DAVID) is described for uniformly accessing data bases which are heterogeneous and physically distributed. The DAVID system is based on data base logic so that the relational approach is generalized to the heterogeneous approach. The global data manager is explained as are global data manipulation languages which can operate on all the data bases and can query the data dictionary and the data directory.

  12. A Bibliometric Study of Scholarly Articles Published by Library and Information Science Authors about Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandbois, Jennifer; Beheshti, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to gain a greater understanding of the development of open access practices amongst library and information science authors, since their role is integral to the success of the broader open access movement. Method: Data were collected from scholarly articles about open access by library and information science authors…

  13. Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Barry E.

    1991-01-01

    The Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) System, which was adopted by the Astrophysics Division for their Astrophysics Data System, is a solution to the system heterogeneity problem. The heterogeneous components of the Astrophysics problem is outlined. The Library and Library Consortium levels of the DAVID approach are described. The 'books' and 'kits' level is discussed. The Universal Object Typer Management System level is described. The relation of the DAVID project with the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program is explained.

  14. Access to generalized parton distributions at COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-04-10

    A brief experimentalist's introduction to Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) is given. Recent COMPASS results are shown on transverse target-spin asymmetries in hard exclusive ρ{sup 0} production and their interpretation in terms of a phenomenological model as indication for chiral-odd, transverse GPDs is discussed. For deeply virtual Compton scattering, it is briefly outlined how to access GPDs and projections are shown for future COMPASS measurements.

  15. Is There a Place within Academic Journals for Articles Presented in an Accessible Format?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses some of the difficulties inherent in disseminating emancipatory research findings in academic journals in a way that is empowering to people with learning difficulties in the UK. It calls for academics to challenge the editorial criteria of academic journals to consider accepting articles written in a more accessible style.…

  16. National Radiobiology Archives distributed access programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, J. C.; Smith, S. K.; Watson, C. R.

    1991-12-01

    The National Radiobiology Archives is a comprehensive effort to gather, organize, and catalog original data, representative specimens, and supporting materials related to significant radiobiology studies. This provides researchers with information for analyses which compare or combine results of these and other studies and with materials for analysis by advanced molecular biology techniques. This Programmer's Guide document describes the database access software, NRADEMO, and the subset loading script NRADEMO/MAINT/MAINTAIN, which comprise the National Laboratory Archives Distributed Access Package. The guide is intended for use by an experienced database management specialist. It contains information about the physical and logical organization of the software and data files. It also contains printouts of all the scripts and associated batch processing files. It is part of a suite of documents published by the National Radiobiology Archives.

  17. Cardea: Dynamic Access Control in Distributed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepro, Rebekah

    2004-01-01

    Modern authorization systems span domains of administration, rely on many different authentication sources, and manage complex attributes as part of the authorization process. This . paper presents Cardea, a distributed system that facilitates dynamic access control, as a valuable piece of an inter-operable authorization framework. First, the authorization model employed in Cardea and its functionality goals are examined. Next, critical features of the system architecture and its handling of the authorization process are then examined. Then the S A M L and XACML standards, as incorporated into the system, are analyzed. Finally, the future directions of this project are outlined and connection points with general components of an authorization system are highlighted.

  18. Vaccine production, distribution, access, and uptake.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jon; Lipsitch, Marc; Almond, Jeffrey W

    2011-07-30

    For human vaccines to be available on a global scale, complex production methods, meticulous quality control, and reliable distribution channels are needed to ensure that the products are potent and effective at the point of use. The technologies used to manufacture different types of vaccines can strongly affect vaccine cost, ease of industrial scale-up, stability, and, ultimately, worldwide availability. The complexity of manufacturing is compounded by the need for different formulations in different countries and age-groups. Reliable vaccine production in appropriate quantities and at affordable prices is the cornerstone of developing global vaccination policies. However, to ensure optimum access and uptake, strong partnerships are needed between private manufacturers, regulatory authorities, and national and international public health services. For vaccines whose supply is insufficient to meet demand, prioritisation of target groups can increase the effect of these vaccines. In this report, we draw from our experience of vaccine development and focus on influenza vaccines as an example to consider production, distribution, access, and other factors that affect vaccine uptake and population-level effectiveness. PMID:21664680

  19. 33 CFR 6.04-5 - Preventing access of persons, articles or things to vessels, or waterfront facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preventing access of persons..., AND WATERFRONT FACILITIES General Provisions § 6.04-5 Preventing access of persons, articles or things to vessels, or waterfront facilities. The Captain of the Port may prevent any person, article,...

  20. Access Control for Agent-based Computing: A Distributed Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonopoulos, Nick; Koukoumpetsos, Kyriakos; Shafarenko, Alex

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the mobile software agent paradigm that provides a foundation for the development of high performance distributed applications and presents a simple, distributed access control architecture based on the concept of distributed, active authorization entities (lock cells), any combination of which can be referenced by an agent to provide…

  1. Examining the Distribution, Modularity, and Community Structure in Article Networks for Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaonan; Machiraju, Raghu; Ritter, Alan; Yen, Po-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews (SRs) provide high quality evidence for clinical practice, but the article screening process is time and labor intensive. As SRs aim to identify relevant articles with a specific scope, we propose that a pre-defined article relationship, using similarity metrics, could accelerate this process. In this study, we established the article relationship using MEDLINE element similarities and visualized the article network with the Force Atlas layout. We also analyzed the article networks with graph diameter, closeness centrality, and module classes. The results revealed the distribution of articles and found that included articles tended to aggregate together in some module classes, providing further evidence of the existence of strong relationships among included articles. This approach can be utilized to facilitate the articles selection process through early identification of these dominant module classes. We are optimistic that the use of article network visualization can help better SR work prioritization. PMID:26958292

  2. Examining the Distribution, Modularity, and Community Structure in Article Networks for Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaonan; Machiraju, Raghu; Ritter, Alan; Yen, Po-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews (SRs) provide high quality evidence for clinical practice, but the article screening process is time and labor intensive. As SRs aim to identify relevant articles with a specific scope, we propose that a pre-defined article relationship, using similarity metrics, could accelerate this process. In this study, we established the article relationship using MEDLINE element similarities and visualized the article network with the Force Atlas layout. We also analyzed the article networks with graph diameter, closeness centrality, and module classes. The results revealed the distribution of articles and found that included articles tended to aggregate together in some module classes, providing further evidence of the existence of strong relationships among included articles. This approach can be utilized to facilitate the articles selection process through early identification of these dominant module classes. We are optimistic that the use of article network visualization can help better SR work prioritization. PMID:26958292

  3. Population distribution, settlement patterns and accessibility across Africa in 2010.

    PubMed

    Linard, Catherine; Gilbert, Marius; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of populations and settlements across a country and their interconnectivity and accessibility from urban areas are important for delivering healthcare, distributing resources and economic development. However, existing spatially explicit population data across Africa are generally based on outdated, low resolution input demographic data, and provide insufficient detail to quantify rural settlement patterns and, thus, accurately measure population concentration and accessibility. Here we outline approaches to developing a new high resolution population distribution dataset for Africa and analyse rural accessibility to population centers. Contemporary population count data were combined with detailed satellite-derived settlement extents to map population distributions across Africa at a finer spatial resolution than ever before. Substantial heterogeneity in settlement patterns, population concentration and spatial accessibility to major population centres is exhibited across the continent. In Africa, 90% of the population is concentrated in less than 21% of the land surface and the average per-person travel time to settlements of more than 50,000 inhabitants is around 3.5 hours, with Central and East Africa displaying the longest average travel times. The analyses highlight large inequities in access, the isolation of many rural populations and the challenges that exist between countries and regions in providing access to services. The datasets presented are freely available as part of the AfriPop project, providing an evidence base for guiding strategic decisions. PMID:22363717

  4. Authenticated IGMP for Controlling Access to Multicast Distribution Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang-Seop; Kang, Hyun-Sun

    A receiver access control scheme is proposed to protect the multicast distribution tree from DoS attack induced by unauthorized use of IGMP, by extending the security-related functionality of IGMP. Based on a specific network and business model adopted for commercial deployment of IP multicast applications, a key management scheme is also presented for bootstrapping the proposed access control as well as accounting and billing for CP (Content Provider), NSP (Network Service Provider), and group members.

  5. Solar-terrestrial data access distribution and archiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    It is recommended that a central data catalog and data access network (CDC/DAN) for solar-terrestrial research be established, initially as a NASA pilot program. The system is envisioned to be flexible and to evolve as funds permit, starting from a catalog to an access network for high-resolution data. The report describes the various functional requirements for the CDC/DAN, but does not specify the hardware and software architectures as these are constantly evolving. The importance of a steering committee, working with the CDC/DAN organization, to provide scientific guidelines for the data catalog and for data storage, access, and distribution is also stressed.

  6. Access to medicines and distributive justice: breaching Doha's ethical threshold.

    PubMed

    Kiddell-Monroe, Rachel

    2014-08-01

    The global health crisis in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) reveals a deep global health inequity that lies at the heart of global justice concerns. Mirroring the HIV/AIDS epidemic, NCDs bring into stark relief once more the human consequences of trade policies that reinforce global inequities in treatment access. Recognising distributive justice issues in access to medicines for their populations, World Trade Organisation (WTO) members confirmed the primacy of access to medicines for all in trade and public health in the landmark Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health of 2001. PMID:24750521

  7. Single-Point Access to Data Distributed on Many Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    A description of the functions and data structures is defined that would be necessary to implement the Chapel concept of distributions, domains, allocation, access, and interfaces to the compiler for transformations from Chapel source to their run-time implementation for these concepts. A complete set of object-oriented operators is defined that enables one to access elements of a distributed array through regular arithmetic index sets, giving the programmer the illusion that all the elements are collocated on a single processor. This means that arbitrary regions of the arrays can be fragmented and distributed across multiple processors with a single point of access. This is important because it can significantly improve programmer productivity by allowing the programmers to concentrate on the high-level details of the algorithm without worrying about the efficiency and communication details of the underlying representation.

  8. Examining the Impact of the National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy on the Citation Rates of Journal Articles

    PubMed Central

    De Groote, Sandra L.; Shultz, Mary; Smalheiser, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded articles that were archived in PubMed Central (PMC) after the release of the 2008 NIH Public Access Policy show greater scholarly impact than comparable articles not archived in PMC. Methods A list of journals across several subject areas was developed from which to collect article citation data. Citation information and cited reference counts of the articles published in 2006 and 2009 from 122 journals were obtained from the Scopus database. The articles were separated into categories of NIH funded, non-NIH funded and whether they were deposited in PubMed Central. An analysis of citation data across a five-year timespan was performed on this set of articles. Results A total of 45,716 articles were examined, including 7,960 with NIH-funding. An analysis of the number of times these articles were cited found that NIH-funded 2006 articles in PMC were not cited significantly more than NIH-funded non-PMC articles. However, 2009 NIH funded articles in PMC were cited 26% more than 2009 NIH funded articles not in PMC, 5 years after publication. This result is highly significant even after controlling for journal (as a proxy of article quality and topic). Conclusion Our analysis suggests that factors occurring between 2006 and 2009 produced a subsequent boost in scholarly impact of PubMed Central. The 2008 Public Access Policy is likely to be one such factor, but others may have contributed as well (e.g., growing size and visibility of PMC, increasing availability of full-text linkouts from PubMed, and indexing of PMC articles by Google Scholar). PMID:26448551

  9. Distributed reservation control protocols for random access broadcasting channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, E. P.; Ephremides, A.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to a communication network consisting of an arbitrary number of nodes which can communicate with each other via a time-division multiple access (TDMA) broadcast channel. The reported investigation is concerned with the development of efficient distributed multiple access protocols for traffic consisting primarily of single packet messages in a datagram mode of operation. The motivation for the design of the protocols came from the consideration of efficient multiple access utilization of moderate to high bandwidth (4-40 Mbit/s capacity) communication satellite channels used for the transmission of short (1000-10,000 bits) fixed length packets. Under these circumstances, the ratio of roundtrip propagation time to packet transmission time is between 100 to 10,000. It is shown how a TDMA channel can be adaptively shared by datagram traffic and constant bandwidth users such as in digital voice applications. The distributed reservation control protocols described are a hybrid between contention and reservation protocols.

  10. SAGA: A standardized access layer to heterogeneous Distributed Computing Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzky, Andre; Weidner, Ole; Jha, Shantenu

    2015-09-01

    Distributed Computing Infrastructure is characterized by interfaces that are heterogeneous-syntactically and semantically. SAGA represents the most comprehensive community effort to date to address the heterogeneity by defining a simple, uniform access layer. In this paper, we describe the basic concepts underpinning its design and development. We also discuss RADICAL-SAGA which is the most widely used implementation of SAGA.

  11. Distributed policy based access to networked heterogeneous ISR data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bent, G.; Vyvyan, D.; Wood, David; Zerfos, Petros; Calo, Seraphin

    2010-04-01

    Within a coalition environment, ad hoc Communities of Interest (CoI's) come together, perhaps for only a short time, with different sensors, sensor platforms, data fusion elements, and networks to conduct a task (or set of tasks) with different coalition members taking different roles. In such a coalition, each organization will have its own inherent restrictions on how it will interact with the others. These are usually stated as a set of policies, including security and privacy policies. The capability that we want to enable for a coalition operation is to provide access to information from any coalition partner in conformance with the policies of all. One of the challenges in supporting such ad-hoc coalition operations is that of providing efficient access to distributed sources of data, where the applications requiring the data do not have knowledge of the location of the data within the network. To address this challenge the International Technology Alliance (ITA) program has been developing the concept of a Dynamic Distributed Federated Database (DDFD), also know as a Gaian Database. This type of database provides a means for accessing data across a network of distributed heterogeneous data sources where access to the information is controlled by a mixture of local and global policies. We describe how a network of disparate ISR elements can be expressed as a DDFD and how this approach enables sensor and other information sources to be discovered autonomously or semi-autonomously and/or combined, fused formally defined local and global policies.

  12. Identifiability and Accessibility in Learning Definite Article Usages: A Quasi-Experimental Study with Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinenoya, Kimiko; Lyster, Roy

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of instruction on the use of the definite article "the" by Japanese learners of English by implementing two instructional treatments that varied in the extent to which they emphasized identifiability and accessibility. One instructional treatment, referred to as the traditional (TR) treatment,…

  13. Public accessibility of biomedical articles from PubMed Central reduces journal readership—retrospective cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    Does PubMed Central—a government-run digital archive of biomedical articles—compete with scientific society journals? A longitudinal, retrospective cohort analysis of 13,223 articles (5999 treatment, 7224 control) published in 14 society-run biomedical research journals in nutrition, experimental biology, physiology, and radiology between February 2008 and January 2011 reveals a 21.4% reduction in full-text hypertext markup language (HTML) article downloads and a 13.8% reduction in portable document format (PDF) article downloads from the journals' websites when U.S. National Institutes of Health-sponsored articles (treatment) become freely available from the PubMed Central repository. In addition, the effect of PubMed Central on reducing PDF article downloads is increasing over time, growing at a rate of 1.6% per year. There was no longitudinal effect for full-text HTML downloads. While PubMed Central may be providing complementary access to readers traditionally underserved by scientific journals, the loss of article readership from the journal website may weaken the ability of the journal to build communities of interest around research papers, impede the communication of news and events to scientific society members and journal readers, and reduce the perceived value of the journal to institutional subscribers.—Davis, P. M. Public accessibility of biomedical articles from PubMed Central reduces journal readership—retrospective cohort analysis. PMID:23554455

  14. Open Access Meets Discoverability: Citations to Articles Posted to Academia.edu.

    PubMed

    Niyazov, Yuri; Vogel, Carl; Price, Richard; Lund, Ben; Judd, David; Akil, Adnan; Mortonson, Michael; Schwartzman, Josh; Shron, Max

    2016-01-01

    Using matching and regression analyses, we measure the difference in citations between articles posted to Academia.edu and other articles from similar journals, controlling for field, impact factor, and other variables. Based on a sample size of 31,216 papers, we find that a paper in a median impact factor journal uploaded to Academia.edu receives 16% more citations after one year than a similar article not available online, 51% more citations after three years, and 69% after five years. We also found that articles also posted to Academia.edu had 58% more citations than articles only posted to other online venues, such as personal and departmental home pages, after five years. PMID:26886730

  15. Open Access Meets Discoverability: Citations to Articles Posted to Academia.edu

    PubMed Central

    Niyazov, Yuri; Vogel, Carl; Price, Richard; Lund, Ben; Judd, David; Akil, Adnan; Mortonson, Michael; Schwartzman, Josh; Shron, Max

    2016-01-01

    Using matching and regression analyses, we measure the difference in citations between articles posted to Academia.edu and other articles from similar journals, controlling for field, impact factor, and other variables. Based on a sample size of 31,216 papers, we find that a paper in a median impact factor journal uploaded to Academia.edu receives 16% more citations after one year than a similar article not available online, 51% more citations after three years, and 69% after five years. We also found that articles also posted to Academia.edu had 58% more citations than articles only posted to other online venues, such as personal and departmental home pages, after five years. PMID:26886730

  16. Integrated Access of Distributed and Heterogeneous Astronomical Data Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Tian, Hai-Jun; Gao, Dan; Yang, Yang; Lu, Yong; Cui, Chen-Zhou; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2008-06-01

    Astronomical data resources have features of long-term accumulation, high volume, distributed storage, and managed by diverse database software. One of the important goals in Virtual Observatory (VO) is to provide a uniform way to access these distributed and heterogeneous data resources for astronomers. A grid solution (Virtual Observatory Data Access Service, VO-DAS) is designed in this paper. Astronomical catalogue data, image data and spectroscopy data, which have different metadata, are wrapped by Open Grid Service Architecture - Database Access and Integration [OGSA-DAI] (DataNode). VO-DAS implements automatic discovery of DataNodes and supports federation data access upon them. This makes it possible for multi-band cross matching of astronomical objects. VO-DAS supports related specifications published by International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) so that interoperability is achieved. A series of simple and efficient application interfaces are designed for developing versatile high-level applications based on VO-DAS. Two science cases based on VO-DAS confirm its feasibility.

  17. National Radiobiology Archives Distributed Access User's Manual, Version 1. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.K.; Prather, J.C.; Ligotke, E.K.; Watson, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    This supplement to the NRA Distributed Access User's manual (PNL-7877), November 1991, describes installation and use of Version 1.1 of the software package; this is not a replacement of the previous manual. Version 1.1 of the NRA Distributed Access Package is a maintenance release. It eliminates several bugs, and includes a few new features which are described in this manual. Although the appearance of some menu screens has changed, we are confident that the Version 1.0 User's Manual will provide an adequate introduction to the system. Users who are unfamiliar with Version 1.0 may wish to experiment with that version before moving on to Version 1.1.

  18. Access to distributed marine databases on the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, A.; Axe, P.; Bock, S.; Kaitala, S.; Manscher, O. H.; Rodriguez-Medina, M.; Olsonen, R.; Priha, I.; Tikka, K.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic Nest Institute, Stockholm University (Sweden) in cooperation with Department of Bioscience/DCE, National Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University (Denmark), Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (Germany), Finnish Environment Institute, Finnish Meteorological Institute and Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute developed a data assessment system, aimed at providing tools for online analysis of marine environmental data (temperature, salinity, chemical properties) from distributed collection of databases on the Baltic Sea. Such approach allows users to have fast access to the most recent data from all major data providers and providers remain in control of their data. The system contains a web data portal, which provides concurrent access to distributed marine databases and presents information in a unified way. Two client programs use the data portal and provide tools to analyse the data. The DAS - Data Assimilation System (http://nest.su.se/das/) accesses databases through the data portal and allow analysing the raw data and creating gridded data, which can be used as initial fields for 3D hydrodynamic models. A decision support system Nest (http://nest.su.se/nest/) developed and maintained at the Stockholm University as a tool to support decision-making at international negotiations regarding the Baltic Sea environment also uses the data portal to access marine data, provide access to the raw data and perform time-series analysis. The data portal designed to output data in a common format (CSV) for further post-processing using other software. It makes the system open to develop another client programs for data analysis.

  19. Implementing Access to Data Distributed on Many Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A reference architecture is defined for an object-oriented implementation of domains, arrays, and distributions written in the programming language Chapel. This technology primarily addresses domains that contain arrays that have regular index sets with the low-level implementation details being beyond the scope of this discussion. What is defined is a complete set of object-oriented operators that allows one to perform data distributions for domain arrays involving regular arithmetic index sets. What is unique is that these operators allow for the arbitrary regions of the arrays to be fragmented and distributed across multiple processors with a single point of access giving the programmer the illusion that all the elements are collocated on a single processor. Today's massively parallel High Productivity Computing Systems (HPCS) are characterized by a modular structure, with a large number of processing and memory units connected by a high-speed network. Locality of access as well as load balancing are primary concerns in these systems that are typically used for high-performance scientific computation. Data distributions address these issues by providing a range of methods for spreading large data sets across the components of a system. Over the past two decades, many languages, systems, tools, and libraries have been developed for the support of distributions. Since the performance of data parallel applications is directly influenced by the distribution strategy, users often resort to low-level programming models that allow fine-tuning of the distribution aspects affecting performance, but, at the same time, are tedious and error-prone. This technology presents a reusable design of a data-distribution framework for data parallel high-performance applications. Distributions are a means to express locality in systems composed of large numbers of processor and memory components connected by a network. Since distributions have a great effect on the performance of

  20. GEON Developments for Searching, Accessing, and Visualizing Distributed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meertens, C.; Seber, D.; Baru, C.; Wright, M.

    2005-12-01

    The NSF-funded GEON (Geosciences Network) Information Technology Research project is developing data sharing frameworks, a registry for distributed databases, concept-based search mechanisms, advanced visualization software, and grid-computing resources for earth science and education applications. The goal of this project is to enable new interdisciplinary research in the geosciences, while extending the access to data and complex modeling tools from the hands of a few researchers to a much broader set of scientific and educational users. To facilitate this, the GEON team of IT scientists, geoscientists, and educators and their collaborators are creating a capable Cyberinfrastructure that is based on grid/web services operating in a distributed environment. We are using a best practices approach that is designed to provide useful and usable capabilities and tools. With the realization of new large scale projects such as EarthScope that involve the collection, analysis, and modeling of vast quantities of diverse data, it is increasingly important to be able to effectively handle, model, and integrate a wide range of multi-dimensional, multi-parameter, and time dependent data in a timely fashion. GEON has been developing a process where the user can discover, access, retrieve and visualize data that is hosted either at GEON or at distributed servers. Whenever possible, GEON is using established protocols and formats for data and metadata exchange that are based on community efforts such as OPeNDAP, the Open GIS Consortium, Grid Computing, and digital libraries. This approach is essential to help overcome the challenges of dealing with heterogeneous distributed data and increases the possibility of data interoperability. We give an overview of resources that are now available to access and visualize a variety of geological and geophysical data, derived products and models including GPS data, GPS-derived velocity vectors and strain rates, earthquakes, three

  1. Public accessibility of biomedical articles from PubMed Central reduces journal readership--retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Philip M

    2013-07-01

    Does PubMed Central--a government-run digital archive of biomedical articles--compete with scientific society journals? A longitudinal, retrospective cohort analysis of 13,223 articles (5999 treatment, 7224 control) published in 14 society-run biomedical research journals in nutrition, experimental biology, physiology, and radiology between February 2008 and January 2011 reveals a 21.4% reduction in full-text hypertext markup language (HTML) article downloads and a 13.8% reduction in portable document format (PDF) article downloads from the journals' websites when U.S. National Institutes of Health-sponsored articles (treatment) become freely available from the PubMed Central repository. In addition, the effect of PubMed Central on reducing PDF article downloads is increasing over time, growing at a rate of 1.6% per year. There was no longitudinal effect for full-text HTML downloads. While PubMed Central may be providing complementary access to readers traditionally underserved by scientific journals, the loss of article readership from the journal website may weaken the ability of the journal to build communities of interest around research papers, impede the communication of news and events to scientific society members and journal readers, and reduce the perceived value of the journal to institutional subscribers. PMID:23554455

  2. Distributed magnetic field positioning system using code division multiple access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigge, Eric A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and methods for a magnetic field positioning system use a fundamentally different, and advantageous, signal structure and multiple access method, known as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). This signal architecture, when combined with processing methods, leads to advantages over the existing technologies, especially when applied to a system with a large number of magnetic field generators (beacons). Beacons at known positions generate coded magnetic fields, and a magnetic sensor measures a sum field and decomposes it into component fields to determine the sensor position and orientation. The apparatus and methods can have a large `building-sized` coverage area. The system allows for numerous beacons to be distributed throughout an area at a number of different locations. A method to estimate position and attitude, with no prior knowledge, uses dipole fields produced by these beacons in different locations.

  3. Access control and privacy in large distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiner, B. M.; Bishop, M.

    1986-01-01

    Large scale distributed systems consists of workstations, mainframe computers, supercomputers and other types of servers, all connected by a computer network. These systems are being used in a variety of applications including the support of collaborative scientific research. In such an environment, issues of access control and privacy arise. Access control is required for several reasons, including the protection of sensitive resources and cost control. Privacy is also required for similar reasons, including the protection of a researcher's proprietary results. A possible architecture for integrating available computer and communications security technologies into a system that meet these requirements is described. This architecture is meant as a starting point for discussion, rather that the final answer.

  4. First Experiences Using XACML for Access Control in Distributed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorch, Marcus; Proctor, Seth; Lepro, Rebekah; Kafura, Dennis; Shah, Sumit

    2003-01-01

    Authorization systems today are increasingly complex. They span domains of administration, rely on many different authentication sources, and manage permissions that can be as complex as the system itself. Worse still, while there are many standards that define authentication mechanisms, the standards that address authorization are less well defined and tend to work only within homogeneous systems. This paper presents XACML, a standard access control language, as one component of a distributed and inter-operable authorization framework. Several emerging systems which incorporate XACML are discussed. These discussions illustrate how authorization can be deployed in distributed, decentralized systems. Finally, some new and future topics are presented to show where this work is heading and how it will help connect the general components of an authorization system.

  5. Addressing Data Access Needs of the Long-tail Distribution of Geoscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, T.; Foster, I.

    2012-12-01

    Geoscientists must increasingly consider data from multiple disciplines and make intelligent connections between the data in order to advance research frontiers in mission critical problems. As a first step towards making timely and relevant connections, scientists require data and resource access, made available through simple and efficient protocols and web services that allows them to conveniently transmit, acquire, process, and inspect data and metadata. The last decade witnessed some vital data and resource access barriers being crossed. "Big iron" data infrastructures enabled geoscientists with large volumes of simulation and observational datasets, protocols made data access convenient, and strong governing bodies ensured standards for interoperability, repeatability and auditability. All this remarkable growth in access, however, addresses needs of publishers of large data and ignores consumers of that data. To-date limited access mechanisms exist for the consumers, who fetch subsets, analyze them, and, more often than not, generate new data and analysis, which finally gets published in scientific articles. In this session, we will highlight the data access needs of the long-tail distribution of geoscientists and a state-of-the art cyber-infrastructure approaches proposed to address those needs. The needs and the state-of-the-art arose from discussions held with geoscientists as part of the EarthCube Data Access Workshop, which was coordinated by the authors. Our presentation will summarize the proceedings of the Data Access workshop. It will present qualifying characteristics of solutions that will continue to serve the needs of these scientists in the long-term. Finally, we will present some cyber-infrastructure efforts in building such solutions and also provide a vision of the future CI in which such solutions can be useful.

  6. For 481 biomedical open access journals, articles are not searchable in the Directory of Open Access Journals nor in conventional biomedical databases

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background. Open access (OA) journals allows access to research papers free of charge to the reader. Traditionally, biomedical researchers use databases like MEDLINE and EMBASE to discover new advances. However, biomedical OA journals might not fulfill such databases’ criteria, hindering dissemination. The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is a database exclusively listing OA journals. The aim of this study was to investigate DOAJ’s coverage of biomedical OA journals compared with the conventional biomedical databases. Methods. Information on all journals listed in four conventional biomedical databases (MEDLINE, PubMed Central, EMBASE and SCOPUS) and DOAJ were gathered. Journals were included if they were (1) actively publishing, (2) full OA, (3) prospectively indexed in one or more database, and (4) of biomedical subject. Impact factor and journal language were also collected. DOAJ was compared with conventional databases regarding the proportion of journals covered, along with their impact factor and publishing language. The proportion of journals with articles indexed by DOAJ was determined. Results. In total, 3,236 biomedical OA journals were included in the study. Of the included journals, 86.7% were listed in DOAJ. Combined, the conventional biomedical databases listed 75.0% of the journals; 18.7% in MEDLINE; 36.5% in PubMed Central; 51.5% in SCOPUS and 50.6% in EMBASE. Of the journals in DOAJ, 88.7% published in English and 20.6% had received impact factor for 2012 compared with 93.5% and 26.0%, respectively, for journals in the conventional biomedical databases. A subset of 51.1% and 48.5% of the journals in DOAJ had articles indexed from 2012 and 2013, respectively. Of journals exclusively listed in DOAJ, one journal had received an impact factor for 2012, and 59.6% of the journals had no content from 2013 indexed in DOAJ. Conclusions. DOAJ is the most complete registry of biomedical OA journals compared with five conventional biomedical

  7. For 481 biomedical open access journals, articles are not searchable in the Directory of Open Access Journals nor in conventional biomedical databases.

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Andresen, Kristoffer; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background. Open access (OA) journals allows access to research papers free of charge to the reader. Traditionally, biomedical researchers use databases like MEDLINE and EMBASE to discover new advances. However, biomedical OA journals might not fulfill such databases' criteria, hindering dissemination. The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is a database exclusively listing OA journals. The aim of this study was to investigate DOAJ's coverage of biomedical OA journals compared with the conventional biomedical databases. Methods. Information on all journals listed in four conventional biomedical databases (MEDLINE, PubMed Central, EMBASE and SCOPUS) and DOAJ were gathered. Journals were included if they were (1) actively publishing, (2) full OA, (3) prospectively indexed in one or more database, and (4) of biomedical subject. Impact factor and journal language were also collected. DOAJ was compared with conventional databases regarding the proportion of journals covered, along with their impact factor and publishing language. The proportion of journals with articles indexed by DOAJ was determined. Results. In total, 3,236 biomedical OA journals were included in the study. Of the included journals, 86.7% were listed in DOAJ. Combined, the conventional biomedical databases listed 75.0% of the journals; 18.7% in MEDLINE; 36.5% in PubMed Central; 51.5% in SCOPUS and 50.6% in EMBASE. Of the journals in DOAJ, 88.7% published in English and 20.6% had received impact factor for 2012 compared with 93.5% and 26.0%, respectively, for journals in the conventional biomedical databases. A subset of 51.1% and 48.5% of the journals in DOAJ had articles indexed from 2012 and 2013, respectively. Of journals exclusively listed in DOAJ, one journal had received an impact factor for 2012, and 59.6% of the journals had no content from 2013 indexed in DOAJ. Conclusions. DOAJ is the most complete registry of biomedical OA journals compared with five conventional biomedical databases

  8. Enhanced Access Polynomial Based Self-healing Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Ratna; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav; Dowling, Tom

    A fundamental concern of any secure group communication system is that of key management. Wireless environments create new key management problems and requirements to solve these problems. One such core requirement in these emerging networks is that of self-healing. In systems where users can be offline and miss updates self healing allows a user to recover lost keys and get back into the secure communication without putting extra burden on the group manager. Clearly self healing must be only available to authorized users and this creates more challenges in that we must ensure unauthorized or revoked users cannot, themselves or by means of collusion, avail of self healing. To this end we enhance the one-way key chain based self-healing key distribution of Dutta et al. by introducing a collusion resistance property between the revoked users and the newly joined users. Our scheme is based on the concept of access polynomials. These can be loosely thought of as white lists of authorized users as opposed to the more widely used revocation polynomials or black lists of revoked users. We also allow each user a pre-arranged life cycle distributed by the group manager. Our scheme provides better efficiency in terms of storage, and the communication and computation costs do not increase as the number of sessions grows as compared to most current schemes. We analyze our scheme in an appropriate security model and prove that the proposed scheme is computationally secure and not only achieving forward and backward secrecy, but also resisting collusion between the new joined users and the revoked users. Unlike most existing schemes the new scheme allows temporary revocation. Also unlike existing schemes, our construction does not collapse if the number of revoked users crosses a threshold value. This feature increases resilience against revocation based denial of service (DOS) attacks and thus improves availability of communication channel.

  9. Article processing charges for open access publication-the situation for research intensive universities in the USA and Canada.

    PubMed

    Solomon, David; Björk, Bo-Christer

    2016-01-01

    Background. Open access (OA) publishing via article processing charges (APCs) is growing as an alternative to subscription publishing. The Pay It Forward (PIF) Project is exploring the feasibility of transitioning from paying subscriptions to funding APCs for faculty at research intensive universities. Estimating of the cost of APCs for the journals authors at research intensive universities tend to publish is essential for the PIF project and similar initiatives. This paper presents our research into this question. Methods. We identified APC prices for publications by authors at the 4 research intensive United States (US) and Canadian universities involved in the study. We also obtained APC payment records from several Western European universities and funding agencies. Both data sets were merged with Web of Science (WoS) metadata. We calculated the average APCs for articles and proceedings in 13 discipline categories published by researchers at research intensive universities. We also identified 41 journals published by traditionally subscription publishers which have recently converted to APC funded OA and recorded the APCs they charge. Results. We identified 7,629 payment records from the 4 European APC payment databases and 14,356 OA articles authored by PIF partner university faculty for which we had listed APC prices. APCs for full OA journals published by PIF authors averaged 1,775 USD; full OA journal APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 1,865 USD; hybrid APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 2,887 USD. The APC for converted journals published by major subscription publishers averaged 1,825 USD. APC funded OA is concentrated in the life and basic sciences. APCs funded articles in the social sciences and humanities are often multidisciplinary and published in journals such as PLOS ONE that largely publish in the life sciences. Conclusions. Full OA journal APCs average a little under 2,000 USD while hybrid articles average about 3,000 USD

  10. Article processing charges for open access publication—the situation for research intensive universities in the USA and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Björk, Bo-Christer

    2016-01-01

    Background. Open access (OA) publishing via article processing charges (APCs) is growing as an alternative to subscription publishing. The Pay It Forward (PIF) Project is exploring the feasibility of transitioning from paying subscriptions to funding APCs for faculty at research intensive universities. Estimating of the cost of APCs for the journals authors at research intensive universities tend to publish is essential for the PIF project and similar initiatives. This paper presents our research into this question. Methods. We identified APC prices for publications by authors at the 4 research intensive United States (US) and Canadian universities involved in the study. We also obtained APC payment records from several Western European universities and funding agencies. Both data sets were merged with Web of Science (WoS) metadata. We calculated the average APCs for articles and proceedings in 13 discipline categories published by researchers at research intensive universities. We also identified 41 journals published by traditionally subscription publishers which have recently converted to APC funded OA and recorded the APCs they charge. Results. We identified 7,629 payment records from the 4 European APC payment databases and 14,356 OA articles authored by PIF partner university faculty for which we had listed APC prices. APCs for full OA journals published by PIF authors averaged 1,775 USD; full OA journal APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 1,865 USD; hybrid APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 2,887 USD. The APC for converted journals published by major subscription publishers averaged 1,825 USD. APC funded OA is concentrated in the life and basic sciences. APCs funded articles in the social sciences and humanities are often multidisciplinary and published in journals such as PLOS ONE that largely publish in the life sciences. Conclusions. Full OA journal APCs average a little under 2,000 USD while hybrid articles average about 3,000 USD

  11. 47 CFR 69.605 - Reporting and distribution of pool access revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... revenues. 69.605 Section 69.605 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... distribution of pool access revenues. (a) Access revenues and cost data shall be reported by participants in association tariffs to the association for computation of monthly pool revenues distributions in...

  12. Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurovs, Richard; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell; Blach, Tomasz P

    2012-01-01

    The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total

  13. Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/accessibility.html MedlinePlus Accessibility To use the sharing features on this page, ... Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs ...

  14. Accessing Topographic Effects on Solar Radiation Distribution and Ecohydrological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Niu, G. Y.; Troch, P. A. A.; Paniconi, C.; Durcik, M.; Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    Solar radiation is the driving force for terrestrial ecohydrological processes. In mountainous regions, solar radiation reaching the land surface is strongly affected by topographic conditions (e.g., terrain slope and aspect) resulting in unevenly distributed solar radiation. This further affects ecohydrological processes including evapotranspiration, snowmelt, and runoff. However, most distributed hydrological models directly use measured or directly interpolated (e.g. IDW) solar radiation as inputs, not accounting for the topographic effects on solar radiation distribution. In this study, we first implemented a solar radiation spatial interpolation scheme to a fully integrated catchment-scale ecohydrological model by taking into account the topographic effects on direct (shading), diffuse (scattering) and reflected solar radiation. The resulting spatial distribution is more realistic than the direct interpolation. We applied the scheme to Marshall Gulch in Arizona, a mountainous catchment at different spatial resolutions. We will present some modeling results to show the topographic effects on solar radiation distribution, snow mass, vegetation growth, and runoff production, as well as the model sensitivity to modeling resolutions.

  15. Distributed data access and resource management in the D0 SAM system

    SciTech Connect

    Igor V Terekhov; Ruth Pordes; Victoria White et al.

    2001-06-26

    SAM (Sequential Access through Meta-data) is the data access and job management system for the D0 high energy physics experiment at Fermilab. The SAM system is being developed and used to handle the Petabyte-scale experiment data, accessed by hundreds of D0 collaborators scattered around the world. In this paper, we present solutions to some of the distributed data processing problems from the perspective of real experience dealing with mission-critical data. We concentrate on the distributed disk caching, resource management and job control. The system has elements of the Grid Computing and has features applicable to data-intensive computing in general.

  16. Distributed Storage Algorithm for Geospatial Image Data Based on Data Access Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shaoming; Li, Yongkai; Xu, Zhengquan; Chong, Yanwen

    2015-01-01

    Declustering techniques are widely used in distributed environments to reduce query response time through parallel I/O by splitting large files into several small blocks and then distributing those blocks among multiple storage nodes. Unfortunately, however, many small geospatial image data files cannot be further split for distributed storage. In this paper, we propose a complete theoretical system for the distributed storage of small geospatial image data files based on mining the access patterns of geospatial image data using their historical access log information. First, an algorithm is developed to construct an access correlation matrix based on the analysis of the log information, which reveals the patterns of access to the geospatial image data. Then, a practical heuristic algorithm is developed to determine a reasonable solution based on the access correlation matrix. Finally, a number of comparative experiments are presented, demonstrating that our algorithm displays a higher total parallel access probability than those of other algorithms by approximately 10–15% and that the performance can be further improved by more than 20% by simultaneously applying a copy storage strategy. These experiments show that the algorithm can be applied in distributed environments to help realize parallel I/O and thereby improve system performance. PMID:26181628

  17. The Effects of Computerized Auditory Feedback on Electronic Article Surveillance Tag Placement in an Auto-Parts Distribution Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David T.

    2008-01-01

    In this report from the field, computerized auditory feedback was used to inform order selectors and order selector auditors in a distribution center to add an electronic article surveillance (EAS) adhesive tag. This was done by programming handheld computers to emit a loud beep for high-priced items upon scanning the item's bar-coded Universal…

  18. Access, excess, and ethics—towards a sustainable distribution model for antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Gabriel; Cars, Otto; Bejarano, Maria-Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The increasing antibiotic resistance is a global threat to health care as we know it. Yet there is no model of distribution ready for a new antibiotic that balances access against excessive or inappropriate use in rural settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where the burden of communicable diseases is high and access to quality health care is low. Departing from a hypothetical scenario of rising antibiotic resistance among pneumococci, 11 stakeholders in the health systems of various LMICs were interviewed one-on-one to give their view on how a new effective antibiotic should be distributed to balance access against the risk of inappropriate use. Transcripts were subjected to qualitative ‘framework’ analysis. The analysis resulted in four main themes: Barriers to rational access to antibiotics; balancing access and excess; learning from other communicable diseases; and a system-wide intervention. The tension between access to antibiotics and rational use stems from shortcomings found in the health systems of LMICs. Constructing a sustainable yet accessible model of antibiotic distribution for LMICs is a task of health system-wide proportions, which is why we strongly suggest using systems thinking in future research on this issue. PMID:24735111

  19. Transfer Access from Community Colleges and the Distribution of Elite Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Alicia C.; Cheslock, John J.; Melguizo, Tatiana

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study that improves the authors' understanding of the potential impact of expanded community college transfer access to elite institutions by examining a variety of key questions using two national databases with complementary strengths. By estimating the number of low-income community college students currently transferring…

  20. Discretionary access control in a heterogeneous distributed data base management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.

    1986-01-01

    An important technical problem in building a distributed database management system (DDBMS) is access control which prevents unauthorized access or malicious destruction of a database. Consider a DDBMS that uses a uniform global data model to integrate the local schemes of existing DBMSs at the sites of a network. The local DBMSs are unchanged, and the DDBMS is implemented as a module on top of the existing DBMSs at each site. The DBMS at each site is expected to retain its autonomy. That is, the local DBMS at each site maintains control of the data stored at that site. Each local DBMS decides for itself if a user (of the local DBMS or of the DDBMS) may access the data it manages. The design of the access control system for the database in such an environment presents several problems. First, the DBMSs at different sites may have different and incompatible access control mechanisms. Second, queries involving data from multiple sites must be processed by the access control mechanisms of multiple and possible different local DBMSs. Coordinating the access control mechanisms of these DBMSs to provide a consistent access control facility to the users of the heterogeneous DDBMS is a difficult task. This research discusses the problem described above. A general architecture for a DDBMS was developed. Data abstraction techniques were adapted to specify the architecture. A formal verification for the specification was completed.

  1. Distinct Geographical Distribution of the Miscanthus Accessions with Varied Biomass Enzymatic Saccharification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xukai; Liao, Haofeng; Fan, Chunfen; Hu, Huizhen; Li, Ying; Li, Jing; Yi, Zili; Cai, Xiwen; Peng, Liangcai; Tu, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Miscanthus is a leading bioenergy candidate for biofuels, and it thus becomes essential to characterize the desire natural Miscanthus germplasm accessions with high biomass saccharification. In this study, total 171 natural Miscanthus accessions were geographically mapped using public database. According to the equation [P(H/L| East) = P(H/L∩East)/P(East)], the probability (P) parameters were calculated on relationships between geographical distributions of Miscanthus accessions in the East of China, and related factors with high(H) or low(L) values including biomass saccahrification under 1% NaOH and 1% H2SO4 pretreatments, lignocellulose features and climate conditions. Based on the maximum P value, a golden cutting line was generated from 42°25’ N, 108°22’ E to 22°58’ N, 116°28’ E on the original locations of Miscanthus accessions with high P(H|East) values (0.800–0.813), indicating that more than 90% Miscanthus accessions were originally located in the East with high biomass saccharification. Furthermore, the averaged insolation showed high P (H|East) and P(East|H) values at 0.782 and 0.754, whereas other climate factors had low P(East|H) values, suggesting that the averaged insolation is unique factor on Miscanthus distributions for biomass saccharification. In terms of cell wall compositions and wall polymer features, both hemicelluloses level and cellulose crystallinity (CrI) of Miscanthus accessions exhibited relative high P values, suggesting that they should be the major factors accounting for geographic distributions of Miscanthus accessions with high biomass digestibility. PMID:27532636

  2. Distinct Geographical Distribution of the Miscanthus Accessions with Varied Biomass Enzymatic Saccharification.

    PubMed

    Li, Xukai; Liao, Haofeng; Fan, Chunfen; Hu, Huizhen; Li, Ying; Li, Jing; Yi, Zili; Cai, Xiwen; Peng, Liangcai; Tu, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Miscanthus is a leading bioenergy candidate for biofuels, and it thus becomes essential to characterize the desire natural Miscanthus germplasm accessions with high biomass saccharification. In this study, total 171 natural Miscanthus accessions were geographically mapped using public database. According to the equation [P(H/L| East) = P(H/L∩East)/P(East)], the probability (P) parameters were calculated on relationships between geographical distributions of Miscanthus accessions in the East of China, and related factors with high(H) or low(L) values including biomass saccahrification under 1% NaOH and 1% H2SO4 pretreatments, lignocellulose features and climate conditions. Based on the maximum P value, a golden cutting line was generated from 42°25' N, 108°22' E to 22°58' N, 116°28' E on the original locations of Miscanthus accessions with high P(H|East) values (0.800-0.813), indicating that more than 90% Miscanthus accessions were originally located in the East with high biomass saccharification. Furthermore, the averaged insolation showed high P (H|East) and P(East|H) values at 0.782 and 0.754, whereas other climate factors had low P(East|H) values, suggesting that the averaged insolation is unique factor on Miscanthus distributions for biomass saccharification. In terms of cell wall compositions and wall polymer features, both hemicelluloses level and cellulose crystallinity (CrI) of Miscanthus accessions exhibited relative high P values, suggesting that they should be the major factors accounting for geographic distributions of Miscanthus accessions with high biomass digestibility. PMID:27532636

  3. National Radiobiology Archives Distributed Access User`s Manual, Version 1.1. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.K.; Prather, J.C.; Ligotke, E.K.; Watson, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    This supplement to the NRA Distributed Access User`s manual (PNL-7877), November 1991, describes installation and use of Version 1.1 of the software package; this is not a replacement of the previous manual. Version 1.1 of the NRA Distributed Access Package is a maintenance release. It eliminates several bugs, and includes a few new features which are described in this manual. Although the appearance of some menu screens has changed, we are confident that the Version 1.0 User`s Manual will provide an adequate introduction to the system. Users who are unfamiliar with Version 1.0 may wish to experiment with that version before moving on to Version 1.1.

  4. OASIS: A Data Fusion System Optimized for Access to Distributed Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. B.; Kong, M.; Good, J. C.

    2002-05-01

    The On-Line Archive Science Information Services (OASIS) is accessible as a java applet through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive home page. It uses Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to provide data fusion and interaction services for astronomers. These services include the ability to process and display arbitrarily large image files, and user-controlled contouring, overlay regeneration and multi-table/image interactions. OASIS has been optimized for access to distributed archives and data sets. Its second release (June 2002) provides a mechanism that enables access to OASIS from "third-party" services and data providers. That is, any data provider who creates a query form to an archive containing a collection of data (images, catalogs, spectra) can direct the result files from the query into OASIS. Similarly, data providers who serve links to datasets or remote services on a web page can access all of these data with one instance of OASIS. In this was any data or service provider is given access to the full suite of capabilites of OASIS. We illustrate the "third-party" access feature with two examples: queries to the high-energy image datasets accessible from GSFC SkyView, and links to data that are returned from a target-based query to the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED). The second release of OASIS also includes a file-transfer manager that reports the status of multiple data downloads from remote sources to the client machine. It is a prototype for a request management system that will ultimately control and manage compute-intensive jobs submitted through OASIS to computing grids, such as request for large scale image mosaics and bulk statistical analysis.

  5. South Africa’s protracted struggle for equal distribution and equitable access – still not there

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to analyse and explain the South African HRH case, its historical evolution, and post-apartheid reform initiatives aimed at addressing deficiencies and shortfalls. HRH in South Africa not only mirrors the nature and diversity of challenges globally, but also the strategies pursued by countries to address these challenges. Although South Africa has strongly developed health professions, large numbers of professional and mid-level workers, and also well-established training institutions, it is experiencing serious workforce shortages and access constraints. This results from the unequal distribution of health workers between the well-resourced private sector over the poorly-resourced public sector, as well as from distributional disparities between urban and rural areas. During colonial and apartheid times, disparities were aggravated by policies of racial segregation and exclusion, remnants of which are today still visible in health-professional backlogs, unequal provincial HRH distribution, and differential access to health services for specific race and class groups. Since 1994, South Africa’s transition to democracy deeply transformed the health system, health professions and HRH establishments. The introduction of free-health policies, the district health system and the prioritisation of PHC ensured more equal distribution of the workforce, as well as greater access to services for deprived groups. However, the HIV/AIDS epidemic brought about huge demands for care and massive patient loads in the public-sector. The emigration of health professionals to developed countries and to the private sector also undermines the strength and effectiveness of the public health sector. For the poor, access to care thus remains constrained and in perpetual shortfall. The post-1994 government has introduced several HRH-specific strategies to recruit, distribute, motivate and retain health professionals to strengthen the public sector and to

  6. The Taxonomic Distribution of Mission-Accessible Small Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Mary L.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David

    2014-11-01

    Scientific interest in the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population has grown in recent years, particularly with regards to characterizing the population of mission-accessible NEAs. Mission accessibility is defined by delta-v, the change in velocity required for a spacecraft to rendezvous with a celestial body. With current propulsion technology, spacecraft can reach NEAs whose orbits have delta-V < 7 km/s.Across the entire NEA population, the smallest (d < 1 km) objects have not been well-studied, owing to the difficulty of observing them. These very small objects are often targets of opportunity, observable for only a short period of time after their discovery. Even at their brightest (V ~ 18), these asteroids are faint enough that they must be observed with large ground-based telescopes.The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra).Thirty-seven small, mission-accessible NEAs were observed between mid 2013 and mid 2014 using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at Gemini North & South observatories. Taxonomic classifications were obtained by fitting our spectra to the visible wavelength portions of the mean reflectance spectra of the Bus-DeMeo taxonomy (DeMeo et al 2009). The smallest near-Earth asteroids are the likely progenitors of meteorites; we expect the observed fraction of ordinary chondrite meteorites to match that of their parent bodies, S-type asteroids. We present classifications for these objects as well as preliminary results for the distribution of taxa (as a proxy for composition) as a function of object size and compare to the observed fraction of ordinary chondrite meteorites.

  7. Distributed data access in the LAMPF (Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility) control system

    SciTech Connect

    Schaller, S.C.; Bjorklund, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    We have extended the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) control system software to allow uniform access to data and controls throughout the control system network. Two aspects of this work are discussed here. Of primary interest is the use of standard interfaces and standard messages to allow uniform and easily expandable inter-node communication. A locally designed remote procedure call protocol will be described. Of further interest is the use of distributed databases to allow maximal hardware independence in the controls software. Application programs use local partial copies of the global device description database to resolve symbolic device names.

  8. Data Access Tools And Services At The Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Long; Eng, Eunice; Sweatman, Paul

    2003-01-01

    As one of the largest providers of Earth Science data from the Earth Observing System, GDAAC provides the latest data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) data products via GDAAC's data pool (50TB of disk cache). In order to make this huge volume of data more accessible to the public and science communities, the GDAAC offers multiple data access tools and services: Open Source Project for Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS/DODS) (GDS), Live Access Server (LAS), OpenGlS Web Map Server (WMS) and Near Archive Data Mining (NADM). The objective is to assist users in retrieving electronically a smaller, usable portion of data for further analysis. The OPeNDAP server, formerly known as the Distributed Oceanographic Data System (DODS), allows the user to retrieve data without worrying about the data format. OPeNDAP is capable of server-side subsetting of HDF, HDF-EOS, netCDF, JGOFS, ASCII, DSP, FITS and binary data formats. The GrADS/DODS server is capable of serving the same data formats as OPeNDAP. GDS has an additional feature of server-side analysis. Users can analyze the data on the server there by decreasing the computational load on their client's system. The LAS is a flexible server that allows user to graphically visualize data on the fly, to request different file formats and to compare variables from distributed locations. Users of LAS have options to use other available graphics viewers such as IDL, Matlab or GrADS. WMS is based on the OPeNDAP for serving geospatial information. WMS supports OpenGlS protocol to provide data in GIs-friendly formats for analysis and visualization. NADM is another access to the GDAAC's data pool. NADM gives users the capability to use a browser to upload their C, FORTRAN or IDL algorithms, test the algorithms, and mine data in the data pool. With NADM, the GDAAC provides an

  9. Analysis of the access patterns at GSFC distributed active archive center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore; Bedet, Jean-Jacques

    1996-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been operational for more than two years. Its mission is to support existing and pre Earth Observing System (EOS) Earth science datasets, facilitate the scientific research, and test Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) concepts. Over 550,000 files and documents have been archived, and more than six Terabytes have been distributed to the scientific community. Information about user request and file access patterns, and their impact on system loading, is needed to optimize current operations and to plan for future archives. To facilitate the management of daily activities, the GSFC DAAC has developed a data base system to track correspondence, requests, ingestion and distribution. In addition, several log files which record transactions on Unitree are maintained and periodically examined. This study identifies some of the users' requests and file access patterns at the GSFC DAAC during 1995. The analysis is limited to the subset of orders for which the data files are under the control of the Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) Unitree. The results show that most of the data volume ordered was for two data products. The volume was also mostly made up of level 3 and 4 data and most of the volume was distributed on 8 mm and 4 mm tapes. In addition, most of the volume ordered was for deliveries in North America although there was a significant world-wide use. There was a wide range of request sizes in terms of volume and number of files ordered. On an average 78.6 files were ordered per request. Using the data managed by Unitree, several caching algorithms have been evaluated for both hit rate and the overhead ('cost') associated with the movement of data from near-line devices to disks. The algorithm called LRU/2 bin was found to be the best for this workload, but the STbin algorithm also worked well.

  10. Grid Data Access on Widely Distributed Worker Nodes Using Scalla and SRM

    SciTech Connect

    Jakl, Pavel; Lauret, Jerome; Hanushevsky, Andrew; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex; Gu, Junmin; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-11-10

    Facing the reality of storage economics, NP experiments such as RHIC/STAR have been engaged in a shift of the analysis model, and now heavily rely on using cheap disks attached to processing nodes, as such a model is extremely beneficial over expensive centralized storage. Additionally, exploiting storage aggregates with enhanced distributed computing capabilities such as dynamic space allocation (lifetime of spaces), file management on shared storages (lifetime of files, pinning file), storage policies or a uniform access to heterogeneous storage solutions is not an easy task. The Xrootd/Scalla system allows for storage aggregation. We will present an overview of the largest deployment of Scalla (Structured Cluster Architecture for Low Latency Access) in the world spanning over 1000 CPUs co-sharing the 350 TB Storage Elements and the experience on how to make such a model work in the RHIC/STAR standard analysis framework. We will explain the key features and approach on how to make access to mass storage (HPSS) possible in such a large deployment context. Furthermore, we will give an overview of a fully 'gridified' solution using the plug-and-play features of Scalla architecture, replacing standard storage access with grid middleware SRM (Storage Resource Manager) components designed for space management and will compare the solution with the standard Scalla approach in use in STAR for the past 2 years. Integration details, future plans and status of development will be explained in the area of best transfer strategy between multiple-choice data pools and best placement with respect of load balancing and interoperability with other SRM aware tools or implementations.

  11. Grid data access on widely distributed worker nodes using scalla and SRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakl, P.; Lauret, J.; Hanushevsky, A.; Shoshani, A.; Sim, A.; Gu, J.

    2008-07-01

    Facing the reality of storage economics, NP experiments such as RHIC/STAR have been engaged in a shift of the analysis model, and now heavily rely on using cheap disks attached to processing nodes, as such a model is extremely beneficial over expensive centralized storage. Additionally, exploiting storage aggregates with enhanced distributed computing capabilities such as dynamic space allocation (lifetime of spaces), file management on shared storages (lifetime of files, pinning file), storage policies or a uniform access to heterogeneous storage solutions is not an easy task. The Xrootd/Scalla system allows for storage aggregation. We will present an overview of the largest deployment of Scalla (Structured Cluster Architecture for Low Latency Access) in the world spanning over 1000 CPUs co-sharing the 350 TB Storage Elements and the experience on how to make such a model work in the RHIC/STAR standard analysis framework. We will explain the key features and approach on how to make access to mass storage (HPSS) possible in such a large deployment context. Furthermore, we will give an overview of a fully 'gridified' solution using the plug-and-play features of Scalla architecture, replacing standard storage access with grid middleware SRM (Storage Resource Manager) components designed for space management and will compare the solution with the standard Scalla approach in use in STAR for the past 2 years. Integration details, future plans and status of development will be explained in the area of best transfer strategy between multiple-choice data pools and best placement with respect of load balancing and interoperability with other SRM aware tools or implementations.

  12. SuperB R&D computing program: HTTP direct access to distributed resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fella, A.; Bianchi, F.; Ciaschini, V.; Corvo, M.; Delprete, D.; Diacono, D.; Di Simone, A.; Franchini, P.; Donvito, G.; Giacomini, F.; Gianoli, A.; Longo, S.; Luitz, S.; Luppi, E.; Manzali, M.; Pardi, S.; Perez, A.; Rama, M.; Russo, G.; Santeramo, B.; Stroili, R.; Tomassetti, L.

    2012-12-01

    The SuperB asymmetric energy e+e- collider and detector to be built at the newly founded Nicola Cabibbo Lab will provide a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. Studying minute effects in the heavy quark and heavy lepton sectors requires a data sample of 75 ab-1 and a luminosity target of 1036cm-2s-1. The increasing network performance also in the Wide Area Network environment and the capability to read data remotely with good efficiency are providing new possibilities and opening new scenarios in the data access field. Subjects like data access and data availability in a distributed environment are key points in the definition of the computing model for an HEP experiment like SuperB. R&D efforts in such a field have been brought on during the last year in order to release the Computing Technical Design Report within 2013. WAN direct access to data has been identified as one of the more interesting viable option; robust and reliable protocols as HTTP/WebDAV and xrootd are the subjects of a specific R&D line in a mid-term scenario. In this work we present the R&D results obtained in the study of new data access technologies for typical HEP use cases, focusing on specific protocols such as HTTP and WebDAV in Wide Area Network scenarios. Reports on efficiency, performance and reliability tests performed in a data analysis context have been described. Future R&D plan includes HTTP and xrootd protocols comparison tests, in terms of performance, efficiency, security and features available.

  13. The theory research of multi-user quantum access network with Measurement Device Independent quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yi-Ming; Li, Yun-Xia; Shi, Lei; Meng, Wen; Cui, Shu-Min; Xu, Zhen-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Quantum access network can't guarantee the absolute security of multi-user detector and eavesdropper can get access to key information through time-shift attack and other ways. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is immune from all the detection attacks, and accomplishes the safe sharing of quantum key. In this paper, that Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is used in the application of multi-user quantum access to the network is on the research. By adopting time-division multiplexing technology to achieve the sharing of multiuser detector, the system structure is simplified and the security of quantum key sharing is acquired.

  14. Do physicians make their articles readable for their blind or low-vision patients? An analysis of current image processing practices in biomedical journals from the point of view of accessibility.

    PubMed

    Splendiani, Bruno; Ribera, Mireia; Garcia, Roberto; Termens, Miquel

    2014-08-01

    Visual content in biomedical academic papers is a growing source of critical information, but it is not always fully readable for people with visual impairments. We aimed to assess current image processing practices, accessibility policies, and submission policies in a sample of 12 highly cited biomedical journals. We manually checked the application of text-based alternative image descriptions for every image in 12 articles (one for each journal). We determined whether the journals claimed to follow an accessibility policy and we reviewed their submission policy and their guidelines related to the visual content. We identified important features concerning the processing of images and the characteristics of the visual and the retrieval options of visual content offered by the publishers. The evaluation shows that the actual practices of textual image description in highly cited biomedical journals do not follow general guidelines on accessibility. The images within the articles analyzed lack alternative descriptions or have uninformative descriptions, even in the case of journals claiming to follow an accessibility policy. Consequently, the visual information of scientific articles is not accessible to people with severe visual disabilities. Instructions on image submission are heterogeneous and a declaration of accessibility guidelines was only found in two thirds of the sample of journals, with one third not explicitly following any accessibility policy, although they are required to by law. PMID:24504831

  15. Metro-access integrated network based on optical OFDMA with dynamic sub-carrier allocation and power distribution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongfu; Zhang, Qiongli; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Ning; Liu, Deming; Qiu, Kun; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Baojian

    2013-01-28

    We propose and demonstrate a novel optical orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA)-based metro-access integrated network with dynamic resource allocation. It consists of a single fiber OFDMA ring and many single fiber OFDMA trees, which transparently integrates metropolitan area networks with optical access networks. The single fiber OFDMA ring connects the core network and the central nodes (CNs), the CNs are on demand reconfigurable and use multiple orthogonal sub-carriers to realize parallel data transmission and dynamic resource allocation, meanwhile, they can also implement flexible power distribution. The remote nodes (RNs) distributed in the user side are connected by the single fiber OFDMA trees with the corresponding CN. The obtained results indicate that our proposed metro-access integrated network is feasible and the power distribution is agile. PMID:23389228

  16. Comparison of Traditional and Open-Access Appointment Scheduling for Exponentially Distributed Service Time.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chongjun; Tang, Jiafu; Jiang, Bowen; Fung, Richard Y K

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the performance measures of traditional appointment scheduling (AS) with those of an open-access appointment scheduling (OA-AS) system with exponentially distributed service time. A queueing model is formulated for the traditional AS system with no-show probability. The OA-AS models assume that all patients who call before the session begins will show up for the appointment on time. Two types of OA-AS systems are considered: with a same-session policy and with a same-or-next-session policy. Numerical results indicate that the superiority of OA-AS systems is not as obvious as those under deterministic scenarios. The same-session system has a threshold of relative waiting cost, after which the traditional system always has higher total costs, and the same-or-next-session system is always preferable, except when the no-show probability or the weight of patients' waiting is low. It is concluded that open-access policies can be viewed as alternative approaches to mitigate the negative effects of no-show patients. PMID:26753439

  17. Cardea: Providing Support for Dynamic Resource Access in a Distributed Computing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepro, Rebekah

    2003-01-01

    The environment framing the modem authorization process span domains of administration, relies on many different authentication sources, and manages complex attributes as part of the authorization process. Cardea facilitates dynamic access control within this environment as a central function of an inter-operable authorization framework. The system departs from the traditional authorization model by separating the authentication and authorization processes, distributing the responsibility for authorization data and allowing collaborating domains to retain control over their implementation mechanisms. Critical features of the system architecture and its handling of the authorization process differentiate the system from existing authorization components by addressing common needs not adequately addressed by existing systems. Continuing system research seeks to enhance the implementation of the current authorization model employed in Cardea, increase the robustness of current features, further the framework for establishing trust and promote interoperability with existing security mechanisms.

  18. The Bias-Corrected Taxonomic Distribution of Mission-Accessible Small Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Mary L.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard P.; Thomas, Cristina; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Person, Michael J.; Polishook, David; Willman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Although they are thought to compose the majority of the Near-Earth object (NEO) population, the small (d < 1 km) near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have not yet been studied as thoroughly as their larger cousins. Sub-kilometer objects are amongst the most abundant newly discovered NEOs and are often targets of opportunity, observable for only a few days to weeks after their discovery. Even at their brightest (V ~ 18), these asteroids are faint enough that they must be observed with large ground-based telescopes.The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra).Fifty-seven small, mission-accessible NEAs were observed between mid 2013 and mid 2015 using GMOS at Gemini North & South observatories as well as the DeVeny spectrograph at Lowell Observatory's Discovery Channel Telescope. Archival data of 43 objects from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for NEO Spectral Reconnaissance (PI R. Binzel) were also used. Taxonomic classifications were obtained by fitting our spectra to the mean reflectance spectra of the Bus asteroid taxonomy (Bus & Binzel 2002). Small NEAs are the likely progenitors of meteorites; an improved understanding of the abundance of meteorite parent body types in the NEO population improves understanding of how the two populations are related as well as the biases Earth's atmosphere imposes upon the meteorite collection.We present classifications for these objects as well as results for the debiased distribution of taxa(as a proxy for composition) as a function of object size and compare to the observed fractions of ordinary chondritemeteorites and asteroids with d > 1 km. Amongst the smallest NEOs we find an unexpected distribution of

  19. The Bias-Corrected Taxonomic Distribution of Mission-Accessible Small Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Mary Louise; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard; DeMeo, Francesca; Thomas, Cristina; Polishook, David; Person, Michael; Willman, Mark; Christensen, Eric

    2015-08-01

    As relics of the inner solar system's formation, asteroids trace the origins of solar system material. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are the intermediaries between material that falls to Earth as meteorites and the source regions of those meteorites in the main belt. A better understanding of the physical parameters of NEAs, in particular their compositions, provides a more complete picture of the processes that shaped the inner solar system and that deliver material from the main belt to near-Earth space.Across the entire NEA population, the smallest (d < 1 km) objects have not been well-studied. These very small objects are often targets of opportunity, observable for only a few days to weeks after their discovery. Even at their brightest (V ~ 18), these asteroids are faint enough that they must be observed with large ground-based telescopes.The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Seventy small, mission-accessible NEAs were observed between mid 2013 and mid 2015 using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at Gemini North & South observatories. Taxonomic classifications were obtained by fitting our spectra to the mean reflectance spectra of the Bus asteroid taxonomy (Bus & Binzel 2002). The smallest near-Earth asteroids are the likely progenitors of meteorites; we expect the observed fraction of ordinary chondrite meteorites to match that of their parent bodies, S-type asteroids. The distribution of the population of small NEAs should also resemble that of their parent bodies, the larger asteroids (d > 1 km). We present classifications for these objects as well as preliminary results for the debiased distribution of taxa (as a proxy for

  20. Optimizing NEURON Simulation Environment Using Remote Memory Access with Recursive Doubling on Distributed Memory Systems.

    PubMed

    Shehzad, Danish; Bozkuş, Zeki

    2016-01-01

    Increase in complexity of neuronal network models escalated the efforts to make NEURON simulation environment efficient. The computational neuroscientists divided the equations into subnets amongst multiple processors for achieving better hardware performance. On parallel machines for neuronal networks, interprocessor spikes exchange consumes large section of overall simulation time. In NEURON for communication between processors Message Passing Interface (MPI) is used. MPI_Allgather collective is exercised for spikes exchange after each interval across distributed memory systems. The increase in number of processors though results in achieving concurrency and better performance but it inversely affects MPI_Allgather which increases communication time between processors. This necessitates improving communication methodology to decrease the spikes exchange time over distributed memory systems. This work has improved MPI_Allgather method using Remote Memory Access (RMA) by moving two-sided communication to one-sided communication, and use of recursive doubling mechanism facilitates achieving efficient communication between the processors in precise steps. This approach enhanced communication concurrency and has improved overall runtime making NEURON more efficient for simulation of large neuronal network models. PMID:27413363

  1. Immigration, language proficiency, and autobiographical memories: Lifespan distribution and second-language access.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports. PMID:26274061

  2. Optimizing NEURON Simulation Environment Using Remote Memory Access with Recursive Doubling on Distributed Memory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bozkuş, Zeki

    2016-01-01

    Increase in complexity of neuronal network models escalated the efforts to make NEURON simulation environment efficient. The computational neuroscientists divided the equations into subnets amongst multiple processors for achieving better hardware performance. On parallel machines for neuronal networks, interprocessor spikes exchange consumes large section of overall simulation time. In NEURON for communication between processors Message Passing Interface (MPI) is used. MPI_Allgather collective is exercised for spikes exchange after each interval across distributed memory systems. The increase in number of processors though results in achieving concurrency and better performance but it inversely affects MPI_Allgather which increases communication time between processors. This necessitates improving communication methodology to decrease the spikes exchange time over distributed memory systems. This work has improved MPI_Allgather method using Remote Memory Access (RMA) by moving two-sided communication to one-sided communication, and use of recursive doubling mechanism facilitates achieving efficient communication between the processors in precise steps. This approach enhanced communication concurrency and has improved overall runtime making NEURON more efficient for simulation of large neuronal network models. PMID:27413363

  3. Experimental access to Transition Distribution Amplitudes with the P¯ANDA experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B. P.; Erni, W.; Keshelashvili, I.; Krusche, B.; Steinacher, M.; Liu, B.; Liu, H.; Liu, Z.; Shen, X.; Wang, C.; Zhao, J.; Albrecht, M.; Fink, M.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Holtmann, T.; Koch, H.; Kopf, B.; Kümmel, M.; Kuhl, G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Leyhe, M.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Pelizäus, M.; Pychy, J.; Richter, M.; Schnier, C.; Schröder, T.; Sowa, C.; Steinke, M.; Triffterer, T.; Wiedner, U.; Beck, R.; Hammann, C.; Kaiser, D.; Ketzer, B.; Kube, M.; Mahlberg, P.; Rossbach, M.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitz, R.; Thoma, U.; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Wilson, A.; Bianconi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Caprini, M.; Pantea, D.; Pietreanu, D.; Vasile, M. E.; Patel, B.; Kaplan, D.; Brandys, P.; Czyzewski, T.; Czyzycki, W.; Domagala, M.; Hawryluk, M.; Filo, G.; Krawczyk, M.; Kwiatkowski, D.; Lisowski, E.; Lisowski, F.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Mindur, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Swientek, K.; Czech, B.; Kliczewski, S.; Korcyl, K.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Lebiedowicz, P.; Malgorzata, K.; Pysz, K.; Schäfer, W.; Siudak, R.; Szczurek, A.; Biernat, J.; Jowzaee, S.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Korcyl, G.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Palka, M.; Psyzniak, A.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Strzempek, P.; Wrońska, A.; Augustin, I.; Lehmann, I.; Nicmorus, D.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Al-Turany, M.; Cahit, U.; Capozza, L.; Dbeyssi, A.; Deppe, H.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Ehret, A.; Flemming, H.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Karabowicz, R.; Kliemt, R.; Kunkel, J.; Kurilla, U.; Lehmann, D.; Lühning, J.; Maas, F.; Morales Morales, C.; Mora Espí, M. C.; Nerling, F.; Orth, H.; Peters, K.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Saito, N.; Saito, T.; Sánchez Lorente, A.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Valente, R.; Voss, B.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G.; Arefiev, A.; Astakhov, V. I.; Barabanov, M. Yu.; Batyunya, B. V.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Efremov, A. A.; Fedunov, A. G.; Festchenko, A. A.; Galoyan, A. S.; Grigoryan, S.; Karmokov, A.; Koshurnikov, E. K.; Lobanov, V. I.; Lobanov, Yu. Yu.; Makarov, A. F.; Malinina, L. V.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mustafaev, G. A.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pasyuk, M. A.; Perevalova, E. A.; Piskun, A. A.; Pocheptsov, T. A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rodionov, V. K.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Salmin, R. A.; Samartsev, A. G.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Shabratova, G. S.; Skachkov, N. B.; Skachkova, A. N.; Strokovsky, E. A.; Suleimanov, M. K.; Teshev, R. Sh.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Uzhinsky, V. V.; Vodopyanov, A. S.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zhuravlev, N. I.; Zorin, A. G.; Branford, D.; Glazier, D.; Watts, D.; Woods, P.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Uhlig, F.; Dobbs, S.; Seth, K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Bettoni, D.; Carassiti, V.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Drago, A.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savriè, M.; Stancari, G.; Akishina, V.; Kisel, I.; Kulakov, I.; Zyzak, M.; Arora, R.; Bel, T.; Gromliuk, A.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Patsyuk, M.; Zuehlsdorf, M.; Bianchi, N.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; Pace, E.; Bersani, A.; Bracco, G.; Macri, M.; Parodi, R. F.; Bianco, S.; Bremer, D.; Brinkmann, K. T.; Diehl, S.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Düren, M.; Eissner, T.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Galuska, M.; Gessler, T.; Gutz, E.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Hu, J.; Kröck, B.; Kühn, W.; Kuske, T.; Lange, S.; Liang, Y.; Merle, O.; Metag, V.; Mülhheim, D.; Münchow, D.; Nanova, M.; Novotny, R.; Pitka, A.; Quagli, T.; Rieke, J.; Rosenbaum, C.; Schnell, R.; Spruck, B.; Stenzel, H.; Thöring, U.; Ullrich, M.; Wasem, T.; Werner, M.; Zaunick, H. G.; Ireland, D.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Deepak, P. N.; Kulkarni, A. V.; Apostolou, A.; Babai, M.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P.; Lindemulder, M.; Löhner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Schakel, P.; Smit, H.; van der Weele, J. C.; Tiemens, M.; Veenstra, R.; Vejdani, S.; Kalita, K.; Mohanta, D. P.; Kumar, A.; Roy, A.; Sahoo, R.; Sohlbach, H.; Büscher, M.; Cao, L.; Cebulla, A.; Deermann, D.; Dosdall, R.; Esch, S.; Georgadze, I.; Gillitzer, A.; Goerres, A.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grunwald, D.; Herten, A.; Hu, Q.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Kozlov, V.; Lehrach, A.; Leiber, S.; Maier, R.; Nellen, R.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Prasuhn, D.; Prencipe, E.; Ritman, J.; Schadmand, S.; Schumann, J.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockmanns, T.; Wintz, P.; Wüstner, P.; Xu, H.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Sun, Z.; Xu, H.; Rigato, V.; Fissum, S.; Hansen, K.; Isaksson, L.; Lundin, M.; Schröder, B.; Achenbach, P.; Bleser, S.; Cardinali, M.; Corell, O.; Deiseroth, M.; Denig, A.; Distler, M.; Feldbauer, F.; Fritsch, M.; Jasinski, P.; Hoek, M.; Kangh, D.; Karavdina, A.; Lauth, W.; Leithoff, H.; Merkel, H.; Michel, M.; Motzko, C.; Müller, U.; Noll, O.; Plueger, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez, S.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Steinen, M.; Thiel, M.; Weber, T.; Zambrana, M.; Dormenev, V. I.; Fedorov, A. A.; Korzihik, M. V.; Missevitch, O. V.; Balanutsa, P.; Balanutsa, V.; Chernetsky, V.; Demekhin, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Fedorets, P.; Gerasimov, A.; Goryachev, V.; Varentsov, V.; Boukharov, A.; Malyshev, O.; Marishev, I.; Semenov, A.; Konorov, I.; Paul, S.; Grieser, S.; Hergemöller, A. K.; Khoukaz, A.; Köhler, E.; Täschner, A.; Wessels, J.; Dash, S.; Jadhav, M.; Kumar, S.; Sarin, P.; Varma, R.; Chandratre, V. B.; Datar, V.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumawat, H.; Mohanty, A. K.; Roy, B.; Yan, Y.; Chinorat, K.; Khanchai, K.; Ayut, L.; Pornrad, S.; Barnyakov, A. Y.; Blinov, A. E.; Blinov, V. E.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Kononov, S. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Sokolov, A. A.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Atomssa, E.; Hennino, T.; Imre, M.; Kunne, R.; Le Galliard, C.; Ma, B.; Marchand, D.; Ong, S.; Ramstein, B.; Rosier, P.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Van de Wiele, J.; Boca, G.; Costanza, S.; Genova, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Abramov, V.; Belikov, N.; Bukreeva, S.; Davidenko, A.; Derevschikov, A.; Goncharenko, Y.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Kormilitsin, V.; Melnik, Y.; Levin, A.; Minaev, N.; Mochalov, V.; Morozov, D.; Nogach, L.; Poslavskiy, S.; Ryazantsev, A.; Ryzhikov, S.; Semenov, P.; Shein, I.; Uzunian, A.; Vasiliev, A.; Yakutin, A.; Yabsley, B.; Bäck, T.; Cederwall, B.; Makónyi, K.; Tegnér, P. E.; von Würtemberg, K. M.; Belostotski, S.; Gavrilov, G.; Izotov, A.; Kashchuk, A.; Levitskaya, O.; Manaenkov, S.; Miklukho, O.; Naryshkin, Y.; Suvorov, K.; Veretennikov, D.; Zhadanov, A.; Rai, A. K.; Godre, S. S.; Duchat, R.; Amoroso, A.; Bussa, M. P.; Busso, L.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Greco, M.; Maggiora, M.; Maniscalco, G.; Marcello, S.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Zotti, L.; Calvo, D.; Coli, S.; De Remigis, P.; Filippi, A.; Giraudo, G.; Lusso, S.; Mazza, G.; Mingnore, M.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.; Balestra, F.; Iazzi, F.; Introzzi, R.; Lavagno, A.; Younis, H.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Martin, A.; Clement, H.; Gålnander, B.; Caldeira Balkeståhl, L.; Calén, H.; Fransson, K.; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Pettersson, J.; Schönning, K.; Wolke, M.; Zlomanczuk, J.; Díaz, J.; Ortiz, A.; Vinodkumar, P. C.; Parmar, A.; Chlopik, A.; Melnychuk, D.; Slowinski, B.; Trzcinski, A.; Wojciechowski, M.; Wronka, S.; Zwieglinski, B.; Bühler, P.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Fröhlich, B.; Khaneft, D.; Lin, D.; Zimmermann, I.; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K.

    2015-08-01

    Baryon-to-meson Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDAs) encoding valuable new information on hadron structure appear as building blocks in the collinear factorized description for several types of hard exclusive reactions. In this paper, we address the possibility of accessing nucleon-to-pion ( πN) TDAs from reaction with the future P¯ANDA detector at the FAIR facility. At high center-of-mass energy and high invariant mass squared of the lepton pair q 2, the amplitude of the signal channel admits a QCD factorized description in terms of πN TDAs and nucleon Distribution Amplitudes (DAs) in the forward and backward kinematic regimes. Assuming the validity of this factorized description, we perform feasibility studies for measuring with the P¯ANDA detector. Detailed simulations on signal reconstruction efficiency as well as on rejection of the most severe background channel, i.e. were performed for the center-of-mass energy squared s = 5 GeV2 and s = 10 GeV2, in the kinematic regions 3.0 < q 2 < 4.3 GeV2 and 5 < q 2 GeV2, respectively, with a neutral pion scattered in the forward or backward cone in the proton-antiproton center-of-mass frame. Results of the simulation show that the particle identification capabilities of the P¯ANDA detector will allow to achieve a background rejection factor of 5 · 107 (1 · 107) at low (high) q 2 for s = 5 GeV2, and of 1 · 108 (6 · 106) at low (high) q 2 for s = 10 GeV2, while keeping the signal reconstruction efficiency at around 40%. At both energies, a clean lepton signal can be reconstructed with the expected statistics corresponding to 2 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. The cross sections obtained from the simulations are used to show that a test of QCD collinear factorization can be done at the lowest order by measuring scaling laws and angular distributions. The future measurement of the signal channel cross section with P¯ANDA will provide a new test of the perturbative QCD description of a novel class of hard

  4. A Corpus-Based Lexical Study on Frequency and Distribution of Coxhead's Awl Word Families in Medical Research Articles (RAs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qi; Guang-Chun, Ge

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a lexical study on the word frequency and the text coverage of the 570 word families from Coxhead's Academic Word List (AWL) in medical research articles (RAs) based on a corpus of 50 medical RAs written in English with 190425 running words. By computer analysis, we found that the text coverage of the AWL words accounted for around…

  5. Open Core Data: Semantic driven data access and distribution for terrestrial and marine scientific drilling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fils, D.; Noren, A. J.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Open Core Data (OCD) is a science-driven, innovative, efficient, and scalable infrastructure for data generated by scientific drilling and coring projects across all Earth sciences. It is designed to make make scientific drilling data semantically discoverable, persistent, citable, and approachable to maximize their utility to present and future geoscience researchers. Scientific drilling and coring is crucial for the advancement of the Earth Sciences, unlocking new frontiers in the geologic record. Open Core Data will utilize and link existing data systems, services, and expertise of the JOIDES Resolution Science Operator (JRSO), the Continental Scientific Drilling Coordination Office (CSDCO), the Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA) data facility, and the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (OL). Open Core Data will leverage efforts currently taking place under the EarthCube GeoLink Building Block and other previous efforts in Linked Open Data around ocean drilling data coordinated by OL. The OCD architecture for data distribution blends Linked Data Platform approaches with web services and schema.org use. OCD will further enable integration and tool development by assigning and using vocabularies, provenance, and unique IDs (DOIs, IGSN, URIs) in scientific drilling resources. A significant focus of this effort is to enable large scale automated access to the data by domain specific communities such as MagIC and Neotoma. Providing them a process to integrate the facility data into their data models, workflows and tools. This aspect will encompass methods to maintain awareness of authority information enabling users to trace data back to the originating facility. Initial work on OCD is taking place under a supplemental awarded to IEDA. This talk gives an overview of that work to date and planned future directions for the distribution of scientific drilling data by this effort.

  6. The Earth System Grid Federation: An Open Infrastructure for Access to Distributed Geospatial Data

    SciTech Connect

    Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Bell, Gavin; Cinquini, Luca; Crichton, Daniel; Danvil, Sebastian; Drach, Bob; Fiore, Sandro; Gonzalez, Estanislao; Harney, John F; Mattmann, Chris; Kershaw, Philip; Morgan, Mark; Pascoe, Stephen; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2013-01-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is a multi-agency, international collaboration that aims at developing the software infrastructure needed to facilitate and empower the study of climate change on a global scale. The ESGF s architecture employs a system of geographically distributed peer nodes, which are independently administered yet united by the adoption of common federation protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs). The cornerstones of its interoperability are the peer-to-peer messaging that is continuously exchanged among all nodes in the federation; a shared architecture and API for search and discovery; and a security infrastructure based on industry standards (OpenID, SSL, GSI and SAML). The ESGF software is developed collaboratively across institutional boundaries and made available to the community as open source. It has now been adopted by multiple Earth science projects and allows access to petabytes of geophysical data, including the entire model output used for the next international assessment report on climate change (IPCC-AR5) and a suite of satellite observations (obs4MIPs) and reanalysis data sets (ANA4MIPs).

  7. The Earth System Grid Federation: An Open Infrastructure for Access to Distributed Geo-Spatial Data

    SciTech Connect

    Cinquini, Luca; Crichton, Daniel; Miller, Neill; Mattmann, Chris; Harney, John F; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi; Bell, Gavin; Drach, Bob; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Pascoe, Stephen; Fiore, Sandro; Schweitzer, Roland; Danvil, Sebastian; Morgan, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is a multi-agency, international collaboration that aims at developing the software infrastructure needed to facilitate and empower the study of climate change on a global scale. The ESGF s architecture employs a system of geographically distributed peer nodes, which are independently administered yet united by the adoption of common federation protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs). The cornerstones of its interoperability are the peer-to-peer messaging that is continuously exchanged among all nodes in the federation; a shared architecture and API for search and discovery; and a security infrastructure based on industry standards (OpenID, SSL, GSI and SAML). The ESGF software is developed collaboratively across institutional boundaries and made available to the community as open source. It has now been adopted by multiple Earth science projects and allows access to petabytes of geophysical data, including the entire model output used for the next international assessment report on climate change (IPCC-AR5) and a suite of satellite observations (obs4MIPs) and reanalysis data sets (ANA4MIPs).

  8. The Earth System Grid Federation : an Open Infrastructure for Access to Distributed Geospatial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cinquini, Luca; Crichton, Daniel; Mattmann, Chris; Harney, John; Shipman, Galen; Wang, Feiyi; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Miller, Neill; Denvil, Sebastian; Morgan, Mark; Pobre, Zed; Bell, Gavin M.; Drach, Bob; Williams, Dean; Kershaw, Philip; Pascoe, Stephen; Gonzalez, Estanislao; Fiore, Sandro; Schweitzer, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is a multi-agency, international collaboration that aims at developing the software infrastructure needed to facilitate and empower the study of climate change on a global scale. The ESGF's architecture employs a system of geographically distributed peer nodes, which are independently administered yet united by the adoption of common federation protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs). The cornerstones of its interoperability are the peer-to-peer messaging that is continuously exchanged among all nodes in the federation; a shared architecture and API for search and discovery; and a security infrastructure based on industry standards (OpenID, SSL, GSI and SAML). The ESGF software is developed collaboratively across institutional boundaries and made available to the community as open source. It has now been adopted by multiple Earth science projects and allows access to petabytes of geophysical data, including the entire model output used for the next international assessment report on climate change (IPCC-AR5) and a suite of satellite observations (obs4MIPs) and reanalysis data sets (ANA4MIPs).

  9. Entanglement distribution over quantum code-division multiple-access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chang-long; Yang, Nan; Liu, Yu-xi; Nori, Franco; Zhang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    We present a method for quantum entanglement distribution over a so-called code-division multiple-access network, in which two pairs of users share the same quantum channel to transmit information. The main idea of this method is to use different broadband chaotic phase shifts, generated by electro-optic modulators and chaotic Colpitts circuits, to encode the information-bearing quantum signals coming from different users and then recover the masked quantum signals at the receiver side by imposing opposite chaotic phase shifts. The chaotic phase shifts given to different pairs of users are almost uncorrelated due to the randomness of chaos and thus the quantum signals from different pair of users can be distinguished even when they are sent via the same quantum channel. It is shown that two maximally entangled states can be generated between two pairs of users by our method mediated by bright coherent lights, which can be more easily implemented in experiments compared with single-photon lights. Our method is robust under the channel noises if only the decay rates of the information-bearing fields induced by the channel noises are not quite high. Our study opens up new perspectives for addressing and transmitting quantum information in future quantum networks.

  10. Simultaneous detection of four garlic viruses by multiplex reverse transcription PCR and their distribution in Indian garlic accessions.

    PubMed

    Majumder, S; Baranwal, V K

    2014-06-01

    Indian garlic is infected with Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Shallot latent virus (SLV), Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) and allexiviruses. Identity and distribution of garlic viruses in various garlic accessions from different geographical regions of India were investigated. OYDV and allexiviruses were observed in all the garlic accessions, while SLV and GarCLV were observed only in a few accessions. A multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of OYDV, SLV, GarCLV and Allexivirus infecting garlic accessions in India. This multiplex protocol standardized in this study will be useful in indexing of garlic viruses and production of virus free seed material. PMID:24598229

  11. BioExtract Server - An integrated workflow-enabling system to access and analyze heterogeneous, distributed biomolecular data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many computational workflows in bioinformatics require access to multiple, distributed data sources and analytic tools. The requisite data sources may include large public data repositories, community databases, and project databases for use in domain-specific research. Because different data source...

  12. Energy-Efficiency Analysis of a Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Biomedical Wireless Sensor Networks in Saturation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Otal, Begonya; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The aging population and the high quality of life expectations in our society lead to the need of more efficient and affordable healthcare solutions. For this reason, this paper aims for the optimization of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for biomedical wireless sensor networks or wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs). The hereby presented schemes always have in mind the efficient management of channel resources and the overall minimization of sensors’ energy consumption in order to prolong sensors’ battery life. The fact that the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC does not fully satisfy BSN requirements highlights the need for the design of new scalable MAC solutions, which guarantee low-power consumption to the maximum number of body sensors in high density areas (i.e., in saturation conditions). In order to emphasize IEEE 802.15.4 MAC limitations, this article presents a detailed overview of this de facto standard for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which serves as a link for the introduction and initial description of our here proposed Distributed Queuing (DQ) MAC protocol for BSN scenarios. Within this framework, an extensive DQ MAC energy-consumption analysis in saturation conditions is presented to be able to evaluate its performance in relation to IEEE 802.5.4 MAC in highly dense BSNs. The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms IEEE 802.15.4 MAC in average energy consumption per information bit, thus providing a better overall performance that scales appropriately to BSNs under high traffic conditions. These benefits are obtained by eliminating back-off periods and collisions in data packet transmissions, while minimizing the control overhead. PMID:22319351

  13. The quest to make accessibility a corporate article of faith at Microsoft: case study of corporate culture and human resource dimensions.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Leonard A; Blanck, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This case study examines efforts by Microsoft Corporation to enhance the diversity of its workforce and improve the accessibility and usability of its products and services for persons with disabilities. The research explores the relation among the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, corporate leadership, attitudes and behaviors towards individuals with disabilities, and dynamics that shape organizational culture at Microsoft. Implications for Microsoft, other employers, researchers, and the disability community are discussed. PMID:15706606

  14. Virtual Oregon: A Proof-of-Concept for Seamless Access to Distributed Environmental Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keon, D.; Pancake, C.; Wright, D. J.; Walsh, K.

    2002-12-01

    Virtual Oregon is a new data coordination center established at Oregon State University in order to: (1) archive environmental and other place-based data on Oregon and associated areas; (2) make those data accessible to a broad spectrum of agencies and individuals via innovative web interfaces; (3) identify key data sets that are not yet available and encourage their collection and dissemination; and (4) facilitate development of statewide standards for archiving, documenting, and disseminating data. Rather than co-locating researchers and data in a physical center, Virtual Oregon employs a distributed architecture that occupies multiple locations while users are presented with the illusion of a single, centralized facility. This approach was selected not just to maximize the impact on campus students, faculty, and staff but also to service broader interactions with extension agents and other members of Oregon State's statewide community. Virtual Oregon builds on regional GIS centers and databanks in a wide range of disciplines, providing decades of research data on topics as varied as coastal processes, climate, biodiversity, land ownership, water quality, wildfire, and agricultural production. There are four distributed nodes, each serving as a center and clearinghouse for distinct types of information and services: - Department of Geosciences (College of Science): geospatial coverages, digital aerial and ortho imagery and associated base data - Forestry Sciences Laboratory (USDA Forest Service and Oregon State's College of Forestry): ecological and resource management databases; data analyses; data from computational simulations - Northwest Alliance for Computational Science and Engineering (NACSE): databases based on specimen collections, field observation, images, or analysis of historical documents; user interface design - Valley Library: published maps, books and archival publications, gray literature, photographs and video Data are harvested from a variety

  15. Accessing proton generalized parton distributions and pion distribution amplitudes with the exclusive pion-induced Drell-Yan process at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Takahiro; Chang, Wen-Chen; Kumano, Shunzo; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Sawada, Shinya; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Generalized parton distributions (GPDs) encoding multidimensional information of hadron partonic structure appear as the building blocks in a factorized description of hard exclusive reactions. The nucleon GPDs have been accessed by deeply virtual Compton scattering and deeply virtual meson production with lepton beam. A complementary probe with hadron beam is the exclusive pion-induced Drell-Yan process. In this paper, we discuss recent theoretical advances on describing this process in terms of nucleon GPDs and pion distribution amplitudes. Furthermore, we address the feasibility of measuring the exclusive pion-induced Drell-Yan process π-p →μ+μ-n via a spectrometer at the High Momentum Beamline being constructed at J-PARC in Japan. Realization of such measurement at J-PARC will provide a new test of perturbative QCD descriptions of a novel class of hard exclusive reactions. It will also offer the possibility of experimentally accessing nucleon GPDs at large timelike virtuality.

  16. A Framework for Federated Two-Factor Authentication Enabling Cost-Effective Secure Access to Distributed Cyberinfrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ezell, Matthew A; Rogers, Gary L; Peterson, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    As cyber attacks become increasingly sophisticated, the security measures used to mitigate the risks must also increase in sophistication. One time password (OTP) systems provide strong authentication because security credentials are not reusable, thus thwarting credential replay attacks. The credential changes regularly, making brute-force attacks significantly more difficult. In high performance computing, end users may require access to resources housed at several different service provider locations. The ability to share a strong token between multiple computing resources reduces cost and complexity. The National Science Foundation (NSF) Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) provides access to digital resources, including supercomputers, data resources, and software tools. XSEDE will offer centralized strong authentication for services amongst service providers that leverage their own user databases and security profiles. This work implements a scalable framework built on standards to provide federated secure access to distributed cyberinfrastructure.

  17. Spatial distribution and accessibility to public sector tertiary care teaching hospitals in Karachi: A Geographic Information Systems application.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Ali, Mir Shabbar

    2016-07-01

    Optimal utilization of specialized curative healthcare services is contingent on spatial access to tertiary-care hospitals by the targeted population. The objectives of this study were to determine the spatial distribution of public sector tertiary-care teaching hospitals in Karachi, and to use GIS and network analysis for modeling the accessibility to these hospitals for Karachi residents. Maps of three, six, and nine kilometer buffers were created around the five selected hospitals to determine which towns of Karachi are either entirely or partially covered/accessible. Most of the towns in Karachi were covered either partially or completely by the three buffers and service areas of 3,6, and 9 kilometers around the five selected hospitals. This study highlights the limitations of using publicly available data for road network, and the need for creating and making available in public domain, comprehensive road network vector dataset in conjunction with population breakdowns by administrative subdivisions. PMID:27427142

  18. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  19. Internet access to the web resources of a geographically distributed system of near-and deep-space monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernenkov, V. N.; Vitkovskij, V. V.; Kalinina, N. A.

    2007-12-01

    The state and speed characteristics of Web access to the first five nodes of the projected geographically distributed system of scientific monitoring of near and deep space are analyzed. The possibility of developing an architecture involving user query redirection to a caching server is studied. This will make it possible to relieve hardware communication links substantially and speed up HTTP connection time, especially for nodes linked via heavily congested Internet links.

  20. Superconductive articles

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

    1991-12-31

    An article of manufacture including a substrate, a patterned interlayer of magnesium oxide, barium-titanium oxide or barium-zirconium oxide, the patterned interlayer material overcoated with a secondary interlayer material of yttria-stabilized zirconia or magnesium-aluminum oxide, upon the surface of the substrate whereby an intermediate article with an exposed surface of both the overcoated patterned interlayer and the substrate is formed, a coating of a buffer layer selected from the group consisting of oxides of Ce, Y, Cm, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Gd, Ho, In, La, Mn, Lu, Nd, Pr, Pu, Sm, Tb, Tl, Tm, Y, and Yb over the entire exposed surface of the intermediate article, and, a ceramic superconductive material layer as an overcoat upon the buffer layer whereby the ceramic superconductive material situated directly above the substrate has a crystal structure substantially different than the ceramic superconductive material situated above the overcoated patterned interlayer.

  1. Soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed optically accessible D.I. diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dec, J.E.; Espey, C.

    1993-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) laser-sheet imaging has been used to examine the soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed, optically accessible, direct-injection Diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class. The design of this engine preserves the intake port geometry and basic dimensions of a Cummins N-series production engine. It also includes several unique features to provide considerable optical access. Liquid-phase fuel and soot distribution studies were conducted at a medium speed (1,200 rpm) using a Cummins closed-nozzle fuel injector. The scattering was used to obtain planar images of the liquid-phase fuel distribution. These images show that the leading edge of the liquid-phase portion of the fuel jet reaches a maximum length of 24 mm, which is about half the combustion bowl radius for this engine. Beyond this point virtually all the fuel has vaporized. Soot distribution measurements were made at a high load condition using three imaging diagnostics: natural flame luminosity, 2-D laser-induced incandescence, and 2-D elastic scattering. This investigation showed that the soot distribution in the combusting fuel jet develops through three stages. First, just after the onset of luminous combustion, soot particles are small and nearly uniformly distributed throughout the luminous region of the fuel jet. Second, after about 2 crank angle degrees a pattern develops of a higher soot concentration of larger sized particles in the head vortex region of the jet and a lower soot concentration of smaller sized particles upstream toward the injector. Third, after fuel injection ends, both the soot concentration and soot particle size increase rapidly in the upstream portion of the fuel jet.

  2. POPcorn: An Online Resource Providing Access to Distributed and Diverse Maize Project Data

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Ethalinda K. S.; Birkett, Scott M.; Braun, Bremen L.; Kodavali, Sateesh; Jennewein, Douglas M.; Yilmaz, Alper; Antonescu, Valentin; Antonescu, Corina; Harper, Lisa C.; Gardiner, Jack M.; Schaeffer, Mary L.; Campbell, Darwin A.; Andorf, Carson M.; Andorf, Destri; Lisch, Damon; Koch, Karen E.; McCarty, Donald R.; Quackenbush, John; Grotewold, Erich; Lushbough, Carol M.; Sen, Taner Z.; Lawrence, Carolyn J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the online resource presented here, POPcorn (Project Portal for corn), is to enhance accessibility of maize genetic and genomic resources for plant biologists. Currently, many online locations are difficult to find, some are best searched independently, and individual project websites often degrade over time—sometimes disappearing entirely. The POPcorn site makes available (1) a centralized, web-accessible resource to search and browse descriptions of ongoing maize genomics projects, (2) a single, stand-alone tool that uses web Services and minimal data warehousing to search for sequence matches in online resources of diverse offsite projects, and (3) a set of tools that enables researchers to migrate their data to the long-term model organism database for maize genetic and genomic information: MaizeGDB. Examples demonstrating POPcorn's utility are provided herein. PMID:22253616

  3. Distributed data discovery, access and visualization services to Improve Data Interoperability across different data holdings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, G.; Krassovski, M.; Devarakonda, R.; Santhana Vannan, S.

    2012-12-01

    The current climate debate is highlighting the importance of free, open, and authoritative sources of high quality climate data that are available for peer review and for collaborative purposes. It is increasingly important to allow various organizations around the world to share climate data in an open manner, and to enable them to perform dynamic processing of climate data. This advanced access to data can be enabled via Web-based services, using common "community agreed" standards without having to change their internal structure used to describe the data. The modern scientific community has become diverse and increasingly complex in nature. To meet the demands of such diverse user community, the modern data supplier has to provide data and other related information through searchable, data and process oriented tool. This can be accomplished by setting up on-line, Web-based system with a relational database as a back end. The following common features of the web data access/search systems will be outlined in the proposed presentation: - A flexible data discovery - Data in commonly used format (e.g., CSV, NetCDF) - Preparing metadata in standard formats (FGDC, ISO19115, EML, DIF etc.) - Data subseting capabilities and ability to narrow down to individual data elements - Standards based data access protocols and mechanisms (SOAP, REST, OpenDAP, OGC etc.) - Integration of services across different data systems (discovery to access, visualizations and subseting) This presentation will also include specific examples of integration of various data systems that are developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory's - Climate Change Science Institute, their ability to communicate between each other to enable better data interoperability and data integration. References: [1] Devarakonda, Ranjeet, and Harold Shanafield. "Drupal: Collaborative framework for science research." Collaboration Technologies and Systems (CTS), 2011 International Conference on. IEEE, 2011. [2

  4. Laminate article

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2002-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  5. The NASA-GES-DISC Satellite Data/Products Access, Distribution, Services and Dissemination to Users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto A.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA/GES/DISC/DAAC is a virtual data portal that provides convenient access to Atmospheric, Oceanic and Land datasets and value added products from various current NASA missions and instruments as well as heritage datasets from AIRS/AMSU/HSB, AVHRR, CZCS, LIMS, MODIS, MSU, OCTS, SeaWiFS, SORCE, SSI, TOMS, TOVS, UARS and TRMM. The GES-DISC-DAAC also provided a variety of services that allow users to analyze and visualize gridded data interactively online without having to download any data.

  6. System architecture and information model for integrated access to distributed biomedical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongkyu; Alaoui, Adil; Levine, Betty; Leondaridis, Leonidas; Shields, Peter; Byers, Steve; Cleary, Kevin

    2009-02-01

    The current trend towards systems medicine will rely heavily on computational and bioinformatics capabilities to collect, integrate, and analyze massive amounts of data from disparate sources. The objective is to use this information to make medical decisions that improve patient care. At Georgetown University Medical Center, we are developing an informatics capability to integrate several research and clinical databases. Our long term goal is to provide researchers at Georgetown's Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center better access to aggregated molecular and clinical information facilitating the investigation of new hypotheses that impact patient care. We also recognize the need for data mining tools and intelligent agents to help researchers in these efforts. This paper describes our initial work to create a flexible platform for researchers and physicians that provides access to information sources including clinical records, medical images, genomic, epigenomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. This paper describes the data sources selected for this pilot project and possible approaches to integrating these databases. We present the different database integration models that we considered. We conclude by outlining the proposed Information Model for the project.

  7. Rock Size-Frequency Distributions at the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites: Impact Hazard and Accessibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Matijevic, J. R.; DiMaggio, E. N.; Schroeder, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    The Viking and Mars Pathfinder landing sites and a wide variety of rocky locations on the Earth show size-frequency distributions that follow an exponential when expressed in cumulative fractional area covered by rocks of a given diameter or larger versus diameter plots. Mars lander rock distributions have been fit by an equation of the form: Fk(D) = k exp [-q(k) D], where Fk(D) is the cumulative fractional area covered by rocks of diameter D or larger, k is the total area covered by all rocks, and an exponential q(k) = 1.79 + 0.152/k, which governs how abruptly the area covered by rocks decreases with increasing diameter. These distributions form a family of noncrossing curves that flatten out at small rock diameter at a total rock abundance of 5-40%. Model rock size-frequency distributions indicate a low probability of impacting hazardous rocks during MER landing. Rocks large enough to analyze and abrade by the rover should be plentiful within an easy Sol's drive.

  8. SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, D. M. A.; Maudire, G.

    2009-04-01

    SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in EU FP6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Therefore SeaDataNet insures the long term archiving of the large number of multidisciplinary data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea level, chemical, physical and biological properties) collected by many different sensors installed on board of research vessels, satellite and the various platforms of the marine observing system. The SeaDataNet project started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, but its primary objective is the provision of easy data access and generic data products. SeaDataNet is a distributed infrastructure that provides transnational access to marine data, meta-data, products and services through 40 interconnected Trans National Data Access Platforms (TAP) from 35 countries around the Black Sea, Mediterranean, North East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic and Arctic regions. These include: National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODC's) Satellite Data Centres. Furthermore the SeaDataNet consortium comprises a number of expert modelling centres, SME's experts in IT, and 3 international bodies (ICES, IOC and JRC). Planning: The SeaDataNet project is delivering and operating the infrastructure in 3 versions: Version 0: maintenance and further development of the metadata systems developed by the Sea-Search project plus the development of a new metadata system for indexing and accessing to individual data objects managed by the SeaDataNet data centres. This

  9. Real-time Data Access Monitoring in Distributed, Multi-petabyte Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Azemoon, Tofigh; Becla, Jacek, a=Hanushevsky, Andrew; Turri, Massimiliano; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    Petascale systems are in existence today and will become common in the next few years. Such systems are inevitably very complex, highly distributed and heterogeneous. Monitoring a petascale system in real-time and understanding its status at any given moment without impacting its performance is a highly intricate task. Common approaches and off-the-shelf tools are either unusable, do not scale, or severely impact the performance of the monitored servers. This paper describes unobtrusive monitoring software developed at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) for a highly distributed petascale production data set. The paper describes the employed solutions, the lessons learned, the problems still to be addressed, and explains how the system can be reused elsewhere.

  10. Improving Data Availability for Better Access Performance: A Study on Caching Scientific Data on Distributed Workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xiaosong; Zhang, Zhe; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S

    2009-01-01

    Client-side data caching serves as an excellent mechanism to store and analyze the rapidly growing amount of scientific data. In our previous work, we built a distributed local cache on unreliable desktop storage contributions. This offers several desirable properties, such as performance impedance matching, improved space utilization, and high parallel I/O bandwidth. Such a low-cost, best-effort cache, however, is faced with the vagaries of storage node availability: these donated machines may be significantly less reliable than dedicated systems and cannot be controlled centrally. In this paper, we address %the tradeoffs between techniques that favor %availability or performance when it comes to cache management. the performance impact of data availability in the distributed scientific data cache setting. We then present a novel approach to storage cache management, {\\em remote partial data recovery (RPDR)}. We compare our approach to two standard techniques, namely replication and erasure coding, both extended to the target caching environment. Our evaluation uses a trace-driven simulation parameterized with benchmarking results from our distributed cache prototype. The results with multiple real-world traces indicate that RPDR significantly outperforms both replication and erasure coding in many cases and overall the combination of RPDR and erasure coding yields the best performance.

  11. Building a Virtual Space Physics Observatory for Easy Access to and Novel Visualization of Distributed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezapkin, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Coleman, J.; Boller, R.

    2003-12-01

    Progress in space physics has become strongly dependent on the simultaneous analysis of data from multiple spacecraft, each with many instruments. Historically, these data have been stored by different investigators in a variety of formats and with widely varying metadata describing the datasets. We are working on many fronts to integrate this ``data universe" such that a researcher will ultimately be able to obtain data using a uniform terminology through a variety of interfaces, obtaining either specifically formatted files or a direct stream into an application. Our main accomplishments to date include a general data dictionary (working with the SPASE group), a well-developed front-end visualization tool, and the beginnings of a simpler interface and ``middleware" to access the data directly from various repositories. We are working with as many other groups as we can to assure that the resulting system is made useful through the incorporation and coordination of many applications and ideas. This talk will give an overview of our status and plans.

  12. Access to Emissions Distributions and Related Ancillary Data through the ECCAD database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darras, Sabine; Enriquez, Edgar; Granier, Claire; Liousse, Catherine; Boulanger, Damien; Fontaine, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The ECCAD database (Emissions of atmospheric Compounds and Compilation of Ancillary Data) provides a user-friendly access to global and regional surface emissions for a large set of chemical compounds and ancillary data (land use, active fires, burned areas, population,etc). The emissions inventories are time series gridded data at spatial resolution from 1x1 to 0.1x0.1 degrees. ECCAD is the emissions database of the GEIA (Global Emissions InitiAtive) project and a sub-project of the French Atmospheric Data Center AERIS (http://www.aeris-data.fr). ECCAD has currently more than 2200 users originating from more than 80 countries. The project benefits from this large international community of users to expand the number of emission datasets made available. ECCAD provides detailed metadata for each of the datasets and various tools for data visualization, for computing global and regional totals and for interactive spatial and temporal analysis. The data can be downloaded as interoperable NetCDF CF-compliant files, i.e. the data are compatible with many other client interfaces. The presentation will provide information on the datasets available within ECCAD, as well as examples of the analysis work that can be done online through the website: http://eccad.aeris-data.fr.

  13. High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Peng; Anderson, John D.; Leitner, Michael; Rheingans, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals. Methods The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008–2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation. Results The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing. Conclusions There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally

  14. Novel Scheme of Carrier Tri-reuse and Distribution Fiber Protection Based on Round Shift Method in Optical Access Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haibin; Gan, Chaoqin; Yin, Maojun; Ni, Cuiping

    2015-06-01

    A novel architecture of optical access network based on round shift method is proposed. Round shift method is composed by round service mode of carriers and cycle characteristic of 2×N arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). By utilizing the round service mode, every carrier is tri-reused to provide service for three different optical network units. Besides, in remote node, the 2×3N AWG can be replaced by three 2×N AWGs and AWGs' channel spacing is increased. So, the demand on RN's AWGs is decreased. Furthermore, based on the cycle characteristic of 2×N AWG, a 1+1 protection scheme is presented to provide independent protection for distribution fibers. Simulation and analysis show the proposed scheme works well.

  15. Earth Science Data Archive and Access at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    1999-01-01

    The Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), as an integral part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), is the official source of data for several important earth remote sensing missions. These include the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) launched in August 1997, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) launched in November 1997, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) scheduled for launch in mid 1999 as part of the EOS AM-1 instrumentation package. The data generated from these missions supports a host of users in the hydrological, land biosphere and oceanographic research and applications communities. The volume and nature of the data present unique challenges to an Earth science data archive and distribution system such as the DAAC. The DAAC system receives, archives and distributes a large number of standard data products on a daily basis, including data files that have been reprocessed with updated calibration data or improved analytical algorithms. A World Wide Web interface is provided allowing interactive data selection and automatic data subscriptions as distribution options. The DAAC also creates customized and value-added data products, which allow additional user flexibility and reduced data volume. Another significant part of our overall mission is to provide ancillary data support services and archive support for worldwide field campaigns designed to validate the results from the various satellite-derived measurements. In addition to direct data services, accompanying documentation, WWW links to related resources, support for EOSDIS data formats, and informed response to inquiries are routinely provided to users. The current GDAAC WWW search and order system is being restructured to provide users with a simplified, hierarchical access to data. Data Browsers have been developed for several data sets to aid users in ordering data. These Browsers allow users to specify

  16. Watershed Modeling Applications with the Open-Access Modular Distributed Watershed Educational Toolbox (MOD-WET) and Introductory Hydrology Textbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huning, L. S.; Margulis, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Traditionally, introductory hydrology courses focus on hydrologic processes as independent or semi-independent concepts that are ultimately integrated into a watershed model near the end of the term. When an "off-the-shelf" watershed model is introduced in the curriculum, this approach can result in a potential disconnect between process-based hydrology and the inherent interconnectivity of processes within the water cycle. In order to curb this and reduce the learning curve associated with applying hydrologic concepts to complex real-world problems, we developed the open-access Modular Distributed Watershed Educational Toolbox (MOD-WET). The user-friendly, MATLAB-based toolbox contains the same physical equations for hydrological processes (i.e. precipitation, snow, radiation, evaporation, unsaturated flow, infiltration, groundwater, and runoff) that are presented in the companion e-textbook (http://aqua.seas.ucla.edu/margulis_intro_to_hydro_textbook.html) and taught in the classroom. The modular toolbox functions can be used by students to study individual hydrologic processes. These functions are integrated together to form a simple spatially-distributed watershed model, which reinforces a holistic understanding of how hydrologic processes are interconnected and modeled. Therefore when watershed modeling is introduced, students are already familiar with the fundamental building blocks that have been unified in the MOD-WET model. Extensive effort has been placed on the development of a highly modular and well-documented code that can be run on a personal computer within the commonly-used MATLAB environment. MOD-WET was designed to: 1) increase the qualitative and quantitative understanding of hydrological processes at the basin-scale and demonstrate how they vary with watershed properties, 2) emphasize applications of hydrologic concepts rather than computer programming, 3) elucidate the underlying physical processes that can often be obscured with a complicated

  17. DISTRIBUTED STRUCTURE-SEARCHABLE TOXICITY (DSSTOX) DATABASE NETWORK: MAKING PUBLIC TOXICITY DATA RESOURCES MORE ACCESSIBLE AND USABLE FOR DATA EXPLORATION AND SAR DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database Network: Making Public Toxicity Data Resources More Accessible and U sable for Data Exploration and SAR Development

    Many sources of public toxicity data are not currently linked to chemical structure, are not ...

  18. Open Access Publishing in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2012-08-01

    Open Access (OA) in scholarly literature means the "immediate, free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these articles". The Open Access movement has been made possible thanks to the wide-spread availability of internet access and has received increasing interest since the 1990s, mostly due to the fast rising journal subscription prices. This presentation will review the current situation of Open Access in astronomy. It will answer the question why it makes sense to publish in an OA journal and will provide criteria to judge the quality of OA journals and publishers, along with suggestions how to identify so-called predatory publishers.

  19. Fair Access to Higher Education: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountford-Zimdars, Anna; Sabbagh, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This special issue introduces a set of article addressing the question of what "fairness" means with respect to the distribution of access to higher education. Articles herein address the criteria that "should" be used to allocate funding, offers of admission at selective institutions, and conceiving and assessing …

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC MATTER DISTRIBUTION AND EXTRACT SOIL:SOLUTION RATIO ON THE DESORPTION OF HEAVY METALS FROM SOILS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1768 Ying, Y, Impellitteri**, C.A., You, S-J., and Allen, H.E. The Importance of Organic Matter Distribution and Extract Soil:Solution Ratio on the Desorption of Heavy Metals from Soils. Science of the Total Environment (Elsevier Science) 287 (1/2):107-119. EPA/600/J-...

  1. Data access systems in the real world: How distributed environmental and socio-economic data from the Dutch Wadden Sea are being integrated and made accessible through one portal, using the SeaDataNet infrastructure as a basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bruin, T.; Thijsse, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Wadden Sea, an UNESCO World Heritage Site along the Northern coasts of The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark, is a very valuable, yet also highly vulnerable tidal flats area. It is noted for its ecological diversity and value, being a stopover for large numbers of migrating birds. The Wadden Sea is also used intensively for economic activities by inhabitants of the surrounding coasts and islands, as well as by the many tourists visiting the area every year. A whole series of monitoring programmes of both ecological and socio-economic parameters is carried out by a range of governmental bodies and institutes, to study the natural processes occuring in the Wadden Sea ecosystems as well as the influence of human activities on those ecosystems. Yet, the monitoring programmes are scattered and it is difficult to get an overview of those monitoring activities or to get access to the data resulting from those monitoring programmes. The Wadden Sea Long Term Ecosystem Research (WaLTER) project aims to: 1. Provide access through one data portal to a base set of consistent, standardized, long-term data on changes in the Wadden Sea ecological and socio-economic systems, in order to model and understand interrelationships with human use, climate variation and possible other drivers. 2. Provide a research infrastructure, open access to commonly shared databases, educational facilities and one or more field sites in which experimental, innovative and process-driven research can be carried out. This presentation will, after a short introduction of the WaLTER-project (2011-2015), focus on the distributed data access infrastructure which is being developed and used for WaLTER. This is based on and makes use of the existing data access infrastructure of the Netherlands National Oceanographic Data Committee (NL-NODC), which has been operational since early 2009. The NL-NODC system is identical to and in fact developed by the European SeaDataNet project, furthering standardisation

  2. Patterns of bathymetric distribution among deep-sea fauna at local spatial scale: comparison of mainland vs. insular areas [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Maynou, Francesc; Moranta, Joan; Massutí, Enric; Lloris, Domènec; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2004-01-01

    We have compared the distribution of mesopelagic, benthopelagic and benthic fauna between two areas: one on the continental side of the Catalan Sea (cCS: northwestern Mediterranean) and one to the SW of the Balearic Islands (SWB: southwestern Mediterranean) at depths between 147 and 2266 m. Based on 88 bathyal fish and crustaceans (Decapoda and Peracarida) dominant in these communities, we compared the maximum depth of occurrence (MDO) of (upper) middle-slope species and the minimum depth of occurrence (mDO) of lower-slope dwelling species. Mid-slope fish, decapods, peracarids and, within the latter, amphipods and cumaceans had a deeper MDO in the cCS than in the SWB. Depth differences between MDO of species were significant for all taxa, except isopods. In the same way, lower slope fish and decapods had a shallower mDO in the SWB than in the cCS. Within peracarids, the dominant taxon (amphipods) also followed this trend. Depth differences in mDO of species between the areas were significant for decapods and for amphipods (not for fish, nor all peracarids nor cumaceans). In summary, most taxa showed a deeper depth distribution of middle-slope species in the cCS, and a shallower depth distribution of lower-slope dwelling species in the SWB. This suggests that the whole community, from small detritus-feeders (peracarids) to top predators (fish) have a similar response to a common signal. Much basic information on the biology and possible environmental factors affecting deep-sea species distribution is not available, so causes of the trends demonstrated here cannot be fully evaluated. In spite of these obvious limitations, we have shown that (1) mesopelagic decapods (e.g., Gennadas elegans and Sergia robusta), with a higher dependence upon primary sources of food close to the surface primary production, showed greater differences in their mDO between the areas than benthopelagic (e.g., Acanthephyra eximia, Nematocarcinus exilis) and benthic (e.g., Stereomastis sculpta

  3. Optical Fiber Distributed Sensing Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Strain Measurements Taken During Cryotank Y-Joint Test Article Load Cycling at Liquid Helium Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Prosser, William H.; Hare, David A.; Moore, Thomas C.; Kenner, Winfred S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines cryogenic Y-joint testing at Langley Research Center (LaRC) to validate the performance of optical fiber Bragg grating strain sensors for measuring strain at liquid helium temperature (-240 C). This testing also verified survivability of fiber sensors after experiencing 10 thermal cool-down, warm-up cycles and 400 limit load cycles. Graphite composite skins bonded to a honeycomb substrate in a sandwich configuration comprised the Y-joint specimens. To enable SHM of composite cryotanks for consideration to future spacecraft, a light-weight, durable monitoring technology is needed. The fiber optic distributed Bragg grating strain sensing system developed at LaRC is a viable substitute for conventional strain gauges which are not practical for SHM. This distributed sensing technology uses an Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR). This measurement approach has the advantage that it can measure hundreds of Bragg grating sensors per fiber and the sensors are all written at one frequency, greatly simplifying fiber manufacturing. Fiber optic strain measurements compared well to conventional strain gauge measurements obtained during these tests. These results demonstrated a high potential for a successful implementation of a SHM system incorporating LaRC's fiber optic sensing system on the composite cryotank and other future cryogenic applications.

  4. Optical fiber distributed sensing structural health monitoring (SHM) strain measurements taken during cryotank Y-joint test article load cycling at liquid helium temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Prosser, William H.; Hare, David A.; Moore, Thomas C.; Kenner, W. S.

    2007-09-01

    This paper outlines cryogenic Y-joint testing at Langley Research Center (LaRC) to validate the performance of optical fiber Bragg grating strain sensors for measuring strain at liquid helium temperature (-240°C). This testing also verified survivability of fiber sensors after experiencing 10 thermal cool-down, warm-up cycles and 400 limit load cycles. Graphite composite skins bonded to a honeycomb substrate in a sandwich configuration comprised the Y-joint specimens. To enable SHM of composite cryotanks for consideration to future spacecraft, a light-weight, durable monitoring technology is needed. The fiber optic distributed Bragg grating strain sensing system developed at LaRC is a viable substitute for conventional strain gauges which are not practical for SHM. This distributed sensing technology uses an Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR). This measurement approach has the advantage that it can measure hundreds of Bragg grating sensors per fiber and the sensors are all written at one frequency, greatly simplifying fiber manufacturing. Fiber optic strain measurements compared well to conventional strain gauge measurements obtained during these tests. These results demonstrated a high potential for a successful implementation of a SHM system incorporating LaRC's fiber optic sensing system on the composite cryotank and other future cryogenic applications.

  5. Why Does Attention to Web Articles Fall With Time?

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, Mikhail V.; Roychowdhury, Vwani P.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze access statistics of 150 blog entries and news articles for periods of up to 3 years. Access rate falls as an inverse power of time passed since publication. The power law holds for periods of up to 1,000 days. The exponents are different for different blogs and are distributed between 0.6 and 3.2. We argue that the decay of attention to a web article is caused by the link to it first dropping down the list of links on the website’s front page and then disappearing from the front page and its subsequent movement further into background. The other proposed explanations that use a decaying with time novelty factor, or some intricate theory of human dynamics, cannot explain all of the experimental observations. PMID:26478903

  6. STARD-compliant article: The utility of red cell distribution width to predict mortality for septic patients visiting the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Shen-Che; Wu, Chin-Chieh; Chen, Li-Min; Tzeng, I-Shiang; Chen, Kuan-Fu

    2016-06-01

    Sepsis is a common condition in the emergency department that is associated with high mortality. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been used as a simple prognosis predictor for patients with community-acquired pneumonia, gram-negative bacteremia, and severe sepsis or septic shock. To evaluate the performance of RDW to predict in-hospital mortality among septic patients, we conducted a hospital-based retrospective cohort study in an emergency department of a tertiary teaching hospital. RDW was compared with other commonly used clinical prediction scores (Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) and the Confusion, Urea nitrogen, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, 65 years of age and older (CURB65)). Of 6973 consecutive adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of sepsis and 2 sets of blood culture ordered by physicians, 477 (6.8%) died. The mortality group had higher RDW levels than the survival group (15.7% vs 13.8%). After dividing RDW into quartiles, the patients in the highest RDW quartile (RDW >15.6%; mortality, 16.7%) had more than twice the risk of in-hospital mortality compared with patients in the second highest quartile (RDW >14% and <15.6%; mortality, 7.3%), whereas the mortality rate in the lowest RDW quartile (<13.1%) was only 1.6%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of RDW to predict mortality was 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.77), which is significantly higher than the areas under the curve of clinical prediction rules (SIRS, MEDS, and CURB65). After integrating RDW into these scores, all scores performed better in predicting mortality (0.73, 0.72, and 0.77, for SIRS, MEDS, and CURB65, respectively). RDW could be an independent predictor of mortality among septic patients. Clinicians could classify the septic patients into different risk groups according to RDW quartiles. For more accurate mortality prediction, RDW could be a potential parameter to be

  7. NOAA Operational Model Archive Distribution System (NOMADS): High Availability Applications for Reliable Real Time Access to Operational Model Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, J. C.; Wang, J.

    2009-12-01

    To reduce the impact of natural hazards and environmental changes, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide first alert and a preferred partner for environmental prediction services, and represents a critical national resource to operational and research communities affected by climate, weather and water. NOMADS is now delivering high availability services as part of NOAA’s official real time data dissemination at its Web Operations Center (WOC) server. The WOC is a web service used by organizational units in and outside NOAA, and acts as a data repository where public information can be posted to a secure and scalable content server. A goal is to foster collaborations among the research and education communities, value added retailers, and public access for science and development efforts aimed at advancing modeling and GEO-related tasks. The user (client) executes what is efficient to execute on the client and the server efficiently provides format independent access services. Client applications can execute on the server, if it is desired, but the same program can be executed on the client side with no loss of efficiency. In this way this paradigm lends itself to aggregation servers that act as servers of servers listing, searching catalogs of holdings, data mining, and updating information from the metadata descriptions that enable collections of data in disparate places to be simultaneously accessed, with results processed on servers and clients to produce a needed answer. The services used to access the operational model data output are the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), implemented with the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) Data Server (GDS), and applications for slicing, dicing and area sub-setting the large matrix of real time model data holdings. This approach insures an efficient use of computer resources because users transmit/receive only the data necessary for their tasks including

  8. Bit Distribution and Reliability of High Density 1.5 V Ferroelectric Random Access Memory Embedded with 130 nm, 5 lm Copper Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayakumar, K. R.; Boku, K.; Remack, K. A.; Rodriguez, J.; Summerfelt, S. R.; Celii, F. G.; Aggarwal, S.; Martin, J. S.; Hall, L.; Matz, L.; Rathsack, B.; McAdams, H.; Moise, T. S.

    2006-04-01

    High density embedded ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM), operable at 1.5 V, has been fabricated within a 130 nm, 5 lm Cu/fluorosilicate glass (FSG) logic process. To evaluate FRAM extendability to future process nodes, we have measured the bit distribution and reliability properties of arrays with varying individual capacitor areas ranging from 0.40 μm2 (130 nm node) to 0.15 μm2 (˜65 nm node). Wide signal margins, stable retention (≫10 years at 85 °C), and high endurance read/write cycling (≫1012 cycles) have been demonstrated, suggesting that reliable, high density FRAM can be realized.

  9. Open Access and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shawn; Schmidt, Christian; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Philip W

    2006-01-01

    Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature. PMID:16956402

  10. Evaluation of in-plane local stress distribution in stacked IC chip using dynamic random access memory cell array for highly reliable three-dimensional IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Seiya; Kino, Hisashi; Fukushima, Takafumi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2016-04-01

    As three-dimensional (3D) ICs have many advantages, IC performances can be enhanced without scaling down of transistor size. However, 3D IC has mechanical stresses inside Si substrates owing to its 3D stacking structure, which induces negative effects on transistor performances such as carrier mobility changes. One of the mechanical stresses is local bending stress due to organic adhesive shrinkage among stacked IC chips. In this paper, we have proposed an evaluation method for in-plane local stress distribution in the stacked IC chips using retention time modulation of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell array. We fabricated a test structure composed of a DRAM chip bonded on a Si interposer with dummy Cu/Sn microbumps. As a result, we clarified that the DRAM cell array can precisely evaluate the in-plane local stress distribution in the stacked IC chips.

  11. Equitable Access to Educational Resources: An Investigation of the Distribution of Teacher Quality across Secondary Schools in South Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study examined secondary schools across a south Florida school district to determine the relationship between school characteristics and measures of teacher quality with the aim of ascertaining the equitable distribution of the educational resource, teacher quality. Data regarding student population, staff climate survey…

  12. Publishing International Counseling Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…

  13. Association Between Geographic Access to Cancer Care, Insurance, and Receipt of Chemotherapy: Geographic Distribution of Oncologists and Travel Distance

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun Chieh; Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Kirkwood, M. Kelsey; Olsen, Christine; Jemal, Ahmedin; Bajorin, Dean; Giordano, Sharon H.; Goldstein, Michael; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Kosty, Michael; Hopkins, Shane; Yu, James B.; Arnone, Anna; Hanley, Amy; Stevens, Stephanie; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Geographic access to care may be associated with receipt of chemotherapy but has not been fully examined. This study sought to evaluate the association between density of oncologists and travel distance and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer within 90 days of colectomy. Patients and Methods Patients in the National Cancer Data Base with stage III colon cancer, diagnosed between 2007 and 2010, and age 18 to 80 years were selected. Generalized estimating equation clustering by hospital service area was conducted to examine the association between geographic access and receipt of oncology services, controlling for patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Results Of 34,694 patients in the study cohort, 75.7% received adjuvant chemotherapy within 90 days of colectomy. Compared with travel distance less than 12.5 miles, patients who traveled 50 to 249 miles (odds ratio [OR], 0.87; P = .009) or ≥ 250 miles (OR, 0.36; P < .001) had decreased likelihood of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Density level of oncologists was not statistically associated with receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy (low v high density: OR, 0.98; P = .77). When stratifying analyses by insurance status, non–privately insured patients who resided in areas with low density of oncologists were less likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy (OR, 0.85; P = .03). Conclusion Increased travel burden was associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, regardless of insurance status. Patients with nonprivate insurance who resided in low-density oncologist areas were less likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy. If these findings are validated prospectively, interventions to decrease geographic barriers may improve the timeliness and quality of colon cancer treatment. PMID:26304878

  14. The Energy Industry Profile of ISO/DIS 19115-1: Facilitating Discovery and Evaluation of, and Access to Distributed Information Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, S. J.; Richard, S. M.; Doniger, A.; Danko, D. M.; Derenthal, L.; Energistics Metadata Work Group

    2011-12-01

    A diverse group of organizations representative of the international community involved in disciplines relevant to the upstream petroleum industry, - energy companies, - suppliers and publishers of information to the energy industry, - vendors of software applications used by the industry, - partner government and academic organizations, has engaged in the Energy Industry Metadata Standards Initiative. This Initiative envisions the use of standard metadata within the community to enable significant improvements in the efficiency with which users discover, evaluate, and access distributed information resources. The metadata standard needed to realize this vision is the initiative's primary deliverable. In addition to developing the metadata standard, the initiative is promoting its adoption to accelerate realization of the vision, and publishing metadata exemplars conformant with the standard. Implementation of the standard by community members, in the form of published metadata which document the information resources each organization manages, will allow use of tools requiring consistent metadata for efficient discovery and evaluation of, and access to, information resources. While metadata are expected to be widely accessible, access to associated information resources may be more constrained. The initiative is being conducting by Energistics' Metadata Work Group, in collaboration with the USGIN Project. Energistics is a global standards group in the oil and natural gas industry. The Work Group determined early in the initiative, based on input solicited from 40+ organizations and on an assessment of existing metadata standards, to develop the target metadata standard as a profile of a revised version of ISO 19115, formally the "Energy Industry Profile of ISO/DIS 19115-1 v1.0" (EIP). The Work Group is participating on the ISO/TC 211 project team responsible for the revision of ISO 19115, now ready for "Draft International Standard" (DIS) status. With ISO 19115 an

  15. Call for articles.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Do you have an article you would like to have considered for publication? Submit it to Global Advances in Health and Medicine! A review of the following standards will be helpful as you prepare your article for submission. PMID:24381828

  16. Availability and Distribution of Emergency Obstetric Care Services in Karnataka State, South India: Access and Equity Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Mony, Prem K.; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Thomas, Annamma; Sankar, Kiruba; Ramesh, B. M.; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Avery, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of efforts to reduce maternal deaths in Karnataka state, India, there has been a concerted effort to increase institutional deliveries. However, little is known about the quality of care in these healthcare facilities. We investigated the availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in eight northern districts of Karnataka state in south India. Methods & Findings We undertook a cross-sectional study of 444 government and 422 private health facilities, functional 24-hours-a-day 7-days-a-week. EmOC availability and distribution were evaluated for 8 districts and 42 taluks (sub-districts) during the year 2010, based on a combination of self-reporting, record review and direct observation. Overall, the availability of EmOC services at the sub-state level [EmOC = 5.9/500,000; comprehensive EmOC (CEmOC) = 4.5/500,000 and basic EmOC (BEmOC) = 1.4/500,000] was seen to meet the benchmark. These services however were largely located in the private sector (90% of CEmOC and 70% of BemOC facilities). Thirty six percent of private facilities and six percent of government facilities were EmOC centres. Although half of eight districts had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities and all eight districts had a sufficient number of CEmOC facilities, only two-fifths of the 42 taluks had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities. With the private facilities being largely located in select towns only, the ‘non-headquarter’ taluks and ‘backward’ taluks suffered from a marked lack of coverage of these services. Spatial mapping further helped identify the clustering of a large number of contiguous taluks without adequate government EmOC facilities in northeastern Karnataka. Conclusions In conclusion, disaggregating information on emergency obstetric care service availability at district and subdistrict levels is critical for health policy and planning in the Indian setting. Reducing maternal deaths will require greater

  17. Fabrication of boron articles

    DOEpatents

    Benton, Samuel T.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to the fabrication of boron articles by a powder metallurgical method wherein the articles are of a density close to the theoretical density of boron and are essentially crackfree. The method comprises the steps of admixing 1 to 10 weight percent carbon powder with amorphous boron powder, cold pressing the mixture and then hot pressing the cold pressed compact into the desired article. The addition of the carbon to the mixture provides a pressing aid for inhibiting the cracking of the hot pressed article and is of a concentration less than that which would cause the articles to possess significant concentrations of boron carbide.

  18. Predicting the distribution and ecological niche of unexploited snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) populations in Alaskan waters: a first open-access ensemble model.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sarah M; Lindgren, Michael; Konakanchi, Hanumantharao; Huettmann, Falk

    2011-10-01

    Populations of the snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) are widely distributed on high-latitude continental shelves of the North Pacific and North Atlantic, and represent a valuable resource in both the United States and Canada. In US waters, snow crabs are found throughout the Arctic and sub-Arctic seas surrounding Alaska, north of the Aleutian Islands, yet commercial harvest currently focuses on the more southerly population in the Bering Sea. Population dynamics are well-monitored in exploited areas, but few data exist for populations further north where climate trends in the Arctic appear to be affecting species' distributions and community structure on multiple trophic levels. Moreover, increased shipping traffic, as well as fisheries and petroleum resource development, may add additional pressures in northern portions of the range as seasonal ice cover continues to decline. In the face of these pressures, we examined the ecological niche and population distribution of snow crabs in Alaskan waters using a GIS-based spatial modeling approach. We present the first quantitative open-access model predictions of snow-crab distribution, abundance, and biomass in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Multi-variate analysis of environmental drivers of species' distribution and community structure commonly rely on multiple linear regression methods. The spatial modeling approach employed here improves upon linear regression methods in allowing for exploration of nonlinear relationships and interactions between variables. Three machine-learning algorithms were used to evaluate relationships between snow-crab distribution and environmental parameters, including TreeNet, Random Forests, and MARS. An ensemble model was then generated by combining output from these three models to generate consensus predictions for presence-absence, abundance, and biomass of snow crabs. Each algorithm identified a suite of variables most important in predicting snow-crab distribution, including

  19. End-Users/Public Access. Reprints from the Best of "ONLINE" [and]"DATABASE."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online, Inc., Weston, CT.

    Reprints of 20 articles pertaining to the topics of end-users and public access appear in this volume, which is one in a series of volumes of reprints from "ONLINE" and "DATABASE" magazines. Edited for information professionals who use electronically distributed databases, these articles address such topics as: (1) managing a compact disc…

  20. On Open Access to Research: The Green, the Gold, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Audra K.; Gainer, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    In this column the authors discuss barriers to worldwide open access to peer-reviewed journal articles online and how they might be addressed by literacy scholars. They highlight economic and ethical problems associated with the current subscription-based system for distributing articles (which sometimes works against the ideals of research and…

  1. Funding free and universal access to Journal of Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Mrak, Robert E; Griffin, W Sue T

    2004-10-14

    Journal of Neuroinflammation is an Open Access, online journal published by BioMed Central. Open Access publishing provides instant and universal availability of published work to any potential reader, worldwide, completely free of subscriptions, passwords, and charges. Further, authors retain copyright for their work, facilitating its dissemination. Open Access publishing is made possible by article-processing charges assessed "on the front end" to authors, their institutions, or their funding agencies. Beginning November 1, 2004, the Journal of Neuroinflammation will introduce article-processing charges of around US$525 for accepted articles. This charge will be waived for authors from institutions that are BioMed Central members, and in additional cases for reasons of genuine financial hardship. These article-processing charges pay for an electronic submission process that facilitates efficient and thorough peer review, for publication costs involved in providing the article freely and universally accessible in various formats online, and for the processes required for the article's inclusion in PubMed and its archiving in PubMed Central, e-Depot, Potsdam and INIST. There is no remuneration of any kind provided to the Editors-in-Chief, to any members of the Editorial Board, or to peer reviewers; all of whose work is entirely voluntary. Our article-processing charge is less than charges frequently levied by traditional journals: the Journal of Neuroinflammation does not levy any additional page or color charges on top of this fee, and there are no reprint costs as publication-quality pdf files are provided, free, for distribution in lieu of reprints. Our article-processing charge will enable full, immediate, and continued Open Access for all work published in Journal of Neuroinflammation. The benefits from such Open Access will accrue to readers, through unrestricted access; to authors, through the widest possible dissemination of their work; and to science and

  2. The IRIS Data Management Center: An international "network of networks", providing open, automated access to geographically distributed sensors of geophysical and environmental data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, R. B.; Ahern, T. K.; Trabant, C.

    2006-12-01

    The IRIS Data Management System has long supported international collaboration for seismology by both deploying a global network of seismometers and creating and maintaining an open and accessible archive in Seattle, WA, known as the Data Management Center (DMC). With sensors distributed on a global scale spanning more than 30 years of digital data, the DMC provides a rich repository of observations across broad time and space domains. Primary seismological data types include strong motion and broadband seismometers, conventional and superconducting gravimeters, tilt and creep meters, GPS measurements, along with other similar sensors that record accurate and calibrated ground motion. What may not be as well understood is the volume of environmental data that accompanies typical seismological data these days. This poster will review the types of time-series data that are currently being collected, how they are collected, and made freely available for download at the IRIS DMC. Environmental sensor data that is often co-located with geophysical data sensors include temperature, barometric pressure, wind direction and speed, humidity, insolation, rain gauge, and sometimes hydrological data like water current, level, temperature and depth. As the primary archival institution of the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN), the IRIS DMC collects approximately 13,600 channels of real-time data from 69 different networks, from close to 1600 individual stations, currently averaging 10Tb per year in total. A major contribution to the IRIS archive currently is the EarthScope project data, a ten-year science undertaking that is collecting data from a high-resolution, multi-variate sensor network. Data types include magnetotelluric, high-sample rate seismics from a borehole drilled into the San Andreas fault (SAFOD) and various types of strain data from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). In addition to the DMC, data centers located in other countries

  3. Method of drying articles

    DOEpatents

    Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1999-03-23

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

  4. Method of drying articles

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    1999-01-01

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  5. Access Interface Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fager, Susan; Beukelman, David R.; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Jakobs, Tom; Baker, John

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices to support their communication often have physical movement challenges that require alternative methods of access. Technology that supports access, particularly for those with the most severe movement deficits, have expanded substantially over the years. The purposes of this article are to review the state of the science of access technologies that interface with augmentative and alternative communication devices and to propose a future research and development agenda that will enhance access options for people with limited movement capability due to developmental and acquired conditions. PMID:22590797

  6. Master Articles List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington.

    Presented are more than 275 articles on 19 topics which can be arranged into readers on selected topics at the request of any educator. Assembled by the Poynter Center at Indiana University, Poynter Readers are compilations of articles that relate to a particular institution, e.g., law, or to several institutions that affect the lives of American…

  7. Demystifying Open Access

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a 'fair share' scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  8. Demystifying Open Access

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a "fair share" scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  9. SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets (www.seadatanet.org)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Maudire, Gilbert

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet is a leading infrastructure in Europe for marine & ocean data management. It is actively operating and further developing a Pan-European infrastructure for managing, indexing and providing access to ocean and marine data sets and data products, acquired via research cruises and other observational activities, in situ and remote sensing. The basis of SeaDataNet is interconnecting 40 National Oceanographic Data Centres and Marine Data Centers from 35 countries around European seas into a distributed network of data resources with common standards for metadata, vocabularies, data transport formats, quality control methods and flags, and access. Thereby most of the NODC's operate and/or are developing national networks to other institutes in their countries to ensure national coverage and long-term stewardship of available data sets. The majority of data managed by SeaDataNet partners concerns physical oceanography, marine chemistry, hydrography, and a substantial volume of marine biology and geology and geophysics. These are partly owned by the partner institutes themselves and for a major part also owned by other organizations from their countries. The SeaDataNet infrastructure is implemented with support of the EU via the EU FP6 SeaDataNet project to provide the Pan-European data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. The SeaDataNet project has a duration of 5 years and started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, extending its services with the provision of easy data access and generic data products

  10. SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets (www.seadatanet.org)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Maudire, Gilbert

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet is a leading infrastructure in Europe for marine & ocean data management. It is actively operating and further developing a Pan-European infrastructure for managing, indexing and providing access to ocean and marine data sets and data products, acquired via research cruises and other observational activities, in situ and remote sensing. The basis of SeaDataNet is interconnecting 40 National Oceanographic Data Centres and Marine Data Centers from 35 countries around European seas into a distributed network of data resources with common standards for metadata, vocabularies, data transport formats, quality control methods and flags, and access. Thereby most of the NODC's operate and/or are developing national networks to other institutes in their countries to ensure national coverage and long-term stewardship of available data sets. The majority of data managed by SeaDataNet partners concerns physical oceanography, marine chemistry, hydrography, and a substantial volume of marine biology and geology and geophysics. These are partly owned by the partner institutes themselves and for a major part also owned by other organizations from their countries. The SeaDataNet infrastructure is implemented with support of the EU via the EU FP6 SeaDataNet project to provide the Pan-European data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. The SeaDataNet project has a duration of 5 years and started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, extending its services with the provision of easy data access and generic data products

  11. Article Watch, December 2009

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Clive

    2009-01-01

    This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information about articles they feel is important and useful to Clive Slaughter, MCG-UGA Medical Partnership, 279 William St., Athens, GA 30607-1777, USA; Tel.: (706) 369-5945; Fax: (706) 369-5936; E-mail: cslaughter@mail.mcg.edu; or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer’s opinions and not necessarily those of the association.

  12. Article Watch: September 2014

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Clive A.

    2014-01-01

    This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, Georgia Regents University-University of Georgia Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens, GA 30606, USA. Phone: 706-713-2216; Fax: 706-713-2221; E-mail: cslaught@uga.edu; or to any member of the Editorial Board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer's opinions and not necessarily those of the association.

  13. Article Watch: September 2016

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Clive A.

    2016-01-01

    This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, AU-UGA Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens, GA 30606, USA. Tel: (706) 713-2216; Fax: (706) 713-2221; E-mail: cslaught@uga.edu, or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer's opinions and not necessarily those of the association. PMID:27582640

  14. Article Watch: April 2016

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Clive A.

    2016-01-01

    This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, MCG-UGA Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens, GA 30606, USA; Tel: (706) 713-2216; Fax: (706) 713-2221; E-mail: cslaught@uga.edu, or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer’s opinions and not necessarily those of the association.

  15. Article Watch: April 2016.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Clive A

    2016-04-01

    This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, MCG-UGA Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens, GA 30606, USA; Tel: (706) 713-2216; Fax: (706) 713-2221; E-mail: cslaught@uga.edu, or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer's opinions and not necessarily those of the association. PMID:27034620

  16. Article Watch: July 2016.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Clive A

    2016-07-01

    This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, MCG-UGA Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens, GA 30606, USA. Tel: (706) 713-2216; Fax: (706) 713-2221; E-mail: cslaught@uga.edu, or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer's opinions and not necessarily those of the association. PMID:27257408

  17. Article Watch: April 2015

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Clive A.

    2015-01-01

    This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, Georgia Regents University-University of Georgia Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens, GA 30606, USA. Phone: 706-713-2216; Fax: 706-713-2221; E-mail: cslaught@uga.edu; or to any member of the Editorial Board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer’s opinions and not necessarily those of the association.

  18. Article Watch: July 2016

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Clive A.

    2016-01-01

    This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, MCG-UGA Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens, GA 30606, USA. Tel: (706) 713-2216; Fax: (706) 713-2221; E-mail: cslaught@uga.edu, or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer's opinions and not necessarily those of the association. PMID:27257408

  19. Article Watch: September 2015

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Clive A.

    2015-01-01

    This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, Georgia Regents University-University of Georgia Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens, GA 30606, USA. Phone: 706-713-2216; Fax: 706-713-2221; E-mail: cslaught@uga.edu; or to any member of the Editorial Board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer’s opinions and not necessarily those of the association.

  20. Article Watch: December 2015

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Clive A.

    2015-01-01

    This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to: Clive Slaughter, GRU-UGA Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens, GA 30606, USA. Tel: (706) 713-2216; Fax: (706) 713-2221; E-mail: cslaught@uga.edu; or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer’s opinions and not necessarily those of the association.

  1. Article Watch: April 2014

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Clive A.

    2014-01-01

    This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, Georgia Regents University/University of Georgia Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens, GA 30606, USA (Phone: 706-713-2216; Fax: 706-713-2221; E-mail; cslaught@uga.edu), or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer's opinions and not necessarily those of the association.

  2. Article Watch: July 2015

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Clive A.

    2015-01-01

    This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, Georgia Regents University-University of Georgia Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens, GA 30606, USA. Phone: 706-713-2216; Fax: 706-713-2221; E-mail: cslaught@uga.edu; or to any member of the Editorial Board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer’s opinions and not necessarily those of the association.

  3. Article Watch: July 2014

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Clive A.

    2014-01-01

    This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, Georgia Regents University-University of Georgia Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens, GA 30606, USA. Phone: 706-713-2216; Fax: 706-713-2221; E-mail: cslaught@uga.edu; or to any member of the Editorial Board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer's opinions and not necessarily those of the association.

  4. Accessibility on the Hudson River

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how Beverly and Martin Ryfa, working with an architect who specializes in accessible design, were able to build a house that is handicap accessible for their 9-year-old daughter, Danielle, who suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage when she was three days old. The article describes the features of their house that make…

  5. Open access: a closed shop?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Your December 2012 issue contains both a short news article on the progress of the open-access movement ("UK open access gains ground", p11) and a lengthy feature about the visionary Irish physicist Edward Hutchinson Synge ("Unknown genius", pp26-29). I find the combination of these articles ironic.

  6. Translating PrEP effectiveness into public health impact: key considerations for decision-makers on cost-effectiveness, price, regulatory issues, distributive justice and advocacy for access

    PubMed Central

    Hankins, Catherine; Macklin, Ruth; Warren, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The extraordinary feat of proving the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in clinical trials in different populations in a variety of settings may prove to have been easier than ensuring it is used well. Decision-makers must make difficult choices to realize the promise of antiretroviral prophylaxis for their countries. This paper outlines key economic, regulatory and distributive justice issues that must be addressed for effective and acceptable PrEP implementation. Discussion In considering the role that PrEP can play in combination prevention programmes, decision-makers must determine who can benefit most from PrEP, how PrEP can be provided safely and efficiently, and what kind of health system support will ensure successful implementation. To do this, they need contextualized information on disease burden by population, analyses of how PrEP services might best be delivered, and projections of the human resource and infrastructure requirements for each potential delivery model. There are cost considerations, varying cost-effectiveness results and regulatory challenges. The principles of ethics can inform thorny discussions about who should be prioritized for oral PrEP and how best to introduce it fairly. We describe the cost-effectiveness of PrEP in different populations at higher risk of HIV exposure, its price in low- and middle-income countries, and the current regulatory situation. We explore the principles of ethics that can inform resource allocation decision-making about PrEP anchored in distributive justice, at a time when universal access to antiretroviral treatment remains to be assured. We then highlight the role of advocacy in moving the PrEP agenda forward. Conclusions The time is ripe now for decisions about whether, how and for whom PrEP should be introduced into a country's HIV response. It has the potential to contribute significantly to high impact HIV prevention if it is tailored to those who can most benefit

  7. PFCA Article Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established an ongoing effort to quantify possible changes in levels of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in articles of commerce (AOCs). Temporal trends in the concentrations of selected PFCs, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFO...

  8. Distributed Access Teaching Assistant (DATA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, John; van der Sluys, William G.

    2001-12-01

    We have developed an online examination system that can provide nearly instantaneous feedback to students concerning the results of examinations having a variety of formats. This program utilizes the scripting language Frontier in combination with standard hypertext markup language (HTML) forms. A unique aspect of the program is the option of programming mathematical formulas utilizing input data from the form in a fashion akin to a spreadsheet. We have made use of this capability in our introductory chemistry laboratory program. For each experiment students are required to submit primary data and results of any calculations using a form that automatically checks their submission and can provide feedback on possible sources of calculational errors and the accuracy of results.

  9. Fluctuations in Wikipedia access-rate and edit-event data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpf, Mirko; Tismer, Sebastian; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Muchnik, Lev

    2012-12-01

    Internet-based social networks often reflect extreme events in nature and society by drastic increases in user activity. We study and compare the dynamics of the two major complex processes necessary for information spread via the online encyclopedia ‘Wikipedia’, i.e., article editing (information upload) and article access (information viewing) based on article edit-event time series and (hourly) user access-rate time series for all articles. Daily and weekly activity patterns occur in addition to fluctuations and bursting activity. The bursts (i.e., significant increases in activity for an extended period of time) are characterized by a power-law distribution of durations of increases and decreases. For describing the recurrence and clustering of bursts we investigate the statistics of the return intervals between them. We find stretched exponential distributions of return intervals in access-rate time series, while edit-event time series yield simple exponential distributions. To characterize the fluctuation behavior we apply detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), finding that most article access-rate time series are characterized by strong long-term correlations with fluctuation exponents α≈0.9. The results indicate significant differences in the dynamics of information upload and access and help in understanding the complex process of collecting, processing, validating, and distributing information in self-organized social networks.

  10. Recompressed exfoliated graphite articles

    DOEpatents

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2013-08-06

    This invention provides an electrically conductive, less anisotropic, recompressed exfoliated graphite article comprising a mixture of (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite flakes; and (b) particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon, wherein the non-expandable graphite or carbon particles are in the amount of between about 3% and about 70% by weight based on the total weight of the particles and the expanded graphite flakes combined; wherein the mixture is compressed to form the article having an apparent bulk density of from about 0.1 g/cm.sup.3 to about 2.0 g/cm.sup.3. The article exhibits a thickness-direction conductivity typically greater than 50 S/cm, more typically greater than 100 S/cm, and most typically greater than 200 S/cm. The article, when used in a thin foil or sheet form, can be a useful component in a sheet molding compound plate used as a fuel cell separator or flow field plate. The article may also be used as a current collector for a battery, supercapacitor, or any other electrochemical cell.

  11. Ablation article and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. D.; Sullivan, E. M. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An ablation article, such as a conical heat shield, having an ablating surface is provided with at least one discrete area of at least one seed material, such as aluminum. When subjected to ablation conditions, the seed material is ablated. Radiation emanating from the ablated seed material is detected to analyze ablation effects without disturbing the ablation surface. By providing different seed materials having different radiation characteristics, the ablating effects on various areas of the ablating surface can be analyzed under any prevailing ablation conditions. The ablating article can be provided with means for detecting the radiation characteristics of the ablated seed material to provide a self-contained analysis unit.

  12. The Bibliometric Properties of Article Readership Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Demleitner, Markus; Murray, Stephen S.; Martimbeau, Nathalie; Elwell, Barbara

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), along with astronomy's journals and data centers (a collaboration dubbed URANIA), has developed a distributed on-line digital library which has become the dominant means by which astronomers search, access and read their technical literature. Digital libraries such as the NASA Astrophysics Data System \\citep{2005JASIS.tmp....2K} permit the easy accumulation of a new type of bibliometric measure, the number of electronic accesses (``reads'') of individual articles. We explore various aspects of this new measure. We examine the obsolescence function as measured by actual reads, and show that it can be well fit by the sum of four exponentials with very different time constants. We compare the obsolescence function as measured by readership with the obsolescence function as measured by citations. We find that the citation function is proportional to the sum of two of the components of the readership function. This proves that the normative theory of citation is true in the mean. We further examine in detail the similarities and differences between the citation rate, the readership rate and the total citations for individual articles, and discuss some of the causes. Using the number of reads as a bibliometric measure for individuals, we introduce the read-cite diagram to provide a two-dimensional view of an individual's scientific productivity. We develop a simple model to account for an individual's reads and cites and use it to show that the position of a person in the read-cite diagram is a function of age, innate productivity, and work history. We show the age biases of both reads and cites, and develop two new bibliometric measures which have substantially less age bias than citations: SumProd, a weighted sum of total citations and the readership rate, intended to show the total productivity of an individual; and Read10, the readership rate for papers published in the last ten years, intended to show an individual's current

  13. Response to Trachtman's Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardon, Jack I.

    1985-01-01

    This response to Trachtman's article (TM 510 399) argues that the Trachtman paper is inappropriate due to the time elapsed since the original Bardon proposal. The author acknowledges the difference in perspective between Trachtman and himself. He expresses the hope that discussion concerning this aspect of school psychology politics may be ended.…

  14. The Cytoscape app article collection.

    PubMed

    Pico, Alexander R; Bader, Gary D; Demchak, Barry; Guitart Pla, Oriol; Hull, Timothy; Longabaugh, William; Lopes, Christian; Lotia, Samad; Molenaar, Piet; Montojo, Jason; Morris, John H; Ono, Keiichiro; Schwikowski, Benno; Welker, David; Ideker, Trey

    2014-01-01

    As a network visualization and analysis platform, Cytoscape relies on apps to provide domain-specific features and functions. There are many resources available to support Cytoscape app development and distribution, including the Cytoscape App Store and an online "cookbook" for app developers. This article collection is another resource to help researchers find out more about relevant Cytoscape apps and to provide app developers with useful implementation tips. The collection will grow over time as new Cytoscape apps are developed and published. PMID:25580224

  15. Author Keywords in Biomedical Journal Articles

    PubMed Central

    Névéol, Aurélie; Doğan, Rezarta Islamaj; Lu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    As an information retrieval system, PubMed® aims at providing efficient access to documents cited in MEDLINE®. For this purpose, it relies on matching representations of documents, as provided by authors and indexers to user queries. In this paper, we describe the growth of author keywords in biomedical journal articles and present a comparative study of author keywords and MeSH® indexing terms assigned by MEDLINE indexers to PubMed Central Open Access articles. A similarity metric is used to assess automatically the relatedness between pairs of author keywords and indexing terms. A set of 300 pairs is manually reviewed to evaluate the metric and characterize the relationships between author keywords and indexing terms. Results show that author keywords are increasingly available in biomedical articles and that over 60% of author keywords can be linked to a closely related indexing term. Finally, we discuss the potential impact of this work on indexing and terminology development. PMID:21347036

  16. The Inevitability of Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Open access (OA) is an alternative business model for the publication of scholarly journals. It makes articles freely available to readers on the Internet and covers the costs associated with publication through means other than subscriptions. This article argues that Gold OA, where all of the articles of a journal are available at the time of…

  17. Integrating Form and Meaning: A Distributed Model of Speech Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, M. Gareth; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a distributed connectionist model of the perception of spoken words, employing speech representation that combines lexical and abstract phonological information, with lexical access as a direct mapping on this distributed representation. The article examines the integration of partial cues to phonological identity, showing that the model…

  18. Molded Magnetic Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A molded magnetic article and fabrication method are provided. Particles of ferromagnetic material embedded in a polymer binder are molded under heat and pressure into a geometric shape. Each particle is an oblate spheroid having a radius-to-thickness aspect ratio approximately in the range of 15-30. Each oblate spheroid has flattened poles that are substantially in perpendicular alignment to a direction of the molding pressure throughout the geometric shape.

  19. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland☆

    PubMed Central

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-01-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005–2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research

  20. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-09-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005-2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on

  1. Equity for open-access journal publishing.

    PubMed

    Shieber, Stuart M

    2009-08-01

    Open-access journals, which provide access to their scholarly articles freely and without limitations, are at a systematic disadvantage relative to traditional closed-access journal publishing and its subscription-based business model. A simple, cost-effective remedy to this inequity could put open-access publishing on a path to become a sustainable, efficient system. PMID:19652697

  2. Unique Access to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  3. Equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Gerardo; De-Regil, Luz Maria

    2014-01-01

    Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described. PMID:24329609

  4. Assembly Test Article (ATA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Glen A.

    1988-01-01

    The assembly test article (ATA) consisted of two live loaded redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) segments which were assembled and disassembled to simulate the actual flight segment stacking process. The test assembly joint was flight RSRM design, which included the J-joint insulation design and metal capture feature. The ATA test was performed mid-November through 24 December 1987, at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The purpose of the test was: certification that vertical RSRM segment mating and separation could be accomplished without any damage; verification and modification of the procedures in the segment stacking/destacking documents; and certification of various GSE to be used for flight assembly and inspection. The RSRM vertical segment assembly/disassembly is possible without any damage to the insulation, metal parts, or seals. The insulation J-joint contact area was very close to the predicted values. Numerous deviations and changes to the planning documents were made to ensure the flight segments are effectively and correctly stacked. Various GSE were also certified for use on flight segments, and are discussed in detail.

  5. Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article

    DOEpatents

    Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert

    2016-01-12

    A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.

  6. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  7. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  8. The ability to create NTD silicon technology in the IRT-T reactor in a horizontal experimental channel with one-side access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlachev, V. A.; Golovatsky, A. V.; Emets, E. G.; Butko, Ya A.

    2016-06-01

    The article shows the ability of creation of neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of monocrystalline silicon technology in the reactor's channel, which has a one-side access. In the article a distribution of thermal neutron flux through the length of channel and it's radius, neutron spectrum were obtained which confirmed that horizontal experimental channel HEC-1 is suitable for NTD.

  9. Irregular access to the power distribution network in Brazil's residential sector: a delinquent payment problem, or the quest for a right beyond the law?

    SciTech Connect

    da Silva, Neilton Fidelis; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    2008-08-15

    Clandestine residential consumers should not be rubber-stamped as criminals. Siphoning off electricity does not constitute an illegal action, but is rather the only alternative open to marginalized layers of society who rate electricity in their homes as a right to which they should have access. (author)

  10. Finding and Recommending Scholarly Articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.

    2014-05-01

    The rate at which scholarly literature is being produced has been increasing at approximately 3.5 percent per year for decades. This means that during a typical 40 year career the amount of new literature produced each year increases by a factor of four. The methods scholars use to discover relevant literature must change. Just like everybody else involved in information discovery, scholars are confronted with information overload. Two decades ago, this discovery process essentially consisted of paging through abstract books, talking to colleagues and librarians, and browsing journals. A time-consuming process, which could even be longer if material had to be shipped from elsewhere. Now much of this discovery process is mediated by online scholarly information systems. All these systems are relatively new, and all are still changing. They all share a common goal: to provide their users with access to the literature relevant to their specific needs. To achieve this each system responds to actions by the user by displaying articles which the system judges relevant to the user's current needs. Recently search systems which use particularly sophisticated methodologies to recommend a few specific papers to the user have been called "recommender systems". These methods are in line with the current use of the term "recommender system" in computer science. We do not adopt this definition, rather we view systems like these as components in a larger whole, which is presented by the scholarly information systems themselves. In what follows we view the recommender system as an aspect of the entire information system; one which combines the massive memory capacities of the machine with the cognitive abilities of the human user to achieve a human-machine synergy.

  11. Vascular Access in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh Keller, Marc S.

    2011-02-15

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the 'expert procedural pyramid' is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  12. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  13. Selected Aquatic Articles. Sports Articles Reprint Series. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Annie, Ed.

    This is a collection of articles from the "DGWS (Division for Girls and Women's Sports) Aquatic Guides" from 1963-1969. All articles, with one exception, were revised to present the most important contributions for that time period in aquatic activity beyond simple swimming. Included in the selection are articles on fear and the non-swimmer, deep…

  14. Developing accessible cyberinfrastructure-enabled knowledge communities in the national disability community: theory, practice, and policy.

    PubMed

    Myhill, William N; Cogburn, Derrick L; Samant, Deepti; Addom, Benjamin Kwasi; Blanck, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Since publication of the Atkins Commission report in 2003, the national scientific community has placed significant emphasis on developing cyberinfrastructure-enabled knowledge communities, which are designed to facilitate enhanced efficiency and collaboration in geographically distributed networks of researchers. This article suggests that the new cyberinfrastructure movement may not fully benefit those participants with disabilities, unless closer attention is paid to legal mandates and universal design principles. Many technology-enhanced learning communities provide geographically distributed collaboration opportunities that expand the inclusion of diverse peoples and help close the digital divide. However, to date, most collaboratory efforts have not emphasized the need for access among people with disabilities nor meeting minimum standards for technological accessibility. To address these concerns, this article reports on two pilot collaboratory studies that explore the role advanced information, communication, and collaboration technologies play in enhancing geographically distributed collaboration among specific research and applied networks within the national disability community. Universal design principles inform the design of the collaboratory and its use and our efforts to ensure access for all. Data for this article come from Web-based surveys, interviews, observations, computer logs, and detailed, mixed-methods accessibility testing. Emerging results suggest that with deliberate and systematic efforts, cyberinfrastructure can be more accessible and generate benefits among persons with disabilities. The authors provide lessons learned and recommendations for future research, policy, law, and practice. PMID:18939656

  15. Predicted Shifts in Small Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An Open Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective.

    PubMed

    Baltensperger, A P; Huettmann, F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of small mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of small mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior small mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, small mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future. PMID:26207828

  16. Predicted Shifts in Small Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An Open Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Baltensperger, A. P.; Huettmann, F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of small mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of small mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior small mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, small mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future. PMID:26207828

  17. MODE: Structural Test Article (STA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Masters, Brett

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Middeck 0-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE): Structural Test Article (STA) are presented. Topics covered include: MODE: structural test article motivation; hardware; sensors and actuators; experimental support module; data; preliminary results; supporting analysis program; and modeling approach.

  18. Hyperview-fast, economical access to large data sets: a system for the archiving and distribution of hyperspectral data sets and derived products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurie, Joan B.

    1996-12-01

    TRW, under a Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI) contract, is building the Lewis satellite. The principal sensor on Lewis is a hyperspectral imaging spectrometer. Part of the SSTI mission is to establish the commercial and educational utility of this data and the hyperspectral data already being acquired on airborne platforms. Essential requirements are rapid availability (after data acquisition) and easy accessibility to a catalog of images and imagery products. Each image is approximately 256 by 512 pixels with 384 bands of data acquired at each pixel. For some applications, some users will want the entire data sets; in other cases partial data sets (e.g. three band images) will be all that a user can handle or need for a given application. In order to make the most effective use of this new imagery and justify the cost of collecting it, we must find ways to make the information it contains more readily accessible to an ever broadening community of potential users. Tools are needed to store, access, and communicate the data more efficiently, to place it in context, and to derive both qualitative and quantitative information from it. A variety of information products which address the specific needs of particular user communities will be derived from the imagery. The data is unique in its ability to provide high spatial and spectral resolution simultaneously, and shows great promise in both military and civilian applications. A data management and analysis system has been built at TRW. This development has been prompted by the business opportunities, by the series of instruments built here and by the availability of data from other instruments. The products of the processing system have been shown to prospective customers in the U.S. and abroad. The system has been used to process data produced by TRW sensors and other instruments. This paper provides an overview of the TRW hyperspectral collection, data handling and exploitation capability.

  19. Open Access Publishing: What Authors Want

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv; Fernandez, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Campus-based open access author funds are being considered by many academic libraries as a way to support authors publishing in open access journals. Article processing fees for open access have been introduced recently by publishers and have not yet been widely accepted by authors. Few studies have surveyed authors on their reasons for publishing…

  20. Article Omission across Child Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Gavarro, Anna; de Lange, Joke; Caprin, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Article omission is known to be a feature of early grammar, although it does not affect all child languages to the same extent. In this article we analyze the production of articles by 12 children, 4 speakers of Catalan, 4 speakers of Italian, and 4 speakers of Dutch. We consider the results in the light of (i) the adult input the children are…

  1. Microwave sintering of multiple articles

    DOEpatents

    Blake, Rodger D.; Katz, Joel D.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

  2. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  3. Digital Distribution of Academic Journals and Its Impact on Scholarly Communication: Looking Back after 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, David J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been approximately 20 years since distributing scholarly journals digitally became feasible. This article discusses the broad implications of the transition to digital distributed scholarship from a historical perspective and focuses on the development of open access (OA) and the various models for funding OA in the context of the roles…

  4. NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine: Health, Medical & Wellness Articles

    MedlinePlus

    ... sponsorship and other charitable donations for NIH MedlinePlus magazine's publication and distribution, many more thousands of Americans will gain valuable, free access to the world's best online medical library, ... 4720 Montgomery Lane, Suite 500, Bethesda, MD 20814.

  5. Surface treatment of ceramic articles

    DOEpatents

    Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; Brown, Ian G.; Wei, Bo; Anders, Simone; Anders, Andre; Bhatia, C. Singh

    1998-01-01

    A process for producing an article with improved ceramic surface properties including providing an article having a ceramic surface, and placing the article onto a conductive substrate holder in a hermetic enclosure. Thereafter a low pressure ambient is provided in the hermetic enclosure. A plasma including ions of solid materials is produced the ceramic surface of the article being at least partially immersed in a macroparticle free region of the plasma. While the article is immersed in the macroparticle free region, a bias of the substrate holder is biased between a low voltage at which material from the plasma condenses on the surface of the article and a high negative voltage at which ions from the plasma are implanted into the article.

  6. Surface treatment of ceramic articles

    DOEpatents

    Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, C.S.

    1998-12-22

    A process is disclosed for producing an article with improved ceramic surface properties including providing an article having a ceramic surface, and placing the article onto a conductive substrate holder in a hermetic enclosure. Thereafter a low pressure ambient is provided in the hermetic enclosure. A plasma including ions of solid materials is produced the ceramic surface of the article being at least partially immersed in a macroparticle free region of the plasma. While the article is immersed in the macroparticle free region, a bias of the substrate holder is biased between a low voltage at which material from the plasma condenses on the surface of the article and a high negative voltage at which ions from the plasma are implanted into the article. 15 figs.

  7. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - ...

  8. OneGeology - The most appropriate model to achieve access to up-to-date geoscience data using a distributed data system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komac, Marko; Duffy, Tim; Robida, Francois; Harrison, Matt; Allison, Lee

    2015-04-01

    OneGeology is an initiative of Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) around the globe that dates back to Brighton, UK in 2007. Since then OneGeology has been a leader in developing geological online map data using a new international standard - a geological exchange language known as the 'GeoSciML' (currently version 3.2 exists, which enables instant interoperability of the data). Increased use of this new language allows geological data to be shared and integrated across the planet with other organisations. One of very important goals of OneGeology was a transfer of valuable know-how to the developing world, hence shortening the digital learning curve. In autumn 2013 OneGeology was transformed into a Consortium with a clearly defined governance structure, making its structure more official, its operability more flexible and its membership more open where in addition to GSO also to other type of organisations that manage geoscience data can join and contribute. The next stage of the OneGeology initiative will hence be focused into increasing the openness and richness of that data from individual countries to create a multi-thematic global geological data resource on the rocks beneath our feet. Authoritative information on hazards and minerals will help to prevent natural disasters, explore for resources (water, minerals and energy) and identify risks to human health on a planetary scale. With this new stage also renewed OneGeology objectives were defined and these are 1) to be the provider of geosciences data globally, 2) to ensure exchange of know-how and skills so all can participate, and 3) to use the global profile of 1G to increase awareness of the geosciences and their relevance among professional and general public. We live in a digital world that enables prompt access to vast amounts of open access data. Understanding our world, the geology beneath our feet and environmental challenges related to geology calls for accessibility of geoscience data and One

  9. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  10. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  11. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  12. Access to care: beyond health insurance.

    PubMed

    Strand de Oliveira, Justine

    2013-11-01

    Access to healthcare is derived from a complex mix of personal beliefs, cultural norms, and social structure, combined with available individual and community resources. This article reviews the concept of access to care and its evolution since the 1960s. The difference between potential and realized access and the question of social justice as it relates to access to care also are explored. PMID:24153091

  13. Open Access and Global Participation in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, James A.; Reimer, Jacob

    2009-02-01

    Investigations into the impact of open access journals on subsequent citations confounded open and electronic access and failed to track availability over time. With new data, we separated these effects. We demonstrate that article and journal citations increase more when a journal comes online freely rather than commercially and that free access journals are cited more by scientists in poorer countries. Together, findings suggest that free Internet access widens the circle of those who read and make use of scientists’ investigations.

  14. Guidelines for evaluating research articles.

    PubMed

    Rumrill, Phillip; Fitzgerald, Shawn; Ware, Megen

    2000-01-01

    The article describes the components and composition of journal articles that report empirical research findings in the field of rehabilitation. The authors delineate technical writing strategies and discuss the contents of research manuscripts, including the Title, Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion, and References. The article concludes with a scale that practitioners, manuscript reviewers, educators, and students can use in critically analyzing the content and scientific merits of published rehabilitation research. PMID:12441522

  15. If the results of an article are noteworthy, read the entire article; do not rely on the abstract alone.

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, R; Castell, M V; García-Puig, J

    2015-11-01

    Clinicians typically update their knowledge by reading articles on the Internet. Easy access to the articles' abstracts and a lack of time to access other information sources creates a risk that therapeutic or diagnostic decisions will be made after reading just the abstracts. Occasionally, however, the abstracts of articles from clinical trials that have not obtained statistically significant differences in the primary study endpoint have reported other positive results, for example, of a secondary endpoint or a subgroup analysis. The article, however, correctly reports all results, including those of the primary endpoint. In the abstract, the safety information of the experimental treatment is usually deficient. The whole article should be read if a clinical decision is to be made. PMID:26165166

  16. Basic Psychiatric Literature: II. Articles and Article Sources*†

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Joan B.; Pieper, Sam; Frazier, Shervert H.

    1968-01-01

    Widely varying reading lists for general psychiatry residents were obtained from 140 three-year approved training programs. The material recommended for reading was listed on index cards, and the number of programs recommending each item was posted on the cards. Approximately 4,000 articles, 2,800 books, and 200 serials were recommended. A statistical evaluation of the book list appeared in a previous paper (3).* Part II is a similar evaluation of the article list and the limited editions and serials in which the articles appear. PMID:4883158

  17. Space Shuttle inflatable training articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The design, development, construction, and testing of the Long Duration Exposure Facility inflatable and the space telescope training articles are discussed. While these articles are of similar nature, materials, and construction, they vary in size and present different problems with regards to size, shape, gross/net lift, and balance.

  18. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-dialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-dialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency-dialysis access; Chronic kidney failure-dialysis access; Chronic renal failure-dialysis access

  19. Commercial sector can improve access.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the improved accessibility to family planning (FP) services made possible by expanding services among private physicians and through social marketing in developing countries. Encouraging private sector (PS) FP is a way to ease the caseload of public FP facilities and creating the potential for attracting more lower-income clients. Few developing countries have a "viable commercial market" for contraceptives. Commercial success depends upon a secure supply of FP supplies, well-trained providers, and consumer demand. Consumers want affordable, high-quality, and convenient services. Governments must ensure that regulations do not hamper PS programs. Public and private programs should not compete in ways that are counterproductive. The commercial sector includes private physicians, clinics, pharmacies, or hospitals without public subsidies. Public funding might be used to encourage PS distribution, especially condoms and messages about HIV and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Messages may target specific audiences and promote an appealing logo and packaging. SOMARC in Turkey promotes a network of commercial health care facilities that offer high quality FP at affordable prices. The model includes provider training, quality of care monitoring, marketing, a hotline, posted prices, and prices set by consumer affordability surveys. This model is being tried in both Nepal and the Philippines. Commercial marketing has been successful in Latin America, North Africa, and the Middle East. Commercial expansion and survival is dependent upon the satisfaction of consumer preferences for convenience, greater access, better confidentiality, and quality. Examples from Zimbabwe and Romania are used to show strategies for training private providers. Private providers will become involved, for instance, by offering targeted training programs. PMID:12293234

  20. Database Access Integration Services (DAIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, P. . Sensor and System Development Center); Nordell, D. )

    1992-12-01

    The Database Access Integration Services (DAIS) is a collection of services that facilitate access to data among diverse data systems in an electric utility communications network. DAIS provides access to data in distributed, heterogeneous data systems that include relational database management systems, other database management systems, control systems, file systems, and application systems. It also provides a common method for describing data, common data access operations and essential support services including a data dictionary, a data directory and distributed data access management capabilities. The DAIS project has developed specifications intended for vendor and third-party implementation. The software developed is only to implement a data access integration demonstration. These specifications can serve as a basis for influencing industry standards development. One important consequence of this strategy is that most actual software development will be performed by vendors, not utilities. DAIS is a tool to support data access. It is policy neutral regarding issues such as local or central administration of data or standardization of information model contents (e.g., EPRI Plant Information Network). As a tool, it can be used to help realize such policies. The DAIS does not provide data storage facilities, schema integration, distributed query processing, distributed applications or cooperative processing. Rather, DAIS is complementary to these functions and can be used with other software that does provide these functions. This project documented the requirements for the DAIS. These requirements are the basis for design of the DAIS specifications. The key requirements for a DAIS are: Uniform access to heterogeneous utility data systems, remote update; coexistence with local data systems; local autonomy ; Security and access restriction enforcement; OSI compatibility; open architecture and extensibility; and operating platform independence.

  1. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  2. "I inject less as I have easier access to pipes": injecting, and sharing of crack-smoking materials, decline as safer crack-smoking resources are distributed.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Lynne; DeRubeis, Emily; Pelude, Linda; Medd, Emily; Birkett, Nick; Seto, Joyce

    2008-06-01

    Among injection drug users (IDUs) in Ottawa, the capital of Canada, prevalence rates of HIV (20.6 percent) and hepatitis C HCV (75.8 percent) are among the highest in Canada. Recent research evidence suggests the potential for HCV and HIV transmission through the multi-person use of crack-smoking implements. On the basis of this scientific evidence, in April 2005, Ottawa's needle exchange programme (NEP) commenced distributing glass stems, rubber mouthpieces, brass screens, chopsticks, lip balm and chewing gum to reduce the harms associated with smoking crack. This study aims to evaluate the impact of this initiative on a variety of HCV- and HIV-related risk practices. Active, street-recruited IDUs who also smoked crack consented to personal interviews and provided saliva samples for HCV and HIV testing at four time points: 6-months pre-implementation (N=112), 1-month (N=114), 6-months (N=157) and 12-months (N=167) post-implementation. Descriptive and univariate analyses were completed. Following implementation of the initiative, a significant decrease in injecting was observed. Pre-implementation, 96 percent of IDUs reported injecting in the month prior to the interview compared with 84 percent in the 1-month, and 78 percent in the 6- and 12-month post-implementation interviews (p<.01). Conversely, approximately one-quarter of participants at both the 6- and 12-month post-implementation evaluation points reported that they were smoking crack more frequently since the availability of clean equipment--25 and 29 percent, respectively. In addition to a shift to a less harmful method of drug ingestion, HCV- and HIV-related risks associated with this method were reduced. Among crack-smoking IDUs sharing pipes, the proportion sharing "every time" declined from 37 percent in the 6-month pre-implementation stage, to 31 percent in the 1-month, 12 percent in the 6-month and 13 percent in the 12-month post-implementation stages (p<.01). Since distributing safer crack

  3. The Table Access Protocol: Providing standard access to astronomical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandrekar-Heinis, D.; Michel, L.; Louys, M.; Bonnarel, F.

    2014-11-01

    In the upcoming era of large scale, geographically distributed, varied sources of astronomical data, a standard, simple and flexible way to access this data is necessary and useful for astronomers across the globe. Most of the modern surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are available in well organized tabular formats. The Table Access Protocol (TAP) supports a standard web interface to access this kind of tabular data. Predefined queries and results formats help different data providers to implement these services. TAP also helps various software tools to access data and perform cross-matches seamlessly across different data sources. It is then possible to access data in tools that consume TAP web services. This supports further detailed data analysis on a queried slice of data. This document describes TAP and its utility for astronomers and data scientists. It also provides information on the protocol for data providers and developers.

  4. Prospect for Development of Open Access in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Sandra; Bongiovani, Paola C.; Gomez, Nancy D.; Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article presents an overview of the Open Access movement in Argentina, from a global and regional (Latin American) context. The article describes the evolution and current state of initiatives by examining two principal approaches to Open Access in Argentina: "golden" and "green roads". The article will then turn its attention to:…

  5. Equitable Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashway, Robert M.; Brentley, Mary; Carter, Joseph

    The purpose of this study was to examine certain objective admission criteria at open admission institutions, eliminating the problem of truncated variable distribution. Minorities who are admitted to selective colleges and universities with lower than average Scholastic Assessment Test or ACT Assessment test scores (1100 and 27, respectively) in…

  6. Keyless Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental truth of building security is that one misplaced key constitutes a crack in the armor that protects a space from unwelcome intruders. Imagine the headaches for administrators and security officials at a large university, where thousands of keys that are distributed to students and staff never find their way back to school officials.…

  7. Intraosseous access and adults in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Ashleigh

    This article examines the use of the intraosseous route for obtaining vascular access in adults. It discusses indications for intraosseous access, the techniques and devices used, and contraindications. PMID:21901968

  8. Evaluating Microcomputer Access Technology for Use by Visually Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruconich, Sandra

    1984-01-01

    The article outlines advantages and limitations of five types of access to microcomputer technology for visually impaired students: electronic braille, paper braille, Optacon, synthetic speech, and enlarged print. Additional considerations in access decisions are noted. (CL)

  9. [Searching articles and their management].

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2010-05-01

    The development of digitalizing technology and the Internet has enabled medical doctors and researchers in medicine to search and read the latest articles at their desk without visiting a library. As a result of the time and effort spent for searching articles can be extremely reduced by learning how to use effective tools in combination, the time for the research activity will certainly be greatly saved. It is promising that the advancement of science database, online journals, evaluating system of the journal impact will be great help for researchers. PMID:20446610

  10. [THE TEN MOST CITED ARTICLES OF THE JOURNAL "NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA"].

    PubMed

    Franco-López, Ángeles; González-Gallego, Javier; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Tuñón, María Jesús; García-De-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-01-01

    After 36 years of continued publication of the journal Nutrición Hospitalaria, a list with the ten most cited articles published in it is elaborated. The top ten most cited articles in the world literature and stratification according to language, English or Spanish, subject, or period of time published are also analyzed. Nutr Hosp is the most important Ibero latin American nutrition journal. Nutr Hosp published 369 items in 2014 gaining the fourth position among all the world's journals devoted to nutrition. Article publication in English, or simultaneously in Spanish and English and Open Access policy probably benefit the number of citations. PMID:26667680

  11. Siemens SOFC Test Article and Module Design

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-31

    Preliminary design studies of the 95 kWe-class SOFC test article continue resulting in a stack architecture of that is 1/3 of 250 kWe-class SOFC advanced module. The 95 kWeclass test article is envisioned to house 20 bundles (eight cells per bundle) of Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm. Significant progress was made in the conceptual design of the internal recirculation loop. Flow analyses were initiated in order to optimize the bundle row length for the 250 kWeclass advanced module. A preferred stack configuration based on acceptable flow and thermal distributions was identified. Potential module design and analysis issues associated with pressurized operation were identified.

  12. Anatomy of open access publishing: a study of longitudinal development and internal structure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Open access (OA) is a revolutionary way of providing access to the scholarly journal literature made possible by the Internet. The primary aim of this study was to measure the volume of scientific articles published in full immediate OA journals from 2000 to 2011, while observing longitudinal internal shifts in the structure of OA publishing concerning revenue models, publisher types and relative distribution among scientific disciplines. The secondary aim was to measure the share of OA articles of all journal articles, including articles made OA by publishers with a delay and individual author-paid OA articles in subscription journals (hybrid OA), as these subsets of OA publishing have mostly been ignored in previous studies. Methods Stratified random sampling of journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals (n = 787) was performed. The annual publication volumes spanning 2000 to 2011 were retrieved from major publication indexes and through manual data collection. Results An estimated 340,000 articles were published by 6,713 full immediate OA journals during 2011. OA journals requiring article-processing charges have become increasingly common, publishing 166,700 articles in 2011 (49% of all OA articles). This growth is related to the growth of commercial publishers, who, despite only a marginal presence a decade ago, have grown to become key actors on the OA scene, responsible for 120,000 of the articles published in 2011. Publication volume has grown within all major scientific disciplines, however, biomedicine has seen a particularly rapid 16-fold growth between 2000 (7,400 articles) and 2011 (120,900 articles). Over the past decade, OA journal publishing has steadily increased its relative share of all scholarly journal articles by about 1% annually. Approximately 17% of the 1.66 million articles published during 2011 and indexed in the most comprehensive article-level index of scholarly articles (Scopus) are available OA through journal

  13. A study of institutional spending on open access publication fees in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Najko; Tullney, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Publication fees as a revenue source for open access publishing hold a prominent place on the agendas of researchers, policy makers, and academic publishers. This study contributes to the evolving empirical basis for funding these charges and examines how much German universities and research organisations spent on open access publication fees. Using self-reported cost data from the Open APC initiative, the analysis focused on the amount that was being spent on publication fees, and compared these expenditure with data from related Austrian (FWF) and UK (Wellcome Trust, Jisc) initiatives, in terms of both size and the proportion of articles being published in fully and hybrid open access journals. We also investigated how thoroughly self-reported articles were indexed in Crossref, a DOI minting agency for scholarly literature, and analysed how the institutional spending was distributed across publishers and journal titles. According to self-reported data from 30 German universities and research organisations between 2005 and 2015, expenditures on open access publication fees increased over the years in Germany and amounted to € 9,627,537 for 7,417 open access journal articles. The average payment was € 1,298, and the median was € 1,231. A total of 94% of the total article volume included in the study was supported in accordance with the price cap of € 2,000, a limit imposed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of its funding activities for open access funding at German universities. Expenditures varied considerably at the institutional level. There were also differences in how much the institutions spent per journal and publisher. These differences reflect, at least in part, the varying pricing schemes in place including discounted publication fees. With an indexing coverage of 99%, Crossref thoroughly indexed the open access journals articles included in the study. A comparison with the related openly available cost data from Austria and

  14. A study of institutional spending on open access publication fees in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Tullney, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Publication fees as a revenue source for open access publishing hold a prominent place on the agendas of researchers, policy makers, and academic publishers. This study contributes to the evolving empirical basis for funding these charges and examines how much German universities and research organisations spent on open access publication fees. Using self-reported cost data from the Open APC initiative, the analysis focused on the amount that was being spent on publication fees, and compared these expenditure with data from related Austrian (FWF) and UK (Wellcome Trust, Jisc) initiatives, in terms of both size and the proportion of articles being published in fully and hybrid open access journals. We also investigated how thoroughly self-reported articles were indexed in Crossref, a DOI minting agency for scholarly literature, and analysed how the institutional spending was distributed across publishers and journal titles. According to self-reported data from 30 German universities and research organisations between 2005 and 2015, expenditures on open access publication fees increased over the years in Germany and amounted to € 9,627,537 for 7,417 open access journal articles. The average payment was € 1,298, and the median was € 1,231. A total of 94% of the total article volume included in the study was supported in accordance with the price cap of € 2,000, a limit imposed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of its funding activities for open access funding at German universities. Expenditures varied considerably at the institutional level. There were also differences in how much the institutions spent per journal and publisher. These differences reflect, at least in part, the varying pricing schemes in place including discounted publication fees. With an indexing coverage of 99%, Crossref thoroughly indexed the open access journals articles included in the study. A comparison with the related openly available cost data from Austria and

  15. "Developmental Review's" Most Influential Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.

    2006-01-01

    "Developmental Review" is a journal of literature reviews and theoretical analyses for developmental scientists. During its first quarter-century of publication, the quality of those articles resulted in a journal whose level of impact on the scientific literature is extremely high, currently in the top 10% of all journals indexed by "Social…

  16. Acta Mechanica Sinica (selected articles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, G.; Yin, X.; Jiang, J.; Li, K.

    1982-08-01

    Selected articles on fluid mechanics and heat transfer are presented. Topics discussed are: (1) the secondary vortex and the karman vortex formation; (2) viscous compressible flow in turbomachinery; (3) partial differential equations satisfied by stream functions in three dimensional turbomachinery flow; and (4) iridium electrostatic probe and its application in a high temperature wind tunnel.

  17. Commentary on Albert Ellis' Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiner, Frederic B.

    1977-01-01

    In a response to Albert Ellis' feature article, the author agrees with Ellis but feels that less time should be spent proving which counseling method is better than the next, and more time spent in comparative research as per clients' gains. (HMV)

  18. Access to Scientific Publications: The Scientist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Voronin, Yegor; Myrzahmetov, Askar; Bernstein, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Background Scientific publishing is undergoing significant changes due to the growth of online publications, increases in the number of open access journals, and policies of funders and universities requiring authors to ensure that their publications become publicly accessible. Most studies of the impact of these changes have focused on the growth of articles available through open access or the number of open-access journals. Here, we investigated access to publications at a number of institutes and universities around the world, focusing on publications in HIV vaccine research – an area of biomedical research with special importance to the developing world. Methods and Findings We selected research papers in HIV vaccine research field, creating: 1) a first set of 50 most recently published papers with keywords “HIV vaccine” and 2) a second set of 200 articles randomly selected from those cited in the first set. Access to the majority (80%) of the recently published articles required subscription, while cited literature was much more accessible (67% freely available online). Subscriptions at a number of institutions around the world were assessed for providing access to subscription-only articles from the two sets. The access levels varied widely, ranging among institutions from 20% to 90%. Through the WHO-supported HINARI program, institutes in low-income countries had access comparable to that of institutes in the North. Finally, we examined the response rates for reprint requests sent to corresponding authors, a method commonly used before internet access became widespread. Contacting corresponding authors with requests for electronic copies of articles by email resulted in a 55-60% success rate, although in some cases it took up to 1.5 months to get a response. Conclusions While research articles are increasingly available on the internet in open access format, institutional subscriptions continue to play an important role. However, subscriptions do not

  19. Distributive Justice and Distributive Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Jacqueline Grennan

    American higher education in this century has been almost schizophrenic in its development. As money and knowledge began to spread more distributively across the population, the population began to demand for its children a more equitable access into the world of the more privileged. Education and privilege were highly correlated. Greater access…

  20. Librarians and Libraries Supporting Open Access Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Jennifer; Koufogiannakis, Denise; Ryan, Pam

    2009-01-01

    As new models of scholarly communication emerge, librarians and libraries have responded by developing and supporting new methods of storing and providing access to information and by creating new publishing support services. This article will examine the roles of libraries and librarians in developing and supporting open access publishing…

  1. Open-Access Electronic Textbooks: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovadia, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Given the challenging economic climate in the United States, many academics are looking to open-access electronic textbooks as a way to provide students with traditional textbook content at a more financially advantageous price. Open access refers to "the free and widely available information throughout the World Wide Web. Once an article's author…

  2. A New Era of Open Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Paul; Macauley, Peter

    2008-01-01

    There has been a push for open access journals for more than a decade in a higher education and research environment in which the "publish or perish" syndrome is as dominant as ever. This article examines the success, or otherwise, of open access schemes in light of the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative. It compares the…

  3. Data Sharing Effect on Article Citation Rate in Paleoceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The validation of scientific results requires reproducible methods and data. Often, however, data sets supporting research articles are not openly accessible and interlinked. This analysis tests whether open sharing and linking of supporting data through the PANGAEA° data library measurably increases the citation rate of articles published between 1993 and 2010 in the journal Paleoceanography as reported in the Thomson Reuters Web of Science database. The 12.85% (171) of articles with publicly available supporting data sets received 19.94% (8,056) of the aggregate citations (40,409). Publicly available data were thus significantly (p=0.007, 95% confidence interval) associated with about 35% more citations per article than the average of all articles sampled over the 18-year study period (1,331), and the increase is fairly consistent over time (14 of 18 years). This relationship between openly available, curated data and increased citation rate may incentivize researchers to share their data.

  4. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  5. Fabrication of Molded Magnetic Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A molded magnetic article and fabrication method are provided. Particles of ferromagnetic material embedded in a polymer binder are molded under heat and pressure into a geometric shape. Each particle is an oblate spheroid having a radius-to-thickness aspect ratio approximately in the range of 15-30. Each oblate spheroid has flattened poles that are substantially in perpendicular alignment to a direction of the molding pressure throughout the geometric shape.

  6. Acta Mechanica Sinica (selected articles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guocan, L.; Xieyuan, Y.

    1982-05-01

    Articles on the following topics are presented: the early stages of unsteady flow around a cylinder at high Reynolds number and under laminar conditions; methods for solving three dimensional flow in turbomachinery; numerical computation of viscous compressible flow in turbomachinery; a high speed interferograph system for investigating fast phenomena; and statistical simulation of the aerodynamic behavior of the transitional region of flow past combined bodies of revolution at arbitrary angles of attack.

  7. Article removal device for glovebox

    DOEpatents

    Guyer, R.H.; Leebl, R.G.

    1973-12-01

    An article removal device for a glovebox is described comprising a conduit extending through a glovebox wall which may be closed by a plug within the glovebox, and a fire-resistant container closing the outer end of the conduit and housing a removable container for receiving pyrophoric or otherwise hazardous material without disturbing the interior environment of the glovebox or adversely affecting the environment outside of the glovebox. (Official Gazette)

  8. Facilitating Full-text Access to Biomedical Literature Using Open Access Resources.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongyu; Hou, Zhen; Li, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Open access (OA) resources and local libraries often have their own literature databases, especially in the field of biomedicine. We have developed a method of linking a local library to a biomedical OA resource facilitating researchers' full-text article access. The method uses a model based on vector space to measure similarities between two articles in local library and OA resources. The method achieved an F-score of 99.61%. This method of article linkage and mapping between local library and OA resources is available for use. Through this work, we have improved the full-text access of the biomedical OA resources. PMID:26262422

  9. Publishing in open access era: focus on respiratory journals

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dingyao; Zhong, Xiyao; Li, Li; Ling, Qibo; Bu, Zhaode

    2014-01-01

    We have entered an open access publishing era. The impact and significance of open access is still under debate after two decades of evolution. Open access journals benefit researchers and the general public by promoting visibility, sharing and communicating. Non-mainstream journals should turn the challenge of open access into opportunity of presenting best research articles to the global readership. Open access journals need to optimize their business models to promote the healthy and continuous development. PMID:24822120

  10. The article of the future.

    PubMed

    Souza, Eliana Pereira Salles de; Cabrera, Eliana Márcia Sotello; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2010-01-01

    Technological advances and the Internet have contributed to the increased disclosure and updating of knowledge and science. Scientific papers are considered the best form of disclosure of information and have been undergoing many changes, not on their way of development, but on the structure of publication. The Future paper, a name for this new structure, uses hypermediatic resources, allowing a quick, easy and organized access to these items online. The exchange of information, comments and criticisms can be performed in real time, providing agility in science disclosure. The trend for the future of documents, both from professionals or enterprises, is the "cloud computing", in which all documents will be developed and updated with the use of various equipments: computer, palm, netbook, ipad, without need to have the software installed on your computer, requiring only an Internet connection. PMID:20802903

  11. REVIEW ARTICLE: Electroluminescence in organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, Jan

    1999-12-01

    There is growing interest in organic electroluminescence (EL). A great deal of progress has been made recently in improving the performance of various classes of organic EL devices. Some of these are now adequate for many applications. However, specialists focusing on selected aspects of organic EL devices have often lost contact with the general subject of EL. Therefore, a review covering all aspects of EL mechanisms and their experimental manifestation seemed necessary. This article is concerned with the new EL device physics that can be realized using crystals, or films made of organic materials, as electrically and optically active components, in devices ranging from simple single-component light emitting diodes (LEDs), through double- and multi-layer LEDs to light emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) and organic LED-based light transducers. The investigation of the properties of these devices has provided in turn a very effective method for studying the basic EL phenomena in these materials. Since the subject of the present review has generated a huge amount of literature, and it is impossible to mention here all that has been done, we have attempted to provide an outline of the background of the field of organic EL, and discussed in some detail those aspects most relevant to the EL device physics. Because of the diversity of the types of material and EL structure, there is no single, simple description of EL in organics. Therefore, the initial sections of the article are devoted to a discussion of the types of EL and related phenomena, such as carrier injection and recombination or nature of emitting states. Then, the fundamentals of the fabrication of various types of EL devices are discussed along with the most representative examples. In general, the reader will find in the article a brief historical review of the subject as well as a description of the latest trends in organic EL research covering all the new concepts and most important data which have

  12. 40 CFR 1400.6 - Enhanced local access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...); DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.6 Enhanced local access. (a) OCA data elements. Consistent with 42 U.S.C... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced local access. 1400.6...

  13. Model of Distributed Learning Objects Repository for a Heterogenic Internet Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaczmarek, Jerzy; Landowska, Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    In this article, an extension of the existing structure of learning objects is described. The solution addresses the problem of the access and discovery of educational resources in the distributed Internet environment. An overview of e-learning standards, reference models, and problems with educational resources delivery is presented. The paper…

  14. [The concepts of health access].

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Raquel Maia; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita

    2012-03-01

    This article describes four dimensions of health access-availability, acceptability, ability to pay and information-correlating these dimensions to indicators and discussing the complexity of the concept of access. For a study of these four dimensions, searches were conducted using the PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and World Health Organization Library & Information Networks for Knowledge (WHOLIS) databases. Large-circulation media vehicles, such as The Economist, The Washington Post, and the BBC network were also searched. The concept of health access has become more complex with time. The first analyses, carried out in the 1970s, suggested a strong emphasis on geographical (availability) and financial (ability to pay) aspects. More recently, the literature has focused on less tangible aspects, such as cultural, educational, and socioeconomic issues, incorporating the element of acceptability into the notion of health access. The literature also shows that information provides the starting point for access to health, in association with health empowerment and literacy for health care decision-making. The study concludes that improvements in access to health and the guarantee of equity will not be achieved by initiatives focusing on health care systems alone, but rather will depend on intersectoral actions and social and economic policies aimed at eliminating income and education differences. PMID:22569702

  15. [Reaching Target Groups--Shaping Accessibility].

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Jahn, I

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the public health discourse on the accessibility and access paths, theoretical approaches as well as factors influencing the utilisation of prevention and health promotion interventions, and requirements for their evaluation. Various projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research address many aspects of accessibility and describe extensive experiences with access paths, approaches to information transfer, target group-driven supply chain design, etc. Recommendations for practice and research are given at the end of the article. PMID:24081569

  16. Open access: changing global science publishing

    PubMed Central

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D.

    2013-01-01

    The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability. PMID:23986284

  17. Access Answers: A Digest of LISTSERVS of Interest to Access Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Fred W.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a digest of LISTSERVS of interest to access services for the period of April to June 2011. It presents questions and answers from Interlibrary Loan (ILL) people, CIRCPLUS, and OFFCAMP.

  18. LERU roadmap towards Open Access.

    PubMed

    Ayris, Paul; Björnshauge, Lars; Collier, Mel; Ferwerda, Eelco; Jacobs, Neil; Sinikara, Kaisa; Swan, Alma; de Bries, Saskia; van Wesenbeeck, Astrid

    2015-09-01

    Money which is not directly spent on research and education, even though it is largely taxpayers´ money. As Harvard University already denounced in 2012, many large journal publishers have rendered the situation "fiscally unsustainable and academically restrictive", with some journals costing as much as $40,000 per year (and publishers drawing profits of 35% or more). If one of the wealthiest universities in the world can no longer afford it, who can? It is easy to picture the struggle of European universities with tighter budgets. In addition to subscription costs, academic research funding is also largely affected by "Article Processing Charges" (APC), which come at an additional cost of €2000/article, on average, when making individual articles Gold Open Access. Some publishers are in this way even being paid twice for the same content ("double dipping"). In the era of Open Science, Open Access to publications is one of the cornerstones of the new research paradigm and business models must support this transition. It should be one of the principal objectives of Commissioner Carlos Moedas and the Dutch EU Presidency (January-June 2016) to ensure that this transition happens. Further developing the EU´s leadership in research and innovation largely depends on it. With this statement "Moving Forwards on Open Access", LERU calls upon all universities, research institutes, research funders and researchers to sign this statement and give a clear signal towards the European Commission and the Dutch EU Presidency. PMID:27036747

  19. The Open Access Availability of Library and Information Science Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Doug

    2010-01-01

    To examine the open access availability of Library and Information Science (LIS) research, a study was conducted using Google Scholar to search for articles from 20 top LIS journals. The study examined whether Google Scholar was able to find any links to full text, if open access versions of the articles were available and where these articles…

  20. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. ...

  1. Assistive technology access and service delivery in resource-limited environments: introduction to a special issue of Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology.

    PubMed

    Harniss, Mark; Samant Raja, Deepti; Matter, Rebecca

    2015-07-01

    This special issue addresses access to and service delivery of assistive technology (AT) in resource-limited environments (RLEs). Access to AT is complicated not simply by limited funds to purchase AT, but by larger ecosystem weaknesses in RLEs related to legislation and policy, supply, distribution, human resources, consumer demand and accessible design. We present eight diverse articles that address various aspects of the AT ecosystem. These articles represent a wide range of AT, many different countries and different research methods. Our goal is to highlight a topic that has received scant research investigation and limited investment in international development efforts, and offer an insight into how different countries and programs are promoting access to AT. We encourage researchers, funders and non-profit organizations to invest additional effort and resources in this area. PMID:25955113

  2. Development of Disruptive Open Access Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; McConkey, Brigette

    2009-01-01

    Open access (OA) publication has emerged, with disruptive effects, as a major outlet for scholarly publication. OA publication is usually associated with on-line distribution and provides access to scholarly publications to anyone, anywhere--regardless of their ability to pay subscription fees or their association with an educational institution.…

  3. Subscriptions Are Us: Content, Access, & Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2012-01-01

    In a time of increasingly digital distribution, challenging questions arise regarding what people own, what they want to access to, and how they develop and maintain collections. What considerations influence their decision making, as individuals and libraries shift toward more subscription-oriented content? Digital access to e-books and…

  4. Assessing Accessibility: How Accessible Are Online Courses for Students with Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massengale, Lindsey R.; Vasquez, Eleazar, III

    2016-01-01

    Delivering course material in a manner that is accessible to all students including those with disabilities is important in the online environment. This article presents an analysis focusing on the accessibility of six courses presented through the Webcourses platform. Six professors volunteered one course for analysis. The tool used for analyzing…

  5. Availability and Accessibility in an Open Access Institutional Repository: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwook; Burnett, Gary; Vandegrift, Micah; Baeg, Jung Hoon; Morris, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the extent to which an institutional repository makes papers available and accessible on the open Web by using 170 journal articles housed in DigiNole Commons, the institutional repository at Florida State University. Method: To analyse the repository's impact on availability and accessibility, we conducted…

  6. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

    2014-10-28

    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  7. Access Services Education in Library and Information Science Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, David

    2009-01-01

    This article defines the elements of Access Services, explains the importance of those aspects in the library, and proposes a course centered on Access Services for library schools. The areas of circulation, interlibrary loan, course reserves, collection maintenance, and public relations are core components of Access Services. Each of those…

  8. Warning! Slippery Road Ahead: Internet Access and District Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Joan M.

    1995-01-01

    As schools merge onto the information highway, districts must address their liability associated with Internet access. Schools need a practical policy supporting high access to global educational resources while limiting district liability. USENET provides easy access to controversial and pornographic materials. This article outlines federal…

  9. Web Accessibility Theory and Practice: An Introduction for University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbard, David A.; Peters, Cara

    2010-01-01

    Web accessibility is the practice of making Web sites accessible to all, particularly those with disabilities. As the Internet becomes a central part of post-secondary instruction, it is imperative that instructional Web sites be designed for accessibility to meet the needs of disabled students. The purpose of this article is to introduce Web…

  10. Microsoft's Vista: Guarantees People with Special Needs Access to Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the accessibility features of Microsoft's Windows Vista. One of the most innovative aspects of Windows Vista is a new accessibility and automated testing model called Microsoft UI Automation, which reduces development costs not only for accessible and assistive technology (AT) developers, but also for…

  11. An availability study of electronic articles in an academic health sciences library

    PubMed Central

    Crum, Janet A

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purposes of this study were: to determine the number of articles requested by library users that could be retrieved from the library's collection using the library catalog and link resolver, in other words, the availability rate; and to identify the nature and frequency of problems encountered in this process, so that the problems could be addressed and access to full-text articles could be improved. Methods: A sample of 414 requested articles was identified via link resolver log files. Library staff attempted to retrieve these articles using the library catalog and link resolver and documented access problems. Results: Staff were able to retrieve electronic full text for 310 articles using the catalog. An additional 21 articles were available in print, for an overall availability rate of nearly 80%. Only 68% (280) of articles could be retrieved electronically via the link resolver. The biggest barriers to access in both instances were lack of holdings and incomplete coverage. The most common problem encountered when retrieving articles via the link resolver was incomplete or inaccurate metadata. Conclusion: An availability study is a useful tool for measuring the quality of electronic access provided by a library and identifying and quantifying barriers to access. PMID:22025906

  12. Introducing Open Highlights: Highlighting Open Access Research from PLOS and Beyond.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    PLOS Biology announces a new article type, Open Highlights, which uses a recent research article to nucleate a short synthesis of up to ten related research articles from other PLOS journals and from the wider Open Access corpus. PMID:27400228

  13. Collaboration range: Effects of geographical proximity on article impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apolloni, Andrea; Rouquier, Jean-Baptiste; Jensen, Pablo

    2013-09-01

    Spatial scientometrics studies how geography influences knowledge creation. In the recent years there has been a surge in this kind of studies, due to the increase of international collaborations. Most of the work in this field has been focused on the geographical distribution of researchers, whilst few have considered how proximity between coauthors influences research quality. In this work we leverage a dataset of geolocalized articles to assess the effect of geographical distance on article impact. More precisely, the dataset, provided by the Observatory of Science and Technology (O.S.T.), consists of roughly 106 scientific articles, gathering all European articles written in 2000 and 2007, spanning 9 disciplines. We evaluate under which geographical extent coauthorships have higher probability of resulting in high impact articles ("high impact" is here approximated by "being in the top 10% most cited articles of its discipline"). We also describe spatial distribution of coauthorship, delineating geographical areas where the production is proportionally higher. The distribution is evaluated both in term of km (as the crow flies), and in terms of administrative partitions (authors' cities, regions, countries).

  14. A Theory of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribot, Jesse C.; Peluso, Nancy Lee

    2003-01-01

    The term "access" is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as "the "ability" to derive benefits from things," broadening from property's classical definition as…

  15. Options for intravascular access during resuscitation of adults.

    PubMed

    Cairney, Kevin; Ibrahim, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    For most emergency care teams, initial intravascular access is performed intravenously, despite the challenges posed by low cardiac output physiology. Intraosseous (IO) access has been included in recent Resuscitation Council UK (2010) adult advanced life support (ALS) guidelines for cases in which intravenous access is difficult or unavailable. This article discusses how the use of IO access devices can improve ALS therapy for patients who are in, or who are at risk of, cardiac arrest. PMID:22690475

  16. 42 CFR 35.35 - Unsalable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unsalable articles. 35.35 Section 35.35 Public... HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.35 Unsalable articles. Articles having no commercial value shall be stored, destroyed, or otherwise disposed of as the officer...

  17. 42 CFR 35.35 - Unsalable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unsalable articles. 35.35 Section 35.35 Public... HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.35 Unsalable articles. Articles having no commercial value shall be stored, destroyed, or otherwise disposed of as the officer...

  18. 27 CFR 46.208 - Unmerchantable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unmerchantable articles... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.208 Unmerchantable articles. Articles that the.... However, the dealer must segregate any such unmerchantable articles and include them in a separate...

  19. 27 CFR 46.208 - Unmerchantable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Unmerchantable articles. 46... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.208 Unmerchantable articles. Articles that the.... However, the dealer must segregate any such unmerchantable articles and include them in a separate...

  20. 42 CFR 35.35 - Unsalable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unsalable articles. 35.35 Section 35.35 Public... HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.35 Unsalable articles. Articles having no commercial value shall be stored, destroyed, or otherwise disposed of as the officer...

  1. 27 CFR 46.208 - Unmerchantable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Unmerchantable articles... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.208 Unmerchantable articles. Articles that the.... However, the dealer must segregate any such unmerchantable articles and include them in a separate...

  2. On Reviewing and Writing a Scholarly Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Jerry L., Sr.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides guidelines for reviewing and writing scholarly articles for the professional who reads and writes them for his/her own work and/or for publication in scientific journals. It outlines the purpose and contents of each section of a research article and provides a checklist for reviewing and writing a research article. This…

  3. 27 CFR 46.208 - Unmerchantable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unmerchantable articles... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.208 Unmerchantable articles. Articles that the.... However, the dealer must segregate any such unmerchantable articles and include them in a separate...

  4. 27 CFR 46.208 - Unmerchantable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unmerchantable articles... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.208 Unmerchantable articles. Articles that the.... However, the dealer must segregate any such unmerchantable articles and include them in a separate...

  5. 42 CFR 35.35 - Unsalable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unsalable articles. 35.35 Section 35.35 Public... HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.35 Unsalable articles. Articles having no commercial value shall be stored, destroyed, or otherwise disposed of as the officer...

  6. 42 CFR 35.35 - Unsalable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unsalable articles. 35.35 Section 35.35 Public... HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.35 Unsalable articles. Articles having no commercial value shall be stored, destroyed, or otherwise disposed of as the officer...

  7. An Analysis of the Distribution of Student Financial Aid and Social Justice in China: A Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Xiehua

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese government's stated objective of student financial aid (SFA) policy is to help students from low-income families to access higher levels of education. This article first explores the possible associations between the distribution of SFA and students' various demographic and academic backgrounds. Then it presents the findings regarding…

  8. The Simple Spectral Access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolensky, Markus; Tody, Doug

    2004-09-01

    The goal of the Simple Spectral Access (SSA) specification is to define a uniform interface to spectral data including spectral energy distributions (SEDs), 1D spectra, and time series data. In contrast to 2D images, spectra are stored in a wide variety of formats and there is no widely used standard in astronomy for representing spectral data, hence part of the challenge of specifying SSA was defining a general spectrophotometric data model as well as definitions of standard serializations in a variety of data formats including XML and FITS. Access is provided to both atlas (pre-computed) data and to virtual data which is computed on demand. The term simple in Simple Spectrum Access refers to the design goal of simplicity in both implementing spectral data services and in retrieving spectroscopic data from distributed data collections. SSA is a product of the data access layer (DAL) working group of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). The requirements were derived from a survey among spectral data providers and data consumers and were further refined in a broad discussion in meetings and electronic forums as well as by prototyping efforts within the European Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) and the US National Virtual Observatory (NVO).

  9. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  10. Interoperable PKI Data Distribution in Computational Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Pala, Massimiliano; Cholia, Shreyas; Rea, Scott A.; Smith, Sean W.

    2008-07-25

    One of the most successful working examples of virtual organizations, computational grids need authentication mechanisms that inter-operate across domain boundaries. Public Key Infrastructures(PKIs) provide sufficient flexibility to allow resource managers to securely grant access to their systems in such distributed environments. However, as PKIs grow and services are added to enhance both security and usability, users and applications must struggle to discover available resources-particularly when the Certification Authority (CA) is alien to the relying party. This article presents how to overcome these limitations of the current grid authentication model by integrating the PKI Resource Query Protocol (PRQP) into the Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI).

  11. Computer-Supported Aids to Making Sense of Scientific Articles: Cognitive, Motivational, and Attitudinal Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegner, Julie A.; Mackay, Donald H. J.; Mayer, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    High school students can access original scientific research articles on the Internet, but may have trouble understanding them. To address this problem of online literacy, the authors developed a computer-based prototype for guiding students' comprehension of scientific articles. High school students were asked to read an original scientific…

  12. A Content Analysis of Turkish Newspapers: Prevalence of Articles Containing Health Information Related to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koksal, Leyla; Subasi, Feryal; Luleci, Emel; Hey, William

    2012-01-01

    This study was retrospective in design and the purpose was to review health information related to PA (physical activity) in articles of Turkish newspapers. The search covered newspaper articles printed between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2004 in all Turkish newspapers that are accessible via the electronic newspaper database. Four daily…

  13. Detecting data anomalies methods in distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosiej, Lukasz

    2009-06-01

    Distributed systems became most popular systems in big companies. Nowadays many telecommunications companies want to hold large volumes of data about all customers. Obviously, those data cannot be stored in single database because of many technical difficulties, such as data access efficiency, security reasons, etc. On the other hand there is no need to hold all data in one place, because companies already have dedicated systems to perform specific tasks. In the distributed systems there is a redundancy of data and each system holds only interesting data in appropriate form. Data updated in one system should be also updated in the rest of systems, which hold that data. There are technical problems to update those data in all systems in transactional way. This article is about data anomalies in distributed systems. Avail data anomalies detection methods are shown. Furthermore, a new initial concept of new data anomalies detection methods is described on the last section.

  14. Capital--its application, access and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Bohlmann, R C

    1996-01-01

    Access to capital for group or network development is generally through one of three sources: current revenue, borrowing, or outside investors. Groups often have not planned well for their financial future, and consequently when integration or managed care opportunities arise, they can be without the necessary funds. This article addresses the acquisition of capital in the context of application (need), access (resources), and attitudes (concerns). Determining capital needs is the starting point, followed by investigating institutional resources, and then investigating the attitudes of the group toward accessing the needed capital. PMID:10159459

  15. [Open access :an opportunity for biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Duchange, Nathalie; Autard, Delphine; Pinhas, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Open access within the scientific community depends on the scientific context and the practices of the field. In the biomedical domain, the communication of research results is characterised by the importance of the peer reviewing process, the existence of a hierarchy among journals and the transfer of copyright to the editor. Biomedical publishing has become a lucrative market and the growth of electronic journals has not helped lower the costs. Indeed, it is difficult for today's public institutions to gain access to all the scientific literature. Open access is thus imperative, as demonstrated through the positions taken by a growing number of research funding bodies, the development of open access journals and efforts made in promoting open archives. This article describes the setting up of an Inserm portal for publication in the context of the French national protocol for open-access self-archiving and in an international context. PMID:18789227

  16. [The publishing industry against open access journals].

    PubMed

    Camargo Junior, Kenneth Rochel de

    2012-12-01

    Open-access journal publishing has significantly grown in recent years. Restricted access publications have, in turn, increasing access costs as they benefit from a unique economic model in which relevant work and essential inputs are provided free of charge to vendors who have a captive market that has almost no competition. An additional issue typical of industries that work under the copyright regime is that the oligopoly market structure of the publishing industry which in turn further contributes to increase their products' prices. Mandatory open-access policies, as determined by the NIH, constitute a threat to this business model and are being challenged by the industry on several fronts, including the passage of legislation to undermine these initiatives. The purpose of this commentary article was to review key aspects of this confrontation and to suggest potential strategies for encouraging open-access publishing in Brazil. PMID:23380837

  17. Water Access, Water Scarcity, and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukheibir, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    This article investigates the approaches of the various discourses operating in the water sector and how they address the issues of scarcity and equitable access under projected climate change impacts. Little synergy exists between the different approaches dealing with these issues. Whilst being a sustainable development and water resources management issue, a holistic view of access, scarcity and the projected impacts of climate change is not prevalent in these discourses. The climate change discourse too does not adequately bridge the gap between these issues. The projected impacts of climate change are likely to exacerbate the problems of scarcity and equitable access unless appropriate adaptation strategies are adopted and resilience is built. The successful delivery of accessible water services under projected climate change impacts therefore lies with an extension of the adaptive water management approach to include equitable access as a key driver.

  18. Improving antivenom availability and accessibility: science, technology, and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, José María

    2012-09-15

    Snakebite envenomings constitute a serious and neglected public health problem. Despite the fact that effective treatment exists, i.e. administration of animal-derived antivenoms, the availability and accessibility of these life-saving immunobiologicals is deficitary in various parts of the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and some regions of Asia. This article discusses some of the problems that need to be circumvented in order to improve the availability and accessibility of antivenoms. The conglomerate of antivenom manufacturers is highly heterogeneous in terms of technological base, qualification of staff, implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), and volume of production. Therefore, improvements in antivenom quality and availability should be based on strategies tailored to the situation of each region or country; in this context, three different scenarios are discussed. Accessibility of antivenoms demands concerted efforts at multiple levels, including raising the awareness of public health authorities on the relevance of the problem, implementing innovative antivenom purchasing schemes, strengthening national distribution channels on the basis of robust epidemiological information, improving the cold chain and the provision of health services in remote rural settings, supporting the correct use of antivenoms, and promoting the involvement of local community organizations in various aspects of prevention and management. These tasks should be envisaged in terms of synergistic, interprogrammatic and intersectorial interventions, with the participation of many players. PMID:22781134

  19. Full-Text Linking: Affiliated versus Nonaffiliated Access in a Free Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogg, Jill E.; Andreadis, Debra K.; Kirk, Rachel A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a comparison of access to full-text articles from a free bibliographic database (PubSCIENCE) for affiliated and unaffiliated users. Found that affiliated users had access to more full-text articles than unaffiliated users had, and that both types of users could increase their level of access through additional searching and greater…

  20. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis . Updated July 23, 2014. Available at: kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/vascularaccess/index.aspx. Accessed: February 9, 2015. ...

  1. How to write an article: Preparing a publishable manuscript!

    PubMed

    Shidham, Vinod B; Pitman, Martha B; Demay, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    Most of the scientific work presented as abstracts (platforms and posters) at various conferences have the potential to be published as articles in peer-reviewed journals. This DIY (Do It Yourself) article on how to achieve that goal is an extension of the symposium presented at the 36(th) European Congress of Cytology, Istanbul, Turkey (presentation available on net at http://alturl.com/q6bfp). The criteria for manuscript authorship should be based on the ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors) Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. The next step is to choose the appropriate journal to submit the manuscript and review the 'Instructions to the authors' for that journal. Although initially it may appear to be an insurmountable task, diligent organizational discipline with a little patience and perseverance with input from mentors should lead to the preparation of a nearly perfect publishable manuscript even by a novice. Ultimately, the published article is an excellent track record of academic productivity with contribution to the general public good by encouraging the exchange of experience and innovation. It is a highly rewarding conduit to the personal success and growth leading to the collective achievement of continued scientific progress. Recent emergences of journals and publishers offering the platform and opportunity to publish under an open access charter provides the opportunity for authors to protect their copyright from being lost to conventional publishers. Publishing your work on this open platform is the most rewarding mission and is the recommended option in the current modern era.[This open access article can be linked (copy-paste link from HTML version of this article) or reproduced FREELY if original reference details are prominently identifiable]. PMID:22363390

  2. Achieving open access to conservation science.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-12-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees. PMID:25158824

  3. Method of nitriding refractory metal articles

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Omatete, Ogbemi O.; Young, Albert C.

    1994-01-01

    A method of nitriding a refractory-nitride forming metal or metalloid articles and composite articles. A consolidated metal or metalloid article or composite is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid or composite to an article or composite of refractory nitride. In addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  4. Method of nitriding refractory metal articles

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, T.N.; Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Omatete, O.O.; Young, A.C.

    1994-03-15

    A method of nitriding a refractory-nitride forming metal or metalloid articles and composite articles. A consolidated metal or metalloid article or composite is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid or composite to an article or composite of refractory nitride. In addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  5. VIEWCACHE: An incremental database access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timoleon

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to illustrate the concept of incremental access to distributed databases. An experimental database management system, ADMS, which has been developed at the University of Maryland, in College Park, uses VIEWCACHE, a database access method based on incremental search. VIEWCACHE is a pointer-based access method that provides a uniform interface for accessing distributed databases and catalogues. The compactness of the pointer structures formed during database browsing and the incremental access method allow the user to search and do inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are dereferenced.

  6. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  7. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  8. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  9. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  10. Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

    2015-03-31

    Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes a display configured to depict visible images, and processing circuitry coupled with the display and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a first vector of a text item and which comprises a plurality of components, to access a second vector of the text item and which comprises a plurality of components, to weight the components of the first vector providing a plurality of weighted values, to weight the components of the second vector providing a plurality of weighted values, and to combine the weighted values of the first vector with the weighted values of the second vector to provide a third vector.

  11. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  12. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  13. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  14. 48 CFR 825.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 825... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 825.104 Nonavailable articles. The following items are added to the list of nonavailable articles contained in FAR 25.104: Glass, lead...

  15. 48 CFR 825.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 825... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 825.104 Nonavailable articles. The following items are added to the list of nonavailable articles contained in FAR 25.104: Glass, lead...

  16. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the...

  17. 48 CFR 825.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 825... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 825.104 Nonavailable articles. The following items are added to the list of nonavailable articles contained in FAR 25.104: Glass, lead...

  18. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the...

  19. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the...

  20. 48 CFR 225.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 225..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Supplies 225.104 Nonavailable articles. (a) DoD has determined that the following articles also are nonavailable in accordance with FAR...

  1. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  2. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  3. 48 CFR 225.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 225..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Supplies 225.104 Nonavailable articles. (a) DoD has determined that the following articles also are nonavailable in accordance with FAR...

  4. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  5. Measuring the Interestingness of News Articles

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J

    2007-09-24

    An explosive growth of online news has taken place. Users are inundated with thousands of news articles, only some of which are interesting. A system to filter out uninteresting articles would aid users that need to read and analyze many articles daily, such as financial analysts and government officials. The most obvious approach for reducing the amount of information overload is to learn keywords of interest for a user (Carreira et al., 2004). Although filtering articles based on keywords removes many irrelevant articles, there are still many uninteresting articles that are highly relevant to keyword searches. A relevant article may not be interesting for various reasons, such as the article's age or if it discusses an event that the user has already read about in other articles. Although it has been shown that collaborative filtering can aid in personalized recommendation systems (Wang et al., 2006), a large number of users is needed. In a limited user environment, such as a small group of analysts monitoring news events, collaborative filtering would be ineffective. The definition of what makes an article interesting--or its 'interestingness'--varies from user to user and is continually evolving, calling for adaptable user personalization. Furthermore, due to the nature of news, most articles are uninteresting since many are similar or report events outside the scope of an individual's concerns. There has been much work in news recommendation systems, but none have yet addressed the question of what makes an article interesting.

  6. Readers' Responses to Brief News Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Ernest T.; And Others

    A study extended the investigation of readers' imaginative processes (spontaneous imagery and emotional response) to a new genre of texts: newspaper articles. A sample of 25 articles was randomly selected from a well-defined population of naturally occurring texts (articles with one or more subheadings and three to five paragraphs before the first…

  7. Authoring Newspaper Science Articles: A Rewarding Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author summarizes the rationale for using science articles in K-16 education and addresses some of its limitations. The author also encourages scientists and college science faculty to contribute contextually relevant articles that might include selected literary techniques to their local or state newspapers.

  8. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  9. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the...

  10. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  11. 48 CFR 225.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 225.104 Section 225.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Nonavailable articles. (a) DoD has determined that the following articles also are nonavailable in...

  12. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  13. 48 CFR 825.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 825... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 825.104 Nonavailable articles. The following items are added to the list of nonavailable articles contained in FAR 25.104: Glass, lead...

  14. Referent Salience Affects Second Language Article Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenkic, Danijela; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2013-01-01

    The effect of referent salience on second language (L2) article production in real time was explored. Thai (-articles) and French (+articles) learners of English described dynamic events involving two referents, one visually cued to be more salient at the point of utterance formulation. Definiteness marking was made communicatively redundant with…

  15. 48 CFR 225.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 225.104 Section 225.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Nonavailable articles. (a) DoD has determined that the following articles also are nonavailable in...

  16. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the...

  17. 48 CFR 825.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 825... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 825.104 Nonavailable articles. The following items are added to the list of nonavailable articles contained in FAR 25.104: Glass, lead...

  18. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  19. NASA Access Mechanism: Lessons learned document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdick, Lisa; Dunbar, Rick; Duncan, Denise; Generous, Curtis; Hunter, Judy; Lycas, John; Taber-Dudas, Ardeth

    1994-01-01

    The six-month beta test of the NASA Access Mechanism (NAM) prototype was completed on June 30, 1993. This report documents the lessons learned from the use of this Graphical User Interface to NASA databases such as the NASA STI Database, outside databases, Internet resources, and peers in the NASA R&D community. Design decisions, such as the use of XWindows software, a client-server distributed architecture, and use of the NASA Science Internet, are explained. Users' reactions to the interface and suggestions for design changes are reported, as are the changes made by the software developers based on new technology for information discovery and retrieval. The lessons learned section also reports reactions from the public, both at demonstrations and in response to articles in the trade press and journals. Recommendations are included for future versions, such as a World Wide Web (WWW) and Mosaic based interface to heterogeneous databases, and NAM-Lite, a version which allows customization to include utilities provided locally at NASA Centers.

  20. The NASA ADS Abstract Service and the Distributed Astronomy Digital Library [and] Project Soup: Comparing Evaluations of Digital Collection Efforts [and] Cross-Organizational Access Management: A Digital Library Authentication and Authorization Architecture [and] BibRelEx: Exploring Bibliographic Databases by Visualization of Annotated Content-based Relations [and] Semantics-Sensitive Retrieval for Digital Picture Libraries [and] Encoded Archival Description: An Introduction and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Eichorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Demleitner, Markus; Murray, Stephen S.; Jones, Michael L. W.; Gay, Geri K.; Rieger, Robert H.; Millman, David; Bruggemann-Klein, Anne; Klein, Rolf; Landgraf, Britta; Wang, James Ze; Li, Jia; Chan, Desmond; Wiederhold, Gio; Pitti, Daniel V.

    1999-01-01

    Includes six articles that discuss a digital library for astronomy; comparing evaluations of digital collection efforts; cross-organizational access management of Web-based resources; searching scientific bibliographic databases based on content-based relations between documents; semantics-sensitive retrieval for digital picture libraries; and…

  1. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    PubMed Central

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Mandelli, Laura; Iosue, Miriam; Andrisano, Costanza; Roy, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies. PMID:22408588

  2. Firefox Extension Framework for News Article Tagging

    2006-08-08

    FEFNAT is a Firefox extension that is used to collect information about user interests when viewing new articles. When a user is reading a news article on a web-page, he can vote whether the article was interesting or not interesting by clicking the appropriate button on the extension's tool-bar. The purpose of this extension is to collet user interests and behavior while viewing new articles so that it can be used in my research formore » predicting how interesting future news article may be for the user.« less

  3. Firefox Extension Framework for News Article Tagging

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, Raymond K.; Buttler, David J.

    2006-08-08

    FEFNAT is a Firefox extension that is used to collect information about user interests when viewing new articles. When a user is reading a news article on a web-page, he can vote whether the article was interesting or not interesting by clicking the appropriate button on the extension's tool-bar. The purpose of this extension is to collet user interests and behavior while viewing new articles so that it can be used in my research for predicting how interesting future news article may be for the user.

  4. National statistician's annual article on the population: a demographic review.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Jil

    2009-01-01

    This is the third in a series of annual demographic reports of the UK, providing an overview of the latest statistics on the population. This year's article also includes a short section on economic recessions, and a summary of migration following the enlargement of the European Union (EU) in May 2004. In addition to providing a statistical summary of the impact of migration from the 'Accession' countries, mention is made of flows during the current recession. There is discussion of how this complex recent migration has challenged traditional definitions of migration, and how this impacts on the need for ONS and other government agencies to measure these flows accurately. PMID:20120247

  5. Including Language Access into Medicaid ACO Design.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Rachel; Morris, Lisa; Ferguson, Warren

    2016-09-01

    Quality health care relies upon communication in a patient's preferred language. Language access in health care occurs when individuals are: (1) Welcomed by providers regardless of language ability; and (2) Offered quality language services as part of their care. Federal law generally requires access to health care and quality language services for deaf and Limited English Proficient (LEP) patients in health care settings, but these patients still find it hard to access health care and quality language services.Meanwhile, several states are implementing Medicaid Accountable Care Organization (ACO) initiatives to reduce health care costs and improve health care quality. Alternative payment methods used in these initiatives can give Accountable Care Organizations more flexibility to design linguistically accessible care, but they can also put ACOs at increased financial risk for the cost of care. If these new payment methods do not account for differences in patient language needs, ACO initiatives could have the unintended consequence of rewarding ACOs who do not reach out to deaf and LEP communities or offer quality language services.We reviewed public documents related to Medicaid ACO initiatives in six states. Some of these documents address language access. More could be done, however, to pay for language access efforts. This article describes Medicaid ACO initiatives and explores how different payment tools could be leveraged to reward ACOs for increased access to care and quality language services. We find that a combination of payment tools might be helpful to encourage both access and quality. PMID:27587453

  6. How Accessible Are Public Libraries' Web Sites? A Study of Georgia Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingle, Emma; Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    One issue that public librarians must consider when planning Web site design is accessibility for patrons with disabilities. This article reports a study of Web site accessibility of public libraries in Georgia. The focus of the report is whether public libraries use accessible guidelines and standards in making their Web sites accessible. An…

  7. Apparatus and method for skin packaging articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, B.; Pozsony, E. R.; Collin, E. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system for skin packaging articles including a loading zone for positioning articles to be packaged upon a substrate, a thermoplastic film heating and vacuum operated skin packaging zone for covering the articles with film laminated to the substrate and a slitting zone for separating and trimming the individual skin packaged articles. The articles are passed to the successive zones. The loading zone may be adapted for conveyorized instead of hand loading. In some cases, where only transverse cutting of the film web is necessary, it may be desirable to eliminate the slitting zone and remove the skin packaged article or articles directly from the packaging zone. A conveniently located operating panel contains controls for effecting automatic, semiautomatic or manual operation of the entire system of any portions in any manner desired.

  8. 14 CFR 45.15 - Marking requirements for PMA articles, TSO articles, and Critical parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking requirements for PMA articles, TSO articles, and Critical parts. 45.15 Section 45.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Articles § 45.15 Marking requirements for PMA articles, TSO articles, and Critical parts. (a) PMA...

  9. 14 CFR 45.15 - Marking requirements for PMA articles, TSO articles, and Critical parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking requirements for PMA articles, TSO articles, and Critical parts. 45.15 Section 45.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Articles § 45.15 Marking requirements for PMA articles, TSO articles, and Critical parts. (a) PMA...

  10. 14 CFR 45.15 - Marking requirements for PMA articles, TSO articles, and Critical parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking requirements for PMA articles, TSO articles, and Critical parts. 45.15 Section 45.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Articles § 45.15 Marking requirements for PMA articles, TSO articles, and Critical parts. (a) PMA...

  11. 7 CFR 319.37-12 - Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles... Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs, Seeds, and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-12 Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles. A restricted article for importation into the United States shall not...

  12. 7 CFR 319.37-12 - Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles... Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs, Seeds, and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-12 Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles. A restricted article for importation into the United States shall not...

  13. A quantum access network.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Bernd; Dynes, James F; Lucamarini, Marco; Sharpe, Andrew W; Yuan, Zhiliang; Shields, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    The theoretically proven security of quantum key distribution (QKD) could revolutionize the way in which information exchange is protected in the future. Several field tests of QKD have proven it to be a reliable technology for cryptographic key exchange and have demonstrated nodal networks of point-to-point links. However, until now no convincing answer has been given to the question of how to extend the scope of QKD beyond niche applications in dedicated high security networks. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate the concept of a 'quantum access network': based on simple and cost-effective telecommunication technologies, the scheme can greatly expand the number of users in quantum networks and therefore vastly broaden their appeal. We show that a high-speed single-photon detector positioned at a network node can be shared between up to 64 users for exchanging secret keys with the node, thereby significantly reducing the hardware requirements for each user added to the network. This point-to-multipoint architecture removes one of the main obstacles restricting the widespread application of QKD. It presents a viable method for realizing multi-user QKD networks with efficient use of resources, and brings QKD closer to becoming a widespread technology. PMID:24005413

  14. Sociocritical Matters: Migrant Students' College Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Núñez, Anne-Marie; Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely

    2016-01-01

    Migrant students face many educational, economic, social, and cultural challenges to college access. Anti-bilingual, anti-affirmative action, and anti-immigrant policies also constrain their postsecondary pathways. With these issues in mind, this article draws on quantitative and qualitative research to examine the influence of a residential…

  15. Moving beyond the Amalgam: Restructuring Access Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Brice

    2010-01-01

    At least since the early 1990s, academic libraries have been merging Circulation and various other related functions into a single department typically labeled "Access Services." In many cases, however, that merger has proven to be administrative rather than functional, with minimal integration of common workflows. This article describes a…

  16. The Metadata Approach to Accessing Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, William E.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the articles in this issue, includes a history of the development of GILS (Government Information Locator Service), and offers perspectives on the importance of metadata for resource description and resource discovery. Presents interoperability as a challenge in integrating access to government information locator services.…

  17. Access and Availability to Federal Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunin, Lois F.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes five articles that discuss the public's access to information from the federal government, especially electronic information. Perspectives are provided from the viewpoints of librarians, industry, public interest research groups, publishers, journalists, and private non-profit foundations; and the Freedom of Information Center at the…

  18. Assessment and Evaluation Methods for Access Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Dallas

    2014-01-01

    This article serves as a primer for assessment and evaluation design by describing the range of methods commonly employed in library settings. Quantitative methods, such as counting and benchmarking measures, are useful for investigating the internal operations of an access services department in order to identify workflow inefficiencies or…

  19. Communication Access to Health and Social Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Susie; Pound, Carole; Hewitt, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of a group of people in the United Kingdom at Connect-the communication disability network-to make health and social services more communicatively accessible to people with aphasia. The project involved listening to people with aphasia talk about their experiences with health and social care services and working…

  20. Making Your Website More Accessible. Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnone, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    Employing Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principles, such as multiple means of representation (of content), multiple means of engagement (motivation) and multiple means of expression (sharing the results of research, for example), will put one on the right path toward increasing accessibility for all learners. In this article, the author…

  1. Fate of Articles That Warranted Retraction Due to Ethical Concerns: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Nadia; Wager, Elizabeth; Tramèr, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study journals' responses to a request from the State Medical Association of Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, to retract 88 articles due to ethical concerns, and to check whether the resulting retractions followed published guidelines. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study. Population 88 articles (18 journals) by the anaesthesiologist Dr. Boldt, that warranted retraction. Method According to the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics, we regarded a retraction as adequate when a retraction notice was published, linked to the retracted article, identified the title and authors of the retracted article in its heading, explained the reason and who took responsibility for the retraction, and when the retracted article was freely accessible and marked using a transparent watermark that preserved original content. Two authors extracted data independently (January 2013) and contacted editors-in-chief and publishers for clarification in cases of inadequate retraction. Results Five articles (6%) fulfilled all criteria for adequate retraction. Nine (10%) were not retracted (no retraction notice published, full text article not marked). 79 (90%) retraction notices were published, 76 (86%) were freely accessible, but only 15 (17%) were complete. 73 (83%) full text articles were marked as retracted, of which 14 (16%) had an opaque watermark hiding parts of the original content, and 11 (13%) had all original content deleted. 59 (67%) retracted articles were freely accessible. One editor-in-chief stated personal problems as a reason for incomplete retractions, eight blamed their publishers. Two publishers cited legal threats from Dr. Boldt's co-authors which prevented them from retracting articles. Conclusion Guidelines for retracting articles are incompletely followed. The role of publishers in the retraction process needs to be clarified and standards are needed on marking retracted articles. It remains unclear who should check that retractions are done

  2. Oceans: Our Continuing Frontier. Newspaper Articles for the Fifth Course by Newspaper. Courses by Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., San Diego. Univ. Extension.

    Sixteen newspaper articles comprise this document, which served as the basis for a course by newspaper about oceans in 1976. United Press International and the National Newspaper Association helped distribute the articles to participating newspapers throughout the country. The articles, written by journalists, marine professors, oceanographic…

  3. Data access service of China-VO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Jian; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Cui, Chen-Zhou

    2004-09-01

    With the development of technologies and the implementation of large quantity of astronomical observation projects, astronomy faces data avalanche and has entered an information era. A basic aim of the Virtual Observatory is to provide uniform access to highly distributed, complicated, huge astronomical datasets, and to realize federation of global astronomical data resources, so that astronomers can obtain required data efficiently and conveniently for their research. China Virtual Observatory (China-VO) project designs and implements astronomical data access services based on Grid technology, and provides uniform interface to Grid client application. In this paper, we introduce the data access service toolkit development using Globus Toolkit, the Grid services encapsulation of catalogs according to the latest astronomical data standards recommended by International Virtual Observatory Alliance, the implements of catalog Cone Search access service. Furthermore, we also introduce how to construct other Grid services using above data access services.

  4. Open access publishing -- panacea or Trojan horse?

    PubMed

    Graczyński, Marek R; Moses, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    There has been a great deal of press material and discussion in recent years regarding open access for online professional publishing. The issue has divided publishers, authors and readers, leaving almost no one neutral. This new concept can potentially affect the majority of publishing businesses, creating new leaders and destroying old ones. It may also, if accepted, radically change the ways we use to store, deliver, and retrieve information. The article presents critical view on the current situation in scientific publishing business indicating constantly rising subscription costs as one of the triggers for a change. The authors analyze the 'open access publishing' idea, pointing out the myths and slogans used by its supporters. The criticism has been expressed on a high costs of publishing shifted on to researchers. The authors propose their solution based on lower submission fees and micro-payments for article access, which might be acceptable to all interested: authors, readers and publishers. PMID:14704638

  5. Is cost a structural barrier preventing men who have sex with men accessing condoms? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ubrihien, Ashley; Davies, Stephen C; Driscoll, Tim

    2016-11-01

    A systematic review was undertaken to determine whether cost is a structural barrier preventing men who have sex with men (MSM) accessing condoms. Studies were examined from a range of countries where condoms have been distributed free to particular populations and also those where condoms were available at a cost to the individual. The study inclusion criteria were: published between January 1990 and September 2014 inclusive; published in any language, discussed cost as a barrier to condom use, discussed cost barriers to MSM accessing condoms and included a measure of outcome. Articles were systematically extracted from MEDLINE, Embase, PyschINFO and Informat using the five search terms; Male Homosexuality, Access, Cost, Cost and Cost analysis, Condoms. Sixty-four articles were initially identified and 11 included in the final review. The included studies used cost-utility analysis, qualitative, cross-sectional, cohort or randomised control trial design. Large-scale free distribution programmes and smaller targeted programmes showed positive correlations in reducing the burden of disease from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections through eliminating the issue of cost. Decreasing the cost of condoms, and providing them for no cost, appears to increase their utilisation amongst MSM and possibly reduce the burden from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Inequality and stigma remain important barriers to MSM accessing and using condoms particularly in the developing world. PMID:27240970

  6. Method of producing silicon carbide articles

    DOEpatents

    Milewski, John V.

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing articles comprising reaction-bonded silicon carbide (SiC) and graphite (and/or carbon) is given. The process converts the graphite (and/or carbon) in situ to SiC, thus providing the capability of economically obtaining articles made up wholly or partially of SiC having any size and shape in which graphite (and/or carbon) can be found or made. When the produced articles are made of an inner graphite (and/or carbon) substrate to which SiC is reaction bonded, these articles distinguish SiC-coated graphite articles found in the prior art by the feature of a strong bond having a gradual (as opposed to a sharply defined) interface which extends over a distance of mils. A method for forming SiC whisker-reinforced ceramic matrices is also given. The whisker-reinforced articles comprise SiC whiskers which substantially retain their structural integrity.

  7. Strip of heat-recoverable articles

    SciTech Connect

    McLoughlin, R.H.; Kirkham, S.W.

    1985-01-29

    A strip of hollow heat-recoverable articles formed side-by-side by tear welding two lengths of polymeric material together at intervals so that individual articles may be torn off. A preferred method of making the strip involves cross-linking after the tear welding, heating the strip, and inflating the hollow articles to render them heat-recoverable by introducing pressure via an interconnecting passage formed for that purpose during the tear welding.

  8. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.

    2001-01-01

    A biaxially textured alloy article comprises Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacted and heat treated, then rapidly recrystallized to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  9. The Gender Puzzle: Toddlers' Use of Articles to Access Noun Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Falcon, Alberto; Alva-Canto, Elda A.

    2013-01-01

    Grammatical gender embedded in determiners, nouns and adjectives allows indirect and more rapid processing of the referents implied in sentences. However in a language such as Spanish, this useful information cannot be reliably retrieved from a single source of information. Instead, noun gender may be extracted either from phono-morphological,…

  10. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-19

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  11. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goval, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-06-07

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  12. Biaxially textured articles formed by power metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  13. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  14. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-14

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  15. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-05

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  16. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-05-10

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  17. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  18. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-28

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  19. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-01-25

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  20. Six perspectives on the ethics of access to health care: introduction.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, Michael B

    1981-12-01

    A brief overview of six articles which address ethical considerations in the allocation of medical resources: N. Daniels on the obligation of physicians in the distribution of health care; D. Ozar on the right to health care; J. Humber on the involuntary commitment and treatment of the mentally ill; N. Bell on triage and the allocation of scarce medical resources; C. Kaufmann on health policy in the U.S., Great Britain, and the U.S.S.R.; and C. Perry on the right of public access to cadaver organs. PMID:11649357

  1. Deployment of a Testbed in a Brazilian Research Network using IPv6 and Optical Access Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Luciano; Ferramola Pozzuto, João; Olimpio Tognolli, João; Chaves, Niudomar Siqueira De A.; Reggiani, Atilio Eduardo; Hortêncio, Claudio Antonio

    2012-04-01

    This article presents the implementation of a testbed and the experimental results obtained with it on the Brazilian Experimental Network of the government-sponsored "GIGA Project." The use of IPv6 integrated to current and emerging optical architectures and technologies, such as dense wavelength division multiplexing and 10-gigabit Ethernet on the core and gigabit capable passive optical network and optical distribution network on access, were tested. These protocols, architectures, and optical technologies are promising and part of a brand new worldwide technological scenario that has being fairly adopted in the networks of enterprises and providers of the world.

  2. The geographical accessibility of hospitals to the aged: a geographic information systems analysis within Illinois.

    PubMed Central

    Love, D; Lindquist, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article uses geographic information systems and their related tools to empirically measure and display the geographic accessibility of the aged population to hospital facilities within Illinois. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. Geographic accessibility of Illinois' aged population is measured from each of the state's 10,796 census block groups to the state's 214 hospital facilities. Block group demographic compositions and centroids are obtained from 1990 census files. Hospital coordinates are obtained by the authors. STUDY DESIGN. Of five alternative measures of accessibility considered, empirical estimates are obtained for two: choice set and minimum distance. Access to both general hospitals and the subset having specialized geriatric facilities is measured with special attention to differences in accessibility between the aged within metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and those outside MSAs. Cumulative accessibility distributions and their summary statistics provide a basis of comparison among subgroups. DATA COLLECTION AND EXTRACTION. Geographic information systems (GIS) and their related tools are used as a means of efficiently capturing, organizing, storing, and retrieving the required data. Hospitals and census block groups are geocoded to specific locations in the database, and aspatial attributes are assigned to the hospitals and block groups. The GIS database is queried to produce shaded isarithm and point distribution maps that show the location of hospitals relative to surrounding aged populations. CONCLUSION. The vast majority of Illinois' aged population is within close proximity to hospital facilities. Eighty percent (1,147,504 persons) of the aged in Illinois are within 4.8 miles (7.7 km) of a hospital and 11.6 miles (18.7 km) of two hospitals. However, geographic accessibility differences between the aged living in MSAs and those living outside MSAs to hospitals offering geriatric services are substantial; but there is no

  3. New Capabilities of the ADS Abstract and Article Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    The ADS abstract service at: http://adswww.harvard.edu has been updated considerably in the last year. New capabilities in the search engine include searching for multi-word phrases and searching for various logical combinations of search terms. Through optimization of the custom built search software, the search times were decreased by a factor of 4 in the last year. The WWW interface now uses WWW cookies to store and retrieve individual user preferences. This allows our users to set preferences for printing, accessing mirror sites, fonts, colors, etc. Information about most recently accessed references allows customized retrieval of the most recent unread volume of selected journals. The information stored in these preferences is kept completely confidential and is not used for any other purposes. Two mirror sites (at the CDS in Strasbourg, France and at NAO in Tokyo, Japan) provide faster access for our European and Asian users. To include new information in the ADS as fast as possible, new indexing and search software was developed to allow updating the index data files within minutes of receipt of time critical information (e.g., IAU Circulars which report on supernova and comet discoveries). The ADS is currently used by over 10,000 users per month, which retrieve over 4.5 million references and over 250,000 full article pages each month.

  4. Method for hot pressing irregularly shaped refractory articles

    DOEpatents

    Steinkamp, William E.; Ballard, Ambrose H.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for hot pressing irregularly haped refractory articles with these articles of varying thickness being provided with high uniform density and dimensional accuracy. Two partially pressed compacts of the refractory material are placed in a die cavity between displaceable die punches having compact-contacting surfaces of the desired article configuration. A floating, rotatable block is disposed between the compacts. The displacement of the die punches towards one another causes the block to rotate about an axis normal to the direction of movement of the die punches to uniformly distribute the pressure loading upon the compacts for maintaining substantially equal volume displacement of the powder material during the hot pressing operation.

  5. Open access and openly accessible: a study of scientific publications shared via the internet

    PubMed Central

    Wren, Jonathan D

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To determine how often reprints of scientific publications are shared online, whether journal readership level is a predictor, how the amount of file sharing changes with the age of the article, and to what degree open access publications are shared on non-journal websites. Design The internet was searched using an application programming interface to Google, a popular and freely available search engine. Main outcome measures The proportion of reprints of journal articles published between 1994 and 2004 from within 13 subscription based and four open access journals that could be located online at non-journal websites. Results The probability that an article could be found online at a non-journal website correlated with the journal impact factor and the time since initial publication. Papers from higher impact journals and more recent articles were more likely to be located. On average, for the high impact journal articles published in 2003, over a third could be located at non-journal websites. Similar trends were observed for the delayed or full open access publications. Conclusions Decentralised sharing of scientific reprints through the internet creates a degree of de facto open access that, though highly incomplete in its coverage, is none the less biased towards publications of higher popular demand. PMID:15827063

  6. What Works for Me: Microsoft Windows XP Accessibility Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Tom; Neal, Jerry; Grechus, Marilyn

    2003-01-01

    This article points out specific features of the Microsoft Windows XP operating system that enhance accessibility for people with disabilities. These include the display magnifier, visual sounds, text-to-speech, text narration, on-screen keyboard, keyboard settings, mouse features, and Internet accessibility. (Contains 3 references.) (DB)

  7. Using Information Visualization to Support Access to Archival Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    As more archival metadata and archival records become available online, providing effective interfaces to those materials is increasingly important to give users access. This article describes five approaches from the hypertext and visualization research communities which can be used to improve such access: (1) navigating hierarchical structures,…

  8. Celebrations and Tough Questions Follow Harvard's Move to Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    In light of a decision by members of Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences to make access to their scholarly papers free, advocates of open access celebrated, but some publishers expressed concern. Members of Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences voted unanimously to provide the university with copies of their published articles and…

  9. Increasing Access to Rehabilitation for Persons with Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coco, F.

    1995-01-01

    This article addresses the lack of access to low-vision rehabilitation services by individuals needing them, due to lack of coverage by public or private health insurance. Improved insurance coverage would result in improved access as well as more direct referrals by ophthalmologists, more consumer choice, more timely rehabilitation, reduced…

  10. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  11. Featured Article: Genotation: Actionable knowledge for the scientific reader.

    PubMed

    Nagahawatte, Panduka; Willis, Ethan; Sakauye, Mark; Jose, Rony; Chen, Hao; Davis, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    We present an article viewer application that allows a scientific reader to easily discover and share knowledge by linking genomics-related concepts to knowledge of disparate biomedical databases. High-throughput data streams generated by technical advancements have contributed to scientific knowledge discovery at an unprecedented rate. Biomedical Informaticists have created a diverse set of databases to store and retrieve the discovered knowledge. The diversity and abundance of such resources present biomedical researchers a challenge with knowledge discovery. These challenges highlight a need for a better informatics solution. We use a text mining algorithm, Genomine, to identify gene symbols from the text of a journal article. The identified symbols are supplemented with information from the GenoDB knowledgebase. Self-updating GenoDB contains information from NCBI Gene, Clinvar, Medgen, dbSNP, KEGG, PharmGKB, Uniprot, and Hugo Gene databases. The journal viewer is a web application accessible via a web browser. The features described herein are accessible on www.genotation.org The Genomine algorithm identifies gene symbols with an accuracy shown by .65 F-Score. GenoDB currently contains information regarding 59,905 gene symbols, 5633 drug-gene relationships, 5981 gene-disease relationships, and 713 pathways. This application provides scientific readers with actionable knowledge related to concepts of a manuscript. The reader will be able to save and share supplements to be visualized in a graphical manner. This provides convenient access to details of complex biological phenomena, enabling biomedical researchers to generate novel hypothesis to further our knowledge in human health. This manuscript presents a novel application that integrates genomic, proteomic, and pharmacogenomic information to supplement content of a biomedical manuscript and enable readers to automatically discover actionable knowledge. PMID:26900164

  12. 48 CFR 425.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 425.104 Section 425.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 425.104 Nonavailable articles. Information...

  13. 48 CFR 425.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 425.104 Section 425.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 425.104 Nonavailable articles. Information...

  14. 48 CFR 425.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 425.104 Section 425.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 425.104 Nonavailable articles. Information...

  15. Understanding Student Article Retrieval Behaviors: Instructional Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine P.; Dutt-Doner, Karen; Schoen, David

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of full-text databases amongst 425 undergraduate and graduate students in western New York. A review of literature implicated convenience, time issues, article retrieval option knowledge, and the appreciation and understanding of research article quality as potential predictors of full-text reliance. These variables…

  16. Valued Youth Anthology: Articles on Dropout Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.

    This document contains, in chronological order, all articles related to dropouts that have appeared in the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA) Newsletter from 1986 to 1989. The articles are: (1) "The Prevention and Recovery of Dropouts: An Action Agenda" (Robledo); (2) "Coca Cola Valued Youth Partnership Program Results of Second…

  17. Teaching Critical Appraisal of Articles on Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Pavel; Hoschl, Cyril; Volavka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatrists and other physicians sometimes read publications superficially, relying excessively on abstracts. The authors addressed this problem by teaching critical appraisal of individual articles. Method: The authors developed a 23-item appraisal instrument to assess articles in the area of psychopharmacology. The results were…

  18. Improved zein articles using polyethylenemaleic anhydride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing corn protein (zein) articles with improved physical properties and solvent resistance will have a beneficial impact on companies that use corn. The effect of using the crosslinking reagent polyethylenemaleic anhydride (PEMA) on the properties and solubility of zein articles were studied. ...

  19. Method of manufacturing ceramic shaped articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inoue, K.

    1983-01-01

    A method of manufacturing ceramic shaped articles, wherein tapes of ceramic powder material in mixture with a binder material and special additives are shaped and then articles are stamped out from said tapes and sintered in a sintering furnace is described.

  20. International Reading Strategies for IMRD Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrough-Boenisch, Joy

    1999-01-01

    Examines the strategies used to read science articles written in the Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion (IMRD) format. Shows how three reader roles (those of the scientist, editor, and reviewer) influence reading strategies. Discusses implications for the understanding of the function and development of the research article and for…

  1. 48 CFR 425.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 425.104 Section 425.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 425.104 Nonavailable articles. Information...

  2. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....S.C. chapter 103, in the form provided for in 46 CFR 14.05-1. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the...

  3. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  4. 48 CFR 425.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 425.104 Section 425.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 425.104 Nonavailable articles. Information...

  5. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....S.C. chapter 103, in the form provided for in 46 CFR 14.05-1. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the...

  6. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  7. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan; Jersey Inst Ansari, New; Jersey Inst, New

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  8. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  9. Manned remote work station development article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The two prime objectives of the Manned Remote Work Station (MRWS) Development Article Study are to first, evaluate the MRWS flight article roles and associated design concepts for fundamental requirements and embody key technology developments into a simulation program; and to provide detail manufacturing drawings and schedules for a simulator development test article. An approach is outlined which establishes flight article requirements based on past studies of Solar Power Satellite, orbital construction support equipments, construction bases and near term shuttle operations. Simulation objectives are established for those technology issues that can best be addressed on a simulator. Concepts for full-scale and sub-scale simulators are then studied to establish an overall approach to studying MRWS requirements. Emphasis then shifts to design and specification of a full-scale development test article.

  10. Method for fabricating boron carbide articles

    DOEpatents

    Ardary, Zane L.; Reynolds, Carl D.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the fabrication of boron carbide articles having length-to-diameter or width ratios greater than 2 to 1. The process of the present invention is practiced by the steps comprising hot pressing boron carbide powder into article segments or portions in which the segments have a length-to-diameter or width ratio less than 1.5, aligning a plurality of the initially hot-pressed segments in a hot-pressing die with the end surfaces of the segments placed in intimate contact with one another, and then hot pressing the aligned segments into an article of the desired configuration. The resulting article exhibits essentially uniform density throughout the structure with the bonds between the segments being equivalent in hardness, strength, and density to the remainder of the article.

  11. The persistence of error: a study of retracted articles on the Internet and in personal libraries*

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accessibility of retracted articles residing on non-publisher websites and in personal libraries. Methods: Searches were performed to locate Internet copies of 1,779 retracted articles identified in MEDLINE, published between 1973 and 2010, excluding the publishers' website. Found copies were classified by article version and location. Mendeley (a bibliographic software) was searched for copies residing in personal libraries. Results: Non-publisher websites provided 321 publicly accessible copies for 289 retracted articles: 304 (95%) copies were the publisher' versions, and 13 (4%) were final manuscripts. PubMed Central had 138 (43%) copies; educational websites 94 (29%); commercial websites 24 (7%); advocacy websites 16 (5%); and institutional repositories 10 (3%). Just 15 (5%) full-article views included a retraction statement. Personal Mendeley libraries contained records for 1,340 (75%) retracted articles, shared by 3.4 users, on average. Conclusions: The benefits of decentralized access to scientific articles may come with the cost of promoting incorrect, invalid, or untrustworthy science. Automated methods to deliver status updates to readers may reduce the persistence of error in the scientific literature. PMID:22879807

  12. Cutting Off Access to Government Information: Loopholes in the Access to Information Act Generated by the Information Highway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Tyson

    1997-01-01

    In Canada, public access to federal government information is ruled by the Access to Information Act. This article explores loopholes in the Act, issues of data format and "tradeable" data (government information with substantial value), that could cause a conflict between its intent and effect. Tradeable data is troublesome because of shrinking…

  13. October 1 Begins New Era of Telephone Access: 711 Will Permit Easy Nationwide Access to Relay Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communication Disorders Quarterly, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This article highlights the debut of a new three-digit number for access to all Telecommunication Relay Services. Under new federal rules, 711 dialing must be provided by all U.S. telecommunication carriers, including wireline, wireless, and payphone providers. In addition, carriers are required to publicize the availability of 711 access. (CR)

  14. Promoting Access to Higher Education and Identifying Access Students: How Useful Is Research on Participation by Socio-Economic Group?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Research conducted by Patrick Clancy and by Fitzpatrick Associates and Philip O'Connell on the level of representation of socio-economic groups amongst higher education entrants has been a key element in the development of access policy and practice in Ireland. This article reviews the context for the development of access and explores the…

  15. Accessing the Microform Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Stan

    1985-01-01

    Characterizes types of indexing programs used by Research Publications, Inc. and describes provision of access to four major projects: "The Official Washington Post Index" (provides access to newspaper and microfilm edition); "The Eighteenth Century"; "The Declassified Documents Reference System" (ongoing fiche project abstracted and indexed…

  16. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  17. Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia; De Oliver, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This case study researches the degree to which the location and services offered by a multicampus university, geographically situated consistent with the commercial principles of a large mass-market enterprise, facilitate access for educationally underserved groups. First, the necessity of democratizing educational access to an underprivileged…

  18. Intellectual Access to Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-Liang; Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1999-01-01

    The increased availability of digital images is accompanied by a need for solutions to the problems inherent in indexing them for retrieval. Problems in image description and access are discussed, with a perspective on traditional and new solutions. Recent developments in intellectual access to images are surveyed and contrasted with…

  19. The Universal Access System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Neil G.

    This final report discusses the outcomes of a project that created a Universal Access System (UAS), a system that gives students with disabilities access to the same computers as their classmates. The project developed a new approach in which the needs of the individual with disabilities are handled separately from the computers and other devices…

  20. MedlinePlus: Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools Español You Are Here: Home → MedlinePlus Accessibility URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/accessibility.html ... or (301) 594-5983 and provide the address (URL) of the page on which you need assistance, ...

  1. Access and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Lemuel W.

    2004-01-01

    Community colleges are well positioned to provide underserved student populations with access to computer technology. This chapter explores the issues of access and technology from multiple perspectives in the community college, and explains how community colleges can develop a foundation for their technology plan.

  2. Improving School Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Few things are more important for school safety and security than controlling access to buildings and grounds. It is relatively easy to incorporate effective access control measures in new school designs but more difficult in existing schools, where most building and site features cannot be readily altered or reconfigured. The National…

  3. Access to the Online Planetary Research Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2009-12-01

    The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides various free services for finding, accessing, and managing bibliographic data, including a basic search form, the myADS notification service, and private library capabilities (a useful tool for building bibliographies), plus access to scanned pages of published articles. The ADS also provides powerful search capabilities, allowing users to find e.g. the most instructive or most important articles on a given subject . For the Planetary Sciences, the citation statistics of the ADS have improved considerably with the inclusion of the references from Elsevier journals, including Icarus, Planetary and Space Science, and Earth and Planetary Science Letters. We currently have about 78 journals convering the planetary and space sciences (Advances in Space Research, Icarus, Solar Physics, Astrophusics and Space Science, JGRE, Meteoritics, to name a few). Currently, this set of journals represents about 180,000 articles and 1.1 million references. Penetration into the Solar Physics, Planetary Sciences and Geophysics community has increased significantly. During the period 2004-2008, user access to JGR and Icarus increased by a factor of 4.4, while e.g. access to the Astrophysical Journal "only" increased by a factor of 1.8.

  4. Directionally solidified article with weld repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smashey, Russell W. (Inventor); Snyder, John H. (Inventor); Borne, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy article has a defect therein extending parallel to the solidification direction. The article is repaired by removing any foreign matter present in the defect, and then heating the article to a repair temperature of from about 60 to about 98 percent of the solidus temperature of the base material in a chamber containing a protective gas that inhibits oxidation of the base material. The defect is filled with a filler metal while maintaining the article at the repair temperature. The filling is accomplished by providing a source of the filler metal of substantially the same composition as the base material of the directionally solidified article, and melting the filler metal into the defect progressively while moving the source of the filler metal relative to the article in a direction parallel to the solidification direction. Optionally, additional artificial heat extraction is accomplished in a heat-flow direction that is within about 45 degrees of the solidification direction, as the filler metal solidifies within the defect. The article may thereafter be heat treated.

  5. Weld repair of directionally solidified articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smashey, Russell W. (Inventor); Snyder, John H. (Inventor); Borne, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy article has a defect therein extending parallel to the solidification direction. The article is repaired by removing any foreign matter present in the defect, and then heating the article to a repair temperature of from about 60 to about 98 percent of the solidus temperature of the base material in a chamber containing a protective gas that inhibits oxidation of the base material. The defect is filled with a filler metal while maintaining the article at the repair temperature. The filling is accomplished by providing a source of the filler metal of substantially the same composition as the base material of the directionally solidified article, and melting the filler metal into the defect progressively while moving the source of the filler metal relative to the article in a direction parallel to the solidification direction. Optionally, additional artificial heat extraction is accomplished in a heat-flow direction that is within about 45 degrees of the solidification direction, as the filler metal solidifies within the defect. The article may thereafter be heat treated.

  6. Symmetric generalized binomial distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, H.; Curado, E. M. F.; Gazeau, J. P.; Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S. E-mail: evaldo@cbpf.br E-mail: ligia@cbpf.br

    2013-12-15

    In two recent articles, we have examined a generalization of the binomial distribution associated with a sequence of positive numbers, involving asymmetric expressions of probabilities that break the symmetry win-loss. We present in this article another generalization (always associated with a sequence of positive numbers) that preserves the symmetry win-loss. This approach is also based on generating functions and presents constraints of non-negativeness, similar to those encountered in our previous articles.

  7. Production of super-smooth articles

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.

    1981-05-29

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  8. Production of super-smooth articles

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  9. Torsional texturing of superconducting oxide composite articles

    DOEpatents

    Christopherson, Craig John; Riley, Jr., Gilbert N.; Scudiere, John

    2002-01-01

    A method of texturing a multifilamentary article having filaments comprising a desired oxide superconductor or its precursors by torsionally deforming the article is provided. The texturing is induced by applying a torsional strain which is at least about 0.3 and preferably at least about 0.6 at the surface of the article, but less than the strain which would cause failure of the composite. High performance multifilamentary superconducting composite articles having a plurality of low aspect ratio, twisted filaments with substantially uniform twist pitches in the range of about 1.00 inch to 0.01 inch (25 to 0.25 mm), each comprising a textured desired superconducting oxide material, may be obtained using this texturing method. If tighter twist pitches are desired, the article may be heat treated or annealed and the strain repeated as many times as necessary to obtain the desired twist pitch. It is preferred that the total strain applied per step should be sufficient to provide a twist pitch tighter than 5 times the diameter of the article, and twist pitches in the range of 1 to 5 times the diameter of the article are most preferred. The process may be used to make a high performance multifilamentary superconducting article, having a plurality of twisted filaments, wherein the degree of texturing varies substantially in proportion to the radial distance from the center of the article cross-section, and is substantially radially homogeneous at any given cross-section of the article. Round wires and other low aspect ratio multifilamentary articles are preferred forms. The invention is not dependent on the melting characteristics of the desired superconducting oxide. Desired oxide superconductors or precursors with micaceous or semi-micaceous structures are preferred. When used in connection with desired superconducting oxides which melt irreversibly, it provides multifilamentary articles that exhibit high DC performance characteristics and AC performance markedly

  10. Coated article and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor); Lee, Kang Neung (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An article includes a silicon-containing substrate and a modified mullite coating. The modified mullite coating comprises mullite and a modifier component that reduces cracks in the modified mullite coating. The article can further comprise a thermal barrier coating applied to the modified mullite coating. The modified mullite coating functions as a bond coating between the external environmental/thermal barrier coating and the silicon-containing substrate. In a method of forming an article, a silicon-containing substrate is formed and a modified mullite coating is applied. The modified mullite coating comprises mullite and a modifier component that reduces cracks in the modified mullite coating.

  11. Coated article and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor); Lee, Kang Neung (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An article includes a silicon-containing substrate and a modified mullite coating. The modified mullite coating comprises mullite and a modifier component that reduces cracks in the modified mullite coating. The article can further comprise a thermal barrier coating applied to the modified mullite coating. The modified mullite coating functions as a bond coating between the external environmental/thermal barrier coating and the silicon-containing substrate. In a method of forming an article, a silicon-containing substrate is formed and a modified mullite coating is applied. The modified mullite coating comprises mullite and a modifier component that reduces cracks in the modified mullite coating.

  12. NESDIS OSPO Data Access Policy and CRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seybold, M. G.; Donoho, N. A.; McNamara, D.; Paquette, J.; Renkevens, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Office of Satellite and Product Operations (OSPO) is the NESDIS office responsible for satellite operations, product generation, and product distribution. Access to and distribution of OSPO data was formally established in a Data Access Policy dated February, 2011. An extension of the data access policy is the OSPO Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Database, which has been in development since 2008 and is reaching a critical level of maturity. This presentation will provide a summary of the data access policy and standard operating procedure (SOP) for handling data access requests. The tangential CRM database will be highlighted including the incident tracking system, reporting and notification capabilities, and the first comprehensive portfolio of NESDIS satellites, instruments, servers, applications, products, user organizations, and user contacts. Select examples of CRM data exploitation will show how OSPO is utilizing the CRM database to more closely satisfy the user community's satellite data needs with new product promotions, as well as new data and imagery distribution methods in OSPO's Environmental Satellite Processing Center (ESPC). In addition, user services and outreach initiatives from the Satellite Products and Services Division will be highlighted.

  13. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-03-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  14. Measuring Access to Family Planning: Conceptual Frameworks and DHS Data.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonjoung; Fabic, Madeleine Short; Adetunji, Jacob

    2016-06-01

    Expanding access to family planning (FP) is a driving aim of global and national FP efforts. The definition and measurement of access, however, remain nebulous, largely due to complexity. This article aims to bring clarity to the measurement of FP access. First, we synthesize key access elements for measurement by reviewing three well-known frameworks. We then assess the extent to which the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)-a widely used data source for FP programs and research-has information to measure these elements. We finally examine barriers to access by element, using the latest DHS data from four countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss opportunities and limitations in the measurement of access, the importance of careful interpretation of data from population-based surveys, and recommendations for collecting and using data to better measure access. PMID:27285425

  15. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Bockhorst, Joseph P; Conroy, John M; Agarwal, Shashank; O'Leary, Dianne P; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org. PMID:22815711

  16. Transfer and Semantic Universals in the L2 Acquisition of the English Article System by Child L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Reyes, Alexandra; Soler, Inmaculada Gómez

    2016-01-01

    L2 learners' problems with English articles have been linked to learners' L1 and their access to universal semantic features (e.g., definiteness and specificity). Studies suggest that L2 adults rely on their L1 knowledge, while child L2 learners rely more on their access to semantic universals. The present study investigates whether child L2…

  17. Shapers of Published NNS Research Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrough-Boenisch, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive picture of the shapers of a published nonnative speaker research article by including the language professionals and indicating how they fit into the pre-publication processing of a text. (Author/VWL)

  18. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-10-21

    A strengthened, biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed, compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: Ni, Ag, Ag--Cu, Ag--Pd, Ni--Cu, Ni--V, Ni--Mo, Ni--Al, Ni--Cr--Al, Ni--W--Al, Ni--V--Al, Ni--Mo--Al, Ni--Cu--Al; and at least one fine metal oxide powder; the article having a grain size which is fine and homogeneous; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  19. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  20. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  1. Improved Production Of Wrought Articles From Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, James R.; Singleton, Ogle R.

    1994-01-01

    Improved technique for consolidation of powders into dense articles developed. Peripheral bands used in consolidation, forging, and rolling operations. Facilitates consolidation of dispersion-hardened aluminous powders and composite mixtures for processing to such useful wrought articles as plates and sheets. Potential use in production of plates and sheets and perhaps other objects from "hard" powders, particularly from powders, objects made from which have propensity to crack when mechanically worked to other forms.

  2. Method of producing microchannel and nanochannel articles

    DOEpatents

    D'Urso, Brian R.

    2010-05-04

    A method of making an article having channels therethrough includes the steps of: providing a ductile structure defining at least one macro-channel, the macro-channel containing a salt; drawing the ductile structure in the axial direction of the at least one macro-channel to reduce diameter of the macro-channel; and contacting the salt with a solvent to dissolve the salt to produce an article having at least one microchannel.

  3. Medical Articles in Eighteenth Century American Magazines

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Clemency Chase

    1965-01-01

    Formal medical publication began in the United States with The Medical Repository in 1797. Between 1741, the date of the first American magazine, and 1797 medical articles were included in general magazines. This study deals with ten representative magazines and reviews their general content. The varying content of the medical articles is analyzed into broad categories, and several important physicians, contributors to the magazines, are discussed. The Medical Repository is treated as a culmination of eighteenth century medical publication. PMID:14306031

  4. Biaxially textured articles formed by plastic deformation

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit

    2001-01-01

    A method of preparing a biaxially textured article comprises the steps of providing a metal preform, coating or laminating the preform with a metal layer, deforming the layer to a sufficient degree, and rapidly recrystallizing the layer to produce a biaxial texture. A superconducting epitaxial layer may then be deposited on the biaxial texture. In some embodiments the article further comprises buffer layers, electromagnetic devices or electro-optical devices.

  5. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the U.S. on a voyage between a U.S. port and a...

  6. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2007-02-15

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  7. Minority Access to Professional Education: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Higher and Professional Education.

    An annotated bibliography of more than 200 entries on minority access to professional education covers journal articles, professional association publications, institutional program and research reports, government documents, congressional hearings, conference proceedings, law review articles, and government agency reports. Citations, dated 1969…

  8. Parent-School Partnerships: Forked Roads to College Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sil, Susmita

    2007-01-01

    This article utilizes a social capital perspective to explore the benefits and harmful effects of strong ties between parents and schools in enhancing college access for students. While focusing on social capital in the form of parental participation, the article goes beyond a functionalist approach of the social capital theory as adopted by…

  9. Multiple-Access Quantum-Classical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Mohsen

    2011-10-01

    A multi-user network that supports both classical and quantum communication is proposed. By relying on optical code-division multiple access techniques, this system offers simultaneous key exchange between multiple pairs of network users. A lower bound on the secure key generation rate will be derived for decoy-state quantum key distribution protocols.

  10. Distance Education: Access, Quality, Cautions, and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Paul Jay

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the impact of widely distributed learning opportunities now accessible through distance education must take into account the re-imposition of values and motives long associated with traditional education. The expectations of new higher education consumers should be tempered by institutional acknowledgement of pre-existing value…

  11. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks

    Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology

    Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

    Background

    With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the

  12. Improving Immigrants' Access to Public Services in the United States: Language Access Policy and Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperling, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Language access mandates in the USA, which require that governmental services be provided in any needed language, have been largely ignored since their first enacting. However, the past decade has seen an increase in the number of national, state, and local efforts to accommodate limited English-proficient individuals. This article provides an…

  13. HRP Data Accessibility 2009

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Clarence Sams spoke at the 2009 Human Research Program's Investigators Workshop on the current status of Data Accessibility. In this presentation he discusses the content of the Human Life Scie...

  14. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CAH Conditions of Participation . What are the location requirements for CAH status? Critical Access Hospitals must be ... clinic that does not meet the CAH distance requirements? As of January 1, 2008, all CAHs, including ...

  15. Computer memory access technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zottarelli, L. J.

    1967-01-01

    Computer memory access commutator and steering gate configuration produces bipolar current pulses while still employing only the diodes and magnetic cores of the classic commutator, thereby appreciably reducing the complexity of the memory assembly.

  16. Adapting Web Browsers for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Paul; Birkmire, Mike

    This paper examines ways to make World Wide Web browsers accessible for individuals with disabilities, and through them, gain access to the information on the Web. It discusses which browsers can be made more accessible and evaluates different types of input. Mouse access, keyboard access, and voice input are reviewed. Processing aids, such as…

  17. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  18. 7 CFR 301.45-7 - Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles. 301.45-7 Section 301.45-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-7 Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor...

  19. 7 CFR 301.45-7 - Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles. 301.45-7 Section 301.45-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-7 Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor...

  20. 27 CFR 26.51 - Formulas for articles, eligible articles and products manufactured with denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formulas for articles, eligible articles and products manufactured with denatured spirits. 26.51 Section 26.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND...

  1. 27 CFR 26.221 - Formulas for articles, eligible articles and products manufactured with denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formulas for articles, eligible articles and products manufactured with denatured spirits. 26.221 Section 26.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND...

  2. 7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.75 Section 319.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...; disposal of articles refused importation. (a) The Secretary has determined that in order to prevent...

  3. 7 CFR 301.45-7 - Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles. 301.45-7 Section 301.45-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-7 Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor...

  4. 7 CFR 301.45-7 - Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles. 301.45-7 Section 301.45-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-7 Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor...

  5. Advanced Distribution Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  6. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  7. Highlighting entanglement of cultures via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles.

    PubMed

    Eom, Young-Ho; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2013-01-01

    How different cultures evaluate a person? Is an important person in one culture is also important in the other culture? We address these questions via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles. With three ranking algorithms based on network structure of Wikipedia, we assign ranking to all articles in 9 multilingual editions of Wikipedia and investigate general ranking structure of PageRank, CheiRank and 2DRank. In particular, we focus on articles related to persons, identify top 30 persons for each rank among different editions and analyze distinctions of their distributions over activity fields such as politics, art, science, religion, sport for each edition. We find that local heroes are dominant but also global heroes exist and create an effective network representing entanglement of cultures. The Google matrix analysis of network of cultures shows signs of the Zipf law distribution. This approach allows to examine diversity and shared characteristics of knowledge organization between cultures. The developed computational, data driven approach highlights cultural interconnections in a new perspective. Dated: June 26, 2013. PMID:24098338

  8. Highlighting Entanglement of Cultures via Ranking of Multilingual Wikipedia Articles

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Young-Ho; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2013-01-01

    How different cultures evaluate a person? Is an important person in one culture is also important in the other culture? We address these questions via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles. With three ranking algorithms based on network structure of Wikipedia, we assign ranking to all articles in 9 multilingual editions of Wikipedia and investigate general ranking structure of PageRank, CheiRank and 2DRank. In particular, we focus on articles related to persons, identify top 30 persons for each rank among different editions and analyze distinctions of their distributions over activity fields such as politics, art, science, religion, sport for each edition. We find that local heroes are dominant but also global heroes exist and create an effective network representing entanglement of cultures. The Google matrix analysis of network of cultures shows signs of the Zipf law distribution. This approach allows to examine diversity and shared characteristics of knowledge organization between cultures. The developed computational, data driven approach highlights cultural interconnections in a new perspective. Dated: June 26, 2013 PMID:24098338

  9. It's time for change; commentary in response to feature article by Halpin et al.

    PubMed

    Keane, Michael

    2015-12-01

    It is essential that we re-examine the way new drugs for life-threatening illnesses are assessed and regulated. The time taken to approve lifesaving medicines for general use outside of clinical trials is prohibitively slow; people are needlessly dying. The bioethics community should be at the forefront of change. In particular, the rigid adherence to Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) has become irrational. New regulatory frameworks are being proposed, including that of adaptive licensing. Whereas the current model uses a one-point-in-time, all-or-nothing system of regulation, adaptive licensing allows for progressive access to a new drug during the approval process. Indeed this may be the first instance where the contemporary practice of EBM needs to be abandoned due to inherent inefficiencies. In response to the inefficiencies of the current system, a collaboration of stakeholders has established NEWDIGS (NEW Drug Development ParadIGmS). The Feature Article by Halpin and colleagues, on which this Commentary is based, gives a sophisticated survey of relevant bioethical issues. In addition this Commentary outlines a novel bioethical model to align with proposed new regulatory frameworks: a distributive-benefit-at-equilibrium model. PMID:24586023

  10. Access to health care

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Martin; Maltais, Danielle; Hudon, Catherine; Lapointe, Lise; Ntetu, Antoine Lutumba

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore access to health care for patients presenting with multiple chronic conditions and to identify barriers and factors conducive to access. DESIGN Qualitative study with focus groups. SETTING Family practice unit in Chicoutimi (Saguenay), Que. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-five male and female adult patients with at least four chronic conditions but no cognitive disorders or decompensating conditions. METHODS For this pilot study, only three focus group discussions were held. MAIN FINDINGS The main barriers to accessing follow-up appointments included long waits on the telephone, automated telephone-answering systems, and needing to attend at specific times to obtain appointments. The main barriers to specialized care were long waiting times and the need to get prescriptions and referrals from family physicians. Factors reported conducive to access included systematic callbacks and the personal involvement of family physicians. Good communication between family physicians and specialists was also perceived to be an important factor in access. CONCLUSION Systematic callbacks, family physicians’ personal efforts to obtain follow-up visits, and better physician-specialist communication were all suggested as ways to improve access to care for patients with multiple chronic conditions. PMID:16926944

  11. Open Access: From Myth to Paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, Paul

    2009-05-06

    True open access to scientific publications not only gives readers the possibility to read articles without paying subscription, but also makes the material available for automated ingestion and harvesting by 3rd parties. Once articles and associated data become universally treatable as computable objects, openly available to 3rd party aggregators and value-added services, what new services can we expect, and how will they change the way that researchers interact with their scholarly communications infrastructure? I will discuss straightforward applications of existing ideas and services, including citation analysis, collaborative filtering, external database linkages, interoperability, and other forms of automated markup, and speculate on the sociology of the next generation of users.

  12. Open Access: From Myth to Paradox

    ScienceCinema

    Ginsparg, Paul [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States

    2010-01-08

    True open access to scientific publications not only gives readers the possibility to read articles without paying subscription, but also makes the material available for automated ingestion and harvesting by 3rd parties. Once articles and associated data become universally treatable as computable objects, openly available to 3rd party aggregators and value-added services, what new services can we expect, and how will they change the way that researchers interact with their scholarly communications infrastructure? I will discuss straightforward applications of existing ideas and services, including citation analysis, collaborative filtering, external database linkages, interoperability, and other forms of automated markup, and speculate on the sociology of the next generation of users.

  13. Local production of pharmaceuticals in Africa and access to essential medicines: 'urban bias’ in access to imported medicines in Tanzania and its policy implications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International policy towards access to essential medicines in Africa has focused until recently on international procurement of large volumes of medicines, mainly from Indian manufacturers, and their import and distribution. This emphasis is now being challenged by renewed policy interest in the potential benefits of local pharmaceutical production and supply. However, there is a shortage of evidence on the role of locally produced medicines in African markets, and on potential benefits of local production for access to medicines. This article contributes to filling that gap. Methods This article uses WHO/HAI data from Tanzania for 2006 and 2009 on prices and sources of a set of tracer essential medicines. It employs innovative graphical methods of analysis alongside conventional statistical testing. Results Medicines produced in Tanzania were equally likely to be found in rural and in urban areas. Imported medicines, especially those imported from countries other than Kenya (mainly from India) displayed 'urban bias’: that is, they were significantly more likely to be available in urban than in rural areas. This finding holds across the range of sample medicines studied, and cannot be explained by price differences alone. While different private distribution networks for essential medicines may provide part of the explanation, this cannot explain why the urban bias in availability of imported medicines is also found in the public sector. Conclusions The findings suggest that enhanced local production may improve rural access to medicines. The potential benefits of local production and scope for their improvement are an important field for further research, and indicate a key policy area in which economic development and health care objectives may reinforce each other. PMID:24612518

  14. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2008-01-03

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  15. [How to write an article: formal aspects].

    PubMed

    Corral de la Calle, M A; Encinas de la Iglesia, J

    2013-06-01

    Scientific research and the publication of the results of the studies go hand in hand. Exquisite research methods can only be adequately reflected in formal publication with the optimum structure. To ensure the success of this process, it is necessary to follow orderly steps, including selecting the journal in which to publish and following the instructions to authors strictly as well as the guidelines elaborated by diverse societies of editors and other institutions. It is also necessary to structure the contents of the article in a logical and attractive way and to use an accurate, clear, and concise style of language. Although not all the authors are directly involved in the actual writing, elaborating a scientific article is a collective undertaking that does not finish until the article is published. This article provides practical advice about formal and not-so-formal details to take into account when writing a scientific article as well as references that will help readers find more information in greater detail. PMID:23489765

  16. Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

    2013-05-28

    Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes processing circuitry configured to analyze initial text to generate a measurement basis usable in analysis of subsequent text, wherein the measurement basis comprises a plurality of measurement features from the initial text, a plurality of dimension anchors from the initial text and a plurality of associations of the measurement features with the dimension anchors, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a viewpoint indicative of a perspective of interest of a user with respect to the analysis of the subsequent text, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to use the viewpoint to generate the measurement basis.

  17. Access of primary and secondary literature by health personnel in an academic health center: implications for open access*

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Ryan M.; Moorhead, Laura; O'Brien, Bridget; Willinsky, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The research sought to ascertain the types and quantity of research evidence accessed by health personnel through PubMed and UpToDate in a university medical center over the course of a year in order to better estimate the impact that increasing levels of open access to biomedical research can be expected to have on clinical practice in the years ahead. Methods: Web log data were gathered from the 5,042 health personnel working in the Stanford University Hospitals (SUH) during 2011. Data were analyzed for access to the primary literature (abstracts and full-text) through PubMed and UpToDate and to the secondary literature, represented by UpToDate (research summaries), to establish the frequency and nature of literature consulted. Results: In 2011, SUH health personnel accessed 81,851 primary literature articles and visited UpToDate 110,336 times. Almost a third of the articles (24,529) accessed were reviews. Twenty percent (16,187) of the articles viewed were published in 2011. Conclusion: When it is available, health personnel in a clinical care setting frequently access the primary literature. While further studies are needed, this preliminary finding speaks to the value of the National Institutes of Health public access policy and the need for medical librarians and educators to prepare health personnel for increasing public access to medical research. PMID:23930091

  18. Laminar flow control leading edge glove flight test article development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, W. E.; Mcnay, D. E.; Thelander, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A laminar flow control (LFC) flight test article was designed and fabricated to fit into the right leading edge of a JetStar aircraft. The article was designed to attach to the front spar and fill in approx. 70 inches of the leading edge that are normally occupied by the large slipper fuel tank. The outer contour of the test article was constrained to align with an external fairing aft of the front spar which provided a surface pressure distribution over the test region representative of an LFC airfoil. LFC is achieved by applying suction through a finely perforated surface, which removes a small fraction of the boundary layer. The LFC test article has a retractable high lift shield to protect the laminar surface from contamination by airborne debris during takeoff and low altitude operation. The shield is designed to intercept insects and other particles that could otherwise impact the leading edge. Because the shield will intercept freezing rain and ice, a oozing glycol ice protection system is installed on the shield leading edge. In addition to the shield, a liquid freezing point depressant can be sprayed on the back of the shield.

  19. Altmetric: Top 50 dental articles in 2014.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, J; Khazaei, S

    2016-06-10

    Introduction Altmetrics is a new and emerging scholarly tool that measures online attention surrounding journal articles. Altmetric data resources include: policy documents, news outlets, blogs, online reference managers (eg Mendeley and CiteULike), post-publication peer-review forums (eg PubPeer and Publons), social media (eg Twitter, Facebook, Weibo, Google(+), Pinterest, Reddit), Wikipedia, sites running Stack Exchange (Q&A), and reviews on F1000 and YouTube.Methods To identify the top 50 dental articles in 2014, PubMed was searched using the following query "("2014/1/1"[PDAT]:"2014/12/31"[PDAT]) and jsubsetd[text]" in December, 2015. Consequently, all PubMed records were extracted and sent to Altmetric LLP (London, UK) as a CSV file for examination. Data were analysed by Microsoft Office Excel 2010 using descriptive statistics and charts.Results Using PubMed searches,15,132 dental articles were found in 2014. The mean Altmetric score of 50 top dental articles in 2014 was 69.5 ± 73.3 (95% CI: -74.14 to 213.14). The British Dental Journal (48%) and Journal of Dental Research (16%) had the maximum number of top articles. Twitter (67.13%), Mendeley (15.89%) and news outlets (10.92%) were the most popular altmetric data resources.Discussion Altmetrics are intended to supplement bibliometrics, not replace them. Altmetrics is a fresh and emerging arena for the dental research community. We believe that dental clinical practitioners, research scientists, research directors and journal editors must pay more attention to altmetrics as a new and rapid tool to measure the social impact of scholarly articles. PMID:27283563

  20. Method for hot press forming articles

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Robert R.; Hartsock, Dale L.

    1982-01-01

    This disclosure relates to an improved method for achieving the best bond strength and for minimizing distortion and cracking of hot pressed articles. In particular, in a method for hot press forming both an outer facing circumferential surface of and an inner portion of a hub, and of bonding that so-formed outer facing circumferential surface to an inner facing circumferential surface of a pre-formed ring thereby to form an article, the following improvement is made. Normally, in this method, the outside ring is restrained by a restraining sleeve of ring-shaped cross-section having an inside diameter. A die member, used to hot press form the hub, is so-formed as to have an outside diameter sized to engage the inside diameter of the restraining sleeve in a manner permitting relative movement therebetween. The improved method is one in which several pairs of matched restraining sleeve and die member are formed with each matched pair having a predetermined diameter. The predetermined diameter of each matched pair is different from another matched pair by stepped increments. The largest inside diameter of a restraining sleeve is equal to the diameter of the outer facing circumferential surface of the hub. Each pair of the matched restraining sleeve and die member is used to form an article in which an inside hub is bonded to an outside ring. The several samples so-formed are evaluated to determine which sample has the best bond formed between the hub and the ring with the least or no cracking or distortion in the ring portion of the article. Thereafter, the matched restraining sleeve and die member which form the article having the best bonding characteristics and least distortion cracking is then used for repeated formations of articles.

  1. Paying by the Article: Libraries Test a New Model for Scholarly Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Vincent

    1998-01-01

    An experiment involving 10 university libraries and their patrons suggests that libraries may eventually buy access only to the specific journal articles that scholars want to read, rather than subscribe to the journals' complete contents. Three subscription types are being tested. So far, institutions are buying the least traditional form: access…

  2. Baishideng’s century goal: Editing and publishing high-quality articles

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lian-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Baishideng’s goal over the next few years is to edit and publish high-quality articles through the open-access model, to maximize the benefits to members of the editorial board, authors and readers, as well as achieving social and economic benefits. PMID:19701962

  3. An Electronic Filing Cabinet for "Classic" Articles and Other Teaching Materials: Something Old, Something New

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kung, Simon; Lapid, Maria I.; Philbrick, Kemuel L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: "Classic" articles remain an important resource in teaching psychiatry. But, such materials are often buried in a faculty member's filing cabinet, effectively lost in today's world of instant access. We attempt to recover these materials through a marriage of traditional reading lists and contemporary technology. Method: The authors…

  4. An Authentication Gateway for Integrated Grid and Cloud Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciaschini, V.; Salomoni, D.

    2011-12-01

    The WNoDeS architecture, providing distributed, integrated access to both Cloud and Grid resources through virtualization technologies, makes use of an Authentication Gateway to support diverse authentication mechanisms. Three main use cases are foreseen, covering access via X.509 digital certificates, federated services like Shibboleth or Kerberos, and credit-based access. In this paper, we describe the structure of the WNoDeS authentication gateway.

  5. Fluid casting of particle-based articles

    DOEpatents

    Menchhofer, P.

    1995-03-28

    A method is disclosed for the production of articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is introduced into an immiscible, heated fluid. The slurry sets hardens into a shape determined by the physical characteristics of the fluid and the manner of introduction of the slurry into the fluid. For example, the slurry is pulse injected into the fluid to provide spherical articles. The hardened spheres may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product. 1 figure.

  6. Low density, microcellular foams, preparation, and articles

    DOEpatents

    Young, Ainslie T.; Marsters, Robert G.; Moreno, Dawn K.

    1984-01-01

    A microcellular low density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) which is particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 .mu.m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given; and the yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.

  7. A3 Subscale Diffuser Test Article Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, G. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Article Design. The subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude rocket facility. It was designed and built to support the SDT risk mitigation project located at the E3 facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC) supporting the design and construction of the A3 facility at SSC. The subscale test article is outfitted with a large array of instrumentation to support the design verification of the A3 facility. The mechanical design of the subscale diffuser and test instrumentation are described here

  8. Laser production of articles from powders

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Milewski, John O.; Cremers, David A.; Nemec, Ronald B.; Barbe, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path.

  9. Laser production of articles from powders

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.K.; Milewski, J.O.; Cremers, D.A.; Nemec, R.B.; Barbe, M.R.

    1998-11-17

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path. 20 figs.

  10. Low density, microcellular foams, preparation, and articles

    DOEpatents

    Young, A.T.

    1982-03-03

    A microcellular low-density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 ..mu..m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given. The yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.

  11. PROCESS OF PRODUCING REFRACTORY URANIUM OXIDE ARTICLES

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, N.E.

    1957-12-01

    A method is presented for fabricating uranium oxide into a shaped refractory article by introducing a uranium halide fluxing reagent into the uranium oxide, and then mixing and compressing the materials into a shaped composite mass. The shaped mass of uranium oxide and uranium halide is then fired at an elevated temperature so as to form a refractory sintered article. It was found in the present invention that the introduction of a uraninm halide fluxing agent afforded a fluxing action with the uranium oxide particles and that excellent cohesion between these oxide particles was obtained. Approximately 90% of uranium dioxide and 10% of uranium tetrafluoride represent a preferred composition.

  12. Fluid casting of particle-based articles

    DOEpatents

    Menchhofer, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A method for the production of articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is introduced into an immiscible, heated fluid. The slurry sets or hardens into a shape determined by the physical characteristics of the fluid and the manner of introduction of the slurry into the fluid. For example, the slurry is pulse injected into the fluid to provide spherical articles. The hardened spheres may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product.

  13. Learning to Rank Figures within a Biomedical Article

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the “bag of figures” assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as “figure ranking”. Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1) First Author, (2) Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3) Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or out

  14. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1) First Author, (2) Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3) Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or out

  15. UKPMC: a full text article resource for the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    McEntyre, Johanna R.; Ananiadou, Sophia; Andrews, Stephen; Black, William J.; Boulderstone, Richard; Buttery, Paula; Chaplin, David; Chevuru, Sandeepreddy; Cobley, Norman; Coleman, Lee-Ann; Davey, Paul; Gupta, Bharti; Haji-Gholam, Lesley; Hawkins, Craig; Horne, Alan; Hubbard, Simon J.; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Lewin, Ian; Lyte, Vic; MacIntyre, Ross; Mansoor, Sami; Mason, Linda; McNaught, John; Newbold, Elizabeth; Nobata, Chikashi; Ong, Ernest; Pillai, Sharmila; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Rosie, Heather; Rowbotham, Rob; Rupp, C. J.; Stoehr, Peter; Vaughan, Philip

    2011-01-01

    UK PubMed Central (UKPMC) is a full-text article database that extends the functionality of the original PubMed Central (PMC) repository. The UKPMC project was launched as the first ‘mirror’ site to PMC, which in analogy to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration, aims to provide international preservation of the open and free-access biomedical literature. UKPMC (http://ukpmc.ac.uk) has undergone considerable development since its inception in 2007 and now includes both a UKPMC and PubMed search, as well as access to other records such as Agricola, Patents and recent biomedical theses. UKPMC also differs from PubMed/PMC in that the full text and abstract information can be searched in an integrated manner from one input box. Furthermore, UKPMC contains ‘Cited By’ information as an alternative way to navigate the literature and has incorporated text-mining approaches to semantically enrich content and integrate it with related database resources. Finally, UKPMC also offers added-value services (UKPMC+) that enable grantees to deposit manuscripts, link papers to grants, publish online portfolios and view citation information on their papers. Here we describe UKPMC and clarify the relationship between PMC and UKPMC, providing historical context and future directions, 10 years on from when PMC was first launched. PMID:21062818

  16. UKPMC: a full text article resource for the life sciences.

    PubMed

    McEntyre, Johanna R; Ananiadou, Sophia; Andrews, Stephen; Black, William J; Boulderstone, Richard; Buttery, Paula; Chaplin, David; Chevuru, Sandeepreddy; Cobley, Norman; Coleman, Lee-Ann; Davey, Paul; Gupta, Bharti; Haji-Gholam, Lesley; Hawkins, Craig; Horne, Alan; Hubbard, Simon J; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Lewin, Ian; Lyte, Vic; MacIntyre, Ross; Mansoor, Sami; Mason, Linda; McNaught, John; Newbold, Elizabeth; Nobata, Chikashi; Ong, Ernest; Pillai, Sharmila; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Rosie, Heather; Rowbotham, Rob; Rupp, C J; Stoehr, Peter; Vaughan, Philip

    2011-01-01

    UK PubMed Central (UKPMC) is a full-text article database that extends the functionality of the original PubMed Central (PMC) repository. The UKPMC project was launched as the first 'mirror' site to PMC, which in analogy to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration, aims to provide international preservation of the open and free-access biomedical literature. UKPMC (http://ukpmc.ac.uk) has undergone considerable development since its inception in 2007 and now includes both a UKPMC and PubMed search, as well as access to other records such as Agricola, Patents and recent biomedical theses. UKPMC also differs from PubMed/PMC in that the full text and abstract information can be searched in an integrated manner from one input box. Furthermore, UKPMC contains 'Cited By' information as an alternative way to navigate the literature and has incorporated text-mining approaches to semantically enrich content and integrate it with related database resources. Finally, UKPMC also offers added-value services (UKPMC+) that enable grantees to deposit manuscripts, link papers to grants, publish online portfolios and view citation information on their papers. Here we describe UKPMC and clarify the relationship between PMC and UKPMC, providing historical context and future directions, 10 years on from when PMC was first launched. PMID:21062818

  17. The Role of the Access Services Manager in the Virtual Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jetton, Lora Lennertz; Bailey, Alberta S.

    2010-01-01

    This article updates a previous article published in 1992 that described the role of the access services manager in policy formation. Since that time, the access services department and mission has matured and evolved to a prominent position within the library organization. Technological changes and innovation in the marketplace of wired and…

  18. Turkish-German Access to Higher Education: An Historical and Democratic Theory Analysis, 1960-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Roger Geertz

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at access to higher education in Germany. For a number of reasons, explained in this article, higher education is presently an elite system that privileges ethnic Germans while preventing Turkish-Germans from gaining sufficient access into academe. If Germany is to become a fully functioning multicultural democracy with equal…

  19. Ethical criteria for procuring and distributing organs for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Childress, J F

    1989-01-01

    This article provides an ethical analysis and assessment of various actual and proposed policies of organ procurement and distribution in light of moral principles already embedded in U.S. institutions, laws, policies, and practices. Evaluating different methods of acquisition of human body parts--donation (express and presumed), sales, abandonment, and expropriation--the author argues for laws and policies, including required request, to maintain and facilitate express donation of organs by individuals and their families. Such laws and policies need adequate time for a determination of their effectiveness before society moves to other major alternatives, such as a market. In organ allocation and distribution, which have close moral connections with organ procurement, the author defends the judgment of the federal Task Force on Organ Transplantation that the community should have dispositional authority over donated organs, that professionals should be viewed as trustees and stewards of donated organs, and that the public should be heavily involved in the formation of policies of allocation and distribution. Concentrating on policies being developed in the United Network for Organ Sharing, the author examines the point system for cadaveric kidneys, the access of foreign nationals to organs donated in the U.S., and the multiple listings of patients seeking transplants. He concludes by identifying two major problems of equitable access to donated organs that will have to be addressed by social institutions other than UNOS: access to the waiting list for donated organs and the role of ability to pay in extrarenal transplants. PMID:2654283

  20. 48 CFR 204.270 - Electronic Document Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electronic Document Access..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Distribution 204.270 Electronic Document Access. Follow the procedures at PGI 204.270 relating to obtaining an account in the Electronic Document...