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Sample records for access comprehensive reservoir

  1. Developing and Managing a Comprehensive Reservoir Analysis Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    a flood control only, single event reservoir simulation model to a generalized hydrologic and economic reservoir simulation model with capabilities...The first release of HEC-5, May 1973, gave the Corps of Engineers a mainframe based, reservoir simulation model which automated the traditional manual

  2. Accessibility of Segmented Reading Comprehension Passages for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Kao, Jenny C.; Leon, Seth; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Sullivan, Lisa; Herman, Joan; Pope, Rita

    2010-01-01

    This study explores factors that affect the accessibility of reading comprehension assessments for students with disabilities in grade 8 public school classrooms. The study consisted of assessing students using reading comprehension passages that were broken down into shorter "segments" or "chunks" in order to assess the…

  3. Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access during Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica

    2015-01-01

    When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German…

  4. Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access During Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica

    2014-01-01

    When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German bilinguals, German-English bilinguals and English monolinguals listened for target words in spoken English sentences while their eye-movements were recorded. Bilinguals’ eye-movements reflected weaker lexical access relative to monolinguals; furthermore, the effect of semantic constraint differed across first vs. second language processing. Specifically, English-native bilinguals showed fewer overall looks to target items, regardless of sentence constraint; German-native bilinguals activated target items more slowly and maintained target activation over a longer period of time in the Low-Constraint condition compared with monolinguals. No eye movements to cross-linguistic competitors were observed, suggesting that these lexical access disadvantages were present during bilingual spoken sentence comprehension even in the absence of overt interlingual competition. PMID:25266052

  5. Direct-access retrieval during sentence comprehension: Evidence from Sluicing

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Andrea E.; McElree, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Language comprehension requires recovering meaning from linguistic form, even when the mapping between the two is indirect. A canonical example is ellipsis, the omission of information that is subsequently understood without being overtly pronounced. Comprehension of ellipsis requires retrieval of an antecedent from memory, without prior prediction, a property which enables the study of retrieval in situ (Martin & McElree, 2008, 2009). Sluicing, or inflectional phrase ellipsis, in the presence of a conjunction, presents a test case where a competing antecedent position is syntactically licensed, in contrast with most cases of nonadjacent dependency, including verb phrase ellipsis. We present speed-accuracy tradeoff and eye-movement data inconsistent with the hypothesis that retrieval is accomplished via a syntactically guided search, a particular variant of search not examined in past research. The observed timecourse profiles are consistent with the hypothesis that antecedents are retrieved via a cue-dependent direct-access mechanism susceptible to general memory variables. PMID:21580797

  6. Accessing diverse data comprehensively - CODM, the COSYNA data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitbach, Gisbert; Krasemann, Hajo; Behr, Daniel; Beringer, Steffen; Lange, Uwe; Vo, Nhan; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2016-07-01

    The coastal observation system COSYNA aims to describe the physical and biogeochemical state of a regional coastal system. The COSYNA data management is the link between observations, model results and data usage. The challenge for the COSYNA data management CODM1 COSYNA Data and Metadata, http://codm.hzg.de/codm or doi:10.17616/R3K02T is the integration of diverse data sources in terms of parameters, dimensionality and observation methods to gain a comprehensive view of the observations. This is achieved by describing the data using metadata in a generic way and by making all gathered data available for different analyses and visualisations in an interrelated way, independent of data dimensionality. Different parameter names for the same observed property are mapped to the corresponding CF2 climate and forecast standard name leading to standardised and comparable metadata. These metadata together with standardised web services are the base for the data portal. The URLs of these web services are also stored within the metadata as direct data access URLs, e.g. a map such as a GetMap request.

  7. The history of open access medical publishing: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Sukhov, Andrea; Burrall, Barbara; Maverakis, Emanual

    2016-09-15

    Dermatology Online Journal became the first medical open access journal in the early 1990's. Today, thousands of open access medical journals are available on the Internet. Despite criticisms surrounding open access, these journals have allowed research to be rapidly available to the public. In addition, open access journal policies allow public health research to reach developing countries where this research has the potential to make a substantial impact. In the future, open access medical journals will likely continue to evolve with technology, changing how medical research is accessed and presented.

  8. Direct-Access Retrieval during Sentence Comprehension: Evidence from Sluicing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrea E.; McElree, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Language comprehension requires recovering meaning from linguistic form, even when the mapping between the two is indirect. A canonical example is ellipsis, the omission of information that is subsequently understood without being overtly pronounced. Comprehension of ellipsis requires retrieval of an antecedent from memory, without prior…

  9. The Need for Comprehensive Reform: From Access to Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines why typical reforms at community colleges in recent years have not improved institutional graduation rates. It argues that substantially increasing college completion requires comprehensive institutional reform with a focus on measurable student success, an intentional and cohesive package of programmatic components, and a…

  10. Designed, synthetically accessible bryostatin analogues potently induce activation of latent HIV reservoirs in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechristopher, Brian A.; Loy, Brian A.; Marsden, Matthew D.; Schrier, Adam J.; Zack, Jerome A.; Wender, Paul A.

    2012-09-01

    Bryostatin is a unique lead in the development of potentially transformative therapies for cancer, Alzheimer's disease and the eradication of HIV/AIDS. However, the clinical use of bryostatin has been hampered by its limited supply, difficulties in accessing clinically relevant derivatives, and side effects. Here, we address these problems through the step-economical syntheses of seven members of a new family of designed bryostatin analogues using a highly convergent Prins-macrocyclization strategy. We also demonstrate for the first time that such analogues effectively induce latent HIV activation in vitro with potencies similar to or better than bryostatin. Significantly, these analogues are up to 1,000-fold more potent in inducing latent HIV expression than prostratin, the current clinical candidate for latent virus induction. This study provides the first demonstration that designed, synthetically accessible bryostatin analogues could serve as superior candidates for the eradication of HIV/AIDS through induction of latent viral reservoirs in conjunction with current antiretroviral therapy.

  11. Prevention and Control of Dental Disease through Improved Access to Comprehensive Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL.

    Prevention of dental disease is the key to improving the nation's oral health. The American Dental Association (ADA) program of prevention and control of dental disease through improved access to comprehensive care concentrates on those who have special difficulties in receiving care: the poor, the elderly, the handicapped, the institutionalized…

  12. Comprehensive Understanding of the Zipingpu Reservoir to the Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H.; Pang, Y. J.; Zhang, H.; Shi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    After the Wenchuan earthquake occurred, whether the big earthquake triggered by the storage of the Zipingpu Reservoir has attracted wide attention in international academic community. In addition to the qualitative discussion, many scholars also adopted the quantitative analysis methods to calculate the stress changes, but due to the different results, they draw very different conclusions. Here, we take the dispute of different teams in the quantitative calculation of Zipingpu reservoir as a starting point. In order to find out the key influence factors of quantitative calculation and know about the existing uncertainty elements during the numerical simulation, we analyze factors which may cause the differences. The preliminary results show that the calculation methods (analytical method or numerical method), dimension of models (2-D or 3-D), diffusion model, diffusion coefficient and focal mechanism are the main factors resulted in the differences, especially the diffusion coefficient of the fractured rock mass. The change of coulomb failure stress of the epicenter of Wenchuan earthquake attained from 2-D model is about 3 times of that of 3-D model. And it is not reasonable that only considering the fault permeability (assuming the permeability of rock mass as infinity) or only considering homogeneous isotropic rock mass permeability (ignoring the fault permeability). The different focal mechanisms also could dramatically affect the change of coulomb failure stress of the epicenter of Wenchuan earthquake, and the differences can research 2-7 times. And the differences the change of coulomb failure stress can reach several hundreds times, when selecting different diffusion coefficients. According to existing research that the magnitude of coulomb failure stress change is about several kPa, we could not rule out the possibility that the Zipingpu Reservoir may trigger the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. However, for the background stress is not clear and coulomb failure

  13. The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, Intellectual Property Protection, and Access to Medicines.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Belinda; Gleeson, Deborah; Lopert, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    The inclusion of elevated standards of intellectual property (IP) protection in the recently negotiated Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement has raised serious public health concerns regarding access to medicines. A lesser-known trade agreement under negotiation in the Asia-Pacific region is the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Framed as an attempt to reassert ASEAN's position in response to the United States-led TPP, RCEP includes key players China and India as well as several low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Leaked drafts of IP provisions proposed by Japan and South Korea raise similar concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. This article identifies TRIPS (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement)-Plus provisions in leaked negotiating texts and examines their implications for LMICs that are not also parties to the TPP: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, China, and India. We find that higher levels of IP protection delay the market entry of generic medicines, giving rise to increased costs to governments and reduced access to essential medicines. The article concludes that the public health community should recognize risks inherent in trade agreements that promote expansions of IP rights and engage with governments to ensure that public health is adequately and explicitly protected in trade and investment negotiations.

  14. Comprehensive assessment of seldom monitored trace elements pollution in the riparian soils of the Miyun Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Lanfang; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Yang; Xu, Dongyu; Gao, Li; Yu, Hui; Wang, Shiyan

    2016-10-01

    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project has aroused widespread concerns about the potential ecological risks posed by the project, especially for the Miyun Reservoir (MYR). The potential release risk of metals from the flooded riparian soils into MYR after water impoundment is one of key scientific problems. In this study, riparian soil samples were collected considering three vertical heights (130, 140, and 145 m) and four types of land uses in the MYR areas, namely, forestland, grassland, wasteland, and recreational land. We analyzed soils texture, the content and chemical fractionations of seldom monitored trace elements (SMTEs): Li, Be, B, V, Co, Ni, Ga, Sn, Sb, Tl, and Bi). Results showed that the four types of soils in MYR had the similar textures, while recreational land showed significantly higher contents of Ni and V. Additionally, there were no significant differences found for most SMTEs (except for V) at different vertical heights in each soil type, while the concentrations of V at 140 and 145 m in forestland and recreational land were significantly higher than those at 130 m. However, a comprehensive evaluation of potential ecological risk (contamination factor (CF), modified degree of contamination (mCd), and geoaccumulation factor (I geo)) consistently indicated the insignificant contaminations of all SMTEs in MYR soils before water impoundment. The Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction results showed that the chemical fractionations of SMTEs were independent of land use patterns and vertical heights. Co in reducible fractions and Ni were identified as the candidates which had potential to release into MYR when the lands were submerged. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) results suggested that a portion of V, Co, and Ni may originate from anthropogenic activities, and the coal combustion was possibly the main anthropogenic source. The findings of this work would provide valuable information on the

  15. Is the lower atmosphere a readily accessible reservoir of culturable, antimicrobial compound-producing Actinomycetales?

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Carolyn F.; Werth, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent metagenomic studies have revealed that microbial diversity in the atmosphere rivals that of surface environments. This indicates that the atmosphere may be worth bioprospecting in for novel microorganisms, especially those selected for by harsh atmospheric conditions. This is interesting in light of the antibiotic resistance crisis and renewed interests in bioprospecting for members of the Actinomycetales, which harbor novel secondary metabolite-producing pathways and produce spores that make them well suited for atmospheric travel. The latter leads to the hypothesis that the atmosphere may be a promising environment in which to search for novel Actinomycetales. Although ubiquitous in soils, where bioprospecting efforts for Actinomycetales have been and are largely still focused, we present novel data indicating that culturable members of this taxonomic order are 3–5.6 times more abundant in air samples collected at 1.5, 4.5, 7.5, and 18 m above the ground, than in the underlying soil. These results support the hypothesis that mining the vast and readily accessible lower atmosphere for novel Actinomycetales in the search for undescribed secondary metabolites could prove fruitful. PMID:26300868

  16. A comprehensive school-based/linked dental program: an essential piece of the California access to care puzzle.

    PubMed

    Fine, Jared I; Isman, Robert E; Grant, Catherine B

    2012-03-01

    California children suffer more from dental disease than any other chronic childhood disease. Disparities in access and oral health are disproportionately represented among children from minority and low-income families. A comprehensive school-based/linked dental program is one essential ingredient in addressing these problems. Described here are the goals, program elements, and challenges of building a seamless dental services system that could reduce barriers care, maximize resources, and employ best practices to improve oral health.

  17. What's in a Name Depends on the Type of Name: The Relationships between Semantic and Phonological Access, Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Mads; Elbro, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between lexical access, reading fluency, and comprehension. Two components of speed of lexical access were studied: phonological and semantic. Previous studies have mainly investigated these components of lexical access separately. The present study examined both components in naming tasks--with…

  18. Access to Comprehensive School-Based Health Services for Children and Youth, 1995-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Access, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of 11 consecutive issues of the newsletter "Access," published across a four-year period. "Access" presents information on public policy and research of interest to school-based health programs (SBHC) for children and youth. The major topics covered by the newsletters are as follows: (1) a conference,…

  19. Enabling Access and Enhancing Comprehension of Video Content for Postsecondary Students with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evmenova, Anya S.; Behrmann, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a great need for new innovative tools to integrate individuals with intellectual disability into educational experiences. This multiple baseline study examined the effects of various adaptations for improving factual and inferential comprehension of non-fiction videos by six postsecondary students with intellectual disability. Video…

  20. Diacritics Improve Comprehension of the Arabic Script by Providing Access to the Meanings of Heterophonic Homographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroun, Maryse; Hanley, J. Richard

    2017-01-01

    The diacritical markers that represent most of the vowels in the Arabic orthography are generally omitted from written texts. Previous research revealed that the absence of diacritics reduces reading comprehension performance even by skilled readers of Arabic. One possible explanation is that many Arabic words become ambiguous when diacritics are…

  1. Exploring Factors that Affect the Accessibility of Reading Comprehension Assessments for Students with Disabilities: A Study of Segmented Text. CRESST Report 746

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Kao, Jenny C.; Leon, Seth; Sullivan, Lisa; Herman, Joan L.; Pope, Rita; Nambiar, Veena; Mastergeorge, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to explore factors that affect the accessibility of reading comprehension assessments for students with disabilities. The study consisted of testing students using reading comprehension passages that were broken down into shorter "segments" or "chunks." The results of the segmenting study indicated that: (a)…

  2. Finding "le mot juste": Differences between Bilingual and Monolingual Children's Lexical Access in Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Stephanie; Nicoladis, Elena

    2009-01-01

    By school age, some bilingual children can score equivalently to monolinguals in receptive vocabulary but still lag in expressive vocabulary. In this study, we test whether bilingual children have greater difficulty with lexical access, as has been reported for adult bilinguals. School-aged French-English bilingual children were given tests of…

  3. Teacher Placement into Immigrant English Learner Classrooms: Limiting Access in Comprehensive High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabach, Dafney Blanca

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how secondary teachers were assigned to teach courses intended to expand English learners' (ELs') access to academic subjects. Theoretically, this research extends the "contexts of reception" framework from immigration studies into the educational realm by investigating how teachers--as one important…

  4. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Gammie, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. Methods A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Results Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country’s legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country’s pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Conclusions Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases. PMID:26451948

  5. Volume and accessibility of entrained (solution) methane in deep geopressured reservoirs - tertiary formations of the Texas Gulf Coast. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, A.R.; Dodge, M.M.; Posey, J.S.; Morton, R.A.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this project was to appraise the total volume of in-place methane dissolved in formation waters of deep sandstone reservoirs of the onshore Texas Gulf Coast within the stratigraphic section extending from the base of significant hydrocarbon production (8000 ft)* to the deepest significant sandstone occurrence. The area of investigation is about 50,000 mi/sup 2/. Factors that determine the total methane resource are reservoir bulk volume, porosity, and methane solubility; the latter is controlled by the temperature, pressure, and salinity of formation waters. Regional assessment of the volume and the distribution of potential sandstone reservoirs was made from a data base of 880 electrical well logs, from which a grid of 24 dip cross sections and 4 strike cross sections was constructed. Solution methane content in each of nine formations or divisions of formations was determined for each subdivision. The distribution of solution methane in the Gulf Coast was described on the basis of five reservoir models. Each model was characterized by depositional environment, reservoir continuity, porosity, permeability, and methane solubility.

  6. Galaxy: a comprehensive approach for supporting accessible, reproducible, and transparent computational research in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Goecks, Jeremy; Nekrutenko, Anton; Taylor, James

    2010-01-01

    Increased reliance on computational approaches in the life sciences has revealed grave concerns about how accessible and reproducible computation-reliant results truly are. Galaxy http://usegalaxy.org, an open web-based platform for genomic research, addresses these problems. Galaxy automatically tracks and manages data provenance and provides support for capturing the context and intent of computational methods. Galaxy Pages are interactive, web-based documents that provide users with a medium to communicate a complete computational analysis.

  7. Providing comprehensive and consistent access to astronomical observatory archive data: the NASA archive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, Thomas; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Accomazzi, Alberto; Smale, Alan; White, Richard L.; Donaldson, Thomas; Aloisi, Alessandra; Dower, Theresa; Mazzerella, Joseph M.; Ebert, Rick; Pevunova, Olga; Imel, David; Berriman, Graham B.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Groom, Steve L.; Desai, Vandana R.; Landry, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Since the turn of the millennium a constant concern of astronomical archives have begun providing data to the public through standardized protocols unifying data from disparate physical sources and wavebands across the electromagnetic spectrum into an astronomical virtual observatory (VO). In October 2014, NASA began support for the NASA Astronomical Virtual Observatories (NAVO) program to coordinate the efforts of NASA astronomy archives in providing data to users through implementation of protocols agreed within the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). A major goal of the NAVO collaboration has been to step back from a piecemeal implementation of IVOA standards and define what the appropriate presence for the US and NASA astronomy archives in the VO should be. This includes evaluating what optional capabilities in the standards need to be supported, the specific versions of standards that should be used, and returning feedback to the IVOA, to support modifications as needed. We discuss a standard archive model developed by the NAVO for data archive presence in the virtual observatory built upon a consistent framework of standards defined by the IVOA. Our standard model provides for discovery of resources through the VO registries, access to observation and object data, downloads of image and spectral data and general access to archival datasets. It defines specific protocol versions, minimum capabilities, and all dependencies. The model will evolve as the capabilities of the virtual observatory and needs of the community change.

  8. Listeners use speaker identity to access representations of spatial perspective during online language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Ryskin, Rachel A; Wang, Ranxiao Frances; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about how listeners represent another person's spatial perspective during language processing (e.g., two people looking at a map from different angles). Can listeners use contextual cues such as speaker identity to access a representation of the interlocutor's spatial perspective? In two eye-tracking experiments, participants received auditory instructions to move objects around a screen from two randomly alternating spatial perspectives (45° vs. 315° or 135° vs. 225° rotations from the participant's viewpoint). Instructions were spoken either by one voice, where the speaker's perspective switched at random, or by two voices, where each speaker maintained one perspective. Analysis of participant eye-gaze showed that interpretation of the instructions improved when each viewpoint was associated with a different voice. These findings demonstrate that listeners can learn mappings between individual talkers and viewpoints, and use these mappings to guide online language processing.

  9. Quantifying accessibility and use of improved sanitation: towards a comprehensive indicator of the need for sanitation interventions

    PubMed Central

    Park, M. J.; Clements, A. C. A.; Gray, D. J.; Sadler, R.; Laksono, B.; Stewart, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    To prevent diseases associated with inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene, people needing latrines and behavioural interventions must be identified. We compared two indicators that could be used to identify those people. Indicator 1 of household latrine coverage was a simple Yes/No response to the question “Does your household have a latrine?” Indicator 2 was more comprehensive, combining questions about defecation behaviour with observations of latrine conditions. Using a standardized procedure and questionnaire, trained research assistants collected data from 6,599 residents of 16 rural villages in Indonesia. Indicator 1 identified 30.3% as not having a household latrine, while Indicator 2 identified 56.0% as using unimproved sanitation. Indicator 2 thus identified an additional 1,710 people who were missed by Indicator 1. Those 1,710 people were of lower socioeconomic status (p < 0.001), and a smaller percentage practiced appropriate hand-washing (p < 0.02). These results show how a good indicator of need for sanitation and hygiene interventions can combine evidences of both access and use, from self-reports and objective observation. Such an indicator can inform decisions about sanitation-related interventions and about scaling deworming programmes up or down. Further, a comprehensive and locally relevant indicator allows improved targeting to those most in need of a hygiene-behaviour intervention. PMID:27452598

  10. Premotor Cortex Activation Elicited during Word Comprehension Relies on Access of Specific Action Concepts.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nan; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Yanping; Li, Xingshan; Bi, Yanchao

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between the lexical-semantic and sensory-motor systems is an important topic in cognitive neuroscience. An important finding indicating that these two systems interact is that reading action verbs activates the motor system of the human brain. Two constraints have been proposed to modulate this activation: the effector information associated with the action concepts and statistical regularities between sublexical features and grammatical classes. Using fMRI, we examined whether these two types of information can activate the motor system in the absence of specific motor-semantic content by manipulating the existence of a sublexical cue, called the hand radical, which strongly indicates the semantic feature "hand-related" and grammatical class "verb." Although hand radical characters referring to specific manual actions evoked stronger activation in the premotor cortex than the control characters, hand radical pseudocharacters did not evoke specific activation within the motor system. These results indicated that activation of the premotor cortex during word reading relies on the access of specific action concepts.

  11. Accessibility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal laws, including Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, mandate that people with disabilities have access to the same information that someone without a disability would have. 508 standards cover electronic and information technology (EIT) products.

  12. From the Nano- to the Formation Scale: Accessible Reactive Surface Area in a CO2 Saline Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, A.; Cole, D. R.; Sheets, J. M.; Anovitz, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Among the outstanding subsurface science challenges today is the translation of our improved understanding of pore-scale reactive transport and bench-scale geochemical rates of reaction to the prediction of long-term formation response to the sequestration of carbon dioxide. The emergent complexity of CO2-brine-rock interactions, on a large scale, over long periods of time (up to 1000 years) arises from a number of imperfectly understood factors. Of these, the accessibility of reactive surfaces distinguishes natural materials from powders commonly used in reaction rate studies, and geologic heterogeneity requires a workflow that connects samples, not to depths, but to material types that, combined, constitute a subsurface formation. To this end, core samples targeting every lithology type (quartz arenite, quartz-feldspar arenite, hematitic matrix-rich sandstone, clay-silt lens) observed in two bore holes through the Mt. Simon Sandstone of Ohio have been interrogated. Small- and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (SANS, USANS) and mercury and gas porosimetry (MICP, BET) have been used to quantify pore and pore throat distributions, and therefore pore volume accessibility at any given intrusion pressure. Mineral surface area is calculated using high-resolution SEM-BSE imagery combined with energy dispersive X-ray mineral mapping, and then extended beyond the limit of image-based techniques by using BET estimates for specific minerals. Combined, these datasets enable the quantification of mineral-specific, connected surface area as a function of pore/fracture scale. This is a defining feature of a pore-mineral assemblage, the microanalysis analogue of a macroscale lithology. The whole formation is then reconstructed by connecting pore-mineral assemblages to lithologies, defined by permeability/porosity and by mineralogy, and these in turn to the whole vertical extent of the formation using coarser-scale images of whole core. This effort therefore contributes both to

  13. Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-08-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.

  14. A Bayesian method for comprehensive water quality evaluation of the Danjiangkou Reservoir water source area, for the middle route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Fangbing; Li, Chunhui; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Chengchun; Liang, Peiyu

    2014-06-01

    The Danjiangkou Reservoir is the water source for the middle route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China. Thus, its water quality status is of great concern. Five water quality indicators (dissolved oxygen, permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus), were measured at three monitoring sites (the Danjiangkou Reservoir dam, the Hejiawan and the Jiangbei bridge), to investigate changing trends, and spatiotemporal characteristics of water quality in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area from January 2006 to May 2012. We then applied a Bayesian statistical method to evaluate the water quality comprehensively. The normal distribution sampling method was used to calculate likelihood, and the entropy weight method was used to determine indicator weights for variables of interest in to the study. The results indicated that concentrations of all five indicators increased during the last six years. In addition, the water quality in the reservoir was worse during the wet season (from May to October), than during the dry season (from November to April of the next year). Overall, the probability of the water's belonging to quality category of type II, according to environmental quality standards for surface water in China, was 27.7%-33.7%, larger than that of its belonging to the other four water quality types. The increasing concentrations of nutrients could result in eutrophication of the Danjiangkou Reservoir. This method reduced the subjectivity that is commonly associated with determining indicator weights and artificial classifications, achieving more reliable results. These results indicate that it is important for the interbasin water diversion project to implement integrated water quality management in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area.

  15. A comprehensive study of fracture patterns and densities in the Geysers geothermal reservoir using microearthquake shear-wave splitting tomography. Quarterly report for Sep-Dec 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, Peter E.; Shalev, Eylon

    1999-03-31

    We start organizing the computer programs needed for crack density inversion into an easy to follow scripts. These programs were collection of bits and pieces from many sources and we want to organize those separate programs into coherent product. We also gave a presentation (enclosed) in the Twenty-Fourth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering in Stanford University on our Geyser and Mammoth results.

  16. Language Processing in Children with Cochlear Implants: A Preliminary Report on Lexical Access for Production and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard G.; Steinman, Susan; Ying, Elizabeth; Mystal, Elana Ying; Houston, Derek M.

    2013-01-01

    In this plenary paper, we present a review of language research in children with cochlear implants along with an outline of a 5-year project designed to examine the lexical access for production and recognition. The project will use auditory priming, picture naming with auditory or visual interfering stimuli (Picture-Word Interference and…

  17. Glia Open Access Database (GOAD): A comprehensive gene expression encyclopedia of glia cells in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Holtman, Inge R; Noback, Michiel; Bijlsma, Marieke; Duong, Kim N; van der Geest, Marije A; Ketelaars, Peer T; Brouwer, Nieske; Vainchtein, Ilia D; Eggen, Bart J L; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the number of genome-wide transcriptome profiles of pure populations of glia cells has drastically increased, resulting in an unprecedented amount of data that offer opportunities to study glia phenotypes and functions in health and disease. To make genome-wide transcriptome data easily accessible, we developed the Glia Open Access Database (GOAD), available via www.goad.education. GOAD contains a collection of previously published and unpublished transcriptome data, including datasets from isolated microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes both at homeostatic and pathological conditions. It contains an intuitive web-based interface that consists of three features that enable searching, browsing, analyzing, and downloading of the data. The first feature is differential gene expression (DE) analysis that provides genes that are significantly up and down-regulated with the associated fold changes and p-values between two conditions of interest. In addition, an interactive Venn diagram is generated to illustrate the overlap and differences between several DE gene lists. The second feature is quantitative gene expression (QE) analysis, to investigate which genes are expressed in a particular glial cell type and to what degree. The third feature is a search utility, which can be used to find a gene of interest and depict its expression in all available expression data sets by generating a gene card. In addition, quality guidelines and relevant concepts for transcriptome analysis are discussed. Finally, GOAD is discussed in relation to several online transcriptome tools developed in neuroscience and immunology. In conclusion, GOAD is a unique platform to facilitate integration of bioinformatics in glia biology.

  18. Online interactive U.S. Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J.B.; Bernard, J.M.; Schwarz, G.E.; Stewart, D.W.; Ray, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    In April 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (prior to 1994, the Soil Conservation Service) created the Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Database (RESSED) and Web site, the most comprehensive compilation of data from reservoir bathymetric and dry basin surveys in the United States. RESSED data can be useful for a number of purposes, including calculating changes in reservoir storage characteristics, quantifying rates of sediment delivery to reservoirs, and estimating erosion rates in a reservoir's watershed.

  19. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  20. RESIS-II: An Updated Version of the Original Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Information System (RESIS) Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Katherine V.; Mixon, David M.; Sundquist, Eric T.; Stallard, Robert F.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Stewart, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Information System (RESIS) database, originally compiled by the Soil Conservation Service (now the Natural Resources Conservation Service) in collaboration with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, is the most comprehensive compilation of data from reservoir sedimentation surveys throughout the conterminous United States (U.S.). The database is a cumulative historical archive that includes data from as early as 1755 and as late as 1993. The 1,823 reservoirs included in the database range in size from farm ponds to the largest U.S. reservoirs (such as Lake Mead). Results from 6,617 bathymetric surveys are available in the database. This Data Series provides an improved version of the original RESIS database, termed RESIS-II, and a report describing RESIS-II. The RESIS-II relational database is stored in Microsoft Access and includes more precise location coordinates for most of the reservoirs than the original database but excludes information on reservoir ownership. RESIS-II is anticipated to be a template for further improvements in the database.

  1. Digging beneath the Surface Behavioral and Neural Indices of Lexical Access during Idiom Comprehension in Aphasia: A Multi-Modal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumm, Kathleen Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This project examines spoken language comprehension in Broca's aphasia, a non-fluent language disorder acquired subsequent to stroke. Broca's aphasics demonstrate impaired comprehension for complex sentence constructions. To account for this deficit, one current processing theory claims that Broca's patients retain intrinsic linguistic knowledge,…

  2. Interactive reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Regtien, J.M.M. Por, G.J.A.; Stiphout, M.T. van; Vlugt, F.F. van der

    1995-12-31

    Shell`s new Modular Reservoir Simulator (MoReS) has been equipped with a comprehensive and versatile user interface called FrontEnd. Apart from providing a user-friendly environment for interactive reservoir simulation, FrontEnd serves a software platform for other dynamic simulation and reservoir-engineering applications. It offers to all supported applications a common user interface, enables the re-use of code and reduces overall maintenance and support costs associated with the embedded applications. Because of its features, FrontEnd facilitates the transfer of research results in the form of operational software to end users. When coupled with MoReS, FrontEnd can be used for pre- and post-processing and interactive simulation. The pre-processing options allow data to be inputted by means of various OSF/Motif widgets containing a spreadsheet, text editors, dialogues and graphical input. The display of the input data as well as the post-processing of all simulation results is made possible by a variety of user-defined plot of tabular (e.g. timestep summary) and array (simulation grid) data. During a simulation user-defined plots can be displayed and edited, allowing a close inspection of the results as they are being calculated. FrontEnd has been equipped with a powerful input command language, which gives the batch user as much flexibility and control over the input as the interactive user.

  3. Longitudinal gradients along a reservoir cascade

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Habrat, M.D.; Miyazono, S.

    2008-01-01

    Reservoirs have traditionally been regarded as spatially independent entities rather than as longitudinal segments of a river system that are connected upstream and downstream to the river and other reservoirs. This view has frustrated advancement in reservoir science by impeding adequate organization of available information and by hindering interchanges with allied disciplines that often consider impounded rivers at the basin scale. We analyzed reservoir morphology, water quality, and fish assemblage data collected in 24 reservoirs of the Tennessee River; we wanted to describe longitudinal changes occurring at the scale of the entire reservoir series (i.e., cascade) and to test the hypothesis that fish communities and environmental factors display predictable gradients like those recognized for unimpounded rivers. We used a data set collected over a 7-year period; over 3 million fish representing 94 species were included in the data set. Characteristics such as reservoir mean depth, relative size of the limnetic zone, water retention time, oxygen stratification, thermal stratification, substrate size, and water level fluctuations increased in upstream reservoirs. Conversely, reservoir area, extent of riverine and littoral zones, access to floodplains and associated wetlands, habitat diversity, and nutrient and sediment inputs increased in downstream reservoirs. Upstream reservoirs included few, largely lacustrine, ubiquitous fish taxa that were characteristic of the lentic upper reaches of the basin. Fish species richness increased in a downstream direction from 12 to 67 species/ reservoir as riverine species became more common. Considering impoundments at a basin scale by viewing them as sections in a river or links in a chain may generate insight that is not always available when the impoundments are viewed as isolated entities. Basin-scale variables are rarely controllable but constrain the expression of processes at smaller scales and can facilitate the

  4. CPMs: A Kinesthetic Comprehension Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Cathy Collins; Parris, Sheri R.; Whiteley, Cinnamon S.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a study to determine whether primary grade students can learn comprehension processes via hand motions to portray these mental processes. Comprehension Process Motions (CPMs) were designed to provide students with a way to make abstract comprehension processes more consciously accessible and also to give teachers a way to…

  5. Changing the Therapeutic Landscape in Non-small Cell Lung Cancers: the Evolution of Comprehensive Molecular Profiling Improves Access to Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sabari, Joshua K; Santini, Fernando; Bergagnini, Isabella; Lai, W Victoria; Arbour, Kathryn C; Drilon, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Targeting genomic alterations has led to a paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with lung cancer. In an effort to better identify potentially actionable alterations that may predict response to FDA-approved and or investigational therapies, many centers have migrated towards performing targeted exome sequencing in patients with stage IV disease. The implementation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in the evaluation of tumor tissue from patients with NSCLC has led to the discovery of targetable alterations in tumors that previously had no known actionable targets by less comprehensive profiling. An improved understanding of the molecular pathways that drive oncogenesis in NSCLC and a revolution in the technological advances in NGS have led to the development of new therapies through biomarker-driven clinical trials. This review will focus on the advances in molecular profiling that continue to fuel the revolution of precision medicine, identifying targets such as MET exon 14 skipping alterations and select recurrent gene alterations with increasing frequency.

  6. A new remote sensing technique to measure global reservoir storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-10-01

    Nearly 60% of the world's large rivers are affected by dams, with more than 33,000 large dams holding back upward of 8300 cubic kilometers of water across the planet. Reservoirs are employed worldwide, helping to ensure regular access to fresh water, mitigate flash flooding, and maintain minimum river flow levels. However, not all reservoirs have adequate and accessible monitoring systems. Having no easily accessible method with which to monitor changing reservoir storage volumes hinders long-term planning and efforts to model the Earth's climate.

  7. Status of Norris Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Norris Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses, conditions that impair reservoir uses, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most up-to-date publications and data available, and from interviews with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies, and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  9. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  10. Status of Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Dolomite reservoirs: Porosity evolution and reservoir characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, S.Q.

    1995-02-01

    Systematic analyses of the published record of dolomite reservoirs worldwide reveal that the majority of hydrocarbon-producing dolomite reservoirs occurs in (1) peritidal-dominated carbonate, (2) subtidal carbonate associated with evaporitic tidal flat/lagoon, (3) subtidal carbonate associated with basinal evaporite, and (4) nonevaporitic carbonate sequence associated with topographic high/unconformity, platform-margin buildup or fault/fracture. Reservoir characteristics vary greatly from one dolomite type to another depending upon the original sediment fabric, the mechanism by which dolomite was formed, and the extent to which early formed dolomite was modified by post-dolomitization diagenetic processes (e.g., karstification, fracturing, and burial corrosion). This paper discusses the origin of dolomite porosity and demonstrates the porosity evolution and reservoir characteristics of different dolomite types.

  13. Simulation of Reservoir Systems with HEC-5 on a Personal Computer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    purpose, Multi- reservoir Simulation on a PC Technical Paper No. 123, Developing and Managing a Comprehensive Reservoir Analysis Model 2 INFIVE ORCOED...Program HEC-5..." and " Reservoir Simulation has begun:" (Figure 10). ’ l i ’ :I’ I , Figure 10. Interactive HEC-5: Main Screen 24 During simulation, an...April 1988. 14. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering Center, "Multi-Purpose, Multi- Reservoir Simulation on a PC ", Technical Paper No

  14. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, Bradley B.

    1984-07-01

    The first six months of the fishery investigations in Libby Reservoir were aimed at developing suitable methodology for sampling physical-chemical limnology, fish food availability, fish food habits, and seasonal distribution and abundance of fish populations. Appropriate methods have been developed for all aspects with minor modification of original proposed methodologies. Purse seining has yet to be tested. Physical-chemical limnologic sampling could be reduced or subcontracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to allow for more intensive sampling of fish food or fish distribution portions of the investigation. Final sample design will be determined during 1983-84. Future directions of the study revolve around two central issues, the potential for flexibility in reservoir operation and determination of how reservoir operation affects fish populations. Simulated maximum drawdown levels during a 40-year period were controlled by power in seven out of eight years. Drawdowns were generally within 10 feet of the flood control rule curve, however. There may be more flexibility with regards to timing of refill and evacuation. This aspect needs to be evaluated further. Production and availability of fish food, suitability of reservoir habitat, and accessibility of off-reservoir spawning and rearing habitat were identified as components of fish ecology which reservoir operation could potentially impact. Two models based on trophic dynamics and habitat suitabilities were suggested as a framework for exploring the relationship of reservoir operation on the fish community.

  15. 95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K.; Doublet, L.E.

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  17. Reservoir Inflation Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Ponden, Raymond F.

    1991-11-22

    Inflation of the reservoir is to begin on Friday afternoon, November 22 and continue through mid day on Monday, November 25. Inflation of the reservoir shall be accomplished by using only injection pump, HP-2. NOTE: Under no circumstances should injection pump, HP-1 be operated.

  18. Geothermal reservoir engineering research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramey, H. J., Jr.; Kruger, P.; Brigham, W. E.; London, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The Stanford University research program on the study of stimulation and reservoir engineering of geothermal resources commenced as an interdisciplinary program in September, 1972. The broad objectives of this program have been: (1) the development of experimental and computational data to evaluate the optimum performance of fracture-stimulated geothermal reservoirs; (2) the development of a geothermal reservoir model to evaluate important thermophysical, hydrodynamic, and chemical parameters based on fluid-energy-volume balances as part of standard reservoir engineering practice; and (3) the construction of a laboratory model of an explosion-produced chimney to obtain experimental data on the processes of in-place boiling, moving flash fronts, and two-phase flow in porous and fractured hydrothermal reservoirs.

  19. Integrated reservoir management doubles Nigerian field reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Akinlawon, Y.; Nwosu, T.; Satter, A.; Jespersen, R.

    1996-10-01

    An integrated alliance across disciplines, companies and countries enabled Texaco to conduct a comprehensive reservoir analysis of the North Apoi/Funiwa field in Nigeria. Recommendations implemented in 3 months doubled the book reserves of this mature field. The paper discusses the objectives, the integration of organizations, reservoir analysis, and conclusions. The conclusions made from the integrated study are: (1) 3-D seismic data dramatically improved reservoir description. (2) OOIP is considerably more than the booked values and reserves additions are substantial. (3) Significant value has been added to TOPCON`s assets as a result of teamwork and a multidisciplinary approach to evaluating the reservoirs and optimizing the scenarios for reservoir management. (4) Teamwork and integration of professionals, data, technology and tools was critical to the projects success. (5) The study set an example for effective and expeditious technology transfer and applications. (6) Partnering of TOPCON, DPR, NAPIMS, EPTD and SSI resulted in a quick cycle time and set an excellent example of integration and alliance.

  20. Quantitatively evaluating the CBM reservoir using logging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhidi; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2016-02-01

    In order to evaluate coal bed methane (CBM) reservoirs, this paper select five parameters: porosity, permeability, CBM content, the coal structure index and effective thickness of the coal seam. Making full use of logging and the laboratory analysis data of a coal core, the logging evaluation methods of the five parameters were discussed in detail, and the comprehensive evaluation model of the CBM reservoir was established. The #5 coal seam of the Hancheng mine on the eastern edge of the Ordos Basin in China was quantitatively evaluated using this method. The results show that the CBM reservoir in the study area is better than in the central and northern regions. The actual development of CBM shows that the region with a good reservoir has high gas production—indicating that the method introduced in this paper can evaluate the CBM reservoir more effectively.

  1. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Carl D.

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of the weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.

  2. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  3. Geysers reservoir studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Pruess, K. )

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is conducting several research projects related to issues of interest to The Geysers operators, including those that deal with understanding the nature of vapor-dominated systems, measuring or inferring reservoir processes and parameters, and studying the effects of liquid injection. All of these topics are directly or indirectly relevant to the development of reservoir strategies aimed at stabilizing or increasing production rates of non-corrosive steam, low in non-condensable gases. Three reservoir engineering studies are described in some detail, that is: (a) Modeling studies of heat transfer and phase distribution in two-phase geothermal reservoirs; (b) Numerical modeling studies of Geysers injection experiments; and (c) Development of a dual-porosity model to calculate mass flow between rock matrix blocks and neighboring fractures.

  4. Potential Mammalian Filovirus Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Johnson, Karl M.

    2004-01-01

    Ebola and Marburg viruses are maintained in unknown reservoir species; spillover into human populations results in occasional human cases or epidemics. We attempted to narrow the list of possibilities regarding the identity of those reservoir species. We made a series of explicit assumptions about the reservoir: it is a mammal; it supports persistent, largely asymptomatic filovirus infections; its range subsumes that of its associated filovirus; it has coevolved with the virus; it is of small body size; and it is not a species that is commensal with humans. Under these assumptions, we developed priority lists of mammal clades that coincide distributionally with filovirus outbreak distributions and compared these lists with those mammal taxa that have been tested for filovirus infection in previous epidemiologic studies. Studying the remainder of these taxa may be a fruitful avenue for pursuing the identity of natural reservoirs of filoviruses. PMID:15663841

  5. Geothermal reservoir simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, J. W., Jr.; Faust, C.; Pinder, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    The prediction of long-term geothermal reservoir performance and the environmental impact of exploiting this resource are two important problems associated with the utilization of geothermal energy for power production. Our research effort addresses these problems through numerical simulation. Computer codes based on the solution of partial-differential equations using finite-element techniques are being prepared to simulate multiphase energy transport, energy transport in fractured porous reservoirs, well bore phenomena, and subsidence.

  6. Session: Reservoir Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  7. Comprehension Clinchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcell, Barclay

    2006-01-01

    This author, an academic achievement teacher for second and third grade reading and math at Theodore Roosevelt Elementary School in Park Ridge, Illinois, contends that since fluency is such a measurable skill, over-emphasizing decoding and de-emphasizing comprehension results in short-changing students. In this article, she shares several reading…

  8. Andrew integrated reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Andrew field is an oil and gas accumulation in Palaeocene deep marine sands in the Central North Sea. It is currently being developed with mainly horizontal oil producers. Because of the field`s relatively small reserves (mean 118 mmbbls), the performance of each of the 10 or so horizontal wells is highly important. Reservoir description work at sanction time concentrated on supporting the case that the field could be developed commercially with the minimum number of wells. The present Integrated Reservoir Description (IRD) is focussed on delivering the next level of detail that will impact the understanding of the local reservoir architecture and dynamic performance of each well. Highlights of Andrew IRD Include: (1) Use of a Reservoir Uncertainty Statement (RUS) developed at sanction time to focus the descriptive effort of both asset, support and contract petrotechnical staff, (2) High resolution biostratigraphic correlation to support confident zonation of the reservoir, (3) Detailed sedimentological analysis of the core including the use of dipmeter to interpret channel/sheet architecture to provide new insights into reservoir heterogeneity; (4) Integrated petrographical and petrophysical investigation of the controls on Sw-Height and relative permeability of water; (5) Fluids description using oil geochemistry and Residual Salt Analysis Sr isotope studies. Andrew IRD has highlighted several important risks to well performance, including the influence of more heterolithic intervals on gas breakthrough and the controls on water coning exerted by suppressed water relative permeability in the transition zone.

  9. Andrew integrated reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Andrew field is an oil and gas accumulation in Palaeocene deep marine sands in the Central North Sea. It is currently being developed with mainly horizontal oil producers. Because of the field's relatively small reserves (mean 118 mmbbls), the performance of each of the 10 or so horizontal wells is highly important. Reservoir description work at sanction time concentrated on supporting the case that the field could be developed commercially with the minimum number of wells. The present Integrated Reservoir Description (IRD) is focussed on delivering the next level of detail that will impact the understanding of the local reservoir architecture and dynamic performance of each well. Highlights of Andrew IRD Include: (1) Use of a Reservoir Uncertainty Statement (RUS) developed at sanction time to focus the descriptive effort of both asset, support and contract petrotechnical staff, (2) High resolution biostratigraphic correlation to support confident zonation of the reservoir, (3) Detailed sedimentological analysis of the core including the use of dipmeter to interpret channel/sheet architecture to provide new insights into reservoir heterogeneity; (4) Integrated petrographical and petrophysical investigation of the controls on Sw-Height and relative permeability of water; (5) Fluids description using oil geochemistry and Residual Salt Analysis Sr isotope studies. Andrew IRD has highlighted several important risks to well performance, including the influence of more heterolithic intervals on gas breakthrough and the controls on water coning exerted by suppressed water relative permeability in the transition zone.

  10. Environmental flows in the context of small reservoirs in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Kirshen, P.; Vogel, R.; Walker, P.

    2009-04-01

    Modification of rivers by dams reduces the magnitude and frequency of floods, and impacts the entire flow regime. In many cases, these modifications have adversely affected the ecological and hydrological integrity of the watershed as well as impacting food security and livelihood choices of the local community. There is now an increasing consensus that modification to river flows needs to be balanced with maintenance of essential water-dependent ecological services. Many small multi-purpose reservoirs have been built in West Africa, where rainfall is highly variable, and droughts and flash floods are frequent. These small reservoirs are an important source of water for domestic use, livestock watering, small-scale irrigation and other beneficial uses in rural communities. The small reservoirs are hydrologically linked by their associated stream network. The reservoirs alter the hydrology of the streams and the groundwater resources within the region. When an individual reservoir is considered, alteration to the entire watershed is usually not significant. However, when considered as a system, together the small reservoirs store a significant quantity of water and influence downstream flows. The small reservoirs have rarely been considered as a system, thus little consideration has been given to their collective impact on the natural environment and livelihoods of the local population in the long term. Furthermore, the impact is difficult to quantify given the diffuse nature of the small reservoirs. Therefore, a comprehensive environmental flow assessment is needed to investigate the effect of the small reservoirs as a system on the watershed, and appropriate water policy should be formulated to implement the finding from the assessment. Our project is specifically aimed at addressing this topic. We will present a case study conducted in the Upper East Region of Ghana and will discuss the findings on the hydrological, ecological and socio-economic implications of

  11. Controls on reservoir development in Devonian Chert: Permian Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, S.C.; Hovorka, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    Chert reservoirs of the Lower Devonian Thirtyone Formation contain a significant portion of the hydrocarbon resource in the Permian basin. More than 700 million bbl of oil have been produced from these rocks, and an equivalent amount of mobile oil remains. Effective exploitation of this sizable remaining resource, however, demands a comprehensive appreciation of the complex factors that have contributed to reservoir development. Analysis of Thirtyone Formation chert deposits in Three Bar field and elsewhere in the Permian basin indicates that reservoirs display substantial heterogeneity resulting from depositional, diagenetic, and structural processes. Large-scale reservoir geometries and finer scale, intra-reservoir heterogeneity are primarily attributable to original depositional processes. Despite facies variations, porosity development in these cherts is principally a result of variations in rates and products of early silica diagenesis. Because this diagenesis was in part a function of depositional facies architecture, porosity development follows original depositional patterns. In reservoirs such as Three Bar field, where the Thirtyone Formation has been unroofed by Pennsylvanian deformation, meteoric diagenesis has created additional heterogeneity by causing dissolution of chert and carbonate, especially in areas of higher density fracturing and faulting and along truncated reservoir margins. Structural deformation also has exerted direct controls on heterogeneity that are particularly noteworthy in reservoirs under waterflood. High-density fracture zones create preferred flow paths that result in nonuniform sweep through the reservoir. Faulting locally creates compartments by offsetting reservoir flow units. As such, the processes and models defined here improve understanding of the causes of heterogeneity in all Thirtyone chert reservoirs in the Permian basin and aid recovery of the sizable hydrocarbon resource remaining in these rocks.

  12. Feasibility of Optimizing and Reserves from a Mature and Geological Complex Multiple Turbidite Offshore California Reservoir Through the Drilling and Completion of a Trilateral Horizontal Well.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The main objective of this project is to devise an effective re- development strategy to combat producibility problems related to the Repetto turbidite sequences of the Carpinteria Field. The lack of adequate reservoir characterization, high-water cut production, and scaling problems have in the past contributed to the field`s low productivity. To improve productivity and enhance recoverable reserves, the following specific goals were proposed: (1) Develop an integrated database of all existing data from work done by the former ownership group. (2) Expand reservoir drainage and reduce sand problems through horizontal well drilling and completion. (3) Operate and validate reservoir`s conceptual model by incorporating new data from the proposed trilateral well. (4) Transfer methodologies employed in geologic modeling and drilling multilateral wells to other operators with similar reservoirs. Pacific Operators Offshore, Inc. with the cooperation of its team members; the University of Southern California; Schlumberger; Baker Oil Tools; Halliburton Energy Services and Coombs and Associates undertook a comprehensive study to reexamine the reservoir conditions leading to the cent field conditions and to devise methodologies to mitigate the producibility problems. A computer based data retrieval system was developed to convert hard copy documents containing production, well completion and well log data into easily accessible on-line format. To ascertain the geological framework of the reservoir, a thorough geological modeling and subsurface mapping of the Carpinteria field was developed. The model is now used to examine the continuity of the sands, characteristics of the sub-zones, nature of water influx and transition intervals in individual major sands. The geological model was then supplemented with a reservoir engineering study of spatial distribution of voidage in individual layers using the production statistics and pressure surveys. Efforts are continuing in

  13. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983-1985 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Bruce

    1985-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act passed in 1980 by Congress has provided a mechanism which integrates and provides for stable energy planning in the Pacific Northwest. The Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council and charged the Council with developing a comprehensive fish and wildlife program to protect and enhance fish and wildlife impacted by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Implementation of the plan is being carried out by the Bonneville Power Administration. The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of that Council's plan. This study proposes to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance principal gamefish species in Hungry Horse Reservoir. The specific study objects are listed below. (1) Quantify the amount of reservoir habitat available at different water level elevations; (2) Estimate recruitment of westslope cutthroat trout juveniles from important spawning and nursery tributaries; (3) Determine the abundance, growth, distribution and use of available habitat by major game species in the reservoir; (4) Determine the abundance and availability of fish food organisms in the reservoir; (5) Quantify the seasonal use of available food items by major fish species; (6) Develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat used by fish and fish food organisms; and (7) Estimate the impact of reservoir operation on major gamefish species.

  14. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Bruce

    1986-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, passed in 1980 by Congress, has provided a mechanism which integrates and provides for stable energy planning in the Pacific Northwest. The Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council and charged the Council with developing a comprehensive fish and wildlife program to protect and enhance fish and wildlife impacted by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is one of the many agencies implementing the Council's program. The Hungry Horse Reservoir (HHR) study is part of the Council's program. This study proposes to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance principal gamefish species in Hungry Horse Reservoir. The specific study objectives are: (1) Quantify the amount of reservoir habitat available at different water level elevations; (2) Estimate recruitment of westslope cutthroat trout juveniles from important spawning and nursery areas; (3) Determine the abundance, growth, distribution and use of available habitat by major game species in the reservoir; (4) Determine the abundance and availability of fish food organisms in the reservoir; (5) Quantify the seasonal use of available food items by major fish species; (6) Develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat use by fish and fish food organisms; and (7) Estimate the impact of reservoir operation on major gamefish species.

  15. Floodplains within reservoirs promote earlier spawning of white crappies Pomoxis annularis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Dagel, Jonah D.; Kaczka, Levi J.; Mower, Ethan; Wigen, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs impounded over floodplain rivers are unique because they may include within their upper reaches extensive shallow water stored over preexistent floodplains. Because of their relatively flat topography and riverine origin, floodplains in the upper reaches of reservoirs provide broad expanses of vegetation within a narrow range of reservoir water levels. Elsewhere in the reservoir, topography creates a band of shallow water along the contour of the reservoir where vegetation often does not grow. Thus, as water levels rise, floodplains may be the first vegetated habitats inundated within the reservoir. We hypothesized that shallow water in reservoir floodplains would attract spawning white crappies Pomoxis annularis earlier than reservoir embayments. Crappie relative abundance over five years in floodplains and embayments of four reservoirs increased as spawning season approached, peaked, and decreased as fish exited shallow water. Relative abundance peaked earlier in floodplains than embayments, and the difference was magnified with higher water levels. Early access to suitable spawning habitat promotes earlier spawning and may increase population fitness. Recognition of the importance of reservoir floodplains, an understanding of how reservoir water levels can be managed to provide timely connectivity to floodplains, and conservation of reservoir floodplains may be focal points of environmental management in reservoirs.

  16. Optoelectronic Reservoir Computing

    PubMed Central

    Paquot, Y.; Duport, F.; Smerieri, A.; Dambre, J.; Schrauwen, B.; Haelterman, M.; Massar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a recently introduced, highly efficient bio-inspired approach for processing time dependent data. The basic scheme of reservoir computing consists of a non linear recurrent dynamical system coupled to a single input layer and a single output layer. Within these constraints many implementations are possible. Here we report an optoelectronic implementation of reservoir computing based on a recently proposed architecture consisting of a single non linear node and a delay line. Our implementation is sufficiently fast for real time information processing. We illustrate its performance on tasks of practical importance such as nonlinear channel equalization and speech recognition, and obtain results comparable to state of the art digital implementations. PMID:22371825

  17. Numerical simulation of reservoir parameters' synergetic time-variability on development rules.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jian; Zhang, Yanhui; Wang, Daigang; Zhou, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Time variability of reservoir parameters in water flooding has an effect on oilfield development rules. Meanwhile, time variability of different reservoir macro-parameters has certain synergetic relationship with each other. Based on microscopic network simulation and reservoir numerical simulation, a new simulation method is presented, which can describe the influence of reservoir parameters' synergetic time-variability on oilfield development rules both in macroscopic and microscopic scales. Microscopic network simulation can effectively simulate the impact of micro-parameters' variation on macro-parameters, thus a comprehensive model is built to reflect the variability of reservoir parameters. On the basis of considering time variability of porosity, permeability, and relative permeability in water flooding, an improved reservoir numerical simulator is established, which can effectively simulate the effect of reservoir parameters' synergetic variation on oilfield development rules.

  18. Atlas of Northern Gulf of Mexico Gas and Oil Reservoirs: Procedures and examples of resource distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Finley, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of the program is to produce a reservoir atlas series of the Gulf of Mexico that (1) classifies and groups offshore oil and gas reservoirs into a series of geologically defined reservoir plays, (2) compiles comprehensive reservoir play information that includes descriptive and quantitative summaries of play characteristics, cumulative production, reserves, original oil and gas in place, and various other engineering and geologic data, (3) provides detailed summaries of representative type reservoirs for each play, and (4) organizes computerized tables of reservoir engineering data into a geographic information system (GIS). The primary product of the program will be an oil and gas atlas series of the offshore Northern Gulf of Mexico and a computerized geographical information system of geologic and engineering data linked to reservoir location.

  19. Manicouagin Reservoir of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Recorded by the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission, this is a photograph of the ice- covered Manicouagin Reservoir located in the Canadian Shield of Quebec Province in Eastern Canada, partially obscured by low clouds. This reservoir marks the site of an impact crater, 60 miles (100 kilometers) wide, which according to geologists was formed 212 million years ago when a meteorite crashed into this area. Over millions of years, the crater has been worn down by glaciers and other erosional processes. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  20. Master plan: Guntersville Reservoir Aquatic Plant Management. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    In 1989, Congress provided funding to start a five-year comprehensive project to manage aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir, to be jointly implemented by the US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). TVA serves as the overall project coordinator and is the lead agency for this project. Known as the Joint Agency Guntersville Project (JAGP), the project will test and demonstrate innovative management technologies, and incorporate the most effective technologies into a comprehensive aquatic plant management plan for Guntersville Reservoir. The JAGP is intended to serve as a National Demonstration Project for aquatic plant management. As part of this JAGP, the Master Plan for Aquatic Plant Management for the Guntersville Reservoir Project, Alabama-Tennessee is authorized by Corps Contract Number DACW62-90-C-0067.

  1. Arteriovenous Access

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Jennifer M.; Dipchand, Christine; Oliver, Matthew; Moist, Louise; Yilmaz, Serdar; Lok, Charmaine; Leung, Kelvin; Clark, Edward; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Complications of vascular access lead to morbidity and may reduce quality of life. In this module, we review both infectious and noninfectious arteriovenous access complications including neuropathy, aneurysm, and high-output access. For the challenging patients who have developed many complications and are now nearing their last vascular access, we highlight some potentially novel approaches. PMID:28270919

  2. Strategies of exploitation of mammalian reservoirs by Bartonella species.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hongkuan; Le Rhun, Danielle; Buffet, Jean-Philippe R; Cotté, Violaine; Read, Amanda; Birtles, Richard J; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2012-02-27

    Numerous mammal species, including domestic and wild animals such as ruminants, dogs, cats and rodents, as well as humans, serve as reservoir hosts for various Bartonella species. Some of those species that exploit non-human mammals as reservoir hosts have zoonotic potential. Our understanding of interactions between bartonellae and reservoir hosts has been greatly improved by the development of animal models for infection and the use of molecular tools allowing large scale mutagenesis of Bartonella species. By reviewing and combining the results of these and other approaches we can obtain a comprehensive insight into the molecular interactions that underlie the exploitation of reservoir hosts by Bartonella species, particularly the well-studied interactions with vascular endothelial cells and erythrocytes.

  3. Strategies of exploitation of mammalian reservoirs by Bartonella species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Numerous mammal species, including domestic and wild animals such as ruminants, dogs, cats and rodents, as well as humans, serve as reservoir hosts for various Bartonella species. Some of those species that exploit non-human mammals as reservoir hosts have zoonotic potential. Our understanding of interactions between bartonellae and reservoir hosts has been greatly improved by the development of animal models for infection and the use of molecular tools allowing large scale mutagenesis of Bartonella species. By reviewing and combining the results of these and other approaches we can obtain a comprehensive insight into the molecular interactions that underlie the exploitation of reservoir hosts by Bartonella species, particularly the well-studied interactions with vascular endothelial cells and erythrocytes. PMID:22369683

  4. Reservoir stability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, T.J.

    1981-07-01

    The objective of the reservoir stability studies project is to develop stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock caverns, and porous rock structures for air storage in utility applications. Because reservoir stability was deemed crucial to commercialization of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems this project has received major emphasis in the early phases of the overall CAES program. A long term plan, including state-of-the-art assessment, numerical model development and experimental studies culminating in field research, as necessary, was formulated. This plan, initiated in 1977, has been completed during FY-1981 to the stage of specific experimental studies and field research. Activities within this project during FY-1981 have included completion of site specific geotechnical design evaluations using methodologies developed to assess hard rock cavern stability, implementation of in-mine research to evaluate numerical and laboratory study conclusions on the response of domal salt, and preparation of integrated laboratory and field study facilities to assess developed predictive methods and determine in situ response of a porous media reservoir to air injection. The major activity in the project has been the field study component of the porous media studies. Accomplishments there have included completion of exploration, permitting and leasing, operation contractor selection and negotiation, and initiation of procurement and construction for an FY-1982 test initiation. A major program milestone, drilling of the injection withdrawal well for this test, was completed ahead of schedule.

  5. Applying reservoir characterization technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, L.W.

    1994-12-31

    While reservoir characterization is an old discipline, only within the last 10 years have engineers and scientists been able to make quantitative descriptions, due mostly to improvements in high-resolution computational power, sophisticated graphics, and geostatistics. This paper summarizes what has been learned during the past decade by using these technologies.

  6. Reinjection into geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Stefansson, V.

    1987-08-01

    Reinjection of geothermal wastewater is practiced as a means of disposal and for reservoir pressure support. Various aspects of reinjection are discussed, both in terms of theoretical studies as well as specific field examples. The discussion focuses on the major effects of reinjection, including pressure maintenance and chemical and thermal effects. (ACR)

  7. Effects of water-supply reservoirs on streamflow in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    spillage under average pumping conditions from 2000 to 2004.For sites with insufficient data to simulate daily water balances, a proxy method to estimate the three spillage metrics was developed. A series of 4,000 Monte Carlo simulations of the reservoir water balance were run. In each simulation, streamflow, physical reservoir characteristics, and daily climate inputs were randomly varied. Tobit regression equations that quantify the relation between streamflow alteration and physical and operational characteristics of reservoirs were developed from the results of the Monte Carlo simulations and can be used to estimate each of the three spillage metrics using only the withdrawal ratio and the ratio of the surface area to the drainage area, which are available statewide for all reservoirs.A graphical user-interface for the Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool was developed in a Microsoft Access environment. The simulation tool contains information for 70 reservoirs in Massachusetts and allows for simulation of additional scenarios than the ones considered in this report, including controlled releases, dam seepage and leakage, demand management plans, and alternative water withdrawal and transfer rules.

  8. 75 FR 6257 - Watts Bar Reservoir Land Management Plan, Loudon, Meigs, Rhea, and Roane Counties, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ...), Industrial (Zone 5), Developed Recreation (Zone 6), and Shoreline Access (Zone 7). The allocations were made... public land for management on Watts Bar Reservoir. At full pool, the reservoir shoreline length is 721 miles, and the surface area is about 39,000 acres. Approximately 47 percent of this shoreline is...

  9. 75 FR 77691 - Douglas and Nolichucky Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, in Cocke, Greene, Hamblen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...), Developed Recreation (Zone 6), and Shoreline Access (Zone 7). Allocations were made in a manner consistent... areas. A total of 597 miles of shoreline surrounds these reservoirs, but the portion of shoreline owned and managed by TVA differs greatly between them, with 19 of 36 miles of Nolichucky Reservoir...

  10. Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficken, W. H.; Schulien, H. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device supplies controlled amounts of lubricating oil to ball bearings during operation of the bearings. The dynamic reservoir lubricating device includes a rotating reservoir nut, a hollow cylinder filled with lubricating oil, flow restrictors and a ball bearing retainer.

  11. Central venous access.

    PubMed

    Ganeshan, Arul; Warakaulle, Dinuke R; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-01-01

    Central venous access plays an important role in the management of an ever-increasing population of patients ranging from those that are critically ill to patients with difficult clinical access. Interventional radiologists are key in delivering this service and should be familiar with the wide range of techniques and catheters now available to them. A comprehensive description of these catheters with regard to indications, technical aspects of catheterization, success rates, and associated early and late complications, as well as a review of various published guidelines on central venous catheter insertion are given in this article.

  12. Feasibility study of sedimentary enhanced geothermal systems using reservoir simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jae Kyoung

    investigated. Especially, water density, viscosity and rock heat capacity play a significant role in reservoir performance. The Permian Lyons formation in the Denver Basin is selected for this preliminary study. Well log data around the area of interest are collected and borehole temperature data are analyzed to estimate the geothermal potential of the target area and it follows that the target formation has a geothermal gradient as high as 72 °C/km. Based on the well log data, hypothetical reservoir simulation models are build and tested to access the hydraulic and thermal performance. It turns out that the target formation is marginally or sub-marginally commercial in terms of its formation conductivity. Therefore, the target formation may require reservoir stimulation for commercially viable power generation. Lastly, reservoir simulation models with average petrophysical properties obtained from the well log analysis of the target formation are built. In order to account for overburden and underburden heat transfer for confined reservoirs, low permeability layers representing shale cap/bed rocks are attached to the top and bottom of the reservoir layers. The dual permeability concept is applied to the reservoir layers to model induced fracture networks by reservoir stimulation. The simulation models are tested by changing fracture conductivity and shape factor. The results show that a balance between hydraulic and thermal performance should be achieved to meet the target flow rate and sustainability of 30 years' uninterrupted operation of geothermal electricity power generation. Ineffective reservoir stimulation could result in failing to create a producing reservoir with appropriate productivity index or causing premature thermal breakthrough or short-circuiting which advances the end of geothermal systems. Therefore, Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) should be engineered to secure producing performance and operational sustainability simultaneously.

  13. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum

  14. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  16. Multiscale Fractal Characterization of Hierarchical Heterogeneity in Sandstone Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Liu, Yuetian; Sun, Lu; Liu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Heterogeneities affecting reservoirs often develop at different scales. Previous studies have described these heterogeneities using different parameters depending on their size, and there is no one comprehensive method of reservoir evaluation that considers every scale. This paper introduces a multiscale fractal approach to quantify consistently the hierarchical heterogeneities of sandstone reservoirs. Materials taken from typical depositional pattern and aerial photography are used to represent three main types of sandstone reservoir: turbidite, braided, and meandering river system. Subsequent multiscale fractal dimension analysis using the Bouligand-Minkowski method characterizes well the hierarchical heterogeneity of the sandstone reservoirs. The multiscale fractal dimension provides a curve function that describes the heterogeneity at different scales. The heterogeneity of a reservoir’s internal structure decreases as the observational scale increases. The shape of a deposit’s facies is vital for quantitative determination of the sedimentation type, and thus enhanced oil recovery. Characterization of hierarchical heterogeneity by multiscale fractal dimension can assist reservoir evaluation, geological modeling, and even the design of well patterns.

  17. The comprehensive peptaibiotics database.

    PubMed

    Stoppacher, Norbert; Neumann, Nora K N; Burgstaller, Lukas; Zeilinger, Susanne; Degenkolb, Thomas; Brückner, Hans; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    Peptaibiotics are nonribosomally biosynthesized peptides, which - according to definition - contain the marker amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and possess antibiotic properties. Being known since 1958, a constantly increasing number of peptaibiotics have been described and investigated with a particular emphasis on hypocrealean fungi. Starting from the existing online 'Peptaibol Database', first published in 1997, an exhaustive literature survey of all known peptaibiotics was carried out and resulted in a list of 1043 peptaibiotics. The gathered information was compiled and used to create the new 'The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database', which is presented here. The database was devised as a software tool based on Microsoft (MS) Access. It is freely available from the internet at http://peptaibiotics-database.boku.ac.at and can easily be installed and operated on any computer offering a Windows XP/7 environment. It provides useful information on characteristic properties of the peptaibiotics included such as peptide category, group name of the microheterogeneous mixture to which the peptide belongs, amino acid sequence, sequence length, producing fungus, peptide subfamily, molecular formula, and monoisotopic mass. All these characteristics can be used and combined for automated search within the database, which makes The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database a versatile tool for the retrieval of valuable information about peptaibiotics. Sequence data have been considered as to December 14, 2012.

  18. Fractured petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, A.; Chang, E.; Tang, G.Q.

    2000-01-10

    Total compressibility in a fractured reservoir is estimated using the pressure response due to gravitational potential variations. Both the moon and the sun gravitational potentials are accounted for using the full expression by inclusion of longer-period components. The semi-diurnal and diurnal pressure data show substantial long-term variations. The gravitational potential also contains the same variation trend; the ratio between the potential and pressure has a fairly uniform value over successive cycles. The computed total compressibility is also fairly constant and independent of the cycle. Results show the effects of the time interval over which the pressure measurements are performed as well as the location.

  19. Calderas and magma reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, Katharine V.; Giordano, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Large caldera-forming eruptions have long been a focus of both petrological and volcanological studies; petrologists have used the eruptive products to probe conditions of magma storage (and thus processes that drive magma evolution), while volcanologists have used them to study the conditions under which large volumes of magma are transported to, and emplaced on, the Earth's surface. Traditionally, both groups have worked on the assumption that eruptible magma is stored within a single long-lived melt body. Over the past decade, however, advances in analytical techniques have provided new views of magma storage regions, many of which provide evidence of multiple melt lenses feeding a single eruption, and/or rapid pre-eruptive assembly of large volumes of melt. These new petrological views of magmatic systems have not yet been fully integrated into volcanological perspectives of caldera-forming eruptions. Here we explore the implications of complex magma reservoir configurations for eruption dynamics and caldera formation. We first examine mafic systems, where stacked-sill models have long been invoked but which rarely produce explosive eruptions. An exception is the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, where seismic and petrologic data show that multiple sills at different depths fed a multi-phase (explosive and effusive) eruption. Extension of this concept to larger mafic caldera-forming systems suggests a mechanism to explain many of their unusual features, including their protracted explosivity, spatially variable compositions and pronounced intra-eruptive pauses. We then review studies of more common intermediate and silicic caldera-forming systems to examine inferred conditions of magma storage, time scales of melt accumulation, eruption triggers, eruption dynamics and caldera collapse. By compiling data from large and small, and crystal-rich and crystal-poor, events, we compare eruptions that are well explained by simple evacuation of a zoned

  20. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  1. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  2. High resolution multi-facies realizations of sedimentary reservoir and aquifer analogs

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Peter; Comunian, Alessandro; Höyng, Dominik; Mariethoz, Gregoire

    2015-01-01

    Geological structures are by nature inaccessible to direct observation. This can cause difficulties in applications where a spatially explicit representation of such structures is required, in particular when modelling fluid migration in geological formations. An increasing trend in recent years has been to use analogs to palliate this lack of knowledge, i.e., exploiting the spatial information from sites where the geology is accessible (outcrops, quarry sites) and transferring the observed properties to a study site deemed geologically similar. While this approach is appealing, it is difficult to put in place because of the lack of access to well-documented analog data. In this paper we present comprehensive analog data sets which characterize sedimentary structures from important groundwater hosting formations in Germany and Brazil. Multiple 2-D outcrop faces are described in terms of hydraulic, thermal and chemical properties and interpolated in 3-D using stochastic techniques. These unique data sets can be used by the wider community to implement analog approaches for characterizing reservoir and aquifer formations. PMID:26175910

  3. All-optical reservoir computing.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Schneider, Bendix; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-09-24

    Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm that uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.

  4. Phenomenology of tremor-like signals observed over hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangel, S.; Schaepman, M. E.; Stoll, E. P.; Carniel, R.; Barzandji, O.; Rode, E.-D.; Singer, J. M.

    2003-11-01

    We have observed narrow-band, low-frequency (1.5-4 Hz, amplitude 0.01-10 μm/s) tremor signals on the surface over hydrocarbon reservoirs (oil, gas and water multiphase fluid systems in porous media) at currently 15 sites worldwide. These 'hydrocarbon tremors' possess remarkably similar spectral and signal structure characteristics, pointing to a common source mechanism, even though the depth (some hundreds to several thousands of meters), specific fluid content (oil, gas, gas condensate of different compositions and combinations) and reservoir rock type (such as sandstone, carbonates, etc.) for each of those sites are quite different. About half of the sites are fully explored or even developed and producing fields, and hard quantitative data on the reservoirs are available (well data, reservoir monitoring data, seismic surveys, etc.). The other areas are essentially either explored prospect areas where we did not have access to hard reservoir data or (in only one case) areas where no exploration wells have been drilled at all. The tremor signal itself was observed over ALL locations investigated so far. The signals weaken at the rim of the reservoirs and are not observed outside the reservoir area. There is a strong correlation of the tremor power with the thickness of the hydrocarbon-bearing layers ('pay zone thickness') determined by borehole log measurements. The overall correlation between surface tremor measurements and accessible subsurface well data is higher than 90%. The phenomenological comparison of hydrocarbon tremor signals with volcanic tremor signals from Stromboli and Arenal volcanoes using both conventional spectral analysis tools and non-linear dynamics methods reveals fundamental similarities between those two phenomena as well as their close relation to bandpass filtered noise. Nevertheless, the specific signal sources are expected to be different for volcanoes and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Using the currently available data we present possible

  5. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  6. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  7. Reservoir Modeling for Production Management

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Donald W.

    1989-03-21

    For both petroleum and geothermal resources, many of the reservoirs are fracture dominated--rather than matrix-permeability controlled. For such reservoirs, a knowledge of the pressure-dependent permeability of the interconnected system of natural joints (i.e., pre-existing fractures) is critical to the efficient exploitation of the resource through proper pressure management. Our experience and that reported by others indicates that a reduction in the reservoir pressure sometimes leads to an overall reduction in production rate due to the ''pinching off'' of the joint network, rather than the anticipated increase in production rate. This effect occurs not just in the vicinity of the wellbore, where proppants are sometimes employed, but throughout much of the reservoir region. This follows from the fact that under certain circumstances, the decline in fracture permeability (or conductivity) with decreasing reservoir pressure exceeds the far-field reservoir ''drainage'' flow rate increase due to the increased pressure gradient. Further, a knowledge of the pressure-dependent joint permeability could aid in designing more appropriate secondary recovery strategies in petroleum reservoirs or reinjection procedures for geothermal reservoirs.

  8. HEC Activities in Reservoir Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    June 1979. Now, HEC-5, "Simulation of Flood Con- trol and Conservation Systems," (9) is our primary reservoir simulation program. Since its June release...are being incorporated into the reservoir simulation model HEC-5. The objective is to provide a computer program and methodology for total water

  9. Reservoir shore development in long range terrestrial laser scanning monitoring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarek, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Shore zones of reservoirs are in most cases very active, getting transformed as a result of coastal processes and mass movements initiated on the slopes surrounding the reservoir. From the point of view of the users of water reservoirs shore recession strongly undesirable as it causes destruction to infrastructure and buildings located in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir. For this reason, reservoir shores require continuous geodetic monitoring. Fast and accurate geodetic measurements covering shore sections several kilometers long, often in poorly accessible areas, are available using long range terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The possibilities of using long range terrestrial laser scanning are shown on the example of the reservoir Jeziorsko on the Warta River (Central Poland). This reservoir, created in the years 1986-1992, is a typical retention reservoir, the annual fluctuations of which reach 5 m. Depending on the water level its surface area ranges from 42.3 to 19.6 km2. The width of the reservoir is 2.5 km. The total shore length of the reservoir, developed in Quaternary till and sand-till sediments, is 44.3 km, including 30.1 km of the unreinforced shore. Out of the unreinforced shore 27% is subject to coastal erosion. The cliff heights vary from a few cm to 12.5 meters, and the current rate of the cliff recession ranges from 0 to 1.12 m/y. The study used a terrestrial long range laser scanner Riegl VZ-4000 of a range of up to 4000 m. It enabled conducting the measurements of the cliff recession from the opposite shore of the reservoir, with an angular resolution of 0.002°, which gives about 50 measurement points per 1 m2. The measurements were carried out in the years 2014-2015, twice a year, in early spring before high water level, and in late autumn at a dropping water level. This allowed the separation of the impact of coastal processes and frost weathering on the cliff recession and their quantitative determination. The size and nature of

  10. Tertiary carbonate reservoirs in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Nayoan, G.A.S.; Arpandi; Siregar, M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbon production from Tertiary carbonate reservoirs accounted for ca. 10% of daily Indonesian production at the beginning of 1978. Environmentally, the reservoirs appear as parts of reef complexes and high-energy carbonate deposits within basinal areas situated mainly in the back arc of the archipelago. Good porosities of the reservoirs are represented by vugular/moldic and intergranular porosity types. The reservoirs are capable of producing prolific amounts of hydrocarbons: production tests in Salawati-Irian Jaya reaches maximum values of 32,000 bpd, and in Arun-North Sumatra tests recorded 200 MMCF gas/day. Significant hydrocarbon accumulations are related to good reservoir rocks in carbonates deposited as patch reefs, pinnacle reefs, and platform complexes. Exploration efforts expand continuously within carbonate formations which are extensive horizontally as well as vertically in the Tertiary stratigraphic column.

  11. Stochastic thermodynamics with information reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2014-10-01

    We generalize stochastic thermodynamics to include information reservoirs. Such information reservoirs, which can be modeled as a sequence of bits, modify the second law. For example, work extraction from a system in contact with a single heat bath becomes possible if the system also interacts with an information reservoir. We obtain an inequality, and the corresponding fluctuation theorem, generalizing the standard entropy production of stochastic thermodynamics. From this inequality we can derive an information processing entropy production, which gives the second law in the presence of information reservoirs. We also develop a systematic linear response theory for information processing machines. For a unicyclic machine powered by an information reservoir, the efficiency at maximum power can deviate from the standard value of 1 /2 . For the case where energy is consumed to erase the tape, the efficiency at maximum erasure rate is found to be 1 /2 .

  12. Meandering stream reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.G.; Sangree, J.B.; Sneider, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Braided stream deposits, described in a previous article in this series, and meandering stream deposits commonly are excellent reservoirs. Meandering high-sinuousity channels are found on flat alluvial plains with slopes less than 1 1/2/sup 0/ (0.026 rad). These rivers have wide ranges of discharges from low-water flow to flood stage. Two main processes are responsible for development of sand bodies. These are point-bar deposits left by channel migration, and oxbow-lake deposits left in loops of the river course abandoned when the stream cuts a new course during flooding. Extremely high floods spill over the banks and deposit sheets of very fine sand, silt, and clay onto the flood plain.

  13. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  14. Collapsible sheath fluid reservoirs for flow cytometers

    DOEpatents

    Mark, Graham A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a container in the form of a single housing for holding fluid, including a first collapsible reservoir having a first valve. The first reservoir initially contains a volume of fluid. The container also includes a second reservoir, initially empty (or substantially empty), expandable to a second volume. The second reservoir has a second valve. As the volume of said first reservoir decreases, the volume of the second reservoir proportionally increases.

  15. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  16. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  17. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim; Gilbert, Bob; Lake, Larry W.; Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Thomas, Sunil G.; Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo; Klie, Hector; Banchs, Rafael; Nunez, Emilio J.; Jablonowski, Chris

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  18. Data requirements and acquisition for reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, S.; Chang, Ming Ming; Tham, Min.

    1993-03-01

    This report outlines the types of data, data sources and measurement tools required for effective reservoir characterization, the data required for specific enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, and a discussion on the determination of the optimum data density for reservoir characterization and reservoir modeling. The two basic sources of data for reservoir characterization are data from the specific reservoir and data from analog reservoirs, outcrops, and modern environments. Reservoir data can be divided into three broad categories: (1) rock properties (the container) and (2) fluid properties (the contents) and (3)interaction between reservoir rock and fluid. Both static and dynamic measurements are required.

  19. Comprehensibility maximization and humanly comprehensible representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Ryotaro

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new information-theoretic method to measure the comprehensibility of network configurations in competitive learning. Comprehensibility is supposed to be measured by information contained in components in competitive networks. Thus, the increase in information corresponds to the increase in comprehensibility of network configurations. One of the most important characteristics of the method is that parameters can be explicitly determined so as to produce a state where the different types of comprehensibility can be mutually increased. We applied the method to two problems, namely an artificial data set and the ionosphere data from the well-known machine learning database. In both problems, we showed that improved performance could be obtained in terms of all types of comprehensibility and quantization errors. For the topographic errors, we found that updating connection weights prevented them from increasing. Then, the optimal values of comprehensibility could be explicitly determined, and clearer class boundaries were generated.

  20. Reservoir management strategy for East Randolph Field, Randolph Township, Portage County, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Safley, L.E.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.; Fowler, M.L.; Wing, J.L.; Thomas, J.B.; Mills, J.; Wood, D.

    1998-07-01

    The primary objective of the Reservoir Management Field Demonstration Program is to demonstrate that multidisciplinary reservoir management teams using appropriate software and methodologies with efforts scaled to the size of the resource are a cost-effective method for: Increasing current profitability of field operations; Forestalling abandonment of the reservoir; and Improving long-term economic recovery for the company. The primary objective of the Reservoir Management Demonstration Project with Belden and Blake Corporation is to develop a comprehensive reservoir management strategy to improve the operational economics and optimize oil production from East Randolph field, Randolph Township, Portage County, Ohio. This strategy identifies the viable improved recovery process options and defines related operational and facility requirements. In addition, strategies are addressed for field operation problems, such as paraffin buildup, hydraulic fracture stimulation, pumping system optimization, and production treatment requirements, with the goal of reducing operating costs and improving oil recovery.

  1. Landslide study at Sacele reservoir in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Ambrosi, Christian; Spataro, Alessio; Martin, James; Olgun, Guney

    2010-05-01

    Sacele reservoir is locate on the river Tàrlung, about 3 Km upstream from Sacele and about 12 Km from Brasov (Romania). It represents the main drinking water source for Brasov. The Sacele reservoir is recognized as a dam of exceptional importance and therefore it requires special surveillance. In the East side of the basin, in proximity of the barrage, the slope shows evidences of instability; for this reason stabilization works, mainly consisting in re-profiling the slope, and drainage installation, has been conducted without success. This study, financed by the World Bank, aims to provide important information for the estabilishment of an authomatic monitoring system able to reduce the existing risk. Conducted studies includes: - analysis of existing informations - data acquisition by mean of field survey (geodetical and gelogical) and in situ investigation (boreholes, geophisical, sample test) - developement of GIS based geological model - developement of landslide models based on FLAC and FLAC3D Finally the model results leading to the identification of the triggering factors are discussed. The conducted work is a comprehensive study (from data to models) that highligth some interesting conclusions showing how the "stabilization" works increased total displacements and shear strain, and produced a new deeper cinematic.

  2. Nutrition: a reservoir for integrative science.

    PubMed

    Zeisel, S H; Allen, L H; Coburn, S P; Erdman, J W; Failla, M L; Freake, H C; King, J C; Storch, J

    2001-04-01

    In the last twenty years, powerful new molecular techniques were introduced that made it possible to advance knowledge in human biology using a reductionist approach. Now, the need for scientists to deal with complexity should drive a movement toward an integrationist approach to science. We propose that nutritional science is one of the best reservoirs for this approach. The American Society for Nutritional Sciences can play an important role by developing and delivering a cogent message that convinces the scientific establishment that nutrition fills this valuable niche. The society must develop a comprehensive strategy to develop our image as the reservoir for life sciences integration. Our efforts can start with our national meeting and publications, with the research initiatives for which we advocate, with our graduate training programs and with the public relations image we project for ourselves. Defining the image and future directions of nutrition as the discipline that can integrate scientific knowledge from the cell and molecule to the whole body and beyond to populations can be the most important task that our society undertakes. If we do not effectively meet this challenge, a golden opportunity will pass to others and nutritional scientists will be left to follow them.

  3. How well will the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission observe global reservoirs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solander, Kurt C.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate observations of global reservoir storage are critical to understand the availability of managed water resources. By enabling estimates of surface water area and height for reservoir sizes exceeding 250 m2 at a maximum repeat orbit of up to 21 days, the NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission (anticipated launch date 2020) is expected to greatly improve upon existing reservoir monitoring capabilities. It is thus essential that spatial and temporal measurement uncertainty for water bodies is known a priori to maximize the utility of SWOT observations as the data are acquired. In this study, we evaluate SWOT reservoir observations using a three-pronged approach that assesses temporal aliasing, errors due to specific reservoir spatial properties, and SWOT performance over actual reservoirs using a combination of in situ and simulated reservoir observations from the SWOTsim instrument simulator. Results indicate temporal errors to be less than 5% for the smallest reservoir sizes (< 10 km2) with errors less than 0.1% for larger sizes (>100 km2). Surface area and height errors were found to be minimal (area <5%, height <15 cm) above 1 km2 unless the reservoir exhibited a strong elliptical shape with high aspect ratio oriented parallel to orbit, was set in mountainous terrain, or swath coverage fell below 30%. Experiments from six real reservoir test cases generally support these results. By providing a comprehensive blueprint on the observability of reservoirs from SWOT, this study will be have important implications for future applications of SWOT reservoir measurements in global monitoring systems and models.

  4. Application of reservoir management and reservoir simulation to monitor and improve the performance of the M4/7/N1 reservoirs in the Samarang field, offshore Sabah, East Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Baxendale, D.

    1995-10-01

    The Samarang field was discovered in 1972, offshore southwest Sabah, East Malaysia. The field was declared commercial in 1974, and first production commenced in 1975. The M4/7/N1 cluster of reservoirs is one of the main groups of reservoirs in the Samarang field, containing some 23% of the field`s expected ultimate recovery. The observed basal/edge natural water drive and the gascap expansion drive are expected to recover about 50% of the M4/7/N1`s original oil in-place. However, the combined drive was not anticipated to fully sweep the reservoir. Hence, the need for a field wide review of the reservoir. To actively manage the remaining hydrocarbon resource a detailed 3D full field simulation project was initiated. A comprehensive geological study of the M4/7/N1 reservoirs was first conducted to formulate the geological input to the simulation model. The model was validated by history matching the reservoir`s seventeen years of production data. This model was then used to actively manage the hydrocarbon resource base by: predicting future oil recovery under various development options, locating potential infill well locations, and by optimizing the reservoir management strategy. Reservoir management of this mature field through the utilization of reservoir simulation tools, has helped to maximize hydrocarbon recovery by determining the optimum depletion strategy with respect to the remaining hydrocarbon resource. Future infill drilling locations have been identified and the results from the model have been used to support the operator`s development strategy for the pool.

  5. Comprehensible Presentation of Topological Information

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Gunther H.; Beketayev, Kenes; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Hamann, Bernd; Haranczyk, Maciej; Hlawitschka, Mario; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-03-05

    Topological information has proven very valuable in the analysis of scientific data. An important challenge that remains is presenting this highly abstract information in a way that it is comprehensible even if one does not have an in-depth background in topology. Furthermore, it is often desirable to combine the structural insight gained by topological analysis with complementary information, such as geometric information. We present an overview over methods that use metaphors to make topological information more accessible to non-expert users, and we demonstrate their applicability to a range of scientific data sets. With the increasingly complex output of exascale simulations, the importance of having effective means of providing a comprehensible, abstract overview over data will grow. The techniques that we present will serve as an important foundation for this purpose.

  6. Comprehension of Discourse Markers and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    According to many research findings, the presence of discourse markers (DMs) enhances readers' comprehension of the texts they read. However, there is a paucity of research on the relationship between knowledge of DMs and reading comprehension (RC) and the present study explores the relationship between them. Knowledge of DMs is measured through…

  7. Cascade Reservoirs Floodwater Resources Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A reasonable floodwater resources utilization method is put forward by dynamic controlling of cascade reservoirs flood control limited level in this paper. According to the probability distribution of the beginning time of the first flood and the ending time of the final flood from July to September, the Fuzzy Statistic Analysis was used to divide the main flood season. By fitting the flood season membership functions of each period, the cascade reservoirs flood control limited water level for each period were computed according to the characteristic data of reservoirs. In terms of the benefit maximization and risk minimum principle, the reasonable combination of flood control limited water level of cascade reservoirs was put forward.

  8. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-03-03

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers.

  9. Reservoir evaporation in Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Ayala, Rolando A.

    2014-03-01

    The role of reservoir surface evaporation in river/reservoir water budgets and water management is explored using a modeling system that combines historical natural hydrology with current conditions of water resources development and management. The long-term mean evaporation from the 3415 reservoirs in the Texas water rights permit system is estimated to be 7.53 billion m3/year, which is equivalent to 61% of total agricultural or 126% of total municipal water use in the state during the year 2010. Evaporation varies with the hydrologic conditions governing reservoir surface areas and evaporation rates. Annual statewide total evaporation volumes associated with exceedance probabilities of 75%, 50%, and 25% are 7.07, 7.47, and 7.95 billion m3/year, respectively. Impacts of evaporation are greatest during extended severe droughts that govern water supply capabilities.

  10. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    PubMed Central

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers. PMID:26935166

  11. Functional wettability in carbonate reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, Patrick V.; Thyne, Geoffrey

    2016-10-11

    Oil adsorbs to carbonate reservoirs indirectly through a relatively thick separating water layer, and directly to the surface through a relatively thin intervening water layer. Whereas directly sorbed oil desorbs slowly and incompletely in response to changes in reservoir conditions, indirectly sorbed oil can be rapidly desorbed by changing the chemistry of the separating water layer. The additional recovery might be as much as 30% original oil in place (OOIP) above the ~30% OOIP recovered from carbonates through reservoir depressurization (primary production) and viscous displacement (waterflooding). Electrostatic adhesive forces are the dominant control over carbonate reservoir wettability. A surface complexationmore » model that quantifies electrostatic adhesion accurately predicts oil recovery trends for carbonates. Furthermore, the approach should therefore be useful for estimating initial wettability and designing fluids that improve oil recovery.« less

  12. Functional wettability in carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick V.; Thyne, Geoffrey

    2016-10-11

    Oil adsorbs to carbonate reservoirs indirectly through a relatively thick separating water layer, and directly to the surface through a relatively thin intervening water layer. Whereas directly sorbed oil desorbs slowly and incompletely in response to changes in reservoir conditions, indirectly sorbed oil can be rapidly desorbed by changing the chemistry of the separating water layer. The additional recovery might be as much as 30% original oil in place (OOIP) above the ~30% OOIP recovered from carbonates through reservoir depressurization (primary production) and viscous displacement (waterflooding). Electrostatic adhesive forces are the dominant control over carbonate reservoir wettability. A surface complexation model that quantifies electrostatic adhesion accurately predicts oil recovery trends for carbonates. Furthermore, the approach should therefore be useful for estimating initial wettability and designing fluids that improve oil recovery.

  13. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  14. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  15. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  16. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  17. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reservoirs required. 393.50 Section 393.50... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.50 Reservoirs required. (a) Reservoir capacity for air-braked... trailers manufactured on or after January 1, 1975, must meet the reservoir requirements of FMVSS No....

  18. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  19. SMALL, GEOLOGICALLY COMPLEX RESERVOIRS CAN BENEFIT FROM RESERVOIR SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Bennett

    2002-06-24

    The Cascade Sand zone of the Mission-Visco Lease in the Cascade Oil field of Los Angeles County, California, has been under water flood since 1970. Increasing water injection to increase oil production rates was being considered as an opportunity to improve oil recovery. However, a secondary gas cap had formed in the up-dip portion of the reservoir with very low gas cap pressures, creating concern that oil could be displaced into the gas cap resulting in the loss of recoverable oil. Therefore, injecting gas into the gas cap to keep the gas cap pressurized and restrict the influx of oil during water injection was also being considered. Further, it was recognized that the reservoir geology in the gas cap area is very complex with numerous folding and faulting and thus there are potential pressure barriers in several locations throughout the reservoir. With these conditions in mind, there were concerns regarding well to well continuity in the gas cap, which could interfere with the intended repressurization impact. Concerns about the pattern of gas flow from well to well, the possibilities of cycling gas without the desired increased pressure, and the possible loss of oil displaced into the gas cap resulted in the decision to conduct a gas tracer survey in an attempt to better define inter-well communication. Following the gas tracer survey, a reservoir model would be developed to integrate the findings of the gas tracer survey, known geologic and reservoir data, and historic production data. The reservoir model would be used to better define the reservoir characteristics and provide information that could help optimize the waterflood-gas injection project under consideration for efficient water and gas injection management to increase oil production. However, due to inadequate gas sampling procedures in the field and insufficiently developed laboratory analytical techniques, the laboratory was unable to detect the tracer in the gas samples taken. At that point, focus

  20. Petroleum reservoir data for testing simulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.

    1980-09-01

    This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.

  1. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  2. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  3. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  4. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  5. A reservoir management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Allis, R.G.

    1989-06-16

    There are numerous documented cases of extraction of fluids from the ground causing surface subsidence. The cases include groundwater, oil and gas, as well as geothermal fluid withdrawal. A recent comprehensive review of all types of man-induced land subsidence was published by the Geological Survey of America. At the early stages of a geothermal power development project it is standard practice in most countries for an environmental impact report to be required. The possibility of geothermal subsidence has to be addressed, and usually it falls on the geophysicists and/or geologists to make some predictions. The advice given is vital for planning the power plant location and the borefield pipe and drain layout. It is not so much the vertical settlement that occurs with subsidence but the accompanying horizontal ground strains that can do the most damage to any man-made structure.

  6. Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Maria Cecilia Bravo

    2006-06-30

    This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. These dependencies are investigated by identifying the main transport mechanisms at the pore scale that should affect fluids flow at the reservoir scale. A critical review of commercial reservoir simulators, used to predict tight sand gas reservoir, revealed that many are poor when used to model fluid flow through tight reservoirs. Conventional simulators ignore altogether or model incorrectly certain phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization. We studied the effect of Knudsen's number in Klinkenberg's equation and evaluated the effect of different flow regimes on Klinkenberg's parameter b. We developed a model capable of explaining the pressure dependence of this parameter that has been experimentally observed, but not explained in the conventional formalisms. We demonstrated the relevance of this, so far ignored effect, in tight sands reservoir modeling. A 2-D numerical simulator based on equations that capture the above mentioned phenomena was developed. Dynamic implications of new equations are comprehensively discussed in our work and their relative contribution to the flow rate is evaluated. We performed several simulation sensitivity studies that evidenced that, in general terms, our formalism should be implemented in order to get more reliable tight sands gas reservoirs' predictions.

  7. Monitoring Reservoirs Using MERIS And LANDSAT Fused Images : A Case Study Of Polyfitos Reservoir - West Macedonia - Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefouli, M.; Charou, E.; Vasileiou, E.; Stathopoulos, N.; Perrakis, A.

    2012-04-01

    Research and monitoring is essential to assess baseline conditions in reservoirs and their watershed and provide necessary information to guide decision-makers. Erosion and degradation of mountainous areas can lead to gradual aggradation of reservoirs reducing their lifetime. Collected measurements and observations have to be communicated to the managers of the reservoirs so as to achieve a common / comprehensive management of a large watershed and reservoir system. At this point Remote Sensing could help as the remotely sensed data are repeatedly and readily available to the end users. Aliakmon is the longest river in Greece, it's length is about 297 km and the surface of the river basin is 9.210 km2.The flow of the river starts from Northwest of Greece and ends in Thermaikos Gulf. The riverbed is not natural throughout the entire route, because constructed dams restrict water and create artificial lakes, such as lake of Polyfitos, that prevent flooding. This lake is used as reservoir, for covering irrigational water needs and the water is used to produce energy from the hydroelectric plant of Public Power Corporation-PPC. The catchment basin of Polyfitos' reservoir covers an area of 847.76 km2. Soil erosion - degradation in the mountainous watershed of streams of Polyfitos reservoir is taking place. It has been estimated that an annual volume of sediments reaching the reservoir is of the order of 244 m3. Geomatic based techniques are used in processing multiple data of the study area. A data inventory was formulated after the acquisition of topographic maps, compilation of geological and hydro-geological maps, compilation of digital elevation model for the area of interest based on satellite data and available maps. It also includes the acquisition of various hydro-meteorological data when available. On the basis of available maps and satellite data, digital elevation models are used in order to delineate the basic sub-catchments of the Polyfytos basin as well as

  8. Comprehension Before Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    Examines Frank Smith's analysis of the reading process with respect to comprehension, specifically, his assertion that during the reading process, comprehension of meaning precedes word identification. Discusses the implications of Smith's analysis for the teaching of reading. (JM)

  9. New access to the deep interior of the Nankai accretionary complex and comprehensive characterization of subduction inputs and recent mega splay fault activity (IODP-NanTroSEIZE Expedition 338)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, Michael; Moore, Gregory F.; Kanagawa, Kyuichi; Dugan, Brandon; Fabbri, Olivier; Toczko, Sean; Maeda, Lena

    2013-04-01

    The Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) is a coordinated, multi-expedition Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) drilling project designed to investigate fault mechanics and seismogenesis along subduction megathrusts through direct sampling, in situ measurements, and long-term monitoring in conjunction with allied laboratory and numerical modeling studies. IODP Expedition 338 (1 October 2012 - 13 January 2013), extended riser Hole C0002F from 856 meters below the sea floor (mbsf) to 2005 mbsf. Site C0002 is the centerpiece of the NanTroSEIZE project, and is planned to be deepened to eventually reach the seismogenic fault zone during upcoming drilling expeditions. The original Exp. 338 operational plan to case the hole to 3600 mbsf had to be revised as sudden changes in sea conditions resulted in damage to parts of the riser system, thus the hole was suspended at 2005 mbsf but left for future re-entry. The revised operation plan included additional riserless logging and coring of key targets not sampled during previous NanTroSEIZE expeditions, but relevant to comprehensively characterize the alteration stage of the oceanic basement input to the subduction zone, the early stage of Kumano Basin evolution and the recent activity of the shallow mega splay fault zone system and submarine landslides. Here we present preliminary results from IODP Exp. 338: Logging While Drilling (LWD), mud gas monitoring and analysis on cuttings from the deep riser hole characterize two lithological units within the internal accretionary prism, separated by a prominent fault zone at ~1640 mbsf. Internal style of deformation, downhole increase of thermogenically formed formation gas and evidence for mechanical compaction and cementation document a complex structural evolution and provide unprecedented insights into the mechanical state and behavior of the wedge at depth. Additionally, multiple samples of the unconformity between the Kumano Basin and accretionary prism

  10. Modeling of reservoir operation in UNH global hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, Alexander; Prusevich, Alexander; Frolking, Steve; Glidden, Stanley; Lammers, Richard; Wisser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Climate is changing and river flow is an integrated characteristic reflecting numerous environmental processes and their changes aggregated over large areas. Anthropogenic impacts on the river flow, however, can significantly exceed the changes associated with climate variability. Besides of irrigation, reservoirs and dams are one of major anthropogenic factor affecting streamflow. They distort hydrological regime of many rivers by trapping of freshwater runoff, modifying timing of river discharge and increasing the evaporation rate. Thus, reservoirs is an integral part of the global hydrological system and their impacts on rivers have to be taken into account for better quantification and understanding of hydrological changes. We developed a new technique, which was incorporated into WBM-TrANS model (Water Balance Model-Transport from Anthropogenic and Natural Systems) to simulate river routing through large reservoirs and natural lakes based on information available from freely accessible databases such as GRanD (the Global Reservoir and Dam database) or NID (National Inventory of Dams for US). Different formulations were applied for unregulated spillway dams and lakes, and for 4 types of regulated reservoirs, which were subdivided based on main purpose including generic (multipurpose), hydropower generation, irrigation and water supply, and flood control. We also incorporated rules for reservoir fill up and draining at the times of construction and decommission based on available data. The model were tested for many reservoirs of different size and types located in various climatic conditions using several gridded meteorological data sets as model input and observed daily and monthly discharge data from GRDC (Global Runoff Data Center), USGS Water Data (US Geological Survey), and UNH archives. The best results with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient in the range of 0.5-0.9 were obtained for temperate zone of Northern Hemisphere where most of large

  11. Development of a national, dynamic reservoir-sedimentation database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J.R.; Bernard, J.M.; Stewart, D.W.; McFaul, E.J.; Laurent, K.W.; Schwarz, G.E.; Stinson, J.T.; Jonas, M.M.; Randle, T.J.; Webb, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of dependable, long-term water supplies, coupled with the need to quantify rates of capacity loss of the Nation’s re servoirs due to sediment deposition, were the most compelling reasons for developing the REServoir- SEDimentation survey information (RESSED) database and website. Created under the auspices of the Advisory Committee on Water Information’s Subcommittee on Sedimenta ion by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Natural Resources Conservation Service, the RESSED database is the most comprehensive compilation of data from reservoir bathymetric and dry-basin surveys in the United States. As of March 2010, the database, which contains data compiled on the 1950s vintage Soil Conservation Service’s Form SCS-34 data sheets, contained results from 6,616 surveys on 1,823 reservoirs in the United States and two surveys on one reservoir in Puerto Rico. The data span the period 1755–1997, with 95 percent of the surveys performed from 1930–1990. The reservoir surface areas range from sub-hectare-scale farm ponds to 658 km2 Lake Powell. The data in the RESSED database can be useful for a number of purposes, including calculating changes in reservoir-storage characteristics, quantifying sediment budgets, and estimating erosion rates in a reservoir’s watershed. The March 2010 version of the RESSED database has a number of deficiencies, including a cryptic and out-of-date database architecture; some geospatial inaccuracies (although most have been corrected); other data errors; an inability to store all data in a readily retrievable manner; and an inability to store all data types that currently exist. Perhaps most importantly, the March 2010 version of RESSED database provides no publically available means to submit new data and corrections to existing data. To address these and other deficiencies, the Subcommittee on Sedimentation, through the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, began a collaborative project in

  12. The Ogden Valley artesian reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1945-01-01

    Ogden Valley, in Weber County, Utah, contains an artesian reservoir from which the city of Ogden obtains all except a small part of its municipal water supply. A detailed investigation of the ground-water resources of Ogden Valley, and particularly of this artesian reservoir, was made by the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, in cooperation with the city of Ogden between 1932 and 1934, and the results of this investigation have been reported by Leggette and Taylor.1 The present paper, which might be termed a sequel to that report, is based on data collected during those years, augmented by records that have been obtained (1935-1940) by the Geological Survey as part of a State-wide project in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer. The conclusions drawn from the study of these records and presented in detail in the following pages are as follows: (1) The artesian reservoir is filled to capacity nearly every year during the spring run-off from melting snow; (2) after the annual freshet, the recharge to the reservoir is insufficient to balance the discharge from artesian wells, which ordinarily is at a maximum during the summer; the reservoir is depleted and is not filled again until the following spring; (3) during the periods when the artesian reservoir is not full the rate of recharge is more or less proportional to the inflow to the valley by streams, except that rain on the recharge area may be of sufficient intensity to contribute some water by infiltration and deep penetration; and (4) the artesian reservoir thus serves to store water that would otherwise be lost to Great Salt Lake in the excess spring overflow, and available records indicate that water used by increased draft from wells would be replenished in normal years by increased recharge during the spring freshet.

  13. Comprehension of Connected Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosberg, Ludwig; Shima, Fred

    A rationale was developed for researching reading comprehension based on information gain. Previous definitions of comprehension which were reviewed included operational vs. nonoperational and skills vs. processes. Comprehension was viewed as an informational processing event which includes a constellation of cognitive and learning processes. Two…

  14. Comprehensions and Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, Alexander H.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that second-language reading comprehension and its assessment can be usefully divided into two aspects: (1) comprehensions (different levels of comprehension the reader adopts to suit different purposes of reading); and (2) interpretations (different readings of the same text resulting from different background knowledge or preoccupations…

  15. Making the Comprehensive High School Comprehensive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midjaas, Carl Larsen

    1975-01-01

    Three occupational labs (child care, graphic arts, and food service) are featured as examples of vocational facilities in a new comprehensive high school in Troy, Michigan. The article stresses the planning that went into the project's development. (BP)

  16. History of vascular access.

    PubMed

    Dudrick, Stanley J

    2006-01-01

    Milestones in the history of the development of vascular access and the subsequent advances in practical clinical applications of the knowledge, techniques, technology, and experience to the beneficial management of a variety of patients are described. The original achievements are presented and briefly discussed primarily, but not exclusively, in relationship to the successful development of parenteral nutrition (PN). Beginning with the discovery of the circulation of blood, landmark events, resulting from astute observations, experimentation, and ingenious technological advances, are summarized or outlined chronologically over the past 4 centuries, with emphasis on the many recent accomplishments of basic and clinical scientists during the past 6 decades. Brief descriptions of several seminal contributions to safe and effective IV access, management, and therapy acknowledge and recognize the historical highlights that have allowed a complex and potentially hazardous therapeutic modality to evolve into a commonly applied useful adjunct to our current inpatient and outpatient armamentarium. A comprehensive list of references documents the highlights of the development of vascular access for the student of history.

  17. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan Kelkar

    2005-02-01

    Hunton formation in Oklahoma has displayed some unique production characteristics. These include high initial water-oil and gas-oil ratios, decline in those ratios over time and temporary increase in gas-oil ratio during pressure build up. The formation also displays highly complex geology, but surprising hydrodynamic continuity. This report addresses three key issues related specifically to West Carney Hunton field and, in general, to any other Hunton formation exhibiting similar behavior: (1) What is the primary mechanism by which oil and gas is produced from the field? (2) How can the knowledge gained from studying the existing fields can be extended to other fields which have the potential to produce? (3) What can be done to improve the performance of this reservoir? We have developed a comprehensive model to explain the behavior of the reservoir. By using available production, geological, core and log data, we are able to develop a reservoir model which explains the production behavior in the reservoir. Using easily available information, such as log data, we have established the parameters needed for a field to be economically successful. We provide guidelines in terms of what to look for in a new field and how to develop it. Finally, through laboratory experiments, we show that surfactants can be used to improve the hydrocarbons recovery from the field. In addition, injection of CO{sub 2} or natural gas also will help us recover additional oil from the field.

  18. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  19. Communicative Literacy Pedagogy: Engaging EAL Students in Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms reading comprehension is essential for students to access all areas of the curriculum. For English as an Additional Language (EAL) students, research has identified the need to combine literacy strategies with second language principles to scaffold students' comprehension of text. To illustrate…

  20. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis ...

  1. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  2. Application of Integrated Reservoir management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    B. Pregger; D. Davies; D. Moore; G. Freeman; J. Callard; J.W. Nevans; L. Doublet; R. Vessell; T. Blasingame

    1997-08-31

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  3. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-12

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  4. A chemical EOR benchmark study of different reservoir simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Ali; Delshad, Mojdeh; Sepehrnoori, Kamy

    2016-09-01

    Interest in chemical EOR processes has intensified in recent years due to the advancements in chemical formulations and injection techniques. Injecting Polymer (P), surfactant/polymer (SP), and alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) are techniques for improving sweep and displacement efficiencies with the aim of improving oil production in both secondary and tertiary floods. There has been great interest in chemical flooding recently for different challenging situations. These include high temperature reservoirs, formations with extreme salinity and hardness, naturally fractured carbonates, and sandstone reservoirs with heavy and viscous crude oils. More oil reservoirs are reaching maturity where secondary polymer floods and tertiary surfactant methods have become increasingly important. This significance has added to the industry's interest in using reservoir simulators as tools for reservoir evaluation and management to minimize costs and increase the process efficiency. Reservoir simulators with special features are needed to represent coupled chemical and physical processes present in chemical EOR processes. The simulators need to be first validated against well controlled lab and pilot scale experiments to reliably predict the full field implementations. The available data from laboratory scale include 1) phase behavior and rheological data; and 2) results of secondary and tertiary coreflood experiments for P, SP, and ASP floods under reservoir conditions, i.e. chemical retentions, pressure drop, and oil recovery. Data collected from corefloods are used as benchmark tests comparing numerical reservoir simulators with chemical EOR modeling capabilities such as STARS of CMG, ECLIPSE-100 of Schlumberger, REVEAL of Petroleum Experts. The research UTCHEM simulator from The University of Texas at Austin is also included since it has been the benchmark for chemical flooding simulation for over 25 years. The results of this benchmark comparison will be utilized to improve

  5. A Service Approach to Providing Off-Campus Internet Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Austin

    1997-01-01

    The University of California, Berkeley addressed the high demand for computer network access and the need for off-campus Internet access by developing and distributing a comprehensive software and service package for open access and by establishing a partnership with a commercial Internet service provider to gain pricing advantage and…

  6. Seismic monitoring of heavy oil reservoirs: Rock physics and finite element modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theune, Ulrich

    In the past decades, remote monitoring of subsurface processes has attracted increasing attention in geophysics. With repeated geophysical surveys one attempts to detect changes in the physical properties in the underground without directly accessing the earth. This technique has been proven to be very valuable for monitoring enhanced oil recovery programs. This thesis presents an modelling approach for the feasibility analysis for monitoring of a thermal enhanced oil recovery technique applied to heavy oil reservoirs in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. In order to produce heavy oil from shallow reservoirs thermal oil recovery techniques such as the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are often employed. As these techniques are expensive and technically challenging, early detection of operational problems is without doubt of great value. However, the feasibility of geophysical monitoring depends on many factors such as the changes in the rock physical properties of the target reservoir. In order to access the feasibility of seismic monitoring for heavy oil reservoirs, a fluid-substitutional rock physical study has been carried out to simulate the steam injection. The second modelling approach is based on a modified finite element algorithm to simulate the propagation of elastic waves in the earth, which has been developed independently in the framework of this thesis. The work summarized in this thesis shows a possibility to access the feasibility of seismic monitoring for heavy oil reservoirs through an extensive rock-physical study. Seismic monitoring is a useful tool in reservoir management decision process. However, the work reported here suggests that seismic monitoring of SAGD processes in the heavy oil reservoirs of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin is only feasible in shallow, unconsolidated deposits. For deeper, but otherwise geological similar reservoirs, the SAGD does not create a sufficient change in the rock physical properties to be

  7. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    P. K. Pande

    1998-10-29

    Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency

  8. A Comprehensive Literature Review of Comprehension Strategies in Core Content Areas for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Victoria F.; Sartini, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Understanding text can increase access to educational, vocational, and recreational activities for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, limited research has been conducted investigating instructional practices to remediate or compensate for these comprehension challenges. The current comprehensive literature review expanded…

  9. Reservoir Fracturing in the Geysers Hydrothermal System: Fact or Fallacy?

    SciTech Connect

    Hebein, Jeffrey J.

    1986-01-21

    Proper application of proven worldwide fracture determination analyses adequately aids in the detection and enhanced exploitation of reservoir fractures in The Geysers steam field. Obsolete, superficial ideas concerning fracturing in this resource have guided various malformed judgements of the actual elusive trends. Utilizing regional/local tectonics with theoretical rack mechanics and drilling statistics, offers the most favorable method of fracture comprehension. Exploitation philosophies should favor lateral drilling trends along local tensional components and under specific profound drainage/faulting manifestations to enhance high productivities. Drill core observations demonstrate various degrees of fracture filling, brecciation, strain responses, and rock fracture properties, giving the most favorable impression of subsurface reservoir conditions. Considerably more work utilizing current fracturing principles and geologic thought is required to adequately comprehend and economically exploit this huge complex resource.

  10. 18 CFR 1304.207 - Channel excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Channel excavation on... excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland. (a) Excavation of individual boat channels shall be... reservoir drawdown periods. (g) Channel excavations must be accomplished during the reservoir drawdown...

  11. An R package for the design, analysis and operation of reservoir systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Sean; Ng, Jia Yi; Galelli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    We present a new R package - named "reservoir" - which has been designed for rapid and easy routing of runoff through storage. The package comprises well-established tools for capacity design (e.g., the sequent peak algorithm), performance analysis (storage-yield-reliability and reliability-resilience-vulnerability analysis) and release policy optimization (Stochastic Dynamic Programming). Operating rules can be optimized for water supply, flood control and amenity objectives, as well as for maximum hydropower production. Storage-depth-area relationships are in-built, allowing users to incorporate evaporation from the reservoir surface. We demonstrate the capabilities of the software for global studies using thousands of reservoirs from the Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database fed by historical monthly inflow time series from a 0.5 degree gridded global runoff dataset. The package is freely available through the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN).

  12. Quantification of geologic descriptions for reservoir characterization in carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, F.J.; Vander Stoep, G.W. )

    1990-05-01

    Recognition that a large volume of oil remains in carbonate reservoirs at the end of primary depletion and waterflooding has prompted the reevaluation of the reserve-growth potential of many existing carbonate reservoirs. Types of numerical data required include porosity, absolute permeability, relative permeability, fluid saturation, and capillary pressure, all of which are related to the size and distribution of pore space. Rock fabrics control the size and distribution of pore space and define facies that best characterize carbonate reservoirs. Thus, the link between facies descriptions and numerical engineering data is the relationship between pore-size distribution and present carbonate rock fabric. The most effective way to convert facies descriptions into engineering parameters is by considering three basic rock-fabric categories. The first category is interparticle pore space (both intergranular and intercrystalline pore types) with pore-size distribution controlled primarily by the size and shape of grains or crystals. Grain or crystal size is the key geologic measurement and, along with porosity, provides the basis for converting geologic descriptions into values for permeability, saturation, and capillarity. The second category is separate-vug pore space, such as moldic or intraparticle pore space. Separate-vug pore space adds porosity but little permeability to the reservoir rock. The contribution to saturation and capillarity depends upon the size of the separate-vug pore space. For example, moldic separate vugs will be saturated with oil, whereas microporous grains will be saturated with water. The third category is touching-vug pore space, which is vuggy pore space that is interconnected on a reservoir scale. The engineering parameters for this category are related to three diagenetic and tectonic factors.

  13. Unconventional Reservoirs: Ideas to Commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.

  14. Prevention of Reservoir Interior Discoloration

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, K.F.

    2001-04-03

    Contamination is anathema in reservoir production. Some of the contamination is a result of welding and some appears after welding but existed before. Oxygen was documented to be a major contributor to discoloration in welding. This study demonstrates that it can be controlled and that some of the informal cleaning processes contribute to contamination.

  15. Comprehensive Health Education Standards (Including Physical Activity Standards). Comprehensive Health Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    Arizona's comprehensive health education standards begins with a health rationale for each standard, then details the seven standards: (1) students comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention; (2) students demonstrate the ability to access accurate health information; (3) students demonstrate the ability to practice…

  16. The Properties of Chondrocyte Membrane Reservoirs and Their Role in Impact-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Moo, Eng Kuan; Amrein, Matthias; Epstein, Marcelo; Duvall, Mike; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Herzog, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Impact loading of articular cartilage causes extensive chondrocyte death. Cell membranes have a limited elastic range of 3–4% strain but are protected from direct stretch during physiological loading by their membrane reservoir, an intricate pattern of membrane folds. Using a finite-element model, we suggested previously that access to the membrane reservoir is strain-rate-dependent and that during impact loading, the accessible membrane reservoir is drastically decreased, so that strains applied to chondrocytes are directly transferred to cell membranes, which fail when strains exceed 3–4%. However, experimental support for this proposal is lacking. The purpose of this study was to measure the accessible membrane reservoir size for different membrane strain rates using membrane tethering techniques with atomic force microscopy. We conducted atomic force spectroscopy on isolated chondrocytes (n = 87). A micron-sized cantilever was used to extract membrane tethers from cell surfaces at constant pulling rates. Membrane tethers could be identified as force plateaus in the resulting force-displacement curves. Six pulling rates were tested (1, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μm/s). The size of the membrane reservoir, represented by the membrane tether surface areas, decreased exponentially with increasing pulling rates. The current results support our theoretical findings that chondrocytes exposed to impact loading die because of membrane ruptures caused by high tensile membrane strain rates. PMID:24094400

  17. Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr; Martin J. Blunt

    1998-03-31

    This project performs research in four main areas: laboratory experiments to measure three-phase relative permeability; network modeling to predict three-phase relative perme- ability; benchmark simulations of gas injection and waterfl ooding at the field scale; and the development of fast streamline techniques to study field-scale oil. The aim of the work is to achieve a comprehensive description of gas injection processes from the pore to the core to the reservoir scale. In this report we provide a detailed description of our measurements of three-phase relative permeability.

  18. Retraction of "The influence of mood on attribution," "Affects of the unexpected: When inconsistency feels good (or bad)," "Why people stereotype affects how they stereotype: The differential influence of comprehension goals and self-enhancement goals on stereotyping," "Silence and table manners: When environments activate norms," and "Event accessibility and context effects in causal inference: Judgment of a different order".

    PubMed

    2012-10-01

    The following five articles have been retracted from Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, and the Editor and the publisher of the journal: Avramova, Y.R., Stapel, D.A. & Lerouge, D. (2010). The influence of mood on attribution. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1360-1371. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167210381083) Noordewier, M.K., & Stapel, D.A. (2010). Affects of the unexpected: When inconsistency feels good (or bad). Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 642-654. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167209357746 ) Van den Bos, A., & Stapel, D.A. (2009). Why people stereotype affects how they stereotype: The differential influence of comprehension goals and self-enhancement goals on stereotyping. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(1), 101-113 (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167208325773) Joly, J.F., Stapel, D.A., & Lindenberg, S.M. (2008). Silence and table manners: When environments activate norms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(8), 1047-1056 (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167208318401) Stapel, D. A., & Spears, R. (1996). Event accessibility and context effects in causal inference: Judgment of a different order. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 979-992. (Original DOI: 10.1177/01461672962210001).

  19. ERTS-1 study of reservoirs in Kansas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; James, G. W.; Magnuson, L. M.; Coiner, J. C.; Mccauley, J. R.; Marzolf, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Single pass coverage over Cedar Bluff, Webster, Tuttle Creek, Milford, and Council Groves reservoirs is analyzed. The long-range goal of the study is to test the feasibility of monitoring reservoirs by satellite. It is hoped that results may eventually help to optimize reservoir management for use in flood control, agriculture, urban areas, and recreation. ERTS-1 imagery promises to be a very useful tool for studying reservoir turbidity patterns. Initial coverage indicates a strong qualitative correlation between film density and turbidity.

  20. Reservoir System Analysis for Water Quality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    reservoirs on flows and damages in the system. The program should also be useful In selecting the 2 PHASE Z- 1979 SINGLE RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER...TEMPERATURE PHASE H- 1980 TWO RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE AND SEVEN CONSTITUENTS 1981 FIELD TESTING AND MINOR MODIFICATIONS PHASE M- 1982...TEN RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE AND . TAB SEVEN CONSTITUENTS 1P.IX Ot1Oun4 ___ ___ __ __ ___ __ ___ __ ___ _ .zt ltl@a’tlo@ . 113

  1. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B. E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com; Susilowati E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com

    2015-04-16

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  2. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-22

    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  3. Reservoir System Regulation for Water Quality Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Davis, California 95616. [PHASE I!- 1979 SINGLE RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE PHASE 31- 1980 TWO RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE...AND SEVEN CONSTITUENTS 1981 FIELD TESTING AND MINOR MODIFICATIONS ’IFI PHASE 3nm- 1982 TEN RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE AND SEVEN

  4. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  5. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  6. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  7. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  8. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  9. Ekofisk reservoir voidage and seabed subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Field data describing the time lag between Ekofisk subsidence and reservoir voidage are given. A method to discriminate between real subsidence variations and random-data errors and a procedure to derive a contemporary relationship between reservoir voidage and seabed subsidence are presented. At Ekofisk, most subsidence lags reservoir voidage by 2 to 3 months.

  10. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... using air or vacuum braking must have either reserve capacity, or a reservoir, that would enable the.... Each service reservoir system on a motor vehicle shall be protected against a loss of air pressure or vacuum due to a failure or leakage in the system between the service reservoir and the source of...

  11. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... using air or vacuum braking must have either reserve capacity, or a reservoir, that would enable the.... Each service reservoir system on a motor vehicle shall be protected against a loss of air pressure or vacuum due to a failure or leakage in the system between the service reservoir and the source of...

  12. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... using air or vacuum braking must have either reserve capacity, or a reservoir, that would enable the.... Each service reservoir system on a motor vehicle shall be protected against a loss of air pressure or vacuum due to a failure or leakage in the system between the service reservoir and the source of...

  13. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... using air or vacuum braking must have either reserve capacity, or a reservoir, that would enable the.... Each service reservoir system on a motor vehicle shall be protected against a loss of air pressure or vacuum due to a failure or leakage in the system between the service reservoir and the source of...

  14. Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy has established the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) as a public-use data base with the goal of broadening independent access to data collected during studies of the health effects of exposure to radiation and other physical or chemical agents associated with the production of nuclear materials. This catalog is intended for use by any individual interested in obtaining information about, or access to, CEDR data. This catalog provides information that will help users identify and request data file sets of interest.

  15. Balancing Accession and Retention (Navy Comprehensive Compensation Study)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    training graduate of quality type i SEXTE ^. STAYER. the ratio of the number of extensions of less than 1 year to the number of extensions of 1...rating and quality type who appear in LOS 5 can be calculated: ^5ij ELIG li X^^j ELIG]^^^ REUP^j(BMULT.) + X^j^j EXTE^.(BMULTj) + X^^. ELIG]^^ SEXTE ...in the jth rating, EXTEj_j( BMULT.) SEXTE ^. = probability that an eligible individual of quality type i in rating j chooses to extend his

  16. Development of comprehensive medium for micropropagation of cultivated Cassava accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava is one of the most important foods in the human diet in the tropics, where it ranks fifth as a source of energy, after rice, sugar cane, and maize. Since it is a vegetative propagated crop, the use of in vitro propagation is very important to preserve germplasm free of pest and diseases. M...

  17. Interaction of cold-water aquifers with exploited reservoirs of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, Alfred; Lippmann, Marcelo

    1990-01-01

    Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoirs tend to exhibit good hydraulic communication with adjacent cool groundwater aquifers. Under natural state conditions the hot fluids mix with the surrounding colder waters along the margins of the geothermal system, or discharge to shallow levels by flowing up fault L. In response to exploitation reservoir pressures decrease, leading to changes in the fluid flow pattern in the system and to groundwater influx. The various Cerro Prieto reservoirs have responded differently to production, showing localized near-well or generalized boiling, depending on their access to cool-water recharge. Significant cooling by dilution with groundwater has only been observed in wells located near the edges of the field. In general, entry of cool water at Cerro Prieto is beneficial because it tends to maintain reservoir pressures, restrict boiling, and lengthen the life and productivity of wells.

  18. Geological and Petrophysical Characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D Simulation of a Fluvial-Deltaic Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.

    2001-10-31

    The objective of the Ferron Sandstone project was to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, quantitative characterization f fluvial-deltaic reservoir to allow realistic interwell and reservoir-scale models to be developed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. Quantitative geological and petrophysical information on the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in east-central Utah was collected. Both new and existing data was integrated into a three-dimensional model of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Simulation results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations.

  19. Overcoming data scarcity: Seasonal forecasting of reservoir inflows using public domain resources in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Samuel G.; Wilby, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    Management of large hydropower reservoirs can be politically and strategically problematic. Traditional flow forecasting techniques rely on accurate ground based observations, a requirement not met in many areas of the globe (Artan et al., 2007). In particular, access to real-time observational data in transnational river basins is often not possible. In these regions, novel techniques are required to combat the challenges of flow forecasting for efficient reservoir management. Near real time remotely sensed information regarding flow predictors (e.g. satellite precipitation estimates) could combat data availability issues, improving the utility of seasonal reservoir inflow forecasts. This study investigates the potential for river flow forecasting using public domain resources, including satellite and re-analysis precipitation as well as climate indices for several strategically important reservoirs throughout Central Asia (including Toktogul, Andijan, Kayrakkum and Nurek). Using reservoir inflows from 2001-2010, parsimonious numerical models were created for each study site using selected significant predictors for lead times of 1-3 months as well half year averages. Preliminary investigation has shown that parsimonious statistical models can explain over 80% of the variance in monthly inflows with three month lead to the Toktogul reservoir, Kyrgyzstan (Dixon and Wilby, 2015). Such findings show promise for improving the safety and efficiency of reservoir operations as well as reducing risks emerging from climate change.

  20. Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs of Kansas -- Near-Term -- Class 2

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Timothy R.; Green, Don W.; Willhite, G. Paul

    1999-07-08

    This report describes progress during the third year of the project entitled ''Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas''. This project funded under the Department of Energy's Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of this project is development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and mid-continent. The project introduced a number of potentially useful technologies, and demonstrated these technologies in actual oil field operations. Advanced technology was tailored specifically to the scale appropriate to the operations of Kansas producers. An extensive technology transfer effort is ongoing. Traditional technology transfer methods (e.g., publications and workshops) are supplemented with a public domain relational database and an online package of project results that is available through the Internet. The goal is to provide the independent complete access to project data, project results and project technology on their desktop. Included in this report is a summary of significant project results at the demonstration site (Schaben Field, Ness County, Kansas). The value of cost-effective techniques for reservoir characterization and simulation at Schaben Field were demonstrated to independent operators. All major operators at Schaben have used results of the reservoir management strategy to locate and drill additional infill locations. At the Schaben Demonstration Site, the additional locations resulted in incremental production increases of 200 BOPD from a smaller number of wells.

  1. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY IN MISSISSIPPIAN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS OF KANSAS--NEAR TERM--CLASS 2

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. Carr; Don W. Green; G. Paul Willhite

    1999-06-01

    This annual report describes progress during the third year of the project entitled ''Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas''. This project funded under the Department of Energy's Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of this project is development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent. The project introduced a number of potentially useful technologies, and demonstrated these technologies in actual oil field operations. Advanced technology was tailored specifically to the scale appropriate to the operations of Kansas producers. An extensive technology transfer effort is ongoing. Traditional technology transfer methods (e.g., publications and workshops) are supplemented with a public domain relational database and an online package of project results that is available through the Internet. The goal is to provide the independent complete access to project data, project results and project technology on their desktop. Included in this report is a summary of significant project results at the demonstration site (Schaben Field, Ness County, Kansas). The value of cost-effective techniques for reservoir characterization and simulation at Schaben Field were demonstrated to independent operators. All major operators at Schaben have used results of the reservoir management strategy to locate and drill additional infill locations. At the Schaben Demonstration Site, the additional locations resulted in incremental production increases of 200 BOPD from a smaller number of wells.

  2. Different pressure grids for reservoir simulation in heterogeneous reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Guerillot, D.R.; Verdiere, S.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum reservoirs are made of highly heterogeneous rocks. These reservoirs could be described by geostatistical models composed of millions of cells. Currently, fluid flow simulations performed within these media need upscaling (or averaging) techniques. Hence, their results are given by averaging on cells which are much larger than the geological model cells. To overcome this problem, the Dual Mesh Method is proposed here, whose purpose is to solve the pressure equation on a low resolution grid, and then to interpolate pressure over the fine mesh by taking into account small scale heterogeneities of the mediums. The aim of this paper is the interpolation step; its implementation is presented and illustrated in a five-spot pattern for three different rock characteristics.

  3. Spectrum of Physics Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasiak, W.; Godlewska, M.; Rosiek, R.; Wcislo, D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured…

  4. The Roots of Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Wide vocabulary knowledge is associated with proficiency in reading comprehension and scores on tests involving comprehension. Yet assessments show that U.S. students at various grade levels have demonstrated no improvement in their vocabulary knowledge since 2009. Literacy expert Timothy Rasinski and colleagues argue that students need improved…

  5. Comprehension Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition"…

  6. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important…

  7. Scaffolding Reading Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Ashraf Atta Mohamed Safein

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates whether English language teachers use scaffolding strategies for developing their students' reading comprehension skills or just for assessing their comprehension. It also tries to demonstrate whether teachers are aware of these strategies or they use them as a matter of habit. A questionnaire as well as structured…

  8. Processes in Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Grayce A.

    This examination of the processes in reading comprehension is divided into seven categories. "Theoretical Foundations" reviews some of the research conducted by Bruner, Piaget, and Bloom in the areas of cognition or comprehension processes of young children. "Development of a Spiraling Reading Curriculum" examines a spiraling taxonomy of reading…

  9. 75 FR 69619 - East Reservoir Project; Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Forest Service East Reservoir Project; Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The Forest... prescribed fire, trail access management changes, and treatment of fuel adjacent to private property....

  10. 49 CFR 229.31 - Main reservoir tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main reservoir tests. 229.31 Section 229.31... reservoir tests. (a) Before it is placed in service, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir... intervals that do not exceed 736 calendar days, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir...

  11. 49 CFR 229.31 - Main reservoir tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main reservoir tests. 229.31 Section 229.31... reservoir tests. (a) Before it is placed in service, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir... intervals that do not exceed 736 calendar days, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir...

  12. 49 CFR 229.31 - Main reservoir tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main reservoir tests. 229.31 Section 229.31... reservoir tests. (a) Before it is placed in service, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir... intervals that do not exceed 736 calendar days, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir...

  13. 49 CFR 229.31 - Main reservoir tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main reservoir tests. 229.31 Section 229.31... reservoir tests. (a) Before it is placed in service, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir... intervals that do not exceed 736 calendar days, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir...

  14. 49 CFR 229.31 - Main reservoir tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main reservoir tests. 229.31 Section 229.31... reservoir tests. (a) Before it is placed in service, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir... intervals that do not exceed 736 calendar days, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir...

  15. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  16. Reservoir microseismicity at the Ekofisk Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J.T.; Fairbanks, T.D.; Albright, J.N.; Boade, R.R.; Dangerfield, J.; Landa, G.H.

    1994-07-01

    A triaxial, downhole geophone was deployed within the Ekofisk oil reservoir for monitoring ambient microseismicity as a test to determine if microearthquake signals generated from discrete shear failure of the reservoir rock could be detected. The results of the test were positive. During 104 hours of monitoring, 572 discrete events were recorded which have been identified as shear-failure microearthquakes. Reservoir microseismicity was detected at large distances (1000 m) from the monitor borehole and at rates (> 5 events per hour) which may allow practical characterization of the reservoir rock and overburden deformation induced by reservoir pressure changes.

  17. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, M.L.; Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P.

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  18. Trophic status evaluation of TVA reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Placke, J.F.

    1983-10-01

    TVA tributary and mainstem reservoirs show generalized differences in morphometry, hydraulics, nutrient loads, and response to nutrient concentrations. Neither type of reservoir is strictly comparable to the natural lakes on which classical eutrophication studies have been based. The majority of published trophic state indices and standards (e.g., hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen depletion, Secchi depth, areas nutrient loading rates, in-reservoir phosphorus concentrations) are inappropriate for evaluation of some or all TVA reservoirs. No single trophic potential or trophic response variable summarizes the mechanisms and manifestations of eutrophication sufficiently to be used as a sole criterion for judging or regulating TVA reservoir water quality. Relative multivariate trophic state indices were developed for mainstem and tributary reservoirs. Ranking of the mainstem reservoirs is based on chlorophyll, macrophyte coverage, hydraulic retention time, reservoir area less than five feet deep, annual pool elevation drawdown, and Secchi depth. Based on available data, the rank from least eutrophic to most eutrophic is: Pickwick, Kentucky, Chickamauga, Nickajack, Wilson, Fort Loudoun, Watts Bar, Wheeler, and Guntersville Reservoirs. Ranking of the tributary reservoirs is based on chlorophyll, total phosphorus and total nitrogen weighted by the N:P ratio, and bio-available inorganic carbon levels. The rank from least eutrophic to most eutrophic is: Hiwassee, Blue Ridge, Chatuge, Norris and Fontana, Watauga, South Holston, Tims Ford, Cherokee, Douglas, and Boone Reservoirs. 130 references, 18 figures, 30 tables.

  19. Reservoir floodplains support distinct fish assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Wigen, S. L.; Dagel, Jonah D.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs constructed on floodplain rivers are unique because the upper reaches of the impoundment may include extensive floodplain environments. Moreover, reservoirs that experience large periodic water level fluctuations as part of their operational objectives seasonally inundate and dewater floodplains in their upper reaches, partly mimicking natural inundations of river floodplains. In four flood control reservoirs in Mississippi, USA, we explored the dynamics of connectivity between reservoirs and adjacent floodplains and the characteristics of fish assemblages that develop in reservoir floodplains relative to those that develop in reservoir bays. Although fish species richness in floodplains and bays were similar, species composition differed. Floodplains emphasized fish species largely associated with backwater shallow environments, often resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conversely, dominant species in bays represented mainly generalists that benefit from the continuous connectivity between the bay and the main reservoir. Floodplains in the study reservoirs provided desirable vegetated habitats at lower water level elevations, earlier in the year, and more frequently than in bays. Inundating dense vegetation in bays requires raising reservoir water levels above the levels required to reach floodplains. Therefore, aside from promoting distinct fish assemblages within reservoirs and helping promote diversity in regulated rivers, reservoir floodplains are valued because they can provide suitable vegetated habitats for fish species at elevations below the normal pool, precluding the need to annually flood upland vegetation that would inevitably be impaired by regular flooding. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Geostatistics applied to gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, G.; Coulomb, C.; Laille, J.P. )

    1989-09-01

    The spatial distribution of many of the physical parameters connected with a gas reservoir is of primary interest to both engineers and geologists throughout the study, development, and operation of a field. It is therefore desirable for the distribution to be capable of statistical interpretation, to have a simple graphical representation, and to allow data to be entered from either two- or three-dimensional grids. To satisfy these needs while dealing with the geographical variables, new methods have been developed under the name geostatistics. This paper describes briefly the theory of geostatistics and its most recent improvements for the specific problem of subsurface description. The external-drift technique has been emphasized in particular, and in addition, four case studies related to gas reservoirs are presented.

  1. Targeting the Brain Reservoirs: Toward an HIV Cure

    PubMed Central

    Marban, Céline; Forouzanfar, Faezeh; Ait-Ammar, Amina; Fahmi, Faiza; El Mekdad, Hala; Daouad, Fadoua; Rohr, Olivier; Schwartz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    One of the top research priorities of the international AIDS society by the action “Towards an HIV Cure” is the purge or the decrease of the pool of all latently infected cells. This strategy is based on reactivation of latently reservoirs (the shock) followed by an intensifying combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to kill them (the kill). The central nervous system (CNS) has potential latently infected cells, i.e., perivascular macrophages, microglial cells, and astrocytes that will need to be eliminated. However, the CNS has several characteristics that may preclude the achievement of a cure. In this review, we discuss several limitations to the eradication of brain reservoirs and how we could circumvent these limitations by making it efforts in four directions: (i) designing efficient latency-reversal agents for CNS-cell types, (ii) improving cART by targeting HIV transcription, (iii) improving delivery of HIV drugs in the CNS and in the CNS-cell types, and (iv) developing therapeutic immunization. As a prerequisite to these efforts, we also believe that a better comprehension of molecular mechanisms involved in establishment and persistence of HIV latency in brain reservoirs are essential to design new molecules for strategies aiming to achieve a cure for instance the “shock and kill” strategy. PMID:27746784

  2. Study on the phytoplankton · in a large reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yicheng; Kuang, Qijun

    1992-12-01

    A comprehensive study on the community structure and function of the phytoplankton in Taipinghu Reservoir, the largest reservoir (9400 ha) in Anhui Province, China, was carried out during 1985 1986. A total of 175 species of algae belonging to 8 phyla and 87 genera was noted. The composition of phytoplankton was dominated by species of Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta. The species number, cell density and biomass of the three groups were respectively 88%, 86.5% and 78.9% of the total phytoplankton. The weighted annual average biomass was 1.52 mg/L and cell density was 1.43×106 ind/L. The growth maximum was observed in summer. Diatoms were abundant in the region adjoining a river. A large number of flagellated algae such as Euglena and Chromulina occurred in the artificial fish culture bay. It can be inferred from the algal composition and total nitrogen concentration (1.48 mg/L) that this reservoir is a mesotrophic water body that had undergone slight natural eutrophication. Presented are an equation for the relation between cell density and biomass of algae and a newly developed method based on the energy flow principle in ecology for theoretically estimating algal fishery potential. The algae volumes of 128 species were measured for calculating the biomass.

  3. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory.

  4. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  5. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  6. Advanced Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs in Carbonate Rocks: The Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.; Harrison, W.B.

    2001-01-22

    The main objective of this project is for a university-industry consortium to develop a comprehensive model for fracture carbonate reservoirs based on the ''data cube'' concept using the Michigan Basin as a prototype. This project combined traditional historical data with 2D and 3D seismic data as well as data from modern logging tools in a novel way to produce a new methodology for characterizing fractured reservoirs in carbonate rocks. Advanced visualization software was used to fuse the data and to image it on a variety of scales, ranging from basin-scale to well-scales.

  7. Advanced Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs in Carbonate Rocks: The Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, James R.; Harrison, William B.

    2000-10-24

    The main objective of this project is for a university-industry consortium to develop a comprehensive model for fracture carbonate reservoirs based on the ''data cube'' concept using the Michigan Basin as a prototype. This project combined traditional historical data with 2D and 3D seismic data as well as data from modern logging tools in a novel way to produce a new methodology for characterizing fractured reservoirs in carbonate rocks. Advanced visualization software was used to fuse the data and to image it on a variety of scales, ranging from basin-scale to well-scales.

  8. Comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Wendell B.; Austin, Edward E.

    1988-01-01

    The development and application of comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods in the field of rotorcraft technology are described. These large scale analyses and the resulting computer programs are intended to treat the complex aeromechanical phenomena that describe the behavior of rotorcraft. They may be used to predict rotor aerodynamics, acoustic, performance, stability and control, handling qualities, loads and vibrations, structures, dynamics, and aeroelastic stability characteristics for a variety of applications including research, preliminary and detail design, and evaluation and treatment of field problems. The principal comprehensive methods developed or under development in recent years and generally available to the rotorcraft community because of US Army Aviation Research and Technology Activity (ARTA) sponsorship of all or part of the software systems are the Rotorcraft Flight Simulation (C81), Dynamic System Coupler (DYSCO), Coupled Rotor/Airframe Vibration Analysis Program (SIMVIB), Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD), General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP), and Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS).

  9. Spectrum of physics comprehension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasiak, W.; Godlewska, M.; Rosiek, R.; Wcislo, D.

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured during a physics lecture on a prearranged scale of 1-10 with the use of a personal response system designed for the purpose of this experiment. Through the use of this tool, we obtained about 2000 computer records of students' declared comprehension of a 45 min lecture, which we named ‘the spectrum of comprehension’. In this paper, we present and analyse the correlation between students' declared comprehension of the content presented in the lecture and their final learning results.

  10. Modern Reservoir Sedimentation Management Techniques with Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annandale, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of reservoir sedimentation management approaches results in a win-win scenario, it assists in enhancing the environment by preserving river function downstream of dams while concurrently providing opportunities to sustainably manage water resource infrastructure. This paper summarizes the most often used reservoir sedimentation management techniques with examples of where they have been implemented. Three categories can be used to classify these technologies, i.e. catchment management, sediment routing and sediment removal. The objective of catchment management techniques is to minimize the amount of sediment that may discharge into a reservoir, thereby reducing the loss of storage space due to sedimentation. Reservoir routing is a set of techniques that aim at minimizing the amount of sediment that may deposit in a reservoir, thereby maximizing the amount of sediment that may be passed downstream. The third group consists of techniques that may be used to remove previously deposited sediment from reservoirs. The selection of reservoir sedimentation management approaches is site specific and depends on various factors, including dam height, reservoir volume, reservoir length, valley shape, valley slope, sediment type and hydrology. Description of the different reservoir sedimentation management techniques that are used in practice will be accompanied by case studies, including video, illustrating criteria that may be used to determine the potential success of implementing the techniques.

  11. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  12. Megacrystals track magma convection between reservoir and surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussallam, Yves; Oppenheimer, Clive; Scaillet, Bruno; Buisman, Iris; Kimball, Christine; Dunbar, Nelia; Burgisser, Alain; Ian Schipper, C.; Andújar, Joan; Kyle, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Active volcanoes are typically fed by magmatic reservoirs situated within the upper crust. The development of thermal and/or compositional gradients in such magma chambers may lead to vigorous convection as inferred from theoretical models and evidence for magma mixing recorded in volcanic rocks. Bi-directional flow is also inferred to prevail in the conduits of numerous persistently-active volcanoes based on observed gas and thermal emissions at the surface, as well as experiments with analogue models. However, more direct evidence for such exchange flows has hitherto been lacking. Here, we analyse the remarkable oscillatory zoning of anorthoclase feldspar megacrystals erupted from the lava lake of Erebus volcano, Antarctica. A comprehensive approach, combining phase equilibria, solubility experiments and melt inclusion and textural analyses shows that the chemical profiles are best explained as a result of multiple episodes of magma transport between a deeper reservoir and the lava lake at the surface. Individual crystals have repeatedly travelled up-and-down the plumbing system, over distances of up to several kilometers, presumably as a consequence of entrainment in the bulk magma flow. Our findings thus corroborate the model of bi-directional flow in magmatic conduits. They also imply contrasting flow regimes in reservoir and conduit, with vigorous convection in the former (regular convective cycles of ∼150 days at a speed of ∼0.5 mm s-1) and more complex cycles of exchange flow and re-entrainment in the latter. We estimate that typical, 1-cm-wide crystals should be at least 14 years old, and can record several (from 1 to 3) complete cycles between the reservoir and the lava lake via the conduit. This persistent recycling of phonolitic magma is likely sustained by CO2 fluxing, suggesting that accumulation of mafic magma in the lower crust is volumetrically more significant than that of evolved magma within the edifice.

  13. Evidence for the survival of the oldest terrestrial mantle reservoir.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Matthew G; Carlson, Richard W; Kurz, Mark D; Kempton, Pamela D; Francis, Don; Blusztajn, Jerzy

    2010-08-12

    Helium is a powerful tracer of primitive material in Earth's mantle. Extremely high (3)He/(4)He ratios in some ocean-island basalts suggest the presence of relatively undegassed and undifferentiated material preserved in Earth's mantle. However, terrestrial lavas with high (3)He/(4)He ratios have never been observed to host the primitive lead-isotopic compositions that are required for an early (roughly 4.5 Gyr ago) formation age. Here we show that Cenozoic-era Baffin Island and West Greenland lavas, previously found to host the highest terrestrial-mantle (3)He/(4)He ratios, exhibit primitive lead-isotope ratios that are consistent with an ancient mantle source age of 4.55-4.45 Gyr. The Baffin Island and West Greenland lavas also exhibit (143)Nd/(144)Nd ratios similar to values recently proposed for an early-formed (roughly 4.5 Gyr ago) terrestrial mantle reservoir. The combined helium-, lead- and Nd-isotopic compositions in Baffin Island and West Greenland lavas therefore suggest that their source is the most ancient accessible reservoir in the Earth's mantle, and it may be parental to all mantle reservoirs that give rise to modern volcanism.

  14. Test Review: ACCESS for ELLs[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janna; Fairbairn, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State-to-State for English Language Learners ("ACCESS for ELLs"[R]), which is a large-scale, high-stakes, standards-based, and criterion-referenced English language proficiency test administered in the USA annually to more than 840,000 English Language Learners (ELLs), in…

  15. Enhancing Memory Access for Less Skilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emily R.; O'Brien, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Less skilled readers' comprehension often suffers because they have an impoverished representation of text in long-term memory; this, in turn, increases the difficulty of gaining access to backgrounded information necessary for maintaining coherence. The results of four experiments demonstrated that providing less skilled readers with additional…

  16. Uncertainty analysis for water supply reservoir yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuria, Faith; Vogel, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the variability of water supply reservoir yields is central for planning purposes. The basis of this study is an empirical global relationship between reservoir storage capacity, water supply yield and reliability based on a global database of 729 rivers. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the coefficient of variation of estimates of water supply reservoir yields depend only on the length of streamflows record and the coefficient of variation of the streamflows used to estimate the yield. We compare the results of those Monte Carlo experiments with an analytical uncertainty method First Order Variance Approximation (FOVA). FOVA is shown to produce a general, accurate and useful expression for estimating the coefficient of variation of water supply reservoir yield estimates. We also document how the FOVA analytical model can be used to determine the minimum length of streamflow record required during the design of water supply reservoirs so as to ensure that the yield delivered from reservoir falls within a prespecified margin of error.

  17. Accessing and Selecting Word Meaning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, L. M.; Clarke, P. J.; Snowling, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Comprehension difficulties are commonly reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but the causes of these difficulties are poorly understood. This study investigates how children with ASD access and select meanings of ambiguous words to test four hypotheses regarding the nature of their comprehension difficulties: semantic deficit,…

  18. Accessing, Integrating, and Inhibiting Word Meaning in Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Lisa; Snowling, Margaret; Clarke, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study examined three processes crucial to reading comprehension ("semantic access", "integration", and "inhibition") to identify causes of comprehension impairment. Poor comprehenders were compared to chronological-age controls and vocabulary-age (VA) controls. When listening to homonym primes ("bank")…

  19. Geolocation of man-made reservoirs across terrains of varying complexity using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mixon, David M.; Kinner, David A.; Stallard, Robert F.; Syvitski, James P. M.

    2008-10-01

    The Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Information System (RESIS) is one of the world's most comprehensive databases of reservoir sedimentation rates, comprising nearly 6000 surveys for 1819 reservoirs across the continental United States. Sediment surveys in the database date from 1904 to 1999, though more than 95% of surveys were entered prior to 1980, making RESIS largely a historical database. The use of this database for large-scale studies has been limited by the lack of precise coordinates for the reservoirs. Many of the reservoirs are relatively small structures and do not appear on current USGS topographic maps. Others have been renamed or have only approximate (i.e. township and range) coordinates. This paper presents a method scripted in ESRI's ARC Macro Language (AML) to locate the reservoirs on digital elevation models using information available in RESIS. The script also delineates the contributing watersheds and compiles several hydrologically important parameters for each reservoir. Evaluation of the method indicates that, for watersheds larger than 5 km 2, the correct outlet is identified over 80% of the time. The importance of identifying the watershed outlet correctly depends on the application. Our intent is to collect spatial data for watersheds across the continental United States and describe the land use, soils, and topography for each reservoir's watershed. Because of local landscape similarity in these properties, we show that choosing the incorrect watershed does not necessarily mean that the watershed characteristics will be misrepresented. We present a measure termed terrain complexity and examine its relationship to geolocation success rate and its influence on the similarity of nearby watersheds.

  20. Geolocation of man-made reservoirs across terrains of varying complexity using GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mixon, D.M.; Kinner, D.A.; Stallard, R.F.; Syvitski, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Information System (RESIS) is one of the world's most comprehensive databases of reservoir sedimentation rates, comprising nearly 6000 surveys for 1819 reservoirs across the continental United States. Sediment surveys in the database date from 1904 to 1999, though more than 95% of surveys were entered prior to 1980, making RESIS largely a historical database. The use of this database for large-scale studies has been limited by the lack of precise coordinates for the reservoirs. Many of the reservoirs are relatively small structures and do not appear on current USGS topographic maps. Others have been renamed or have only approximate (i.e. township and range) coordinates. This paper presents a method scripted in ESRI's ARC Macro Language (AML) to locate the reservoirs on digital elevation models using information available in RESIS. The script also delineates the contributing watersheds and compiles several hydrologically important parameters for each reservoir. Evaluation of the method indicates that, for watersheds larger than 5 km2, the correct outlet is identified over 80% of the time. The importance of identifying the watershed outlet correctly depends on the application. Our intent is to collect spatial data for watersheds across the continental United States and describe the land use, soils, and topography for each reservoir's watershed. Because of local landscape similarity in these properties, we show that choosing the incorrect watershed does not necessarily mean that the watershed characteristics will be misrepresented. We present a measure termed terrain complexity and examine its relationship to geolocation success rate and its influence on the similarity of nearby watersheds. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Skimming' a reservoir for trash

    SciTech Connect

    Shenman, L.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Several hydropower facilities are using a new technology for removing floating trash in reservoirs. Representatives from the facilities say the boat, called a trashskimmer, is efficient, easy to maneuver, and transportable. Designed by United Marine International, Inc., the pontoon boat features an operators cab that straddles an open hull between the skis of the pontoon, and uses dual propellers to maneuver through the water. The Marineskimmer allows the operator to approach the trash from the water side upstream of the plant. The Tennessee Valley Authority has used the boat since 1990.

  2. A virtual company concept for reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes how reservoir management problems were pursued with a virtual company concept via the Internet and World Wide Web. The focus of the paper is on the implementation of virtual asset management teams that were assembled with small independent oil companies. The paper highlights the mechanics of how the virtual team transferred data and interpretations, evaluated geological models of complex reservoirs, and used results of simulation studies to analyze various reservoir management strategies.

  3. NASA studies access to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, Ivan; Powell, Richard; Austin, Robery

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive internal NASA study known as 'Access to Space' has sought to identify and assess major alternatives for the long-range direction the space transportation program should take. The scope of the study covered all U.S. civilian, commercial, and national security needs for space transportation for the next several decades. Three alternative approaches were identified: using current vehicles; developing new conventional technology vehicles, and developing new advanced technology vehicles. Large annual operations cost savings could be obtained only with new vehicles, and then only with considerable up-front investments. Seven other major factors were assessed. The third option is found to be the most attractive.

  4. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  5. Geothermal reservoirs in hydrothermal convection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs commonly exist in hydrothermal convection systems involving fluid circulation downward in areas of recharge and upwards in areas of discharge. Because such reservoirs are not isolated from their surroundings, the nature of thermal and hydrologic connections with the rest of the system may have significant effects on the natural state of the reservoir and on its response to development. Conditions observed at numerous developed and undeveloped geothermal fields are discussed with respect to a basic model of the discharge portion of an active hydrothermal convection system. Effects of reservoir development on surficial discharge of thermal fluid are also delineated.

  6. Flow Characterization in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alajmi, A.; Gharbi, R.

    2008-12-01

    Most hydrocarbon reservoirs are fractured in nature with various degrees of fracture intensities. With the current oil prices and growing demand for oil, a great interest is built in the petroleum industry to characterize partially fractured reservoirs and to develop an increased understanding of the physics of fluid flow in these types of reservoirs. This is due to the fact that fractured reservoirs have different performance behavior and high potential for oil recovery than conventional reservoirs. Therefore, prediction and understanding of fluid displacement in these reservoirs is very much critical in the decision on the applicability of oil recovery methods. Using a finite difference numerical simulator, this study investigated the effect of reservoir fracture intensities on the displacement behavior. Several heterogeneous permeable media, each with different probability of fracture intensity, were generated stochastically. The fracture intensity covers reservoirs with no fracture (zero fracture intensity) to fully fractured reservoirs (fracture intensity of 1). In order to better describe and model fractured reservoirs, a dual porosity-dual permeability model was built. Extensive simulations of water displacing oil were then performed in each of the generated fractured models for different well configurations. The objective was to determine the functional relationships between the displacement performance, fracture intensities, and well configurations. The study has resulted in significant new insights into the flow characterization in naturally fractured reservoirs. Results show that the reservoir fracture intensity has considerable effects on the efficiency of fluid displacement in naturally fractured reservoirs. A critical value of reservoir fracture intensity appears to sort favorable from unfavorable displacement, causing the displacement to be either fracture-dominated or matrix-dominated. The conditions under which fluid displacement may yield better

  7. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... returned to your body. Usually the access is put in your arm but it can also go ... A surgeon will put the access in. There are 3 types of access. Fistula: The surgeon joins an artery and vein under the ...

  8. Core analysis in a low permeability sandstone reservoir: Results from the Multiwell Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.

    1989-04-01

    Over 4100 ft (1100 ft oriented) of Mesaverde core was taken during the drilling of the three Multiwell Experiment (MWX) wells, for study in a comprehensive core analysis program. This core traversed five separate depositional environments (shoreline/marine, coastal, paludal, fluvial, and paralic), and almost every major sand in the Mesaverde at the site was sampled. This paper summarizes MWX core analysis and describes the petrophysical properties at the MWX site; reservoir parameters, including permeabilities of naturally fractured core; and mechanical rock properties including stress-related measurements. Some correlations are made between reservoir properties and mineralogy/petrology data. Comparisons are made between the properties of lenticular and blanket sandstone morphologies existing at the site. This paper provides an overview of a complete core analysis in a low-permeability sandstone reservoir. 66 refs., 17 figs. , 9 tabs.

  9. Geographic Accessibility to Higher Education on the Island of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Flannery, Darragh; Cullinan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, comprehensive measures of geographic accessibility to higher education both within and between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Using geographic information system techniques, we find high levels of geographic accessibility to higher education in both jurisdictions. However, when we…

  10. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. ...

  11. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... use requirements for Critical Access Hospitals related to Electronic Health Records (EHRs)? Critical Access Hospital (CAH) are eligible for Electronic Health Record (EHR) incentive payments and can receive ...

  12. Support for comprehensive reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Rombach, H. D.

    1991-01-01

    Reuse of products, processes, and other knowledge will be the key to enable the software industry to achieve the dramatic improvement in productivity and quality required to satisfy the anticipated growing demands. Although experience shows that certain kinds of reuse can be successful, general success has been elusive. A software life-cycle technology which allows comprehensive reuse of all kinds of software-related experience could provide the means to achieving the desired order-of-magnitude improvements. A comprehensive framework of models, model-based characterization schemes, and support mechanisms for better understanding, evaluating, planning, and supporting all aspects of reuse are introduced.

  13. Access to space study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comprehensive NASA in-house study to identify and assess alternate approaches to access to space through the year 2030, and to select and recommend a preferred cause of action. The goals of the study were to identify the best vehicles and transportation architectures to make major reductions in the cost of space transportation (at least 50%), while at the same time increasing safety for flight crews by at least an order of magnitude. In addition, vehicle reliability was to exceed 0.98 percent, and, as important, the robustness, pad time, turnaround time, and other aspects of operability were to be vastly improved. This study examined three major optional architectures: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable vehicles using conventional technologies and transition from current vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition from current vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch-needs, mission model utilized for for the study was based upon today's projection of civil, defense, and commercial mission payload requirements.

  14. 49 CFR 229.49 - Main reservoir system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main reservoir system. 229.49 Section 229.49... Main reservoir system. (a)(1) The main reservoir system of each locomotive shall be equipped with at... reservoir of air under pressure to be used for operating those power controls. The reservoir shall...

  15. 49 CFR 229.49 - Main reservoir system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main reservoir system. 229.49 Section 229.49... Main reservoir system. (a)(1) The main reservoir system of each locomotive shall be equipped with at... reservoir of air under pressure to be used for operating those power controls. The reservoir shall...

  16. 49 CFR 229.49 - Main reservoir system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main reservoir system. 229.49 Section 229.49... Main reservoir system. (a)(1) The main reservoir system of each locomotive shall be equipped with at... reservoir of air under pressure to be used for operating those power controls. The reservoir shall...

  17. 49 CFR 229.49 - Main reservoir system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main reservoir system. 229.49 Section 229.49... Main reservoir system. (a)(1) The main reservoir system of each locomotive shall be equipped with at... reservoir of air under pressure to be used for operating those power controls. The reservoir shall...

  18. 49 CFR 229.49 - Main reservoir system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main reservoir system. 229.49 Section 229.49... Main reservoir system. (a)(1) The main reservoir system of each locomotive shall be equipped with at... reservoir of air under pressure to be used for operating those power controls. The reservoir shall...

  19. Small reservoirs in the West African savanna: Usage, monitoring and impact (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Giesen, N.; Liebe, J. R.; Annor, F.; Andreini, M.

    2013-12-01

    The West African savanna is dotted with thousands of small reservoirs. These reservoirs were primarily built for irrigation purposes, supplying supplementary irrigation in the rainy season and full irrigation in the dry season. Some reservoirs were specifically constructed for watering cattle. Most reservoirs, however, now fulfill a multitude of functions in addition to irrigation and cattle watering, such as fishing, bathing, household water, supply of construction materials, and recreation. In the framework of the Small Reservoirs Project (www.smallreservoirs.org), extensive research has been undertaken over the past ten years that addresses the functioning of these reservoirs and the development of new monitoring methods. This presentation will give a general overview of our findings with respect to history, usage, and hydrological impact of small reservoirs in West Africa. In general, no comprehensive databases are available to local and national governments that contain all reservoirs and their attributes. Remote sensing, therefore, offers an interesting alternative to produce inventories of small reservoirs in a cost effective way. The most straightforward application is the mapping of small reservoirs with the aid of optical satellite images. Open water tends to stand out clearly from its surroundings in such images, allowing for relatively accurate determination of the location and surface area of the reservoirs. An important early discovery was that within a given geomorphological region, there is a very good correlation between surface area and storage volume. Once this correlation is established through a small sub-sample of the reservoirs, all volumes can be calculated on the basis of surfaces as determined through remote sensing. In turn, this opens up the opportunity to monitor water storage over the year by means of satellite images. Optical images are usually not available during large parts of the year due to cloud cover. This holds especially true

  20. A comprehensive refugee health screening program.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, J; Seymour, D J; Hummel, B J

    1999-01-01

    Nationally and internationally, there is a struggle to provide adequate health screening and assessment programs for refugees. The Department of Family Medicine at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in partnership with the Colorado Refugee Services Program has developed a comprehensive refugee health screening and assessment program. The program was designed to ensure access to screening and to provide better care for this vulnerable population. Key features of the program include a single point of access for all family members, full availability of appropriate interpreting services, comprehensive health assessments that include a thorough mental health screening, data collection and evaluation, and education of health care providers to deliver culturally responsive care. During the first 30 months of this program, comprehensive assessments were provided for more than 1600 refugees. Future directions include improving the efficiency of daily systems, seeking alternative sources of funding, improving follow-up and vaccination rates, expanding mental health services, and tracking health outcomes and refugees' utilization of health care services through longitudinal research. PMID:10590769

  1. Cognitive Correlates of Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Phillips, Beth

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to understand cognitive foundations of oral language comprehension (i.e., listening comprehension), we examined how inhibitory control, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring are uniquely related to listening comprehension over and above vocabulary and age. A total of 156 children in kindergarten and first grade from…

  2. [Seasonal Variation on Nutrient Limitation for Phytoplankton Growth in a Coastal River-Reservoir System, Southeast China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong-cong; Rao, La; Huang, Jin-liang; Bai, Min-dong

    2015-09-01

    A comprehensive analysis was conducted using a dataset obtained from October in 2013 to October in 2014 monitoring in 20 headwater streams of Jiulong River and four reservoirs, situated in such a coastal river-reservoir system in Southeast China suffering from intensive anthropogenic disturbance. In-situ monitoring, GIS and statistical analysis were coupled in this study to identify the spatiotemporal variations of nutrients & phytoplankton abundance and community structure, the differentiation of nitrogen & phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton growth, and the seasonal variations in nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth. The results showed that there were obvious spatiotemporal variations in terms of nutrients & phytoplankton abundance and community structure in the 20 headwater streams and four reservoirs. The concentration of nitrogen was higher in winter and spring whereas lower in summer and autumn for both 20 headwater streams and four reservoirs. However, the concentration of phosphorus showed an opposite trend. The phytoplankton's abundance was the highest in summer for four reservoirs while it was higher in winter and spring, lower in summer and autumn in the 20 headwater streams. Meanwhile, the main trend in the succession of phytoplankton was from Bacillariophyta in autumn, winter and spring to Chlorophyta in summer in Tingxi reservoir, from Chlorophyta-Cryptophyta in winter and spring to Chlorophyta-Cyanophyta in summer and autumn in Jiangdong reservoir. No obvious trend exhibited in phytoplankton succession in Shidou-Bantou reservoir and 20 headwater streams. The Redundancy analysis (RDA) ordination plots well displayed the phytoplankton's community structure and its relationships with environmental factors. Besides, according to linear regression analysis there was a closer correlation between chlorophyll-a and nutrients in four reservoirs than in 20 headwater streams. In four reservoirs, N limitation was preliminarily observed in autumn

  3. COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NIKITAS, CHRISTUS M.; AND OTHERS

    TO MEET THE STATE'S HIGHER EDUCATION NEEDS, THE NEW HAMPSHIRE JUNIOR COLLEGE COMMISSION DEVELOPED A PLAN OF (1) GRADUAL AND SELECTIVE CONVERSION OF THE STATE'S TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS TO COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES, (2) SELECTIVE ADDITION OF 2-YEAR PROGRAMS AT THE STATE COLLEGES AND INSTITUTES, AND (3) ESTABLISHMENT OF A STATE…

  4. COMMUNICATION AND COMPREHENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRENAMAN, J.M.

    A SERIES OF BRITISH IMPACT STUDIES DEALT WITH ADULT AUDIENCE CHARACTERISTICS (COMPREHENSION, KNOWLEDGE, INTERESTS, ATTITUDES) AND FACTORS WITHIN THE MEDIUM THAT MAKE FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION. FIVE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SUBJECT MATTER WERE PRESENTED TO MATCHED SAMPLES OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC BY MEANS OF RADIO, TELEVISION, AND PRINTED ARTICLES. THE…

  5. Cinnarizine: Comprehensive Profile.

    PubMed

    Haress, Nadia G

    2015-01-01

    Cinnarizine is a piperazine derivative with antihistaminic, antiserotonergic, antidopaminergic, and calcium channel-blocking activities. A comprehensive profile was performed on cinnarizine including its description and the different methods of analysis. The 1H NMR and 13C one- and two-dimensional NMR methods were used. In addition, infrared and mass spectral analyses were performed which all confirmed the structure of cinnarizine.

  6. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... McPherson RA, Pincus MR. Disease/organ panels. McPherson RA, ... . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:appendix 7.

  7. Comprehensive Trail Making Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is designed to be used in neuropsychological assessment for the purposes of detecting effects of brain defects and deficits and in tracking progress in rehabilitation. More specific purposes include the detection of frontal lobe deficits, problems with psychomotor speed, visual search and sequencing,…

  8. Designing a Comprehensive Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, T. L.

    1970-01-01

    A comprehensive rural "agribusiness industry" curriculum might include: (1) The World of Work (Grade 7 or 8), (2) Vocational Orientation (Grade 9), (3) Basic Agriculture and Industry (Grade 10), (4) Specialized Agribusiness Industry (Grade 11), and (5) Advanced Agribusiness Industry (Grade 12). (DM)

  9. Imagery and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Rose

    If people can evoke mental images when listening to a story, they can extend the process by turning words on a printed page into speech and evoke images for the "speech on the page." This is an exercise for reading comprehension that does not come naturally but can be worked on deliberately. A few moments of self-observation, when…

  10. The Comprehensive Health Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport.

    This report contains information from a fall 1991 health occupations assessment of 1,021 health-related employers in Eastern Iowa and the Illinois Quad Cities area. Twelve chapters present comprehensive results of all surveys; results of 10 labor market survey instruments developed for chiropractic offices, dentists' offices, emergency medical…

  11. Assessing Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Janette K.

    2004-01-01

    Generally, experts agree on what good readers do to comprehend text--they connect new text with past experiences, interpret, evaluate, synthesize, and consider alternative interpretations. Yet, traditional measures of reading comprehension only provide a general indicator of how well a student understands text. They do not provide information…

  12. Comprehension Strategy Gloves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Gayle

    2002-01-01

    Describes the idea of creating a glove for each of the comprehension strategies for use with different text structures. Notes that the gloves serve as a multisensory approach by providing visual clues through icons on each finger and the palm. Discusses three different gloves: the prereading glove, the narrative text structure glove, and the…

  13. Math Sense: Comprehensive Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Cathy Fillmore

    This book features a comprehensive review of the Math Sense series and is designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include whole numbers;…

  14. Writing for Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Randy; Pearman, Cathy; Hail, Cindy; Hurst, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Many educators continue to treat reading and writing as separate subjects. In response to this observation, the authors offer four research-based writing strategies that teachers can use to improve student reading comprehension through writing. The writing strategies--"About/Point", "Cubing", "Four Square Graphic Organizer", and "Read," "Respond",…

  15. A Thermoelastic Hydraulic Fracture Design Tool for Geothermal Reservoir Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2003-06-30

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Thus, knowledge of conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fracture are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. At times, the practice aims to create a number of parallel fractures connecting a pair of wells. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have set out to develop advanced thermo-mechanical models for design of artificial fractures and rock fracture research in geothermal reservoirs. These models consider the significant hydraulic and thermo-mechanical processes and their interaction with the in-situ stress state. Wellbore failure and fracture initiation is studied using a model that fully couples poro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects. The fracture propagation model is based on a complex variable and regular displacement discontinuity formulations. In the complex variable approach the displacement discontinuities are

  16. Temperature and oxygen in Missouri reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, John R.; Knowlton, Matthew F.; Obrecht, Daniel V.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Vertical profiles of water temperature (n = 7193) and dissolved oxygen (n = 6516) were collected from 235 Missouri reservoirs during 1989–2007; most data were collected during May–August and provide a regional summary of summer conditions. Collectively, surface water temperature ranged from a mean of ~22 C in May to 28 C in July, and individual summer maxima typically were 28–32 C. Most (~95%) reservoirs stably stratify by mid-May, but few are deep enough to have hypolimnia with near-uniform temperatures. Among stratified reservoirs, maximum effective length and maximum depth accounted for 75% of the variation in mixed depth and thermocline depth. Ephemeral, near-surface thermoclines occurred in 39% of summer profiles and were most frequent in small, turbid reservoirs. Isotherms below the mixed layer deepen during stratification, and the water column is >20 C by August in all but the deepest reservoirs. Most reservoirs showed incipient dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion by mid-May, and by August, 80% of profiles had DO minima of 50% of variation in DO below the mixed layer during summer. Warm summer temperatures and widespread low DO often limit available fish habitat in Missouri reservoirs and compress warm-water fish communities into subsurface layers that exceed their thermal preferences. This study provides a regional baseline of reservoir temperature and oxygen conditions useful for future evaluations of eutrophication and the effects of a warming climate.

  17. An index of reservoir habitat impairment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Hunt, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and usetype, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. ?? 2010 US Government.

  18. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  19. European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    González-Barrio, David; Maio, Elisa; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2015-01-01

    We studied the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the European rabbit for C. burnetii. PMID:25988670

  20. Carbon emission from global hydroelectric reservoirs revisited.

    PubMed

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-12-01

    Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hydropower reservoirs have been of great concerns recently, yet the significant carbon emitters of drawdown area and reservoir downstream (including spillways and turbines as well as river reaches below dams) have not been included in global carbon budget. Here, we revisit GHG emission from hydropower reservoirs by considering reservoir surface area, drawdown zone and reservoir downstream. Our estimates demonstrate around 301.3 Tg carbon dioxide (CO2)/year and 18.7 Tg methane (CH4)/year from global hydroelectric reservoirs, which are much higher than recent observations. The sum of drawdown and downstream emission, which is generally overlooked, represents 42 % CO2 and 67 % CH4 of the total emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Accordingly, the global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 92 g CO2/kWh and 5.7 g CH4/kWh. Nonetheless, global hydroelectricity could currently reduce approximate 2,351 Tg CO2eq/year with respect to fuel fossil plant alternative. The new findings show a substantial revision of carbon emission from the global hydropower reservoirs.

  1. Mycobacterium bovis: characteristics of wildlife reservoir hosts.

    PubMed

    Palmer, M V

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in animals and sometimes humans. Many developed nations have long-standing programmes to eradicate tuberculosis in livestock, principally cattle. As disease prevalence in cattle decreases these efforts are sometimes impeded by passage of M. bovis from wildlife to cattle. In epidemiological terms, disease can persist in some wildlife species, creating disease reservoirs, if the basic reproduction rate (R0) and critical community size (CCS) thresholds are achieved. Recognized wildlife reservoir hosts of M. bovis include the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, European badger (Meles meles) in Great Britain and Ireland, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in South Africa, wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Iberian Peninsula and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA. The epidemiological concepts of R0 and CCS are related to more tangible disease/pathogen characteristics such as prevalence, pathogen-induced pathology, host behaviour and ecology. An understanding of both epidemiological and disease/pathogen characteristics is necessary to identify wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis. In some cases, there is a single wildlife reservoir host involved in transmission of M. bovis to cattle. Complexity increases, however, in multihost systems where multiple potential reservoir hosts exist. Bovine tuberculosis eradication efforts require elimination of M. bovis transmission between wildlife reservoirs and cattle. For successful eradication identification of true wildlife reservoirs is critical, as disease control efforts are most effective when directed towards true reservoirs.

  2. Prestack seismic inversion and reservoir property prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xingang

    In this dissertation, I have applied the method of prestack seismic inversion with uncertainty analysis. Also, I have developed the methods of the rock physics template analysis, the fluid modulus inversion and the reservoir property inversion from AVO attributes with and without constraint to improve the technique of reservoir characterization. I use the prestack seismic inversion to invert the elastic properties and use the statistical method to derive the posterior probability of the inverted elastic properties for the uncertainty analysis. I use the rock physics template drawn in the cross-plot of the inverted elastic properties to analyze the lithology and fluid property in the target reservoir. I develop the fluid modulus inversion method based on the simplified Gassmann's equation and the empirical rock physics relationship. Using the inverted fluid modulus, I estimate the gas saturation of the target reservoir before drilling. The reservoir property inversion is to predict the porosity, shale volume and water saturation of the reservoir from AVO attributes to enhance the reservoir interpretation and characterization. I apply this method with the statistical analysis together to execute the uncertainty analysis for the inversion results. Two methods of reservoir property inversion from AVO attributes are attempted in this dissertation: one is performed without constraint and the other is performed with the constrained relationship of the porosity and shale volume.

  3. Carbon content of sediments of small reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, J.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Carbon content was measured in sediments deposited in 58 small reservoirs across the US. Reservoirs varied from 0.2 to 4,000 km{sup 2} in surface area. The carbon content of sediment ranged from 0.3 to 5.6 percent, with a mean of 1.9 {plus minus} 1.1 percent. No significant differences between the soil and sediment carbon content were found using a paired t-test or ANOVA. The carbon content of sediments in reservoirs was similar to the carbon content of surface soils in the watershed, except in watersheds with shrub or steppe (desert) vegetation. Based on the sediment accumulation rates measured in each reservoir, the calculated organic carbon accumulation rates among reservoirs ranged from 26 to 3,700 gC m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1}, with a mean of 675 {plus minus} 739 gC m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1}. The carbon content and accumulation rates were highest in sediments from grassland watersheds. High variability was found in carbon content, carbon accumulation, and sediment accumulation rates due to individual watershed and reservoir characteristics rather than to any broad physiographic patterns. The carbon accumulation rates in these reservoir sediments indicate that reservoir sediments could be a significant sink of organic carbon.

  4. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  5. Climate variations, soil conservation and reservoir sedimentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integrated effects of soil conservation and a wetter climate on reservoir sedimentation were investigated for the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed in west-central Oklahoma. A 12% wetter climate since the mid-1980s led to an increase in soil erosion and downstream sediment yield that offset the redu...

  6. Seismic determination of saturation in fractured reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.L.; Wiggins, M.L.; Gupta, A.

    2002-01-01

    Detecting the saturation of a fractured reservoir using shear waves is possible when the fractures have a geometry that induces a component of movement perpendicular to the fractures. When such geometry is present, vertically traveling shear waves can be used to examine the saturation of the fractured reservoir. Tilted, corrugated, and saw-tooth fracture models are potential examples.

  7. Electromagnetic Heating Methods for Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, A.; Kumar, M.; Knapp, R.B.

    2000-05-01

    The most widely used method of thermal oil recovery is by injecting steam into the reservoir. A well-designed steam injection project is very efficient in recovering oil, however its applicability is limited in many situations. Simulation studies and field experience has shown that for low injectivity reservoirs, small thickness of the oil-bearing zone, and reservoir heterogeneity limits the performance of steam injection. This paper discusses alternative methods of transferring heat to heavy oil reservoirs, based on electromagnetic energy. They present a detailed analysis of low frequency electric resistive (ohmic) heating and higher frequency electromagnetic heating (radio and microwave frequency). They show the applicability of electromagnetic heating in two example reservoirs. The first reservoir model has thin sand zones separated by impermeable shale layers, and very viscous oil. They model preheating the reservoir with low frequency current using two horizontal electrodes, before injecting steam. The second reservoir model has very low permeability and moderately viscous oil. In this case they use a high frequency microwave antenna located near the producing well as the heat source. Simulation results presented in this paper show that in some cases, electromagnetic heating may be a good alternative to steam injection or maybe used in combination with steam to improve heavy oil production. They identify the parameters which are critical in electromagnetic heating. They also discuss past field applications of electromagnetic heating including technical challenges and limitations.

  8. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Faruk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2003-02-11

    This research was directed toward developing a systematic reservoir characterization methodology which can be used by the petroleum industry to implement infill drilling programs and/or enhanced oil recovery projects in naturally fractured reservoir systems in an environmentally safe and cost effective manner. It was anticipated that the results of this research program will provide geoscientists and engineers with a systematic procedure for properly characterizing a fractured reservoir system and a reservoir/horizontal wellbore simulator model which can be used to select well locations and an effective EOR process to optimize the recovery of the oil and gas reserves from such complex reservoir systems.

  9. Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Bialystok, Ellen; Blaye, Agnes; Polonia, Alexandra; Yott, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories and the Computerized Comprehension Task. Twenty-five bilingual and 18 monolingual infants aged 24 months participated in this study. The results revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilinguals’ expressive vocabulary size in L1 but similar total vocabularies. Performance on the Computerized Comprehension Task revealed no differences between the two groups on measures of both reaction time and accuracy, and a strong convergent validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task with the Communicative Development Inventories was observed for both groups. Bilinguals with a higher proportion of translation equivalents in their expressive vocabulary showed faster access to words in the Computerized Comprehension Task. PMID:24761135

  10. Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Bialystok, Ellen; Blaye, Agnes; Polonia, Alexandra; Yott, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories and the Computerized Comprehension Task. Twenty-five bilingual and 18 monolingual infants aged 24 months participated in this study. The results revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilinguals' expressive vocabulary size in L1 but similar total vocabularies. Performance on the Computerized Comprehension Task revealed no differences between the two groups on measures of both reaction time and accuracy, and a strong convergent validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task with the Communicative Development Inventories was observed for both groups. Bilinguals with a higher proportion of translation equivalents in their expressive vocabulary showed faster access to words in the Computerized Comprehension Task.

  11. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this cooperative research project is to characterize Alaskan petroleum reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration in relation to lithofacies and structure, and development potential. The project has two tasks: Task 1 is a geological description of the reservoirs including petrophysical properties, i.e., porosity, permeability, permeability variation, formation depth, temperature, and net pay, facies changes and reservoir structures as drawn from cores, well logs, and other geological data. Task 2 is reservoir fluid characterization-determination of physical properties of reservoir fluids including density, viscosity, phase distributions and composition as well as petrogenesis-source rock identification; and the study of asphaltene precipitation for Alaskan crude oils. Results are discussed.

  12. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this cooperative research project is to characterize Alaskan petroleum reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration in relation to lithofacies and structure, and development potential. The project has two tasks: Task 1 is a geological description of the reservoirs including petrophysical properties, i.e., porosity, permeability, permeability variation, formation depth, temperature, and net pay, facies changes and reservoir structures as drawn from cores, well logs, and other geological data. Task 2 is reservoir fluid characterization -- determination of physical properties of reservoir fluids including density, viscosity, phase distributions and composition as well as petrogenesis -- source rock identification; and the study of asphaltene precipitation for Alaskan crude oils.

  13. Rodent reservoirs of future zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Han, Barbara A; Schmidt, John Paul; Bowden, Sarah E; Drake, John M

    2015-06-02

    The increasing frequency of zoonotic disease events underscores a need to develop forecasting tools toward a more preemptive approach to outbreak investigation. We apply machine learning to data describing the traits and zoonotic pathogen diversity of the most speciose group of mammals, the rodents, which also comprise a disproportionate number of zoonotic disease reservoirs. Our models predict reservoir status in this group with over 90% accuracy, identifying species with high probabilities of harboring undiscovered zoonotic pathogens based on trait profiles that may serve as rules of thumb to distinguish reservoirs from nonreservoir species. Key predictors of zoonotic reservoirs include biogeographical properties, such as range size, as well as intrinsic host traits associated with lifetime reproductive output. Predicted hotspots of novel rodent reservoir diversity occur in the Middle East and Central Asia and the Midwestern United States.

  14. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate oojective of this cooperative research project is to characterize Alaskan petroleum reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration in relation to lithofacies and structure, and development potential. The project has two tasks: Task 1 is a geological description of the reservoirs including petrophysical properties, i.e., porosity, permeability, permeability variation, formation depth, temperature, and net pay, facies changes and reservoir structures as drawn from cores, well logs, and other geological data. Task 2 is reservoir fluid characterization--determination of physical properties of reservoir fluids including density, viscosity, phase distributions and composition as well as petrogenesis--source rock identification; and the study of asphaltene precipitation for Alaskan crude oils. This report presents a summary of technical progress of the well log analysis of Kuparuk Field, Northslope, Alaska.

  15. Next generation oil reservoir simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, W.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a collaborative effort between Amoco Production Company, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Cray Research Inc. to develop a next-generation massively parallel oil reservoir simulation code. The simulator, code-named Falcon, enables highly detailed simulations to be performed on a range of platforms such as the Cray T3D and T3E. The code is currently being used by Amoco to perform a sophisticated field study using multiple geostatistical realizations on a scale of 2-5 million grid blocks and 1000-2000 wells. In this paper we discuss the nature of this collaborative effort, the software design and engineering aspects of the code, parallelization experiences, and performance studies. The code will be marketed to the oil industry by a third-party independent software vendor in mid-1996.

  16. A Theory of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribot, Jesse C.; Peluso, Nancy Lee

    2003-01-01

    The term "access" is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as "the "ability" to derive benefits from things," broadening from property's classical definition as…

  17. Identification and Evaluation of Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic (Class 1 Oil) Reservoirs in Oklahoma: Yearly technical progress report for January 1-December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Banken, M.K.; Andrews, R.

    1997-11-17

    The Oklahoma Geological Survey (OGS), the Geo Information Systems department, and the School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering at the University of Oklahoma are engaged in a five-year program to identify and address Oklahoma`s oil recovery opportunities in fluvial-dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs. This program includes a systematic and comprehensive collection and evaluation of information on all FDD oil reservoirs in Oklahoma and the recovery technologies that have been (or could be) applied to those reservoirs with commercial success. During 1996, three highly successful FDD workshops involving 6 producing formations (4 plays) were completed: (1) Layton and Osage-Layton April 17 (2) Prue and Skinner June 19 and 26 (3) Cleveland October 17 (4) Peru October 17 (combined with Cleveland play). Each play was presented individually using the adopted protocol of stratigraphic interpretations, a regional overview, and two or more detailed field studies. The project goal was to have one field study from each play selected for waterflood simulation in order to demonstrate enhanced recovery technologies that can be used to recovery secondary oil. In this effort, software utilized for reservoir simulation included Eclipse and Boast 111. In some cases, because of poor production records and inadequate geologic data, field studies completed in some plays were not suitable for modeling. All of the workshops included regional sandstone trend analysis, updated field boundary identification, a detailed bibliography and author reference map, and detailed field studies. Discussion of general FDD depositional concepts was also given. In addition to the main workshop agenda, the workshops provided computer mapping demonstrations and rock cores with lithologic and facies interpretations. In addition to the workshops, other elements of FDD program were improved during 1996. Most significant was the refinement of NRIS MAPS - a user-friendly computer program designed to access

  18. 13. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING EAST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING EAST FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF RESERVOIR. POST OF ORIGINAL FENCE IS IN FOREGROUND - Portland Reservoir No. 2, 6007 Southeast Division Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 9. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING CHAIN-LINK FENCE IN FOREGROUND AND FOUNDATION STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE OF RESERVOIR BASIN - Portland Reservoir No. 2, 6007 Southeast Division Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  20. 10. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM PICACHO RESERVOIR INLET CHANNEL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  1. The Obtaining of Oil from an Oil Reservoir.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the mechanics of how an actual oil reservoir works and provides some technical background in physics. An experiment which simulates an oil reservoir and demonstrates quantitatively all the basic concepts of oil reservoir rock properties is also presented. (HM)

  2. The Potosi Reservoir Model 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Adushita, Yasmin; Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    As a part of a larger project co-funded by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon as potential targets for carbon sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI) requested Schlumberger to evaluate the potential injectivity and carbon dioxide (CO2) plume size of the Cambrian Potosi Formation. The evaluation of this formation was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from the US DOE-funded Illinois Basin–Decatur Project (IBDP) being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium in Macon County, Illinois. In 2010, technical performance evaluations on the Cambrian Potosi Formation were performed through reservoir modeling. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the VW1 and the CCS1 wells, structural and stratigraphic formation from three dimensional (3D) seismic data, and field data from several waste water injection wells for Potosi Formation. Intention was for two million tons per annum (MTPA) of CO2 to be injected for 20 years. In the preceding, the 2010 Potosi heterogeneous model (referred to as the "Potosi Dynamic Model 2010" in this topical report) was re-run using a new injection scenario; 3.2 MTPA for 30 years. The extent of the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010, however, appeared too small for the new injection target. It was not sufficiently large enough to accommodate the evolution of the plume. The new model, Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a, was built by extending the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010 grid to 30 miles x 30 miles (48.3km x48.3km), while preserving all property modeling workflows and layering. This model was retained as the base case of Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a. The Potosi reservoir model was updated to take into account the new data from the verification well VW2 which was drilled in 2012. The new porosity and permeability modeling was

  3. A Critique of Mark D. Allen's "The Preservation of Verb Subcategory Knowledge in a Spoken Language Comprehension Deficit"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmerer, David

    2008-01-01

    Allen [Allen, M. (2005). "The preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit." "Brain and Language, 95", 255-264.] reports a single patient, WBN, who, during spoken language comprehension, is still able to access some of the syntactic properties of verbs despite being unable to access some of their semantic…

  4. Rapid heterogeneous assembly of multiple magma reservoirs prior to Yellowstone supereruptions

    PubMed Central

    Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Stern, Richard A.; D’Abzac, Francois-Xavier; Schaltegger, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Large-volume caldera-forming eruptions of silicic magmas are an important feature of continental volcanism. The timescales and mechanisms of assembly of the magma reservoirs that feed such eruptions as well as the durations and physical conditions of upper-crustal storage remain highly debated topics in volcanology. Here we explore a comprehensive data set of isotopic (O, Hf) and chemical proxies in precisely U-Pb dated zircon crystals from all caldera-forming eruptions of Yellowstone supervolcano. Analysed zircons record rapid assembly of multiple magma reservoirs by repeated injections of isotopically heterogeneous magma batches and short pre-eruption storage times of 103 to 104 years. Decoupled oxygen-hafnium isotope systematics suggest a complex source for these magmas involving variable amounts of differentiated mantle-derived melt, Archean crust and hydrothermally altered shallow-crustal rocks. These data demonstrate that complex magma reservoirs with multiple sub-chambers are a common feature of rift- and hotspot related supervolcanoes. The short duration of reservoir assembly documents rapid crustal remelting and two to three orders of magnitude higher magma production rates beneath Yellowstone compared to continental arc volcanoes. The short pre-eruption storage times further suggest that the detection of voluminous reservoirs of eruptible magma beneath active supervolcanoes may only be possible prior to an impending eruption. PMID:26356304

  5. Factors dominating stratification cycle and seasonal water quality variation in a Korean estuarine reservoir.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Geun; Kang, Joo-Hyon; Ki, Seo Jin; Cha, Sung Min; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Yun Seok; Park, Yongeun; Lee, Seung Won; Kim, Joon Ha

    2010-05-01

    A comprehensive monitoring program was conducted during 2005-2007 to investigate seasonal variations of hydrologic stability and water quality in the Yeongsan Reservoir (YSR), located at the downstream end of the Yeongsan River, Korea. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify factors dominating the seasonal water quality variation from a large suite of measured data--11 physico-chemical parameters from 48 sampling sites. The results showed that three principal components explained approximately 62% of spatio-seasonal water quality variation, which are related to stratifications, pollutant loadings and resultant eutrophication, and the advective mixing process during the episodic rainfall-runoff events. A comparison was then made between YSR and an upstream freshwater reservoir (Damyang Reservoir, DYR) in the same river basin during an autumn season. It was found that the saline stratification and pollutant input from the upstream contributed to greater concentrations of nutrients and organic matter in YSR compared to DYR. In YSR, saline stratification in combination with thermal stratification was a dominant cause of the longer period (for two consecutive seasons) of hypoxic conditions at the reservoir bottom. The results presented here will help better understand the season- and geography-dependent characteristics of reservoir water quality in Asian Monsoon climate regions such as Korea.

  6. Rapid heterogeneous assembly of multiple magma reservoirs prior to Yellowstone supereruptions.

    PubMed

    Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; Bindeman, Ilya N; Stern, Richard A; D'Abzac, Francois-Xavier; Schaltegger, Urs

    2015-09-10

    Large-volume caldera-forming eruptions of silicic magmas are an important feature of continental volcanism. The timescales and mechanisms of assembly of the magma reservoirs that feed such eruptions as well as the durations and physical conditions of upper-crustal storage remain highly debated topics in volcanology. Here we explore a comprehensive data set of isotopic (O, Hf) and chemical proxies in precisely U-Pb dated zircon crystals from all caldera-forming eruptions of Yellowstone supervolcano. Analysed zircons record rapid assembly of multiple magma reservoirs by repeated injections of isotopically heterogeneous magma batches and short pre-eruption storage times of 10(3) to 10(4) years. Decoupled oxygen-hafnium isotope systematics suggest a complex source for these magmas involving variable amounts of differentiated mantle-derived melt, Archean crust and hydrothermally altered shallow-crustal rocks. These data demonstrate that complex magma reservoirs with multiple sub-chambers are a common feature of rift- and hotspot related supervolcanoes. The short duration of reservoir assembly documents rapid crustal remelting and two to three orders of magnitude higher magma production rates beneath Yellowstone compared to continental arc volcanoes. The short pre-eruption storage times further suggest that the detection of voluminous reservoirs of eruptible magma beneath active supervolcanoes may only be possible prior to an impending eruption.

  7. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    1997-08-08

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  8. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    1998-03-03

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  9. Identification and evaluation of fluvial-dominated deltaic (Class I oil) reservoirs in Oklahoma. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Mankin, C.J.; Banken, M.K.

    1995-11-30

    The Oklahoma Geological Survey (OGS), the Geo Information Systems department, and the School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering at the University of Oklahoma are engaged in a program to identify and address Oklahoma`s oil recovery opportunities in fluvial-dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs. This program includes the systematic and comprehensive collection and evaluation of information on all of Oklahoma`s FDD reservoirs and the recovery technologies that have been (or could be) applied to those reservoirs with commercial success. This data collection and evaluation effort will be the foundation for an aggressive, multifaceted technology transfer program that is designed to support all of Oklahoma`s oil industry, with particular emphasis on smaller companies and independent operators in their attempts to maximize the economic producibility of FDD reservoirs. Specifically, this project will identify all FDD oil reservoirs in the State; group those reservoirs into plays that have similar depositional origins; collect, organize and analyze all available data conduct characterization and simulation studies on selected reservoirs in each play; and implement a technology transfer program targeted to the operators of FDD reservoirs. Activities were focused primarily on technology transfer elements of the project. This included regional play analysis and mapping, geologic field studies, and reservoir modeling for secondary water flood simulations as used in publication folios and workshops. The computer laboratory was fully operational for operator use. Computer systems design and database development activities were ongoing.

  10. 5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  11. Microbial Food-Web Drivers in Tropical Reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Carolina Davila; da Silva, Lucia Helena Sampaio; Rangel, Luciana Machado; de Magalhães, Leonardo; de Melo Rocha, Adriana; Lobão, Lúcia Meirelles; Paiva, Rafael; Roland, Fábio; Sarmento, Hugo

    2017-04-01

    Element cycling in aquatic systems is driven chiefly by planktonic processes, and the structure of the planktonic food web determines the efficiency of carbon transfer through trophic levels. However, few studies have comprehensively evaluated all planktonic food-web components in tropical regions. The aim of this study was to unravel the top-down controls (metazooplankton community structure), bottom-up controls (resource availability), and hydrologic (water residence time) and physical (temperature) variables that affect different components of the microbial food web (MFW) carbon stock in tropical reservoirs, through structural equation models (SEM). We conducted a field study in four deep Brazilian reservoirs (Balbina, Tucuruí, Três Marias, and Funil) with different trophic states (oligo-, meso-, and eutrophic). We found evidence of a high contribution of the MFW (up to 50% of total planktonic carbon), especially in the less-eutrophic reservoirs (Balbina and Tucuruí). Bottom-up and top-down effects assessed through SEM indicated negative interactions between soluble reactive phosphorus and phototrophic picoplankton (PPP), dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF). Copepods positively affected ciliates, and cladocerans positively affected heterotrophic bacteria (HB) and PPP. Higher copepod/cladoceran ratios and an indirect positive effect of copepods on HB might strengthen HB-HNF coupling. We also found low values for the degree of uncoupling (D) and a low HNF/HB ratio compared with literature data (mostly from temperate regions). This study demonstrates the importance of evaluating the whole size spectrum (including microbial compartments) of the different planktonic compartments, in order to capture the complex carbon dynamics of tropical aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Impacts of the Snake River drawdown experiment on fisheries resources in Little Goose and Lower Granite Reservoirs, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D D; Geist, D R

    1992-09-01

    In March 1992, the US Army Corps of Engineers initiated a test to help evaluate physical and environmental impacts resulting from the proposed future drawdown of Snake River reservoirs. Drawdown would reduce water levels in Snake River reservoirs and is being proposed as a solution to decrease the time it takes for salmon and steelhead smolts to migrate to the ocean. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated impacts to specific fisheries resources during the drawdown experiment by surveying Lower Granite Reservoir to determine if fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas and steelhead (0. mykiss) access to tributary creeks were affected. In addition, shoreline areas of Little Goose Reservoir were monitored to evaluate the suitability of these areas for spawning by fall chinook salmon. Relative abundance of fish species in nearshore areas was also determined during the drawdown, and stranded resident fish and other aquatic organisms were observed.

  13. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Technical progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and quantitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir which will allow realistic inter-well and reservoir-scale modeling to be constructed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. The geological and petrophysical properties of the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in east-central Utah will be quantitatively determined. Both new and existing data will be integrated into a three-dimensional representation of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations. Transfer of the project results to the petroleum industry is an integral component of the project.

  14. Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.; Martin J. Blunt

    1998-04-30

    This report describes research into gas injection processes in four main areas: laboratory experiments to measure three-phase relative permeability; network modeling to predict three-phase relative permeability; benchmark simulations of gas injection and water flooding at the field scale; and the development of fast streamline techniques to study field-scale ow. The aim of the work is to achieve a comprehensive description of gas injection processes from the pore to the core to the reservoir scale. To this end, measurements of three-phase relative pemeability have been made and compared with predictions from pore scale modeling. At the field scale, streamline-based simulation has been extended to compositional displacements, providing a rapid method to predict oil recovery from gas injection.

  15. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  16. An experimental unification of reservoir computing methods.

    PubMed

    Verstraeten, D; Schrauwen, B; D'Haene, M; Stroobandt, D

    2007-04-01

    Three different uses of a recurrent neural network (RNN) as a reservoir that is not trained but instead read out by a simple external classification layer have been described in the literature: Liquid State Machines (LSMs), Echo State Networks (ESNs) and the Backpropagation Decorrelation (BPDC) learning rule. Individual descriptions of these techniques exist, but a overview is still lacking. Here, we present a series of experimental results that compares all three implementations, and draw conclusions about the relation between a broad range of reservoir parameters and network dynamics, memory, node complexity and performance on a variety of benchmark tests with different characteristics. Next, we introduce a new measure for the reservoir dynamics based on Lyapunov exponents. Unlike previous measures in the literature, this measure is dependent on the dynamics of the reservoir in response to the inputs, and in the cases we tried, it indicates an optimal value for the global scaling of the weight matrix, irrespective of the standard measures. We also describe the Reservoir Computing Toolbox that was used for these experiments, which implements all the types of Reservoir Computing and allows the easy simulation of a wide range of reservoir topologies for a number of benchmarks.

  17. Linking Production and Comprehension Processes: The Case of Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gennari, Silvia P.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2009-01-01

    Six studies investigated the relationship between production and comprehension by examining how relative clause production mechanisms influence the probabilistic information used by comprehenders to understand these structures. Two production experiments show that accessibility-based mechanisms that are influenced by noun animacy and verb type…

  18. THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S COMPREHENSIVE HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from nine U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the world-wide web. The data system is called CHAD-Consolidated Human Activity Database-and it is ...

  19. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  20. Predatory Open Access in Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Manca, Andrea; Martinez, Gianluca; Cugusi, Lucia; Dragone, Daniele; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Deriu, Franca

    2017-01-20

    Increasingly scholars and researchers are being solicited by predatory open access journals seeking manuscript submissions and abusing the author-pays model by charging authors with publishing fees without any or proper peer review. Such questionable editorial practices are threatening the reputation and credibility of scholarly publishing. To date, no investigation has been conducted on this phenomenon in the field of rehabilitation. This study attempts to identify specific predatory journals operating in this field to quantify the phenomenon and its geographic distribution. Beall's List has been used to this end which, although not perfect, is a comprehensive and up-to-date report of predatory publishers. Of the 1113 publishers on the list, 59 journals were identified, for a total of 5610 published articles. The median number of articles published by each journal was 21, and the median amount of article processing charges was $499. Only 1 out of 59 journals was included in the Directory of Open Access Journals, whereas 7 (12%) were indexed by PubMed. Most of the publishers were based in India (36%) followed by the United States (25%) and Pakistan (5%), and 25% were without a verifiable address. The data indicate that the threat of predatory publishing in rehabilitation is real. Physiatrists, physiotherapists, researchers, and academics operating in this field are advised to use the tools available to recognize predatory practices before considering publishing in open access journals.

  1. Geomechanics of horizontally-drilled, stress-sensitive, naturally-fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, D.J.; Brown, S.R.; Lorenz, J.C.; Olsson, W.A.; Teufel, L.W.; Warpinski, N.R.

    1994-09-01

    Horizontal drilling is a viable approach for accessing hydrocarbons in many types of naturally-fractured reservoirs. Cost-effective improvements in the technology to drill, complete, and produce horizontal wells in difficult geologic environments require a better understanding of the mechanical and fluid-flow behavior of these reservoirs with changes ineffective stress during their development and production history. In particular, improved understanding is needed for predicting borehole stability and reservoir response during pore pressure drawdown. To address these problems, a cooperative project between Oryx Energy Company and Sandia National Laboratories was undertaken to study the effects of rock properties, in situ stress, and changes in effective stress on the deformation and permeability of stress sensitive, naturally-fractured reservoirs. A low value for the proelastic parameter was found, implying that the reservoir should have a low sensitivity to declining pore pressure. A surprisingly diverse suite of fractures was identified from core. From the coring-induced fractures, it was plausible to conclude that the maximum principal stress was in the horizontal plane. Measurements on permeability of naturally fractured rock in a newly-developed experimental arrangement showed that slip on fractures is much more effective inchangingpcrtncability than is normal stress. The intermediate principal stress was found to have a strong effect, on the strength and ductility of the chalk, implying the need for a more sophisticated calculation of borehole stability.

  2. 1985 Libby Reservoir Angler Census: May 13-October 31, 1987 [i.e. 1985] : Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, Ian; Hamlin, Paul

    1987-05-01

    An intensive creel and economic survey was conducted on Libby Reservoir from May 13 through October 31, 1985. This research was part of a larger effort to quantify the existing reservoir fishery and the effects of dam operation on this fishery. Census techniques incorporated direct interviews and electronic car counters installed at all established boat ramp access sites. A total of 4243 angling party interviews, 2379 car counter interviews and 719 economic surveys were conducted on Libby Reservoir. Interviewed anglers fished for 52,146 hours. Estimated pressure was 518,916 hours or 93,500 angler days equivalent to 2.10 angler days per acre. Eight percent of the total estimated angler days or 7436 fishing grips occurred on the Canadian portion of the reservoir. Boat anglers expended over 96% of the total effort. Anglers caught an estimated 617,097 fish during the creel period, 97% (597,380 fish) of which were kokanee. The majority (98%) of the kokanee harvested were caught on the US portion of the reservoir. Harvest of Salmo spp. was estimated at 15,334 fish. Whitefish and brook trout harvest was estimated at 1273 and 48 fish, respectively. Nongame fish species were almost nonexistent in the creel and estimated harvest was less than 0.5% of the total harvest.

  3. Size of age-0 crappies (Pomoxis spp.) relative to reservoir habitats and water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczka, Levi J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Variable year-class strength is common in crappie Pomoxis spp. populations in many reservoirs, yet the mechanisms behind this variability are poorly understood. Size-dependent mortality of age-0 fishes has long been recognized in the population ecology literature; however, investigations about the effects of environmental factors on age-0 crappie size are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine if differences existed in total length of age-0 crappies between embayment and floodplain habitats in reservoirs, while accounting for potential confounding effects of water level and crappie species. To this end, we examined size of age-0 crappies in four flood-control reservoirs in northwest Mississippi over 4years. Age-0 crappies inhabiting uplake floodplain habitats grew to a larger size than fish in downlake embayments, but this trend depended on species, length of time a reservoir was dewatered in the months preceding spawning, and reservoir water level in the months following spawning. The results from our study indicate that water-level management may focus not only on allowing access to quality nursery habitat, but that alternating water levels on a multiyear schedule could increase the quality of degraded littoral habitats.

  4. Comprehension Monitoring and Reading Comprehension in Bilingual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolic-Vehovec, Svjetlana; Bajsanski, Igor

    2007-01-01

    This study explored comprehension monitoring, use of reading strategies and reading comprehension of bilingual students at different levels of perceived proficiency in Italian. The participants were bilingual fifth to eighth-grade elementary school students from four Italian schools in Rijeka, Croatia. Students' reading comprehension was assessed.…

  5. The Matter with Listening Comprehension Isn't the Ear: Hardware and Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, T. Edward

    1978-01-01

    Reviews some technological advances and classroom games which may be used to increase listening comprehension skills in the foreign language classroom. These include the Random Access Memory (RAM), the Sens-it-Cell, and the SCUCHO game. (AM)

  6. The Effects of Some Known Sources of Reading Difficulty on Metacomprehension and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports on a study that was designed to determine the differential holes that three variables--accessing word meaning, integrating prior knowledge, and using text structure to organize ideas--play, not only in comprehension, but also in metacomprehension. (HOD)

  7. Basic gas storage reservoir operations and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nowaczewski, S.F. )

    1994-08-01

    Operation and performance analysis of gas storage reservoirs is described in very basic and general terms. Reservoir selection criteria (capacity, deliverability, location, field type, trap type) are reviewed. Well construction considerations and practices (casing sizing, placement, and cementing) are highlighted with regard to the need for long-lived safe operation. Deliverability estimation and prediction and gas inventory methodologies are described. The benefits of high density, high quality data on gas pressure and composition, production rates and volumes, and geologic information to reservoir performance evaluation and prediction are demonstrated.

  8. Production-induced changes in reservoir geomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoyedo, Sunday O.

    Sand production remains a source of concern in both conventional and heavy oil production. Porosity increase and changes in local stress magnitude, which often enhance permeability, have been associated with severe sanding. On the other hand, sand production has been linked to a large number of field incidences involving loss of well integrity, casing collapse and corrosion of down-hole systems. It also poses problems for separators and transport facilities. Numerous factors such as reservoir consolidation, well deviation angle through the reservoir, perforation size, grain size, capillary forces associated with water cut, flow rate and most importantly reservoir strain resulting from pore pressure depletion contribute to reservoir sanding. Understanding field-specific sand production patterns in mature fields and poorly consolidated reservoirs is vital in identifying sand-prone wells and guiding remedial activities. Reservoir strain analysis of Forties Field, located in the UK sector of the North Sea, shows that the magnitude of the production-induced strain, part of which is propagated to the base of the reservoir, is of the order of 0.2 %, which is significant enough to impact the geomechanical properties of the reservoir. Sand production analysis in the field shows that in addition to poor reservoir consolidation, a combined effect of repeated perforation, high well deviation, reservoir strain and high fluid flow rate have contributed significantly to reservoir sanding. Knowledge of reservoir saturation variation is vital for in-fill well drilling, while information on reservoir stress variation provides a useful guide for sand production management, casing design, injector placement and production management. Interpreting time-lapse difference is enhanced by decomposing time-lapse difference into saturation, pressure effects and changes in rock properties (e.g. porosity) especially in highly compacting reservoirs. Analyzing the stress and saturation

  9. Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

  10. Dispersivity as an oil reservoir rock characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Menzie, D.E.; Dutta, S.

    1989-12-01

    The main objective of this research project is to establish dispersivity, {alpha}{sub d}, as an oil reservoir rock characteristic and to use this reservoir rock property to enhance crude oil recovery. A second objective is to compare the dispersion coefficient and the dispersivity of various reservoir rocks with other rock characteristics such as: porosity, permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. The dispersivity of a rock was identified by measuring the physical mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. 119 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Safety drain system for fluid reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.

  12. Atlas of major Texas gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Kosters, E.C.; Bebout, D.G.; Seni, S.J.; Garret, C.M.; Brown, L.F.; Hamlin, H.S.; Dutton, S.P.; Ruppel, S.C.; Finley, R.J.; Tyler, N.

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains information on more than 1,828 reservoirs, with emphasis on 868 reservoirs that have cumulative gas production of greater than 30 billion cubic feet of natural gas. Texas gas reservoirs are classified into 73 plays, each of which is described in terms of its principal geologic and engineering production characteristics. This assessment of the similarities of gas occurrence within each play will assist in defining controls on gas accumulation, in identifying resources affected by new technology, and in expanding technology to maximize recovery through improved field development and production practices.

  13. Outer boundary effects in a petroleum reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Rhodri; Crowdy, Darren; Kropf, Everett; Zuo, Lihua; Weijermars, Ruud

    2016-11-01

    A new toolkit for potential theory based on the Schottky-Klein prime function is first introduced. This potential theory toolkit is then applied to study the fluid flow structures in bounded 2D petroleum reservoirs. In the model, reservoirs are assumed to be heterogeneous and isotropic porous medium and can thus be modelled using Darcy's equation. First, computations of flow contours are carried out on some 'test' domains and benchmarked against results from the ECLIPSE reservoir simulator. Following this, a case study of the Quitman oil field in Texas is presented.

  14. Improved storage efficiency through geologic modeling and reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ammer, J.R.; Mroz, T.H.; Covatch, G.L.

    1997-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through partnerships with industry, is demonstrating the importance of geologic modeling and reservoir simulation for optimizing the development and operation of gas storage fields. The geologic modeling and reservoir simulation study for the Natural Fuel Gas Supply Corporation CRADA was completed in September 1995. The results of this study were presented at the 1995 Society of Petroleum Engineers` (SPE) Eastern Regional Meeting. Although there has been no field verification of the modeling results, the study has shown the potential advantages and cost savings opportunities of using horizontal wells for storage enhancement. The geologic modeling for the Equitrans` CRADA was completed in September 1995 and was also presented at the 1995 SPE Eastern Regional Meeting. The reservoir modeling of past field performance was completed in November 1996 and prediction runs are currently being made to investigate the potential of offering either a 10 day or 30 day peaking service in addition to the existing 110 day base load service. Initial results have shown that peaking services can be provided through remediation of well damage and by drilling either several new vertical wells or one new horizontal well. The geologic modeling for the Northern Indiana Public Service Company CRADA was completed in November 1996 with a horizontal well being completed in January 1997. Based on well test results, the well will significantly enhance gas deliverability from the field and will allow the utilization of gas from an area of the storage field that was not accessible from their existing vertical wells. Results are presented from these three case studies.

  15. Optomechanical entanglement via reservoir engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingdan

    2014-03-01

    A mechanical resonator could serve as an ideal system for transferring quantum states and mediating interactions between very different kinds of photons. To this end, recent experiments have realized three-mode optomechanical systems, where a single mechanical resonator simultaneously interacts with both an optical and a microwave cavity. In this talk I will discuss different strategies which use reservoir engineering in such a system as a powerful tool to generate robust, stationary entanglement between the two cavity fields. By manipulating the mechanical resonator to effectively cool delocalized Bogoliubov modes, we find that large intracavity entanglement can be achieved, at a level which is well above the maximum achievable via a coherent two-mode interaction. We have also analyzed the entanglement of the output fields of the two cavities. While there are significant differences from the intra-cavity fields, we again find that with proper parameter choices, large amounts of entanglement can be achieved. While the emphasis is on optomechanics, our results can also be applied directly to other 3-mode bosonic systems (e.g., as could be realized with superconducting microwave circuits).

  16. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-07-01

    In fully-saturated rock and at ultrasonic frequencies, the microscopic squirt flow induced between the stiff and soft parts of the pore space by an elastic wave is responsible for velocity-frequency dispersion and attenuation. In the seismic frequency range, it is the macroscopic cross-flow between the stiffer and softer parts of the rock. We use the latter hypothesis to introduce simple approximate equations for velocity-frequency dispersion and attenuation in a fully water saturated reservoir. The equations are based on the assumption that in heterogeneous rock and at a very low frequency, the effective elastic modulus of the fully-saturated rock can be estimated by applying a fluid substitution procedure to the averaged (upscaled) dry frame whose effective porosity is the mean porosity and the effective elastic modulus is the Backus-average (geometric mean) of the individual dry-frame elastic moduli of parts of the rock. At a higher frequency, the effective elastic modulus of the saturated rock is the Backus-average of the individual fully-saturated-rock elastic moduli of parts of the rock. The difference between the effective elastic modulus calculated separately by these two methods determines the velocity-frequency dispersion. The corresponding attenuation is calculated from this dispersion by using (e.g.) the standard linear solid attenuation model.

  17. Survival of the primitive mantle reservoir?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2010-12-01

    The high-3He lavas are thought to originate from a deep primitive mantle source that has not been much modified since the formation of Earth’s core. Comparison of 4He/3He in MORBs and plume lavas indicate that the plume sources must be a lower mantle feature, in agreement with most geophysical inferences. However, the lithophile element isotope systems of plume lavas are not primitive. The idea that the high-3He source is significantly less processed and more primitive than MORB source is clearly supported by mixing trends in plots of 4He/3He versus Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios, which have been extrapolated to an inferred 4He/3He of ~17,000 (~43x the atmospheric ratio), a mantle reservoir named PHEM (Primitive HElium Mantle). Slightly lower 4He/3He, ~15,000, were reported for Baffin Island picrites. Recently, Jackson et al. (2010) claimed that some Baffin Island and Greenland picrites with single-stage Pb model ages of ~4.5 Ga have low 4He/3He, and argued that “their source is the most ancient accessible reservoir in the Earth’s mantle, and it may be parental to all mantle reservoirs”. However, the available data are insufficient to make such a claim, and we suggest an alternative interpretation. Specially: 1. Four out of ten Baffin Island and Greenland picrites used by Jackson et al. (2010) have 4He/3He higher than average MORB value and all are far removed from the lowest measured value of 15,000. 2. Five Greenland picrites which cluster around the 4.50 Gyr geochron (Jackson et al., 2010) form a curved 207Pb*/206Pb*-4He/3He trend. This trend is best explained as a mixing line, implying that the single-stage Pb ages of these lavas are meaningless. 3. In a 207Pb*/206Pb*-4He/3He plot, Koolau lavas from Hawaii overlap with Baffin Island and Greenland picrites. If Baffin Island and Greenland picrites represent melts from the primitive mantle based on their Pb and He isotopes (Jackson et al., 2010), a similar argument can be applied to Koolau lavas. However, it

  18. Volume 4: Characterization of representative reservoirs -- Gulf of Mexico field, U-8 reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Koperna, G.J. Jr.; Johnson, H.R.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Sawyer, W.K.; Kimbrell, W.C.; Schenewerk, P.A.

    1998-07-01

    A reservoir study was performed using a publicly available black oil simulator to history match and predict the performance of a Gulf of Mexico reservoir. The first objective of this simulation study was to validate the Black Oil Applied Simulation Tool version three for personal computers (BOAST3-PC) model to ensure the integrity of the simulation runs. Once validation was completed, a field history match for the Gulf of Mexico U-8 oil reservoir was attempted. A verbal agreement was reached with the operator of this reservoir to blindcode the name and location of the reservoir. In return, the operator supplied data and assistance in regards to the technical aspects of the research. On the basis of the best history match, different secondary recovery techniques were simulated as a predictive study for enhancing the reservoir productivity.

  19. Overview of the Hijiori shallow reservoir circulation tests and reservoir fluid storage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Takahiro Shiga; Masami Hyodo; Shinji Takasugi; Wright, C.A.; Conant, R.A.

    1996-01-24

    Since 1985, NEDO has advanced a]Hot Dry Rock project in Hijiori, Japan. Circulation tests have been performed in FY1991 (in a shallow reservoir), and in FY1995 (in both shallow and deep reservoirs). In 1991 circulation test, the result was that 78% fluid recovery at an injection rate of 60 tons/hour and production temperatures of 150 °C - 190 °C . However no detailed analysis of flow conditions was given. Therefore, a simplified HDR model has been proposed to understand the Hijion HDR reservoir. We have analyzed the 1991 circulation test using the model. This study is very important for analyzing the circulation test in both of shallow and deep reservoir which was conducted in 1995. This paper summarizes the 1991 circulation test at the Hijiori HDR test site, and estimation of the reservoir fluid storage by using "unrecovered" flow from the new conceptual idea of HDR reservoir model.

  20. Idiom Comprehension in Aphasic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papagno, Costanza; Tabossi, Patrizia; Colombo, Maria Rosa; Zampetti, Patrizia

    2004-01-01

    Idiom comprehension was assessed in 10 aphasic patients with semantic deficits by means of a string-to-picture matching task. Patients were also submitted to an oral explanation of the same idioms, and to a word comprehension task. The stimuli of this last task were the words following the verb in the idioms. Idiom comprehension was severely…

  1. Assessing Reading Comprehension in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Diane; Francis, David J.; Hsu, Han-Ya Annie; Snow, Catherine E.

    2006-01-01

    A new measure of reading comprehension, the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading Comprehension (DARC), designed to reflect central comprehension processes while minimizing decoding and language demands, was pilot tested. We conducted three pilot studies to assess the DARC's feasibility, reliability, comparability across Spanish and English,…

  2. Understanding and Teaching Cohesion Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Judith W., Ed.

    Concerned with improving student comprehension of text, this book focuses particularly on teaching students how sentences tie together. Articles in the three sections are grouped as follows: Part 1, What Is Cohesion Comprehension? contains "Cohesion, Coherence, and Comprehension" (Alden J. Moe and Judith W. Irwin); "Identifying…

  3. Priming Ditransitive Structures in Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Manabu; van Gompel, Roger P. G.; Scheepers, Cristoph

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown evidence for syntactic priming during language production (e.g., Bock, 1986). It is often assumed that comprehension and production share similar mechanisms and that priming also occurs during comprehension (e.g., Pickering & Garrod, 2004). Research investigating priming during comprehension (e.g., Branigan et al., 2005 and…

  4. Comprehensive multiplatform collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kundan; Wu, Xiaotao; Lennox, Jonathan; Schulzrinne, Henning G.

    2003-12-01

    We describe the architecture and implementation of our comprehensive multi-platform collaboration framework known as Columbia InterNet Extensible Multimedia Architecture (CINEMA). It provides a distributed architecture for collaboration using synchronous communications like multimedia conferencing, instant messaging, shared web-browsing, and asynchronous communications like discussion forums, shared files, voice and video mails. It allows seamless integration with various communication means like telephones, IP phones, web and electronic mail. In addition, it provides value-added services such as call handling based on location information and presence status. The paper discusses the media services needed for collaborative environment, the components provided by CINEMA and the interaction among those components.

  5. Comprehensive Testing of a Neon Cryogenic Capillary Pumped Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobel, Mark C.; Ku, Jentung; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive test program of a cryogenic capillary pumped loop (CCPL) using neon as the working fluid in the temperature range between 30 K and 40 K. The test article was originally designed to be used with nitrogen in the 70 K to 100 K temperature range, and was refurbished for testing with neon. Tests performed included start up from a supercritical state, power cycle, sink temperature cycle, heat transport limit, low power limit, reservoir set point change and long duration operation. The neon CCPL has demonstrated excellent performance under various conditions.

  6. Primary vascular access.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, C P

    2006-05-01

    Primary vascular access is usually achievable by a distal autogenous arterio-venous fistula (AVF). This article describes the approach to vascular access planning, the usual surgical options and the factors affecting patency.

  7. Destratification of an impounding reservoir using compressed air??case of Mudi reservoir, Blantyre, Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipofya, V. H.; Matapa, E. J.

    This paper reviews the operational and cost effectiveness of a compressed air destratification system that was installed in the Mudi reservoir for destratifying the reservoir. Mudi reservoir is a raw water source for the Blantyre Water Board. It has a capacity of 1,400,000 cubic metres. The reservoir is 15.3 m deep at top water level. In the absence of any artificial circulation of air, the reservoir stratifies into two layers. There is a warm epilimnion in the top 3 m of the reservoir, with temperatures ranging from 23 to 26 °C. There is prolific algal growth in this layer. The bottom layer has much lower temperatures, and is oxygen deficient. Under such anaerobic conditions, ammonia, sulphides, iron and manganese are released from the sediments of the reservoir. As a result of nutrient inflow from the catchments, coupled with tropical ambient temperatures, the reservoir is most times infested with blue-green algae. This results into water treatment problems in respect of taste and odour and iron and manganese soluble salts. To abate such problems, air is artificially circulated in the reservoir, near the intake tower, through a perforated pipe that is connected to an electrically driven compressor. This causes artificial circulation of water in the hypolimnion region of the reservoir. As a result of this circulation, a hostile environment that inhibits the propagation of algae is created. Dissolved oxygen and temperature profiles are practically uniform from top to bottom of reservoir. Concentrations of iron and manganese soluble salts are much reduced at any of the draw-off points available for the water treatment process. The paper concludes by highlighting the significant cost savings in water treatment that are accrued from the use of compressed air destratification in impounding water storage reservoirs for the control of algae and other chemical pollutants.

  8. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  9. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  10. Analyzing a hydrocarbon reservoir by determining the response of that reservoir to tidal forces

    SciTech Connect

    Graebner, P.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes a method for determining a component of the response of a hydrocarbons reservoir to tidal forces. It comprises measuring a variable responsive to tidal forces within the reservoir over a measurement time period; determining a theoretical earth-tide for the reservoir over the measurement time period; and determining the component of the response to tidal forces by comparing the variable measurements and the theoretical earth-tide determinations.

  11. Fifteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Fifteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23--25, 1990. Major topics included: DOE's geothermal research and development program, well testing, field studies, geosciences, geysers, reinjection, tracers, geochemistry, and modeling.

  12. Development of heavy-oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, P.J.; Baron, R.P.; Fulleylove, R.J.; Wright, M.S.

    1988-02-01

    Although complex categorizations are in vogue, ''heavy oils'' can be defined simply in terms of their flow properties in the reservoir-e.g., a 100-cp (100-mPa.s) or greater viscosity. Such heavy oils are major world hydrocarbon resource that is exploited where indigenous demand exists. Efficient methods of production require enthalpy input to the reservoir by hot-fluid injection or by creation of heat in the reservoir. Heat losses must be minimized to achieve maximum production efficiency. The widely used cyclic-steam-injection process is examined analytically to indicate which parameters govern successful exploitation. Steamflood and in-situ combustion techniques are discussed with reference to recent developments. Heavy-oil recovery from the more difficult carbonate reservoirs, such as those of the Middle East, is reviewed and potential production mechanism are examined. Production techniques are described together with export handling schemes.

  13. Assembling evidence for identifying reservoirs of infection.

    PubMed

    Viana, Mafalda; Mancy, Rebecca; Biek, Roman; Cleaveland, Sarah; Cross, Paul C; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Haydon, Daniel T

    2014-05-01

    Many pathogens persist in multihost systems, making the identification of infection reservoirs crucial for devising effective interventions. Here, we present a conceptual framework for classifying patterns of incidence and prevalence, and review recent scientific advances that allow us to study and manage reservoirs simultaneously. We argue that interventions can have a crucial role in enriching our mechanistic understanding of how reservoirs function and should be embedded as quasi-experimental studies in adaptive management frameworks. Single approaches to the study of reservoirs are unlikely to generate conclusive insights whereas the formal integration of data and methodologies, involving interventions, pathogen genetics, and contemporary surveillance techniques, promises to open up new opportunities to advance understanding of complex multihost systems.

  14. Improved energy recovery from geothermal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boedvarsson, G. S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.; Bjoernsson, S.

    1981-06-01

    Numerical simulation methods are used to study how the exploitation of different horizons affects the behavior of a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir. The reservoir model is a schematic representation of the Olkaria field in Kenya. The model consists of a two phase vapor dominated zone overlying the main liquid dominated reservoir. Four different cases were studied, with fluid produced from: (1) the vapor zone only, (2) the liquid zone only, (3) both zones and (4) both zones, but assuming lower values for vertical permeability and porosity. The results indicate that production from the shallow two phase zone, although resulting in higher enthalpy fluids, may not be advantageous in the long run. Shallow production gives rise to a rather localized depletion of the reservoir, whereas production from deeper horizons may yield a more uniform depletion process, if vertical permeability is sufficiently large.

  15. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir for breathing gas and to assist, control, or monitor a patient's ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir for breathing gas and to assist, control, or monitor a patient's ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir for breathing gas and to assist, control, or monitor a patient's ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir for breathing gas and to assist, control, or monitor a patient's ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir for breathing gas and to assist, control, or monitor a patient's ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  20. Modeling the Entrepeñas Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Bernd U; Palancar, María C; Aragón, José M; Sánchez, Fernando; Gil, Roberto

    2006-08-01

    The Entrepeñas Reservoir is a monomictic reservoir located in River Tagus (Spain). The aim of this work is to establish a feasible model to predict the depth of the thermocline that is developed in the reservoir during the period of natural thermal stratification. Entrainment, eddy diffusion, inflow of external energy, and other factors are considered to calibrate the parameters of the model. The methodology involves the measure of actual temperature and electrical conductivity profiles, use of meteorological data and reservoir parameters, and selection and application of several models from the literature. The calculations and predictions are integrated to a software packet that is able to predict thermocline depth and water temperature profile during a 1-year period on a day-by-day basis. In the thermocline depth, the prediction error, on the basis of real data, is less than 6% and, in the water temperature, it is 2 degrees C.

  1. Heat deliverability of homogeneous geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, Eduardo R.; Moya, Sara L.

    1991-01-01

    For the last two decades, the petroleum industry has been successfully using simple inflow performance relationships (IPR's) to predict oil deliverability. In contrast, the geothermal industry lacked a simple and reliable method to estimate geothermal wells' heat deliverability. To address this gap in the standard geothermal-reservoir-assessment arsenal, we developed generalized dimensionless geothermal inflow performance relationships (GIPR's). These ''reference curves'' may be regarded as an approximate general solution of the equations describing the practically important case of radial 2-phase inflow. Based on this approximate solution, we outline a straightforward approach to estimate the reservoir contribution to geothermal wells heat and mass deliverability for 2-phase reservoirs. This approach is far less costly and in most cases as reliable as numerically modeling the reservoir, which is the alternative for 2-phase inflow.

  2. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zinchenko, A. V.

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  3. Assembling evidence for identifying reservoirs of infection

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Mafalda; Mancy, Rebecca; Biek, Roman; Cleaveland, Sarah; Cross, Paul C.; Lloyd-Smith, James O.; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogens persist in multihost systems, making the identification of infection reservoirs crucial for devising effective interventions. Here, we present a conceptual framework for classifying patterns of incidence and prevalence, and review recent scientific advances that allow us to study and manage reservoirs simultaneously. We argue that interventions can have a crucial role in enriching our mechanistic understanding of how reservoirs function and should be embedded as quasi-experimental studies in adaptive management frameworks. Single approaches to the study of reservoirs are unlikely to generate conclusive insights whereas the formal integration of data and methodologies, involving interventions, pathogen genetics, and contemporary surveillance techniques, promises to open up new opportunities to advance understanding of complex multihost systems. PMID:24726345

  4. Reservoir response to tidal and barometric effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, J.M.

    1980-05-29

    Solid earth tidal strain and surface loading due to fluctuations in barometric pressure have the effect, although extremely minute, of dilating or contracting the effective pore volume in a porous reservoir. If a well intersects the formation, the change in pore pressure can be measured with sensitive quartz pressure gauges. Mathematical models of the relevant fluid dynamics of the well-reservoir system have been generated and tested against conventional well pumping results or core data at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), California and at the Raft River, Geothermal Field (RRGF), Idaho. Porosity-total compressibility product evaluation based on tidal strain response compares favorably with results based on conventional pumping techniques. Analysis of reservoir response to barometric loading using Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) stochastic modeling appears also to have potential use for the evaluation of reservoir parameters.

  5. Ecological assessment of a southeastern Brazil reservoir

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Reservoirs are artificial ecosystems with multiple functions having direct and indirect benefits to humans; however, they also cause ecological changes and influence the composition and structure of aquatic biota. Our objectives were to: (1) assess the environmen...

  6. Assembling evidence for identifying reservoirs of infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mafalda, Viana; Rebecca, Mancy; Roman, Biek; Sarah, Cleaveland; Cross, Paul C.; James O, Lloyd-Smith; Daniel T, Haydon

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogens persist in multihost systems, making the identification of infection reservoirs crucial for devising effective interventions. Here, we present a conceptual framework for classifying patterns of incidence and prevalence, and review recent scientific advances that allow us to study and manage reservoirs simultaneously. We argue that interventions can have a crucial role in enriching our mechanistic understanding of how reservoirs function and should be embedded as quasi-experimental studies in adaptive management frameworks. Single approaches to the study of reservoirs are unlikely to generate conclusive insights whereas the formal integration of data and methodologies, involving interventions, pathogen genetics, and contemporary surveillance techniques, promises to open up new opportunities to advance understanding of complex multihost systems.

  7. Models for naturally fractured, carbonate reservoir simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncay, K.; Park, A.; Ozkan, G.; Zhan, X.; Ortoleva, P.; Hoak, T.; Sundberg, K.

    1998-12-31

    This report outlines the need for new tools for the simulation of fractured carbonate reservoirs. Several problems are identified that call for the development of new reservoir simulation physical models and numerical techniques. These include: karst and vuggy media wherein Darcy`s and traditional multi-phase flow laws do not apply; the need for predicting the preproduction state of fracturing and stress so that the later response of effective stress-dependent reservoirs can be predicted; and methods for predicting the fracturing and collapse of vuggy and karst reservoirs in response to draw-down pressure created during production. Specific research directions for addressing each problem are outlined and preliminary results are noted.

  8. Integration of reservoir simulation and geomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Nan

    Fluid production from tight and shale gas formations has increased significantly, and this unconventional portfolio of low-permeability reservoirs accounts for more than half of the gas produced in the United States. Stimulation and hydraulic fracturing are critical in making these systems productive, and hence it is important to understand the mechanics of the reservoir. When modeling fractured reservoirs using discrete-fracture network representation, the geomechanical effects are expected to have a significant impact on important reservoir characteristics. It has become more accepted that fracture growth, particularly in naturally fractured reservoirs with extremely low permeability, cannot be reliably represented by conventional planar representations. Characterizing the evolution of multiple, nonplanar, interconnected and possibly nonvertical hydraulic fractures requires hydraulic and mechanical characterization of the matrix, as well as existing latent or healed fracture networks. To solve these challenging problems, a reservoir simulator (Advanced Reactive Transport Simulator (ARTS)) capable of performing unconventional reservoir simulation is developed in this research work. A geomechanical model has been incorporated into the simulation framework with various coupling schemes and this model is used to understand the geomechanical effects in unconventional oil and gas recovery. This development allows ARTS to accept geomechanical information from external geomechanical simulators (soft coupling) or the solution of the geomechanical coupled problem (hard coupling). An iterative solution method of the flow and geomechanical equations has been used in implementing the hard coupling scheme. The hard coupling schemes were verified using one-dimensional and two-dimensional analytical solutions. The new reservoir simulator is applied to learn the influence of geomechanical impact on unconventional oil and gas production in a number of practical recovery scenarios

  9. Oil reservoir properties estimation using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Toomarian, N.B.; Barhen, J.; Glover, C.W.; Aminzadeh, F.

    1997-02-01

    This paper investigates the applicability as well as the accuracy of artificial neural networks for estimating specific parameters that describe reservoir properties based on seismic data. This approach relies on JPL`s adjoint operators general purpose neural network code to determine the best suited architecture. The authors believe that results presented in this work demonstrate that artificial neural networks produce surprisingly accurate estimates of the reservoir parameters.

  10. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  11. Results of the geothermal reservoir insurance study

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, D.M.

    1982-10-01

    On June 30, 1980, Public Law 96-294, referred to as the Energy Security Act, was enacted by the Congress of the United States. Subtitle B of Title VI (Geothermal Energy) of the Act required that a reservoir insurance program study be conducted. The objective of the study was to provide an analysis of the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. In conjunction with the analysis, the appropriate level of federal support, if any, was to be determined.

  12. Origins of acid fluids in geothermal reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, Alfred

    1991-01-01

    Acid fluids in geothermal reservoirs are rare. Their occurrence in geothermal systems associated with recent volcanism (Tatun, Sumikawa, Miravalles) probably indicates that the geothermal reservoir fluid was derived from volcanic fluid incompletely neutralized by reaction with feldspars and micas. Superheated steam containing HCl (Larderello, The Geysers) forms acid where it condenses or mixes with liquid at moderate temperatures (325??C). Cryptoacidity occurs at Los Humeros where HCl acidity is formed and neutralized without reaching the surface.

  13. Reservoir engineering of Wairakei geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Malcom A.

    1988-01-01

    Wairakei was the first liquid dominated geothermal field exploited for major power production. As such many decisions were taken on an ad-hoc or experimental basis. In retrospect the choice of Wairakei was fortunate : with extensive shallow high permeability and major recharge it is an easy field to exploit. This lecture describes the history of the field and the contribution of reservoir engineering to field management, and describes the reservoir as it is now understood.

  14. Integrated management of multiple reservoir field developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, S.L.; Chan, H.M.; Harper, J.L.; Boyett, B.A.; Dowson, P.R.; Bette, S.

    1995-10-01

    This paper consists of two sections. The authors first describe the coupling of a pipeline network model to a reservoir simulator and then the application of this new simulator to optimize the production strategy of two Mobil field developments. Mobil`s PEGASUS simulator is an integrated all purpose reservoir simulator that handles black-oil, compositional, faulted and naturally fractured reservoirs. The authors have extended the simulator to simultaneously model multiple reservoirs coupled with surface pipeline networks and processes. This allows them to account for the effects of geology, well placement, and surface production facilities on well deliverability in a fully integrated fashion. They have also developed a gas contract allocation system that takes the user-specified constraints, target rates and swing factors and automatically assigns rates to the individual wells of each reservoir. This algorithm calculates the overall deliverability and automatically reduces the user-specified target rates to meet the deliverability constraints. The algorithm and solution technique are described. This enhanced simulator has been applied to model a Mobil field development in the Southern Gas Basin, offshore United Kingdom, which consists of three separate gas reservoirs connected via a pipeline network. The simulator allowed the authors to accurately determine the impact on individual reservoir and total field performance by varying the development timing of these reservoirs. Several development scenarios are shown to illustrate the capabilities of PEGASUS. Another application of this technology is in the field developments in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Here the objective is to economically optimize the development of multiple fields to feed the PT Arun LNG facility. Consideration of a range of gas compositions, well productivity`s, and facilities constraints in an integrated fashion results in improved management of these assets. Model specifics are discussed.

  15. 13. Symposium on reservoir simulation: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This is a conference proceedings which deals with the latest developments and trends in reservoir simulation techniques and modeling. It includes papers dealing with multiphase flow in oil and gas wells; flow calculation methods in deviated and horizontal wells; fluid flow in fractured reservoirs; and simulation techniques for enhanced recovery and well stimulation processes. Most papers provide case studies using the various computer models or computer systems, including numerous studies on parallel processing equipment.

  16. Horizontal sidetrack taps reservoir sweet spots''

    SciTech Connect

    Wible, J.R. )

    1994-02-21

    Cutting a window at 85[degree] deviation allowed a sidetrack to pass through the high-resistivity sections in a Gulf of Mexico reservoir. Results from logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools indicated the original horizontal bore dropped too low in the reservoir, possibly leading to a low productivity well. The subsequent sidetrack successfully delivered the desired well bore, and the increased productivity justified the efforts in cutting a window in the horizontal section.

  17. Quantifying Changes in Accessible Water in the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, S.; Thomas, B.; Reager, J. T.; Swenson, S. C.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the western United States is heavily managed yet remains one of the most over-allocated rivers in the world providing water across seven US states and Mexico. Future water management strategies in the CRB have employed land surface models to forecast discharges; such approaches have focused on discharge estimates to meet allocation requirements yet ignore groundwater abstractions to meet water demands. In this analysis, we illustrate the impact of changes in accessible water, which we define as the conjunctive use of both surface water reservoir storage and groundwater storage, using remote sensing observations to explore sustainable water management strategies in the CRB. We employ high resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data to detect changes in reservoir storage in the two largest reservoirs within the CRB, Lakes Mead and Powell, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage anomalies to isolate changes in basin-wide groundwater storage in the Upper and Lower CRB from October 2003 to December 2012. Our approach quantifies reservoir and groundwater storage within the CRB using remote sensing to provide new information to water managers to sustainably and conjunctively manage accessible water.

  18. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities were identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program currently being implemented is a result of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  19. ADVANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY FROM SLOPE BASIN CLASTIC RESERVOIRS, NASH DRAW BRUSHY CANYON POOL, EDDY COUNTY, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Mark B. Murphy

    2001-10-31

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool (NDP) in southeast New Mexico is one of the nine projects selected in 1995 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for participation in the Class III Reservoir Field Demonstration Program. The goals of the DOE cost-shared Class Program are to: (1) extend economic production, (2) increase ultimate recovery, and (3) broaden information exchange and technology application. Reservoirs in the Class III Program are focused on slope basin and deep-basin clastic depositional types. Production at the NDP is from the Brushy Canyon formation, a low-permeability turbidite reservoir in the Delaware Mountain Group of Permian, Guadalupian age. A major challenge in this marginal-quality reservoir is to distinguish oil-productive pay intervals from water-saturated non-pay intervals. Because initial reservoir pressure is only slightly above bubble-point pressure, rapid oil decline rates and high gas/oil ratios are typically observed in the first year of primary production. Limited surface access, caused by the proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, prohibits development with conventional drilling. Reservoir characterization results obtained to date at the NDP show that a proposed pilot injection area appears to be compartmentalized. Because reservoir discontinuities will reduce effectiveness of a pressure maintenance project, the pilot area will be reconsidered in a more continuous part of the reservoir if such areas have sufficient reservoir pressure. Most importantly, the advanced characterization results are being used to design extended reach/horizontal wells to tap into predicted ''sweet spots'' that are inaccessible with conventional vertical wells. The activity at the NDP during the past year has included the completion of the NDP Well No.36 deviated/horizontal well and the completion of additional zones in three wells, the design of the NDP No.33 directional/horizontal well, The planning and regulatory approval for the

  20. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  1. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  2. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  3. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  4. Massachusetts reservoir simulation tool—User’s manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey developed the Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool to examine the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflows in Massachusetts by simulating the daily water balance of reservoirs. The simulation tool was developed to assist environmental managers to better manage water withdrawals in reservoirs and to preserve downstream aquatic habitats.

  5. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in... circulation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards), except that a reservoir that contains...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in... circulation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards), except that a reservoir that contains...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in... circulation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards), except that a reservoir that contains...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in... circulation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards), except that a reservoir that contains...

  9. Comprehensive national energy strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

  10. Parallel reservoir computing using optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Vandoorne, Kristof; Dambre, Joni; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Bienstman, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Reservoir computing (RC), a computational paradigm inspired on neural systems, has become increasingly popular in recent years for solving a variety of complex recognition and classification problems. Thus far, most implementations have been software-based, limiting their speed and power efficiency. Integrated photonics offers the potential for a fast, power efficient and massively parallel hardware implementation. We have previously proposed a network of coupled semiconductor optical amplifiers as an interesting test case for such a hardware implementation. In this paper, we investigate the important design parameters and the consequences of process variations through simulations. We use an isolated word recognition task with babble noise to evaluate the performance of the photonic reservoirs with respect to traditional software reservoir implementations, which are based on leaky hyperbolic tangent functions. Our results show that the use of coherent light in a well-tuned reservoir architecture offers significant performance benefits. The most important design parameters are the delay and the phase shift in the system's physical connections. With optimized values for these parameters, coherent semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) reservoirs can achieve better results than traditional simulated reservoirs. We also show that process variations hardly degrade the performance, but amplifier noise can be detrimental. This effect must therefore be taken into account when designing SOA-based RC implementations.

  11. Reservoir assessment of The Geysers Geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Dykstra, H.

    1981-01-01

    Big Sulphur Creek fault zone, in The Geysers Geothermal field, may be part of a deep-seated, wrench-style fault system. Hydrothermal fluid in the field reservoir may rise through conduits beneath the five main anomalies associated with the Big Sulphur Creek wrench trend. Some geophysical anomalies (electrical resistivity and audio-magnetotelluric) evidently are caused by the hot water geothermal field or zones of altered rocks; others (gravity, P-wave delays, and possibly electrical resistivity) probably respresent the underlying heat source, a possible magma chamber; and others (microearthquake activity) may be related to the steam reservoir. A large negative gravity anomaly and a few low-resistivity anomalies suggest areas generally favorable for the presence of steam zones, but these anomalies apparently do not directly indicate the known steam reservoir. At the current generating capacity of 930 MWe, the estimated life of The Geysers Geothermal field reservoir is 129 years. The estimated reservoir life is 60 years for the anticipated maximum generating capacity of 2000 MWe as of 1990. Wells at The Geysers are drilled with conventional drilling fluid (mud) until the top of the steam reservoir is reached; then, they are drilled with air. Usually, mud, temperature, caliper, dual induction, and cement bond logs are run on the wells.

  12. Assessment of reservoir system variable forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenmacher, Martin; Georgakakos, Aris P.

    2015-05-01

    Forecast ensembles are a convenient means to model water resources uncertainties and to inform planning and management processes. For multipurpose reservoir systems, forecast types include (i) forecasts of upcoming inflows and (ii) forecasts of system variables and outputs such as reservoir levels, releases, flood damage risks, hydropower production, water supply withdrawals, water quality conditions, navigation opportunities, and environmental flows, among others. Forecasts of system variables and outputs are conditional on forecasted inflows as well as on specific management policies and can provide useful information for decision-making processes. Unlike inflow forecasts (in ensemble or other forms), which have been the subject of many previous studies, reservoir system variable and output forecasts are not formally assessed in water resources management theory or practice. This article addresses this gap and develops methods to rectify potential reservoir system forecast inconsistencies and improve the quality of management-relevant information provided to stakeholders and managers. The overarching conclusion is that system variable and output forecast consistency is critical for robust reservoir management and needs to be routinely assessed for any management model used to inform planning and management processes. The above are demonstrated through an application from the Sacramento-American-San Joaquin reservoir system in northern California.

  13. Bathymetric contours of Breckenridge Reservoir, Quantico, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, S.M.; Lotspeich, R.R.; Banks, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    Breckenridge Reservoir, built in 1938, is fed by Chopawamsic Creek and South Branch Chopawamsic Creek. The Reservoir is a main source of drinking water for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Base in Quantico, Virginia. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USMC, conducted a bathymetric survey of Breckenridge Reservoir in March 2009. The survey was conducted to provide the USMC Natural Resources and Environmental Affairs (NREA) with information regarding reservoir storage capacity and general bathymetric properties. The bathymetric survey can provide a baseline for future work on sediment loads and deposition rates for the reservoir. Bathymetric data were collected using a boat-mounted Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) differential global positioning system (DGPS), echo depth-sounding equipment, and computer software. Data were exported into a geographic information system (GIS) for mapping and calculating area and volume. Reservoir storage volume at the time of the survey was about 22,500,000 cubic feet (517 acre-feet) with a surface area of about 1,820,000 square feet (41.9 acres).

  14. An evaluation of seepage gains and losses in Indian Creek Reservoir, Ada County, Idaho, April 2010–November 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Marshall L.; Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, conducted an investigation on Indian Creek Reservoir, a small impoundment in east Ada County, Idaho, to quantify groundwater seepage into and out of the reservoir. Data from the study will assist the Idaho Water Resources Department’s Comprehensive Aquifer Management Planning effort to estimate available water resources in Ada County. Three independent methods were utilized to estimate groundwater seepage: (1) the water-budget method; (2) the seepage-meter method; and (3) the segmented Darcy method. Reservoir seepage was quantified during the periods of April through August 2010 and February through November 2011. With the water-budget method, all measureable sources of inflow to and outflow from the reservoir were quantified, with the exception of groundwater; the water-budget equation was solved for groundwater inflow to or outflow from the reservoir. The seepage-meter method relies on the placement of seepage meters into the bottom sediments of the reservoir for the direct measurement of water flux across the sediment-water interface. The segmented-Darcy method utilizes a combination of water-level measurements in the reservoir and in adjacent near-shore wells to calculate water-table gradients between the wells and the reservoir within defined segments of the reservoir shoreline. The Darcy equation was used to calculate groundwater inflow to and outflow from the reservoir. Water-budget results provided continuous, daily estimates of seepage over the full period of data collection, while the seepage-meter and segmented Darcy methods provided instantaneous estimates of seepage. As a result of these and other difference in methodologies, comparisons of seepage estimates provided by the three methods are considered semi-quantitative. The results of the water-budget derived estimates of seepage indicate seepage to be seasonally variable in terms of the direction and magnitude

  15. It Matters Whether Reading Comprehension Is Conceptualised as Rate or Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2016-01-01

    This study shows that it makes a difference whether accuracy measures or rate measures are used when assessing reading comprehension. When the outcome is reading comprehension accuracy (i.e., the number of correct responses), word reading skills (measured as access to orthographic representations) account for a modest amount of the variance in the…

  16. Potential methane reservoirs beneath Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Wadham, J L; Arndt, S; Tulaczyk, S; Stibal, M; Tranter, M; Telling, J; Lis, G P; Lawson, E; Ridgwell, A; Dubnick, A; Sharp, M J; Anesio, A M; Butler, C E H

    2012-08-30

    Once thought to be devoid of life, the ice-covered parts of Antarctica are now known to be a reservoir of metabolically active microbial cells and organic carbon. The potential for methanogenic archaea to support the degradation of organic carbon to methane beneath the ice, however, has not yet been evaluated. Large sedimentary basins containing marine sequences up to 14 kilometres thick and an estimated 21,000 petagrams (1 Pg equals 10(15) g) of organic carbon are buried beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. No data exist for rates of methanogenesis in sub-Antarctic marine sediments. Here we present experimental data from other subglacial environments that demonstrate the potential for overridden organic matter beneath glacial systems to produce methane. We also numerically simulate the accumulation of methane in Antarctic sedimentary basins using an established one-dimensional hydrate model and show that pressure/temperature conditions favour methane hydrate formation down to sediment depths of about 300 metres in West Antarctica and 700 metres in East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate the potential for methane hydrate accumulation in Antarctic sedimentary basins, where the total inventory depends on rates of organic carbon degradation and conditions at the ice-sheet bed. We calculate that the sub-Antarctic hydrate inventory could be of the same order of magnitude as that of recent estimates made for Arctic permafrost. Our findings suggest that the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be a neglected but important component of the global methane budget, with the potential to act as a positive feedback on climate warming during ice-sheet wastage.

  17. A Comprehensive Well Testing Implementation during Exploration Phase in Rantau Dedap, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humaedi, M. T.; Alfiady; Putra, A. P.; Martikno, R.; Situmorang, J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the implementation of comprehensive well testing programs during the 2014-2015 exploration drilling in Rantau Dedap Geothermal Field. The well testing programs were designed to provide reliable data as foundation for resource assessment as well as useful information for decision making during drilling. A series of well testing survey consisting of SFTT, completion test, heating-up downhole logging, discharge test, chemistry sampling was conducted to understand individual wells characteristics such as thermodynamic state of the reservoir fluid, permeability distribution, well output and fluid chemistry. Furthermore, interference test was carried out to investigate the response of reservoir to exploitation.

  18. Using Monte-Carlo approach for analysis of quantitative and qualitative operation of reservoirs system with regard to the inflow uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevalli, Mostafa; Zadbar, Ali; Elyasi, Elham; Jalaal, Maziar

    2015-05-01

    Operation of dams' reservoir systems, as one of the main sources of our country's surface water, has a particular importance. Since the operational hydrological and meteorological parameters of water budget in reservoir systems' operation are indefinite, in order to choose a comprehensive and optimal policy for the operation analysis of these systems, water inflow is considered as the most important hydrological parameter in an uncertain reservoir system. Monte-Carlo approach was applied to study the water inflow impact on the performance of both single and multi-reservoir systems. Doing so, artificial statistics for monthly inflow time series of each production reservoir system and the probable distributions of time, quantitative reliability, vulnerability, and resiliency standards were analyzed in five different simulation and optimization models as the system's efficiency criteria. The reason for choosing Karun 3, Karun 4, and Khersan 1 dams was the need for three dams to be setup as reservoir systems in both serial and parallel forms. The results of the operation criteria analysis indicated that for the operation of the whole system, the best quantitative reliability, vulnerability, and resiliency values were in the optimized single-reservoir model, and the best time reliability value was in the optimized multi-reservoir model. Moreover, the inflow uncertainty had the minimum impact on the quantitative reliability criteria and the maximum impact on the resiliency criteria.

  19. [Analysis on the variation characteristics of iron and manganese concentration and its genesis in Changtan Reservoir in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Yuan; Zheng, Chen; Yuan, Qi; Wang, Xian-Bing; Wang, Zi-Yan

    2014-10-01

    Changtan Reservoir in Taizhou City Zhejiang Province and its inflow rivers were surveyed in January and from April to December in 2013. Based on those data and the water quality monitoring data in Changtan Reservoir collected in previous years, the change characteristics of iron and manganese concentrations in source water reservoir were investigated. Furthermore, the causes of water pollution by iron and manganese were discussed based on the variation of water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) in reservoir with water depth. The results showed that the seasonal variation characteristics of iron and the manganese concentrations in reservoir were much in evidence. Their concentrations were high from June to August and the highest values over the years at the outlet of Changtan Reservoir were 2.38 mg · L(-1) and 1.24 mg · L(-1), respectively. The iron and the manganese concentrations exceeded the Surface Water Environment Quality Standard (GB 383822002) of 0.3 mg · L(-1) and 0.1 mg · L(-1) from May to October. And in 2013, their highest values in the reservoir outlet exceeded the standard by 5. 6 times and 12. 4 times, respectively. The maxima of iron and manganese concentrations in the major rivers were 0.89 mg · L(-1) and 0.56 mg · L(-1), which were lower than those in the reservoir outlet. The comprehensive analysis result indicated that the exogenous pollution was not the major source of iron and manganese in the reservoir. The iron and manganese concentration at the bottom of the reservoir reached the maximum in July, 2.42 mg · L(-1) and 1.20 mg · L(-1), respectively. The typical vertical distribution of temperature, DO and iron and manganese concentrations in the reservoir in summer showed that seasonal anoxic environment caused by the thermal stratification led to the release of iron manganese from the deposits. The endogenous pollution caused by thermal stratification effect was the direct cause for the high iron and manganese concentrations in water

  20. [Animal reservoirs of human virulent microsporidian species].

    PubMed

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna

    2009-01-01

    . It was demonstrated that the new hosts of E. hellem are the following bird species: mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), greyleg goose (Anser anser), mute swan (Cygnus olor), black-necked swan (Cygnus melancoryphus), black swan (Cygnus atratus), coscoroba swan (Coscoroba coscoroba), black-crowned crane (Balearica pavonina), nicobar pigeon (Caloenas nicobarica) and carrion crow (Corvus cornix). In addition, E. hellem was found for the first time in birds from the Anseriformes and Gruiformes orders. Whereas E. intestinalis was disclosed for the first time in the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica), red ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata rubra) and the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), while the black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz) and the Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons negrinus) were first found to carry E. bieneusi. The mammal species that were found to carry E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis are included in The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The results of the present study are significant from an epidemiological point of view. The wild, livestock and zoo animals that were found to carry microsporidia live in different conditions, and thus their role as animal reservoirs for these dangerous pathogens varies. Waterfowl birds may be the main source of contamination of surface waters with E. hellem spores and the protection of surface waters is virtually impossible. Moreover, isolates of E. hellem from mute swans have SSU rRNA sequences identical to E. hellem genotype reported 10 years ago in HIV-positive patient in USA (GenBank Accession no. L19070). This result indicate that E. hellem from mute swans can be a potential source of infection for humans. The contamination of the human environment with microsporidian spores infectious to humans is also facilitated by farm and synanthropic birds, because E. hellem and E. intestinalis were found in farms pigeons, domestic goose and the carrion crow. These birds can also be the source

  1. Comprehension of discharge instructions.

    PubMed

    Gilboy, Nicki; Howard, Patricia Kunz

    2009-01-01

    The Research to Practice column attempts to serve two purposes: (1) fine-tune the research critique skills of advanced practice nurses and (2) suggest strategies to translate findings from a research study into bedside practice. For each column, a topic and a particular research study are selected. The stage is set by introducing the importance of the topic. The research paper is then reviewed and critiqued, and finally, the implications for translation into practice are discussed. This particular column reviews the article: Engel, K., Heisler, M., Smith, D., Robinson, C., Forman, J., & Ubel, P. (in press). Patient comprehension of emergency department care and instructions: Are patients aware of when they do not understand? Annals of Emergency Medicine.

  2. Geologic aspects of horizontal drilling in self-sourcing reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Illich, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Horizontal drilling techniques provide a way to exploit hydrocarbon reserves that are either noneconomic or only marginally economic using vertical drilling techniques. A significant fraction of these reserves is contained in reservoirs that are self-sourcing or in reservoirs that are closely associated with their resources. Most formations drilled as horizontal targets are self-sourcing. The Austin Chalk, Niobrara, Mesaverde, and Bakken are examples of horizontally drilled, self-sourcing reservoir systems. In formations like the Bakken or Austin Chalk, the close relationship between reservoir and source makes risks associated with migration and accumulation less important. Reservoirs of this kind can contain oil or gas and often have little or no associated water. They can be matrix-dominated reservoirs, dual-porosity reservoirs (Mesaverde), or fractured reservoirs (Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara). Fractured, self-sourcing reservoirs also can possess matrix characteristics that contribute increased recovery efficiency. Most reservoirs drilled horizontally possess matrix characteristics that contribute increased recovery efficiency. Most reservoirs drilled horizontally possess highly heterogeneous reservoir systems. Characterization of the style of reservoir heterogeneity in self-sourcing systems is important if the favorable properties of horizontally oriented bore holes are to be realized. Production data and rock mechanics considerations are important in horizontal drilling ventures. Examples of the use of these data for the purpose of defining reservoir characteristics are discussed. Knowledge of lateral changes in reservoir properties is essential if we are to recover known reserves efficiently.

  3. Architecture of collapsed-paleocave reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G. ); Mescher, P. )

    1996-01-01

    It is important to investigate the architecture of collapsed-paleocave reservoirs at interwell scales in outcrops because reservoir heterogeneities cannot be adequately characterized by cores and log correlation sections. A 3000-foot long quarry wall of Ellenburger strata in central Texas displays the lithologic and pore network heterogeneities at typical well spacings (1300 to 2600 feet). The quarry wall exposes the transition from stratified host rock into a complex collapsed-paleocave system showing several developmental episodes. This paleocave system has over 2600 feet of laterally continuous chaotic breccias. The dimensions of these breccias are similar as to what is imaged by 3-D seismic over paleocave reservoirs. Collapsed-paleocave reservoirs are not single collapsed passages of tens of feet across, but are homogenized collapsed-cave systems hundreds to several thousand feet across. This concept of scale is very important because collapsed-paleocave systems offer larger exploration targets than individual cave passages. Collapsed-paleocave systems are complex because they are the homogenization of chaotic breccias and cave-sediment fill from passages, chambers, and shafts and of crackle breccias from roof- and wall-rock and pillars. Pore networks are associated with chaotic breakdown breccias, cave roof- and wall-crackle breccias, and/or clastic sediment fill. Strong heterogeneity within a collapsed paleocave system should be expected. Lateral and vertical changes in collapsed-paleocave-related facies have the strongest effect on reservoir heterogeneity and quality. Within individual facies there can be distinct reservoir quality variation, such as between the cave-sediment fill and associated blocks. Tectonic fractures, however, can interconnect the highly variable pore networks within a collapsed-paleocave reservoir.

  4. Architecture of collapsed-paleocave reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G.; Mescher, P.

    1996-12-31

    It is important to investigate the architecture of collapsed-paleocave reservoirs at interwell scales in outcrops because reservoir heterogeneities cannot be adequately characterized by cores and log correlation sections. A 3000-foot long quarry wall of Ellenburger strata in central Texas displays the lithologic and pore network heterogeneities at typical well spacings (1300 to 2600 feet). The quarry wall exposes the transition from stratified host rock into a complex collapsed-paleocave system showing several developmental episodes. This paleocave system has over 2600 feet of laterally continuous chaotic breccias. The dimensions of these breccias are similar as to what is imaged by 3-D seismic over paleocave reservoirs. Collapsed-paleocave reservoirs are not single collapsed passages of tens of feet across, but are homogenized collapsed-cave systems hundreds to several thousand feet across. This concept of scale is very important because collapsed-paleocave systems offer larger exploration targets than individual cave passages. Collapsed-paleocave systems are complex because they are the homogenization of chaotic breccias and cave-sediment fill from passages, chambers, and shafts and of crackle breccias from roof- and wall-rock and pillars. Pore networks are associated with chaotic breakdown breccias, cave roof- and wall-crackle breccias, and/or clastic sediment fill. Strong heterogeneity within a collapsed paleocave system should be expected. Lateral and vertical changes in collapsed-paleocave-related facies have the strongest effect on reservoir heterogeneity and quality. Within individual facies there can be distinct reservoir quality variation, such as between the cave-sediment fill and associated blocks. Tectonic fractures, however, can interconnect the highly variable pore networks within a collapsed-paleocave reservoir.

  5. [Distribution Characteristics and Pollution Status Evaluation of Sediments Nutrients in a Drinking Water Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting-lin; Liu, Fei; Shi, Jian-chao

    2016-01-15

    The main purpose of this paper is to illustrate the influence of nutrients distribution in sediments on the eutrophication of drinking water reservoir. The sediments of three representative locations were field-sampled and analyzed in laboratory in March 2015. The distribution characteristics of TOC, TN and TP were measured, and the pollution status of sediments was evaluated by the comprehensive pollution index and the manual for sediment quality assessment. The content of TOC in sediments decreased with depth, and there was an increasing trend of the nitrogen content. The TP was enriched in surface sediment, implying the nutrients load in Zhoucun Reservoir was aggravating as the result of human activities. Regression analysis indicated that the content of TOC in sediments was positively correlated with contents of TN and TP in sediments. The TOC/TN values reflected that the vascular land plants, which contain cellulose, were the main source of organic matter in sediments. The comprehensive pollution index analysis result showed that the surface sediments in all three sampling sites were heavily polluted. The contents of TN and TP of surface sediments in three sampling sites were 3273-4870 mg x kg(-1) and 653-2969 mg x kg(-1), and the content of TOC was 45.65-83.00 mg x g(-1). According to the manual for sediment quality assessment, the TN, TP and TOC contents in sediments exceed the standard values for the lowest level of ecotoxicity, so there is a risk of eutrophication in Zhoucun Reservoir.

  6. Resonance fluorescence of strongly driven two-level system coupled to multiple dissipative reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yiying Lü, Zhiguo Zheng, Hang

    2016-08-15

    We present a theoretical formalism for resonance fluorescence radiating from a two-level system (TLS) driven by any periodic driving and coupled to multiple reservoirs. The formalism is derived analytically based on the combination of Floquet theory and Born–Markov master equation. The formalism allows us to calculate the spectrum when the Floquet states and quasienergies are analytically or numerically solved for simple or complicated driving fields. We can systematically explore the spectral features by implementing the present formalism. To exemplify this theory, we apply the unified formalism to comprehensively study a generic model that a harmonically driven TLS is simultaneously coupled to a radiative reservoir and a dephasing reservoir. We demonstrate that the significant features of the fluorescence spectra, the driving-induced asymmetry and the dephasing-induced asymmetry, can be attributed to the violation of detailed balance condition, and explained in terms of the driving-related transition quantities between Floquet-states and their steady populations. In addition, we find the distinguished features of the fluorescence spectra under the biharmonic and multiharmonic driving fields in contrast with that of the harmonic driving case. In the case of the biharmonic driving, we find that the spectra are significantly different from the result of the RWA under the multiple resonance conditions. By the three concrete applications, we illustrate that the present formalism provides a routine tool for comprehensively exploring the fluorescence spectrum of periodically strongly driven TLSs.

  7. Resonance fluorescence of strongly driven two-level system coupled to multiple dissipative reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yiying; Lü, Zhiguo; Zheng, Hang

    2016-08-01

    We present a theoretical formalism for resonance fluorescence radiating from a two-level system (TLS) driven by any periodic driving and coupled to multiple reservoirs. The formalism is derived analytically based on the combination of Floquet theory and Born-Markov master equation. The formalism allows us to calculate the spectrum when the Floquet states and quasienergies are analytically or numerically solved for simple or complicated driving fields. We can systematically explore the spectral features by implementing the present formalism. To exemplify this theory, we apply the unified formalism to comprehensively study a generic model that a harmonically driven TLS is simultaneously coupled to a radiative reservoir and a dephasing reservoir. We demonstrate that the significant features of the fluorescence spectra, the driving-induced asymmetry and the dephasing-induced asymmetry, can be attributed to the violation of detailed balance condition, and explained in terms of the driving-related transition quantities between Floquet-states and their steady populations. In addition, we find the distinguished features of the fluorescence spectra under the biharmonic and multiharmonic driving fields in contrast with that of the harmonic driving case. In the case of the biharmonic driving, we find that the spectra are significantly different from the result of the RWA under the multiple resonance conditions. By the three concrete applications, we illustrate that the present formalism provides a routine tool for comprehensively exploring the fluorescence spectrum of periodically strongly driven TLSs.

  8. PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, V.; Asael, D.; Baland, R. M.; Baludikay, B. K.; Beghin, J.; Belza, J.; Beuthe, M.; Breuer, D.; Chernonozhkin, S.; Claeys, Ph.; Cornet, Y.; Cornet, L.; Coyette, A.; Debaille, V.; Delvigne, C.; Deproost, M. H.; De WInter, N.; Duchemin, C.; El Atrassi, F.; François, C.; De Keyser, J.; Gillmann, C.; Gloesener, E.; Goderis, S.; Hidaka, Y.; Höning, D.; Huber, M.; Hublet, G.; Javaux, E. J.; Karatekin, Ö.; Kodolanyi, J.; Revilla, L. Lobo; Maes, L.; Maggiolo, R.; Mattielli, N.; Maurice, M.; McKibbin, S.; Morschhauser, A.; Neumann, W.; Noack, L.; Pham, L. B. S.; Pittarello, L.; Plesa, A. C.; Rivoldini, A.; Robert, S.; Rosenblatt, P.; Spohn, T.; Storme, J.-Y.; Tosi, N.; Trinh, A.; Valdes, M.; Vandaele, A. C.; Vanhaecke, F.; Van Hoolst, T.; Van Roosbroek, N.; Wilquet, V.; Yseboodt, M.

    2016-11-01

    The Interuniversity Attraction Pole (IAP) `PLANET TOPERS' (Planets: Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their Reservoirs) addresses the fundamental understanding of the thermal and compositional evolution of the different reservoirs of planetary bodies (core, mantle, crust, atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and space) considering interactions and feedback mechanisms. Here we present the first results after 2 years of project work.

  9. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  10. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2001-08-15

    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  11. PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS.

    PubMed

    Dehant, V; Asael, D; Baland, R M; Baludikay, B K; Beghin, J; Belza, J; Beuthe, M; Breuer, D; Chernonozhkin, S; Claeys, Ph; Cornet, Y; Cornet, L; Coyette, A; Debaille, V; Delvigne, C; Deproost, M H; De WInter, N; Duchemin, C; El Atrassi, F; François, C; De Keyser, J; Gillmann, C; Gloesener, E; Goderis, S; Hidaka, Y; Höning, D; Huber, M; Hublet, G; Javaux, E J; Karatekin, Ö; Kodolanyi, J; Revilla, L Lobo; Maes, L; Maggiolo, R; Mattielli, N; Maurice, M; McKibbin, S; Morschhauser, A; Neumann, W; Noack, L; Pham, L B S; Pittarello, L; Plesa, A C; Rivoldini, A; Robert, S; Rosenblatt, P; Spohn, T; Storme, J -Y; Tosi, N; Trinh, A; Valdes, M; Vandaele, A C; Vanhaecke, F; Van Hoolst, T; Van Roosbroek, N; Wilquet, V; Yseboodt, M

    2016-11-01

    The Interuniversity Attraction Pole (IAP) 'PLANET TOPERS' (Planets: Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their Reservoirs) addresses the fundamental understanding of the thermal and compositional evolution of the different reservoirs of planetary bodies (core, mantle, crust, atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and space) considering interactions and feedback mechanisms. Here we present the first results after 2 years of project work.

  12. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly progress report, June 13, 1995--September 12, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, P.K.

    1995-09-12

    At this stage of the reservoir characterization research, the main emphasis is on the geostatistics and reservoir simulation. Progress is reported on geological analysis, reservoir simulation, and reservoir management.

  13. A diagnostic assessment of evolutionary algorithms for multi-objective surface water reservoir control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatarain Salazar, Jazmin; Reed, Patrick M.; Herman, Jonathan D.; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Globally, the pressures of expanding populations, climate change, and increased energy demands are motivating significant investments in re-operationalizing existing reservoirs or designing operating policies for new ones. These challenges require an understanding of the tradeoffs that emerge across the complex suite of multi-sector demands in river basin systems. This study benchmarks our current capabilities to use Evolutionary Multi-Objective Direct Policy Search (EMODPS), a decision analytic framework in which reservoirs' candidate operating policies are represented using parameterized global approximators (e.g., radial basis functions) then those parameterized functions are optimized using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to discover the Pareto approximate operating policies. We contribute a comprehensive diagnostic assessment of modern MOEAs' abilities to support EMODPS using the Conowingo reservoir in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania, USA. Our diagnostic results highlight that EMODPS can be very challenging for some modern MOEAs and that epsilon dominance, time-continuation, and auto-adaptive search are helpful for attaining high levels of performance. The ɛ-MOEA, the auto-adaptive Borg MOEA, and ɛ-NSGAII all yielded superior results for the six-objective Lower Susquehanna benchmarking test case. The top algorithms show low sensitivity to different MOEA parameterization choices and high algorithmic reliability in attaining consistent results for different random MOEA trials. Overall, EMODPS poses a promising method for discovering key reservoir management tradeoffs; however algorithmic choice remains a key concern for problems of increasing complexity.

  14. Sedimentation patterns of toxin-producing Microcystis morphospecies in freshwater reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Cirés, Samuel; Wörmer, Lars; Carrasco, David; Quesada, Antonio

    2013-05-03

    Understanding the annual cycle of Microcystis is essential for managing the blooms of this toxic cyanobacterium. The current work investigated the sedimentation of microcystin-producing Microcystis spp. in three reservoirs from Central Spain during the summer and autumn of 2006 and 2007. We confirmed remarkable settling fluxes during and after blooms ranging 10(6)-10(9) cells m(-2) d(-1), which might represent 0.1%-7.6% of the organic matter settled. A comprehensive analysis of the Valmayor reservoir showed average Microcystis settling rates (0.04 d(-1)) and velocities (0.7 m d(-1)) that resembled toxin settling in the same reservoir and were above most reported elsewhere. M. aeruginosa settling rate was significantly higher than that of M. novacekii and M. flos-aquae. Despite the fact that colony sizes did not differ significantly in their average settling rates, we observed extremely high and low rates in large colonies (>5000 cells) and a greater influence of a drop in temperature on small colonies (<1000 cells). We found a 4-14 fold decrease in microcystin cell quota in settling Microcystis of the Cogotas and Valmayor reservoirs compared with pelagic populations, and the hypothetical causes of this are discussed. Our study provides novel data on Microcystis settling patterns in Mediterranean Europe and highlights the need for including morphological, chemotypical and physiological criteria to address the sedimentation of complex Microcystis populations.

  15. [Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in soil of relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Qin, Yan-Wen; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Shi, Yao; Han, Chao-Nan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the pollution level and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir. The contents and spatial distribution of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and As in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir were analyzed. The integrated pollution index and potential ecological risk index were used to evaluate the contamination degree and potential ecological risk of these elements. The results indicated that the average contents of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and As in the samples were 0.61, 23.11, 58.25, 22.65, 58.99 and 16.95 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Compared with the background value of soils from Henan province, all these 6 elements except Zn were enriched to some extent, especially Cd. Similar patterns were observed for the spatial distribution of Cu, Zn, and Pb. Compared with the contents of heavy metals in surface sediments of the typical domestic reservoirs, Cd and As in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir were heavily accumulated. The correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations among Pb, Cu, and Zn. And there was also significant positive correlation between Cr and Pb. In contrast, negative correlation was found between Cr and As. To sum up, the comprehensive assessment results showed that Cd was the primary element with high ecological risk.

  16. Seismic imaging of reservoir flow properties: Resolving waterinflux and reservoir permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Vasco, D.W.; Keers, Henk

    2006-11-27

    Methods for geophysical model assessment, in particuale thecomputation of model parameter resolution, indicate the value and thelimitations of time-lapse data in estimating reservoir flow properties. Atrajectory-based method for computing sensitivities provides an effectivemeans to compute model parameter resolutions. We examine the commonsituation in which water encroaches into a resrvoir from below, as due tothe upward movement of an oil-water contact. Using straight-forwardtechniques we find that, by inclusing reflections off the top and bottomof a reservoir tens of meters thick, we can infer reservoir permeabilitybased upon time-lapse data. We find that, for the caseof water influxfrom below, using multiple time-lapse 'snapshots' does not necessarilyimprove the resolution of reservoir permeability. An application totime-lapse data from the Norne field illustrates that we can resolve thepermeability near a producing well using reflections from threeinterfaces associated with the reservoir.

  17. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    novel alkaline-steam well completion technique for the containment of the unconsolidated formation sands and control of fluid entry and injection profiles. (5) Installation of a 2100 ft, 14 inch insulated, steam line beneath a harbor channel to supply steam to an island location. (6) Testing and proposed application of thermal recovery technologies to increase oil production and reserves: (a) Performing pilot tests of cyclic steam injection and production on new horizontal wells. (b) Performing pilot tests of hot water-alternating-steam (WAS) drive in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Perform a pilot steamflood with the four horizontal injectors and producers using a pseudo steam-assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process. (8) Advanced reservoir management, through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring and evaluation.

  18. Wavelet based Simulation of Reservoir Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqi, A. H.; Verma, A. K.; Noor-E-Zahra, Noor-E.-Zahra; Chandiok, Ashish; Hasan, A.

    2009-07-01

    Petroleum reservoirs consist of hydrocarbons and other chemicals trapped in the pores of a rock. The exploration and production of hydrocarbon reservoirs is still the most important technology to develop natural energy resources. Therefore, fluid flow simulators play a key role in order to help oil companies. In fact, simulation is the most important tool to model changes in a reservoir over the time. The main problem in petroleum reservoir simulation is to model the displacement of one fluid by another within a porous medium. A typical problem is characterized by the injection of a wetting fluid, for example water into the reservoir at a particular location displacing to the non wetting fluid, for example oil, which is extracted or produced at another location. Buckley-Leverett equation [1] models this process and its numerical simulation and visualization is of paramount importance. There are several numerical methods applied for numerical solution of partial differential equations modeling real world problems. We review in this paper the numerical solution of Buckley-Leverett equation for flat and non flat structures with special focus on wavelet method. We also indicate a few new avenues for further research.

  19. Tracing fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, P.E.; Adams, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    A family of fluorescent compounds, the polycyclic aromatic sulfonates, were evaluated for application in intermediate- and high-temperature geothermal reservoirs. Whereas the naphthalene sulfonates were found to be very thermally stable and reasonably detectable, the amino-substituted naphthalene sulfonates were found to be somewhat less thermally stable, but much more detectable. A tracer test was conducted at the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal reservoir using one of the substituted naphthalene sulfonates, amino G, and fluorescein. Four of 9 production wells showed tracer breakthrough during the first 200 days of the test. Reconstructed tracer return curves are presented that correct for the thermal decay of tracer assuming an average reservoir temperature of 227{degrees}C. In order to examine the feasibility of using numerical simulation to model tracer flow, we developed simple, two-dimensional models of the geothermal reservoir using the numerical simulation programs TETRAD and TOUGH2. By fitting model outputs to measured return curves, we show that numerical reservoir simulations can be calibrated with the tracer data. Both models predict the same order of elution, approximate tracer concentrations, and return curve shapes. Using these results, we propose a method for using numerical models to design a tracer test.

  20. Experience in operating the Bratsk Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, A.V.

    1984-04-01

    The Bratsk reservoir is the largest in the USSR and second largest in the world. Initially, the reservoir was expected to be filled by the end of 1966. However, the actual filling was not completed until September of 1967. During filling and in the first years of operation it was constantly necessary to deal with floating timber in order to ensure normal operation of the hydrostation, navigation safety, conditions for fishery, and fulfillment of the sanitary requirements. During seasonal variations of the reservoir level about 160 sq km of the shore zone was subjected to variable flooding and waterlogging. Maximum erosion occurred on expanded stretches, and within their limits on slopes composed of loam and sand deposits. Within the narrows, where the banks are composed mainly of hard and soft rocks and wave action is weak, erosion is negligible. Wind setup and setdown cause maximum denivellation of the water surface. The maximum increase of the level during setup reaches 232 cm and the maximum decrease during setdown is 24 cm. Seiche oscillations with various amplitudes and periods are observed on the reservoir surface. The main uses of the complex are hydropower, water transport, timber floating, water supply, and fishery. For the successful development of the shores of reservoirs it is necessary to select the construction sites with consideration of possible occurrence of karstic and landslide processes; the construction of heavy structures requires special karst-control measures. 3 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  1. Factors affecting reservoir and stream-water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area and implications for source-water protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, Marcus C.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, to assess reservoir and tributary-stream quality in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, and to use the information gained to help guide the design of a comprehensive water-quality monitoring program for the source area. Assessments of the quality and trophic state of the three primary storage reservoirs, Hobbs Brook Reservoir, Stony Brook Reservoir, and Fresh Pond, were conducted (September 1997-November 1998) to provide baseline information on the state of these resources and to determine the vulnerability of the reservoirs to increased loads of nutrients and other contaminants. The effects of land use, land cover, and other drainage-basin characteristics on sources, transport, and fate of fecal-indicator bacteria, highway deicing chemicals, nutrients, selected metals, and naturally occurring organic compounds in 11 subbasins that contribute water to the reservoirs also was investigated, and the data used to select sampling stations for incorporation into a water-quality monitoring network for the source area. All three reservoirs exhibited thermal and chemical stratification, despite artificial mixing by air hoses in Stony Brook Reservoir and Fresh Pond. The stratification produced anoxic or hypoxic conditions in the deepest parts of the reservoirs and these conditions resulted in the release of ammonia nitrogen orthophosphate phosphorus, and dissolved iron and manganese from the reservoir bed sediments. Concentrations of sodium and chloride in the reservoirs usually were higher than the amounts recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection agency for drinking-water sources (20 milligrams per liter for sodium and 250 milligrams per liter for chloride). Maximum measured sodium concentrations were highest in Hobbs Brook Reservoir (113 milligrams per liter), intermediate in Stony Brook Reservoir (62

  2. Comprehensive Water-Efficiency Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate

    2015-07-15

    Energy performance contracts can be an effective way to integrate comprehensive water-efficient technologies and solutions into energy efficiency projects. Current practices often miss key opportunities to incorporate a full suite of water measures primarily because a comprehensive approach is not taken in the assessment. This article provides information on how to develop a comprehensive water project that leads to innovative solutions and potential for large water reduction.

  3. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    reduction when saturated with saline water. This reduction in relative permeability can be explained by formation of ice crystals in the center of pores. Theoretically, the radius of ice formed in the center of the pore can be determined using the Kozeny–Carman Equation by assuming the pores and pore throats as a cube with ‘N’ identical parallel pipes embedded in it. Using the values of kro obtained from the experimental work as input to the Kozeny–Carman Equation at -10ºC, the radius of ice crystals dropped from 0.145 μm to 0.069 μm when flooding-water salinity is increased to 6467 ppm. This explains the reduction of relative permeability with decreasing salinity but does not take into consideration other effects such as variations in pore throat structure. In addition, fluids like deionized water, saline water, and antifreeze (a mixture of 60% ethylene or propylene glycol with 40% water) were tested to find the best flooding agent for frozen reservoirs. At 0ºC, 9% greater recovery was observed with antifreeze was used as a flooding agent as compared to using saline water. Antifreeze showed 48% recovery even at -10ºC, at which temperature the rest of the fluids failed to increase production. Preliminary evaluation of drilling fluids indicate that the brine-based muds caused significantly less swelling in the Umiat reservoir sands when compared to fresh-water based muds. However since freezing filtrate is another cause of formation damage, a simple water-based-mud may not a viable option. It is recommended that new fluids be tested, including different salts, brines, polymers and oil-based fluids. These fluids should be tested at low temperatures in order to determine the potential for formation damage, the fluid properties under these conditions and to ensure that the freezing point is below that of the reservoir. In order to reduce the surface footprint while accessing the maximum amount of the Lower Grandstand interval, simulations used development from 5

  4. On-line Optimization-Based Simulators for Fractured and Non-fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Milind D. Deo

    2005-08-31

    project goals. {sm_bullet} Providing remote access to the simulators developed was also one of the project objectives. The basic methods development is presented in Chapters 1-3. Development of a flux continuous finite element algorithm is presented with example calculations in Chapter 1. This is followed by discussion of three-dimensional, three-phase development in Chapter 2. A different numerical method, the mixed finite element method is presented in Chapter 3. Verification of the methods developed is described in Chapter 4. Introduction to fractured reservoir simulation is provided in Chapter 5 with an example of a fractured reservoir simulation study of a faulted reservoir in North Sea. Chapter six contains several examples of two dimensional simulations, while chapter 7 contains examples of three-dimensional simulation. In Chapter 8 optimization techniques are discussed. Chapter 9 contains a roadmap to use the remote programming interface for the fractured reservoir simulator.

  5. Sedimentation in Rio La Venta Canyon in Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente, J. A.; Lisle, T.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B. L.; Miller, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sedimentation of Rio La Venta as it enters the Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, threatens a unique part of the aquatic ecosystem. Rio La Venta enters the reservoir via a narrow canyon about 16 km long with spectacular, near-vertical limestone bluffs up to 320 m high and inhabited by the flora and fauna of a pristine tropical forest. Karst terrain underlies most of the Rio La Venta basin in the vicinity of the reservoir, while deeply weathered granitic terrain underlies the Rio Negro basin, and the headwaters of the Rio La Venta to the south. The Rio Negro joins Rio La Venta 3 km downstream of the upper limit of the reservoir and delivers the bulk of the total clastic sediment (mostly sand and finer material). The canyon and much of the contributing basin lie within the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas, part of the Secretaria de Medioambiente y Recursos Naturales. The Klamath National Forest Forest has cooperated with its Mexican counterparts since 1993 in natural resource management, neo-tropical bird inventories, wildfire management, and more recently in watershed analyses. Rates of sedimentation are estimated from bathymetric surveys conducted in March, 2002. A longitudinal profile down the inundated canyon during a high reservoir level shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. The bed elevation at this point corresponds to the lowest reservoir level, suggesting that the gentler sloping bed upstream is formed by fluvial processes during drawdown and that downstream by pluvial processes. Using accounts that boats could access Rio Negro during low water levels in 1984, we estimate an annual sedimentation rate of roughly 3 million cubic meters per year. This suggests that boats might no longer be able to access the most spectacular section of canyon upstream of Rio Negro within a decade, depending on how the

  6. Requirements on catchment modelling for an optimized reservoir operation in water deficient regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froebrich, J.; Kirkby, M. J.; Reder, C.

    2002-12-01

    during dry periods. In many semiarid and arid regions, irrigation dominates agricultural land use, strongly impacting erosion, concentration of salts and pesticides, and flow regimes, all of which have to be considered in large scale catchment models, and influencing comprehensive reservoir operation.

  7. The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charley, W. J.; Stiman, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall over the Midwest ranged from 6 to as much as 16 inches, overwhelming the flood protection system, causing massive flooding and damage. Most severely impacted were the States of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Wisconsin. In Iowa, flooding occurred on almost every river in the state. On the Iowa River, record flooding occurred from Marshalltown, Iowa, downstream to its confluence with the Mississippi River. At several locations, flooding exceeded the 500-year event. The flooding affected agriculture, transportation, and infrastructure, including homes, businesses, levees, and other water-control structures. It has been estimated that there was at least 7 billion dollars in damages. While the flooding in Iowa was extraordinary, Corps of Engineers flood control reservoirs helped limit damage and prevent loss of life, even though some reservoirs were filled beyond their design capacity. Coralville Reservoir on the Iowa River, for example, filled to 135% of its design flood storage capacity, with stage a record five feet over the crest of the spillway. In spite of this, the maximum reservoir release was limited to 39,500 cfs, while a peak inflow of 57,000 cfs was observed. CWMS, the Corps Water Management System, is used to help regulate Corps reservoirs, as well as track and evaluate flooding and flooding potential. CWMS is a comprehensive data acquisition and hydrologic modeling system for short-term decision support of water control operations in real time. It encompasses data collection, validation and transformation, data storage, visualization, real time model simulation for decision-making support, and data

  8. Channel Access in Erlang

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  9. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  10. 76 FR 16285 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... CFR Part 410 Incorporation by reference, Water audit, Water pollution control, Water reservoirs, Water... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware Estuary and Extend These Criteria...

  11. Comprehensive facilities plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s Comprehensive Facilities Plan (CFP) document provides analysis and policy guidance for the effective use and orderly future development of land and capital assets at the Berkeley Lab site. The CFP directly supports Berkeley Lab`s role as a multiprogram national laboratory operated by the University of California (UC) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The CFP is revised annually on Berkeley Lab`s Facilities Planning Website. Major revisions are consistent with DOE policy and review guidance. Facilities planing is motivated by the need to develop facilities for DOE programmatic needs; to maintain, replace and rehabilitate existing obsolete facilities; to identify sites for anticipated programmatic growth; and to establish a planning framework in recognition of site amenities and the surrounding community. The CFP presents a concise expression of the policy for the future physical development of the Laboratory, based upon anticipated operational needs of research programs and the environmental setting. It is a product of the ongoing planning processes and is a dynamic information source.

  12. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  13. Fracturing high-permeability reservoirs increases productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Dusterhoft, R.G. ); Chapman, B.J. )

    1994-06-20

    Hydraulic fracturing of high-permeability reservoirs has increased long-term hydrocarbon production and reduced sand production in many areas of the world. A key element is the reduction of near well bore drawdown during production. Drawdown, the difference between reservoir and production pressures, is the driving force for flow into the well bore. As drawdown increases because of higher production rates or depletion, formation instability may cause fines and sand to migrate into the well bore region. A greater well bore radius reduces both radial velocity and drawdown. Fracturing beyond the well bore region effectively bypasses the damaged zone, increasing the effective radius of the well bore and enabling higher flow rates with lower drawdown pressures. In essence, the reservoir energy is used more efficiently because the conductive proppant bed bypasses the near well bore restrictions. The paper discusses candidate well selection; proppant selection; sand control; minifrac procedures; spurt losses; fracture design; equipment; case histories in West Africa and offshore Louisiana.

  14. CNS reservoirs for HIV: implications for eradication.

    PubMed

    Hellmuth, Joanna; Valcour, Victor; Spudich, Serena

    2015-04-01

    Controversy exists as to whether the central nervous system (CNS) serves as a reservoir site for HIV, in part reflecting the varying perspectives on what constitutes a 'reservoir' versus a mere site of latent viral integration. However, if the CNS proves to be a site of HIV persistence capable of replicating and reseeding the periphery, leading to failure of virological control, this privileged anatomical site would need dedicated consideration during the development of HIV cure strategies. In this review we discuss the current literature focused on the question of the CNS as a reservoir for HIV, covering the clinical evidence for continued CNS involvement despite suppressive therapy, the theorised dynamics of HIV integration into the CNS, as well as studies indicating that HIV can replicate independently and compartmentalise in the CNS. The unique cellular and anatomical sites of HIV integration in the CNS are also reviewed, as are the potential implications for HIV cure strategies.

  15. An integrated data model for reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Aydelotte, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the capability of the Epicenter data model to manage reservoir-simulation information, including the spatial model used to describe the properties of the earth and the product-flow network mode used to describe production performance. In addition to data values, the data model describes data creation and quality and provides a reliable means of understanding the source. To use the data model, reservoir-simulation applications need to be rewritten to conform to the data-model nomenclature and conventions. While this is a significant task, the benefit to reservoir simulation practitioners and vendors includes integration of technical applications (such as mapping, well logging, and geophysical interpretation systems), data portability (allowing Vendor A's simulator to use data prepared by Vendor B's preprocessor), and interpretability such as using a third-party optimization package to conduct a series of simulations.

  16. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  17. Frameworks for amending reservoir water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Managing water storage and withdrawals in many reservoirs requires establishing seasonal targets for water levels (i.e., rule curves) that are influenced by regional precipitation and diverse water demands. Rule curves are established as an attempt to balance various water needs such as flood control, irrigation, and environmental benefits such as fish and wildlife management. The processes and challenges associated with amending rule curves to balance multiuse needs are complicated and mostly unfamiliar to non-US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) natural resource managers and to the public. To inform natural resource managers and the public we describe the policies and process involved in amending rule curves in USACE reservoirs, including 3 frameworks: a general investigation, a continuing authority program, and the water control plan. Our review suggests that water management in reservoirs can be amended, but generally a multitude of constraints and competing demands must be addressed before such a change can be realized.

  18. Characterization and simulation of an exhumed fractured petroleum reservoir. Final report, March 18, 1996--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, C.B.; Nielson, D.L.; Deo, M.

    1998-12-01

    An exhumed fractured reservoir located near Alligator Ridge in central Nevada provides the basis for developing and testing different approaches for simulating fractured petroleum reservoirs. The fractured analog reservoir comprises a 90 m thickness of silty limestone and shaly interbeds within the Devonian Pilot Shale. A period of regional compression followed by ongoing basin and range extension has created faults and fractures that, in tern, have controlled the migration of both oil and gold ore-forming fluids. Open pit gold mines provide access for observing oil seepage, collecting the detailed fracture data needed to map variations in fracture intensity near faults, build discrete fracture network models and create equivalent permeability structures. Fault trace patterns mapped at the ground surface provide a foundation for creating synthetic fault trace maps using a stochastic procedure conditioned by the outcrop data. Conventional simulations of petroleum production from a 900 by 900 m sub-domain within the reservoir analog illustrate the possible influence of faults and fractures on production. The consequences of incorporating the impact of different stress states (e.g., extension, compression or lithostatic) are also explored. Simulating multiphase fluid flow using a discrete fracture, finite element simulator illustrates how faults acting as conduits might be poorly represented by the upscaling procedures used to assign equivalent permeability values within reservoir models. The parallelized reservoir simulators developed during this project provide a vehicle to evaluate when it might be necessary to incorporate very fine scale grid networks in conventional reservoir simulators or to use finely gridded discrete fracture reservoir simulators.

  19. AccessAbility @ Cleveland Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mates, Barbara T.

    2003-01-01

    Describes several programs that were developed by staff at the Cleveland (Ohio) Public Library to be accessible to users with disabilities. Highlights include a Braille reading program; sensory garden; poetry club; book club based on talking books; wheelchair athletics; touching museum artifacts; and a mobile library for users who could not visit…

  20. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel

    2005-08-01

    Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical

  1. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a heterogeneity matrix'' based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  2. reservoir operation and hydropower generation schemes for regional scale hydrological models: case study in the northeastern united states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.; Rosenzweig, B.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the development of the Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM), we are developing an integrated hydrologic modeling framework that incorporates various aspects of the coupled human-hydrologic system, from supply to demand, into a single framework. This framework provides temporally and spatially explicit information on the regional water system under different scenarios of climate, population, and land use/ land cover change. To support these efforts, we have incorporated two new modules into the Water Balance Model (WBM) that simulate reservoir operation and calculate the hydropower production from dams. Dams and reservoirs are key characteristics of the modern hydrologic system, with a particular impact on natural stream flow, sediment flux, thermal characteristics and biogeochemical fluxes of rivers. In the Northeast Region of the United States alone, the National Inventory of Dams (NID) lists over 12000 reservoirs. Depending on site-specific characteristics of the dam, its watershed and its intended purpose, each will have a specific optimum operating rule. Since no comprehensive dataset of these operating rules exists, we have to simulate them. We developed an Artificial Neural Network and used data from 35 dams for calibration. Approximately 60 % of the dataset was dedicated to training process, 20 % to validation and the other 20 % used for testing. If (t) represents current time, we use three sets of inputs; inflow [It , It-1 , It-2], release in previous months [Rt-1 , Rt-2] and month (Mt), to calculate release from reservoir (Rt). We also used a simple continuity equation for reservoirs by considering the maximum (from NID) and minimum reservoir storage to improve the model's performance in extreme wet and dry events. Using results from WBM we show how reservoirs regionally alter discharge in streams of Northeast United States compared to their natural state. We also are assessing the effects of climate change on water availability and

  3. Trophic feasibility of reintroducing anadromous salmonids in three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River, Washington: Prey supply and consumption demand of resident fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorel, Mark H.; Hansen, Adam G.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The reintroduction of anadromous salmonids in reservoirs is being proposed with increasing frequency, requiring baseline studies to evaluate feasibility and estimate the capacity of reservoir food webs to support reintroduced populations. Using three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River as a case study, we demonstrate a method to determine juvenile salmonid smolt rearing capacities for lakes and reservoirs. To determine if the Lewis River reservoirs can support reintroduced populations of juvenile stream-type Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, we evaluated the monthly production of daphniaDaphnia spp. (the primary zooplankton consumed by resident salmonids in the system) and used bioenergetics to model the consumption demand of resident fishes in each reservoir. To estimate the surplus of Daphnia prey available for reintroduced salmonids, we assumed a maximum sustainable exploitation rate and accounted for the consumption demand of resident fishes. The number of smolts that could have been supported was estimated by dividing any surplus Daphnia production by the simulated consumption demand of an individual Chinook Salmon fry rearing in the reservoir to successful smolt size. In all three reservoirs, densities of Daphnia were highest in the epilimnion, but warm epilimnetic temperatures and the vertical distribution of planktivores suggested that access to abundant epilimnetic prey was limited. By comparing accessible prey supply and demand on a monthly basis, we were able to identify potential prey supply bottlenecks that could limit smolt production and growth. These results demonstrate that a bioenergetics approach can be a valuable method of examining constraints on lake and reservoir rearing capacity, such as thermal structure and temporal food supply. This method enables numerical estimation of rearing capacity, which is a useful metric for managers evaluating the feasibility of reintroducing Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in lentic systems.

  4. Sediment transport capacity as an objective of reservoir operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, Robert T.; ,

    1998-01-01

    A sediment transport capacity index was developed as a part of a program to develop methods of flushing flow analysis. The index can be used to develop reservoir operation strategies that consider the movement of sediment as one of the reservoir management goals. The sedimentation transport capacity index determines the instream flow for the maintenance of the substrate below a reservoir in a condition needed by a desirable ecosystem. It can also be used in investigating the impacts of reservoir on the river channel downstream of the reservoir. The method allows a reservoir operator the flexibility of meeting the streamflow needs with a mix of streamflows.

  5. Pesticide use in Kentucky reservoir watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Butkus, S.R.

    1988-06-01

    This report summarizes information on the types, uses, and amounts of pesticides applied to Kentucky Reservoir and its immediate watershed. Estimates for the quantities and types of the various pesticides used are based primarily on the land uses in the watershed. A listing of commonly used pesticides is included describing their uses, mode of action, and potential toxicological effects. This report will inform the the public and the Kentucky Reservoir Water Resources Task Force of the general extent of pesticide usage and is not an assessment of pesticide impacts. 10 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF THE THERMAL SHALLOW RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Raasch, G.D.

    1985-01-22

    The Geysers was discovered in 1847, and its therapeutic mineral baths were widely recognized by 1880. It was not until 1921, however, that the first steam well at The Geysers was drilled. Between 1922 and 1925, eight additional wells were drilled and tested as reported by Allen and Day. Development activity ceased until 1955 when Magma Power Company drilled the first ''commercial'' well. This success led to additional drilling in the Thermal Shallow Reservoir and the commissioning of a 12 MW power plant in September 1960, followed by a 14 MW power plant in February, 1963. This completed the commercial development of the Thermal shallow Reservoir.

  7. Petroleum reservoir simulation in a virtual environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Bethel, E.W.; Datta-Gupta, A.; Holland, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the authors describe an approach to combining a reservoir simulation with 3-D visualization and virtual reality technology. Their prototype VR/visualization system minimizes human-machine interface barriers and provides enhanced control over the simulation, thereby maximizing scientific judgment and use of intuition. They illustrate the practical advantage of using the VR/visualization prototype system in reservoir engineering by visualizing the results of a waterflood in an oil field with a three-dimensional, spatially correlated heterogeneous permeability field.

  8. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  9. Integrated reservoir studies enhance well completions

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.S.; Aud, W.W.; Burns, R.

    1998-03-16

    Integrated reservoir studies, together with modern completion and stimulation techniques, enhance well productivity while lowering completion costs. Results from different areas show that this approach increased productivity from 40% to 100% over previous applied methods. These approaches incorporate detailed production response characterization with a technical examination of past completion and stimulation practices to: Quantify the effectiveness of prior completion methods; Customize completions by specifically tailoring stimulation procedures to match the individual reservoir with its specific producing and fracturing idiosyncrasies. Two case histories, the Deep Red Fork (oil) formation of Oklahoma and the Haynesville (natural gas) formation of Louisiana, are used to illustrate the method.

  10. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  11. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan; Jersey Inst Ansari, New; Jersey Inst, New

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  12. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  13. The aging of America's reservoirs: In-reservoir and downstream physical changes and habitat implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs are important for various purposes including flood control, water supply, power generation, and recreation. The aging of America's reservoirs and progressive loss of water storage capacity resulting from ongoing sedimentation, coupled with increasing societal needs, will cause the social, economic, environmental, and political importance of reservoirs to continually increase. The short- and medium-term (<50 years) environmental consequences of reservoir construction and operation are well known and include an altered flow regime, lost connectivity (longitudinal, floodplain), an altered sediment regime, substrate compositional change, and downstream channel degradation. In general, reservoir-related changes have had adverse consequences for the natural ecosystem. Longer term (>50 years) environmental changes as reservoirs enter “old” age are less understood. Additional research is needed to help guide the future management of aging reservoir systems and support the difficult decisions that will have to be made. Important research directions include assessment of climate change effects on aging and determination of ecosystem response to ongoing aging and various management actions that may be taken with the intent of minimizing or reversing the physical effects of aging.

  14. Reservoir Modeling and Prediction at Pleasant Bayou Geopressured-Geothermal Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, Mike

    1992-03-24

    Modeling and prediction of geopressured-geothermal reservoirs is an excellent example of an engineering problem that can be solved through many different means. The problem may be approached from a purely numerical viewpoint, where a successful history match ''demonstrates'' the validity of the reservoir model, or from an analytical point of view. Each method has its own inherent limitations and weaknesses. Such limitations can be minimized by using some combination of both numerical and analytical methods, taking advantage of the strengths of each without the attendant weaknesses. This paper describes a combined numerical/analytical approach to reservoir engineering at the Pleasant Bayou geopressured-geothermal reservoir. A reservoir description had previously been developed, through which a successful history match was performed. Certain details of the reservoir can also be obtained through analysis of pressure and flow transients; these can then be used to constrain the numerical model. Methods for extracting such reservoir data are discussed, and the manner in which they can be used as constraints in the numerical models are presented.

  15. Geology and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.; Anderson, P.B.; Morris, T.H.; Dewey, J.A. Jr.; Mattson, A.; Foster, C.B.; Snelgrove, S.H.; Ryer, T.A.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of the Ferron Sandstone (Utah) project is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, quantitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir to allow realistic interwell and reservoir-scale models to be developed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. Both new and existing data is being integrated into a 3-D model of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Simulation results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations. The project is divided into four tasks: (1) regional stratigraphic analysis, (2) case studies, (3) reservoirs models, and (4) field-scale evaluation of exploration strategies. The primary objective of the regional stratigraphic analysis is to provide a more detailed interpretation of the stratigraphy and gross reservoir characteristics of the Ferron Sandstone as exposed in outcrop. The primary objective of the case-studies work is to develop a detailed geological and petrophysical characterization, at well-sweep scale or smaller, of the primary reservoir lithofacies typically found in a fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoir. Work on tasks 3 and 4 consisted of developing two- and three-dimensional reservoir models at various scales. The bulk of the work on these tasks is being completed primarily during the last year of the project, and is incorporating the data and results of the regional stratigraphic analysis and case-studies tasks.

  16. Transit losses and traveltimes of reservoir releases along the Arkansas River from Pueblo Reservoir to John Martin Reservoir, southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Livingston, Russell K.

    1978-01-01

    The volumes of reservoir releases are decreased or delayed during transit by bank storage, channel storage, and evaporation. Results from a computer model, calibrated by a controlled test release from Pueblo Reservoir, Colo., indicate that transit losses are greatest for small releases of a short duration when made during periods of low Antecedent streamflow. For equivalent releases, transit losses during the winter are about 7 percent less than losses during the summer. Based on available streamflow records, the velocity of reservoir releases ranges from about 0.6 miles per hour at the downstream end of the study reach, when antecedent streamflow is 10 cubic feet per second, to about 6.8 miles per hour at the upstream end of the study reach, when antecedent streamflow is 3,000 cubic feet per second. Consequently, the traveltime of a release increases as antecedent streamflow diminishes. Management practices that may be used to benefit water users in the study area include selection of the optimum time, rate, and duration of a reservoir release to minimize the transit losses, determination of an accurate traveltime, and diversion at several incremental rates. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  18. Reading Comprehension Strategy: Rainbow Dots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Claire; Lo, Lusa

    2008-01-01

    An action research study was conducted using the Rainbow Dots strategy to evaluate its effectiveness on reading comprehension skills in a third-grade class with students both with and without a specific learning disability. Results of the study indicated that students' overall performances in reading comprehension have increased. Students also…

  19. Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Basic Skills Group. Learning Div.

    The three papers in this volume concerning artificial intelligence and language comprehension were commissioned by the National Institute of Education to further the understanding of the cognitive processes that enable people to comprehend what they read. The first paper, "Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension," by Terry Winograd,…

  20. Basic Chad Arabic: Comprehension Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This text, principally designed for use in a three-volume course on Chad Arabic, complements the pre-speech and active phases of the course in that it provides the answers to comprehension exercises students are required to complete during the course. The comprehension exercises require that students listen to an instructor or tape and write…

  1. Comprehensive Guidance Programs That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gysbers, Norman C.; And Others

    This monograph describes how the comprehensive guidance model is transforming elementary-secondary school guidance and counseling programs in schools across the country. It incorporates the ideas and experiences of 12 guidance program developers in the actual use of the comprehensive guidance model in diverse school and cultural settings. The book…

  2. Pragmatic Comprehension Development through Telecollaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Pragmatic comprehension can be ideally developed through contact with target language speakers. This contact can be provided in English as Foreign Language contexts through telecollaboration. To test the actual effect of telecollaboration on the development of pragmatic comprehension, 30 Iranian undergraduates of English as a Foreign Language…

  3. Expectation-Based Syntactic Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roger

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of resource allocation as a source of processing difficulty in human sentence comprehension. The paper proposes a simple information-theoretic characterization of processing difficulty as the work incurred by resource reallocation during parallel, incremental, probabilistic disambiguation in sentence comprehension,…

  4. Reading Strategies and Hypertext Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmeron, Ladislao, Canas, Jose J.; Kintsch, Walter; Fajardo, Immaculada

    2005-01-01

    The literature on assessing the cognitive processes involved in hypertext comprehension during the past 15 years has yielded contradictory results. In this article we explore a possible factor affecting this situation, mainly the fact that previous works did not control for the potential effects on comprehension of reading strategies in hypertext.…

  5. Principles for Classroom Comprehension Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Sheila W.; Pearson, P. David

    1988-01-01

    Principles that should guide reading comprehension assessment include acknowledging the complexity of reading, focusing on orchestrating rather than isolating skills, regarding reading as a dynamic process, developing techniques that encourage student-teacher interactions, and using a variety of reading comprehension measures. The principles are…

  6. Listening Comprehension: The Learners' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of an investigation into the perceptions held by English students aged 16-18 years regarding listening comprehension in French and how they view the reasons behind their success or lack of it in this skill. The study suggests that listening comprehension is the skill in which students in the post-compulsory phase…

  7. Standards and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Tom

    1993-01-01

    Argues that easy claims about the relationship between language mastery and academic or economic access (made by both conservative commentators on education and mainstream writing teachers) are false and obscure real social and political boundaries, such as racism, sexism, elitism, and homophobia, that really do prevent access. (SR)

  8. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  9. The Equal Access Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catron, J. Gregory

    1987-01-01

    Reviews past history of access of religious activities in public schools in relation to the establishment clause of the First Amendment and sets forth the prerequisites in the Equal Access Act of 1984 for creating a well-defined forum for student-initiated free speech including religious groups in public high schools. (MD)

  10. Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia; De Oliver, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This case study researches the degree to which the location and services offered by a multicampus university, geographically situated consistent with the commercial principles of a large mass-market enterprise, facilitate access for educationally underserved groups. First, the necessity of democratizing educational access to an underprivileged…

  11. Granting Each Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Linda Lucas

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes federal legislation regarding equal access for students with disabilities and discusses environmental barriers to accessibility in the library media center. Solutions to these design problems are suggested in the following areas: material formats and space requirements; the physical setting, including furniture, floor coverings,…

  12. MedlinePlus: Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools Español You Are Here: Home → MedlinePlus Accessibility URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/accessibility.html ... or (301) 594-5983 and provide the address (URL) of the page on which you need assistance, ...

  13. Design for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, David R.; McCallum, Barry

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the facets of building design which affect the accessibility of libraries for the physically disabled and presents some basic guidelines for designing accessible libraries. Types of disabilities, questions relating to site design, and specific architectural and physical features of libraries (entranceways, lighting, stairways, and…

  14. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, Appendices, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, Bradley B.

    1985-06-01

    The appendices include: (1) stream habitat inventory procedures; (2) lengths and volumes across hydroacoustic transects in Libby Reservoir; (3) temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity profiles in Libby Reservoir; (4) habitat survey information by reach; (5) gill net catches by species; (6) annual catches of fish in floating gill nets; (7) vertical distributions of fish and zooplankton; (8) timing of juvenile and adult movement through traps; (9) food habits information for collected fish; (10) estimated densities and composition of zooplankton by genera; (11) seasonal catch of macroinvertebrates; and (12) initial modeling effort on the Libby Reservoir fishery. (ACR)

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  16. Fractal distributions of reservoir properties and their use in reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, D.; Hardy, H.H.; Beier, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Geostatistics has become a popular way to distribute reservoir properties between wells. One of the geostatistical methods being used is fractal geostatistics. Most porosity well logs have been found to have a fractal character. An analysis of vertical and horizontal logs, core photos, and outcrop photos has led to a rather simple model to describe porosity and permeability distributions. This representation has been tested in reservoir simulation of a mature waterflood and found to match production history with very little history matching. Fractal distributions were found to require much less history matching than classical layer cake models. Conoco is now actively applying this new technology to a number of its reservoirs.

  17. NESDIS OSPO Data Access Policy and CRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seybold, M. G.; Donoho, N. A.; McNamara, D.; Paquette, J.; Renkevens, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Office of Satellite and Product Operations (OSPO) is the NESDIS office responsible for satellite operations, product generation, and product distribution. Access to and distribution of OSPO data was formally established in a Data Access Policy dated February, 2011. An extension of the data access policy is the OSPO Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Database, which has been in development since 2008 and is reaching a critical level of maturity. This presentation will provide a summary of the data access policy and standard operating procedure (SOP) for handling data access requests. The tangential CRM database will be highlighted including the incident tracking system, reporting and notification capabilities, and the first comprehensive portfolio of NESDIS satellites, instruments, servers, applications, products, user organizations, and user contacts. Select examples of CRM data exploitation will show how OSPO is utilizing the CRM database to more closely satisfy the user community's satellite data needs with new product promotions, as well as new data and imagery distribution methods in OSPO's Environmental Satellite Processing Center (ESPC). In addition, user services and outreach initiatives from the Satellite Products and Services Division will be highlighted.

  18. Swabs to genomes: a comprehensive workflow

    PubMed Central

    Jospin, Guillaume; Darling, Aaron E.; Coil, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The sequencing, assembly, and basic analysis of microbial genomes, once a painstaking and expensive undertaking, has become much easier for research labs with access to standard molecular biology and computational tools. However, there are a confusing variety of options available for DNA library preparation and sequencing, and inexperience with bioinformatics can pose a significant barrier to entry for many who may be interested in microbial genomics. The objective of the present study was to design, test, troubleshoot, and publish a simple, comprehensive workflow from the collection of an environmental sample (a swab) to a published microbial genome; empowering even a lab or classroom with limited resources and bioinformatics experience to perform it. PMID:26020012

  19. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2003-06-04

    existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  20. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2003-09-04

    existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  1. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  2. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.L.

    1995-07-28

    The objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and quantitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir which will allow realistic inter-well and reservoir-scale modeling to be constructed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. The geological and petrophysical properties of the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in east-central Utah will be quantitatively determined. Both new and existing data will be integrated into a three-dimensional representation of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations. Technical progress this quarter is divided into regional stratigraphy, case studies, stochastic modeling and fluid-flow simulation, and technology transfer activities. The regional stratigraphy of the Ferron Sandstone outcrop belt from Last Chance Creek to Ferron Creek is being described and interpreted. Photomosaics and a database of existing surface and subsurface data are being used to determine the extent and depositional environment of each parasequence, and the nature of the contacts with adjacent rocks or flow units. For the second field season, detailed geological and petrophysical characterization of the primary reservoir lithofacies typically found in a fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoir, is continuing at selected case-study areas.

  3. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1995-03-01

    Progress is reported for a comprehensive investigation of the scaling behavior of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs. The interplay of phase behavior, viscous fingering, gravity segregation, capillary imbibition and drainage, and reservoir heterogeneity is examined in a series of simulations and experiments. Use of streamtube to model multiphase flow is demonstrated to be a fast and accurate approach for displacements that are dominated by reservoir heterogeneity. The streamtube technique is particularly powerful for multiphase compositional displacements because it represents the effects of phase behavior with a one-dimensional flow and represents the effects of heterogeneity through the locations of streamtubes. A new approach for fast calculations of critical tie-lines directly from criticality conditions is reported. A global triangular structure solution for four-component flow systems, whose tie-lies meet at the edge of a quaternary phase diagram or lie in planes is presented. Also demonstrated is the extension of this solution to multicomponent systems under the same assumptions. The interplay of gravity, capillary and viscous forces on final residual oil saturation is examined experimentally and theoretically. The analysis of vertical equilibrium conditions for three-phase gravity drainage shows that almost all oil can be recovered from the top part of a reservoir. The prediction of spreading and stability of thin film is performed to investigate three-phase gravity drainage mechanisms. Finally, experimental results from gravity drainage of crude oil in the presence of CO{sub 2} suggest that gravity drainage could be an efficient oil recovery process for vertically fractured reservoirs.

  4. Crosswell electromagnetic imaging for geothermal reservoir characterization - a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samrock, Friedemann; Saar, Martin O.

    2016-04-01

    Most regions in the world do not have ready access to natural convective hydrothermal resources. To use deep geothermal heat as a viable energy resource in low-permeability formations, permeable fracture networks have to be created artificially to enable deep fluid circulation for advective heat transport to a production well. Such generation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is studied in the "Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG)" laboratory at the Grimsel pass, Switzerland. Here, an underground experiment is conducted by hydraulically stimulating a pre-existing shear zone within crystalline rock. The objectives of this project are to better describe and understand the processes acting during reservoir generation. We perform a feasibility study to evaluate the capability of low-frequency crosswell electromagnetic (EM) tomography for mapping of stimulation-induced changes in electrical conductivity. First numerical results show that crosswell EM data are generally sensitive to the inter-well conductivity distribution, which is affected by properties such as interconnected porosity, permeability and the presence of fluids. It thereby provides important information for characterization of potential EGS reservoirs. We present a 3-D forward modeling and inversion study using synthetic data and under realistic conditions, these include the true borehole spacing and the observed electromagnetic noise level in the DUG laboratory. Based on these results we discuss the system requirements and the capability of crosswell EM to recover the inter-well structure and stimulation-induced changes. Besides the numerical study we report on the current status of instrumentation and realization of crosswell EM measurements at the DUG laboratory.

  5. Identifying Phytoplankton Classes In California Reservoirs Using HPLC Pigment Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, S.; Peacock, M. B.; Kudela, R. M.; Negrey, K.

    2014-12-01

    Few bodies of water are routinely monitored for phytoplankton composition due to monetary and time constraints, especially the less accessible bodies of water in central and southern California. These lakes and estuaries are important for economic reasons such as tourism and fishing. This project investigated the composition of phytoplankton present using pigment analysis to identify dominant phytoplankton groups. A total of 28 different sites with a wide range of salinity (0 - 60) in central and southern California were examined. These included 13 different bodies of water in central California: 6 in the Sierras, 7 in the San Francisco Bay Estuary, and 15 from southern California. The samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the pigments present (using retention time and the spectral thumbprint). Diagnostic pigments were used to indicate the phytoplankton class composition, focusing on diatoms, dinoflagellates, cryptophytes, and cyanobacteria - all key phytoplankton groups indicative of the health of the sampled reservoir. Our results indicated that cyanobacteria dominated four of the seven bodies of central California water (Mono Lake, Bridgeport Reservoir, Steamboat Slough, and Pinto Lake); cryptophytes and nannoflagellates dominated two of the central California bodies of water (Mare Island Strait and Topaz Lake); and diatoms and dinoflagellates dominated one central California body of water, Oakland Inner Harbor, comprising more than 70% of the phytoplankton present. We expect the bodies of water from Southern California to be as disparate. Though this data is only a snapshot, it has significant implications in comparing different ecosystems across California, and it has the potential to provide valuable insight into the composition of phytoplankton communities.

  6. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-12-31

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  7. Incorporating routing into reservoir planning optimization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmijewski, Nicholas; Wörman, Anders; Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    To achieve the best overall operation result in a reservoir network, optimization models are used. For larger reservoir networks the computational cost increases, making simplification of the hydrodynamic description necessary. In-accuracy in flow prediction can be related to an incurred sub-optimality in production planning. Flow behavior in a management optimization model is often described using a constant time-lag model. A simplified hydraulic model was used, describing the stream flow in a reservoir network for short term production planning of a case-study reservoir network (Dalälven River). In this study, the importance of incorporating hydrodynamic wave diffusion for optimized hydropower production planning in a regulated water system was examined, comparing the kinematic-wave model to the constant time-lag. The receding horizon optimization procedure was applied, emulating the data-assimilation procedure present in modern operations. Power production was shown to deviate from the planned production while considering a single time-lag, as a function of the stream description. The simplification of using a constant time-lag could be considered acceptable for streams characterized by high Peclet number. Examining the effect of the effect of the length of the decision time-step demonstrated the importance of high frequency data assimilation for streams characterized by low Peclet numbers. Further, it was shown that the variability in flow becomes more ordered as a result of management and that the Peclet number contributes to that goal.

  8. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  9. Using surface deformation to image reservoir dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Vasco, D.W.; Karasaki, K.; Doughty, C.

    2000-02-01

    The inversion of surface deformation data such as tilt, displacement, or strain provides a noninvasive method for monitoring subsurface volume change. Reservoir volume change is related directly to processes such as pressure variations induced by injection and withdrawal. The inversion procedure is illustrated by an application to tiltmeter data from the Hijiori test site in Japan. An inversion of surface tilt data allows one to image flow processes in a fractured granodiorite. Approximately 650 barrels of water, injected 2 km below the surface, produces a peak surface tilt of the order of 0.8 microradians. The authors find that the pattern of volume change in the granodiorite is very asymmetrical, elongated in a north-northwesterly direction, and the maximum volume change is offset by more than 0.7 km to the east of the pumping well. The inversion of a suite of leveling data from the Wilmington oil field in Long Beach, California, images large-scale reservoir volume changes in 12 one- to two-year increments from 1976 to 1996. The influence of various production strategies is seen in the reservoir volume changes. In particular, a steam flood in fault block 2 in the northwest portion of the field produced a sudden decrease in reservoir volume.

  10. Phosphorous control in a eutrophied reservoir.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Pacheco, H; Hansen, A M; Falcón-Rojas, A

    2013-12-01

    Water in lakes and reservoirs accumulate phosphorous (P) from both internal and external loads. The external P load (EPL) coming from the watershed is considered to be the main cause of eutrophication of water bodies, and control strategies therefore focus on its reduction. However, algae blooms and anoxic conditions often continue even after EPL have been controlled, being the internal P load (IPL) originating from the sediment the main sources of P. To assess the efficiency of the adsorbent Phoslock (a modified bentonite) in controlling P concentrations in water and immobilize releasable P in sediments, mesocosm trials were carried out in a eutrophied reservoir and a model was described and applied that determines the amount of adsorbent and the application frequency necessary to control P concentrations in a eutrophied reservoir. The mesocosm trials confirm that Phoslock reduced P concentrations to or below the limits that define water in mesotrophic state, in approximately 2 weeks. The modeling results suggest that periodic reapplications of the adsorbent are required, unless EPL is reduced by 36 %, which allows the P concentrations in the water column to be constant. Such reduction in EPL would allow future applications of the adsorbent to be required only for control of IPL. The developed model allows planning remediation actions by determining quantities and frequencies for application of adsorbents for P control in eutrophied lakes and reservoirs.

  11. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  12. Geothermal Reservoirs: Products of Cooling Plutons

    SciTech Connect

    Denis L. Norton

    2002-09-24

    The goals of this project were to develop an in depth understanding of how geothermal reservoirs form and elucidate those features that could potentially be useful in exploration and development of additional energy reserves. Collaboration with Jeff Hulen, EGI helped closely coordinate theoretical concepts and computational experiments with geologic reality in fulfillment of the tasks for this project. Initial reconnaissance computations with Tom Brikowski, University of Texas were critical in realizing the final products of this project. The products of this work contribute basic understanding of the dynamical conditions attendant to the formation of reservoirs in general and the Geysers reservoir in particular. The most exciting of the discoveries were a combination of mineralogical, computational, and geothermometric data sets that revealed a chaotic-like behavior of the processes is critical in the formation of reservoirs near cooling plutions. This discovery provides a fundamental basis for improving resource assessment and exploration methods for geothermal energy associated with very young magmas. Some of the main results are documented in scientific publications, and DOE progress reports. An additional publication is in preparation on the overall significance of fracture propagation and microseismic activity around young magmas.

  13. Seismic imaging of fractures in geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Toksoez, N.M.; Li, Y.; Lee, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    The fracture systems that act as conduits for fluids play an important role in the extraction of geothermal energy in both liquid- and vapor-dominated fields. Hydraulic fracturing is a common engineering practice used to enhance fluid production from reservoirs with low permeability. In hot dry rock (HDR) and in vapor-dominated reservoirs that are being depleted, it is necessary to inject water to produce steam. This process generally requires hydraulic fracturing in advance to enhance the recovery. Therefore, fracture imaging and characterization are important in obtaining a better understanding of geothermal reservoirs. In this paper the authors present two new techniques for seismic characterization of fracture systems. The first technique involves the detection and characterization of existing fractures with a seismic source at the surface and a hydrophone array in a borehole, i.e., the hydrophone vertical seismic profiling (VSP). P- and S-waves impinging on an open fracture induce fluid flow from the fracture into the borehole and generate tube waves in the borehole. Orientations of fractures can be determined by using the ratios of an S-wave generated tube wave to a P-wave generated tube wave. The second technique is the high-precision location of induced earthquakes during hydrofracturing for imaging the fracture. These approaches provide the means to obtain much more detailed information about fracture systems within geothermal reservoirs.

  14. Evolution of analyzing reservoir simulation data

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, R.E.; Huang, A.Y.

    1994-12-31

    Numerical Reservoir Simulation is routinely used by the petroleum producing companies world-wide as an engineering tool to efficiently manage their hydrocarbon reservoirs. The task of building models with a large number of grid-blocks is not easy, and to analyze the voluminous results produced by such models is even more difficult. This paper discusses the historical evolution of techniques used to analyze reservoir simulation data over the past decade. It outlines how the advancement of workstation technology and the introduction of X-Window System opened up an entirely new way of utilizing mainframe computing power and workstation graphical display capabilities, simultaneously. The paper also discusses Saudi Aramco`s experience in the development of sophisticated reservoir simulation post-processing packages. The need for direct communication between the programmer and end-users to facilitate a user-friendly package is emphasized. A practical example illustrating the benefit of these post-processing packages in the construction and history matching of a large model with approximately 52,000 cells is presented. Savings in manpower and computer resources using current technology are estimated.

  15. Evolution of analyzing reservoir simulation data

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, R.E.; Huang, A.Y.

    1995-12-01

    Petroleum-producing companies world-wide routinely use numerical reservoir simulation as an engineering tool to manage their hydrocarbon reservoirs efficiently. The task of building models with a large number of gridblocks is not easy, and analyzing the voluminous results produced by such models is even more difficult. This paper discusses the historical evolution of techniques used to analyze reservoir simulation data over the past decade. It outlines how the advancement of workstation technology and the introduction of an X-Window system opened up an entirely new way of using mainframe computing power and workstation graphical display capabilities simultaneously. The paper also discusses Saudi Aramco`s experience in the development of sophisticated reservoir simulation postprocessing packages. The authors emphasize the need for direct communication between the programmer and end users to facilitate a user-friendly package. They present a practical example illustrating the benefit of these postprocessing packages in the construction and history matching of a large model with approximately 52,000 cells. They estimate savings in manpower and computer resources using current technology.

  16. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Hitzman, D.O.; stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

  17. Geodetic imaging: Reservoir monitoring using satellite interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vasco, D.W.; Wicks, C.; Karasaki, K.; Marques, O.

    2002-01-01

    Fluid fluxes within subsurface reservoirs give rise to surface displacements, particularly over periods of a year or more. Observations of such deformation provide a powerful tool for mapping fluid migration within the Earth, providing new insights into reservoir dynamics. In this paper we use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) range changes to infer subsurface fluid volume strain at the Coso geothermal field. Furthermore, we conduct a complete model assessment, using an iterative approach to compute model parameter resolution and covariance matrices. The method is a generalization of a Lanczos-based technique which allows us to include fairly general regularization, such as roughness penalties. We find that we can resolve quite detailed lateral variations in volume strain both within the reservoir depth range (0.4-2.5 km) and below the geothermal production zone (2.5-5.0 km). The fractional volume change in all three layers of the model exceeds the estimated model parameter uncertainly by a factor of two or more. In the reservoir depth interval (0.4-2.5 km), the predominant volume change is associated with northerly and westerly oriented faults and their intersections. However, below the geothermal production zone proper [the depth range 2.5-5.0 km], there is the suggestion that both north- and northeast-trending faults may act as conduits for fluid flow.

  18. Reconnaissance Report on Papillion Creek Reservoirs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    reservoirs. Preimpoundment limnological investigations should include stream water quality, algal assays of the eutrophication potential of the water, and...provisional algal assay procedures established by the Joint Industry/Government Task Force on Eutrophication 3 could be used to evaluate the eutrophication... Kjeldahl nitrogen and conductivity. Phosphorus was used as a criterion because it is generally considered to be the most important nutrient

  19. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane em

  20. Case Study of Reservoir Operation with SSSLP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    by Charles D. D. Howard, Member AGU Senior Advisor, CddHoward Consulting Ltd Victoria, BC, Canada. For a continuous period of eight years a conceptual hydrologic model was coupled with a stochastic optimization model during operation of two hydroelectric reservoirs in mountain watersheds of coastal British Columbia. The results in terms of increased actual energy generation may provide insight into a simple methodology suitable for other similar situations. The optimization model was updated each week with current reservoir levels, operating criteria (such as unit outages) and stochastic inflow forecasts covering a 52 week time horizon. The weekly operating decisions were based on a stochastic linear programming model of the time horizon but recommended the optimal releases in only the first week. Implementation and management of the method was expedited by not considering the full multi-stage decision tree. This method is called SSLP, Single Stage Stochastic Linear Programming. The paper provides two comparisons for how well this methodology can perform. The first shows comparisons of actual energy generation, generation that could have been achieved if the model recommendations had been more strictly adopted, and generation that would have occurred if the previous rule curve had been followed. The second is an academic study that explored how much detail is actually needed in reservoir operations optimization. For this a single stage stochastic linear programming model of a hypothetical reservoir was compared with a stochastic dynamic programming application that modeled the full decision tree.