Science.gov

Sample records for access control architecture

  1. C+L band wavelength division multiplexing access network with distributed-controlled protection architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien Hung; Chow, Chi Wai

    2011-12-01

    In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel distributed-controlled protection architecture for automatic and fast network restoration in wavelength division multiplexing-passive optical network (WDM-PON). The proposed scheme can support both C and L bands. Besides, duplication of network equipments, such as optical networking unit (ONU) or optical line terminal, is not required. In this distributed-controlled system, each ONU can always keep track of the network status. Hence, this can facilitate the network manage by removing the work loads from the central office. Besides, the proposed scheme can tolerate simultaneous fiber cuts in the feeder and distributed fibers.

  2. Neural Architectures for Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, James K.

    1991-01-01

    The cerebellar model articulated controller (CMAC) neural architectures are shown to be viable for the purposes of real-time learning and control. Software tools for the exploration of CMAC performance are developed for three hardware platforms, the MacIntosh, the IBM PC, and the SUN workstation. All algorithm development was done using the C programming language. These software tools were then used to implement an adaptive critic neuro-control design that learns in real-time how to back up a trailer truck. The truck backer-upper experiment is a standard performance measure in the neural network literature, but previously the training of the controllers was done off-line. With the CMAC neural architectures, it was possible to train the neuro-controllers on-line in real-time on a MS-DOS PC 386. CMAC neural architectures are also used in conjunction with a hierarchical planning approach to find collision-free paths over 2-D analog valued obstacle fields. The method constructs a coarse resolution version of the original problem and then finds the corresponding coarse optimal path using multipass dynamic programming. CMAC artificial neural architectures are used to estimate the analog transition costs that dynamic programming requires. The CMAC architectures are trained in real-time for each obstacle field presented. The coarse optimal path is then used as a baseline for the construction of a fine scale optimal path through the original obstacle array. These results are a very good indication of the potential power of the neural architectures in control design. In order to reach as wide an audience as possible, we have run a seminar on neuro-control that has met once per week since 20 May 1991. This seminar has thoroughly discussed the CMAC architecture, relevant portions of classical control, back propagation through time, and adaptive critic designs.

  3. Power Systems Control Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    James Davidson

    2005-01-01

    A diagram provided in the report depicts the complexity of the power systems control architecture used by the national power structure. It shows the structural hierarchy and the relationship of the each system to those other systems interconnected to it. Each of these levels provides a different focus for vulnerability testing and has its own weaknesses. In evaluating each level, of prime concern is what vulnerabilities exist that provide a path into the system, either to cause the system to malfunction or to take control of a field device. An additional vulnerability to consider is can the system be compromised in such a manner that the attacker can obtain critical information about the system and the portion of the national power structure that it controls.

  4. Controlling Material Reactivity Using Architecture.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kyle T; Zhu, Cheng; Duoss, Eric B; Gash, Alexander E; Kolesky, David B; Kuntz, Joshua D; Lewis, Jennifer A; Spadaccini, Christopher M

    2016-03-01

    3D-printing methods are used to generate reactive material architectures. Several geometric parameters are observed to influence the resultant flame propagation velocity, indicating that the architecture can be utilized to control reactivity. Two different architectures, channels and hurdles, are generated, and thin films of thermite are deposited onto the surface. The architecture offers an additional route to control, at will, the energy release rate in reactive composite materials. PMID:26669517

  5. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  6. Improving School Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Few things are more important for school safety and security than controlling access to buildings and grounds. It is relatively easy to incorporate effective access control measures in new school designs but more difficult in existing schools, where most building and site features cannot be readily altered or reconfigured. The National…

  7. CAS. Controlled Access Security

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Pomeroy, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Security Alarm System is a data acquisition and control system which collects data from intrusion sensors and displays the information in a real-time environment for operators. The Access Control System monitors and controls the movement of personnel with the use of card readers and biometrics hand readers.

  8. An open architecture motion controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossol, Lothar

    1994-01-01

    Nomad, an open architecture motion controller, is described. It is formed by a combination of TMOS, C-WORKS, and other utilities. Nomad software runs in a UNIX environment and provides for sensor-controlled robotic motions, with user replaceable kinematics. It can also be tailored for highly specialized applications. Open controllers such as Nomad should have a major impact on the robotics industry.

  9. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Levesque, Marl; Williams, Randall; Mclaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Launch vehicles within the international community vary greatly in their configuration and processing. Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific launch vehicle configuration. Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site. Each launch site has a control center for launch operations; however flight operations support varies from being co-located with the launch site to being shared with the space vehicle control center. There is also a nuance of some having an engineering support center which may be co-located with either the launch or flight control center, or in a separate geographical location altogether. A survey of control center architectures is presented for various launch vehicles including the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures shares some similarities in basic structure while differences in functional distribution also exist. The driving functions which lead to these factors are considered and a model of control center architectures is proposed which supports these commonalities and variations.

  10. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  11. Architecture of conference control functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausar, Nadia; Crowcroft, Jon

    1999-11-01

    Conference control is an integral part in many-to-many communications that is used to manage and co-ordinate multiple users in conferences. There are different types of conferences which require different types of control. Some of the features of conference control may be user invoked while others are for internal management of a conference. In recent years, ITU (International Telecommunication Union) and IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) have standardized two main models of conferencing, each system providing a set of conference control functionalities that are not easily provided in the other one. This paper analyzes the main activities appropriate for different types of conferences and presents an architecture for conference control called GCCP (Generic Conference Control Protocol). GCCP interworks different types of conferencing and provides a set of conference control functions that can be invoked by users directly. As an example of interworking, interoperation of IETF's SIP and ITU's H.323 call control functions have been examined here. This paper shows that a careful analysis of a conferencing architecture can provide a set of control functions essential for any group communication model that can be extensible if needed.

  12. Java based open architecture controller

    SciTech Connect

    Weinert, G F

    2000-01-13

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) the authors have been developing an open architecture machine tool controller. This work has been patterned after the General Motors (GM) led Open Modular Architecture Controller (OMAC) work, where they have been involved since its inception. The OMAC work has centered on creating sets of implementation neutral application programming interfaces (APIs) for machine control software components. In the work at LLNL, they were among the early adopters of the Java programming language. As an application programming language, it is particularly well suited for component software development. The language contains many features, which along with a well-defined implementation API (such as the OMAC APIs) allows third party binary files to be integrated into a working system. Because of its interpreted nature, Java allows rapid integration testing of components. However, for real-time systems development, the Java programming language presents many drawbacks. For instance, lack of well defined scheduling semantics and threading behavior can present many unwanted challenges. Also, the interpreted nature of the standard Java Virtual Machine (JVM) presents an immediate performance hit. Various real-time Java vendors are currently addressing some of these drawbacks. The various pluses and minuses of using the Java programming language and environment, with regard to a component-based controller, will be outlined.

  13. ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN OF PROCESS AND ACCESS AREAS HOT PILOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN OF PROCESS AND ACCESS AREAS HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111679. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Mobile access control vestibule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePoy, Jennifer M.

    1998-12-01

    The mobile access control vestibule (MACV) is an adaptation of techniques developed for mobile military command centers. The overall configuration of modules acts as an entry control/screening facility or transportable command center. The system would provide the following capabilities: (1) A key element for force protection, rapid deployment units sent to areas having no prepositioned equipment or where there has been a degradation of that equipment as a result of natural disasters or civil unrest. (2) A rapidly deployable security control center to upgrade the security at nonmilitary sites (e.g., diplomatic or humanitarian organizations). (3) Personnel screening, package screening, badge/identification card production for authorized personnel, centralized monitoring of deployed perimeter sensors, and centralized communications for law enforcement personnel. (4) Self-contained screening and threat detection systems, including explosives detection using the system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the FAA. When coupled with transportable electric generators, the system is self-sufficient. The communication system for the MACV would be a combination of physically wired and wireless communication units that supports by ad hoc networking.

  15. More About Architecture For Intelligent Robotic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, Paolo; Chang, Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    Boolean neural networks proposed to implement part of intermediate level of hierarchical architecture of control system for artificially intelligent control of robot hand. Concept described in "Architecture for Intelligent Control of Robotic Tasks" (NPO-17871). Rule level of architecture implemented in two Boolean neural networks operated and updated in alternation. No explicit programming of network. Internal configuration not unique but, depends on initial state and history of previous adaptations. Accepts new rules sequentially presented by external controller.

  16. Future Service Adaptive Access/Aggregation Network Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Takeshita, Hidetoshi; Okamoto, Satoru

    The emergence of new services in the cloud computing era has made smooth service migration an important issue in access networks. However, different types of equipment are typically used for the different services due to differences in service requirements. This leads to an increase in not only capital expenditures but also operational expenditures. Here we propose using a service adaptive approach as a solution to this problem. We analyze the requirements of a future access network in terms of service, network, and node. We discuss available access network technologies including the passive optical network, single star network. Finally, we present a future service adaptive access/aggregation network and its architecture along with a programmable optical line terminal and optical network unit, discuss its benefit, and describe example services that it would support.

  17. Context-Based E-Health System Access Control Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Neyadi, Fahed; Abawajy, Jemal H.

    E-Health systems logically demand a sufficiently fine-grained authorization policy for access control. The access to medical information should not be just role-based but should also include the contextual condition of the role to access data. In this paper, we present a mechanism to extend the standard role-based access control to incorporate contextual information for making access control decisions in e-health application. We present an architecture consisting of authorisation and context infrastructure that work cooperatively to grant access rights based on context-aware authorization policies and context information.

  18. Open architecture controllers for advanced manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, R.A.

    1994-03-01

    The application of intelligent control systems to the real world of machining and manufacturing will benefit form the presence of open architecture control systems on the machines or the processes. The ability to modify the control system as the process or product changes can be essential to the success of the application of neural net or fuzzy logic controllers. The effort at Los Alamos to obtain a commercially available open architecture machine tool controller is described.

  19. The linked medical data access control framework.

    PubMed

    Kamateri, Eleni; Kalampokis, Evangelos; Tambouris, Efthimios; Tarabanis, Konstantinos

    2014-08-01

    The integration of medical data coming from multiple sources is important in clinical research. Amongst others, it enables the discovery of appropriate subjects in patient-oriented research and the identification of innovative results in epidemiological studies. At the same time, the integration of medical data faces significant ethical and legal challenges that impose access constraints. Some of these issues can be addressed by making available aggregated instead of raw record-level data. In many cases however, there is still a need for controlling access even to the resulting aggregated data, e.g., due to data provider's policies. In this paper we present the Linked Medical Data Access Control (LiMDAC) framework that capitalizes on Linked Data technologies to enable controlling access to medical data across distributed sources with diverse access constraints. The LiMDAC framework consists of three Linked Data models, namely the LiMDAC metadata model, the LiMDAC user profile model, and the LiMDAC access policy model. It also includes an architecture that exploits these models. Based on the framework, a proof-of-concept platform is developed and its performance and functionality are evaluated by employing two usage scenarios.

  20. Multi-wavelength access gate for WDM-formatted words in optical RAM row architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitsios, D.; Alexoudi, T.; Vagionas, C.; Miliou, A.; Kanellos, G. T.; Pleros, N.

    2013-03-01

    Optical RAM has emerged as a promising solution for overcoming the "Memory Wall" of electronics, indicating the use of light in RAM architectures as the approach towards enabling ps-regime memory access times. Taking a step further towards exploiting the unique wavelength properties of optical signals, we reveal new architectural perspectives in optical RAM structures by introducing WDM principles in the storage area. To this end, we demonstrate a novel SOAbased multi-wavelength Access Gate for utilization in a 4x4 WDM optical RAM bank architecture. The proposed multiwavelength Access Gate can simultaneously control random access to a 4-bit optical word, exploiting Cross-Gain-Modulation (XGM) to process 8 Bit and Bit channels encoded in 8 different wavelengths. It also suggests simpler optical RAM row architectures, allowing for the effective sharing of one multi-wavelength Access Gate for each row, substituting the eight AGs in the case of conventional optical RAM architectures. The scheme is shown to support 10Gbit/s operation for the incoming 4-bit data streams, with a power consumption of 15mW/Gbit/s. All 8 wavelength channels demonstrate error-free operation with a power penalty lower than 3 dB for all channels, compared to Back-to-Back measurements. The proposed optical RAM architecture reveals that exploiting the WDM capabilities of optical components can lead to RAM bank implementations with smarter column/row encoders/decoders, increased circuit simplicity, reduced number of active elements and associated power consumption. Moreover, exploitation of the wavelength entity can release significant potential towards reconfigurable optical cache mapping schemes when using the wavelength dimension for memory addressing.

  1. Mars Science Laboratory thermal control architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Birur, Gajanana; Pauken, Michael; Paris, Anthony; Novak, Keith; Prina, Mauro; Ramirez, Brenda; Bame, David

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission to land a large rover on Mars is being planned for launch in 2009. This paper will describe the basic architecture of the thermal control system, the challenges and the methods used to overcome them by the use of an innovative architecture to maximize the use of heritage from past projects while meeting the requirements for the design.

  2. Cardea: Dynamic Access Control in Distributed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepro, Rebekah

    2004-01-01

    Modern authorization systems span domains of administration, rely on many different authentication sources, and manage complex attributes as part of the authorization process. This . paper presents Cardea, a distributed system that facilitates dynamic access control, as a valuable piece of an inter-operable authorization framework. First, the authorization model employed in Cardea and its functionality goals are examined. Next, critical features of the system architecture and its handling of the authorization process are then examined. Then the S A M L and XACML standards, as incorporated into the system, are analyzed. Finally, the future directions of this project are outlined and connection points with general components of an authorization system are highlighted.

  3. Unified Access Architecture for Large-Scale Scientific Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, Risav

    2014-05-01

    Data-intensive sciences have to deploy diverse large scale database technologies for data analytics as scientists have now been dealing with much larger volume than ever before. While array databases have bridged many gaps between the needs of data-intensive research fields and DBMS technologies (Zhang 2011), invocation of other big data tools accompanying these databases is still manual and separate the database management's interface. We identify this as an architectural challenge that will increasingly complicate the user's work flow owing to the growing number of useful but isolated and niche database tools. Such use of data analysis tools in effect leaves the burden on the user's end to synchronize the results from other data manipulation analysis tools with the database management system. To this end, we propose a unified access interface for using big data tools within large scale scientific array database using the database queries themselves to embed foreign routines belonging to the big data tools. Such an invocation of foreign data manipulation routines inside a query into a database can be made possible through a user-defined function (UDF). UDFs that allow such levels of freedom as to call modules from another language and interface back and forth between the query body and the side-loaded functions would be needed for this purpose. For the purpose of this research we attempt coupling of four widely used tools Hadoop (hadoop1), Matlab (matlab1), R (r1) and ScaLAPACK (scalapack1) with UDF feature of rasdaman (Baumann 98), an array-based data manager, for investigating this concept. The native array data model used by an array-based data manager provides compact data storage and high performance operations on ordered data such as spatial data, temporal data, and matrix-based data for linear algebra operations (scidbusr1). Performances issues arising due to coupling of tools with different paradigms, niche functionalities, separate processes and output

  4. On-board processing satellite network architecture and control study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campanella, S. Joseph; Pontano, Benjamin A.; Chalmers, Harvey

    1987-01-01

    The market for telecommunications services needs to be segmented into user classes having similar transmission requirements and hence similar network architectures. Use of the following transmission architecture was considered: satellite switched TDMA; TDMA up, TDM down; scanning (hopping) beam TDMA; FDMA up, TDM down; satellite switched MF/TDMA; and switching Hub earth stations with double hop transmission. A candidate network architecture will be selected that: comprises multiple access subnetworks optimized for each user; interconnects the subnetworks by means of a baseband processor; and optimizes the marriage of interconnection and access techniques. An overall network control architecture will be provided that will serve the needs of the baseband and satellite switched RF interconnected subnetworks. The results of the studies shall be used to identify elements of network architecture and control that require the greatest degree of technology development to realize an operational system. This will be specified in terms of: requirements of the enabling technology; difference from the current available technology; and estimate of the development requirements needed to achieve an operational system. The results obtained for each of these tasks are presented.

  5. Architecture For Intelligent Control Of Robotic Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, Paolo; Chang, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Proposed architecture for control of such robotic devices as artificial hands calls for data-abstracting hierarchies of processing, controlling, and sensing equipment that plans, executes, and corrects movements of devices at acceptably high rates. Combines features developed in research on artificial intelligence and control theory. Characterized by casual connections between layers of hierarchy, approximately equal complexities of layers, and directed focus of attention.

  6. Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

  7. A task control architecture for autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Mitchell, Tom

    1990-01-01

    An architecture is presented for controlling robots that have multiple tasks, operate in dynamic domains, and require a fair degree of autonomy. The architecture is built on several layers of functionality, including a distributed communication layer, a behavior layer for querying sensors, expanding goals, and executing commands, and a task level for managing the temporal aspects of planning and achieving goals, coordinating tasks, allocating resources, monitoring, and recovering from errors. Application to a legged planetary rover and an indoor mobile manipulator is described.

  8. Partially Decentralized Control Architectures for Satellite Formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Bauer, Frank H.

    2002-01-01

    In a partially decentralized control architecture, more than one but less than all nodes have supervisory capability. This paper describes an approach to choosing the number of supervisors in such au architecture, based on a reliability vs. cost trade. It also considers the implications of these results for the design of navigation systems for satellite formations that could be controlled with a partially decentralized architecture. Using an assumed cost model, analytic and simulation-based results indicate that it may be cheaper to achieve a given overall system reliability with a partially decentralized architecture containing only a few supervisors, than with either fully decentralized or purely centralized architectures. Nominally, the subset of supervisors may act as centralized estimation and control nodes for corresponding subsets of the remaining subordinate nodes, and act as decentralized estimation and control peers with respect to each other. However, in the context of partially decentralized satellite formation control, the absolute positions and velocities of each spacecraft are unique, so that correlations which make estimates using only local information suboptimal only occur through common biases and process noise. Covariance and monte-carlo analysis of a simplified system show that this lack of correlation may allow simplification of the local estimators while preserving the global optimality of the maneuvers commanded by the supervisors.

  9. LANSCE personnel access control system

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  10. 77 FR 36231 - Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) and Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) proposes to amend the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility Guidelines to specifically address emergency transportable housing units that are provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency or other entities on a temporary site in response to an emergency need......

  11. An Architecture for Controlling Multiple Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghazarian, Hrand; Pirjanian, Paolo; Schenker, Paul; Huntsberger, Terrance

    2004-01-01

    The Control Architecture for Multirobot Outpost (CAMPOUT) is a distributed-control architecture for coordinating the activities of multiple robots. In the CAMPOUT, multiple-agent activities and sensor-based controls are derived as group compositions and involve coordination of more basic controllers denoted, for present purposes, as behaviors. The CAMPOUT provides basic mechanistic concepts for representation and execution of distributed group activities. One considers a network of nodes that comprise behaviors (self-contained controllers) augmented with hyper-links, which are used to exchange information between the nodes to achieve coordinated activities. Group behavior is guided by a scripted plan, which encodes a conditional sequence of single-agent activities. Thus, higher-level functionality is composed by coordination of more basic behaviors under the downward task decomposition of a multi-agent planner

  12. Access Control for Agent-based Computing: A Distributed Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonopoulos, Nick; Koukoumpetsos, Kyriakos; Shafarenko, Alex

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the mobile software agent paradigm that provides a foundation for the development of high performance distributed applications and presents a simple, distributed access control architecture based on the concept of distributed, active authorization entities (lock cells), any combination of which can be referenced by an agent to provide…

  13. What is an open architecture robot controller?

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, W.E.

    1994-02-14

    This paper addresses the issue of what is an open architecture robot controllers. Three different classifications are defined along with the various advantages and shortcomings of each approach. Knowledge from past research and new technology has been included in this analysis. The conclusions recommend a communication-based hybrid approach with well defined interfaces between modules.

  14. Integrated command, control, communications and computation system functional architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, C. G.; Gilbert, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    The functional architecture for an integrated command, control, communications, and computation system applicable to the command and control portion of the NASA End-to-End Data. System is described including the downlink data processing and analysis functions required to support the uplink processes. The functional architecture is composed of four elements: (1) the functional hierarchy which provides the decomposition and allocation of the command and control functions to the system elements; (2) the key system features which summarize the major system capabilities; (3) the operational activity threads which illustrate the interrelationahip between the system elements; and (4) the interfaces which illustrate those elements that originate or generate data and those elements that use the data. The interfaces also provide a description of the data and the data utilization and access techniques.

  15. MPS beam control software architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, K.; Crane, M.

    1993-04-01

    The new Machine Protection System (MPS) now being tested at SLAC has a beam control subsystem resident in processors located close to the beam monitoring devices within the machine. There are two types of beam control micros: Algorithm Processors (AP`s) which collect and evaluate data from monitoring devices, and a Supervisor (SUPE) which collects and evaluates data from all the AP`s. The SUPE also receives the global machine beamcode indicating beam presence, and passes it on to the AP`s. The SUPE receives the beamcode pattern from the Master Pattern Generator (MPG) via a shared-memory communication link. MIL-1553 serial communication is used between the SUPE and the AP`s, and between the AP`s and the monitoring devices. Multitasking software is used to allow high priority handling of data evaluation and low priority handling of host/user interfacing and event reporting. Pipelining of data between acquisition and evaluation and reporting is used to accomodate the processing capacity, while still supporting full processing at the 360Hz broadcast rate of the beamcode pattern.

  16. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    PubMed Central

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Mandelli, Laura; Iosue, Miriam; Andrisano, Costanza; Roy, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies. PMID:22408588

  17. An intelligent CNC machine control system architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.J.; Loucks, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    Intelligent, agile manufacturing relies on automated programming of digitally controlled processes. Currently, processes such as Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machining are difficult to automate because of highly restrictive controllers and poor software environments. It is also difficult to utilize sensors and process models for adaptive control, or to integrate machining processes with other tasks within a factory floor setting. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, a CNC machine control system architecture based on object-oriented design and graphical programming has been developed to address some of these problems and to demonstrate automated agile machining applications using platform-independent software.

  18. Autonomous control systems - Architecture and fundamental issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antsaklis, P. J.; Passino, K. M.; Wang, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    A hierarchical functional autonomous controller architecture is introduced. In particular, the architecture for the control of future space vehicles is described in detail; it is designed to ensure the autonomous operation of the control system and it allows interaction with the pilot and crew/ground station, and the systems on board the autonomous vehicle. The fundamental issues in autonomous control system modeling and analysis are discussed. It is proposed to utilize a hybrid approach to modeling and analysis of autonomous systems. This will incorporate conventional control methods based on differential equations and techniques for the analysis of systems described with a symbolic formalism. In this way, the theory of conventional control can be fully utilized. It is stressed that autonomy is the design requirement and intelligent control methods appear at present, to offer some of the necessary tools to achieve autonomy. A conventional approach may evolve and replace some or all of the `intelligent' functions. It is shown that in addition to conventional controllers, the autonomous control system incorporates planning, learning, and FDI (fault detection and identification).

  19. Genetic control of inflorescence architecture in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Benlloch, Reyes; Berbel, Ana; Ali, Latifeh; Gohari, Gholamreza; Millán, Teresa; Madueño, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The architecture of the inflorescence, the shoot system that bears the flowers, is a main component of the huge diversity of forms found in flowering plants. Inflorescence architecture has also a strong impact on the production of fruits and seeds, and on crop management, two highly relevant agronomical traits. Elucidating the genetic networks that control inflorescence development, and how they vary between different species, is essential to understanding the evolution of plant form and to being able to breed key architectural traits in crop species. Inflorescence architecture depends on the identity and activity of the meristems in the inflorescence apex, which determines when flowers are formed, how many are produced and their relative position in the inflorescence axis. Arabidopsis thaliana, where the genetic control of inflorescence development is best known, has a simple inflorescence, where the primary inflorescence meristem directly produces the flowers, which are thus borne in the main inflorescence axis. In contrast, legumes represent a more complex inflorescence type, the compound inflorescence, where flowers are not directly borne in the main inflorescence axis but, instead, they are formed by secondary or higher order inflorescence meristems. Studies in model legumes such as pea (Pisum sativum) or Medicago truncatula have led to a rather good knowledge of the genetic control of the development of the legume compound inflorescence. In addition, the increasing availability of genetic and genomic tools for legumes is allowing to rapidly extending this knowledge to other grain legume crops. This review aims to describe the current knowledge of the genetic network controlling inflorescence development in legumes. It also discusses how the combination of this knowledge with the use of emerging genomic tools and resources may allow rapid advances in the breeding of grain legume crops. PMID:26257753

  20. Genetic control of inflorescence architecture in legumes.

    PubMed

    Benlloch, Reyes; Berbel, Ana; Ali, Latifeh; Gohari, Gholamreza; Millán, Teresa; Madueño, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The architecture of the inflorescence, the shoot system that bears the flowers, is a main component of the huge diversity of forms found in flowering plants. Inflorescence architecture has also a strong impact on the production of fruits and seeds, and on crop management, two highly relevant agronomical traits. Elucidating the genetic networks that control inflorescence development, and how they vary between different species, is essential to understanding the evolution of plant form and to being able to breed key architectural traits in crop species. Inflorescence architecture depends on the identity and activity of the meristems in the inflorescence apex, which determines when flowers are formed, how many are produced and their relative position in the inflorescence axis. Arabidopsis thaliana, where the genetic control of inflorescence development is best known, has a simple inflorescence, where the primary inflorescence meristem directly produces the flowers, which are thus borne in the main inflorescence axis. In contrast, legumes represent a more complex inflorescence type, the compound inflorescence, where flowers are not directly borne in the main inflorescence axis but, instead, they are formed by secondary or higher order inflorescence meristems. Studies in model legumes such as pea (Pisum sativum) or Medicago truncatula have led to a rather good knowledge of the genetic control of the development of the legume compound inflorescence. In addition, the increasing availability of genetic and genomic tools for legumes is allowing to rapidly extending this knowledge to other grain legume crops. This review aims to describe the current knowledge of the genetic network controlling inflorescence development in legumes. It also discusses how the combination of this knowledge with the use of emerging genomic tools and resources may allow rapid advances in the breeding of grain legume crops.

  1. ACCESS: Detector Control and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Bohlin, R.; Kurucz, R. L.; Riess, A. G.; Pelton, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (companion poster, Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been selected and integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been successfully performed. Further improvements to the flight controller housing have been made. A cryogenic ground test system has been built. Dark current and read noise tests have been performed, yielding results consistent with the initial characterization tests of the detector performed by Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL). Detector control software has been developed and implemented for ground testing. Performance and integration of the detector and controller with the flight software will be presented. NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  2. A remote data access architecture for home-monitoring health-care applications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Hung; Young, Shuenn-Tsong; Kuo, Te-Son

    2007-03-01

    With the aging of the population and the increasing patient preference for receiving care in their own homes, remote home care is one of the fastest growing areas of health care in Taiwan and many other countries. Many remote home-monitoring applications have been developed and implemented to enable both formal and informal caregivers to have remote access to patient data so that they can respond instantly to any abnormalities of in-home patients. The aim of this technology is to give both patients and relatives better control of the health care, reduce the burden on informal caregivers and reduce visits to hospitals and thus result in a better quality of life for both the patient and his/her family. To facilitate their widespread adoption, remote home-monitoring systems take advantage of the low-cost features and popularity of the Internet and PCs, but are inherently exposed to several security risks, such as virus and denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. These security threats exist as long as the in-home PC is directly accessible by remote-monitoring users over the Internet. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to improve the security of such systems, with the proposed architecture aimed at increasing the system availability and confidentiality of patient information. A broker server is introduced between the remote-monitoring devices and the in-home PCs. This topology removes direct access to the in-home PC, and a firewall can be configured to deny all inbound connections while the remote home-monitoring application is operating. This architecture helps to transfer the security risks from the in-home PC to the managed broker server, on which more advanced security measures can be implemented. The pros and cons of this novel architecture design are also discussed and summarized. PMID:16621655

  3. MACOP modular architecture with control primitives.

    PubMed

    Waegeman, Tim; Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Walking, catching a ball and reaching are all tasks in which humans and animals exhibit advanced motor skills. Findings in biological research concerning motor control suggest a modular control hierarchy which combines movement/motor primitives into complex and natural movements. Engineers inspire their research on these findings in the quest for adaptive and skillful control for robots. In this work we propose a modular architecture with control primitives (MACOP) which uses a set of controllers, where each controller becomes specialized in a subregion of its joint and task-space. Instead of having a single controller being used in this subregion [such as MOSAIC (modular selection and identification for control) on which MACOP is inspired], MACOP relates more to the idea of continuously mixing a limited set of primitive controllers. By enforcing a set of desired properties on the mixing mechanism, a mixture of primitives emerges unsupervised which successfully solves the control task. We evaluate MACOP on a numerical model of a robot arm by training it to generate desired trajectories. We investigate how the tracking performance is affected by the number of controllers in MACOP and examine how the individual controllers and their generated control primitives contribute to solving the task. Furthermore, we show how MACOP compensates for the dynamic effects caused by a fixed control rate and the inertia of the robot.

  4. NASA Laboratory telerobotic manipulator control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, J. C.; Butler, P. L.; Glassell, R. L.; Herndon, J. N.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goals to increase the utilization of dexterous robotic systems in space, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) system. It is a dexterous, dual-arm, force reflecting teleoperator system with robotic features for NASA ground-based research. This paper describes the overall control system architecture, including both the hardware and software. The control system is a distributed, modular, and hierarchical design with flexible expansion capabilities for future enhancements of both the hardware and software.

  5. Access control and privacy in large distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiner, B. M.; Bishop, M.

    1986-01-01

    Large scale distributed systems consists of workstations, mainframe computers, supercomputers and other types of servers, all connected by a computer network. These systems are being used in a variety of applications including the support of collaborative scientific research. In such an environment, issues of access control and privacy arise. Access control is required for several reasons, including the protection of sensitive resources and cost control. Privacy is also required for similar reasons, including the protection of a researcher's proprietary results. A possible architecture for integrating available computer and communications security technologies into a system that meet these requirements is described. This architecture is meant as a starting point for discussion, rather that the final answer.

  6. Access and control of information and intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Gerald S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper introduces the technology of two pioneering patents for the secure distribution of information and intellectual property. The seminal technology has been used in the control of sensitive material such as medical records and imagery in distributed networks. It lends itself to the implementation of an open architecture access control system that provides local or remote user selective access to digital information stored on any computer system or storage medium, down to the data element, pixel, and sub-pixel levels. Use of this technology is especially suited for electronic publishing, health care records, MIS, and auditing.

  7. Privacy and Access Control for IHE-Based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katt, Basel; Breu, Ruth; Hafner, Micahel; Schabetsberger, Thomas; Mair, Richard; Wozak, Florian

    Electronic Health Record (EHR) is the heart element of any e-health system, which aims at improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare through the use of information and communication technologies. The sensitivity of the data contained in the health record poses a great challenge to security. In this paper we propose a security architecture for EHR systems that are conform with IHE profiles. In this architecture we are tackling the problems of access control and privacy. Furthermore, a prototypical implementation of the proposed model is presented.

  8. Proceedings of the Mobile Satellite System Architectures and Multiple Access Techniques Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessouky, Khaled

    1989-01-01

    The Mobile Satellite System Architectures and Multiple Access Techniques Workshop served as a forum for the debate of system and network architecture issues. Particular emphasis was on those issues relating to the choice of multiple access technique(s) for the Mobile Satellite Service (MSS). These proceedings contain articles that expand upon the 12 presentations given in the workshop. Contrasting views on Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)-based architectures are presented, and system issues relating to signaling, spacecraft design, and network management constraints are addressed. An overview article that summarizes the issues raised in the numerous discussion periods of the workshop is also included.

  9. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, Portia

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation presents NASA's Common Badging and Access Control System. NASA began a Smart Card implementation in January 2004. Following site surveys, it was determined that NASA's badging and access control systems required upgrades to common infrastructure in order to provide flexibly, usability, and return on investment prior to a smart card implantation. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) provides the common infrastructure from which FIPS-201 compliant processes, systems, and credentials can be developed and used.

  10. Authorisation and access control for electronic health record systems.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd

    2004-03-31

    Enabling the shared care paradigm, centralised or even decentralised electronic health record (EHR) systems increasingly become core applications in hospital information systems and health networks. For realising multipurpose use and reuse as well as inter-operability at knowledge level, EHR have to meet special architectural requirements. The component-oriented and model-based architecture should meet international standards. Especially in extended health networks realising inter-organisational communication and co-operation, authorisation cannot be organised at user level anymore. Therefore, models, methods and tools must be established to allow formal and structured policy definition, policy agreements, role definition, authorisation and access control. Based on the author's international engagement in EHR architecture and security standards referring to the revision of CEN ENV 13606, the GEHR/open EHR approach, HL7 and CORBA, models for health-specific and EHR-related roles, for authorisation management and access control have been developed. The basic concept is the separation of structural roles defining organisational entity-to-entity relationships and enabling specific acts on the one hand, and functional roles bound to specific activities and realising rights and duties on the other hand. Aggregation of organisational, functional, informational and technological components follows specific rules. Using UML and XML, the principles as well as some examples for analysis, design, implementation and maintenance of policy and authorisation management as well as access control have been practically implemented. PMID:15066555

  11. Authorisation and access control for electronic health record systems.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd

    2004-03-31

    Enabling the shared care paradigm, centralised or even decentralised electronic health record (EHR) systems increasingly become core applications in hospital information systems and health networks. For realising multipurpose use and reuse as well as inter-operability at knowledge level, EHR have to meet special architectural requirements. The component-oriented and model-based architecture should meet international standards. Especially in extended health networks realising inter-organisational communication and co-operation, authorisation cannot be organised at user level anymore. Therefore, models, methods and tools must be established to allow formal and structured policy definition, policy agreements, role definition, authorisation and access control. Based on the author's international engagement in EHR architecture and security standards referring to the revision of CEN ENV 13606, the GEHR/open EHR approach, HL7 and CORBA, models for health-specific and EHR-related roles, for authorisation management and access control have been developed. The basic concept is the separation of structural roles defining organisational entity-to-entity relationships and enabling specific acts on the one hand, and functional roles bound to specific activities and realising rights and duties on the other hand. Aggregation of organisational, functional, informational and technological components follows specific rules. Using UML and XML, the principles as well as some examples for analysis, design, implementation and maintenance of policy and authorisation management as well as access control have been practically implemented.

  12. Regulatory modules controlling maize inflorescence architecture.

    PubMed

    Eveland, Andrea L; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Pautler, Michael; Morohashi, Kengo; Liseron-Monfils, Christophe; Lewis, Michael W; Kumari, Sunita; Hiraga, Susumu; Yang, Fang; Unger-Wallace, Erica; Olson, Andrew; Hake, Sarah; Vollbrecht, Erik; Grotewold, Erich; Ware, Doreen; Jackson, David

    2014-03-01

    Genetic control of branching is a primary determinant of yield, regulating seed number and harvesting ability, yet little is known about the molecular networks that shape grain-bearing inflorescences of cereal crops. Here, we used the maize (Zea mays) inflorescence to investigate gene networks that modulate determinacy, specifically the decision to allow branch growth. We characterized developmental transitions by associating spatiotemporal expression profiles with morphological changes resulting from genetic perturbations that disrupt steps in a pathway controlling branching. Developmental dynamics of genes targeted in vivo by the transcription factor RAMOSA1, a key regulator of determinacy, revealed potential mechanisms for repressing branches in distinct stem cell populations, including interactions with KNOTTED1, a master regulator of stem cell maintenance. Our results uncover discrete developmental modules that function in determining grass-specific morphology and provide a basis for targeted crop improvement and translation to other cereal crops with comparable inflorescence architectures.

  13. Advanced Active Thermal Control Systems Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) initiated a dynamic study to determine possible improvements available through advanced technologies (not used on previous or current human vehicles), identify promising development initiatives for advanced active thermal control systems (ATCS's), and help prioritize funding and personnel distribution among many research projects by providing a common basis to compare several diverse technologies. Some technologies included were two-phase thermal control systems, light-weight radiators, phase-change thermal storage, rotary fluid coupler, and heat pumps. JSC designed the study to estimate potential benefits from these various proposed and under-development thermal control technologies for five possible human missions early in the next century. The study compared all the technologies to a baseline mission using mass as a basis. Each baseline mission assumed an internal thermal control system; an external thermal control system; and aluminum, flow-through radiators. Solar vapor compression heat pumps and light-weight radiators showed the greatest promise as general advanced thermal technologies which can be applied across a range of missions. This initial study identified several other promising ATCS technologies which offer mass savings and other savings compared to traditional thermal control systems. Because the study format compares various architectures with a commonly defined baseline, it is versatile and expandable, and is expected to be updated as needed.

  14. Design of an integrated airframe/propulsion control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Lee, C. William; Strickland, Michael J.; Torkelson, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    The design of an integrated airframe/propulsion control system architecture is described. The design is based on a prevalidation methodology that uses both reliability and performance. A detailed account is given for the testing associated with a subset of the architecture and concludes with general observations of applying the methodology to the architecture.

  15. RBAC Driven Least Privilege Architecture For Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Julie; Markham, Mark

    2014-01-25

    The concept of role based access control (RBAC) within the IT environment has been studied by researchers and was supported by NIST (circa 1992). This earlier work highlighted the benefits of RBAC which include reduced administrative workload and policies which are easier to analyze and apply. The goals of this research were to expand the application of RBAC in the following ways. • Apply RBAC to the control systems environment: The typical RBAC model within the IT environment is used to control a user’s access to files. Within the control system environment files are replaced with measurement (e.g., temperature) and control (e.g. valve) points organized as a hierarchy of control assets (e.g. a boiler, compressor, refinery unit). Control points have parameters (e.g., high alarm limit, set point, etc.) associated with them. The RBAC model is extended to support access to points and their parameters based upon roles while at the same time allowing permissions for the points to be defined at the asset level or point level directly. In addition, centralized policy administration with distributed access enforcement mechanisms was developed to support the distributed architecture of distributed control systems and SCADA. • Extend the RBAC model to include access control for software and devices: The established RBAC approach is to assign users to roles. This work extends that notion by first breaking the control system down into three layers 1) users, 2) software and 3) devices. An RBAC model is then created for each of these three layers. The result is that RBAC can be used to define machine-to-machine policy enforced via the IP security (IPsec) protocol. This highlights the potential to use RBAC for machine-to-machine connectivity within the internet of things. • Enable dynamic policy based upon the operating mode of the system: The IT environment is generally static with respect to policy. However, large cyber physical systems such as industrial controls have

  16. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  17. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  18. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  19. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  20. Proximity Displays for Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaniea, Kami

    2012-01-01

    Managing access to shared digital information, such as photographs and documents. is difficult for end users who are accumulating an increasingly large and diverse collection of data that they want to share with others. Current policy-management solutions require a user to proactively seek out and open a separate policy-management interface when…

  1. REUSABLE PROPULSION ARCHITECTURE FOR SUSTAINABLE LOW-COST ACCESS TO SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, J. A.; Dankanich, J. W.; Frame, K. L.

    2005-01-01

    The primary obstacle to any space-based mission is, and has always been, the cost of access to space. Even with impressive efforts toward reusability, no system has come close to lowering the cost a significant amount. It is postulated here, that architectural innovation is necessary to make reusability feasible, not incremental subsystem changes. This paper shows two architectural approaches of reusability that merit further study investments. Both #inherently# have performance increases and cost advantages to make affordable access to space a near term reality. A rocket launched from a subsonic aircraft (specifically the Crossbow methodology) and a momentum exchange tether, reboosted by electrodynamics, offer possibilities of substantial reductions in the total transportation architecture mass - making access-to-space cost-effective. They also offer intangible benefits that reduce risk or offer large growth potential. The cost analysis indicates that approximately a 50% savings is obtained using today#s aerospace materials and practices.

  2. Formal Description of Trust-based Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoning, Ma

    Different from traditional access control technologies, such as discretionary access control, mandatory access control, role-based access control, trust-based access control can solve the problem of uncertainty, risk and vulnerability coming from authorization. In this paper, strict definition and formal description of trust-based access control is defined.

  3. Low-Complexity Memory Access Architectures for Quasi-Cyclic LDPC Decoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Ming-Der; Fang, Shih-Hao; Tang, Shing-Chung; Yang, Der-Wei

    Partially parallel decoding architectures are widely used in the design of low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoders, especially for quasi-cyclic (QC) LDPC codes. To comply with the code structure of parity-check matrices of QC-LDPC codes, many small memory blocks are conventionally employed in this architecture. The total memory area usually dominates the area requirement of LDPC decoders. This paper proposes a low-complexity memory access architecture that merges small memory blocks into memory groups to relax the effect of peripherals in small memory blocks. A simple but efficient algorithm is also presented to handle the additional delay elements introduced in the memory merging method. Experiment results on a rate-1/2 parity-check matrix defined in the IEEE 802.16e standard show that the LDPC decoder designed using the proposed memory access architecture has the lowest area complexity among related studies. Compared to a design with the same specifications, the decoder implemented using the proposed architecture requires 33% fewer gates and is more power-efficient. The proposed new memory access architecture is thus suitable for the design of low-complexity LDPC decoders.

  4. Implementing context and team based access control in healthcare intranets.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Christos K; Mavridis, Ioannis K; Nikolakopoulou, Georgia; Pangalos, George I

    2002-09-01

    The establishment of an efficient access control system in healthcare intranets is a critical security issue directly related to the protection of patients' privacy. Our C-TMAC (Context and Team-based Access Control) model is an active security access control model that layers dynamic access control concepts on top of RBAC (Role-based) and TMAC (Team-based) access control models. It also extends them in the sense that contextual information concerning collaborative activities is associated with teams of users and user permissions are dynamically filtered during runtime. These features of C-TMAC meet the specific security requirements of healthcare applications. In this paper, an experimental implementation of the C-TMAC model is described. More specifically, we present the operational architecture of the system that is used to implement C-TMAC security components in a healthcare intranet. Based on the technological platform of an Oracle Data Base Management System and Application Server, the application logic is coded with stored PL/SQL procedures that include Dynamic SQL routines for runtime value binding purposes. The resulting active security system adapts to current need-to-know requirements of users during runtime and provides fine-grained permission granularity. Apart from identity certificates for authentication, it uses attribute certificates for communicating critical security metadata, such as role membership and team participation of users.

  5. A New Signaling Architecture THREP with Autonomous Radio-Link Control for Wireless Communications Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirono, Masahiko; Nojima, Toshio

    This paper presents a new signaling architecture for radio-access control in wireless communications systems. Called THREP (for THREe-phase link set-up Process), it enables systems with low-cost configurations to provide tetherless access and wide-ranging mobility by using autonomous radio-link controls for fast cell searching and distributed call management. A signaling architecture generally consists of a radio-access part and a service-entity-access part. In THREP, the latter part is divided into two steps: preparing a communication channel, and sustaining it. Access control in THREP is thus composed of three separated parts, or protocol phases. The specifications of each phase are determined independently according to system requirements. In the proposed architecture, the first phase uses autonomous radio-link control because we want to construct low-power indoor wireless communications systems. Evaluation of channel usage efficiency and hand-over loss probability in the personal handy-phone system (PHS) shows that THREP makes the radio-access sub-system operations in a practical application model highly efficient, and the results of a field experiment show that THREP provides sufficient protection against severe fast CNR degradation in practical indoor propagation environments.

  6. Architectures for mission control at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Reger A.; Murphy, Susan C.

    1992-01-01

    JPL is currently converting to an innovative control center data system which is a distributed, open architecture for telemetry delivery and which is enabling advancement towards improved automation and operability, as well as new technology, in mission operations at JPL. The scope of mission control within mission operations is examined. The concepts of a mission control center and how operability can affect the design of a control center data system are discussed. Examples of JPL's mission control architecture, data system development, and prototype efforts at the JPL Operations Engineering Laboratory are provided. Strategies for the future of mission control architectures are outlined.

  7. MPS Vax monitor and control software architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, S.; Spencer, N.; Underwood, K.; VanOlst, D.; Zelanzy, M.

    1993-04-01

    The new Machine Protection System (MPS) now being tested at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) includes monitoring and controlling facilities integrated into the existing VAX control system. The actual machine protection is performed by VME micros which control the beam repetition rate on a pulse-by-pulse basis based on measurements from fault detectors. The VAX is used to control and configure the VME micros, configure custom CAMAC modules providing the fault detector inputs, monitor and report faults and system errors, update the SLC database, and interface with the user. The design goals of the VAX software include a database-driven system to allow configuration changes without code changes, use of a standard TCP/IP-based message service for communication, use of existing SLCNET micros for CAMAC configuration, security and verification features to prevent unauthorized access, error and alarm logging and display updates as quickly as possible, and use of touch panels and X-windows displays for the user interface.

  8. Evolution and Genetic Architecture of Chromatin Accessibility and Function in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Caitlin F.; Wakefield, Jon; Akey, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin accessibility is an important functional genomics phenotype that influences transcription factor binding and gene expression. Genome-scale technologies allow chromatin accessibility to be mapped with high-resolution, facilitating detailed analyses into the genetic architecture and evolution of chromatin structure within and between species. We performed Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements sequencing (FAIRE-Seq) to map chromatin accessibility in two parental haploid yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus and their diploid hybrid. We show that although broad-scale characteristics of the chromatin landscape are well conserved between these species, accessibility is significantly different for 947 regions upstream of genes that are enriched for GO terms such as intracellular transport and protein localization exhibit. We also develop new statistical methods to investigate the genetic architecture of variation in chromatin accessibility between species, and find that cis effects are more common and of greater magnitude than trans effects. Interestingly, we find that cis and trans effects at individual genes are often negatively correlated, suggesting widespread compensatory evolution to stabilize levels of chromatin accessibility. Finally, we demonstrate that the relationship between chromatin accessibility and gene expression levels is complex, and a significant proportion of differences in chromatin accessibility might be functionally benign. PMID:24992477

  9. Accessing Geospatial Services in Limited Bandwidth Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggs, James D.

    2013-01-01

    First responders are continuously moving at an incident site and this movement requires them to access Service-Oriented Architecture services, such as a Web Map Service, via mobile wireless networks. First responders from inside a building often have problems in communicating to devices outside that building due to propagation obstacles. Dynamic…

  10. Resource allocation and supervisory control architecture for intelligent behavior generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Hitesh K.; Bahl, Vikas; Moore, Kevin L.; Flann, Nicholas S.; Martin, Jason

    2003-09-01

    In earlier research the Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) at Utah State University (USU) was funded by the US Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program to develop and demonstrate enhanced mobility concepts for unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). As part of our research, we presented the use of a grammar-based approach to enabling intelligent behaviors in autonomous robotic vehicles. With the growth of the number of available resources on the robot, the variety of the generated behaviors and the need for parallel execution of multiple behaviors to achieve reaction also grew. As continuation of our past efforts, in this paper, we discuss the parallel execution of behaviors and the management of utilized resources. In our approach, available resources are wrapped with a layer (termed services) that synchronizes and serializes access to the underlying resources. The controlling agents (called behavior generating agents) generate behaviors to be executed via these services. The agents are prioritized and then, based on their priority and the availability of requested services, the Control Supervisor decides on a winner for the grant of access to services. Though the architecture is applicable to a variety of autonomous vehicles, we discuss its application on T4, a mid-sized autonomous vehicle developed for security applications.

  11. Scalla: Structured Cluster Architecture for Low Latency Access

    SciTech Connect

    Hanushevsky, Andrew; Wang, Daniel L.; /SLAC

    2012-03-20

    Scalla is a distributed low-latency file access system that incorporates novel techniques that minimize latency and maximize scalability over a large distributed system with a distributed namespace. Scalla's techniques have shown to be effective in nearly a decade of service for the high-energy physics community using commodity hardware and interconnects. We describe the two components used in Scalla that are instrumental in its ability to provide low-latency, fault-tolerant name resolution and load distribution, and enable its use as a high-throughput, low-latency communication layer in the Qserv system, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope's (LSST's) prototype astronomical query system. Scalla arguably exceeded its three main design objectives: low latency, scaling, and recoverability. In retrospect, these objectives were met using a simple but effective design. Low latency was met by uniformly using linear or constant time algorithms in all high-use paths, avoiding locks whenever possible, and using compact data structures to maximize the memory caching efficiency. Scaling was achieved by architecting the system as a 64-ary tree. Nodes can be added easily and as the number of nodes increases, search performance increases at an exponential rate. Recoverability is inherent in that no permanent state information is maintained and whatever state information is needed it can be quickly constructed or reconstructed in real time. This allows dynamic changes in a cluster of servers with little impact on over-all performance or usability. Today, Scalla is being deployed in environments and for uses that were never conceived in 2001. This speaks well for the systems adaptability but the underlying reason is that the system can meet its three fundamental objectives at the same time.

  12. Adaptive Code Division Multiple Access Protocol for Wireless Network-on-Chip Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumaran, Vineeth

    Massive levels of integration following Moore's Law ushered in a paradigm shift in the way on-chip interconnections were designed. With higher and higher number of cores on the same die traditional bus based interconnections are no longer a scalable communication infrastructure. On-chip networks were proposed enabled a scalable plug-and-play mechanism for interconnecting hundreds of cores on the same chip. Wired interconnects between the cores in a traditional Network-on-Chip (NoC) system, becomes a bottleneck with increase in the number of cores thereby increasing the latency and energy to transmit signals over them. Hence, there has been many alternative emerging interconnect technologies proposed, namely, 3D, photonic and multi-band RF interconnects. Although they provide better connectivity, higher speed and higher bandwidth compared to wired interconnects; they also face challenges with heat dissipation and manufacturing difficulties. On-chip wireless interconnects is one other alternative proposed which doesn't need physical interconnection layout as data travels over the wireless medium. They are integrated into a hybrid NOC architecture consisting of both wired and wireless links, which provides higher bandwidth, lower latency, lesser area overhead and reduced energy dissipation in communication. However, as the bandwidth of the wireless channels is limited, an efficient media access control (MAC) scheme is required to enhance the utilization of the available bandwidth. This thesis proposes using a multiple access mechanism such as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) to enable multiple transmitter-receiver pairs to send data over the wireless channel simultaneously. It will be shown that such a hybrid wireless NoC with an efficient CDMA based MAC protocol can significantly increase the performance of the system while lowering the energy dissipation in data transfer. In this work it is shown that the wireless NoC with the proposed CDMA based MAC protocol

  13. Efficient identity management and access control in cloud environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloster, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    As more enterprises are enticed to move data to a cloud environment to enhance data sharing and reduce operating costs by exploiting shared resources, concerns have risen over the ability to secure information within the cloud. This paper examines how a traditional Identity and Access Control (IDAM) architecture can be adapted to address security concerns of a cloud environment. We propose changing the paradigm of IDAM form a pure trust model to a risk based model will enable information to be protected securely in a cloud environment without impacting efficiencies of cloud environments.

  14. An effective access control approach to support mobility in IPv6 networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xue-hai; Lin, Chuang

    2005-11-01

    Access control is an important method to improve network security and prevent protected resources from being used by some nodes without authority. Moreover, mobility is an important trend of internet. In this paper, based on the architecture of hierarchical mobile IPv6, we proposed an effective access control approach to support mobility in IPv6 networks, which can ensure the operation of access control when a mobile node roams in these domains with different polices, with decreased delay of access negotiation and cost of delivering messages.

  15. Access Control Management for SCADA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seng-Phil; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Xu, Wenjuan

    The information technology revolution has transformed all aspects of our society including critical infrastructures and led a significant shift from their old and disparate business models based on proprietary and legacy environments to more open and consolidated ones. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems have been widely used not only for industrial processes but also for some experimental facilities. Due to the nature of open environments, managing SCADA systems should meet various security requirements since system administrators need to deal with a large number of entities and functions involved in critical infrastructures. In this paper, we identify necessary access control requirements in SCADA systems and articulate access control policies for the simulated SCADA systems. We also attempt to analyze and realize those requirements and policies in the context of role-based access control that is suitable for simplifying administrative tasks in large scale enterprises.

  16. Design mobile satellite system architecture as an integral part of the cellular access digital network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, E. S. K.; Marinho, J. A.; Russell, J. E., Sr.

    1988-01-01

    The Cellular Access Digital Network (CADN) is the access vehicle through which cellular technology is brought into the mainstream of the evolving integrated telecommunications network. Beyond the integrated end-to-end digital access and per call network services provisioning of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), the CADN engenders the added capability of mobility freedom via wireless access. One key element of the CADN network architecture is the standard user to network interface that is independent of RF transmission technology. Since the Mobile Satellite System (MSS) is envisioned to not only complement but also enhance the capabilities of the terrestrial cellular telecommunications network, compatibility and interoperability between terrestrial cellular and mobile satellite systems are vitally important to provide an integrated moving telecommunications network of the future. From a network standpoint, there exist very strong commonalities between the terrestrial cellular system and the mobile satellite system. Therefore, the MSS architecture should be designed as an integral part of the CADN. This paper describes the concept of the CADN, the functional architecture of the MSS, and the user-network interface signaling protocols.

  17. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR... activation of the control. (g) Each entrance to the radiation room of a panoramic irradiator and each... required by 10 CFR 20.1902. Radiation postings for panoramic irradiators must comply with the...

  18. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR... activation of the control. (g) Each entrance to the radiation room of a panoramic irradiator and each... required by 10 CFR 20.1902. Radiation postings for panoramic irradiators must comply with the...

  19. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR... activation of the control. (g) Each entrance to the radiation room of a panoramic irradiator and each... required by 10 CFR 20.1902. Radiation postings for panoramic irradiators must comply with the...

  20. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR... activation of the control. (g) Each entrance to the radiation room of a panoramic irradiator and each... required by 10 CFR 20.1902. Radiation postings for panoramic irradiators must comply with the...

  1. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR... activation of the control. (g) Each entrance to the radiation room of a panoramic irradiator and each... required by 10 CFR 20.1902. Radiation postings for panoramic irradiators must comply with the...

  2. The Ins and Outs of Access Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longworth, David

    1999-01-01

    Presents basic considerations when school districts plan to acquire an access-control system for their education facilities. Topics cover cards and readers, controllers, software, automation, card technology, expandability, price, specification of needs beyond the canned specifications already supplied, and proper usage training to cardholders.…

  3. Access control mechanisms for distributed healthcare environments.

    PubMed

    Sergl-Pommerening, Marita

    2004-01-01

    Today's IT-infrastructure provides more and more possibilities to share electronic patient data across several healthcare organizations and hospital departments. A strong requirement is sufficient data protection and security measures complying with the medical confidentiality and the data protection laws of each state or country like the European directive on data protection or the U.S. HIPAA privacy rule. In essence, the access control mechanisms and authorization structures of information systems must be able to realize the Need-To-Access principle. This principle can be understood as a set of context-sensitive access rules, regarding the patient's path across the organizations. The access control mechanisms of today's health information systems do not sufficiently satisfy this requirement, because information about participation of persons or organizations is not available within each system in a distributed environment. This problem could be solved by appropriate security services. The CORBA healthcare domain standard contains such a service for obtaining authorization decisions and administrating access decision policies (RAD). At the university hospital of Mainz we have developed an access control system (MACS), which includes the main functionality of the RAD specification and the access control logic that is needed for such a service. The basic design principles of our approach are role-based authorization, user rights with static and dynamic authorization data, context rules and the separation of three cooperating servers that provide up-to-date knowledge about users, roles and responsibilities. This paper introduces the design principles and the system design and critically evaluates the concepts based on practical experience.

  4. Software architecture for an unattended remotely controlled telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, R. J.; Kolb, U.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the software architecture we developed for the Open University's remotely controlled telescope PIRATE. This facility is based in Mallorca and used in distance learning modules by undergraduate students and by postgraduate students for research projects.

  5. Planning assistance for the NASA 30/20 GHz program. Network control architecture study.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inukai, T.; Bonnelycke, B.; Strickland, S.

    1982-01-01

    Network Control Architecture for a 30/20 GHz flight experiment system operating in the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) was studied. Architecture development, identification of processing functions, and performance requirements for the Master Control Station (MCS), diversity trunking stations, and Customer Premises Service (CPS) stations are covered. Preliminary hardware and software processing requirements as well as budgetary cost estimates for the network control system are given. For the trunking system control, areas covered include on board SS-TDMA switch organization, frame structure, acquisition and synchronization, channel assignment, fade detection and adaptive power control, on board oscillator control, and terrestrial network timing. For the CPS control, they include on board processing and adaptive forward error correction control.

  6. A new flight control and management system architecture and configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fan-e.; Chen, Zongji

    2006-11-01

    The advanced fighter should possess the performance such as super-sound cruising, stealth, agility, STOVL(Short Take-Off Vertical Landing),powerful communication and information processing. For this purpose, it is not enough only to improve the aerodynamic and propulsion system. More importantly, it is necessary to enhance the control system. A complete flight control system provides not only autopilot, auto-throttle and control augmentation, but also the given mission management. F-22 and JSF possess considerably outstanding flight control system on the basis of pave pillar and pave pace avionics architecture. But their control architecture is not enough integrated. The main purpose of this paper is to build a novel fighter control system architecture. The control system constructed on this architecture should be enough integrated, inexpensive, fault-tolerant, high safe, reliable and effective. And it will take charge of both the flight control and mission management. Starting from this purpose, this paper finishes the work as follows: First, based on the human nervous control, a three-leveled hierarchical control architecture is proposed. At the top of the architecture, decision level is in charge of decision-making works. In the middle, organization & coordination level will schedule resources, monitor the states of the fighter and switch the control modes etc. And the bottom is execution level which holds the concrete drive and measurement; then, according to their function and resources all the tasks involving flight control and mission management are sorted to individual level; at last, in order to validate the three-leveled architecture, a physical configuration is also showed. The configuration is distributed and applies some new advancement in information technology industry such line replaced module and cluster technology.

  7. Distributed Sensing and Control Architecture for Automotive Factory Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ningxu; Brennan, Robert W.

    In this paper we propose an architecture for distributed intelligent sensing and control (DISC) for automotive factory automation. The architecture is based on a platform-based design approach that breaks the sensing and control problem into increasingly higher levels of abstraction from physical hardware to intelligent sensing and control. The focus of this paper is on the middleware layer that serves as an interface between an upper, agent-based control level and the wireless sensor network. This layer takes advantage the IEC 61499 model for distributed process measurement and control, and in particular, exploits its distributed, modular structure and its close match to wireless sensor systems.

  8. Network Access Control List Situation Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifers, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Network security is a large and complex problem being addressed by multiple communities. Nevertheless, current theories in networking security appear to overestimate network administrators' ability to understand network access control lists (NACLs), providing few context specific user analyses. Consequently, the current research generally seems to…

  9. Atom-Role-Based Access Control Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Weihong; Huang, Richeng; Hou, Xiaoli; Wei, Gang; Xiao, Shui; Chen, Yindong

    Role-based access control (RBAC) model has been widely recognized as an efficient access control model and becomes a hot research topic of information security at present. However, in the large-scale enterprise application environments, the traditional RBAC model based on the role hierarchy has the following deficiencies: Firstly, it is unable to reflect the role relationships in complicated cases effectively, which does not accord with practical applications. Secondly, the senior role unconditionally inherits all permissions of the junior role, thus if a user is under the supervisor role, he may accumulate all permissions, and this easily causes the abuse of permission and violates the least privilege principle, which is one of the main security principles. To deal with these problems, we, after analyzing permission types and role relationships, proposed the concept of atom role and built an atom-role-based access control model, called ATRBAC, by dividing the permission set of each regular role based on inheritance path relationships. Through the application-specific analysis, this model can well meet the access control requirements.

  10. Critical Branches and Lucky Loads in Control-Independence Architectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Kshitiz

    2009-01-01

    Branch mispredicts have a first-order impact on the performance of integer applications. Control Independence (CI) architectures aim to overlap the penalties of mispredicted branches with useful execution by spawning control-independent work as separate threads. Although control independent, such threads may consume register and memory values…

  11. Speed control system for an access gate

    SciTech Connect

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2012-03-20

    An access control apparatus for an access gate. The access gate typically has a rotator that is configured to rotate around a rotator axis at a first variable speed in a forward direction. The access control apparatus may include a transmission that typically has an input element that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input element is generally configured to rotate at an input speed that is proportional to the first variable speed. The transmission typically also has an output element that has an output speed that is higher than the input speed. The input element and the output element may rotate around a common transmission axis. A retardation mechanism may be employed. The retardation mechanism is typically configured to rotate around a retardation mechanism axis. Generally the retardation mechanism is operatively connected to the output element of the transmission and is configured to retard motion of the access gate in the forward direction when the first variable speed is above a control-limit speed. In many embodiments the transmission axis and the retardation mechanism axis are substantially co-axial. Some embodiments include a freewheel/catch mechanism that has an input connection that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input connection may be configured to engage an output connection when the rotator is rotated at the first variable speed in a forward direction and configured for substantially unrestricted rotation when the rotator is rotated in a reverse direction opposite the forward direction. The input element of the transmission is typically operatively connected to the output connection of the freewheel/catch mechanism.

  12. A RAM architecture for concurrent access and on-chip testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jyh-Charn; Shin, Kang G.

    1991-01-01

    A novel RAM architecture supporting concurrent memory access and on-chip testing (CMAT) is proposed. A large-capacity memory chip is decomposed into test neighborhoods (TNDs), each of which is tested independently. When there are data stored in a TND, the data are saved into a buffer before testing the TND, and the TND's contents are restored using buffered data after testing the TND. If an external request is not made to the TND, the request can be directed to the addressed memory cells. Otherwise, the buffered data can be loaded back into the TND, or the request is detoured to a corresponding buffer. By deriving an analytical model, the performance penalty and hardware overhead of the CMAT architecture are shown to be very small.

  13. Broadband passive optical network media access control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quayle, Alan

    1996-11-01

    Most telecommunication operators are currently deciding on how to respond to customers' needs stimulated by the synergy between compression coding of multimedia and the emergence of broadband digital networks. This paper describes a range of broadband access architectures under consideration in the full services access network initiative. All architectures have a common requirement for a broadband ATM PON. A common broadband PON applicable to many operators increases the world-wide market for the product. With greater production volumes manufacturers' costs reduce because of the experience curve effect making broadband access systems economic.

  14. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldridge, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the project are: Achieve high business value through a common badging and access control system that integrates with smart cards. Provide physical (versus logical) deployment of smart cards initially. Provides a common consistent and reliable environment into which to release the smart card. Gives opportunity to develop agency-wide consistent processes, practices and policies. Enables enterprise data capture and management. Promotes data validation prior to SC issuance.

  15. External access to ALICE controls conditions data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadlovský, J.; Jadlovská, A.; Sarnovský, J.; Jajčišin, Š.; Čopík, M.; Jadlovská, S.; Papcun, P.; Bielek, R.; Čerkala, J.; Kopčík, M.; Chochula, P.; Augustinus, A.

    2014-06-01

    ALICE Controls data produced by commercial SCADA system WINCCOA is stored in ORACLE database on the private experiment network. The SCADA system allows for basic access and processing of the historical data. More advanced analysis requires tools like ROOT and needs therefore a separate access method to the archives. The present scenario expects that detector experts create simple WINCCOA scripts, which retrieves and stores data in a form usable for further studies. This relatively simple procedure generates a lot of administrative overhead - users have to request the data, experts needed to run the script, the results have to be exported outside of the experiment network. The new mechanism profits from database replica, which is running on the CERN campus network. Access to this database is not restricted and there is no risk of generating a heavy load affecting the operation of the experiment. The developed tools presented in this paper allow for access to this data. The users can use web-based tools to generate the requests, consisting of the data identifiers and period of time of interest. The administrators maintain full control over the data - an authorization and authentication mechanism helps to assign privileges to selected users and restrict access to certain groups of data. Advanced caching mechanism allows the user to profit from the presence of already processed data sets. This feature significantly reduces the time required for debugging as the retrieval of raw data can last tens of minutes. A highly configurable client allows for information retrieval bypassing the interactive interface. This method is for example used by ALICE Offline to extract operational conditions after a run is completed. Last but not least, the software can be easily adopted to any underlying database structure and is therefore not limited to WINCCOA.

  16. Access control and confidentiality in radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumeir, Rita; Chafik, Adil

    2005-04-01

    A medical record contains a large amount of data about the patient such as height, weight and blood pressure. It also contains sensitive information such as fertility, abortion, psychiatric data, sexually transmitted diseases and diagnostic results. Access to this information must be carefully controlled. Information technology has greatly improved patient care. The recent extensive deployment of digital medical images made diagnostic images promptly available to healthcare decision makers, regardless of their geographic location. Medical images are digitally archived, transferred on telecommunication networks, and visualized on computer screens. However, with the widespread use of computing and communication technologies in healthcare, the issue of data security has become increasingly important. Most of the work until now has focused on the security of data communication to ensure its integrity, authentication, confidentiality and user accountability. The mechanisms that have been proposed to achieve the security of data communication are not specific to healthcare. Data integrity can be achieved with data signature. Data authentication can be achieved with certificate exchange. Data confidentiality can be achieved with encryption. User accountability can be achieved with audits. Although these mechanisms are essential to ensure data security during its transfer on the network, access control is needed in order to ensure data confidentiality and privacy within the information system application. In this paper, we present and discuss an access control mechanism that takes into account the notion of a care process. Radiology information is categorized and a model to enforce data privacy is proposed.

  17. A Stateful Multicast Access Control Mechanism for Future Metro-Area-Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei-qiang; Li, Jin-sheng; Hong, Pei-lin

    2003-01-01

    Multicasting is a necessity for a broadband metro-area-network; however security problems exist with current multicast protocols. A stateful multicast access control mechanism, based on MAPE, is proposed. The architecture of MAPE is discussed, as well as the states maintained and messages exchanged. The scheme is flexible and scalable. (Author/AEF)

  18. Collaborative Access Control For Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baina, Amine; El Kalam, Anas Abou; Deswarte, Yves; Kaaniche, Mohamed

    A critical infrastructure (CI) can fail with various degrees of severity due to physical and logical vulnerabilities. Since many interdependencies exist between CIs, failures can have dramatic consequences on the entire infrastructure. This paper focuses on threats that affect information and communication systems that constitute the critical information infrastructure (CII). A new collaborative access control framework called PolyOrBAC is proposed to address security problems that are specific to CIIs. The framework offers each organization participating in a CII the ability to collaborate with other organizations while maintaining control of its resources and internal security policy. The approach is demonstrated on a practical scenario involving the electrical power grid.

  19. A Biologically Inspired Cooperative Multi-Robot Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howsman, Tom; Craft, Mike; ONeil, Daniel; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A prototype cooperative multi-robot control architecture suitable for the eventual construction of large space structures has been developed. In nature, there are numerous examples of complex architectures constructed by relatively simple insects, such as termites and wasps, which cooperatively assemble their nests. The prototype control architecture emulates this biological model. Actions of each of the autonomous robotic construction agents are only indirectly coordinated, thus mimicking the distributed construction processes of various social insects. The robotic construction agents perform their primary duties stigmergically i.e., without direct inter-agent communication and without a preprogrammed global blueprint of the final design. Communication and coordination between individual agents occurs indirectly through the sensed modifications that each agent makes to the structure. The global stigmergic building algorithm prototyped during the initial research assumes that the robotic builders only perceive the current state of the structure under construction. Simulation studies have established that an idealized form of the proposed architecture was indeed capable of producing representative large space structures with autonomous robots. This paper will explore the construction simulations in order to illustrate the multi-robot control architecture.

  20. Supervisory Control System Architecture for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Sacit M; Cole, Daniel L; Fugate, David L; Kisner, Roger A; Melin, Alexander M; Muhlheim, Michael David; Rao, Nageswara S; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular SMR Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Research and Development Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular advanced SMR (AdvSMR) plants. This research activity advances the state-of-the art by incorporating decision making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides a brief history of hierarchical functional architectures and the current state-of-the-art, describes a reference AdvSMR to show the dependencies between systems, presents a hierarchical structure for supervisory control, indicates the importance of understanding trip setpoints, applies a new theoretic approach for comparing architectures, identifies cyber security controls that should be addressed early in system design, and describes ongoing work to develop system requirements and hardware/software configurations.

  1. Proximity-based access control for context-sensitive information provision in SOA-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajappan, Gowri; Wang, Xiaofei; Grant, Robert; Paulini, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has enabled open-architecture integration of applications within an enterprise. For net-centric Command and Control (C2), this elucidates information sharing between applications and users, a critical requirement for mission success. The Information Technology (IT) access control schemes, which arbitrate who gets access to what information, do not yet have the contextual knowledge to dynamically allow this information sharing to happen dynamically. The access control might prevent legitimate users from accessing information relevant to the current mission context, since this context may be very different from the context for which the access privileges were configured. We evaluate a pair of data relevance measures - proximity and risk - and use these as the basis of dynamic access control. Proximity is a measure of the strength of connection between the user and the resource. However, proximity is not sufficient, since some data might have a negative impact, if leaked, which far outweighs importance to the subject's mission. For this, we use a risk measure to quantify the downside of data compromise. Given these contextual measures of proximity and risk, we investigate extending Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC), which is used by the Department of Defense, and Role-Based Access Control (RBAC), which is widely used in the civilian market, so that these standards-based access control models are given contextual knowledge to enable dynamic information sharing. Furthermore, we consider the use of such a contextual access control scheme in a SOA-based environment, in particular for net-centric C2.

  2. A portable modular architecture for robotic manipulator control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, P. L.

    1993-04-01

    A control architecture has been developed to provide a framework for robotic manipulator control. This architecture, called the Modular Integrated Control Architecture (MICA), has been successfully applied to two different manipulator systems. MICA is a portable system in two respects. First, it can be used for the control of different types of manipulator systems. Second, the MICA code is portable across several operating environments. This portability allows the sharing of common control code among various systems. A major portion of MICA is the precise control of multiple processors that have to be coordinated to control a manipulator system. By having MICA control the processor synchronization, the system developer can concentrate on the specific aspects of a new manipulator system. MICA also provides standard functions for trajectory generation that can be used for most manipulators. Custom trajectory generators can be easily added to suit the needs of a particular robotic control system. Another facility that MICA provides is a simulation of the manipulator, allowing the control code to be simulated before trying it on a manipulator system. Using this technique, one can develop code for a manipulator system without risking damage to the arm during development.

  3. Simulation of a Reconfigurable Adaptive Control Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapetti, Ryan John

    A set of algorithms and software components are developed to investigate the use of a priori models of damaged aircraft to improve control of similarly damaged aircraft. An addition to Model Predictive Control called state trajectory extrapolation is also developed to deliver good handling qualities in nominal an off-nominal aircraft. System identification algorithms are also used to improve model accuracy after a damage event. Simulations were run to demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithms and software components developed herein. The effect of model order on system identification convergence and performance is also investigated. A feasibility study for flight testing is also conducted. A preliminary hardware prototype was developed, as was the necessary software to integrate the avionics and ground station systems. Simulation results show significant improvement in both tracking and cross-coupling performance when a priori control models are used, and further improvement when identified models are used.

  4. Genetic control of inflorescence architecture during rice domestication.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zuofeng; Tan, Lubin; Fu, Yongcai; Liu, Fengxia; Cai, Hongwei; Xie, Daoxin; Wu, Feng; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sun, Chuanqing

    2013-01-01

    Inflorescence architecture is a key agronomical factor determining grain yield, and thus has been a major target of cereal crop domestication. Transition from a spread panicle typical of ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) to the compact panicle of present cultivars (O. sativa L.) was a crucial event in rice domestication. Here we show that the spread panicle architecture of wild rice is controlled by a dominant gene, OsLG1, a previously reported SBP-domain transcription factor that controls rice ligule development. Association analysis indicates that a single-nucleotide polymorphism-6 in the OsLG1 regulatory region led to a compact panicle architecture in cultivars during rice domestication. We speculate that the cis-regulatory mutation can fine-tune the spatial expression of the target gene, and that selection of cis-regulatory mutations might be an efficient strategy for crop domestication. PMID:23884108

  5. Genetic control of inflorescence architecture during rice domestication.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zuofeng; Tan, Lubin; Fu, Yongcai; Liu, Fengxia; Cai, Hongwei; Xie, Daoxin; Wu, Feng; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sun, Chuanqing

    2013-01-01

    Inflorescence architecture is a key agronomical factor determining grain yield, and thus has been a major target of cereal crop domestication. Transition from a spread panicle typical of ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) to the compact panicle of present cultivars (O. sativa L.) was a crucial event in rice domestication. Here we show that the spread panicle architecture of wild rice is controlled by a dominant gene, OsLG1, a previously reported SBP-domain transcription factor that controls rice ligule development. Association analysis indicates that a single-nucleotide polymorphism-6 in the OsLG1 regulatory region led to a compact panicle architecture in cultivars during rice domestication. We speculate that the cis-regulatory mutation can fine-tune the spatial expression of the target gene, and that selection of cis-regulatory mutations might be an efficient strategy for crop domestication.

  6. Regulatory modules controlling maize inflorescence architecture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic control of branching is a primary determinant of yield, regulating seed number and harvesting ability, yet little is known about the molecular networks that shape grain-bearing inflorescences of cereal crops. Here, we used the maize (Zea mays) inflorescence to investigate gene networks that...

  7. Precision segmented reflector figure control system architecture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettler, E.; Eldred, D.; Briggs, C.; Kiceniuk, T.; Agronin, M.

    1989-09-01

    This paper describes an advanced technology figure control system for a generic class of large space based segmented reflector telescopes. Major technology and design motivations for selection of sensing, actuation, and mechanism approaches result from the high precision and very low mass and power goals for the reflector system.

  8. A flexible architecture for advanced process control solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faron, Kamyar; Iourovitski, Ilia

    2005-05-01

    Advanced Process Control (APC) is now mainstream practice in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Over the past decade and a half APC has evolved from a "good idea", and "wouldn"t it be great" concept to mandatory manufacturing practice. APC developments have primarily dealt with two major thrusts, algorithms and infrastructure, and often the line between them has been blurred. The algorithms have evolved from very simple single variable solutions to sophisticated and cutting edge adaptive multivariable (input and output) solutions. Spending patterns in recent times have demanded that the economics of a comprehensive APC infrastructure be completely justified for any and all cost conscious manufacturers. There are studies suggesting integration costs as high as 60% of the total APC solution costs. Such cost prohibitive figures clearly diminish the return on APC investments. This has limited the acceptance and development of pure APC infrastructure solutions for many fabs. Modern APC solution architectures must satisfy the wide array of requirements from very manual R&D environments to very advanced and automated "lights out" manufacturing facilities. A majority of commercially available control solutions and most in house developed solutions lack important attributes of scalability, flexibility, and adaptability and hence require significant resources for integration, deployment, and maintenance. Many APC improvement efforts have been abandoned and delayed due to legacy systems and inadequate architectural design. Recent advancements (Service Oriented Architectures) in the software industry have delivered ideal technologies for delivering scalable, flexible, and reliable solutions that can seamlessly integrate into any fabs" existing system and business practices. In this publication we shall evaluate the various attributes of the architectures required by fabs and illustrate the benefits of a Service Oriented Architecture to satisfy these requirements. Blue

  9. 14 CFR 420.53 - Control of public access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of public access. 420.53 Section....53 Control of public access. (a) A licensee shall prevent unauthorized access to the launch site, and unauthorized, unescorted access to explosive hazard facilities or other hazard areas not otherwise...

  10. Hybrid Architecture Active Wavefront Sensing and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Dean, Bruce; Hyde, Tupper

    2010-01-01

    A method was developed for performing relatively high-speed wavefront sensing and control to overcome thermal instabilities in a segmented primary mirror telescope [e.g., James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at L2], by using the onboard fine guidance sensor (FGS) to minimize expense and complexity. This FGS performs centroiding on a bright star to feed the information to the pointing and control system. The proposed concept is to beam split the image of the guide star (or use a single defocused guide star image) to perform wavefront sensing using phase retrieval techniques. Using the fine guidance sensor star image for guiding and fine phasing eliminates the need for other, more complex ways of achieving very accurate sensing and control that is needed for UV-optical applications. The phase retrieval occurs nearly constantly, so passive thermal stability over fourteen days is not required. Using the FGS as the sensor, one can feed segment update information to actuators on the primary mirror that can update the primary mirror segment fine phasing with this frequency. Because the thermal time constants of the primary mirror are very slow compared to this duration, the mirror will appear extremely stable during observations (to the level of accuracy of the sensing and control). The sensing can use the same phase retrieval techniques as the JWST by employing an additional beam splitter, and having each channel go through a weak lens (one positive and one negative). The channels can use common or separate detectors. Phase retrieval can be performed onboard. The actuation scheme would include a coarse stage able to achieve initial alignment of several millimeters of range (similar to JWST and can use a JWST heritage sensing approach in the science camera) and a fine stage capable of continual updates.

  11. NASA Integrated Network Monitor and Control Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shames, Peter; Anderson, Michael; Kowal, Steve; Levesque, Michael; Sindiy, Oleg; Donahue, Kenneth; Barnes, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Communications and Navigation office (SCaN) has commissioned a series of trade studies to define a new architecture intended to integrate the three existing networks that it operates, the Deep Space Network (DSN), Space Network (SN), and Near Earth Network (NEN), into one integrated network that offers users a set of common, standardized, services and interfaces. The integrated monitor and control architecture utilizes common software and common operator interfaces that can be deployed at all three network elements. This software uses state-of-the-art concepts such as a pool of re-programmable equipment that acts like a configurable software radio, distributed hierarchical control, and centralized management of the whole SCaN integrated network. For this trade space study a model-based approach using SysML was adopted to describe and analyze several possible options for the integrated network monitor and control architecture. This model was used to refine the design and to drive the costing of the four different software options. This trade study modeled the three existing self standing network elements at point of departure, and then described how to integrate them using variations of new and existing monitor and control system components for the different proposed deployments under consideration. This paper will describe the trade space explored, the selected system architecture, the modeling and trade study methods, and some observations on useful approaches to implementing such model based trade space representation and analysis.

  12. Architectures & requirements for advanced weapon controllers.

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtrey, Brian J.; Klarer, Paul Richard; Bryan, Jon R.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes work done in FY2003 under Advanced and Exploratory Studies funding for Advanced Weapons Controllers. The contemporary requirements and envisioned missions for nuclear weapons are changing from the class of missions originally envisioned during development of the current stockpile. Technology available today in electronics, computing, and software provides capabilities not practical or even possible 20 years ago. This exploratory work looks at how Weapon Electrical Systems can be improved to accommodate new missions and new technologies while maintaining or improving existing standards in nuclear safety and reliability.

  13. Network control architecture for solid state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducharme, Alfred D.; Morgan, Fritz

    2001-12-01

    At the current time most of the attention in the solid-state lighting field has been placed on the blue and white light emitting diodes (LEDs). It has and will continue to be extremely important to concentrate on increasing the efficiencies of these devices. However, one of the most overlooked benefits of LEDs is that they are intrinsically simple to control. In this paper, the authors will discuss a technology that is currently being developed to enable fixtures incorporating LED light engines to be connected to a digital lighting network. A description of such a network enabling device and the results from a technology demonstration of a prototype system are provided.

  14. MAAC: a software tool for user authentication and access control to the electronic patient record in an open distributed environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Gustavo H.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2004-04-01

    Designing proper models for authorization and access control for the electronic patient record (EPR) is essential to wide scale use of the EPR in large health organizations. This work presents MAAC (Middleware for Authentication and Access Control), a tool that implements a contextual role-based access control (RBAC) authorization model. RBAC regulates user"s access to computers resources based on their organizational roles. A contextual authorization uses environmental information available at access-request time, like user/patient relationship, in order to decide whether a user has the right to access an EPR resource. The software architecture where MAAC is implemented uses Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, Java programming language and the CORBA/OMG standards CORBA Security Service and Resource Access Decision Facility. With those open and distributed standards, heterogeneous EPR components can request user authentication and access authorization services in a unified and consistent fashion across multiple platforms.

  15. Situation-Based Access Control: privacy management via modeling of patient data access scenarios.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Mor; Beimel, Dizza; Dori, Dov; Denekamp, Yaron

    2008-12-01

    Access control is a central problem in privacy management. A common practice in controlling access to sensitive data, such as electronic health records (EHRs), is Role-Based Access Control (RBAC). RBAC is limited as it does not account for the circumstances under which access to sensitive data is requested. Following a qualitative study that elicited access scenarios, we used Object-Process Methodology to structure the scenarios and conceive a Situation-Based Access Control (SitBAC) model. SitBAC is a conceptual model, which defines scenarios where patient's data access is permitted or denied. The main concept underlying this model is the Situation Schema, which is a pattern consisting of the entities Data-Requestor, Patient, EHR, Access Task, Legal-Authorization, and Response, along with their properties and relations. The various data access scenarios are expressed via Situation Instances. While we focus on the medical domain, the model is generic and can be adapted to other domains.

  16. An architecture for heuristic control of real-time processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulefs, P.; Thorndyke, P. W.

    1987-01-01

    Abstract Process management combines complementary approaches of heuristic reasoning and analytical process control. Management of a continuous process requires monitoring the environment and the controlled system, assessing the ongoing situation, developing and revising planned actions, and controlling the execution of the actions. For knowledge-intensive domains, process management entails the potentially time-stressed cooperation among a variety of expert systems. By redesigning a blackboard control architecture in an object-oriented framework, researchers obtain an approach to process management that considerably extends blackboard control mechanisms and overcomes limitations of blackboard systems.

  17. Instrumentation and control building, architectural, sections and elevation. Specifications No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Instrumentation and control building, architectural, sections and elevation. Specifications No. Eng -04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 65 of 148; file no. 1321/16. Stamped: record drawing - as constructed. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. Concurrency and Time in Role-Based Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chia-Chu; Bayrak, Coskun

    Role-based access control (RBAC) has been proposed as an alternative solution for expressing access control policies. The generalized temporal RBAC (GTRBAC) extends RBAC by adding time in order to support timed based access control policies. However, GTRBAC does not address certain issues of concurrency such as, synchronization. We propose an approach to the expressions of time and concurrency in RBAC based on timed Petri nets. A formal verification method for access control policies is also proposed.

  19. A Stigmergic Cooperative Multi-Robot Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howsman, Thomas G.; O'Neil, Daniel; Craft, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    In nature, there are numerous examples of complex architectures constructed by relatively simple insects, such as termites and wasps, which cooperatively assemble their nests. A prototype cooperative multi-robot control architecture which may be suitable for the eventual construction of large space structures has been developed which emulates this biological model. Actions of each of the autonomous robotic construction agents are only indirectly coordinated, thus mimicking the distributed construction processes of various social insects. The robotic construction agents perform their primary duties stigmergically, i.e., without direct inter-agent communication and without a preprogrammed global blueprint of the final design. Communication and coordination between individual agents occurs indirectly through the sensed modifications that each agent makes to the structure. The global stigmergic building algorithm prototyped during the initial research assumes that the robotic builders only perceive the current state of the structure under construction. Simulation studies have established that an idealized form of the proposed architecture was indeed capable of producing representative large space structures with autonomous robots. This paper will explore the construction simulations in order to illustrate the multi-robot control architecture.

  20. Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing (CARACaS) is a recent product of a continuing effort to develop architectures for controlling either a single autonomous robotic vehicle or multiple cooperating but otherwise autonomous robotic vehicles. CARACaS is potentially applicable to diverse robotic systems that could include aircraft, spacecraft, ground vehicles, surface water vessels, and/or underwater vessels. CARACaS incudes an integral combination of three coupled agents: a dynamic planning engine, a behavior engine, and a perception engine. The perception and dynamic planning en - gines are also coupled with a memory in the form of a world model. CARACaS is intended to satisfy the need for two major capabilities essential for proper functioning of an autonomous robotic system: a capability for deterministic reaction to unanticipated occurrences and a capability for re-planning in the face of changing goals, conditions, or resources. The behavior engine incorporates the multi-agent control architecture, called CAMPOUT, described in An Architecture for Controlling Multiple Robots (NPO-30345), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 65. CAMPOUT is used to develop behavior-composition and -coordination mechanisms. Real-time process algebra operators are used to compose a behavior network for any given mission scenario. These operators afford a capability for producing a formally correct kernel of behaviors that guarantee predictable performance. By use of a method based on multi-objective decision theory (MODT), recommendations from multiple behaviors are combined to form a set of control actions that represents their consensus. In this approach, all behaviors contribute simultaneously to the control of the robotic system in a cooperative rather than a competitive manner. This approach guarantees a solution that is good enough with respect to resolution of complex, possibly conflicting goals within the constraints of the mission to

  1. Architecture and implementation for a system enabling smartphones to access smart card based healthcare records.

    PubMed

    Karampelas, Vasilios; Pallikarakis, Nicholas; Mantas, John

    2013-01-01

    The healthcare researchers', academics' and practitioners' interest concerning the development of Healthcare Information Systems has been on a steady rise for the last decades. Fueling this steady rise has been the healthcare professional need of quality information, in every healthcare provision incident, whenever and wherever this incident may take place. In order to address this need a truly mobile health care system is required, one that will be able to provide a healthcare provider with accurate patient-related information regardless of the time and place that healthcare is provided. In order to fulfill this role the present study proposes the architecture for a Healthcare Smartcard system, which provides authenticated healthcare professionals with remote mobile access to a Patient's Healthcare Record, through their Smartphone. Furthermore the research proceeds to develop a working prototype system.

  2. Architecture and implementation for a system enabling smartphones to access smart card based healthcare records.

    PubMed

    Karampelas, Vasilios; Pallikarakis, Nicholas; Mantas, John

    2013-01-01

    The healthcare researchers', academics' and practitioners' interest concerning the development of Healthcare Information Systems has been on a steady rise for the last decades. Fueling this steady rise has been the healthcare professional need of quality information, in every healthcare provision incident, whenever and wherever this incident may take place. In order to address this need a truly mobile health care system is required, one that will be able to provide a healthcare provider with accurate patient-related information regardless of the time and place that healthcare is provided. In order to fulfill this role the present study proposes the architecture for a Healthcare Smartcard system, which provides authenticated healthcare professionals with remote mobile access to a Patient's Healthcare Record, through their Smartphone. Furthermore the research proceeds to develop a working prototype system. PMID:23823404

  3. System and method for integrating and accessing multiple data sources within a data warehouse architecture

    DOEpatents

    Musick, Charles R.; Critchlow, Terence; Ganesh, Madhaven; Slezak, Tom; Fidelis, Krzysztof

    2006-12-19

    A system and method is disclosed for integrating and accessing multiple data sources within a data warehouse architecture. The metadata formed by the present method provide a way to declaratively present domain specific knowledge, obtained by analyzing data sources, in a consistent and useable way. Four types of information are represented by the metadata: abstract concepts, databases, transformations and mappings. A mediator generator automatically generates data management computer code based on the metadata. The resulting code defines a translation library and a mediator class. The translation library provides a data representation for domain specific knowledge represented in a data warehouse, including "get" and "set" methods for attributes that call transformation methods and derive a value of an attribute if it is missing. The mediator class defines methods that take "distinguished" high-level objects as input and traverse their data structures and enter information into the data warehouse.

  4. Application-Defined Decentralized Access Control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Dunn, Alan M; Hofmann, Owen S; Lee, Michael Z; Mehdi, Syed Akbar; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    DCAC is a practical OS-level access control system that supports application-defined principals. It allows normal users to perform administrative operations within their privilege, enabling isolation and privilege separation for applications. It does not require centralized policy specification or management, giving applications freedom to manage their principals while the policies are still enforced by the OS. DCAC uses hierarchically-named attributes as a generic framework for user-defined policies such as groups defined by normal users. For both local and networked file systems, its execution time overhead is between 0%-9% on file system microbenchmarks, and under 1% on applications. This paper shows the design and implementation of DCAC, as well as several real-world use cases, including sandboxing applications, enforcing server applications' security policies, supporting NFS, and authenticating user-defined sub-principals in SSH, all with minimal code changes.

  5. Application-Defined Decentralized Access Control

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Dunn, Alan M.; Hofmann, Owen S.; Lee, Michael Z.; Mehdi, Syed Akbar; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    DCAC is a practical OS-level access control system that supports application-defined principals. It allows normal users to perform administrative operations within their privilege, enabling isolation and privilege separation for applications. It does not require centralized policy specification or management, giving applications freedom to manage their principals while the policies are still enforced by the OS. DCAC uses hierarchically-named attributes as a generic framework for user-defined policies such as groups defined by normal users. For both local and networked file systems, its execution time overhead is between 0%–9% on file system microbenchmarks, and under 1% on applications. This paper shows the design and implementation of DCAC, as well as several real-world use cases, including sandboxing applications, enforcing server applications’ security policies, supporting NFS, and authenticating user-defined sub-principals in SSH, all with minimal code changes. PMID:25426493

  6. Secure Remote Access Issues in a Control Center Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Lee; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ISS finally reached an operational state and exists for local and remote users. Onboard payload systems are managed by the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC). Users access HOSC systems by internet protocols in support of daily operations, preflight simulation, and test. In support of this diverse user community, a modem security architecture has been implemented. The architecture has evolved over time from an isolated but open system to a system which supports local and remote access to the ISS over broad geographic regions. This has been accomplished through the use of an evolved security strategy, PKI, and custom design. Through this paper, descriptions of the migration process and the lessons learned are presented. This will include product decision criteria, rationale, and the use of commodity products in the end architecture. This paper will also stress the need for interoperability of various products and the effects of seemingly insignificant details.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Cozzi, Paolo; Casella, Laura; Riccardi, Paolo; Vattari, Alessandra; Orasen, Gabriele; Perrini, Rosaria; Tacconi, Gianni; Tondelli, Alessandro; Biselli, Chiara; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spindel, Jennifer; McCouch, Susan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Valé, Giampiero; Piffanelli, Pietro; Greco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Background In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding—after data editing—57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions. Results In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10−7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25). In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10−7) and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011). Conclusions We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies. PMID:27228161

  8. Modeling mandatory access control in role-based security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nyanchama, M.; Osborn, S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the realization of mandatory access control in role-based protection systems. Starting from the basic definitions of roles, their application in security and the basics of the concept of mandatory access control, we develop a scheme of role-based protection that realizes mandatory access control. The basis of this formulation develops from the recognition that roles can be seen as facilitating access to some given information context. By handling each of the role contexts as independent security levels of information, we simulate mandatory access by imposing the requirements of mandatory access control. Among the key considerations, we propose a means of taming Trojan horses by imposing acyclic information flow among contexts in role-based protection systems. The acyclic information flows and suitable access rules incorporate secrecy which is an essential component of mandatory access control.

  9. Optimization of shared autonomy vehicle control architectures for swarm operations.

    PubMed

    Sengstacken, Aaron J; DeLaurentis, Daniel A; Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad R

    2010-08-01

    The need for greater capacity in automotive transportation (in the midst of constrained resources) and the convergence of key technologies from multiple domains may eventually produce the emergence of a "swarm" concept of operations. The swarm, which is a collection of vehicles traveling at high speeds and in close proximity, will require technology and management techniques to ensure safe, efficient, and reliable vehicle interactions. We propose a shared autonomy control approach, in which the strengths of both human drivers and machines are employed in concert for this management. Building from a fuzzy logic control implementation, optimal architectures for shared autonomy addressing differing classes of drivers (represented by the driver's response time) are developed through a genetic-algorithm-based search for preferred fuzzy rules. Additionally, a form of "phase transition" from a safe to an unsafe swarm architecture as the amount of sensor capability is varied uncovers key insights on the required technology to enable successful shared autonomy for swarm operations.

  10. An Ada run-time control architecture for telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Rodriguez, G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture and Ada language implementation of a process-level run-time control subystem for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) telerobot system. The concept of run-time control in a combined robot-teleoperation environment is examined and the telerobot system at JPL is described. An Ada language implementation of the JPL Telerobot Run-Time Controller (RTC) is described by highlighting the functional behavior of the subsystem, defining the internal modules, and providing a functional flow time sequence of internal module activity.

  11. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies.

  12. Design of an integrated airframe/propulsion control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Lee, C. William; Strickland, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    The design of an integrated airframe/propulsion control system architecture is described. The design is based on a prevalidation methodology that used both reliability and performance tools. An account is given of the motivation for the final design and problems associated with both reliability and performance modeling. The appendices contain a listing of the code for both the reliability and performance model used in the design.

  13. 14 CFR 420.53 - Control of public access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of public access. 420.53 Section 420.53 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION....53 Control of public access. (a) A licensee shall prevent unauthorized access to the launch site,...

  14. The upgrade of an educational observatory control system with a PLC-based architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, V.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Galeotta, S.; Iafrate, G.; Mannetta, M.; Santin, P.

    2014-07-01

    A Celestron C14 telescope equipped with a robotic Paramount ME equatorial mount is being used for public outreach at the Basovizza site of the INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Trieste. Although the telescope could be fully remotely controlled, the control of the instrumentations and the movement of the main motor of the dome requires the physical presence of an operator. To overcome this limitation the existing control system has been upgraded using a Beckhoff PLC to allow the remote control of the whole instrumentation, including the management of the newly installed weather sensor and the access to the telescope area. Exploiting the decentralization features typical of a PLC based solution, the PLC modules are placed in two different racks, according to the function to be controlled. A web interface is used for the communication between the user and the instrumentation. The architecture of this control system will be presented in detail in this paper.

  15. Control system devices : architectures and supply channels overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, Jason; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Mulder, John C.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes a research project to examine the hardware used in automated control systems like those that control the electric grid. This report provides an overview of the vendors, architectures, and supply channels for a number of control system devices. The research itself represents an attempt to probe more deeply into the area of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) - the specialized digital computers that control individual processes within supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. The report (1) provides an overview of control system networks and PLC architecture, (2) furnishes profiles for the top eight vendors in the PLC industry, (3) discusses the communications protocols used in different industries, and (4) analyzes the hardware used in several PLC devices. As part of the project, several PLCs were disassembled to identify constituent components. That information will direct the next step of the research, which will greatly increase our understanding of PLC security in both the hardware and software areas. Such an understanding is vital for discerning the potential national security impact of security flaws in these devices, as well as for developing proactive countermeasures.

  16. Emergency access for online personally controlled health records system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Dhileepan, Sunethra; Schmidt, Matthew; Zhong, Sheng

    2012-09-01

    A personally controlled health records (PCHR) system allows a patient user to share his/her health records with trusted physicians by manually granting them the access privilege to his/her online records. However, it presents the problem of emergency access in situations where the user is physically unable to grant the access and the access is required by an Emergency Room (ER) physician who does not have the privilege at that moment. To deal with such a problem, we introduce an online polling system to provide the emergency access control to PCHR systems. For each emergency access request, the access privilege is controlled according to the combined opinions of the patient's preset emergency contacts and other online registered physicians. Because our system is based on the demographic number of the physician community nationwide, it provides a stable emergency access control at all times.

  17. Mark 4A antenna control system data handling architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, H. C.; Eldred, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    A high-level review was conducted to provide an analysis of the existing architecture used to handle data and implement control algorithms for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and to make system-level recommendations for improving this architecture so that the DSN antennas can support the ever-tightening requirements of the next decade and beyond. It was found that the existing system is seriously overloaded, with processor utilization approaching 100 percent. A number of factors contribute to this overloading, including dated hardware, inefficient software, and a message-passing strategy that depends on serial connections between machines. At the same time, the system has shortcomings and idiosyncrasies that require extensive human intervention. A custom operating system kernel and an obscure programming language exacerbate the problems and should be modernized. A new architecture is presented that addresses these and other issues. Key features of the new architecture include a simplified message passing hierarchy that utilizes a high-speed local area network, redesign of particular processing function algorithms, consolidation of functions, and implementation of the architecture in modern hardware and software using mainstream computer languages and operating systems. The system would also allow incremental hardware improvements as better and faster hardware for such systems becomes available, and costs could potentially be low enough that redundancy would be provided economically. Such a system could support DSN requirements for the foreseeable future, though thorough consideration must be given to hard computational requirements, porting existing software functionality to the new system, and issues of fault tolerance and recovery.

  18. Mark 4A antenna control system data handling architecture study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, H. C.; Eldred, D. B.

    1991-11-01

    A high-level review was conducted to provide an analysis of the existing architecture used to handle data and implement control algorithms for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and to make system-level recommendations for improving this architecture so that the DSN antennas can support the ever-tightening requirements of the next decade and beyond. It was found that the existing system is seriously overloaded, with processor utilization approaching 100 percent. A number of factors contribute to this overloading, including dated hardware, inefficient software, and a message-passing strategy that depends on serial connections between machines. At the same time, the system has shortcomings and idiosyncrasies that require extensive human intervention. A custom operating system kernel and an obscure programming language exacerbate the problems and should be modernized. A new architecture is presented that addresses these and other issues. Key features of the new architecture include a simplified message passing hierarchy that utilizes a high-speed local area network, redesign of particular processing function algorithms, consolidation of functions, and implementation of the architecture in modern hardware and software using mainstream computer languages and operating systems. The system would also allow incremental hardware improvements as better and faster hardware for such systems becomes available, and costs could potentially be low enough that redundancy would be provided economically. Such a system could support DSN requirements for the foreseeable future, though thorough consideration must be given to hard computational requirements, porting existing software functionality to the new system, and issues of fault tolerance and recovery.

  19. Distributed Control Architecture for Gas Turbine Engine. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis; Garg, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of engine control systems from centralized to distributed architecture is both necessary and enabling for future aeropropulsion applications. The continued growth of adaptive control applications and the trend to smaller, light weight cores is a counter influence on the weight and volume of control system hardware. A distributed engine control system using high temperature electronics and open systems communications will reverse the growing trend of control system weight ratio to total engine weight and also be a major factor in decreasing overall cost of ownership for aeropropulsion systems. The implementation of distributed engine control is not without significant challenges. There are the needs for high temperature electronics, development of simple, robust communications, and power supply for the on-board electronics.

  20. A fault-tolerant control architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozeski, Graham R.

    Research has presented several approaches to achieve varying degrees of fault-tolerance in unmanned aircraft. Approaches in reconfigurable flight control are generally divided into two categories: those which incorporate multiple non-adaptive controllers and switch between them based on the output of a fault detection and identification element, and those that employ a single adaptive controller capable of compensating for a variety of fault modes. Regardless of the approach for reconfigurable flight control, certain fault modes dictate system restructuring in order to prevent a catastrophic failure. System restructuring enables active control of actuation not employed by the nominal system to recover controllability of the aircraft. After system restructuring, continued operation requires the generation of flight paths that adhere to an altered flight envelope. The control architecture developed in this research employs a multi-tiered hierarchy to allow unmanned aircraft to generate and track safe flight paths despite the occurrence of potentially catastrophic faults. The hierarchical architecture increases the level of autonomy of the system by integrating five functionalities with the baseline system: fault detection and identification, active system restructuring, reconfigurable flight control; reconfigurable path planning, and mission adaptation. Fault detection and identification algorithms continually monitor aircraft performance and issue fault declarations. When the severity of a fault exceeds the capability of the baseline flight controller, active system restructuring expands the controllability of the aircraft using unconventional control strategies not exploited by the baseline controller. Each of the reconfigurable flight controllers and the baseline controller employ a proven adaptive neural network control strategy. A reconfigurable path planner employs an adaptive model of the vehicle to re-shape the desired flight path. Generation of the revised

  1. CAMPOUT: a control architecture for multirobot planetary outposts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjanian, Paolo; Huntsberger, Terrance L.; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Aghazarian, Hrand; Das, Hari; Joshi, Sanjay S.; Schenker, Paul S.

    2000-10-01

    A manned Mars habitat will require a significant amount of infrastructure that can be deployed using robotic precursor missions. This infrastructure deployment will probably include the use of multiple, heterogeneous, mobile robotic platforms. Delays due to the long communication path to Mars limit the amount of teleoperation that is possible. A control architecture called CAMPOUT (Control Architecture for Multirobot Planetary Outposts) is currently under development at the Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena, CA. It is a three layer behavior-based system that incorporates the low level control routines currently used on the JPL SRR/FIDO/LEMUR rovers. The middle behavior layer uses either the BISMARC (Biologically Inspired System for Map- based Autonomous Rover Control) or MOBC (Multi-Objective Behavior Control) action selection mechanisms. CAMPOUT includes the necessary group behaviors and communication mechanisms for coordinated/cooperative control of heterogeneous robotic platforms. We report the results of some ongoing work at the jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena, CA on the transport phase of a photovoltaic (PV) tent deployment mission.

  2. A Risk Management Architecture for Emergency Integrated Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGlynn, Gregory E.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced engine operation--operation that is beyond normal limits--has the potential to improve the adaptability and safety of aircraft in emergency situations. Intelligent use of enhanced engine operation to improve the handling qualities of the aircraft requires sophisticated risk estimation techniques and a risk management system that spans the flight and propulsion controllers. In this paper, an architecture that weighs the risks of the emergency and of possible engine performance enhancements to reduce overall risk to the aircraft is described. Two examples of emergency situations are presented to demonstrate the interaction between the flight and propulsion controllers to facilitate the enhanced operation.

  3. Tandem riboswitch architectures exhibit complex gene control functions.

    PubMed

    Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Hammond, Ming C; Block, Kirsten F; Welz, Rüdiger; Barrick, Jeffrey E; Roth, Adam; Breaker, Ronald R

    2006-10-13

    Riboswitches are structured RNAs typically located in the 5' untranslated regions of bacterial mRNAs that bind metabolites and control gene expression. Most riboswitches sense one metabolite and function as simple genetic switches. However, we found that the 5' region of the Bacillus clausii metE messenger RNA includes two riboswitches that respond to S-adenosylmethionine and coenzyme B12. This tandem arrangement yields a composite gene control system that functions as a two-input Boolean NOR logic gate. These findings and the discovery of additional tandem riboswitch architectures reveal how simple RNA elements can be assembled to make sophisticated genetic decisions without involving protein factors. PMID:17038623

  4. A reinforcement learning-based architecture for fuzzy logic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for learning to refine a rule-based fuzzy logic controller. A reinforcement learning technique is used in conjunction with a multilayer neural network model of a fuzzy controller. The approximate reasoning based intelligent control (ARIC) architecture proposed here learns by updating its prediction of the physical system's behavior and fine tunes a control knowledge base. Its theory is related to Sutton's temporal difference (TD) method. Because ARIC has the advantage of using the control knowledge of an experienced operator and fine tuning it through the process of learning, it learns faster than systems that train networks from scratch. The approach is applied to a cart-pole balancing system.

  5. An architecture for designing fuzzy logic controllers using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1991-01-01

    Described here is an architecture for designing fuzzy controllers through a hierarchical process of control rule acquisition and by using special classes of neural network learning techniques. A new method for learning to refine a fuzzy logic controller is introduced. A reinforcement learning technique is used in conjunction with a multi-layer neural network model of a fuzzy controller. The model learns by updating its prediction of the plant's behavior and is related to the Sutton's Temporal Difference (TD) method. The method proposed here has the advantage of using the control knowledge of an experienced operator and fine-tuning it through the process of learning. The approach is applied to a cart-pole balancing system.

  6. Tiger Teams Technical Assistance: Reliable, Universal Open Architecture for Card Access to Dispense Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-03-01

    Report discusses the dilemma of incorporating consistent, convenient, universal card access (or ''pay-at-the-pump'') systems into alternative fueling stations across the country. The state of California continues to be in the forefront of implementing alternative fuels for transportation applications. Aggressive efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in California have highlighted the need to provide adequate fueling stations and develop appropriate, user-friendly means to purchase fuel at the pump. Since these fuels are not typically provided by petroleum companies at conventional fueling stations, and acceptance of cash is often not an option, a payment method must be developed that is consistent with the way individual AFV operators are accustomed to purchasing automotive fuels--with a credit card. At the same time, large fleets like the California Department of General Services must be able to use a single fuel card that offers comprehensive fleet management services. The Gas Technology Institute's Infrastructure Working Group (IWG) and its stakeholders have identified the lack of a common card reader system as a hurdle to wider deployment of AFVs in California and the United States. In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Clean Cities Program, the IWG has outlined a multi-phased strategy to systematically address the barriers to develop a more ''open'' architecture that's similar to the way gasoline and diesel are currently dispensed. Under the auspices of the IWG, survey results were gathered (circa 1999) from certain fuel providers, as a means to more carefully study card reader issues and their potential solutions. Pilot programs featuring card reader systems capable of accepting wider payment options have been attempted in several regions of the United States with mixed success. In early 2001, DOE joined the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the South Coast Air

  7. Cryptographic Enforcement of Role-Based Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crampton, Jason

    Many cryptographic schemes have been designed to enforce information flow policies. However, enterprise security requirements are often better encoded, or can only be encoded, using role-based access control policies rather than information flow policies. In this paper, we provide an alternative formulation of role-based access control that enables us to apply existing cryptographic schemes to core and hierarchical role-based access control policies. We then show that special cases of our cryptographic enforcement schemes for role-based access control are equivalent to cryptographic enforcement schemes for temporal access control and to ciphertext-policy and key-policy attribute-based encryption schemes. Finally, we describe how these special cases can be extended to support richer forms of temporal access control and attribute-based encryption.

  8. The NASA Mission Operations and Control Architecture Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrus, Paul J.; Carper, Richard D.; Jeffries, Alan J.

    1994-01-01

    The conflict between increases in space mission complexity and rapidly declining space mission budgets has created strong pressures to radically reduce the costs of designing and operating spacecraft. A key approach to achieving such reductions is through reducing the development and operations costs of the supporting mission operations systems. One of the efforts which the Communications and Data Systems Division at NASA Headquarters is using to meet this challenge is the Mission Operations Control Architecture (MOCA) project. Technical direction of this effort has been delegated to the Mission Operations Division (MOD) of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). MOCA is to develop a mission control and data acquisition architecture, and supporting standards, to guide the development of future spacecraft and mission control facilities at GSFC. The architecture will reduce the need for around-the-clock operations staffing, obtain a high level of reuse of flight and ground software elements from mission to mission, and increase overall system flexibility by enabling the migration of appropriate functions from the ground to the spacecraft. The end results are to be an established way of designing the spacecraft-ground system interface for GSFC's in-house developed spacecraft, and a specification of the end to end spacecraft control process, including data structures, interfaces, and protocols, suitable for inclusion in solicitation documents for future flight spacecraft. A flight software kernel may be developed and maintained in a condition that it can be offered as Government Furnished Equipment in solicitations. This paper describes the MOCA project, its current status, and the results to date.

  9. On-board processing satellite network architecture and control study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campanella, S. Joseph; Pontano, B.; Chalmers, H.

    1987-01-01

    For satellites to remain a vital part of future national and international communications, system concepts that use their inherent advantages to the fullest must be created. Network architectures that take maximum advantage of satellites equipped with onboard processing are explored. Satellite generations must accommodate various services for which satellites constitute the preferred vehicle of delivery. Such services tend to be those that are widely dispersed and present thin to medium loads to the system. Typical systems considered are thin and medium route telephony, maritime, land and aeronautical radio, VSAT data, low bit rate video teleconferencing, and high bit rate broadcast of high definition video. Delivery of services by TDMA and FDMA multiplexing techniques and combinations of the two for individual and mixed service types are studied. The possibilities offered by onboard circuit switched and packet switched architectures are examined and the results strongly support a preference for the latter. A detailed design architecture encompassing the onboard packet switch and its control, the related demand assigned TDMA burst structures, and destination packet protocols for routing traffic are presented. Fundamental onboard hardware requirements comprising speed, memory size, chip count, and power are estimated. The study concludes with identification of key enabling technologies and identifies a plan to develop a POC model.

  10. Distributed Sensor Architecture for Intelligent Control that Supports Quality of Control and Quality of Service

    PubMed Central

    Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Simó-Ten, José-Enrique; Simarro, Raúl; Benet, Ginés

    2015-01-01

    This paper is part of a study of intelligent architectures for distributed control and communications systems. The study focuses on optimizing control systems by evaluating the performance of middleware through quality of service (QoS) parameters and the optimization of control using Quality of Control (QoC) parameters. The main aim of this work is to study, design, develop, and evaluate a distributed control architecture based on the Data-Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems (DDS) communication standard as proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG). As a result of the study, an architecture called Frame-Sensor-Adapter to Control (FSACtrl) has been developed. FSACtrl provides a model to implement an intelligent distributed Event-Based Control (EBC) system with support to measure QoS and QoC parameters. The novelty consists of using, simultaneously, the measured QoS and QoC parameters to make decisions about the control action with a new method called Event Based Quality Integral Cycle. To validate the architecture, the first five Braitenberg vehicles have been implemented using the FSACtrl architecture. The experimental outcomes, demonstrate the convenience of using jointly QoS and QoC parameters in distributed control systems. PMID:25723145

  11. Distributed sensor architecture for intelligent control that supports quality of control and quality of service.

    PubMed

    Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Simó-Ten, José-Enrique; Simarro, Raúl; Benet, Ginés

    2015-02-25

    This paper is part of a study of intelligent architectures for distributed control and communications systems. The study focuses on optimizing control systems by evaluating the performance of middleware through quality of service (QoS) parameters and the optimization of control using Quality of Control (QoC) parameters. The main aim of this work is to study, design, develop, and evaluate a distributed control architecture based on the Data-Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems (DDS) communication standard as proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG). As a result of the study, an architecture called Frame-Sensor-Adapter to Control (FSACtrl) has been developed. FSACtrl provides a model to implement an intelligent distributed Event-Based Control (EBC) system with support to measure QoS and QoC parameters. The novelty consists of using, simultaneously, the measured QoS and QoC parameters to make decisions about the control action with a new method called Event Based Quality Integral Cycle. To validate the architecture, the first five Braitenberg vehicles have been implemented using the FSACtrl architecture. The experimental outcomes, demonstrate the convenience of using jointly QoS and QoC parameters in distributed control systems.

  12. Health information system access control redesign - rationale and method.

    PubMed

    Moselle, Kenneth A

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of why a health service system might find it necessary to re-engineer the access control model that mediates the interaction of clinicians with health information systems. Factors that lead to increasingly complexity of the access control models are delineated, and consequences of that complexity are identified. Strategies are presented to address these factors, and a stepwise procedure is suggested to structure the access control model re-engineering process.

  13. An Architecture to Enable Autonomous Control of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Dever, Timothy P.; Soeder, James F.; George, Patrick J.; Morris, Paul H.; Colombano, Silvano P.; Frank, Jeremy D.; Schwabacher, Mark A.; Wang, Liu; LawLer, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Autonomy is required for manned spacecraft missions distant enough that light-time communication delays make ground-based mission control infeasible. Presently, ground controllers develop a complete schedule of power modes for all spacecraft components based on a large number of factors. The proposed architecture is an early attempt to formalize and automate this process using on-vehicle computation resources. In order to demonstrate this architecture, an autonomous electrical power system controller and vehicle Mission Manager are constructed. These two components are designed to work together in order to plan upcoming load use as well as respond to unanticipated deviations from the plan. The communication protocol was developed using "paper" simulations prior to formally encoding the messages and developing software to implement the required functionality. These software routines exchange data via TCP/IP sockets with the Mission Manager operating at NASA Ames Research Center and the autonomous power controller running at NASA Glenn Research Center. The interconnected systems are tested and shown to be effective at planning the operation of a simulated quasi-steady state spacecraft power system and responding to unexpected disturbances.

  14. Open versus Controlled-Access Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    OCG employs stringent human subjects’ protection and data access policies to protect the privacy and confidentiality of the research participants. Depending on the risk of patient identification, OCG programs data are available to the scientific community in two tiers: open or controlled access. Both types of data can be accessed through its corresponding OCG program-specific data matrix or portal. Open-access Data

  15. Architecture for Control of the K9 Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Bualat, maria; Fair, Michael; Wright, Anne; Washington, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Software featuring a multilevel architecture is used to control the hardware on the K9 Rover, which is a mobile robot used in research on robots for scientific exploration and autonomous operation in general. The software consists of five types of modules: Device Drivers - These modules, at the lowest level of the architecture, directly control motors, cameras, data buses, and other hardware devices. Resource Managers - Each of these modules controls several device drivers. Resource managers can be commanded by either a remote operator or the pilot or conditional-executive modules described below. Behaviors and Data Processors - These modules perform computations for such functions as planning paths, avoiding obstacles, visual tracking, and stereoscopy. These modules can be commanded only by the pilot. Pilot - The pilot receives a possibly complex command from the remote operator or the conditional executive, then decomposes the command into (1) more-specific commands to the resource managers and (2) requests for information from the behaviors and data processors. Conditional Executive - This highest-level module interprets a command plan sent by the remote operator, determines whether resources required for execution of the plan are available, monitors execution, and, if necessary, selects an alternate branch of the plan.

  16. Model based controls and the AGS booster controls system architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, R.A.

    1987-08-18

    The Heavy Ion Transfer Line used to inject heavy ions created at the Tandem Van de Graaff into the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) is briefly discussed, particularly as regards its control system. (LEW)

  17. L1 adaptive output-feedback control architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharisov, Evgeny

    This research focuses on development of L 1 adaptive output-feedback control. The objective is to extend the L1 adaptive control framework to a wider class of systems, as well as obtain architectures that afford more straightforward tuning. We start by considering an existing L1 adaptive output-feedback controller for non-strictly positive real systems based on piecewise constant adaptation law. It is shown that L 1 adaptive control architectures achieve decoupling of adaptation from control, which leads to bounded away from zero time-delay and gain margins in the presence of arbitrarily fast adaptation. Computed performance bounds provide quantifiable performance guarantees both for system output and control signal in transient and steady state. A noticeable feature of the L1 adaptive controller is that its output behavior can be made close to the behavior of a linear time-invariant system. In particular, proper design of the lowpass filter can achieve output response, which almost scales for different step reference commands. This property is relevant to applications with human operator in the loop (for example: control augmentation systems of piloted aircraft), since predictability of the system response is necessary for adequate performance of the operator. Next we present applications of the L1 adaptive output-feedback controller in two different fields of engineering: feedback control of human anesthesia, and ascent control of a NASA crew launch vehicle (CLV). The purpose of the feedback controller for anesthesia is to ensure that the patient's level of sedation during surgery follows a prespecified profile. The L1 controller is enabled by anesthesiologist after he/she achieves sufficient patient sedation level by introducing sedatives manually. This problem formulation requires safe switching mechanism, which avoids controller initialization transients. For this purpose, we used an L1 adaptive controller with special output predictor initialization routine

  18. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access control systems. (a) Secured area. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the measures...

  19. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access control systems. (a) Secured area. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the measures...

  20. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access control systems. (a) Secured area. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the measures...

  1. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access control systems. (a) Secured area. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the measures...

  2. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access control systems. (a) Secured area. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the measures...

  3. The Comparative Analysis of Main Access Control Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Su; Niu, Li; Chen, Jing

    Effective access control security design is an important precondition for the stable running of an information system. So it's necessary to establish a well-designed security mechanism to ensure the security of the system. This paper analysis and compares the main access control theories.

  4. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  5. 1D nanocrystals with precisely controlled dimensions, compositions, and architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xinchang; He, Yanjie; Jung, Jaehan; Lin, Zhiqun

    2016-09-01

    The ability to synthesize a diverse spectrum of one-dimensional (1D) nanocrystals presents an enticing prospect for exploring nanoscale size- and shape-dependent properties. Here we report a general strategy to craft a variety of plain nanorods, core-shell nanorods, and nanotubes with precisely controlled dimensions and compositions by capitalizing on functional bottlebrush-like block copolymers with well-defined structures and narrow molecular weight distributions as nanoreactors. These cylindrical unimolecular nanoreactors enable a high degree of control over the size, shape, architecture, surface chemistry, and properties of 1D nanocrystals. We demonstrate the synthesis of metallic, ferroelectric, upconversion, semiconducting, and thermoelectric 1D nanocrystals, among others, as well as combinations thereof.

  6. Controlled architecture for improved macromolecular memory within polymer networks.

    PubMed

    DiPasquale, Stephen A; Byrne, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    This brief review analyzes recent developments in the field of living/controlled polymerization and the potential of this technique for creating imprinted polymers with highly structured architecture with macromolecular memory. As a result, it is possible to engineer polymers at the molecular level with increased homogeneity relating to enhanced template binding and transport. Only recently has living/controlled polymerization been exploited to decrease heterogeneity and substantially improve the efficiency of the imprinting process for both highly and weakly crosslinked imprinted polymers. Living polymerization can be utilized to create imprinted networks that are vastly more efficient than similar polymers produced using conventional free radical polymerization, and these improvements increase the role that macromolecular memory can play in the design and engineering of new drug delivery and sensing platforms. PMID:27322505

  7. 1D nanocrystals with precisely controlled dimensions, compositions, and architectures.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xinchang; He, Yanjie; Jung, Jaehan; Lin, Zhiqun

    2016-09-16

    The ability to synthesize a diverse spectrum of one-dimensional (1D) nanocrystals presents an enticing prospect for exploring nanoscale size- and shape-dependent properties. Here we report a general strategy to craft a variety of plain nanorods, core-shell nanorods, and nanotubes with precisely controlled dimensions and compositions by capitalizing on functional bottlebrush-like block copolymers with well-defined structures and narrow molecular weight distributions as nanoreactors. These cylindrical unimolecular nanoreactors enable a high degree of control over the size, shape, architecture, surface chemistry, and properties of 1D nanocrystals. We demonstrate the synthesis of metallic, ferroelectric, upconversion, semiconducting, and thermoelectric 1D nanocrystals, among others, as well as combinations thereof. PMID:27634531

  8. Task Delegation Based Access Control Models for Workflow Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaaloul, Khaled; Charoy, François

    e-Government organisations are facilitated and conducted using workflow management systems. Role-based access control (RBAC) is recognised as an efficient access control model for large organisations. The application of RBAC in workflow systems cannot, however, grant permissions to users dynamically while business processes are being executed. We currently observe a move away from predefined strict workflow modelling towards approaches supporting flexibility on the organisational level. One specific approach is that of task delegation. Task delegation is a mechanism that supports organisational flexibility, and ensures delegation of authority in access control systems. In this paper, we propose a Task-oriented Access Control (TAC) model based on RBAC to address these requirements. We aim to reason about task from organisational perspectives and resources perspectives to analyse and specify authorisation constraints. Moreover, we present a fine grained access control protocol to support delegation based on the TAC model.

  9. Can we manipulate root system architecture to control soil erosion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ola, A.; Dodd, I. C.; Quinton, J. N.

    2015-03-01

    Soil erosion is a major threat to soil functioning. The use of vegetation to control erosion has long been a topic for research. Much of this research has focused on the above ground properties of plants, demonstrating the important role that canopy structure and cover plays in the reduction of water erosion processes. Less attention has been paid to plant roots. Plant roots are a crucial yet under-researched factor for reducing water erosion through their ability to alter soil properties, such as aggregate stability, hydraulic function and shear strength. However, there have been few attempts to manipulate plant root system properties to reduce soil erosion. Therefore, this review aims to explore the effects that plant roots have on soil erosion and hydrological processes, and how plant root architecture might be manipulated to enhance its erosion control properties. We clearly demonstrate the importance of root system architecture for the control of soil erosion. We also demonstrate that some plant species respond to nutrient enriched patches by increasing lateral root proliferation. The soil response to root proliferation will depend upon its location: at the soil surface dense mats of roots may block soil pores thereby limiting infiltration, enhancing runoff and thus erosion; whereas at depth local increases in shear strength may reinforce soils against structural failure at the shear plane. Additionally, in nutrient deprived regions, root hair development may be stimulated and larger amounts of root exudates released, thereby improving aggregate stability and decreasing erodibility. Utilising nutrient placement at depth may represent a potentially new, easily implemented, management strategy on nutrient poor agricultural land or constructed slopes to control erosion, and further research in this area is needed.

  10. Can we manipulate root system architecture to control soil erosion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ola, A.; Dodd, I. C.; Quinton, J. N.

    2015-09-01

    Soil erosion is a major threat to soil functioning. The use of vegetation to control erosion has long been a topic for research. Much of this research has focused on the above-ground properties of plants, demonstrating the important role that canopy structure and cover plays in the reduction of water erosion processes. Less attention has been paid to plant roots. Plant roots are a crucial yet under-researched factor for reducing water erosion through their ability to alter soil properties, such as aggregate stability, hydraulic function and shear strength. However, there have been few attempts to specifically manipulate plant root system properties to reduce soil erosion. Therefore, this review aims to explore the effects that plant roots have on soil erosion and hydrological processes, and how plant root architecture might be manipulated to enhance its erosion control properties. We demonstrate the importance of root system architecture for the control of soil erosion. We also show that some plant species respond to nutrient-enriched patches by increasing lateral root proliferation. The erosional response to root proliferation will depend upon its location: at the soil surface dense mats of roots may reduce soil erodibility but block soil pores thereby limiting infiltration, enhancing runoff. Additionally, in nutrient-deprived regions, root hair development may be stimulated and larger amounts of root exudates released, thereby improving aggregate stability and decreasing erodibility. Utilizing nutrient placement at specific depths may represent a potentially new, easily implemented, management strategy on nutrient-poor agricultural land or constructed slopes to control erosion, and further research in this area is needed.

  11. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System architecture: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Dalesio, L.R.; Hill, J.O.; Kraimer, M.; Lewis, S.; Murray, D.; Hunt, S.; Claussen, M.; Watson, W.; Dalesio, J.

    1993-11-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), has been used at a number of sites for performing data acquisition, supervisory control, closed-loop control, sequential control, and operational optimization. The EPICS architecture was originally developed by a group with diverse backgrounds in physics and industrial control. The current architecture represents one instance of the ``standard model.`` It provides distributed processing and communication from any LAN device to the front end controllers. This paper will present the genealogy, current architecture, performance envelope, current installations, and planned extensions for requirements not met by the current architecture.

  12. ACCESS Mars: A Mission Architecture for an initial settlement on Mars; using caves as habitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni; Gallardo, Beatriz; Laufer, Ren; Zavaleta, Jhony; Davila, Alfonso; de Carufel, Guy; Antonakopoulos, Konstantinos; Husseini, A. Al; Alvarez Sánchez, L.; Antonakopoulos, K.; Apeldoorn, J.; Ashford, K., Jr.; Atabay, D.; Barrios, I.; Baydaroglu, Y.; Bennell, K. M.; Chen, J.; Chen, X.; Cormier, D.; Crowley, P.; de Carufel, G.; Deper, B.; Drube, L.; Duffy, P.; Edwards, P.; Gutiérrez Fernandez, E.; Haider, O.; Kumar, G.; Henselowsky, C.; Hirano, D.; Hirmer, T.; Hogan, B.; Albalat, A. Jaime; Jens, E.; Jivenescu, I.; Jojaghaian, A.; Kerrigan, M.; Kodachi, Y.; Langston, S.; Macintosh, R.; Miguélez, X.; Panek, N.; Pegg, C.; Peldszus, R.; Peng, X.; Perez-Poch, A.; Perron, A.; Qiu, J.; Renten, P.; Ricardo, J.; Saraceno, T.; Sauceda, F.; Shaghaghi Varzeghani, A.; Shimmin, R.; Solaz, R.; Solé, A.; Suresh, E. R.; Mar Vaquero Escribano, T.; Vargas Muñoz, M.; Vaujour, P. D.; Zeile, D. Veilette, Y. Winetraub, O.

    This paper summarizes a team project report produced during the Summer Space Program of the International Space University, held at Nasa-Ames Research Center (CA, USA) by 56 students from 15 countries. Chair of the team project was Rene Laufer. Facilitators were Alfonso Davila and Jhonny Zavaleta, and teacher associate supporting the team was Beatriz Gallardo. The human race has evolved, grown and expanded through the exploration of Earth. After initial steps on the Moon, our next challenge is to explore the solar system. Mars shows potential for both scientific discovery and future human settlement, and therefore represents a prime candidate for the next leap of human exploration. Such a bold endeavor will be a driver for an unprecedented worldwide cooperative effort and the catalyst for a new era of international, intercultural and interdisciplinary human relations. Scientific and technological progress will also accelerate as mankind is ushered into a new era of space exploration. Currently proposed Mars missions have identified a number of challenges such as high levels of radiation, harsh climate and limited launch windows. Recently discovered lava tubes on Mars present potential solutions to some of these issues, but raise a variety of intriguing new challenges. This paper reviews existing reference missions and identifies areas of further research essential for adapting mission architectures to utilize caves. Different mission scenarios are proposed and analyzed, with a number of different recommendations given. An analysis of the feasibility of using Martian lava tubes as habitation is given in another paper by the same authors at COSPAR 2010 F34 Technical Session. Literature suggests a low radiation environment within Martian caves, allowing for extended duration missions. The ACCESS Mars Team concludes that the use of lava tubes as human habitats will be more beneficial for human Mars exploration than currently proposed surface solutions.

  13. Conductive-bridging random access memory: challenges and opportunity for 3D architecture.

    PubMed

    Jana, Debanjan; Roy, Sourav; Panja, Rajeswar; Dutta, Mrinmoy; Rahaman, Sheikh Ziaur; Mahapatra, Rajat; Maikap, Siddheswar

    2015-01-01

    The performances of conductive-bridging random access memory (CBRAM) have been reviewed for different switching materials such as chalcogenides, oxides, and bilayers in different structures. The structure consists of an inert electrode and one oxidized electrode of copper (Cu) or silver (Ag). The switching mechanism is the formation/dissolution of a metallic filament in the switching materials under external bias. However, the growth dynamics of the metallic filament in different switching materials are still debated. All CBRAM devices are switching under an operation current of 0.1 μA to 1 mA, and an operation voltage of ±2 V is also needed. The device can reach a low current of 5 pA; however, current compliance-dependent reliability is a challenging issue. Although a chalcogenide-based material has opportunity to have better endurance as compared to an oxide-based material, data retention and integration with the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process are also issues. Devices with bilayer switching materials show better resistive switching characteristics as compared to those with a single switching layer, especially a program/erase endurance of >10(5) cycles with a high speed of few nanoseconds. Multi-level cell operation is possible, but the stability of the high resistance state is also an important reliability concern. These devices show a good data retention of >10(5) s at >85°C. However, more study is needed to achieve a 10-year guarantee of data retention for non-volatile memory application. The crossbar memory is benefited for high density with low power operation. Some CBRAM devices as a chip have been reported for proto-typical production. This review shows that operation current should be optimized for few microamperes with a maintaining speed of few nanoseconds, which will have challenges and also opportunities for three-dimensional (3D) architecture. PMID:25977660

  14. Scaffold Architecture Controls Insulinoma Clustering, Viability, and Insulin Production

    PubMed Central

    Blackstone, Britani N.; Palmer, Andre F.; Rilo, Horacio R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, in vitro diagnostic tools have shifted focus toward personalized medicine by incorporating patient cells into traditional test beds. These cell-based platforms commonly utilize two-dimensional substrates that lack the ability to support three-dimensional cell structures seen in vivo. As monolayer cell cultures have previously been shown to function differently than cells in vivo, the results of such in vitro tests may not accurately reflect cell response in vivo. It is therefore of interest to determine the relationships between substrate architecture, cell structure, and cell function in 3D cell-based platforms. To investigate the effect of substrate architecture on insulinoma organization and function, insulinomas were seeded onto 2D gelatin substrates and 3D fibrous gelatin scaffolds with three distinct fiber diameters and fiber densities. Cell viability and clustering was assessed at culture days 3, 5, and 7 with baseline insulin secretion and glucose-stimulated insulin production measured at day 7. Small, closely spaced gelatin fibers promoted the formation of large, rounded insulinoma clusters, whereas monolayer organization and large fibers prevented cell clustering and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin production. Taken together, these data show that scaffold properties can be used to control the organization and function of insulin-producing cells and may be useful as a 3D test bed for diabetes drug development. PMID:24410263

  15. Photo-active collagen systems with controlled triple helix architecture

    PubMed Central

    Tronci, Giuseppe; Russell, Stephen J.; Wood, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The design of photo-active collagen systems is presented as a basis for establishing biomimetic materials with varied network architecture and programmable macroscopic properties. Following in-house isolation of type I collagen, reaction with vinyl-bearing compounds of varied backbone rigidity, i.e. 4-vinylbenzyl chloride (4VBC) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), was carried out. TNBS colorimetric assay, 1H-NMR and ATR-FTIR confirmed covalent and tunable functionalization of collagen lysines. Depending on the type and extent of functionalization, controlled stability and thermal denaturation of triple helices were observed via circular dichroism (CD), whereby the hydrogen-bonding capability of introduced moieties was shown to play a major role. Full gel formation was observed following photo-activation of functionalized collagen solutions. The presence of a covalent network only slightly affected collagen triple helix conformation (as observed by WAXS and ATR-FTIR), confirming the structural organization of functionalized collagen precursors. Photo-activated hydrogels demonstrated an increased denaturation temperature (DSC) with respect to native collagen, suggesting that the formation of the covalent network successfully stabilized collagen triple helices. Moreover, biocompatibility and mechanical competence of obtained hydrogels were successfully demonstrated under physiologically-relevant conditions. These results demonstrate that this novel synthetic approach enabled the formation of biocompatible collagen systems with defined network architecture and programmable macroscopic properties, which can only partially be obtained with current synthetic methods. PMID:27398214

  16. Light signaling controls nuclear architecture reorganization during seedling establishment.

    PubMed

    Bourbousse, Clara; Mestiri, Imen; Zabulon, Gerald; Bourge, Mickaël; Formiggini, Fabio; Koini, Maria A; Brown, Spencer C; Fransz, Paul; Bowler, Chris; Barneche, Fredy

    2015-05-26

    The spatial organization of chromatin can be subject to extensive remodeling in plant somatic cells in response to developmental and environmental signals. However, the mechanisms controlling these dynamic changes and their functional impact on nuclear activity are poorly understood. Here, we determined that light perception triggers a switch between two different nuclear architectural schemes during Arabidopsis postembryonic development. Whereas progressive nucleus expansion and heterochromatin rearrangements in cotyledon cells are achieved similarly under light and dark conditions during germination, the later steps that lead to mature nuclear phenotypes are intimately associated with the photomorphogenic transition in an organ-specific manner. The light signaling integrators DE-ETIOLATED 1 and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 maintain heterochromatin in a decondensed state in etiolated cotyledons. In contrast, under light conditions cryptochrome-mediated photoperception releases nuclear expansion and heterochromatin compaction within conspicuous chromocenters. For all tested loci, chromatin condensation during photomorphogenesis does not detectably rely on DNA methylation-based processes. Notwithstanding, the efficiency of transcriptional gene silencing may be impacted during the transition, as based on the reactivation of transposable element-driven reporter genes. Finally, we report that global engagement of RNA polymerase II in transcription is highly increased under light conditions, suggesting that cotyledon photomorphogenesis involves a transition from globally quiescent to more active transcriptional states. Given these findings, we propose that light-triggered changes in nuclear architecture underlie interplays between heterochromatin reorganization and transcriptional reprogramming associated with the establishment of photosynthesis.

  17. Development of a modular integrated control architecture for flexible manipulators. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; Battiston, G.

    1994-12-08

    In April 1994, ORNL and SPAR completed the joint development of a manipulator controls architecture for flexible structure controls under a CRADA between the two organizations. The CRADA project entailed design and development of a new architecture based upon the Modular Integrated Control Architecture (MICA) previously developed by ORNL. The new architecture, dubbed MICA-II, uses an object-oriented coding philosophy to provide a highly modular and expandable architecture for robotic manipulator control. This architecture can be readily ported to control of many different manipulator systems. The controller also provides a user friendly graphical operator interface and display of many forms of data including system diagnostics. The capabilities of MICA-II were demonstrated during oscillation damping experiments using the Flexible Beam Experimental Test Bed at Hanford.

  18. The future of open architecture process control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    The author relates some of his experience in the acquisition and use of flexible controllers, and summarizes what he has learned and what a few other people are doing. What the author calls a ``flexible`` system could also be called open architecture system. Where one defines OA ``as the use of well defined and documented software and hardware with interfaces that will permit the system to be modified by the user``. Such systems could be based on either accepted or defacto standards for hardware and software. In addition to just sharing the author`s experiences, this presentation is appropriate because of the relatively new encouragement that the Laboratory is receiving to work with American industry in the manufacturing area.

  19. Automation of Data Traffic Control on DSM Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    The design of distributed shared memory (DSM) computers liberates users from the duty to distribute data across processors and allows for the incremental development of parallel programs using, for example, OpenMP or Java threads. DSM architecture greatly simplifies the development of parallel programs having good performance on a few processors. However, to achieve a good program scalability on DSM computers requires that the user understand data flow in the application and use various techniques to avoid data traffic congestions. In this paper we discuss a number of such techniques, including data blocking, data placement, data transposition and page size control and evaluate their efficiency on the NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks. We also present a tool which automates the detection of constructs causing data congestions in Fortran array oriented codes and advises the user on code transformations for improving data traffic in the application.

  20. Fuel-Controlled Reassembly of Metal–Organic Architectures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many examples exist of biological self-assembled structures that restructure in response to external stimuli, then return to their previous state over a defined time scale, but most synthetic investigations so far have focused on systems that switch between states representing energetic minima upon stimulus application. Here we report an approach in which triphenylphosphine is used as a chemical fuel to maintain CuI-based self-assembled metallosupramolecular architectures for defined periods of time. This method was used to exert control over the threading and dethreading of the ring of a pseudorotaxane’s axle, as well as to direct the uptake and release of a guest from a metal–organic host. Management of the amount of fuel and catalyst added allowed for time-dependent regulation of product concentration. PMID:26779566

  1. Synthesis of branched metal nanostructures with controlled architecture and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Nancy

    On account of their small size, metal nanoparticles are proven to be outstanding catalysts for numerous chemical transformations and represent promising platforms for applications in the fields of electronics, chemical sensing, medicine, and beyond. Many properties of metal nanoparticles are size-dependent and can be further manipulated through their shape and architecture (e.g., spherical vs. branched). Achieving morphology control of nanoparticles through solution-based techniques has proven challenging due to limited knowledge of morphology development in nanosyntheses. To overcome these complications, a systematic examination of the local ligand environment of metal precursors on nanostructure formation was undertaken to evaluate its contribution to nanoparticle nucleation rate and subsequent growth processes. Specifically, this thesis will provide evidence from ex situ studies---Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis)---that support the hypothesis that strongly coordinated ligands delay burst-like nucleation to generate spherical metal nanoparticles and ligands with intermediate binding affinity regulate the gradual reduction of metal precursors to promote aggregated assembly of nanodendrites. These ex situ studies were coupled with a new in situ perspective, providing detailed understanding of metal precursor transformation, its direct relation to nanoparticle morphology development, and the ligand influence towards the formation of structurally complex metal nanostructures, using in situ synchrotron X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Ultra Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS). The principles extracted from the study of monometallic nanostructure formation were also found to be generally applicable to the synthesis of bimetallic nanostructures, e.g., Pd-Pt architectures, with either core-shell or alloyed structures that were readily achieved by ligand selection. These outcomes provide a direct connection between fundamental

  2. Managed Access by Controlled Sensing (MACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    During chemical weapons challenge inspections, the CWC treaty allows ``alternate means`` of access to be proposed by the nation challenged. BNL`s Safeguards, Safety and Nonproliferation Division is funded by the Defense Nuclear Agency to develop a system to provide the challenge inspection team with a ``virtual presence`` within the facility while denying personal access. A general purpose configuration of a mobile station manned by site personnel and a base station manned by the challenge inspector, supported by a flexible communication system, will allow facility personnel to tailor the basic model to their site. Design of the MACS system is based on maximum use of commercial equipment that is available on the international market. Design requirements for the MACS system include methods of establishing geographical position, distance measuring equipment for use in verifying dimensions on floor plans, video and two-way audio links between the mobile unit and the base station, and portability and versatility of the equipment. The MACS platform will also support deployment of selected instrumentation which the site may offer to the challenge inspection team. This paper describes the design and construction of the prototype MACS system.

  3. Healthcare professionals' experiences with EHR-system access control mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Faxvaag, Arild; Johansen, Trond S; Heimly, Vigdis; Melby, Line; Grimsmo, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Access control mechanisms might influence on the information seeking and documentation behavior of clinicians. In this study, we have surveyed healthcare professionals in nursing homes and hospitals on their attitudes to, and experiences with using access control mechanisms. In some situations, the access control mechanisms of the EHR system made clinicians postpone documentation work. Their practice of reading what others have documented was also influenced. Not all clinicians logged out of the system when they left a workstation, and some clinicians reported to do some of their documentation work in the name of others. The reported practices might have implications for the safety of the patient.

  4. Urban Studies: A Study of Bibliographic Access and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Barbara E.

    This paper analyzes: (1) the bibliographic access to publications in urban studies via printed secondary sources; (2) development and scope of classification systems and of vocabulary control for urban studies; and (3) currently accessible automated collections of bibliographic citations. Urban studies is defined as "an agglomeration of…

  5. Taming Self-Organization Dynamics to Dramatically Control Porous Architectures.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ronan; Sader, John E; Boland, John J

    2016-03-22

    We demonstrate templating of functional materials with unexpected and intricate micro- and nanostructures by controlling the condensation, packing, and evaporation of water droplets on a polymer solution. Spontaneous evaporation of a polymer solution induces cooling of the liquid surface and water microdroplet condensation from the ambient vapor. These droplets pack together and act as a template to imprint an entangled polymer film. This breath figure (BF) phenomenon is an example of self-organization that involves the long-range ordering of droplets. Equilibrium-based analysis provides many insights into contact angles and drop stability of individual drops, but the BF phenomenon remains poorly understood thus far, preventing translation to real applications. Here we investigate the dynamics of this phenomenon to separate out the competing influences and then introduce a modulation scheme to ultimately manipulate the water vapor-liquid equilibrium independently from the solvent evaporation. This approach to BF control provides insights into the mechanism, a rationale for microstructure design, and evidence for the benefits of dynamical control of self-organization systems. We finally present dramatically different porous architectures from this approach reminiscent of microscale Petri dishes, conical flasks, and test tubes. PMID:26828573

  6. Access Control of Web- and Java-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cybersecurity has become a great concern as threats of service interruption, unauthorized access, stealing and altering of information, and spreading of viruses have become more prevalent and serious. Application layer access control of applications is a critical component in the overall security solution that also includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. An access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, was developed to provide protection to both Web-based and Javabased client and server applications. The DISA Security Service (DISA-SS) provides common access control capabilities for AMMOS software applications through a set of application programming interfaces (APIs) and network- accessible security services for authentication, single sign-on, authorization checking, and authorization policy management. The OpenAM access management technology designed for Web applications can be extended to meet the needs of Java thick clients and stand alone servers that are commonly used in the JPL AMMOS environment. The DISA-SS reusable components have greatly reduced the effort for each AMMOS subsystem to develop its own access control strategy. The novelty of this work is that it leverages an open-source access management product that was designed for Webbased applications to provide access control for Java thick clients and Java standalone servers. Thick clients and standalone servers are still commonly used in businesses and government, especially for applications that require rich graphical user interfaces and high-performance visualization that cannot be met by thin clients running on Web browsers

  7. Personnel Access Control System Evaluation for National Ignition Facility Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T; Brereton, S.; Hermes, G.; Singh, M.

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the baseline Access Control System for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and to assess its effectiveness at controlling access to hazardous locations during full NIF operations. It reviews the various hazards present during a NIF shot sequence, and evaluates the effectiveness of the applicable set of controls at preventing access while the hazards are present. It considers only those hazards that could potentially be lethal. In addition, various types of technologies that might be applicable at NIF are reviewed, as are systems currently in use at other facilities requiring access control for safety reasons. Recommendations on how this system might be modified to reduce risk are made.

  8. Role-based access control model for GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuqing; Sheng, Yehua; Zhou, Jieyu

    2007-06-01

    Access control of Geographical Information System (GIS) has more complex spatial constraints than the general MIS system, it makes the classic role-based access control model(RBAC) can't be used in GIS. To achieve an effective Access Control Model for GIS, an extension model of the RBAC is presented in the paper. Firstly, this paper introduce the three kinds spatial constraints that included layer constraints, region constraints and spatial object constraints; Then the paper expanded the basic RBAC model, added regional class, layers class and so on; Finally, the paper has given the system RABC control model as well as the realization method in view of GIS. An extension model of the RBAC is applicable to mobile computing, wireless access and system about location is concluded by analyzing.

  9. 10 Management Controller for Time and Space Partitioning Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachaize, Jerome; Deredempt, Marie-Helene; Galizzi, Julien

    2015-09-01

    The Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) has been industrialized in aeronautical domain to enable the independent qualification of different application softwares from different suppliers on the same generic computer, this latter computer being a single terminal in a deterministic network. This concept allowed to distribute efficiently and transparently the different applications across the network, sizing accurately the HW equipments to embed on the aircraft, through the configuration of the virtual computers and the virtual network. , This concept has been studied for space domain and requirements issued [D04],[D05]. Experiments in the space domain have been done, for the computer level, through ESA and CNES initiatives [D02] [D03]. One possible IMA implementation may use Time and Space Partitioning (TSP) technology. Studies on Time and Space Partitioning [D02] for controlling resources access such as CPU and memories and studies on hardware/software interface standardization [D01] showed that for space domain technologies where I/O components (or IP) do not cover advanced features such as buffering, descriptors or virtualization, CPU overhead in terms of performances is mainly due to shared interface management in the execution platform, and to the high frequency of I/O accesses, these latter leading to an important number of context switches. This paper will present a solution to reduce this execution overhead with an open, modular and configurable controller.

  10. A Reversibly Sealed, Easy Access, Modular (SEAM) Microfluidic Architecture to Establish In Vitro Tissue Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Abhyankar, Vinay V; Wu, Meiye; Koh, Chung-Yan; Hatch, Anson V

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic barrier tissue models have emerged as advanced in vitro tools to explore interactions with external stimuli such as drug candidates, pathogens, or toxins. However, the procedures required to establish and maintain these systems can be challenging to implement for end users, particularly those without significant in-house engineering expertise. Here we present a module-based approach that provides an easy-to-use workflow to establish, maintain, and analyze microscale tissue constructs. Our approach begins with a removable culture insert that is magnetically coupled, decoupled, and transferred between standalone, prefabricated microfluidic modules for simplified cell seeding, culture, and downstream analysis. The modular approach allows several options for perfusion including standard syringe pumps or integration with a self-contained gravity-fed module for simple cell maintenance. As proof of concept, we establish a culture of primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and report combined surface protein imaging and gene expression after controlled apical stimulation with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating hydrated biomaterial interfaces into the microfluidic architecture by integrating an ultra-thin (< 1 μm), self-assembled hyaluronic acid/peptide amphiphile culture membrane with brain-specific Young's modulus (~ 1kPa). To highlight the importance of including biomimetic interfaces into microscale models we report multi-tiered readouts from primary rat cortical cells cultured on the self-assembled membrane and compare a panel of mRNA targets with primary brain tissue signatures. We anticipate that the modular approach and simplified operational workflows presented here will enable a wide range of research groups to incorporate microfluidic barrier tissue models into their work. PMID:27227828

  11. A reversibly sealed, easy access, modular (SEAM) microfluidic architecture to establish in vitro tissue interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Abhyankar, Vinay V.; Wu, Meiye; Koh, Chung -Yan; Hatch, Anson V.; Eddington, David T.

    2016-05-26

    Microfluidic barrier tissue models have emerged as advanced in vitro tools to explore interactions with external stimuli such as drug candidates, pathogens, or toxins. However, the procedures required to establish and maintain these systems can be challenging to implement for end users, particularly those without significant in-house engineering expertise. Here we present a module-based approach that provides an easy-to-use workflow to establish, maintain, and analyze microscale tissue constructs. Our approach begins with a removable culture insert that is magnetically coupled, decoupled, and transferred between standalone, prefabricated microfluidic modules for simplified cell seeding, culture, and downstream analysis. The modular approach allowsmore » several options for perfusion including standard syringe pumps or integration with a self-contained gravity-fed module for simple cell maintenance. As proof of concept, we establish a culture of primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and report combined surface protein imaging and gene expression after controlled apical stimulation with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating hydrated biomaterial interfaces into the microfluidic architecture by integrating an ultra-thin (< 1 μm), self-assembled hyaluronic acid/peptide amphiphile culture membrane with brain-specific Young’s modulus (~ 1kPa). To highlight the importance of including biomimetic interfaces into microscale models we report multi-tiered readouts from primary rat cortical cells cultured on the self-assembled membrane and compare a panel of mRNA targets with primary brain tissue signatures. As a result, we anticipate that the modular approach and simplified operational workflows presented here will enable a wide range of research groups to incorporate microfluidic barrier tissue models into their work.« less

  12. A Reversibly Sealed, Easy Access, Modular (SEAM) Microfluidic Architecture to Establish In Vitro Tissue Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Abhyankar, Vinay V.; Wu, Meiye; Koh, Chung-Yan; Hatch, Anson V.

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic barrier tissue models have emerged as advanced in vitro tools to explore interactions with external stimuli such as drug candidates, pathogens, or toxins. However, the procedures required to establish and maintain these systems can be challenging to implement for end users, particularly those without significant in-house engineering expertise. Here we present a module-based approach that provides an easy-to-use workflow to establish, maintain, and analyze microscale tissue constructs. Our approach begins with a removable culture insert that is magnetically coupled, decoupled, and transferred between standalone, prefabricated microfluidic modules for simplified cell seeding, culture, and downstream analysis. The modular approach allows several options for perfusion including standard syringe pumps or integration with a self-contained gravity-fed module for simple cell maintenance. As proof of concept, we establish a culture of primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and report combined surface protein imaging and gene expression after controlled apical stimulation with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating hydrated biomaterial interfaces into the microfluidic architecture by integrating an ultra-thin (< 1 μm), self-assembled hyaluronic acid/peptide amphiphile culture membrane with brain-specific Young’s modulus (~ 1kPa). To highlight the importance of including biomimetic interfaces into microscale models we report multi-tiered readouts from primary rat cortical cells cultured on the self-assembled membrane and compare a panel of mRNA targets with primary brain tissue signatures. We anticipate that the modular approach and simplified operational workflows presented here will enable a wide range of research groups to incorporate microfluidic barrier tissue models into their work. PMID:27227828

  13. Molecular Aspects of Transport in Thin Films of Controlled Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Paul W. Bohn

    2009-04-16

    Our laboratory focuses on developing spatially localized chemistries which can produce structures of controlled architecture on the supermolecular length scale -- structures which allow us to control the motion of molecular species with high spatial resolution, ultimately on nanometer length scales. Specifically, nanocapillary array membranes (NCAMs) contain an array of nanometer diameter pores connecting vertically separated microfluidic channels. NCAMs can manipulate samples with sub-femtoliter characteristic volumes and attomole sample amounts and are opening the field of chemical analysis of mass-limited samples, because they are capable of digital control of fluid switching down to sub-attoliter volumes; extension of analytical “unit operations” down to sub-femtomole sample sizes; and exerting spatiotemporal control over fluid mixing to enable studies of reaction dynamics. Digital flow switching mediated by nanocapillary array membranes can be controlled by bias, ionic strength, or pore diameter and is being studied by observing the temporal characteristics of transport across a single nanopore in thin PMMA membranes. The control of flow via nanopore surface characteristics, charge density and functional group presentation, is being studied by coupled conductivity and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements. Reactive mixing experiments previously established low millisecond mixing times for NCAM-mediated fluid transfer, and this has been exploited to demonstrate capture of mass-limited target species by Au colloids. Voltage and thermally-activated polymer switches have been developed for active control of transport in NCAMs. Thermally-switchable and size-selective transport was achieved by grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes onto the exterior surface of a Au-coated polycarbonate track-etched membrane, while the voltage-gated properties of poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) were characterized dynamically. Electrophoretic separations have been

  14. A threat intelligence framework for access control security in the oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaskandrani, Faisal T.

    The research investigates the problem raised by the rapid development in the technology industry giving security concerns in facilities built by the energy industry containing diverse platforms. The difficulty of continuous updates to network security architecture and assessment gave rise to the need to use threat intelligence frameworks to better assess and address networks security issues. Focusing on access control security to the ICS and SCADA systems that is being utilized to carry out mission critical and life threatening operations. The research evaluates different threat intelligence frameworks that can be implemented in the industry seeking the most suitable and applicable one that address the issue and provide more security measures. The validity of the result is limited to the same environment that was researched as well as the technologies being utilized. The research concludes that it is possible to utilize a Threat Intelligence framework to prioritize security in Access Control Measures in the Oil Industry.

  15. Control system architecture of QUIJOTE multi-frequency instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Reñasco, María. F.; Aguiar, Marta; Herreros, José Miguel; Hoyland, Roger J.; Sánchez de la Rosa, Vicente; Vega-Moreno, Afrodisio; Viera-Curbelo, Teodora; Génova-Santos, Ricardo; López-Caraballo, Carlos; Rebolo, Rafael; Rubiño-Martín, Jose Alberto

    2012-09-01

    The QUIJOTE-CMB experiment has been described in previous publications. Here we describe the architecture of the control system, hardware and software, of the QUIJOTE I instrument (MFI). It is a multi-channel instrument with five separate polarimeters: two of which operate at 10-14 GHz, two of which operate at 16-20 GHz, and a central polarimeter at 26-36 GHz. Each polarimeter can rotate at a speed of up to 1 Hz and also can move to discrete angular positions which allow the linear polar parameters Q, U and I to be derived. The instrument is installed in an alt-azimuth telescope which implements several operational modes: movement around the azimuth axis at a constant velocity while the elevation axis is held at a fixed elevation; tracking of a sky object; and raster of a rectangular area both in horizontal and sky coordinates. The control system of both, telescope and instrument, is based in the following technologies: an LXI-VXI bus is used for the signal acquisition system; an EtherCAT bus implements software PLCs developed in TwinCAT to perform the movement of the 5 polarimeters and the 2 axes of the telescope. Science signal, angular positions of the 5 polarimeters and telescope coordinates are sampled at up to 4000 Hz. All these data are correlated by a time stamp obtained from an external GPS clock implementing the Precise Time Protocol-1588 which provides synchronization to less than 1 microsecond. The control software also acquires housekeeping (HK) from the different subsystems. LabVIEW implements the instrument user interface.

  16. New scheme of variable optical buffer for IP packets used in access control of HORNET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Nian; Wang, Lutang; Huang, Zhaoming

    2002-09-01

    A new scheme of variable optical buffer for IP packets is reported. It may be used in access control of HORNET (Hybrid Optoelectronic Ring NETwork), to avoid collision of added packet and the packet already on the ring and improve the loss ratio of the packets. In this scheme, a new multi-wavelength fiber loop memory technique is employed. This architecture uses the wavelength converter (WC) to specify the packets delay and wavelength conversion is accomplished by the technique of four-wave-mixing (FWM) with a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The range of delay is 10 to 9990 bytes periods. First, architecture, operation principle, characteristics and applications of this scheme of variable optical buffer are introduced. Next, a new unslotted CSMA/CA MAC scheme based on the variable optical buffer is briefly introduced too. Finally, the simulation results are presented.

  17. An Architecture to Promote the Commercialization of Space Mission Command and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a command and control architecture that encompasses space mission operations centers, ground terminals, and spacecraft. This architecture is intended to promote the growth of a lucrative space mission operations command and control market through a set of open standards used by both gevernment and profit-making space mission operators.

  18. Accessible Gaming through Mainstreaming Kinetic Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Yolanda; Marco, Álvaro; Segura, Joaquín; Blanco, Teresa; Casas, Roberto

    Leisure is a very important aspect in our everyday life; and gaming is one of the main ways to it. Depending on the particular situation of each person, the way of playing could be very different. Motivation, preferences, skills, knowledge are some of the factors that influences this experience. When the person has a disability, additional agents come to scene such as cognitive level and mobility. Besides the design of the game, these factors clearly affect how the person interacts with the game; its user interface. In this paper we present a tool that allows people with disabilities to play games with a normalized user interface. This tool a) manages several wireless kinetic remote controllers, e.g. the Wiimotes; b) can be configured to capture any voluntary movements users could do and c) convert them into the specific inputs required by existing adapted games. As a result, users with disabilities can experience and enjoy games that were previously inaccessible to them.

  19. A SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Protein Controls Cytokinin Production through the Regulation of Chromatin Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jégu, Teddy; Domenichini, Séverine; Blein, Thomas; Ariel, Federico; Christ, Aurélie; Kim, Soon-Kap; Crespi, Martin; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Mouille, Grégory; Bourge, Mickaël; Hirt, Heribert; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cécile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin architecture determines transcriptional accessibility to DNA and consequently gene expression levels in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. Recently, chromatin remodelers such as SWI/SNF complexes have been recognized as key regulators of chromatin architecture. To gain insight into the function of these complexes during root development, we have analyzed Arabidopsis knock-down lines for one sub-unit of SWI/SNF complexes: BAF60. Here, we show that BAF60 is a positive regulator of root development and cell cycle progression in the root meristem via its ability to down-regulate cytokinin production. By opposing both the deposition of active histone marks and the formation of a chromatin regulatory loop, BAF60 negatively regulates two crucial target genes for cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT3 and IPT7) and one cell cycle inhibitor (KRP7). Our results demonstrate that SWI/SNF complexes containing BAF60 are key factors governing the equilibrium between formation and dissociation of a chromatin loop controlling phytohormone production and cell cycle progression. PMID:26457678

  20. A SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Protein Controls Cytokinin Production through the Regulation of Chromatin Architecture.

    PubMed

    Jégu, Teddy; Domenichini, Séverine; Blein, Thomas; Ariel, Federico; Christ, Aurélie; Kim, Soon-Kap; Crespi, Martin; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Mouille, Grégory; Bourge, Mickaël; Hirt, Heribert; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cécile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin architecture determines transcriptional accessibility to DNA and consequently gene expression levels in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. Recently, chromatin remodelers such as SWI/SNF complexes have been recognized as key regulators of chromatin architecture. To gain insight into the function of these complexes during root development, we have analyzed Arabidopsis knock-down lines for one sub-unit of SWI/SNF complexes: BAF60. Here, we show that BAF60 is a positive regulator of root development and cell cycle progression in the root meristem via its ability to down-regulate cytokinin production. By opposing both the deposition of active histone marks and the formation of a chromatin regulatory loop, BAF60 negatively regulates two crucial target genes for cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT3 and IPT7) and one cell cycle inhibitor (KRP7). Our results demonstrate that SWI/SNF complexes containing BAF60 are key factors governing the equilibrium between formation and dissociation of a chromatin loop controlling phytohormone production and cell cycle progression.

  1. Genetic Control of Maize Shoot Apical Meristem Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Addie M.; Crants, James; Schnable, Patrick S.; Yu, Jianming; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Springer, Nathan M.; Scanlon, Michael J.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem contains a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and generates all above-ground organs of the plant. During vegetative growth, cells differentiate from the meristem to initiate leaves while the pool of meristematic cells is preserved; this balance is determined in part by genetic regulatory mechanisms. To assess vegetative meristem growth and genetic control in Zea mays, we investigated its morphology at multiple time points and identified three stages of growth. We measured meristem height, width, plastochron internode length, and associated traits from 86 individuals of the intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred line population. For meristem height-related traits, the parents exhibited markedly different phenotypes, with B73 being very tall, Mo17 short, and the population distributed between. In the outer cell layer, differences appeared to be related to number of cells rather than cell size. In contrast, B73 and Mo17 were similar in meristem width traits and plastochron internode length, with transgressive segregation in the population. Multiple loci (6−9 for each trait) were mapped, indicating meristem architecture is controlled by many regions; none of these coincided with previously described mutants impacting meristem development. Major loci for height and width explaining 16% and 19% of the variation were identified on chromosomes 5 and 8, respectively. Significant loci for related traits frequently coincided, whereas those for unrelated traits did not overlap. With the use of three near-isogenic lines, a locus explaining 16% of the parental variation in meristem height was validated. Published expression data were leveraged to identify candidate genes in significant regions. PMID:24855316

  2. Control with a random access protocol and packet dropouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liyuan; Guo, Ge

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates networked control systems whose actuators communicate with the controller via a limited number of unreliable channels. The access to the channels is decided by a so-called group random access protocol, which is modelled as a binary Markov sequence. Data packet dropouts in the channels are modelled as independent Bernoulli processes. For such systems, a systematic characterisation for controller synthesis is established and stated in terms of the transition probabilities of the Markov protocol and the packet dropout probabilities. The results are illustrated via a numerical example.

  3. Project Integration Architecture (PIA) and Computational Analysis Programming Interface (CAPRI) for Accessing Geometry Data from CAD Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benyo, Theresa L.

    2002-01-01

    Integration of a supersonic inlet simulation with a computer aided design (CAD) system is demonstrated. The integration is performed using the Project Integration Architecture (PIA). PIA provides a common environment for wrapping many types of applications. Accessing geometry data from CAD files is accomplished by incorporating appropriate function calls from the Computational Analysis Programming Interface (CAPRI). CAPRI is a CAD vendor neutral programming interface that aids in acquiring geometry data directly from CAD files. The benefits of wrapping a supersonic inlet simulation into PIA using CAPRI are; direct access of geometry data, accurate capture of geometry data, automatic conversion of data units, CAD vendor neutral operation, and on-line interactive history capture. This paper describes the PIA and the CAPRI wrapper and details the supersonic inlet simulation demonstration.

  4. Quaternion-Based Control Architecture for Determining Controllability/Maneuverability Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Barton J

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic inversion has often been used in the simulation environment to rapidly prototype controls for the full flight envelope, because of its capacity for assessing a vehicle s maneuver performance and proper sizing of control surfaces. Generally, the architectures involve either a direct inversion of the entire set of equations of motion or a sequential set of inversions exploiting time scale separation in the vehicle dynamics where faster parameters are considered as controls for slower varying parameters. The proposed architecture builds on the latter using a quaternion formulation that provides singularity free tracking. Of interest, the proposed architecture simplifies the sequential approach by exploiting a simpler kinematic inversion in place of a more difficult inversion typically used. This kinematic relationship accurately describes the angular rate required to drive some reference frame of interest to a desired attitude at some desired quaternion error rate. A simple PID control is used to define the desired quaternion error rate. The paper develops the theoretical framework for the approach, and shows results in tracking a desired trajectory.

  5. A High Throughput Medium Access Control Implementation Based on IEEE 802.11e Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min Li; Lee, Jin; Setiawan, Hendra; Ochi, Hiroshi; Park, Sin-Chong

    With the growing demand for high-performance multimedia applications over wireless channels, we need to develop a Medium Access Control (MAC) system that supports high throughput and quality of service enhancements. This paper presents the standard analysis, design architecture and design issues leading to the implementation of an IEEE 802.11e based MAC system that supports MAC throughput of over 100Mbps. In order to meet the MAC layer timing constraints, a hardware/software co-design approach is adopted. The proposed MAC architecture is implemented on the Xilinx Virtex-II Pro Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (XC2VP70-5FF1704C) prototype, and connected to a host computer through an external Universal Serial Bus (USB) interface. The total FPGA resource utilization is 11, 508 out of 33, 088 (34%) available slices. The measured MAC throughput is 100.7Mbps and 109.2Mbps for voice and video access categories, transmitted at a data rate of 260Mbps based on IEEE 802.11n Physical Layer (PHY), using the contention-based hybrid coordination function channel access mechanism.

  6. Protein functionalized nanomaterials for flow control, biocatalysis and architectural organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nednoor, Pramod

    This dissertation work describes the construction of biomolecule-functionalized nanomaterials for applications in ion channel mimics, biocatalysis and supramolecular architectures. The core entrances of an aligned carbon nanotube membrane were functionalized with a desthiobiotin derivative that binds reversibly to streptavidin, thereby enabling a reversible closing/opening of the core entrance. Ionic flux through the CNT membrane was monitored using optically absorbing charged marker molecules. The flux was reduced by a factor of 24 when the desthiobiotin on the CNT was coordinated with streptavidin; release of streptavidin increased the flux, demonstrating a reversible ion-channel flow. Analysis of solutions of released streptavidin showed approximately 16 bound streptavidin molecules per CNT tip. Following on similar lines, a nine residue synthetic peptide containing a serine residue [G-R-T-G-R-R-N-S-I-NH2], which is a specific substrate of Protein Kinase A was functionalized at the tip of carbon nanotubes to obtain a biomimetic system where phosphorylation regulates ligand-gated ion channels. Phosphorylation of the serine residue with a kinase led to the binding of a monoclonal anti-phosphoserine antibody. This binding event controlled the ionic flow through the pores. Dephosphorylating the serine residue with an alkaline phosphatase prevented the antibody from binding, thereby altering the flow through the channels. The transport of oppositely charged molecules through the CNT membrane was quantified. Nanoscale materials (i.e., nanoparticles and nanorods) are an attractive platform for applications in biotransformations and biosensors. Conjugation of a fullerene derivative to a mutant subtilisin was demonstrated, and the effect of the fullerene on the enzyme activity was determined. The fullerene-conjugated enzyme had improved catalytic properties in comparison to subtilisin immobilized on nonporous silica. Further, the pH profile of free and fullerene

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of biometric access control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lively, Valerie M.

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the contribution by the National Safe Skies Alliance (Safe Skies) in operational testing of biometric access control systems under the guidance of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). Safe Skies has been conducting operational tests of biometric access control systems on behalf of the TSA for approximately four years. The majority of this testing has occurred at the McGhee Tyson Airport (TYS) in Knoxville, Tennessee. Twelve separate biometric devices - eight fingerprint, facial, iris, hand geometry, and fingerprint and iris, have been tested to date. Tests were conducted at a TYS administrative door and different airports to evaluate the access control device under normal, abnormal, and attempt-to-defeat conditions.

  8. How to Solve Dilemmas Arising from the Idea of Improving Physical Accessibility in Relation to Aesthetics and Architectural Heritage.

    PubMed

    Asmervik, Sigmund

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian state has been working for more than fifteen years on various ways of improving accessibility for the general public. An important part of this work has been to develop new legislation and other forms of formal guidelines to reduce physical barriers. The new Anti-Discrimination and Accessibility Act, Obligation to ensure general accommodation (universal design), came into force January 2009, and introduces some complicated dilemmas, especially when it states: "When assessing whether the design or accommodation entails an undue burden, particular importance shall be attached to the effect of the accommodation on the dismantling of disabling barriers, the necessary costs associated with the accommodation, the undertaking's resources, whether the normal function of the undertaking is of a public nature, safety considerations and cultural heritage considerations." What is an "undue burden" in relation to architectural visual qualities and to the historical heritage expressed in buildings and townscapes? This paper will look into these dilemmas by discussing specific cases from some cities in different countries. What kinds of procedure are suitable and decisive when it comes to these complicated questions? Is this a task exclusively reserved for professionals, or should the voice of lay people be heard and taken into consideration? By presenting examples from architecture and landscape architecture, I will show how universal design even can be implemented in old buildings and environments. The paper will argue for more focus on procedures than just physical solutions. The procedures should be based on accepted principles for changing historical monuments, such as wholeness, readability, reversibility and sustainability. PMID:27534291

  9. How to Solve Dilemmas Arising from the Idea of Improving Physical Accessibility in Relation to Aesthetics and Architectural Heritage.

    PubMed

    Asmervik, Sigmund

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian state has been working for more than fifteen years on various ways of improving accessibility for the general public. An important part of this work has been to develop new legislation and other forms of formal guidelines to reduce physical barriers. The new Anti-Discrimination and Accessibility Act, Obligation to ensure general accommodation (universal design), came into force January 2009, and introduces some complicated dilemmas, especially when it states: "When assessing whether the design or accommodation entails an undue burden, particular importance shall be attached to the effect of the accommodation on the dismantling of disabling barriers, the necessary costs associated with the accommodation, the undertaking's resources, whether the normal function of the undertaking is of a public nature, safety considerations and cultural heritage considerations." What is an "undue burden" in relation to architectural visual qualities and to the historical heritage expressed in buildings and townscapes? This paper will look into these dilemmas by discussing specific cases from some cities in different countries. What kinds of procedure are suitable and decisive when it comes to these complicated questions? Is this a task exclusively reserved for professionals, or should the voice of lay people be heard and taken into consideration? By presenting examples from architecture and landscape architecture, I will show how universal design even can be implemented in old buildings and environments. The paper will argue for more focus on procedures than just physical solutions. The procedures should be based on accepted principles for changing historical monuments, such as wholeness, readability, reversibility and sustainability.

  10. Secondary retention of rubber dam: effective moisture control access considerations.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, W H

    1995-04-01

    Primary rubber dam retention affects attachment of the latex sheet to the anchor teeth bordering the isolated working field. Secondary rubber dam retention is the provision of an effective seal at the dam-tooth junction, which is essential to the maintenance of adequate access and moisture control within the working field. Practical hints are offered to optimize access and moisture control through well-planned and properly executed secondary retention of classic rubber dam applications. In addition, innovative solutions to the limitations of general field isolation, which pertain mostly to secondary retention of the unrestrained buccal and lingual curtains of the slit dam, are introduced.

  11. A Service Access Security Control Model in Cyberspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qianmu, Li; Jie, Yin; Jun, Hou; Jian, Xu; Hong, Zhang; Yong, Qi

    A service access control model in cyberspace is proposed, which provides a generalized and effective mechanism of security management with some items constraint specifications. These constraint specifications are organized to form a construction, and an enact process is proposed to make it scalable and flexible to meet the need of diversified service application systems in cyberspace. The model of this paper erases the downward information flow by extended rules of read/write, which is the breakthrough of the limitations when applying the standard role-based access control in cyberspace.

  12. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  13. Generation of 3D Collagen Gels with Controlled Diverse Architectures.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Rat tail collagen solutions have been used as polymerizable in vitro three dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) gels for single and collective cell migration assays as well as spheroid formation. Factors such as ECM concentration, pH, ionic concentration, and temperature can alter collagen polymerization and ECM architecture. This unit describes how to generate 3D collagen gels that have distinct architectures ranging from a highly reticular meshwork of short thin fibrils with small pores to a loose matrix consisting of stiff, parallel-bundled long fibrils by changing collagen polymerization temperature. This permits analysis of 3D cell migration in different ECM architectures found in vivo while maintaining a similar ECM concentration. Also included are collagen labeling techniques helpful for ECM visualization during live fluorescence imaging. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27580704

  14. Fabrication of magneto-controlled moveable architecture to develop reusable electrochemical biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Feng, Chang; Ye, Zonghuang; Chen, Yangyang; Li, Genxi

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical biosensors have been studied intensively for several decades. Numerous sensing concepts and related interface architectures have been developed. However, all such architectures suffer a trade-off: simple architectures favour usability, whereas complex architectures favour better performance. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel concept by introducing a magneto-controlled moveable architecture (MCMA) instead of the conventional surface-fixed architecture. As a model, human breast cancer cells were used in this study. The results showed that a detection range from 100 to 1 × 106 cells could be achieved. Moreover, the whole detection cycle, including the measurement and the regeneration, could be completed in only 2 min. Thus, usability and excellent performance can be achieved in a single biosensor. PMID:24566810

  15. Privacy-aware access control for video data in intelligent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagts, Hauke; Jakoby, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Surveillance systems became powerful. Objects can be identified and intelligent surveillance services can generate events when a specific situation occurs. Such surveillance services can be organized in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to fulfill surveillance tasks for specific purposes. Therefore the services process information on a high level, e.g., just the position of an object. Video data is still required to visualize a situation to an operator and is required as evidence in court. Processing of personal related and sensitive information threatens privacy. To protect the user and to be compliant with legal requirements it must be ensured that sensitive information can only be processed for a defined propose by specific users or services. This work proposes an architecture for Access Control that enforces the separation of data between different surveillance tasks. Access controls are enforced at different levels: for the users starting the tasks, for the services within the tasks processing data stored in central store or calculated by other services and for sensor related services that extract information out of the raw data and provide them.

  16. Constellation's Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.

    2007-01-01

    Operations concepts are highly effective for: 1) Developing consensus; 2) Discovering stakeholder needs, goals, objectives; 3) Defining behavior of system components (especially emergent behaviors). An interoperability standard can provide an excellent lever to define the capabilities needed for system evolution. Two categories of architectures are needed in a program of this size are: 1) Generic - Needed for planning, design and construction standards; 2) Specific - Needed for detailed requirement allocations, interface specs. A wide variety of architectural views are needed to address stakeholder concerns, including: 1) Physical; 2) Information (structure, flow, evolution); 3) Processes (design, manufacturing, operations); 4) Performance; 5) Risk.

  17. Accessibility, stabilizability, and feedback control of continuous orbital transfer.

    PubMed

    Gurfil, Pini

    2004-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of low-thrust orbital transfer using orbital element feedback from a control-theoretic standpoint, concepts of controllability, feedback stabilizability, and their interaction. The Gauss variational equations (GVEs) are used to model the state-space dynamics. First, the notion of accessibility, a weaker form of controllability, is presented. It is then shown that the GVEs are globally accessible. Based on the accessibility result, a nonlinear feedback controller is derived that asymptotically steers a vehicle from an initial elliptic Keplerian orbit to any given elliptic Keplerian orbit. The performance of the new controller is illustrated by simulating an orbital transfer between two geosynchronous Earth orbits. It is shown that the low-thrust controller requires less fuel than an impulsive maneuver for the same transfer time. Closed-form, analytic expressions for the new orbital transfer controller are given. Finally, it is proved, based on a topological nonlinear stabilizability test, that there does not exist a continuous closed-loop controller that can transfer a spacecraft to a parabolic escape trajectory.

  18. Joint Access Control Based on Access Ratio and Resource Utilization for High-Speed Railway Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuzhe; Ai, Bo

    2015-05-01

    The fast development of high-speed rails makes people's life more and more convenient. However, provisioning of quality of service of multimedia applications for users on the high-speed train is a critical task for wireless communications. Therefore, new solutions are desirable to be found to address this kind of problem. Current researches mainly focus on providing seamless broadband wireless access for high-speed mobile terminals. In this paper, an algorithm to calculate the optimal resource reservation fraction of handovers is proposed. A joint access control scheme for high-speed railway communication handover scenario is proposed. Metrics of access ratio and resource utilization ratio are considered jointly in the analysis and the performance evaluation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm and the scheme improve quality of service compared with other conventional schemes.

  19. Access Control for Mobile Assessment Systems Using ID.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masaharu; Ishii, Tadashi; Morino, Kazuma

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of shelters during disaster is critical to ensure the health of evacuees and prevent pandemic. In the Ishinomaki area, one of the areas most damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the highly organized assessment helped to successfully manage a total of 328 shelters with a total of 46,480 evacuees. The input and analysis of vast amounts of data was tedious work for staff members. However, a web-based assessment system that utilized mobile devices was thought to decrease workload and standardize the evaluation form. The necessary access of information should be controlled in order to maintain individuals' privacy. We successfully developed an access control system using IDs. By utilizing a unique numerical ID, users can access the input form or assessment table. This avoids unnecessary queries to the server, resulting in a quick response and easy availability, even with poor internet connection. PMID:26262204

  20. Access Control of Web and Java Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.; Johnson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Cyber security has gained national and international attention as a result of near continuous headlines from financial institutions, retail stores, government offices and universities reporting compromised systems and stolen data. Concerns continue to rise as threats of service interruption, and spreading of viruses become ever more prevalent and serious. Controlling access to application layer resources is a critical component in a layered security solution that includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. In this paper we discuss the development of an application-level access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, to provide protection to both Web-based and Java-based client and server applications.

  1. REUSABLE PROPULSION ARCHITECTURE FOR SUSTAINABLE LOW-COST ACCESS TO SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, Joseph; Frame, Kyle L.; Dankanich, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Two transportation architecture changes are presented at either end of a conventional two-stage rocket flight: 1) Air launch using a large, conventional, pod hauler design (i.e., Crossbow)ans 2) Momentum exchange tether (i.e., an in-space asset like MXER). Air launch has ana analytically justified cost reduction of approx. 10%, but its intangible benefits suggest real-world operations cost reductions much higher: 1) Inherent launch safety; 2) Mission Risk Reduction; 3) Favorable payload/rocket limitations; and 4) Leveraging the aircraft for other uses (military transport, commercial cargo, public outreach activities, etc.)

  2. 'Super Silyl' Group for Diastereoselective Sequential Reactions: Access to Complex Chiral Architecture in One Pot

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, Matthew B.; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2008-04-02

    We have shown that the tris(trimethylsilyl)silyl (TTMSS) silyl enol ether of acetaldehyde undergoes aldehyde cross-aldol reactions with high selectivity and the extremely low catalyst loading (0.05 mol % of HNTf{sub 2}) allows for one-pot sequential reactions where acidic or basic nucleophiles can be subsequently added. Various ketone-derived silyl enol ethers, Grignard reagents, and dienes succeeded, generating relatively complex molecular architectures in a single step. This represents the first case where, in a single pot, highly acidic conditions followed by very basic conditions were tolerated to give products with high diastereoselectivities and good yields.

  3. Experimental Investigation on Transmission Control Protocol Throughput Behavior in Optical Fiber Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tego, Edion; Matera, Francesco; del Buono, Donato

    2016-03-01

    This article describes an experimental investigation on the behavior of transmission control protocol in throughput measurements to be used in the verification of the service-level agreement between the Internet service provider and user in terms of line capacity for ultra-broadband access networks typical of fiber-to-the-x architectures. It is experimentally shown different conditions in high bandwidth-delay product links where the estimation of the line capacity based on a single transmission control protocol session results are unreliable. Simple equations reported in this work, and experimentally verified, point out the conditions in terms of packet loss, time delay, and line capacity, that allow consideration of the reliability of the measurement carried out with a single transmission control protocol session test by adopting a suitable measurement time duration.

  4. Research on a dynamic workflow access control model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiliang; Deng, Jinxia

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, the access control technology has been researched widely in workflow system, two typical technologies of that are RBAC (Role-Based Access Control) and TBAC (Task-Based Access Control) model, which has been successfully used in the role authorizing and assigning in a certain extent. However, during the process of complicating a system's structure, these two types of technology can not be used in minimizing privileges and separating duties, and they are inapplicable when users have a request of frequently changing on the workflow's process. In order to avoid having these weakness during the applying, a variable flow dynamic role_task_view (briefly as DRTVBAC) of fine-grained access control model is constructed on the basis existed model. During the process of this model applying, an algorithm is constructed to solve users' requirements of application and security needs on fine-grained principle of privileges minimum and principle of dynamic separation of duties. The DRTVBAC model is implemented in the actual system, the figure shows that the task associated with the dynamic management of role and the role assignment is more flexible on authority and recovery, it can be met the principle of least privilege on the role implement of a specific task permission activated; separated the authority from the process of the duties completing in the workflow; prevented sensitive information discovering from concise and dynamic view interface; satisfied with the requirement of the variable task-flow frequently.

  5. Fine-Grained Access Control for Electronic Health Record Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, Pham Thi Bach; Wohlgemuth, Sven; Echizen, Isao; Thuy, Dong Thi Bich; Thuc, Nguyen Dinh

    There needs to be a strategy for securing the privacy of patients when exchanging health records between various entities over the Internet. Despite the fact that health care providers such as Google Health and Microsoft Corp.'s Health Vault comply with the U.S Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the privacy of patients is still at risk. Several encryption schemes and access control mechanisms have been suggested to protect the disclosure of a patient's health record especially from unauthorized entities. However, by implementing these approaches, data owners are not capable of controlling and protecting the disclosure of the individual sensitive attributes of their health records. This raises the need to adopt a secure mechanism to protect personal information against unauthorized disclosure. Therefore, we propose a new Fine-grained Access Control (FGAC) mechanism that is based on subkeys, which would allow a data owner to further control the access to his data at the column-level. We also propose a new mechanism to efficiently reduce the number of keys maintained by a data owner in cases when the users have different access privileges to different columns of the data being shared.

  6. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices, including any device intended to... with the individual's claim of loss or theft. (3) If an individual cannot present his or her TWIC for... approved Facility Security Plan (FSP) the frequency of application of any access controls, particularly...

  7. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices, including any device intended to... with the individual's claim of loss or theft. (3) If an individual cannot present his or her TWIC for... approved Facility Security Plan (FSP) the frequency of application of any access controls, particularly...

  8. 78 FR 59475 - Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines; Outdoor Developed Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ..., which were published in the Federal Register on July 23, 2004 (69 FR 44151) and are codified in... provided in camping units with mobility features: Parking spaces for recreational vehicles and other... connect: Accessible elements, spaces, and facilities provided within camping units and picnic units...

  9. Secure Dynamic access control scheme of PHR in cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Liu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chen, Chin-Sheng; Bau, Jian-Guo; Lin, Tzu-Ching

    2012-12-01

    With the development of information technology and medical technology, medical information has been developed from traditional paper records into electronic medical records, which have now been widely applied. The new-style medical information exchange system "personal health records (PHR)" is gradually developed. PHR is a kind of health records maintained and recorded by individuals. An ideal personal health record could integrate personal medical information from different sources and provide complete and correct personal health and medical summary through the Internet or portable media under the requirements of security and privacy. A lot of personal health records are being utilized. The patient-centered PHR information exchange system allows the public autonomously maintain and manage personal health records. Such management is convenient for storing, accessing, and sharing personal medical records. With the emergence of Cloud computing, PHR service has been transferred to storing data into Cloud servers that the resources could be flexibly utilized and the operation cost can be reduced. Nevertheless, patients would face privacy problem when storing PHR data into Cloud. Besides, it requires a secure protection scheme to encrypt the medical records of each patient for storing PHR into Cloud server. In the encryption process, it would be a challenge to achieve accurately accessing to medical records and corresponding to flexibility and efficiency. A new PHR access control scheme under Cloud computing environments is proposed in this study. With Lagrange interpolation polynomial to establish a secure and effective PHR information access scheme, it allows to accurately access to PHR with security and is suitable for enormous multi-users. Moreover, this scheme also dynamically supports multi-users in Cloud computing environments with personal privacy and offers legal authorities to access to PHR. From security and effectiveness analyses, the proposed PHR access

  10. A multitasking finite state architecture for computer control of an electric powertrain

    SciTech Connect

    Burba, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite state techniques provide a common design language between the control engineer and the computer engineer for event driven computer control systems. They simplify communication and provide a highly maintainable control system understandable by both. This paper describes the development of a control system for an electric vehicle powertrain utilizing finite state concepts. The basics of finite state automata are provided as a framework to discuss a unique multitasking software architecture developed for this application. The architecture employs conventional time-sliced techniques with task scheduling controlled by a finite state machine representation of the control strategy of the powertrain. The complexities of excitation variable sampling in this environment are also considered.

  11. Frontier: High Performance Database Access Using Standard Web Components in a Scalable Multi-Tier Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Kosyakov, S.; Kowalkowski, J.; Litvintsev, D.; Lueking, L.; Paterno, M.; White, S.P.; Autio, Lauri; Blumenfeld, B.; Maksimovic, P.; Mathis, M.; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2004-09-01

    A high performance system has been assembled using standard web components to deliver database information to a large number of broadly distributed clients. The CDF Experiment at Fermilab is establishing processing centers around the world imposing a high demand on their database repository. For delivering read-only data, such as calibrations, trigger information, and run conditions data, we have abstracted the interface that clients use to retrieve data objects. A middle tier is deployed that translates client requests into database specific queries and returns the data to the client as XML datagrams. The database connection management, request translation, and data encoding are accomplished in servlets running under Tomcat. Squid Proxy caching layers are deployed near the Tomcat servers, as well as close to the clients, to significantly reduce the load on the database and provide a scalable deployment model. Details the system's construction and use are presented, including its architecture, design, interfaces, administration, performance measurements, and deployment plan.

  12. Mechanisms employed by cellulase systems to gain access through the complex architecture of lignocellulosic substrates.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Bryon S; Resch, Michael G

    2015-12-01

    To improve the deconstruction of biomass, the most abundant terrestrial source of carbon polymers, en route to renewable fuels, chemicals, and materials more knowledge is needed into the mechanistic interplay between thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In this review we highlight recent progress in advanced imaging techniques that have been used to elucidate the effects of thermochemical pretreatment on plant cell walls across a range of spatial scales and the relationship between the substrate structure and the function of various glycoside hydrolase components. The details of substrate and enzyme interactions are not yet fully understood and the challenges of characterizing plant cell wall architecture, how it dictates recalcitrance, and how it relates to enzyme-substrate interactions is the focus for many research groups in the field. Better understanding of how to match pretreatments with improved enzyme mixtures will lead to lower costs for industrial biorefining.

  13. Mechanisms employed by cellulase systems to gain access through the complex architecture of lignocellulosic substrates.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Bryon S; Resch, Michael G

    2015-12-01

    To improve the deconstruction of biomass, the most abundant terrestrial source of carbon polymers, en route to renewable fuels, chemicals, and materials more knowledge is needed into the mechanistic interplay between thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In this review we highlight recent progress in advanced imaging techniques that have been used to elucidate the effects of thermochemical pretreatment on plant cell walls across a range of spatial scales and the relationship between the substrate structure and the function of various glycoside hydrolase components. The details of substrate and enzyme interactions are not yet fully understood and the challenges of characterizing plant cell wall architecture, how it dictates recalcitrance, and how it relates to enzyme-substrate interactions is the focus for many research groups in the field. Better understanding of how to match pretreatments with improved enzyme mixtures will lead to lower costs for industrial biorefining. PMID:26529490

  14. Universal optical line terminal encoding and decoding architecture in two-code keying for noncoherent spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Bih-Chyun; Lin, Cheing-Hong; Yang, De-Nian

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new code family, called extended shifted prime codes, and the universal encoding architecture for spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access systems using a two-code keying scheme. The proposed system can eliminate multiuser interference and suppress phase-induced intensity noise. In addition, we design the ESP codes to be an encoding/decoding architecture based on the array waveguide grating architecture and reduce the power loss and the complexity of the optical line terminal. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed system with ESP codes outperforms the existing one-dimensional shifted prime codes system.

  15. Using a cognitive architecture for general purpose service robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puigbo, Jordi-Ysard; Pumarola, Albert; Angulo, Cecilio; Tellez, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    A humanoid service robot equipped with a set of simple action skills including navigating, grasping, recognising objects or people, among others, is considered in this paper. By using those skills the robot should complete a voice command expressed in natural language encoding a complex task (defined as the concatenation of a number of those basic skills). As a main feature, no traditional planner has been used to decide skills to be activated, as well as in which sequence. Instead, the SOAR cognitive architecture acts as the reasoner by selecting which action the robot should complete, addressing it towards the goal. Our proposal allows to include new goals for the robot just by adding new skills (without the need to encode new plans). The proposed architecture has been tested on a human-sized humanoid robot, REEM, acting as a general purpose service robot.

  16. Concept of rewritable organic ferroelectric random access memory in two lateral transistors-in-one cell architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Hoi; Lee, Gyu Jeong; Keum, Chang-Min; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-02-01

    We propose a concept of rewritable ferroelectric random access memory (RAM) with two lateral organic transistors-in-one cell architecture. Lateral integration of a paraelectric organic field-effect transistor (OFET), being a selection transistor, and a ferroelectric OFET as a memory transistor is realized using a paraelectric depolarizing layer (PDL) which is patterned on a ferroelectric insulator by transfer-printing. For the selection transistor, the key roles of the PDL are to reduce the dipolar strength and the surface roughness of the gate insulator, leading to the low memory on-off ratio and the high switching on-off current ratio. A new driving scheme preventing the crosstalk between adjacent memory cells is also demonstrated for the rewritable operation of the ferroelectric RAM.

  17. Distributed reservation control protocols for random access broadcasting channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, E. P.; Ephremides, A.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to a communication network consisting of an arbitrary number of nodes which can communicate with each other via a time-division multiple access (TDMA) broadcast channel. The reported investigation is concerned with the development of efficient distributed multiple access protocols for traffic consisting primarily of single packet messages in a datagram mode of operation. The motivation for the design of the protocols came from the consideration of efficient multiple access utilization of moderate to high bandwidth (4-40 Mbit/s capacity) communication satellite channels used for the transmission of short (1000-10,000 bits) fixed length packets. Under these circumstances, the ratio of roundtrip propagation time to packet transmission time is between 100 to 10,000. It is shown how a TDMA channel can be adaptively shared by datagram traffic and constant bandwidth users such as in digital voice applications. The distributed reservation control protocols described are a hybrid between contention and reservation protocols.

  18. JPL control/structure interaction test bed real-time control computer architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    1989-01-01

    The Control/Structure Interaction Program is a technology development program for spacecraft that exhibit interactions between the control system and structural dynamics. The program objectives include development and verification of new design concepts - such as active structure - and new tools - such as combined structure and control optimization algorithm - and their verification in ground and possibly flight test. A focus mission spacecraft was designed based upon a space interferometer and is the basis for design of the ground test article. The ground test bed objectives include verification of the spacecraft design concepts, the active structure elements and certain design tools such as the new combined structures and controls optimization tool. In anticipation of CSI technology flight experiments, the test bed control electronics must emulate the computation capacity and control architectures of space qualifiable systems as well as the command and control networks that will be used to connect investigators with the flight experiment hardware. The Test Bed facility electronics were functionally partitioned into three units: a laboratory data acquisition system for structural parameter identification and performance verification; an experiment supervisory computer to oversee the experiment, monitor the environmental parameters and perform data logging; and a multilevel real-time control computing system. The design of the Test Bed electronics is presented along with hardware and software component descriptions. The system should break new ground in experimental control electronics and is of interest to anyone working in the verification of control concepts for large structures.

  19. Ultrahigh-capacity access network architecture for mobile data backhaul using integrated W-band wireless and free-space optical links with OAM multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Yu, Jianjun; Zhang, Junwen; Chi, Nan; Xiao, Jiangnan; Chang, Gee-Kung

    2014-07-15

    In this Letter, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel access network architecture using hybrid integrated W-band wireless and free-space optical (FSO) links with orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing. The transmission of a 20 GBd quadrature phase-shift keying signal modulated over 10 OAM modes has been demonstrated over a 0.6 m FSO link and a 0.4 m W-band wireless link at 100 GHz. The experimental results show that the architecture can support future ultrahigh-capacity, converged optical-wireless access networks that require extra bandwidth and system flexibility in mobile data networks.

  20. System architecture and information model for integrated access to distributed biomedical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongkyu; Alaoui, Adil; Levine, Betty; Leondaridis, Leonidas; Shields, Peter; Byers, Steve; Cleary, Kevin

    2009-02-01

    The current trend towards systems medicine will rely heavily on computational and bioinformatics capabilities to collect, integrate, and analyze massive amounts of data from disparate sources. The objective is to use this information to make medical decisions that improve patient care. At Georgetown University Medical Center, we are developing an informatics capability to integrate several research and clinical databases. Our long term goal is to provide researchers at Georgetown's Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center better access to aggregated molecular and clinical information facilitating the investigation of new hypotheses that impact patient care. We also recognize the need for data mining tools and intelligent agents to help researchers in these efforts. This paper describes our initial work to create a flexible platform for researchers and physicians that provides access to information sources including clinical records, medical images, genomic, epigenomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. This paper describes the data sources selected for this pilot project and possible approaches to integrating these databases. We present the different database integration models that we considered. We conclude by outlining the proposed Information Model for the project.

  1. Volume server: A scalable high speed and high capacity magnetic tape archive architecture with concurrent multi-host access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybczynski, Fred

    1993-01-01

    A major challenge facing data processing centers today is data management. This includes the storage of large volumes of data and access to it. Current media storage for large data volumes is typically off line and frequently off site in warehouses. Access to data archived in this fashion can be subject to long delays, errors in media selection and retrieval, and even loss of data through misplacement or damage to the media. Similarly, designers responsible for architecting systems capable of continuous high-speed recording of large volumes of digital data are faced with the challenge of identifying technologies and configurations that meet their requirements. Past approaches have tended to evaluate the combination of the fastest tape recorders with the highest capacity tape media and then to compromise technology selection as a consequence of cost. This paper discusses an architecture that addresses both of these challenges and proposes a cost effective solution based on robots, high speed helical scan tape drives, and large-capacity media.

  2. Tag Content Access Control with Identity-based Key Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Rong, Chunming

    2010-09-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology that used to identify objects and users has been applied to many applications such retail and supply chain recently. How to prevent tag content from unauthorized readout is a core problem of RFID privacy issues. Hash-lock access control protocol can make tag to release its content only to reader who knows the secret key shared between them. However, in order to get this shared secret key required by this protocol, reader needs to communicate with a back end database. In this paper, we propose to use identity-based secret key exchange approach to generate the secret key required for hash-lock access control protocol. With this approach, not only back end database connection is not needed anymore, but also tag cloning problem can be eliminated at the same time.

  3. Type-Based Access Control in Data-Centric Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caires, Luís; Pérez, Jorge A.; Seco, João Costa; Vieira, Hugo Torres; Ferrão, Lúcio

    Data-centric multi-user systems, such as web applications, require flexible yet fine-grained data security mechanisms. Such mechanisms are usually enforced by a specially crafted security layer, which adds extra complexity and often leads to error prone coding, easily causing severe security breaches. In this paper, we introduce a programming language approach for enforcing access control policies to data in data-centric programs by static typing. Our development is based on the general concept of refinement type, but extended so as to address realistic and challenging scenarios of permission-based data security, in which policies dynamically depend on the database state, and flexible combinations of column- and row-level protection of data are necessary. We state and prove soundness and safety of our type system, stating that well-typed programs never break the declared data access control policies.

  4. Rural providers' access to online resources: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Laura J.; McElfresh, Karen R.; Warner, Teddy D.; Stromberg, Tiffany L.; Trost, Jaren; Jelinek, Devin A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The research determined the usage and satisfaction levels with one of two point-of-care (PoC) resources among health care providers in a rural state. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, twenty-eight health care providers in rural areas were stratified by occupation and region, then randomized into either the DynaMed or the AccessMedicine study arm. Study participants were physicians, physician assistants, and nurses. A pre- and post-study survey measured participants' attitudes toward different information resources and their information-seeking activities. Medical student investigators provided training and technical support for participants. Data analyses consisted of analysis of variance (ANOVA), paired t tests, and Cohen's d statistic to compare pre- and post-study effects sizes. Results Participants in both the DynaMed and the AccessMedicine arms of the study reported increased satisfaction with their respective PoC resource, as expected. Participants in both arms also reported that they saved time in finding needed information. At baseline, both arms reported too little information available, which increased to “about right amounts of information” at the completion of the study. DynaMed users reported a Cohen's d increase of +1.50 compared to AccessMedicine users' reported use of 0.82. DynaMed users reported d2 satisfaction increases of 9.48 versus AccessMedicine satisfaction increases of 0.59 using a Cohen's d. Conclusion Participants in the DynaMed arm of the study used this clinically oriented PoC more heavily than the users of the textbook-based AccessMedicine. In terms of user satisfaction, DynaMed users reported higher levels of satisfaction than the users of AccessMedicine. PMID:26807050

  5. An approach to access control in electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Sucurovic, Snezana

    2010-08-01

    OASIS is a non-for-profit consortium that drives the development convergence and adoption of open standards for the global information society. It involves more than 600 organizations and individuals as well as IT leaders Sun, Microsoft, IBM and Oracle. One of its standards is XACML which appeared a few years ago and now there are about 150,000 hits on Google. XACML (eXtensible Access Control Markup Language) is not technology related. Sun published in 2004 open source Sun XACML which is in compliance with XACML 1.0. specification and now works to make it comply with XACML 2.0. The heart of XACML are attributes values of defined type and name that is to be attached to a subject, a resource, an action and an environment in which a subject request action on resource. In that way XACML is to replace Role Based Access Control which dominated for years. The paper examines performances in CEN 13 606 and ISO 22 600 based healthcare system which uses XACML for access control.

  6. Integration of access control and ancillary information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Ahrens, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    The DOE has identified the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ARGUS system as the standard entry control system for the DOE Complex. ARGUS integrates several key functions, specifically, badging, entry control, and verification of clearance status. Not all sites need or can afford an ARGUS system. Such sites are therefore limited to commercial equipment which provide ARGUS like features. In this project an alternative way to integrate commercial equipment into an integrated system to include badging, access control, property control, and automated verification of clearance status has been investigated. Such a system would provide smaller sites the same functionality as is provided by ARGUS. Further, it would allow sites to fully participate in the DOE`s concept of Complex wide access control. This multi-year task is comprised of three phases. Phase 1, system requirements and definitions, and phase 2, software and hardware development, were completed during fiscal year 1994. This report covers these two phases and the demonstration system which resulted. Phase three would employ the demonstration system to evaluate system performance, identify operational limits and to integrate additional features. The demonstration system includes a badging station, a database server, a managers workstation, an entry control system, and a property protection system. The functions have been integrated through the use of custom interfaces and operator screens which greatly increase ease of use.

  7. Controlled architectural and chemotactic studies of 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Tayalia, Prakriti; Mazur, Eric; Mooney, David

    2010-01-01

    Chemotaxis plays a critical role in tissue development and wound repair, and is widely studied using ex vivo model systems in applications such as immunotherapy. However, typical chemotactic models employ 2D systems that are less physiologically relevant or use end-point assays, that reveal little about the stepwise dynamics of the migration process. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new model system using microfabrication techniques, sustained drug delivery approaches, and theoretical modeling of chemotactic agent diffusion. This model system allows us to study the effects of 3D architecture and chemotactic agent gradient on immune cell migration in real time. We find that dendritic cell migration is characterized by a strong interplay between matrix architecture and chemotactic gradients, and migration is also influenced dramatically by the cell activation state. Our results indicate that Lipopolysaccharide-activated dendritic cells studied in a traditional transwell system actually exhibit anomalous migration behavior. Such a 3D ex vivo system lends itself for analyzing cell migratory behavior in response to single or multiple competitive cues and could prove useful in vaccine development. PMID:21237507

  8. An integrated architecture of adaptive neural network control for dynamic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Liu; Tokar, R.; Mcvey, B.

    1994-07-01

    In this study, an integrated neural network control architecture for nonlinear dynamic systems is presented. Most of the recent emphasis in the neural network control field has no error feedback as the control input which rises the adaptation problem. The integrated architecture in this paper combines feed forward control and error feedback adaptive control using neural networks. The paper reveals the different internal functionality of these two kinds of neural network controllers for certain input styles, e.g., state feedback and error feedback. Feed forward neural network controllers with state feedback establish fixed control mappings which can not adapt when model uncertainties present. With error feedbacks, neural network controllers learn the slopes or the gains respecting to the error feedbacks, which are error driven adaptive control systems. The results demonstrate that the two kinds of control scheme can be combined to realize their individual advantages. Testing with disturbances added to the plant shows good tracking and adaptation.

  9. Software Architecture for Simultaneous Process Control and Software Development/Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Lenarduzzi, Roberto; Hileman, Michael S; McMillan, David E; Holmes Jr, William; Blankenship, Mark; Wilder, Terry

    2011-01-01

    A software architecture is described that allows modification of some application code sections while the remainder of the application continues executing. This architecture facilitates long term testing and process control because the overall process need not be stopped and restarted to allow modifications or additions to the software. A working implementation using National Instruments LabVIEW{trademark} sub-panel and shared variable features is described as an example. This architecture provides several benefits in both the program development and execution environments. The software is easier to maintain and it is not necessary to recompile the entire program after a modification.

  10. Status, Vision, and Challenges of an Intelligent Distributed Engine Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behbahani, Alireza; Culley, Dennis; Garg, Sanjay; Millar, Richard; Smith, Bert; Wood, Jim; Mahoney, Tim; Quinn, Ronald; Carpenter, Sheldon; Mailander, Bill; Battestin, Gary; Roney, Walter; Bluish, Colin; Rhoden, William; Storey, Bill

    2007-01-01

    A Distributed Engine Control Working Group (DECWG) consisting of the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) and industry has been formed to examine the current and future requirements of propulsion engine systems. The scope of this study will include an assessment of the paradigm shift from centralized engine control architecture to an architecture based on distributed control utilizing open system standards. Included will be a description of the work begun in the 1990's, which continues today, followed by the identification of the remaining technical challenges which present barriers to on-engine distributed control.

  11. Hand geometry biometric device for secure access control

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, C.; Moles, D.R. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the authors developed for the Air Force the Mark VI Personal Identity Verifier (PIV) for controlling access to a fixed or mobile ICBM site, a computer terminal, or mainframe. The Mark VI records the digitized silhouettes of four fingers of each hand on an AT and T smart card. Like fingerprints, finger shapes, lengths, and widths constitute an unguessable biometric password. A Security Officer enrolls an authorized person who places each hand, in turn, on a backlighted panel. An overhead scanning camera records the right and left hand reference templates on the smart card. The Security Officer adds to the card: name, personal identification number (PIN), and access restrictions such as permitted days of the week, times of day, and doors. To gain access, cardowner inserts card into a reader slot and places either hand on the panel. Resulting access template is matched to the reference template by three sameness algorithms. The final match score is an average of 12 scores (each of the four fingers, matched for shape, length, and width), expressing the degree of sameness. (A perfect match would score 100.00.) The final match score is compared to a predetermined score (threshold), generating an accept or reject decision.

  12. Global Access-controlled Transfer e-frame (GATe)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-30

    Global Access-controlled Transfer e-frame (GATe) was designed to take advantage of the patterns that occur during an electronic record transfer process. The e-frame (or electronic framework or platform) is the foundation for developing secure information transfer to meet classified and unclassified business processes and is particularly useful when there is a need to share information with various entities in a controlled and secure environment. It can share, search, upload, download and retrieve sensitive information, as well as provides reporting capabilities.

  13. Global Access-controlled Transfer e-frame (GATe)

    2012-05-30

    Global Access-controlled Transfer e-frame (GATe) was designed to take advantage of the patterns that occur during an electronic record transfer process. The e-frame (or electronic framework or platform) is the foundation for developing secure information transfer to meet classified and unclassified business processes and is particularly useful when there is a need to share information with various entities in a controlled and secure environment. It can share, search, upload, download and retrieve sensitive information, asmore » well as provides reporting capabilities.« less

  14. Advanced Design and Implementation of a Control Architecture for Long Range Autonomous Planetary Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Alvarez, A.; Hayati, S.; Volpe, R.; Petras, R.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced design and implementation of a Control Architecture for Long Range Autonomous Planetary Rovers is presented using a hierarchical top-down task decomposition, and the common structure of each design is presented based on feedback control theory. Graphical programming is presented as a common intuitive language for the design when a large design team is composed of managers, architecture designers, engineers, programmers, and maintenance personnel. The whole design of the control architecture consists in the classic control concepts of cyclic data processing and event-driven reaction to achieve all the reasoning and behaviors needed. For this purpose, a commercial graphical tool is presented that includes the mentioned control capabilities. Messages queues are used for inter-communication among control functions, allowing Artificial Intelligence (AI) reasoning techniques based on queue manipulation. Experimental results show a highly autonomous control system running in real time on top the JPL micro-rover Rocky 7 controlling simultaneously several robotic devices. This paper validates the sinergy between Artificial Intelligence and classic control concepts in having in advanced Control Architecture for Long Range Autonomous Planetary Rovers.

  15. A study of multiple access schemes in satellite control network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zijian; Wang, Zhonghai; Xiang, Xingyu; Wang, Gang; Chen, Genshe; Nguyen, Tien; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Satellite Control Networks (SCN) have provided launch control for space lift vehicles; tracking, telemetry and commanding (TTC) for on-orbit satellites; and, test support for space experiments since the 1960s. Currently, SCNs encounter a new challenge: how to maintain the high reliability of services when sharing the spectrum with emerging commercial services. To achieve this goal, the capability of multiple satellites reception is deserved as an update/modernization of SCN in the future. In this paper, we conducts an investigation of multiple access techniques in SCN scenario, e.g., frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and coded division multiple access (CDMA). First, we introduce two upgrade options of SCN based on FDMA and CDMA techniques. Correspondingly, we also provide their performance analysis, especially the system improvement in spectrum efficiency and interference mitigation. Finally, to determine the optimum upgrade option, this work uses CRISP, i.e., Cost, Risk, Installation, Supportability and Performance, as the baseline approach for a comprehensive trade study of these two options. Extensive numerical and simulation results are presented to illustrate the theoretical development.

  16. Guidance and Control Architecture Design and Demonstration for Low Ballistic Coefficient Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swei, Sean

    2014-01-01

    We propose to develop a robust guidance and control system for the ADEPT (Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology) entry vehicle. A control-centric model of ADEPT will be developed to quantify the performance of candidate guidance and control architectures for both aerocapture and precision landing missions. The evaluation will be based on recent breakthroughs in constrained controllability/reachability analysis of control systems and constrained-based energy-minimum trajectory optimization for guidance development operating in complex environments.

  17. Access Control Model for Sharing Composite Electronic Health Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Covington, Michael J.; Zhang, Xinwen

    The adoption of electronically formatted medical records, so called Electronic Health Records (EHRs), has become extremely important in healthcare systems to enable the exchange of medical information among stakeholders. An EHR generally consists of data with different types and sensitivity degrees which must be selectively shared based on the need-to-know principle. Security mechanisms are required to guarantee that only authorized users have access to specific portions of such critical record for legitimate purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for modelling access control scheme for composite EHRs. Our model formulates the semantics and structural composition of an EHR document, from which we introduce a notion of authorized zones of the composite EHR at different granularity levels, taking into consideration of several important criteria such as data types, intended purposes and information sensitivities.

  18. A Cloud-Assisted Random Linear Network Coding Medium Access Control Protocol for Healthcare Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kartsakli, Elli; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Relay sensor networks are often employed in end-to-end healthcare applications to facilitate the information flow between patient worn sensors and the medical data center. Medium access control (MAC) protocols, based on random linear network coding (RLNC), are a novel and suitable approach to efficiently handle data dissemination. However, several challenges arise, such as additional delays introduced by the intermediate relay nodes and decoding failures, due to channel errors. In this paper, we tackle these issues by adopting a cloud architecture where the set of relays is connected to a coordinating entity, called cloud manager. We propose a cloud-assisted RLNC-based MAC protocol (CLNC-MAC) and develop a mathematical model for the calculation of the key performance metrics, namely the system throughput, the mean completion time for data delivery and the energy efficiency. We show the importance of central coordination in fully exploiting the gain of RLNC under error-prone channels. PMID:24618727

  19. A Demonstration of a Retrofit Architecture for Intelligent Control and Diagnostics of a Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Turso, James A.; Shah, Neerav; Sowers, T. Shane; Owen, A. Karl

    2005-01-01

    A retrofit architecture for intelligent turbofan engine control and diagnostics that changes the fan speed command to maintain thrust is proposed and its demonstration in a piloted flight simulator is described. The objective of the implementation is to increase the level of autonomy of the propulsion system, thereby reducing pilot workload in the presence of anomalies and engine degradation due to wear. The main functions of the architecture are to diagnose the cause of changes in the engine s operation, warning the pilot if necessary, and to adjust the outer loop control reference signal in response to the changes. This requires that the retrofit control architecture contain the capability to determine the changed relationship between fan speed and thrust, and the intelligence to recognize the cause of the change in order to correct it or warn the pilot. The proposed retrofit architecture is able to determine the fan speed setting through recognition of the degradation level of the engine, and it is able to identify specific faults and warn the pilot. In the flight simulator it was demonstrated that when degradation is introduced into an engine with standard fan speed control, the pilot needs to take corrective action to maintain heading. Utilizing the intelligent retrofit control architecture, the engine thrust is automatically adjusted to its expected value, eliminating yaw without pilot intervention.

  20. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory shared control architecture and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.; Hayati, Samad

    1990-01-01

    A hardware and software environment for shared control of telerobot task execution has been implemented. Modes of task execution range from fully teleoperated to fully autonomous as well as shared where hand controller inputs from the human operator are mixed with autonomous system inputs in real time. The objective of the shared control environment is to aid the telerobot operator during task execution by merging real-time operator control from hand controllers with autonomous control to simplify task execution for the operator. The operator is the principal command source and can assign as much autonomy for a task as desired. The shared control hardware environment consists of two PUMA 560 robots, two 6-axis force reflecting hand controllers, Universal Motor Controllers for each of the robots and hand controllers, a SUN4 computer, and VME chassis containing 68020 processors and input/output boards. The operator interface for shared control, the User Macro Interface (UMI), is a menu driven interface to design a task and assign the levels of teleoperated and autonomous control. The operator also sets up the system monitor which checks safety limits during task execution. Cartesian-space degrees of freedom for teleoperated and/or autonomous control inputs are selected within UMI as well as the weightings for the teleoperation and autonmous inputs. These are then used during task execution to determine the mix of teleoperation and autonomous inputs. Some of the autonomous control primitives available to the user are Joint-Guarded-Move, Cartesian-Guarded-Move, Move-To-Touch, Pin-Insertion/Removal, Door/Crank-Turn, Bolt-Turn, and Slide. The operator can execute a task using pure teleoperation or mix control execution from the autonomous primitives with teleoperated inputs. Presently the shared control environment supports single arm task execution. Work is presently underway to provide the shared control environment for dual arm control. Teleoperation during shared

  1. The practical approach to the reliability analysis of the software architecture of a complex company control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, I. V.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Ognerubov, S.

    2015-10-01

    The practical aspects of the implementation of reliability analysis of the architecture of a complex control system of a company are considered in this article. The comparative analysis for two variants of software architecture using different factors is presented, the relations between the reliability characteristics and the amount of system architecture components and their connections with each other are defined.

  2. A comparative analysis of loop heat pipe based thermal architectures for spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauken, Mike; Birur, Gaj

    2004-01-01

    Loop Heat Pipes (LHP) have gained acceptance as a viable means of heat transport in many spacecraft in recent years. However, applications using LHP technology tend to only remove waste heat from a single component to an external radiator. Removing heat from multiple components has been done by using multiple LHPs. This paper discusses the development and implementation of a Loop Heat Pipe based thermal architecture for spacecraft. In this architecture, a Loop Heat Pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers is described in which heat load sharing and thermal control of multiple components can be achieved. A key element in using a LHP thermal architecture is defining the need for such an architecture early in the spacecraft design process. This paper describes an example in which a LHP based thermal architecture can be used and how such a system can have advantages in weight, cost and reliability over other kinds of distributed thermal control systems. The example used in this paper focuses on a Mars Rover Thermal Architecture. However, the principles described here are applicable to Earth orbiting spacecraft as well.

  3. Space Power Program, Instrumentation and Control System Architecture, Pre-conceptual Design, for Information

    SciTech Connect

    JM Ross

    2005-10-20

    The purpose of this letter is to forward the Prometheus preconceptual Instrumentation and Control (I&C) system architecture (Enclosure (1)) to NR for information as part of the Prometheus closeout work. The preconceptual 1&C system architecture was considered a key planning document for development of the I&C system for Project Prometheus. This architecture was intended to set the technical approach for the entire I&C system. It defines interfaces to other spacecraft systems, defines hardware blocks for future development, and provides a basis for accurate cost and schedule estimates. Since the system requirements are not known at this time, it was anticipated that the architecture would evolve as the design of the reactor module was matured.

  4. PC/AT-based architecture for shared telerobotic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinstock, Dale E.; Faddis, Terry N.; Barr, Bill G.

    1993-03-01

    A telerobotic control system must include teleoperational, shared, and autonomous modes of control in order to provide a robot platform for incorporating the rapid advances that are occurring in telerobotics and associated technologies. These modes along with the ability to modify the control algorithms are especially beneficial for telerobotic control systems used for research purposes. The paper describes an application of the PC/AT platform to the control system of a telerobotic test cell. The paper provides a discussion of the suitability of the PC/AT as a platform for a telerobotic control system. The discussion is based on the many factors affecting the choice of a computer platform for a real time control system. The factors include I/O capabilities, simplicity, popularity, computational performance, and communication with external systems. The paper also includes a description of the actuation, measurement, and sensor hardware of both the master manipulator and the slave robot. It also includes a description of the PC-Bus interface cards. These cards were developed by the researchers in the KAT Laboratory, specifically for interfacing to the master manipulator and slave robot. Finally, a few different versions of the low level telerobotic control software are presented. This software incorporates shared control by supervisory systems and the human operator and traded control between supervisory systems and the human operator.

  5. Access Control of Cloud Service Based on UCON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danwei, Chen; Xiuli, Huang; Xunyi, Ren

    Cloud computing is an emerging computing paradigm, and cloud service is also becoming increasingly relevant. Most research communities have recently embarked in the area, and research challenges in every aspect. This paper mainly discusses cloud service security. Cloud service is based on Web Services, and it will face all kinds of security problems including what Web Services face. The development of cloud service closely relates to its security, so the research of cloud service security is a very important theme. This paper introduces cloud computing and cloud service firstly, and then gives cloud services access control model based on UCON and negotiation technologies, and also designs the negotiation module.

  6. Challenges with Deploying and Integrating Environmental Control and Life Support Functions in a Lunar Architecture with High Degrees of Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Visions of lunar outposts often depict a collection of fixed elements such as pressurized habitats, in and around which human inhabitants spend the large majority of their surface stay time. In such an outpost, an efficient deployment of environmental control and life support equipment can be achieved by centralizing certain functions within one or a minimum number of habitable elements and relying on the exchange of gases and liquids between elements via atmosphere ventilation and plumbed interfaces. However, a rigidly fixed outpost can constrain the degree to which the total lunar landscape can be explored. The capability to enable widespread access across the landscape makes a lunar architecture with a high degree of surface mobility attractive. Such mobility presents unique challenges to the efficient deployment of environmental control and life support functions in multiple elements that may for long periods of time be operated independently. This paper describes some of those anticipated challenges.

  7. Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Baseline Control Law: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    A model reference dynamic inversion control law has been developed to provide a baseline control law for research into adaptive elements and other advanced flight control law components. This controller has been implemented and tested in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation; the simulation results show excellent handling qualities throughout the limited flight envelope. A simple angular momentum formulation was chosen because it can be included in the stability proofs for many basic adaptive theories, such as model reference adaptive control. Many design choices and implementation details reflect the requirements placed on the system by the nonlinear flight environment and the desire to keep the system as basic as possible to simplify the addition of the adaptive elements. Those design choices are explained, along with their predicted impact on the handling qualities.

  8. Using multiple hydrogen bonding cross-linkers to access reversibly responsive three dimensional graphene oxide architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Junkai; Shen, Yongtao; Feng, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) graphene materials have attracted a lot of attention for efficiently utilizing inherent properties of graphene sheets. However, 3D graphene materials reported in the previous literature are constructed through covalent or weak non-covalent interactions, causing permanent structure/property changes. In this paper, a novel 3D graphene material of dynamic interactions between lamellas with 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidinone as a supra-molecular motif has been synthesized. This 3D graphene material shows enhanced sheet interactions while the cross-linking takes place. With proper solvent stimulation, the integrated 3D graphene material can disassemble as isolated sheets. The driving force for the 3D structure assembly or disassembly is considered to be the forming or breaking of the multiple hydrogen bonding pairs. Furthermore, the 3D material is used as an intelligent dye adsorber to adsorb methylene blue and release it. The controllable and reversible characteristic of this 3D graphene material may open an avenue to the synthesis and application of novel intelligent materials.Three-dimensional (3D) graphene materials have attracted a lot of attention for efficiently utilizing inherent properties of graphene sheets. However, 3D graphene materials reported in the previous literature are constructed through covalent or weak non-covalent interactions, causing permanent structure/property changes. In this paper, a novel 3D graphene material of dynamic interactions between lamellas with 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidinone as a supra-molecular motif has been synthesized. This 3D graphene material shows enhanced sheet interactions while the cross-linking takes place. With proper solvent stimulation, the integrated 3D graphene material can disassemble as isolated sheets. The driving force for the 3D structure assembly or disassembly is considered to be the forming or breaking of the multiple hydrogen bonding pairs. Furthermore, the 3D material is used as an

  9. Distributed Hierarchical Control Architecture for Transient Dynamics Improvement in Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2013-08-24

    In this paper, a novel distributed hierarchical coordinated control architecture is proposed for large scale power systems. The newly considered architecture facilitates frequency restoration and power balancing functions to be decoupled and implemented at different levels. At the local level, decentralized robust generator controllers are designed to quickly restore frequency after large faults and disturbances in the system. The controllers presented herein are shown to improve transient stability performance, as compared to conventional governor and excitation control. At the area level, Automatic Generation Control (AGC) is modified and coordinates with the decentralized robust controllers to reach the interchange schedule in the tie lines. The interaction of local and zonal controllers is validated through detailed simulations.

  10. A candidate architecture for monitoring and control in chemical transfer propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael P.; Millis, Marc G.

    1990-01-01

    To support the exploration of space, a reusable space-based rocket engine must be developed. This engine must sustain superior operability and man-rated levels of reliability over several missions with limited maintenance or inspection between flights. To meet these requirements, an expander cycle engine incorporating a highly capable control and health monitoring system is planned. Alternatives for the functional organization and the implementation architecture of the engine's monitoring and control system are discussed. On the basis of this discussion, a decentralized architecture is favored. The trade-offs between several implementation options are outlined and future work is proposed.

  11. Extending a Role Graph for Role-Based Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, Yoshiharu; Nakamoto, Yukikazu

    Role-based access control (RBAC) is widely used as an access control mechanism in various computer systems. Since an organization's lines of authority influence the authorized privileges of jobs, roles also form a hierarchical structure. A role graph is a model that represents role hierarchies and is suitable for the runtime phase of RBAC deployment. Since a role graph cannot take various forms for given roles and cannot handle abstraction of roles well, however, it is not suitable for the design phase of RBAC deployment. Hence, an extended role graph, which can take a more flexible form than that of a role graph, is proposed. The extended role graph improves diversity and clarifies abstraction of roles, making it suitable for the design phase. An equivalent transformation algorithm (ETA), for transforming an extended role graph into an equivalent role graph, is also proposed. Using the ETA, system administrators can deploy efficiently RBAC by using an extended role graph in the design phase and a standard role graph in the runtime phase.

  12. Software Defined Networking (SDN) controlled all optical switching networks with multi-dimensional switching architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongli; Ji, Yuefeng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Hui; Xiong, Qianjin; Qiu, Shaofeng

    2014-08-01

    Ultrahigh throughout capacity requirement is challenging the current optical switching nodes with the fast development of data center networks. Pbit/s level all optical switching networks need to be deployed soon, which will cause the high complexity of node architecture. How to control the future network and node equipment together will become a new problem. An enhanced Software Defined Networking (eSDN) control architecture is proposed in the paper, which consists of Provider NOX (P-NOX) and Node NOX (N-NOX). With the cooperation of P-NOX and N-NOX, the flexible control of the entire network can be achieved. All optical switching network testbed has been experimentally demonstrated with efficient control of enhanced Software Defined Networking (eSDN). Pbit/s level all optical switching nodes in the testbed are implemented based on multi-dimensional switching architecture, i.e. multi-level and multi-planar. Due to the space and cost limitation, each optical switching node is only equipped with four input line boxes and four output line boxes respectively. Experimental results are given to verify the performance of our proposed control and switching architecture.

  13. Towards a State Based Control Architecture for Large Telescopes: Laying a Foundation at the VLT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karban, R.; Kornweibel, N.; Dvorak, D.; Ingham, M.; Wagner, D.

    2011-01-01

    Large telescopes are characterized by a high level of distribution of control-related tasks and will feature diverse data flow patterns and large ranges of sampling frequencies; there will often be no single, fixed server-client relationship between the control tasks. the architecture is also challenged by the task of integrating heterogeneous subsystems which will be delivered by multiple different contractors. Due to the high number of distributed components, the control system needs to effectively detect errors and faults, impede their propagation, and accurately mitigate them in the shortest time possible, enabling the service to be restored. The presented Data-Driven Architecture is based on a decentralized approach with an end-to-end integration of disparate, independently developed software components. These components employ a high-performance standards-based communication middle-ware infrastructure, based on the Data Distribution Service. A set of rules and principles, based on JPL's State Analysis method and architecture, are use to constrain component-to component interactions, where the Control System and System Under Control are clearly separated. State Analysis provide a model-based process for capturing system and software requirements and design, greatly reducing the gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation by software engineers. The method and architecture has been field tested at the Very Large Telescope, where it has been integrated into an operational system.

  14. A software architecture for hard real-time execution of automatically synthesized plans or control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoppers, Marcel

    1994-01-01

    The design of a flexible, real-time software architecture for trajectory planning and automatic control of redundant manipulators is described. Emphasis is placed on a technique of designing control systems that are both flexible and robust yet have good real-time performance. The solution presented involves an artificial intelligence algorithm that dynamically reprograms the real-time control system while planning system behavior.

  15. 76 FR 60398 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies, 68 FR 62011... Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies, 71 FR 68472, 68480, published in... Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies, 65 FR 64556, 64564, published in the Federal...

  16. 76 FR 67019 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control... RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control. DATES:...

  17. The perceptual control of goal-directed locomotion: a common control architecture for interception and navigation?

    PubMed

    Chardenon, A; Montagne, G; Laurent, M; Bootsma, R J

    2004-09-01

    Intercepting a moving object while locomoting is a highly complex and demanding ability. Notwithstanding the identification of several informational candidates, the role of perceptual variables in the control process underlying such skills remains an open question. In this study we used a virtual reality set-up for studying locomotor interception of a moving ball. The subject had to walk along a straight path and could freely modify forward velocity, if necessary, in order to intercept-with the head-a ball moving along a straight path that led it to cross the agent's displacement axis. In a series of experiments we manipulated a local (ball size) and a global (focus of expansion) component of the visual flow but also the egocentric orientation of the ball. The experimental observations are well captured by a dynamic model linking the locomotor acceleration to properties of both global flow and egocentric direction. More precisely the changes in locomotor velocity depend on a linear combination of the change in bearing angle and the change in egocentric orientation, allowing the emergence of adaptive behavior under a variety of circumstances. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying the control of different goal-directed locomotion tasks (i.e. steering and interceptive tasks) could share a common architecture. PMID:15042262

  18. Open multi-agent control architecture to support virtual-reality-based man-machine interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Eckhard; Rossmann, Juergen; Brasch, Marcel

    2001-10-01

    Projective Virtual Reality is a new and promising approach to intuitively operable man machine interfaces for the commanding and supervision of complex automation systems. The user interface part of Projective Virtual Reality heavily builds on latest Virtual Reality techniques, a task deduction component and automatic action planning capabilities. In order to realize man machine interfaces for complex applications, not only the Virtual Reality part has to be considered but also the capabilities of the underlying robot and automation controller are of great importance. This paper presents a control architecture that has proved to be an ideal basis for the realization of complex robotic and automation systems that are controlled by Virtual Reality based man machine interfaces. The architecture does not just provide a well suited framework for the real-time control of a multi robot system but also supports Virtual Reality metaphors and augmentations which facilitate the user's job to command and supervise a complex system. The developed control architecture has already been used for a number of applications. Its capability to integrate sensor information from sensors of different levels of abstraction in real-time helps to make the realized automation system very responsive to real world changes. In this paper, the architecture will be described comprehensively, its main building blocks will be discussed and one realization that is built based on an open source real-time operating system will be presented. The software design and the features of the architecture which make it generally applicable to the distributed control of automation agents in real world applications will be explained. Furthermore its application to the commanding and control of experiments in the Columbus space laboratory, the European contribution to the International Space Station (ISS), is only one example which will be described.

  19. A novel PON based UMTS broadband wireless access network architecture with an algorithm to guarantee end to end QoS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Ajaz; Hussain, Shahab; Ali, Mohammed A.; Ahmed, Samir

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we proposes a novel Passive Optical Network (PON) based broadband wireless access network architecture to provide multimedia services (video telephony, video streaming, mobile TV, mobile emails etc) to mobile users. In the conventional wireless access networks, the base stations (Node B) and Radio Network Controllers (RNC) are connected by point to point T1/E1 lines (Iub interface). The T1/E1 lines are expensive and add up to operating costs. Also the resources (transceivers and T1/E1) are designed for peak hours traffic, so most of the time the dedicated resources are idle and wasted. Further more the T1/E1 lines are not capable of supporting bandwidth (BW) required by next generation wireless multimedia services proposed by High Speed Packet Access (HSPA, Rel.5) for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and Evolution Data only (EV-DO) for Code Division Multiple Access 2000 (CDMA2000). The proposed PON based back haul can provide Giga bit data rates and Iub interface can be dynamically shared by Node Bs. The BW is dynamically allocated and the unused BW from lightly loaded Node Bs is assigned to heavily loaded Node Bs. We also propose a novel algorithm to provide end to end Quality of Service (QoS) (between RNC and user equipment).The algorithm provides QoS bounds in the wired domain as well as in wireless domain with compensation for wireless link errors. Because of the air interface there can be certain times when the user equipment (UE) is unable to communicate with Node B (usually referred to as link error). Since the link errors are bursty and location dependent. For a proposed approach, the scheduler at the Node B maps priorities and weights for QoS into wireless MAC. The compensations for errored links is provided by the swapping of services between the active users and the user data is divided into flows, with flows allowed to lag or lead. The algorithm guarantees (1)delay and throughput for error-free flows,(2)short term fairness

  20. SpaceWire- Based Control System Architecture for the Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator [LARAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Marek; Coates, Adam; Montano, Giuseppe; Allouis, Elie; Jameux, David

    2015-09-01

    The Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator (LARAD) is a state-of-the-art, two-meter long robotic arm for planetary surface exploration currently being developed by a UK consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space Ltd under contract to the UK Space Agency (CREST-2 programme). LARAD has a modular design, which allows for experimentation with different electronics and control software. The control system architecture includes the on-board computer, control software and firmware, and the communication infrastructure (e.g. data links, switches) connecting on-board computer(s), sensors, actuators and the end-effector. The purpose of the control system is to operate the arm according to pre-defined performance requirements, monitoring its behaviour in real-time and performing safing/recovery actions in case of faults. This paper reports on the results of a recent study about the feasibility of the development and integration of a novel control system architecture for LARAD fully based on the SpaceWire protocol. The current control system architecture is based on the combination of two communication protocols, Ethernet and CAN. The new SpaceWire-based control system will allow for improved monitoring and telecommanding performance thanks to higher communication data rate, allowing for the adoption of advanced control schemes, potentially based on multiple vision sensors, and for the handling of sophisticated end-effectors that require fine control, such as science payloads or robotic hands.

  1. Access control violation prevention by low-cost infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, Andrew N.

    2004-09-01

    A low cost 16x16 un-cooled pyroelectric detector array, allied with advanced tracking and detection algorithms, has enabled the development of a universal detector with a wide range of applications in people monitoring and homeland security. Violation of access control systems, whether controlled by proximity card, biometrics, swipe card or similar, may occur by 'tailgating' or 'piggybacking' where an 'approved' entrant with a valid entry card is accompanied by a closely spaced 'non-approved' entrant. The violation may be under duress, where the accompanying person is attempting to enter a secure facility by force or threat. Alternatively, the violation may be benign where staff members collude either through habit or lassitude, either with each other or with third parties, without considering the security consequences. Examples of the latter could include schools, hospitals or maternity homes. The 16x16 pyroelectric array is integrated into a detector or imaging system which incorporates data processing, target extraction and decision making algorithms. The algorithms apply interpolation to the array output, allowing a higher level of resolution than might otherwise be expected from such a low resolution array. The pyroelectric detection principle means that the detection will work in variable light conditions and even in complete darkness, if required. The algorithms can monitor the shape, form, temperature and number of persons in the scene and utilise this information to determine whether a violation has occurred or not. As people are seen as 'hot blobs' and are not individually recognisable, civil liberties are not infringed in the detection process. The output from the detector is a simple alarm signal which may act as input to the access control system as an alert or to trigger CCTV image display and storage. The applications for a tailgate detector can be demonstrated across many medium security applications where there are no physical means to prevent this

  2. BIOPACK: the ground controlled late access biological research facility.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Jack J W A

    2004-03-01

    Future Space Shuttle flights shall be characterized by activities necessary to further build the International Space Station, ISS. During these missions limited resources are available to conduct biological experiments in space. The Shuttles' Middeck is a very suitable place to conduct science during the ISS assembly missions or dedicated science missions. The BIOPACK, which flew its first mission during the STS-107, provides a versatile Middeck Locker based research tool for gravitational biology studies. The core facility occupies the space of only two Middeck Lockers. Experiment temperatures are controlled for bacteria, plant, invertebrate and mammalian cultures. Gravity levels and profiles can be set ranging from 0 to 2.0 x g on three independent centrifuges. This provides the experimenter with a 1.0 x g on-board reference and intermediate hypogravity and hypergravity data points to investigate e.g. threshold levels in biological responses. Temperature sensitive items can be stored in the facilities' -10 degrees C and +4 degrees C stowage areas. During STS-107 the facility also included a small glovebox (GBX) and passive temperature controlled units (PTCU). The GBX provides the experimenter with two extra levels of containment for safe sample handling. This biological research facility is a late access (L-10 hrs) laboratory, which, when reaching orbit, could automatically be starting up reducing important experiment lag-time and valuable crew time. The system is completely telecommanded when needed. During flight system parameters like temperatures, centrifuge speeds, experiment commanding or sensor readouts can be monitored and changed when needed. Although ISS provides a wide range of research facilities there is still need for an STS-based late access facility such as the BIOPACK providing experimenters with a very versatile research cabinet for biological experiments under microgravity and in-flight control conditions.

  3. Controlled Access under Review: Improving the Governance of Genomic Data Access

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Mahsa; Dyke, Stephanie O. M.; Joly, Yann; Borry, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In parallel with massive genomic data production, data sharing practices have rapidly expanded over the last decade. To ensure authorized access to data, access review by data access committees (DACs) has been utilized as one potential solution. Here we discuss core elements to be integrated into the fabric of access review by both established and emerging DACs in order to foster fair, efficient, and responsible access to datasets. We particularly highlight the fact that the access review process could be adversely influenced by the potential conflicts of interest of data producers, particularly when they are directly involved in DACs management. Therefore, in structuring DACs and access procedures, possible data withholding by data producers should receive thorough attention. PMID:26720729

  4. Arranging computer architectures to create higher-performance controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.

    1988-01-01

    Techniques for integrating microprocessors, array processors, and other intelligent devices in control systems are reviewed, with an emphasis on the (re)arrangement of components to form distributed or parallel processing systems. Consideration is given to the selection of the host microprocessor, increasing the power and/or memory capacity of the host, multitasking software for the host, array processors to reduce computation time, the allocation of real-time and non-real-time events to different computer subsystems, intelligent devices to share the computational burden for real-time events, and intelligent interfaces to increase communication speeds. The case of a helicopter vibration-suppression and stabilization controller is analyzed as an example, and significant improvements in computation and throughput rates are demonstrated.

  5. Privacy aware access controls for medical data disclosure on European healthgrids.

    PubMed

    Rahmouni, Hanene Boussi; Solomonides, Tony; Mont, Marco Casassa; Shiu, Simon

    2010-01-01

    To be processed within a healthgrid environment, medical data goes through a complete lifecycle and several stages until it is finally used for the primary reason it has been collected for. This stage is not always the final occurrence of when the data would have been manipulated. The data could rather continue to be needed for secondary purposes of legitimate or non legitimate nature. Although other privacy issues are related to the processing of patient data while it is residing on a healthgrid environment, the control of data disclosure is our primary interest. When sharing medical data between different Healthcare and biomedical research organizations in Europe, it is important that the different parties involved in the sharing handle the data in the same way indicated by the legislation of the member state where the data was originally collected as the requirements might differ from one state to another. Privacy requirements, such as patient consent, may be subject to conflicting conditions between different national frameworks as well as between different legal and ethical frameworks within a single member state. These circumstances have made the compliance management process in European healthgrid very challenging. In this paper we are presenting an approach to tackle these issues by relying on several technologies contained in the semantic web stack. Our work suggests a direct mapping from high level legislation on privacy and data protection to operational level privacy aware controls. Additionally we suggest an architecture for the enforcement of these controls on access control models adopted by healthgrids security infrastructures.

  6. Evaluation of an Outer Loop Retrofit Architecture for Intelligent Turbofan Engine Thrust Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane

    2006-01-01

    The thrust control capability of a retrofit architecture for intelligent turbofan engine control and diagnostics is evaluated. The focus of the study is on the portion of the hierarchical architecture that performs thrust estimation and outer loop thrust control. The inner loop controls fan speed so the outer loop automatically adjusts the engine's fan speed command to maintain thrust at the desired level, based on pilot input, even as the engine deteriorates with use. The thrust estimation accuracy is assessed under nominal and deteriorated conditions at multiple operating points, and the closed loop thrust control performance is studied, all in a complex real-time nonlinear turbofan engine simulation test bed. The estimation capability, thrust response, and robustness to uncertainty in the form of engine degradation are evaluated.

  7. A Content Standard for Computational Models; Digital Rights Management (DRM) Architectures; A Digital Object Approach to Interoperable Rights Management: Finely-Grained Policy Enforcement Enabled by a Digital Object Infrastructure; LOCKSS: A Permanent Web Publishing and Access System; Tapestry of Time and Terrain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Linda L.; Crosier, Scott J.; Smith, Terrence R.; Goodchild, Michael; Iannella, Renato; Erickson, John S.; Reich, Vicky; Rosenthal, David S. H.

    2001-01-01

    Includes five articles. Topics include requirements for a content standard to describe computational models; architectures for digital rights management systems; access control for digital information objects; LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe) that allows libraries to run Web caches for specific journals; and a Web site from the U.S.…

  8. e-VLBI Access Point (eAXP) - a centralized control and EGAE configuration / management application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruszczyk, Chester Whitney, Alan

    Setting up experiments to utilize Experiment Guided Adaptive Endpoint (EGAE) and e-VLBI is presently a complex and time intensive process requiring scientific, Mark5 and networking knowledge. There is no central access to point to configure and manage all of these aspects of an experiment. The e-VLBI Access Point (eAXP) is a centralized control plane management tool that offers a GUI interface to augment the command line interface presently being used to set up and conduct experiments. eAXP contains three major toolsets: one to set up and execute an experiment using real-time or non-real time modes; the second to configure and manage EGAE; and a third to view statistics of the experiments. Initially the overall system architecture for eAXP is presented, followed by details of the Experiment Profiler toolset including screen shots of the system presently being tested. This will be followed by how eAXP will support real-time modes interfacing to the Dynamic Resource Allocation over GMPLS Optical Network (DRAGON) resource management project.

  9. Iterative algorithm analysis for phase-only diffractive control access system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailescu, Mona; Preda, Alexandru; Cojoc, Dan; Scarlat, Eugen; Preda, Liliana

    2007-08-01

    A new architecture with two phases-only diffractive elements and one decryption mask for optical control access system is presented. Only three different persons which keep this element have the permission to access together. The Iterative Fourier Transform Algorithm (IFTA) is analyzed for phase-only diffractive optical elements (PODE) design with different constraints in the input and output plane and the optimal variant is chosen for better image quality in the output plane (big value for diffraction efficiency and small value for merit function and signal to noise ratio). For higher security we propose different incident waves. That are compared with the case when the first phase-only diffractive element and decryption masks are designed together in an extended iteration and the output images of them (first desired image) is taken over the second phase-only diffractive element. In order to increase security level, this finally PODE are designed to increase some parts from the first desired image. Only with this condition the key image on the detector is formed.

  10. Novel wavelength division multiplex-radio over fiber-passive optical network architecture for multiple access points based on multitone generation and triple sextupling frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guangming; Guo, Banghong; Liu, Songhao; Huang, Xuguang

    2014-01-01

    An innovative wavelength division multiplex-radio over fiber-passive optical network architecture for multiple access points (AP) based on multitone generation and triple sextupling frequency is proposed and demonstrated. A dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DD-MZM) is utilized to realize the multitone generation. Even sidebands are suppressed to make the adjacent frequency separation twice the frequency of the local oscillator by adjusting the modulation voltage of the DD-MZM. Due to adopting three fiber Bragg gratings to reflect the unmodulated sidebands for uplink communications source free at optical network unit (ONU), is achieved. The system can support at least three APs at one ONU simultaneously with a 30 km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission and 5 Gb/s data rate both for uplink and downlink communications. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show the architecture has an excellent performance and will be a promising candidate in future hybrid access networks.

  11. H2, fixed architecture, control design for large scale systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercadal, Mathieu

    1990-01-01

    The H2, fixed architecture, control problem is a classic linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) problem whose solution is constrained to be a linear time invariant compensator with a decentralized processing structure. The compensator can be made of p independent subcontrollers, each of which has a fixed order and connects selected sensors to selected actuators. The H2, fixed architecture, control problem allows the design of simplified feedback systems needed to control large scale systems. Its solution becomes more complicated, however, as more constraints are introduced. This work derives the necessary conditions for optimality for the problem and studies their properties. It is found that the filter and control problems couple when the architecture constraints are introduced, and that the different subcontrollers must be coordinated in order to achieve global system performance. The problem requires the simultaneous solution of highly coupled matrix equations. The use of homotopy is investigated as a numerical tool, and its convergence properties studied. It is found that the general constrained problem may have multiple stabilizing solutions, and that these solutions may be local minima or saddle points for the quadratic cost. The nature of the solution is not invariant when the parameters of the system are changed. Bifurcations occur, and a solution may continuously transform into a nonstabilizing compensator. Using a modified homotopy procedure, fixed architecture compensators are derived for models of large flexible structures to help understand the properties of the constrained solutions and compare them to the corresponding unconstrained ones.

  12. Neural networks as a possible architecture for the distributed control of space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiesler, E.; Choudry, A.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers attempted to identify the features essential for large, complex, multi-modular multi-functional systems possessing a high level of interconnectivity. These features were studied in the context of neural networks with the aim of arriving at a possible architecture of the distributed control system-specific features of the neural networks and their applicability in space systems.

  13. An orthogonal wavelet division multiple-access processor architecture for LTE-advanced wireless/radio-over-fiber systems over heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, Chinmaya; Leung, Victor CM; Stouraitis, Thanos

    2014-12-01

    The increase in internet traffic, number of users, and availability of mobile devices poses a challenge to wireless technologies. In long-term evolution (LTE) advanced system, heterogeneous networks (HetNet) using centralized coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmitting radio over optical fibers (LTE A-ROF) have provided a feasible way of satisfying user demands. In this paper, an orthogonal wavelet division multiple-access (OWDMA) processor architecture is proposed, which is shown to be better suited to LTE advanced systems as compared to orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) as in LTE systems 3GPP rel.8 (3GPP, http://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/36300.htm). ROF systems are a viable alternative to satisfy large data demands; hence, the performance in ROF systems is also evaluated. To validate the architecture, the circuit is designed and synthesized on a Xilinx vertex-6 field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The synthesis results show that the circuit performs with a clock period as short as 7.036 ns (i.e., a maximum clock frequency of 142.13 MHz) for transform size of 512. A pipelined version of the architecture reduces the power consumption by approximately 89%. We compare our architecture with similar available architectures for resource utilization and timing and provide performance comparison with OFDMA systems for various quality metrics of communication systems. The OWDMA architecture is found to perform better than OFDMA for bit error rate (BER) performance versus signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in wireless channel as well as ROF media. It also gives higher throughput and mitigates the bad effect of peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR).

  14. A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

  15. Micro guidance and control synthesis: New components, architectures, and capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

    1993-01-01

    New GN&C (guidance, navigation and control) system capabilities are shown to arise from component innovations that involve the synergistic use of microminiature sensors and actuators, microelectronics, and fiber optics. Micro-GN&C system and component concepts are defined that include micro-actuated adaptive optics, micromachined inertial sensors, fiber-optic data nets and light-power transmission, and VLSI microcomputers. The thesis is advanced that these micro-miniaturization products are capable of having a revolutionary impact on space missions and systems, and that GN&C is the pathfinder micro-technology application that can bring that about.

  16. Synchronized computational architecture for generalized bilateral control of robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szakaly, Zoltan F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A master six degree of freedom Force Reflecting Hand Controller (FRHC) is available at a master site where a received image displays, in essentially real time, a remote robotic manipulator which is being controlled in the corresponding six degree freedom by command signals which are transmitted to the remote site in accordance with the movement of the FRHC at the master site. Software is user-initiated at the master site in order to establish the basic system conditions, and then a physical movement of the FRHC in Cartesean space is reflected at the master site by six absolute numbers that are sensed, translated and computed as a difference signal relative to the earlier position. The change in position is then transmitted in that differential signal form over a high speed synchronized bilateral communication channel which simultaneously returns robot-sensed response information to the master site as forces applied to the FRHC so that the FRHC reflects the feel of what is taking place at the remote site. A system wide clock rate is selected at a sufficiently high rate that the operator at the master site experiences the Force Reflecting operation in real time.

  17. Pointing Control System Architecture for the Eclipse Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kia, Tooraj; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Alexander, James W.; Li, Diane G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the high performance pointing control system used to point the Eclipse telescope. Eclipse is a new mission under study at Jet Propulsion Laboratory for a proposal as a discovery mission. Eclipse is a space telescope for high-contrast optical astronomy. It will be used to investigate the planetary bodies and environments. The main objective of the Eclipse mission is to study planets around nearby stars. Eclipse is designed to reveal planets or dust structures by reducing the scattered and diffracted light within a few arcseconds of a star to a level three orders of magnitude lower than any instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Eclipse achieves this high contrast using a 1.8 meter diameter telescope, a coronagraphic system for control of diffracted light, and active wavefront correction using a Precision Deformable Mirror (DM) for the suppression of scattered light. The observatory will be launched into a Sun-synchronous 690 Km, 98.2(deg) Earth Orbit in 2012.

  18. First Experiences Using XACML for Access Control in Distributed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorch, Marcus; Proctor, Seth; Lepro, Rebekah; Kafura, Dennis; Shah, Sumit

    2003-01-01

    Authorization systems today are increasingly complex. They span domains of administration, rely on many different authentication sources, and manage permissions that can be as complex as the system itself. Worse still, while there are many standards that define authentication mechanisms, the standards that address authorization are less well defined and tend to work only within homogeneous systems. This paper presents XACML, a standard access control language, as one component of a distributed and inter-operable authorization framework. Several emerging systems which incorporate XACML are discussed. These discussions illustrate how authorization can be deployed in distributed, decentralized systems. Finally, some new and future topics are presented to show where this work is heading and how it will help connect the general components of an authorization system.

  19. Data acquisition, storage and control architecture for the SuperNova Acceleration Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Prosser, Alan; Cardoso, Guilherme; Chramowicz, John; Marriner, John; Rivera, Ryan; Turqueti, Marcos; /Fermilab

    2007-05-01

    The SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) instrument is being designed to collect image and spectroscopic data for the study of dark energy in the universe. In this paper, we describe a distributed architecture for the data acquisition system which interfaces to visible light and infrared imaging detectors. The architecture includes the use of NAND flash memory for the storage of exposures in a file system. Also described is an FPGA-based lossless data compression algorithm with a configurable pre-scaler based on a novel square root data compression method to improve compression performance. The required interactions of the distributed elements with an instrument control unit will be described as well.

  20. Object-based task-level control: A hierarchical control architecture for remote operation of space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, H. D.; Miles, E. S.; Rock, S. J.; Cannon, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    Expanding man's presence in space requires capable, dexterous robots capable of being controlled from the Earth. Traditional 'hand-in-glove' control paradigms require the human operator to directly control virtually every aspect of the robot's operation. While the human provides excellent judgment and perception, human interaction is limited by low bandwidth, delayed communications. These delays make 'hand-in-glove' operation from Earth impractical. In order to alleviate many of the problems inherent to remote operation, Stanford University's Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) has developed the Object-Based Task-Level Control architecture. Object-Based Task-Level Control (OBTLC) removes the burden of teleoperation from the human operator and enables execution of tasks not possible with current techniques. OBTLC is a hierarchical approach to control where the human operator is able to specify high-level, object-related tasks through an intuitive graphical user interface. Infrequent task-level command replace constant joystick operations, eliminating communications bandwidth and time delay problems. The details of robot control and task execution are handled entirely by the robot and computer control system. The ARL has implemented the OBTLC architecture on a set of Free-Flying Space Robots. The capability of the OBTLC architecture has been demonstrated by controlling the ARL Free-Flying Space Robots from NASA Ames Research Center.

  1. Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Prototype Radio - Generation 2 Security Architecture Lab Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannicca, Dennis C.; McKim, James H.; Stewart, David H.; Thadhani, Suresh K.; Young, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, in cooperation with Rockwell Collins, is working to develop a prototype Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) radio platform as part of NASA Integrated Systems Research Program's (ISRP) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. A primary focus of the project is to work with the FAA and industry standards bodies to build and demonstrate a safe, secure, and efficient CNPC architecture that can be used by industry to evaluate the feasibility of deploying a system using these technologies in an operational capacity. GRC has been working in conjunction with these groups to assess threats, identify security requirements, and to develop a system of standards-based security controls that can be applied to the current GRC prototype CNPC architecture as a demonstration platform. The security controls were integrated into a lab test bed mock-up of the Mobile IPv6 architecture currently being used for NASA flight testing, and a series of network tests were conducted to evaluate the security overhead of the controls compared to the baseline CNPC link without any security. The aim of testing was to evaluate the performance impact of the additional security control overhead when added to the Mobile IPv6 architecture in various modes of operation. The statistics collected included packet captures at points along the path to gauge packet size as the sample data traversed the CNPC network, round trip latency, jitter, and throughput. The effort involved a series of tests of the baseline link, a link with Robust Header Compression (ROHC) and without security controls, a link with security controls and without ROHC, and finally a link with both ROHC and security controls enabled. The effort demonstrated that ROHC is both desirable and necessary to offset the additional expected overhead of applying security controls to the CNPC link.

  2. Safety systems and access control in the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Reed, Robert K; Bell, Jayce C

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest and most energetic laser system. The facility has the potential to generate ionizing radiation due to the interaction between the laser beams and target material, with neutrons and gamma rays being produced during deuterium-tritium fusion reactions. To perform these experiments, several types of hazards must be mitigated and controlled to ensure personnel safety. NIF uses a real-time safety system to monitor and mitigate the hazards presented by the facility. The NIF facility Safety Interlock System (SIS) monitors for oxygen deficiency and controls access to the facility preventing exposure to laser light and radiation from the Radiation Generating Devices. It also interfaces to radiation monitoring and other radiological monitoring and alarm systems. The SIS controls permissives to the hazard-generating equipment and annunciates hazard levels in the facility. To do this reliably and safely, the SIS has been designed as a fail-safe system with a proven performance record now spanning over 10 y. This paper discusses the SIS, its design, implementation, operator interfaces, validation/verification, and the hazard mitigation approaches employed in the NIF. A brief discussion of the Failure Modes and Effect Analysis supporting the SIS will also be presented. The paper ends with a general discussion of SIS do's and don'ts and common design flaws that should be avoided in SIS design. PMID:23629061

  3. Distributed model predictive control with hierarchical architecture for communication: application in automated irrigation channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Alireza; Khodabandehlou, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This paper is concerned with a distributed model predictive control (DMPC) method that is based on a distributed optimisation method with two-level architecture for communication. Feasibility (constraints satisfaction by the approximated solution), convergence and optimality of this distributed optimisation method are mathematically proved. For an automated irrigation channel, the satisfactory performance of the proposed DMPC method in attenuation of the undesired upstream transient error propagation and amplification phenomenon is illustrated and compared with the performance of another DMPC method that exploits a single-level architecture for communication. It is illustrated that the DMPC that exploits a two-level architecture for communication has a better performance by better managing communication overhead.

  4. Flexible, low-latency architecture for qubit control and measurement in circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlothuizen, Wouter; Deurloo, D.; Sterke, J. De; Vermeulen, R.; Schouten, R. N.; Dicarlo, Leo

    Increasing qubit numbers in circuit QED requires an extensible architecture for digital waveform generation of qubit control and measurement signals. For quantum error correction, the ability to select from a number of predetermined waveforms based on measurement results will become paramount. We present a room-temperature architecture with very low latency from measurement to waveform output. This modular FPGA-based system can generate both baseband and RF modulated signals using DACs clocked at 1 GHz. A backplane that interconnects several modules allows exchange of (measurement) information between modules and maintains deterministic timing across those modules. We replace the typical line based sequencer used in arbitrary waveform generators by a user programmable processor that treats waveforms and measurements as instructions added to a conventional CPU architecture. This allows for flexible coding of triggering, repetitions, delays and interactions between measurement and signal generation. We acknowledge funding from the Dutch Research Organization (NWO), an ERC Synergy Grant, and European project SCALEQIT.

  5. Shift changes, updates, and the on-call architecture in space shuttle mission control.

    PubMed

    Patterson, E S; Woods, D D

    2001-01-01

    In domains such as nuclear power, industrial process control, and space shuttle mission control, there is increased interest in reducing personnel during nominal operations. An essential element in maintaining safe operations in high risk environments with this 'on-call' organizational architecture is to understand how to bring called-in practitioners up to speed quickly during escalating situations. Targeted field observations were conducted to investigate what it means to update a supervisory controller on the status of a continuous, anomaly-driven process in a complex, distributed environment. Sixteen shift changes, or handovers, at the NASA Johnson Space Center were observed during the STS-76 Space Shuttle mission. The findings from this observational study highlight the importance of prior knowledge in the updates and demonstrate how missing updates can leave flight controllers vulnerable to being unprepared. Implications for mitigating risk in the transition to 'on-call' architectures are discussed.

  6. Shift changes, updates, and the on-call architecture in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, E. S.; Woods, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    In domains such as nuclear power, industrial process control, and space shuttle mission control, there is increased interest in reducing personnel during nominal operations. An essential element in maintaining safe operations in high risk environments with this 'on-call' organizational architecture is to understand how to bring called-in practitioners up to speed quickly during escalating situations. Targeted field observations were conducted to investigate what it means to update a supervisory controller on the status of a continuous, anomaly-driven process in a complex, distributed environment. Sixteen shift changes, or handovers, at the NASA Johnson Space Center were observed during the STS-76 Space Shuttle mission. The findings from this observational study highlight the importance of prior knowledge in the updates and demonstrate how missing updates can leave flight controllers vulnerable to being unprepared. Implications for mitigating risk in the transition to 'on-call' architectures are discussed.

  7. The NIST Real-Time Control System (RCS): A Reference Model Architecture for Computational Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.

    1996-01-01

    The Real-time Control System (RCS) developed at NIST and elsewhere over the past two decades defines a reference model architecture for design and analysis of complex intelligent control systems. The RCS architecture consists of a hierarchically layered set of functional processing modules connected by a network of communication pathways. The primary distinguishing feature of the layers is the bandwidth of the control loops. The characteristic bandwidth of each level is determined by the spatial and temporal integration window of filters, the temporal frequency of signals and events, the spatial frequency of patterns, and the planning horizon and granularity of the planners that operate at each level. At each level, tasks are decomposed into sequential subtasks, to be performed by cooperating sets of subordinate agents. At each level, signals from sensors are filtered and correlated with spatial and temporal features that are relevant to the control function being implemented at that level.

  8. Getting to the roots of it: Genetic and hormonal control of root architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Janelle K. H.; McCouch, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) – the spatial configuration of a root system – is an important developmental and agronomic trait, with implications for overall plant architecture, growth rate and yield, abiotic stress resistance, nutrient uptake, and developmental plasticity in response to environmental changes. Root architecture is modulated by intrinsic, hormone-mediated pathways, intersecting with pathways that perceive and respond to external, environmental signals. The recent development of several non-invasive 2D and 3D root imaging systems has enhanced our ability to accurately observe and quantify architectural traits on complex whole-root systems. Coupled with the powerful marker-based genotyping and sequencing platforms currently available, these root phenotyping technologies lend themselves to large-scale genome-wide association studies, and can speed the identification and characterization of the genes and pathways involved in root system development. This capability provides the foundation for examining the contribution of root architectural traits to the performance of crop varieties in diverse environments. This review focuses on our current understanding of the genes and pathways involved in determining RSA in response to both intrinsic and extrinsic (environmental) response pathways, and provides a brief overview of the latest root system phenotyping technologies and their potential impact on elucidating the genetic control of root development in plants. PMID:23785372

  9. Design and evaluation of a trilateral shared-control architecture for teleoperated training robots.

    PubMed

    Shamaei, Kamran; Kim, Lawrence H; Okamura, Allison M

    2015-08-01

    Multilateral teleoperated robots can be used to train humans to perform complex tasks that require collaborative interaction and expert supervision, such as laparoscopic surgical procedures. In this paper, we explain the design and performance evaluation of a shared-control architecture that can be used in trilateral teleoperated training robots. The architecture includes dominance and observation factors inspired by the determinants of motor learning in humans, including observational practice, focus of attention, feedback and augmented feedback, and self-controlled practice. Toward the validation of such an architecture, we (1) verify the stability of a trilateral system by applying Llewellyn's criterion on a two-port equivalent architecture, and (2) demonstrate that system transparency remains generally invariant across relevant observation factors and movement frequencies. In a preliminary experimental study, a dyad of two human users (one novice, one expert) collaborated on the control of a robot to follow a trajectory. The experiment showed that the framework can be used to modulate the efforts of the users and adjust the source and level of haptic feedback to the novice user.

  10. A Framework for Context Sensitive Risk-Based Access Control in Medical Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Donghee; Kim, Dohoon; Park, Seog

    2015-01-01

    Since the access control environment has changed and the threat of insider information leakage has come to the fore, studies on risk-based access control models that decide access permissions dynamically have been conducted vigorously. Medical information systems should protect sensitive data such as medical information from insider threat and enable dynamic access control depending on the context such as life-threatening emergencies. In this paper, we suggest an approach and framework for context sensitive risk-based access control suitable for medical information systems. This approach categorizes context information, estimating and applying risk through context- and treatment-based permission profiling and specifications by expanding the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) to apply risk. The proposed framework supports quick responses to medical situations and prevents unnecessary insider data access through dynamic access authorization decisions in accordance with the severity of the context and treatment. PMID:26075013

  11. A Framework for Context Sensitive Risk-Based Access Control in Medical Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Donghee; Kim, Dohoon; Park, Seog

    2015-01-01

    Since the access control environment has changed and the threat of insider information leakage has come to the fore, studies on risk-based access control models that decide access permissions dynamically have been conducted vigorously. Medical information systems should protect sensitive data such as medical information from insider threat and enable dynamic access control depending on the context such as life-threatening emergencies. In this paper, we suggest an approach and framework for context sensitive risk-based access control suitable for medical information systems. This approach categorizes context information, estimating and applying risk through context- and treatment-based permission profiling and specifications by expanding the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) to apply risk. The proposed framework supports quick responses to medical situations and prevents unnecessary insider data access through dynamic access authorization decisions in accordance with the severity of the context and treatment. PMID:26075013

  12. Tailorable software architectures in the accelerator control system environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejuev, Igor; Kumagai, Akira; Kadokura, Eiichi

    2001-08-01

    Tailoring is further evolution of an application after deployment in order to adapt it to requirements that were not accounted for in the original design. End-user tailorability has been extensively researched in applied computer science from HCl and software engineering perspectives. Tailorability allows coping with flexibility requirements, decreasing maintenance and development costs of software products. In general, dynamic or diverse software requirements constitute the need for implementing end-user tailorability in computer systems. In accelerator physics research the factor of dynamic requirements is especially important, due to frequent software and hardware modifications resulting in correspondingly high upgrade and maintenance costs. In this work we introduce the results of feasibility study on implementing end-user tailorability in the software for accelerator control system, considering the design and implementation of distributed monitoring application for 12 GeV KEK Proton Synchrotron as an example. The software prototypes used in this work are based on a generic tailoring platform (VEDICI), which allows decoupling of tailoring interfaces and runtime components. While representing a reusable application-independent framework, VEDICI can be potentially applied for tailoring of arbitrary compositional Web-based applications.

  13. Thermal Control System Development to Support the Crew Exploration Vehicle and Lunar Surface Access Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Westheimer, David

    2006-01-01

    All space vehicles or habitats require thermal management to maintain a safe and operational environment for both crew and hardware. Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) perform the functions of acquiring heat from both crew and hardware within a vehicle, transporting that heat throughout the vehicle, and finally rejecting that energy into space. Almost all of the energy used in a space vehicle eventually turns into heat, which must be rejected in order to maintain an energy balance and temperature control of the vehicle. For crewed vehicles, Active Thermal Control Systems are pumped fluid loops that are made up of components designed to perform these functions. NASA has recently evaluated all of the agency s technology development work and identified key areas that must be addressed to aid in the successful development of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and a Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The technologies that have been selected and are currently under development include: fluids that enable single loop ATCS architectures, a gravity insensitive vapor compression cycle heat pump, a sublimator with reduced sensitivity to feedwater contamination, an evaporative heat sink that can operate in multiple ambient pressure environments, a compact spray evaporator, and lightweight radiators that take advantage of carbon composites and advanced optical coatings.

  14. Control architecture for an adaptive electronically steerable flash lidar and associated instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, Lyle; Craner, Jeremy; Harris, Timothy

    2014-09-01

    An Electronically Steerable Flash Lidar (ESFL), developed by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation, allows realtime adaptive control of configuration and data-collection strategy based on recent or concurrent observations and changing situations. This paper reviews, at a high level, some of the algorithms and control architecture built into ESFL. Using ESFL as an example, it also discusses the merits and utility such adaptable instruments in Earth-system studies.

  15. Instrumentation and control building, architectural, floor plans. Specifications no. Eng043535572; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Instrumentation and control building, architectural, floor plans. Specifications no. Eng-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12' sheet 64 of 148; file no. 1321/15. Stamped: record drawing - as constructed. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. Fuzzy Logic Controller Architecture for Water Level Control in Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generator (SG) Using ANFIS Training Method

    SciTech Connect

    Vosoughi, Naser; Naseri, Zahra

    2002-07-01

    Since suitable control of water level can greatly enhance the operation of a power station, a Fuzzy logic controller architecture is applied to show desired control of the water level in a Nuclear steam generator. with regard to the physics of the system, it is shown that two inputs, a single output and the least number of rules (9 rules) are considered for a controller, and the ANFIS training method is employed to model functions in a controlled system. By using ANFIS training method, initial member functions will be trained and appropriate functions are generated to control water level inside the steam generators while using the stated rules. The proposed architecture can construct an input output mapping based on both human knowledge (in from of Fuzzy if then rules) and stipulated input output data. In this paper with a simple test it has been shown that the architecture fuzzy logic controller has a reasonable response to one step input at a constant power. Through computer simulation, it is found that Fuzzy logic controller is suitable, especially for the water level deviation and abrupt steam flow disturbances that are typical in the existing power plant. (authors)

  17. 75 FR 61819 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  18. 77 FR 64838 - Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held November 15,...

  19. 78 FR 16757 - Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 4, 2013 from...

  20. 76 FR 59481 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control...

  1. 77 FR 55894 - Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held September 27-28,...

  2. 77 FR 15448 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Notice of meeting RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held April 5, 2012, from 10...

  3. 76 FR 9632 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  4. 75 FR 80886 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  5. 76 FR 16470 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  6. 78 FR 22025 - Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 9-10,...

  7. 78 FR 43963 - Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 20,...

  8. 77 FR 71474 - Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held December 13,...

  9. 77 FR 2343 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA..., Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 9, 2012, from 10...

  10. Dynamic access control model for privacy preserving personalized healthcare in cloud environment.

    PubMed

    Son, Jiseong; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Na, Hong-Seok; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    When sharing and storing healthcare data in a cloud environment, access control is a central issue for preserving data privacy as a patient's personal health data may be accessed without permission from many stakeholders. Specifically, dynamic authorization for the access of data is required because personal health data is stored in cloud storage via wearable devices. Therefore, we propose a dynamic access control model for preserving the privacy of personal healthcare data in a cloud environment. The proposed model considers context information for dynamic access. According to the proposed model, access control can be dynamically determined by changing the context information; this means that even for a subject with the same role in the cloud, access permission is defined differently depending on the context information and access condition. Furthermore, we experiment the ability of the proposed model to provide correct responses by representing a dynamic access decision with real-life personalized healthcare system scenarios. PMID:26409546

  11. Dynamic access control model for privacy preserving personalized healthcare in cloud environment.

    PubMed

    Son, Jiseong; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Na, Hong-Seok; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    When sharing and storing healthcare data in a cloud environment, access control is a central issue for preserving data privacy as a patient's personal health data may be accessed without permission from many stakeholders. Specifically, dynamic authorization for the access of data is required because personal health data is stored in cloud storage via wearable devices. Therefore, we propose a dynamic access control model for preserving the privacy of personal healthcare data in a cloud environment. The proposed model considers context information for dynamic access. According to the proposed model, access control can be dynamically determined by changing the context information; this means that even for a subject with the same role in the cloud, access permission is defined differently depending on the context information and access condition. Furthermore, we experiment the ability of the proposed model to provide correct responses by representing a dynamic access decision with real-life personalized healthcare system scenarios.

  12. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant, cooperative control of heterogeneous mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  13. CMAC neural network architecture for control of an autonomous undersea vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comoglio, Rick F.; Pandya, Abhijit S.

    1992-09-01

    The design of an autonomous undersea vehicle (AUV) control system is a significant challenge in light of the highly uncertain nature of the ocean environment together with partially known nonlinear vehicle dynamics. This paper describes a neural network architecture called Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer (CMAC). CMAC is used to control a model of an autonomous underwater vehicle. The AUV model consists of two input parameters, the rudder and stern plane deflections, controlling six output parameters; forward velocity, vertical velocity, pitch angle, side velocity, roll angle, and yaw angle. Properties of CMAC and results of computer simulations for identification and control of the AUV model are presented.

  14. Control System Architectures, Technologies and Concepts for Near Term and Future Human Exploration of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, Richard; Overland, David

    2004-01-01

    Technologies that facilitate the design and control of complex, hybrid, and resource-constrained systems are examined. This paper focuses on design methodologies, and system architectures, not on specific control methods that may be applied to life support subsystems. Honeywell and Boeing have estimated that 60-80Y0 of the effort in developing complex control systems is software development, and only 20-40% is control system development. It has also been shown that large software projects have failure rates of as high as 50-65%. Concepts discussed include the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and design patterns with the goal of creating a self-improving, self-documenting system design process. Successful architectures for control must not only facilitate hardware to software integration, but must also reconcile continuously changing software with much less frequently changing hardware. These architectures rely on software modules or components to facilitate change. Architecting such systems for change leverages the interfaces between these modules or components.

  15. Modular control architecture for real-time synchronous and asynchronous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Philip L.; Jones, Judson P.

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes a control architecture for real-time control of complex robotic systems. The modular integrated control architecture (MICA), which is actually two complementary control systems, recognizes and exploits the differences between asynchronous and synchronous control. The asynchronous control system simulates shared memory on a heterogeneous network. For control information, a portable event-scheme is used. This scheme provides consistent interprocess coordination among multiple tasks on a number of distributed systems. The machines in the network can vary with respect to their native operating systems and the internal representation of numbers they use. The synchronous control system is needed for tight real-time control of complex electromechanical systems such as robot manipulators, and the system uses multiple processors at a specified rate. Both the synchronous and asynchronous portions of MICA have been developed to be extremely modular. MICA presents a simple programming model to code developers and also considers the needs of system integrators and maintainers. MICA has been used successfully in a complex robotics project involving a mobile 7-degree-of-freedom manipulator in a heterogeneous network with a body of software totaling over 100,000 lines of code. MICA has also been used in another robotics system, controlling a commercial long-reach manipulator.

  16. Transition in Gas Turbine Control System Architecture: Modular, Distributed, and Embedded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Controls systems are an increasingly important component of turbine-engine system technology. However, as engines become more capable, the control system itself becomes ever more constrained by the inherent environmental conditions of the engine; a relationship forced by the continued reliance on commercial electronics technology. A revolutionary change in the architecture of turbine-engine control systems will change this paradigm and result in fully distributed engine control systems. Initially, the revolution will begin with the physical decoupling of the control law processor from the hostile engine environment using a digital communications network and engine-mounted high temperature electronics requiring little or no thermal control. The vision for the evolution of distributed control capability from this initial implementation to fully distributed and embedded control is described in a roadmap and implementation plan. The development of this plan is the result of discussions with government and industry stakeholders

  17. A Flight Control System Architecture for the NASA AirSTAR Flight Test Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    A flight control system architecture for the NASA AirSTAR infrastructure has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. The AirSTAR flight control system provides a flexible framework that enables NASA Aviation Safety Program research objectives, and includes the ability to rapidly integrate and test research control laws, emulate component or sensor failures, inject automated control surface perturbations, and provide a baseline control law for comparison to research control laws and to increase operational efficiency. The current baseline control law uses an angle of attack command augmentation system for the pitch axis and simple stability augmentation for the roll and yaw axes.

  18. Bureau of Prisons access control system: functional and operational requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janus, Michael; Carlson, Peter M.; Kane, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) operates 86 correctional institutions nationwide. The BOP has grown dramatically, the size of its inmate population growing from just over 41,000 inmates in 1987 to over 100,000 today. The number of BOP staff managing these facilities has grown correspondingly, more than doubling in number in the same ten year period. Technology has paid a major role in keeping up with this growth while maintaining high standards of security in BOP institutions. In an attempt to further enhance security in its institutions, the BOP has recently begun pilot testing an access control and entry system (ACES). ACES is intended to provide an automated record of very entry and exit to a correctional institution. ACES takes advantage of several methods of identifying an individual (inmate, staff or visitor) to assure that the individual exiting the institution is the same as the individual entering. The pilot test has raised a number of questions regarding the implementation of a technologically sophisticated system in a correctional institution. Questions of training, support, 'ownership,' cost effectiveness, and future potential all influence the deployment of this system. Preliminary results indicate that an adequate training and support system is essential to the performance of any sophisticated system and that other organizational issues need to be addressed before the decision to implement is made.

  19. Control of root system architecture by DEEPER ROOTING 1 increases rice yield under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Uga, Yusaku; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Satoshi; Rane, Jagadish; Ishitani, Manabu; Hara, Naho; Kitomi, Yuka; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Ono, Kazuko; Kanno, Noriko; Inoue, Haruhiko; Takehisa, Hinako; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takai, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Kazutoshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    The genetic improvement of drought resistance is essential for stable and adequate crop production in drought-prone areas. Here we demonstrate that alteration of root system architecture improves drought avoidance through the cloning and characterization of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1), a rice quantitative trait locus controlling root growth angle. DRO1 is negatively regulated by auxin and is involved in cell elongation in the root tip that causes asymmetric root growth and downward bending of the root in response to gravity. Higher expression of DRO1 increases the root growth angle, whereby roots grow in a more downward direction. Introducing DRO1 into a shallow-rooting rice cultivar by backcrossing enabled the resulting line to avoid drought by increasing deep rooting, which maintained high yield performance under drought conditions relative to the recipient cultivar. Our experiments suggest that control of root system architecture will contribute to drought avoidance in crops.

  20. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... approved VSP. These additional security measures may include: (1) Increasing the frequency and detail of... operations to deter unauthorized access; (4) Limiting the number of access points to the vessel by...

  1. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... approved VSP. These additional security measures may include: (1) Increasing the frequency and detail of... operations to deter unauthorized access; (4) Limiting the number of access points to the vessel by...

  2. Supervisory control in a distributed, hierarchical architecture for a multimodular LMR

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P.J.; Brittain, C.R.; Rovere, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the directions and present status of the research in supervisory control for multimodular nuclear plants being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of US Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Controls Program. First, the hierarchical supervisory control structure envisioned for a Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) multimodular LMR is discussed. Next, the architecture of the supervisory module closest to the process actuators and its implementation for demonstration in a network of CPU's are presented. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Channel Access in Erlang

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  4. High-speed, automatic controller design considerations for integrating array processor, multi-microprocessor, and host computer system architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, S. A.; Leyland, J. A.; Warmbrodt, W.

    1985-01-01

    Modern control systems must typically perform real-time identification and control, as well as coordinate a host of other activities related to user interaction, online graphics, and file management. This paper discusses five global design considerations which are useful to integrate array processor, multimicroprocessor, and host computer system architectures into versatile, high-speed controllers. Such controllers are capable of very high control throughput, and can maintain constant interaction with the nonreal-time or user environment. As an application example, the architecture of a high-speed, closed-loop controller used to actively control helicopter vibration is briefly discussed. Although this system has been designed for use as the controller for real-time rotorcraft dynamics and control studies in a wind tunnel environment, the controller architecture can generally be applied to a wide range of automatic control applications.

  5. The architecture of the CMS Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System using UML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrans de Abril, Marc; Da Rocha Melo, Jose L.; Ghabrous Larrea, Carlos; Hammer, Josef; Hartl, Christian; Lazaridis, Christos

    2011-12-01

    The architecture of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring software system is presented. This system has been installed and commissioned on the trigger online computers and is currently used for data taking. It has been designed to handle the trigger configuration and monitoring during data taking as well as all communications with the main run control of CMS. Furthermore its design has foreseen the provision of the software infrastructure for detailed testing of the trigger system during beam down time. This is a medium-size distributed system that runs over 40 PCs and 200 processes that control about 4000 electronic boards. The architecture of this system is described using the industry-standard Universal Modeling Language (UML). This way the relationships between the different subcomponents of the system become clear and all software upgrades and modifications are simplified. The described architecture has allowed for frequent upgrades that were necessary during the commissioning phase of CMS when the trigger system evolved constantly. As a secondary objective, the paper provides a UML usage example and tries to encourage the standardization of the software documentation of large projects across the LHC and High Energy Physics community.

  6. Special purpose parallel computer architecture for real-time control and simulation in robotic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Bejczy, Antal K. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This is a real-time robotic controller and simulator which is a MIMD-SIMD parallel architecture for interfacing with an external host computer and providing a high degree of parallelism in computations for robotic control and simulation. It includes a host processor for receiving instructions from the external host computer and for transmitting answers to the external host computer. There are a plurality of SIMD microprocessors, each SIMD processor being a SIMD parallel processor capable of exploiting fine grain parallelism and further being able to operate asynchronously to form a MIMD architecture. Each SIMD processor comprises a SIMD architecture capable of performing two matrix-vector operations in parallel while fully exploiting parallelism in each operation. There is a system bus connecting the host processor to the plurality of SIMD microprocessors and a common clock providing a continuous sequence of clock pulses. There is also a ring structure interconnecting the plurality of SIMD microprocessors and connected to the clock for providing the clock pulses to the SIMD microprocessors and for providing a path for the flow of data and instructions between the SIMD microprocessors. The host processor includes logic for controlling the RRCS by interpreting instructions sent by the external host computer, decomposing the instructions into a series of computations to be performed by the SIMD microprocessors, using the system bus to distribute associated data among the SIMD microprocessors, and initiating activity of the SIMD microprocessors to perform the computations on the data by procedure call.

  7. Genes and QTLs controlling inflorescence and stem branch architecture in Leymus (Poaceae: Triticeae) Wildrye.

    PubMed

    Larson, Steven R; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Jensen, Kevin B

    2013-01-01

    Grass inflorescence and stem branches show recognizable architectural differences among species. The inflorescence branches of Triticeae cereals and grasses, including wheat, barley, and 400-500 wild species, are usually contracted into a spike formation, with the number of flowering branches (spikelets) per node conserved within species and genera. Perennial Triticeae grasses of genus Leymus are unusual in that the number of spikelets per node varies, inflorescences may have panicle branches, and vegetative stems may form subterranean rhizomes. Leymus cinereus and L. triticoides show discrete differences in inflorescence length, branching architecture, node number, and density; number of spikelets per node and florets per spikelet; culm length and width; and perimeter of rhizomatous spreading. Quantitative trait loci controlling these traits were detected in 2 pseudo-backcross populations derived from the interspecific hybrids using a linkage map with 360 expressed gene sequence markers from Leymus tiller and rhizome branch meristems. Alignments of genes, mutations, and quantitative trait loci controlling similar traits in other grass species were identified using the Brachypodium genome reference sequence. Evidence suggests that loci controlling inflorescence and stem branch architecture in Leymus are conserved among the grasses, are governed by natural selection, and can serve as possible gene targets for improving seed, forage, and grain production.

  8. 78 FR 31627 - Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 20,...

  9. 78 FR 7850 - Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 21,...

  10. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  11. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  12. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  13. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  14. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  15. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  16. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  17. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  18. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  19. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  20. 21 CFR 1311.130 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Institutional practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for establishing logical access...) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.130 Requirements for establishing logical access control—Institutional... practitioner that enters permissions for logical access controls into the application. The...

  1. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for establishing logical access... Prescriptions § 1311.125 Requirements for establishing logical access control—Individual practitioner. (a) At... his two-factor authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second...

  2. System architecture of Detector Control and safety for the ATLAS Inner Detector Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrère, D.; Kersten, S.

    2011-04-01

    In the current ATLAS Upgrade plan a new Inner Detector (ID) based upon silicon sensor technology is being considered. The operational monitoring and control of the ID will be very demanding. The Detector Control System (DCS) is a common tool that is essential for the operational safety of a system. Even at this early stage the DCS system architecture has to be defined such that it is well integrated and optimized for its later implementation and use. For example the DCS diagnostics for the front-end (FE) chips is a serious option being considered that needs an early requirement and specification definition. In addition one of the main constraints is the service reuse between the service patch panels of the ATLAS ID and the counting room that limits the number of electrical lines to be reused. Conceptual differences in terms of readout architecture and layout have been identified between the strip and the pixel detector that lead to two distinct architectures. Nevertheless, the limitation of available electrical lines going to the counting room as well as the low material budget requirements inside the ID volume are two major constraints that lead the ID to consider an on-detector radiation hard integrated circuitry for the slow control. At this stage of the project, the definitions of the logical actions and protocol for the ADCs of such a chip are still being specified. In addition the experience gained from the current ID will be essential for the guidance of tuning the future DCS architecture in the coming years.

  3. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria

    PubMed Central

    Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Doust, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail). In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture. PMID:26985990

  4. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    PubMed

    Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Doust, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail). In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture. PMID:26985990

  5. Role-based access control through on-demand classification of electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Basant; Kumar, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) provides convenient method to exchange medical information of patients between different healthcare providers. Access control mechanism in healthcare services characterises authorising users to access EHR records. Role Based Access Control helps to restrict EHRs to users in a certain role. Significant works have been carried out for access control since last one decade but little emphasis has been given to on-demand role based access control. Presented work achieved access control through physical data isolation which is more robust and secure. We propose an algorithm in which selective combination of policies for each user of the EHR database has been defined. We extend well known data mining technique 'classification' to group EHRs with respect to the given role. Algorithm works by taking various roles as class and defined their features as a vector. Here, features are used as a Feature Vector for classification to describe user authority. PMID:26559071

  6. Role-based access control through on-demand classification of electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Basant; Kumar, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) provides convenient method to exchange medical information of patients between different healthcare providers. Access control mechanism in healthcare services characterises authorising users to access EHR records. Role Based Access Control helps to restrict EHRs to users in a certain role. Significant works have been carried out for access control since last one decade but little emphasis has been given to on-demand role based access control. Presented work achieved access control through physical data isolation which is more robust and secure. We propose an algorithm in which selective combination of policies for each user of the EHR database has been defined. We extend well known data mining technique 'classification' to group EHRs with respect to the given role. Algorithm works by taking various roles as class and defined their features as a vector. Here, features are used as a Feature Vector for classification to describe user authority.

  7. Control architecture for human-robot integration: application to a robotic wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Cipriano; Gonzalez, Javier; Fernández-Madrigal, Juan-Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Completely autonomous performance of a mobile robot within noncontrolled and dynamic environments is not possible yet due to different reasons including environment uncertainty, sensor/software robustness, limited robotic abilities, etc. But in assistant applications in which a human is always present, she/he can make up for the lack of robot autonomy by helping it when needed. In this paper, the authors propose human-robot integration as a mechanism to augment/improve the robot autonomy in daily scenarios. Through the human-robot-integration concept, the authors take a further step in the typical human-robot relation, since they consider her/him as a constituent part of the human-robot system, which takes full advantage of the sum of their abilities. In order to materialize this human integration into the system, they present a control architecture, called architecture for human-robot integration, which enables her/him from a high decisional level, i.e., deliberating a plan, to a physical low level, i.e., opening a door. The presented control architecture has been implemented to test the human-robot integration on a real robotic application. In particular, several real experiences have been conducted on a robotic wheelchair aimed to provide mobility to elderly people.

  8. Geometric Control of Capillary Architecture via Cell-Matrix Mechanical Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Jamilpour, Nima; Wang, Fei-Yue; Wong, Pak Kin

    2014-01-01

    Capillary morphogenesis is a multistage, multicellular activity that plays a pivotal role in various developmental and pathological situations. In-depth understanding of the regulatory mechanism along with the capability of controlling the morphogenic process will have direct implications on tissue engineering and therapeutic angiogenesis. Extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the biochemical factors that regulate capillary morphogenesis. The roles of geometric confinement and cell-matrix mechanical interactions on the capillary architecture, nevertheless, remain largely unknown. Here, we show geometric control of endothelial network topology by creating physical confinements with microfabricated fences and wells. Decreasing the thickness of the matrix also results in comparable modulation of the network architecture, supporting the boundary effect is mediated mechanically. The regulatory role of cell-matrix mechanical interaction on the network topology is further supported by alternating the matrix stiffness by a cell-inert PEG-dextran hydrogel. Furthermore, reducing the cell traction force with a Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor diminishes the boundary effect. Computational biomechanical analysis delineates the relationship between geometric confinement and cell-matrix mechanical interaction. Collectively, these results reveal a mechanoregulation scheme of endothelial cells to regulate the capillary network architecture via cell-matrix mechanical interactions. PMID:24439400

  9. Control architecture for human-robot integration: application to a robotic wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Cipriano; Gonzalez, Javier; Fernández-Madrigal, Juan-Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Completely autonomous performance of a mobile robot within noncontrolled and dynamic environments is not possible yet due to different reasons including environment uncertainty, sensor/software robustness, limited robotic abilities, etc. But in assistant applications in which a human is always present, she/he can make up for the lack of robot autonomy by helping it when needed. In this paper, the authors propose human-robot integration as a mechanism to augment/improve the robot autonomy in daily scenarios. Through the human-robot-integration concept, the authors take a further step in the typical human-robot relation, since they consider her/him as a constituent part of the human-robot system, which takes full advantage of the sum of their abilities. In order to materialize this human integration into the system, they present a control architecture, called architecture for human-robot integration, which enables her/him from a high decisional level, i.e., deliberating a plan, to a physical low level, i.e., opening a door. The presented control architecture has been implemented to test the human-robot integration on a real robotic application. In particular, several real experiences have been conducted on a robotic wheelchair aimed to provide mobility to elderly people. PMID:17036812

  10. Performance Analysis of a Three-Channel Control Architecture for Bilateral Teleoperation with Time Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Ryogo; Iiyama, Noriko; Natori, Kenji; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Furukawa, Hirotaka

    Bilateral control is one of the control methods of teleoperation systems. Human operators can feel reaction force from remote environment by means of this control scheme. This paper presents a novel control architecture for bilateral teleoperation with/without time delay. The proposed bilateral control system has three communication channels between master and slave robots. In concrete terms, this system has two transmission channels of position and force information from the master side to the slave side and one transmission channel of force information from the slave side to the master side. The master controller of the proposed three-channel teleoperation system does not include a position controller, i.e. only force control is implemented in the master side, in order to improve operationality in the master side. The three-channel controller with time delay as well as without time delay gives better performance (higher transparency) than other conventional controllers such as four-channel controllers and so on. In the proposed controller, models of a slave robot and communication time delay are not required differently from conventional methods, and robust acceleration control is achieved by using the disturbance observer (DOB). Hybrid matrices are utilized to analyze four-channel and three-channel control systems. Transmission characteristics of force and position information between master and slave robots are clarified in the analysis. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by experimental results.

  11. The NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator control system architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.C.; Butler, P.L.; Glassell, R.L.; Herndon, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goals to increase the utilization of dexterous robotic systems in space, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) system. It is a dexterous, dual-arm, force reflecting teleoperator system with robotic features for NASA ground-based research. This paper describes the overall control system architecture, including both the hardware and software. The control system is a distributed, modular, and hierarchical design with flexible expansion capabilities for future enhancements of both the hardware and software. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  12. A fully genetically encoded protein architecture for optical control of peptide ligand concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Daniel; Tillberg, Paul W.; Chen, Fei; Boyden, Edward S.

    2014-01-01

    Ion channels are among the most important proteins in biology, regulating the activity of excitable cells and changing in diseases. Ideally it would be possible to actuate endogenous ion channels, in a temporally precise and reversible manner, and without requiring chemical cofactors. Here we present a modular protein architecture for fully genetically encoded, light-modulated control of ligands that modulate ion channels of a targeted cell. Our reagent, which we call a lumitoxin, combines a photoswitch and an ion channel-blocking peptide toxin. Illumination causes the photoswitch to unfold, lowering the toxin's local concentration near the cell surface, and enabling the ion channel to function. We explore lumitoxin modularity by showing operation with peptide toxins that target different voltage-dependent K+ channels. The lumitoxin architecture may represent a new kind of modular protein-engineering strategy for designing light-activated proteins, and thus may enable development of novel tools for modulating cellular physiology.

  13. PTEN regulates EG5 to control spindle architecture and chromosome congression during mitosis.

    PubMed

    He, Jinxue; Zhang, Zhong; Ouyang, Meng; Yang, Fan; Hao, Hongbo; Lamb, Kristy L; Yang, Jingyi; Yin, Yuxin; Shen, Wen H

    2016-01-01

    Architectural integrity of the mitotic spindle is required for efficient chromosome congression and accurate chromosome segregation to ensure mitotic fidelity. Tumour suppressor PTEN has multiple functions in maintaining genome stability. Here we report an essential role of PTEN in mitosis through regulation of the mitotic kinesin motor EG5 for proper spindle architecture and chromosome congression. PTEN depletion results in chromosome misalignment in metaphase, often leading to catastrophic mitotic failure. In addition, metaphase cells lacking PTEN exhibit defects of spindle geometry, manifested prominently by shorter spindles. PTEN is associated and co-localized with EG5 during mitosis. PTEN deficiency induces aberrant EG5 phosphorylation and abrogates EG5 recruitment to the mitotic spindle apparatus, leading to spindle disorganization. These data demonstrate the functional interplay between PTEN and EG5 in controlling mitotic spindle structure and chromosome behaviour during mitosis. We propose that PTEN functions to equilibrate mitotic phosphorylation for proper spindle formation and faithful genomic transmission. PMID:27492783

  14. PTEN regulates EG5 to control spindle architecture and chromosome congression during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinxue; Zhang, Zhong; Ouyang, Meng; Yang, Fan; Hao, Hongbo; Lamb, Kristy L.; Yang, Jingyi; Yin, Yuxin; Shen, Wen H.

    2016-01-01

    Architectural integrity of the mitotic spindle is required for efficient chromosome congression and accurate chromosome segregation to ensure mitotic fidelity. Tumour suppressor PTEN has multiple functions in maintaining genome stability. Here we report an essential role of PTEN in mitosis through regulation of the mitotic kinesin motor EG5 for proper spindle architecture and chromosome congression. PTEN depletion results in chromosome misalignment in metaphase, often leading to catastrophic mitotic failure. In addition, metaphase cells lacking PTEN exhibit defects of spindle geometry, manifested prominently by shorter spindles. PTEN is associated and co-localized with EG5 during mitosis. PTEN deficiency induces aberrant EG5 phosphorylation and abrogates EG5 recruitment to the mitotic spindle apparatus, leading to spindle disorganization. These data demonstrate the functional interplay between PTEN and EG5 in controlling mitotic spindle structure and chromosome behaviour during mitosis. We propose that PTEN functions to equilibrate mitotic phosphorylation for proper spindle formation and faithful genomic transmission. PMID:27492783

  15. PTEN regulates EG5 to control spindle architecture and chromosome congression during mitosis.

    PubMed

    He, Jinxue; Zhang, Zhong; Ouyang, Meng; Yang, Fan; Hao, Hongbo; Lamb, Kristy L; Yang, Jingyi; Yin, Yuxin; Shen, Wen H

    2016-08-05

    Architectural integrity of the mitotic spindle is required for efficient chromosome congression and accurate chromosome segregation to ensure mitotic fidelity. Tumour suppressor PTEN has multiple functions in maintaining genome stability. Here we report an essential role of PTEN in mitosis through regulation of the mitotic kinesin motor EG5 for proper spindle architecture and chromosome congression. PTEN depletion results in chromosome misalignment in metaphase, often leading to catastrophic mitotic failure. In addition, metaphase cells lacking PTEN exhibit defects of spindle geometry, manifested prominently by shorter spindles. PTEN is associated and co-localized with EG5 during mitosis. PTEN deficiency induces aberrant EG5 phosphorylation and abrogates EG5 recruitment to the mitotic spindle apparatus, leading to spindle disorganization. These data demonstrate the functional interplay between PTEN and EG5 in controlling mitotic spindle structure and chromosome behaviour during mitosis. We propose that PTEN functions to equilibrate mitotic phosphorylation for proper spindle formation and faithful genomic transmission.

  16. Boeing Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support System Architecture Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiidi, Mo; Lewis, John F.

    2007-01-01

    The Boeing Company under the teaming agreement with the Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation and in compliance with the NASA Phase 1 contract, had the responsibilities for the CEV architecture development of the Environmental control and life support (ECLS) system under the NASA Phase 1 contract. The ECLS system was comprised of the various subsystems which provided for a shirt-sleeve habitable environment for crew to live and work in the crew module of the CEV. This architecture met the NASA requirements to ferry cargo and crew to ISS, and Lunar sortie missions, with extensibility to long duration missions to Moon and MARS. This paper provides a summary overview of the CEV ECLS subsystems which was proposed in compliance with the contract activities.

  17. An architectural approach to create self organizing control systems for practical autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, Helen

    1991-01-01

    For practical industrial applications, the development of trainable robots is an important and immediate objective. Therefore, the developing of flexible intelligence directly applicable to training is emphasized. It is generally agreed upon by the AI community that the fusion of expert systems, neural networks, and conventionally programmed modules (e.g., a trajectory generator) is promising in the quest for autonomous robotic intelligence. Autonomous robot development is hindered by integration and architectural problems. Some obstacles towards the construction of more general robot control systems are as follows: (1) Growth problem; (2) Software generation; (3) Interaction with environment; (4) Reliability; and (5) Resource limitation. Neural networks can be successfully applied to some of these problems. However, current implementations of neural networks are hampered by the resource limitation problem and must be trained extensively to produce computationally accurate output. A generalization of conventional neural nets is proposed, and an architecture is offered in an attempt to address the above problems.

  18. A Retro-Fit Control Architecture to Maintain Engine Performance With Usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane; Garg, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    An outer loop retrofit engine control architecture is presented which modifies fan speed command to obtain a desired thrust based on throttle position. This maintains the throttle-to-thrust relationship in the presence of engine degradation, which has the effect of changing the engine s thrust output for a given fan speed. Such an approach can minimize thrust asymmetry in multi-engine aircraft, and reduce pilot workload. The outer loop control is demonstrated under various levels of engine deterioration using a standard deterioration profile as well as an atypical profile. It is evaluated across various transients covering a wide operating range. The modified fan speed command still utilizes the standard engine control logic so all original life and operability limits remain in place. In all cases it is shown that with the outer loop thrust control in place, the deteriorated engine is able to match the thrust performance of a new engine up to the limits the controller will allow.

  19. "Fly-by-Wireless": A Revolution in Aerospace Vehicle Architecture for Instrumentation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George

    2007-01-01

    Aerospace vehicle programs have always counted on the cables and connectors to provide power, grounding, data and time synchronization throughout a vehicle's life-cycle. Even with numerous improvements, wiring and connector problems and sensors continue to be key failure points, causing many hours of troubleshooting and replacement. Costly flight delays have been precipitated by the need to troubleshoot cables/connections, and/or repair a sensor. Wiring continues to be too expensive to remove once it is installed, even with the weight penalties. Miles of test instrumentation and low flight sensor wires still plague the aerospace industry. New technology options for data connectivity, processing and micro/nano manufacturing are making it possible to retrofit existing vehicles, like the Space Shuttle. New vehicles can now develop architectures that provide for and take advantage of alternatives to wired connectivity. This project motivates the aerospace industry and technology providers to establish: (1) A new emphasis for system engineering approaches to reduce cables and connectors. (2) Provisions for modularity and accessibility in the vehicle architecture. (3) A set of technologies that support alternatives to wired connectivity.

  20. A Quality of Context-Aware Approach to Access Control in Pervasive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toninelli, Alessandra; Corradi, Antonio; Montanari, Rebecca

    The widespread diffusion of wireless-enabled portable devices creates novel opportunities for users to share resources anywhere and anytime, but makes access control a crucial issue. User/device mobility and heterogeneity, together with network topology and conditions variability, complicate access control and call for novel solutions to dynamically adapt access decisions to the different operating conditions. Several research efforts have emerged in recent years that propose to exploit context-awareness to control access to resources based on context visibility and changes. Context-based access control requires, however, to take into account the quality of context information used to drive access decisions (QoC). Quality of context has in fact a profound impact on the correct behavior of any context-aware access control framework. Using context information with insufficient quality might increase the risk of incorrect access control decisions, thus leading to dangerous security breaches in resource sharing. In this paper we propose a QoC-aware approach to access control for anywhere, anytime resource sharing. The paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of the Proteus policy framework, which combines two design guidelines to enable dynamic adaptation of policies depending on context changes: context-awareness with QoC guarantees and semantic technologies to allow high-level description of context/policy specification and reasoning about context/policies.

  1. The Architecture of Access: A Grounded Theory on the Nature of Access to Early Childhood Services within a Children's Centre, Derived from Nine Parent Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Kate; Fletcher, Colin; Whalley, Margy; McKinnon, Eddie; Gallagher, Tracy; Prodger, Angela; Donoyou, Heather; Potts, Judy; Young, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    This was a collaborative action research study by lead staff, researchers and parents at the Pen Green Centre for Children and their Families in England. The study focuses on the factors enabling access to children's services by nine parents from challenging family contexts. The critical questions were: What enabled some parents to overcome…

  2. 76 FR 50811 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control...

  3. 78 FR 51810 - Twenty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control... RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224,...

  4. 77 FR 25525 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security... (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held May 30, 2012, from...

  5. A new bio-inspired perceptual control architecture applied to solving navigation tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, P.; De Fiore, S.; Patané, L.; Vitanza, A.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper a new general purpose perceptual control architecture is presented and applied to robot navigation in cluttered environments. In nature, insects show the ability to react to certain stimuli with simple reflexes using direct sensory-motor pathways, which can be considered as basic behaviors, while high brain regions provide secondary pathway allowing the emergence of a cognitive behavior which modulates the basic abilities. Taking inspiration from this evidence, our architecture modulates, through a reinforcement learning, a set of competitive and concurrent basic behaviors in order to accomplish the task assigned through a reward function. The core of the architecture is constituted by the Representation layer, where different stimuli, triggering competitive reflexes, are fused to form a unique abstract picture of the environment. The representation is formalized by means of Reaction-Diffusion nonlinear partial differential equations, under the paradigm of the Cellular Neural Networks, whose dynamics converges to steady-state Turing patterns. A suitable unsupervised learning, introduced at the afferent (input) stage, leads to the shaping of the basins of attractions of the Turing patterns in order to incrementally drive the association between sensor stimuli and patterns. In this way, at the end of the leaning stage, each pattern is characteristic of a particular behavior modulation, while its trained basin of attraction contains the set of all the environment conditions, as recorded through the sensors, leading to the emergence of that particular behavior modulation. Robot simulations are reported to demonstrate the potentiality and the effectiveness of the approach.

  6. Multiplexing electro-optic architectures for advanced aircraft integrated flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the results of a 10 month program sponsored by NASA. The objective of this program was to evaluate various optical sensor modulation technologies and to design an optimal Electro-Optic Architecture (EOA) for servicing remote clusters of sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft flight control systems. The EOA's supply optical power to remote sensors and actuators, process the modulated optical signals returned from the sensors, and produce conditioned electrical signals acceptable for use by a digital flight control computer or Vehicle Management System (VMS) computer. This study was part of a multi-year initiative under the Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program to design, develop, and test a totally integrated fiber optic flight/propulsion control system for application to advanced aircraft. Unlike earlier FOCSI studies, this program concentrated on the design of the EOA interface rather than the optical transducer technology itself.

  7. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... unescorted access to secure areas for a period of no longer than 7 consecutive calendar days if: (i) The... paragraph (d) of this section. (5) Deny or revoke a person's authorization to be on the facility if...

  8. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... unescorted access to secure areas for a period of no longer than 7 consecutive calendar days if: (i) The... paragraph (d) of this section. (5) Deny or revoke a person's authorization to be on the facility if...

  9. A dynamic access control method based on QoS requirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunquan; Wang, Yanwei; Yang, Baoye; Hu, Chunyang

    2013-03-01

    A dynamic access control method is put forward to ensure the security of the sharing service in Cloud Manufacturing, according to the application characteristics of cloud manufacturing collaborative task. The role-based access control (RBAC) model is extended according to the characteristics of cloud manufacturing in this method. The constraints are considered, which are from QoS requirement of the task context to access control, based on the traditional static authorization. The fuzzy policy rules are established about the weighted interval value of permissions. The access control authorities of executable service by users are dynamically adjusted through the fuzzy reasoning based on the QoS requirement of task. The main elements of the model are described. The fuzzy reasoning algorithm of weighted interval value based QoS requirement is studied. An effective method is provided to resolve the access control of cloud manufacturing.

  10. An Autonomous Sensor System Architecture for Active Flow and Noise Control Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, William M, Jr.; Culliton, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-channel sensor fusion represents a powerful technique to simply and efficiently extract information from complex phenomena. While the technique has traditionally been used for military target tracking and situational awareness, a study has been successfully completed that demonstrates that sensor fusion can be applied equally well to aerodynamic applications. A prototype autonomous hardware processor was successfully designed and used to detect in real-time the two-dimensional flow reattachment location generated by a simple separated-flow wind tunnel model. The success of this demonstration illustrates the feasibility of using autonomous sensor processing architectures to enhance flow control feedback signal generation.

  11. Selecting Computer Architectures by Means of Control-Flow-Graph Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichinger, Frank; Böhm, Klemens

    Deciding which computer architecture provides the best performance for a certain program is an important problem in hardware design and benchmarking. While previous approaches require expensive simulations or program executions, we propose an approach which solely relies on program analysis. We correlate substructures of the control-flow graphs representing the individual functions with the runtime on certain systems. This leads to a prediction framework based on graph mining, classification and classifier fusion. In our evaluation with the SPEC CPU 2000 and 2006 benchmarks, we predict the faster system out of two with high accuracy and achieve significant speedups in execution time.

  12. An open architecture for hybrid force-visual servo control of robotic manipulators in unstructured environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Iraj; Janabi-Sharifi, Farrokh

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, a new open architecture for visual servo control tasks is illustrated. A Puma-560 robotic manipulator is used to prove the concept. This design enables doing hybrid forcehisual servo control in an unstructured environment in different modes. Also, it can be controlled through Internet in teleoperation mode using a haptic device. Our proposed structure includes two major parts, hardware and software. In terms of hardware, it consists of a master (host) computer, a slave (target) computer, a Puma 560 manipulator, a CCD camera, a force sensor and a haptic device. There are five DAQ cards, interfacing Puma 560 and a slave computer. An open architecture package is developed using Matlab (R), Simulink (R) and XPC target toolbox. This package has the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) property, i.e., enables one to readily implement different configurations of force, visual or hybrid control in real time. The implementation includes the following stages. First of all, retrofitting of puma was carried out. Then a modular joint controller for Puma 560 was realized using Simulink (R). Force sensor driver and force control implementation were written, using sjknction blocks of Simulink (R). Visual images were captured through Image Acquisition Toolbox of Matlab (R), and processed using Image Processing Toolbox. A haptic device interface was also written in Simulink (R). Thus, this setup could be readily reconfigured and accommodate any other robotic manipulator and/or other sensors without the trouble of the external issues relevant to the control, interface and software, while providing flexibility in components modification.

  13. A Hierarchical Control Architecture for a PEBB-Based ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Macken, K.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Nguyen, M.N.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-12-15

    The idea of building power conversion systems around Power Electronic Building Blocks (PEBBs) was initiated by the U.S. Office of Naval Research in the mid 1990s. A PEBB-based design approach is advantageous in terms of power density, modularity, reliability, and serviceability. It is obvious that this approach has much appeal for pulsed power conversion including the International Linear Collider (ILC) klystron modulator application. A hierarchical control architecture has the inherent capability to support the integration of PEBBs. This has already been successfully demonstrated in a number of industrial applications in the recent past. This paper outlines the underlying concepts of a hierarchical control architecture for a PEBB-based Marx-topology ILC klystron modulator. The control in PEBB-based power conversion systems can be functionally partitioned into (three) hierarchical layers; system layer, application layer, and PEBB layer. This has been adopted here. Based on such a hierarchical partition, the interfaces are clearly identified and defined and, consequently, are easily characterised. A conceptual design of the hardware manager, executing low-level hardware oriented tasks, is detailed. In addition, the idea of prognostics is briefly discussed.

  14. Application of the Actor-Critic Architecture to Functional Electrical Stimulation Control of a Human Arm.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philip; Branicky, Michael; van den Bogert, Antonie; Jagodnik, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Clinical tests have shown that the dynamics of a human arm, controlled using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), can vary significantly between and during trials. In this paper, we study the application of the actor-critic architecture, with neural networks for the both the actor and the critic, as a controller that can adapt to these changing dynamics of a human arm. Development and tests were done in simulation using a planar arm model and Hill-based muscle dynamics. We begin by training it using a Proportional Derivative (PD) controller as a supervisor. We then make clinically relevant changes to the dynamics of the arm and test the actor-critic's ability to adapt without supervision in a reasonable number of episodes. Finally, we devise methods for achieving both rapid learning and long-term stability. PMID:20689654

  15. Distributed event-triggered cooperative attitude control of multiple rigid bodies with leader-follower architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Shengxuan; Yue, Dong

    2016-02-01

    In this note, the distributed event-triggered cooperative attitude control of multiple rigid bodies with leader-follower architecture is investigated, where both the cases of static and dynamic leaders are all considered. Two distributed triggering procedures are first introduced for the followers and leaders, and then the distributed cooperative controllers are designed under the proposed triggering schemes. Under the designed controllers with the event-triggered strategies, it is shown that the orientations of followers converge to the convex hull formed by the desired leaders' orientations with zero angular velocities. Moreover, the communication pressure in network is reduced and the energy of each agent is saved. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Enhanced Engine Performance During Emergency Operation Using a Model-Based Engine Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and application of model-based engine control (MBEC) for use during emergency operation of the aircraft. The MBEC methodology is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (CMAPSS40k) and features an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to estimate unmeasured engine parameters, which can then be used for control. During an emergency scenario, normally-conservative engine operating limits may be relaxed to increase the performance of the engine and overall survivability of the aircraft; this comes at the cost of additional risk of an engine failure. The MBEC architecture offers the advantage of estimating key engine parameters that are not directly measureable. Estimating the unknown parameters allows for tighter control over these parameters, and on the level of risk the engine will operate at. This will allow the engine to achieve better performance than possible when operating to more conservative limits on a related, measurable parameter.

  17. Enhanced Engine Performance During Emergency Operation Using a Model-Based Engine Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and application of model-based engine control (MBEC) for use during emergency operation of the aircraft. The MBEC methodology is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (CMAPSS40,000) and features an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to estimate unmeasured engine parameters, which can then be used for control. During an emergency scenario, normally-conservative engine operating limits may be relaxed to increase the performance of the engine and overall survivability of the aircraft; this comes at the cost of additional risk of an engine failure. The MBEC architecture offers the advantage of estimating key engine parameters that are not directly measureable. Estimating the unknown parameters allows for tighter control over these parameters, and on the level of risk the engine will operate at. This will allow the engine to achieve better performance than possible when operating to more conservative limits on a related, measurable parameter.

  18. Gravity response mechanisms of lateral organs and the control of plant architecture in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, J.; Hangarter, R.

    Most research on gravity responses in plants has focused on primary roots and shoots, which typically grow in a vertical orientation. However, the patterns of lateral organ formation and their growth orientation, which typically are not vertical, govern plant architecture. For example, in Arabidopsis, when lateral roots emerge from the primary root, they grow at a nearly horizontal orientation. As they elongate, the roots slowly curve until they eventually reach a vertical orientation. The regulation of this lateral root orientation is an important component affecting the overall root system architecture. We have found that this change in orientation is not simply due to the onset of gravitropic competence, as non-vertical lateral roots are capable of both positive and negative gravitropism. Thus, the horizontal growth of the new lateral roots is determined by what is called the gravitropic set-point angle (GSA). In Arabidopsis shoots, rosette leaves and inflorescence branches also display GSA-dependent developmental changes in their orientation. The developmental control of the GSA of lateral organs in Arabidopsis provides us with a useful system for investigating the components involved in regulating directionality of tropistic responses. We have identified several Arabidopsis mutants that have either altered lateral root orientations, altered orientation of lateral organs in the shoot, or both, but maintain normal primary organ orientation. The mgsa ({m}odified {g}ravitropic {s}et-point {a}ngle) mutants with both altered lateral root and shoot orientation show that there are common components in the regulation of growth orientation in the different organs. Rosette leaves and lateral roots also have in common a regulation of positioning by red light. Further molecular and physiological analyses of the GSA mutants will provide insight into the basis of GSA regulation and, thus, a better understanding of how gravity controls plant architecture. [This work was

  19. Cross-regulation between Aurora B and Citron kinase controls midbody architecture in cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Callum; Bassi, Zuni I.; Debski, Janusz; Gottardo, Marco; Callaini, Giuliano; Dadlez, Michal; D'Avino, Pier Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis culminates in the final separation, or abscission, of the two daughter cells at the end of cell division. Abscission relies on an organelle, the midbody, which forms at the intercellular bridge and is composed of various proteins arranged in a precise stereotypic pattern. The molecular mechanisms controlling midbody organization and function, however, are obscure. Here we show that proper midbody architecture requires cross-regulation between two cell division kinases, Citron kinase (CIT-K) and Aurora B, the kinase component of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC). CIT-K interacts directly with three CPC components and is required for proper midbody architecture and the orderly arrangement of midbody proteins, including the CPC. In addition, we show that CIT-K promotes Aurora B activity through phosphorylation of the INCENP CPC subunit at the TSS motif. In turn, Aurora B controls CIT-K localization and association with its central spindle partners through phosphorylation of CIT-K's coiled coil domain. Our results identify, for the first time, a cross-regulatory mechanism between two kinases during cytokinesis, which is crucial for establishing the stereotyped organization of midbody proteins. PMID:27009191

  20. On-orbit dynamics and controls system architecture for SIM Lite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Salazar, Oscar S.

    2010-07-01

    The dynamic stability of white light fringes formed on the guide and science interferometers in SIM-Lite along with the pointing stability of each arm of each interferometer affect the visibility of fringes and the length of the fringe camera integration time for the observatory. Hence, tight fringe and pointing stability requirements are needed to reduce science interferometer camera integration times, which in turn help increase the all important instrument's observing efficiency. The SIM-Lite Instrument Dynamics and Controls (D&C) System Architecture deals with such dynamic issues through a "tailored" system dynamics design complemented by a comprehensive active control system. The SIM-Lite on-orbit System architecture is described in this paper. Key roles played by the resulting D&C System are also established, while the system design is clearly linked to the four nominal phases of on-orbit operations for the observatory (Tile to Tile slew & settling, guide star acquisition, science observation, & science interferometer retargeting). Top driving requirements dictating system interferometric-baseline stability and repeatability, instrument pointing stability, and fringe stability are discussed here together with the resulting high level Error Budget. Key system sensitivities and currently known D&C related design challenges are also discussed.

  1. Gradient Architecture as Means of Phase Diagram Manipulation in Copolymers: Accessing Both LCOT and UCOT in High Molecular Weight Styrene/n-Butyl Acrylate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Michelle; Burghardt, Wesley; Ellison, Christopher; Torkelson, John

    2009-03-01

    Traditionally, phase transitions of block copolymers could only be tuned through molecular weight and relative block length. Here, we introduce comonomer sequence design through gradient compositions as a means of further manipulating phase diagram boundaries. In such gradient copolymers, the reduced repulsion between chain segments allows access to phase transitions even at high molecular weights (MW). Rheological and x-ray scattering studies were performed to study the impact of comonomer sequence on phase behavior in styrene/n-butyl acrylate (S/nBA) systems. In S/nBA block copolymers, only upper critical ordering behavior was observed. In contrast, by using a gradient architecture of higher MW we observed both upper and lower ordering transitions similar to those seen in very weakly segregating S/n-butyl methacrylate block copolymers, where such dual ordering transitions were first detected by Russell et al. This is the first study to access a miscibility gap in gradient copolymers. Access to such behavior is very rare in blends and block copolymers, limited to low MW and/or very weakly segregating systems.

  2. Fertility Effects of Abortion and Birth Control Pill Access for Minors

    PubMed Central

    GULDI, MELANIE

    2008-01-01

    This article empirically assesses whether age-restricted access to abortion and the birth control pill influence minors’ fertility in the United States. There is not a strong consensus in previous literature regarding the relationship between laws restricting minors’ access to abortion and minors’ birthrates. This is the first study to recognize that state laws in place prior to the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision enabled minors to legally consent to surgical treatment—including abortion—in some states but not in others, and to construct abortion access variables reflecting this. In this article, age-specific policy variables measure either a minor’s legal ability to obtain an abortion or to obtain the birth control pill without parental involvement. I find fairly strong evidence that young women’s birthrates dropped as a result of abortion access as well as evidence that birth control pill access led to a drop in birthrates among whites. PMID:19110899

  3. Hierarchical tailoring of strut architecture to control permeability of additive manufactured titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Jones, D; Yue, S; Lee, P D; Jones, J R; Sutcliffe, C J; Jones, E

    2013-10-01

    Porous titanium implants are a common choice for bone augmentation. Implants for spinal fusion and repair of non-union fractures must encourage blood flow after implantation so that there is sufficient cell migration, nutrient and growth factor transport to stimulate bone ingrowth. Additive manufacturing techniques allow a large number of pore network designs. This study investigates how the design factors offered by selective laser melting technique can be used to alter the implant architecture on multiple length scales to control and even tailor the flow. Permeability is a convenient parameter that characterises flow, correlating to structure openness (interconnectivity and pore window size), tortuosity and hence flow shear rates. Using experimentally validated computational simulations, we demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to tailor implant properties by controlling surface roughness at a microstructual level (microns), and by altering the strut ordering and density at a mesoscopic level (millimetre). PMID:23910314

  4. 75 FR 71790 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  5. 76 FR 38742 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  6. 76 FR 3931 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 Meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  7. Controls on the architecture of the Himalayan thrust belt, NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. M.; Paul, S. K.; Chambers, J. A.; Kohn, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen, the syntaxes at the eastern and western terminations of the orogen connect a 2400 km long thrust belt. If the two syntaxes are locked, the behavior of the thrust belt may be different in the syntaxes than in the central part of the thrust belt. In fact, recent work in the central part of the Himalayan thrust belt reveals shortening estimates of ~700-900 km while closer to the syntaxes, the amount of shortening may be nearly half that (~470 km). Thus, there should be an identifiable region where the character of the thrust belt changes from that of the syntaxes to that of the central part of the thrust belt. In the Himachal Pradesh region of NW India, a transition exists in the architecture of the thrust belt. North of the Kanga reentrant, the high mountains are close to the frontal part of the thrust belt; yet, near the Beas River, ~90 km to the east, and further east still in the Sutlej and Yamuna valleys, the high mountains of the thrust belt are located far into the hinterland. The presence or absence of the Greater Himalayan rocks at the surface appears to control this pattern: when Greater Himalayan rocks are absent at the surface, as near the town of Dharamsala, the thrust belt is very narrow (<20 km) and the high mountains are located near the front of the thrust belt; however, when Greater Himalayan rocks are present, as they are further eastward, the thrust belt is wider (>150 km) and the high mountains are located in the hinterland. The presence/absence of Greater Himalayan rocks at the surface also appears to control where focused erosion is presently occurring and, subsequently, the erosional exposure of Lesser Himalayan rocks. Three models reveal the possible kinematic roles of the Greater Himalayan rocks and its subsequent control of the architecture of the thrust belt: 1) the fault that carries Greater Himalayan rocks may tip out at depth; 2) slip on that fault may continue to the surface; 3) the fault tips out and

  8. Control system architecture of AMICA: a robotic instrument in an extreme environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Rico, Gianluca; Ragni, Maurizio; Corcione, Leonardo; Giro, Enrico; Fantinel, Daniela

    2006-06-01

    AMICA is a camera conceived to automatically acquire infrared astronomical images in the extreme environment of Dome C (T ~ -70 °C, p ~ 640 mbar). For this reason, hardware and software are specially designed. They must guarantee the correct execution of observing procedures, while performing a continuous monitoring of the environmental conditions, the instrument status and the observing parameters, and a real-time adjustment of them when required. All temperature-sensitive components will be placed in a thermally controlled rack. The environmental control inside it is assigned to a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). It is responsible, in particular, for the overall system start-up. Instrument status, mainly concerning vacuum level and temperatures inside the cryostat, is directly monitored by the local cPC, which sends instructions to the PLC in case of failure, in order to start appropriate restoring procedures. All hardware components are conceived to be easily and fast replaceable. Main tasks of the AMICA Control Software (ACS) are: telescope interaction, observation management, environment control, events handling, data storing. Because of the high frame rate, typical of infrared imaging, the acquisition system has been interfaced with an independent application (STS), to perform read-out electronics control, fast data processing (co-adding from chopping raw frames), parameters checking (such as exposure time, chopping frequency, etc.), and data output. The software design has a multithreading architecture, based on the Object Oriented approach and developed for Windows OS platforms.

  9. The Smart Card concept applied to access control

    SciTech Connect

    Seidman, S.

    1986-01-01

    Passwords tend to be handled carelessly, and so are easily lost or stolen. Because they are intangible, their loss or theft generally goes unnoticed. Because they are constant, they may be used by anyone for as long as they remain in active use by a legitimate user. A step up in password security is offered by a new range of products which generate a new code each time the device is used. Devices are being produced in packages as small as a standard plastic credit card, including internal battery power, integral keyboard and LCD display. Security features of the Smart Card are reviewed, and several random access code generators currently available in the commercial marketplace are described.

  10. Architectural study of the design and operation of advanced force feedback manual controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesar, Delbert; Kim, Whee-Kuk

    1990-01-01

    A teleoperator system consists of a manual controller, control hardware/software, and a remote manipulator. It was employed in either hazardous or unstructured, and/or remote environments. In teleoperation, the main-in-the-loop is the central concept that brings human intelligence to the teleoperator system. When teleoperation involves contact with an uncertain environment, providing the feeling of telepresence to the human operator is one of desired characteristics of the teleoperator system. Unfortunately, most available manual controllers in bilateral or force-reflecting teleoperator systems can be characterized by their bulky size, high costs, or lack of smoothness and transparency, and elementary architectures. To investigate other alternatives, a force-reflecting, 3 degree of freedom (dof) spherical manual controller is designed, analyzed, and implemented as a test bed demonstration in this research effort. To achieve an improved level of design to meet criteria such as compactness, portability, and a somewhat enhanced force-reflecting capability, the demonstration manual controller employs high gear-ratio reducers. To reduce the effects of the inertia and friction on the system, various force control strategies are applied and their performance investigated. The spherical manual controller uses a parallel geometry to minimize inertial and gravitational effects on its primary task of transparent information transfer. As an alternative to the spherical 3-dof manual controller, a new conceptual (or parallel) spherical 3-dof module is introduced with a full kinematic analysis. Also, the resulting kinematic properties are compared to those of other typical spherical 3-dof systems. The conceptual design of a parallel 6-dof manual controller and its kinematic analysis is presented. This 6-dof manual controller is similar to the Stewart Platform with the actuators located on the base to minimize the dynamic effects. Finally, a combination of the new 3-dof and 6-dof

  11. RACE/A: An Architectural Account of the Interactions between Learning, Task Control, and Retrieval Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Maanen, Leendert; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how sequential sampling models can be integrated in a cognitive architecture. The new theory Retrieval by Accumulating Evidence in an Architecture (RACE/A) combines the level of detail typically provided by sequential sampling models with the level of task complexity typically provided by cognitive architectures. We will use…

  12. A traffic-depended multi-buffer node architecture and an effective access technique under symmetric and asymmetric IP traffic scenarios for unslotted ring WDM MANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baziana, Peristera A.

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to put forward an extensive discussion about the increasing demand for available bandwidth to serve the multiple types of traffic in modern wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) metropolitan area networks (MANs). A traffic-depended multi-buffer node architecture in conjunction with an efficient asynchronous transmission WDM access (WDMA) protocol to serve the variable size Internet packets in ring MANs is proposed. The structure of the multi-buffer node architecture is determined by the probability distribution of each packet size category in the MAN traffic, providing storage and dropping events equity among the nodes. The adopted WDMA algorithm satisfies the requirement for high performance efficiency especially under high offered load, by taking care to optimally face the bandwidth fragmentation problem and to maximize the bandwidth exploitation, while it effectively avoids both the packets collisions over the wavelengths and the destination conflicts. Numerical results prove that the proposed network model achieves throughput improvement up to 334% as compared with the relative study of Pranggono and Elmirghani (2011). An analytical framework is developed for the protocol throughput predictions under both symmetric and asymmetric IP traffic scenarios. Also, the proposed protocol performance is thoroughly investigated through simulation results based on Poisson and self-similar traffic model statistics, for both traffic scenarios.

  13. Controlling the contractile strength of engineered cardiac muscle by hierarchal tissue architecture

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Adam W.; Alford, Patrick W.; Jin, Hongwei; Ripplinger, Crystal M.; Werdich, Andreas A.; Sheehy, Sean P.; Grosberg, Anna; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2014-01-01

    The heart is a muscular organ with a wrapping, laminar structure embedded with neural and vascular networks, collagen fibrils, fibroblasts, and cardiac myocytes that facilitate contraction. We hypothesized that these non-muscle components may have functional benefit, serving as important structural alignment cues in inter- and intra-cellular organization of cardiac myocytes. Previous studies have demonstrated that alignment of engineered myocardium enhances calcium handling, but how this impacts actual force generation remains unclear. Quantitative assays are needed to determine the effect of alignment on contractile function and muscle physiology. To test this, micropatterned surfaces were used to build 2-dimensional myocardium from neonatal rat ventricular myocytes with distinct architectures: confluent isotropic (serving as the unaligned control), confluent anisotropic, and 20 μm spaced, parallel arrays of multicellular myocardial fibers. We combined image analysis of sarcomere orientation with muscular thin film contractile force assays in order to calculate the peak sarcomere-generated stress as a function of tissue architecture. Here we report that increasing peak systolic stress in engineered cardiac tissues corresponds with increasing sarcomere alignment. This change is larger than would be anticipated from enhanced calcium handling and increased uniaxial alignment alone. These results suggest that boundary conditions (heterogeneities) encoded in the extracellular space can regulate muscle tissue function, and that structural organization and cytoskeletal alignment are critically important for maximizing peak force generation. PMID:22594976

  14. Controlling the contractile strength of engineered cardiac muscle by hierarchal tissue architecture.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Adam W; Alford, Patrick W; Jin, Hongwei; Ripplinger, Crystal M; Werdich, Andreas A; Sheehy, Sean P; Grosberg, Anna; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2012-08-01

    The heart is a muscular organ with a wrapping, laminar structure embedded with neural and vascular networks, collagen fibrils, fibroblasts, and cardiac myocytes that facilitate contraction. We hypothesized that these non-muscle components may have functional benefit, serving as important structural alignment cues in inter- and intra-cellular organization of cardiac myocytes. Previous studies have demonstrated that alignment of engineered myocardium enhances calcium handling, but how this impacts actual force generation remains unclear. Quantitative assays are needed to determine the effect of alignment on contractile function and muscle physiology. To test this, micropatterned surfaces were used to build 2-dimensional myocardium from neonatal rat ventricular myocytes with distinct architectures: confluent isotropic (serving as the unaligned control), confluent anisotropic, and 20 μm spaced, parallel arrays of multicellular myocardial fibers. We combined image analysis of sarcomere orientation with muscular thin film contractile force assays in order to calculate the peak sarcomere-generated stress as a function of tissue architecture. Here we report that increasing peak systolic stress in engineered cardiac tissues corresponds with increasing sarcomere alignment. This change is larger than would be anticipated from enhanced calcium handling and increased uniaxial alignment alone. These results suggest that boundary conditions (heterogeneities) encoded in the extracellular space can regulate muscle tissue function, and that structural organization and cytoskeletal alignment are critically important for maximizing peak force generation.

  15. Model-Based Engine Control Architecture with an Extended Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for model-based engine control (MBEC). Previously proposed MBEC architectures feature an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to produce estimates of both unmeasured engine parameters and estimates for the health of the engine. The success of this approach relies on the accuracy of the linear model and the ability of the optimal tuner to update its tuner estimates based on only a few sensors. Advances in computer processing are making it possible to replace the piece-wise linear model, developed off-line, with an on-board nonlinear model running in real-time. This will reduce the estimation errors associated with the linearization process, and is typically referred to as an extended Kalman filter. The nonlinear extended Kalman filter approach is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (C-MAPSS40k) and compared to the previously proposed MBEC architecture. The results show that the EKF reduces the estimation error, especially during transient operation.

  16. Model-Based Engine Control Architecture with an Extended Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for model-based engine control (MBEC). Previously proposed MBEC architectures feature an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to produce estimates of both unmeasured engine parameters and estimates for the health of the engine. The success of this approach relies on the accuracy of the linear model and the ability of the optimal tuner to update its tuner estimates based on only a few sensors. Advances in computer processing are making it possible to replace the piece-wise linear model, developed off-line, with an on-board nonlinear model running in real-time. This will reduce the estimation errors associated with the linearization process, and is typically referred to as an extended Kalman filter. The non-linear extended Kalman filter approach is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (C-MAPSS40k) and compared to the previously proposed MBEC architecture. The results show that the EKF reduces the estimation error, especially during transient operation.

  17. One electron-controlled multiple-valued dynamic random-access-memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kye, H. W.; Song, B. N.; Lee, S. E.; Kim, J. S.; Shin, S. J.; Choi, J. B.; Yu, Y.-S.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a new architecture for a dynamic random-access-memory (DRAM) capable of storing multiple values by using a single-electron transistor (SET). The gate of a SET is designed to be connected to a plurality of DRAM unit cells that are arrayed at intersections of word lines and bitlines. In this SET-DRAM hybrid scheme, the multiple switching characteristics of SET enables multiple value data stored in a DRAM unit cell, and this increases the storage functionality of the device. Moreover, since refreshing data requires only a small amount of SET driving current, this enables device operating with low standby power consumption.

  18. Control for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Comparison of Blackboard Architectures and Discourse Management Networks. Report No. R-6267.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William R.

    This paper compares two alternative computer architectures that have been proposed to provide the control mechanism that enables an intelligent tutoring system to decide what instructional action to perform next, i.e., discourse management networks and blackboards. The claim that an intelligent tutoring system controlled by a blackboard…

  19. A contextual role-based access control authorization model for electronic patient record.

    PubMed

    Motta, Gustavo H M B; Furuie, Sergio S

    2003-09-01

    The design of proper models for authorization and access control for electronic patient record (EPR) is essential to a wide scale use of EPR in large health organizations. In this paper, we propose a contextual role-based access control authorization model aiming to increase the patient privacy and the confidentiality of patient data, whereas being flexible enough to consider specific cases. This model regulates user's access to EPR based on organizational roles. It supports a role-tree hierarchy with authorization inheritance; positive and negative authorizations; static and dynamic separation of duties based on weak and strong role conflicts. Contextual authorizations use environmental information available at access time, like user/patient relationship, in order to decide whether a user is allowed to access an EPR resource. This enables the specification of a more flexible and precise authorization policy, where permission is granted or denied according to the right and the need of the user to carry out a particular job function.

  20. An Advanced Electrospinning Method of Fabricating Nanofibrous Patterned Architectures with Controlled Deposition and Desired Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasel, Sheikh Md

    We introduce a versatile advanced method of electrospinning for fabricating various kinds of nanofibrous patterns along with desired alignment, controlled amount of deposition and locally variable density into the architectures. In this method, we employed multiple electrodes whose potentials have been altered in milliseconds with the help of microprocessor based control system. Therefore, key success of this method was that the electrical field as well as charge carrying fibers could be switched shortly from one electrode's location to another, as a result, electrospun fibers could be deposited on the designated areas with desired alignment. A wide range of nanofibrous patterned architectures were constructed using proper arrangement of multiple electrodes. By controlling the concurrent activation time of two adjacent electrodes, we demonstrated that amount of fibers going into the pattern can be adjusted and desired alignment in electrospun fibers can be obtained. We also revealed that the deposition density of electrospun fibers in different areas of patterned architectures can be varied. We showed that by controlling the deposition time between two adjacent electrodes, a number of functionally graded patterns can be generated with uniaxial alignment. We also demonstrated that this handy method was capable of producing random, aligned, and multidirectional nanofibrous mats by engaging a number of electrodes and switching them in desired patterns. A comprehensive study using finite element method was carried out to understand the effects of electrical field. Simulation results revealed that electrical field strength alters shortly based on electrode control switch patterns. Nanofibrous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds and its composite reinforced with wollastonite and wood flour were fabricated using rotating drum electrospinning technique. Morphological, mechanical, and thermal, properties were characterized on PVA/wollastonite and PVA/wood flour nanocomposites

  1. Agent-based Cyber Control Strategy Design for Resilient Control Systems: Concepts, Architecture and Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Rieger; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-08-01

    The implementation of automated regulatory control has been around since the middle of the last century through analog means. It has allowed engineers to operate the plant more consistently by focusing on overall operations and settings instead of individual monitoring of local instruments (inside and outside of a control room). A similar approach is proposed for cyber security, where current border-protection designs have been inherited from information technology developments that lack consideration of the high-reliability, high consequence nature of industrial control systems. Instead of an independent development, however, an integrated approach is taken to develop a holistic understanding of performance. This performance takes shape inside a multiagent design, which provides a notional context to model highly decentralized and complex industrial process control systems, the nervous system of critical infrastructure. The resulting strategy will provide a framework for researching solutions to security and unrecognized interdependency concerns with industrial control systems.

  2. IAIMS Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Hripcsak, George

    1997-01-01

    Abstract An information system architecture defines the components of a system and the interfaces among the components. A good architecture is essential for creating an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) that works as an integrated whole yet is flexible enough to accommodate many users and roles, multiple applications, changing vendors, evolving user needs, and advancing technology. Modularity and layering promote flexibility by reducing the complexity of a system and by restricting the ways in which components may interact. Enterprise-wide mediation promotes integration by providing message routing, support for standards, dictionary-based code translation, a centralized conceptual data schema, business rule implementation, and consistent access to databases. Several IAIMS sites have adopted a client-server architecture, and some have adopted a three-tiered approach, separating user interface functions, application logic, and repositories. PMID:9067884

  3. Waterlogging-induced changes in root architecture of germplasm accessions of the tropical forage grass Brachiaria humidicola.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Juan Andrés; Jiménez, Juan de la Cruz; Rao, Idupulapati M

    2014-04-08

    Waterlogging is one of the major factors limiting the productivity of pastures in the humid tropics. Brachiaria humidicola is a forage grass commonly used in zones prone to temporary waterlogging. Brachiaria humidicola accessions adapt to waterlogging by increasing aerenchyma in nodal roots above constitutive levels to improve oxygenation of root tissues. In some accessions, waterlogging reduces the number of lateral roots developed from main root axes. Waterlogging-induced reduction of lateral roots could be of adaptive value as lateral roots consume oxygen supplied from above ground via their parent root. However, a reduction in lateral root development could also be detrimental by decreasing the surface area for nutrient and water absorption. To examine the impact of waterlogging on lateral root development, an outdoor study was conducted to test differences in vertical root distribution (in terms of dry mass and length) and the proportion of lateral roots to the total root system (sum of nodal and lateral roots) down the soil profile under drained or waterlogged soil conditions. Plant material consisted of 12 B. humidicola accessions from the gene bank of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Colombia. Rooting depth was restricted by 21 days of waterlogging and confined to the first 30 cm below the soil surface. Although waterlogging reduced the overall proportion of lateral roots, its proportion significantly increased in the top 10 cm of the soil. This suggests that soil flooding increases lateral root proliferation of B. humidicola in the upper soil layers. This may compensate for the reduction of root surface area brought about by the restriction of root growth at depths below 30 cm. Further work is needed to test the relative efficiency of nodal and lateral roots for nutrient and water uptake under waterlogged soil conditions.

  4. Waterlogging-induced changes in root architecture of germplasm accessions of the tropical forage grass Brachiaria humidicola

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Juan Andrés; Jiménez, Juan de la Cruz; Rao, Idupulapati M.

    2014-01-01

    Waterlogging is one of the major factors limiting the productivity of pastures in the humid tropics. Brachiaria humidicola is a forage grass commonly used in zones prone to temporary waterlogging. Brachiaria humidicola accessions adapt to waterlogging by increasing aerenchyma in nodal roots above constitutive levels to improve oxygenation of root tissues. In some accessions, waterlogging reduces the number of lateral roots developed from main root axes. Waterlogging-induced reduction of lateral roots could be of adaptive value as lateral roots consume oxygen supplied from above ground via their parent root. However, a reduction in lateral root development could also be detrimental by decreasing the surface area for nutrient and water absorption. To examine the impact of waterlogging on lateral root development, an outdoor study was conducted to test differences in vertical root distribution (in terms of dry mass and length) and the proportion of lateral roots to the total root system (sum of nodal and lateral roots) down the soil profile under drained or waterlogged soil conditions. Plant material consisted of 12 B. humidicola accessions from the gene bank of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Colombia. Rooting depth was restricted by 21 days of waterlogging and confined to the first 30 cm below the soil surface. Although waterlogging reduced the overall proportion of lateral roots, its proportion significantly increased in the top 10 cm of the soil. This suggests that soil flooding increases lateral root proliferation of B. humidicola in the upper soil layers. This may compensate for the reduction of root surface area brought about by the restriction of root growth at depths below 30 cm. Further work is needed to test the relative efficiency of nodal and lateral roots for nutrient and water uptake under waterlogged soil conditions. PMID:24876299

  5. An access control model with high security for distributed workflow and real-time application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ruo-Fei; Wang, Hou-Xiang

    2007-11-01

    The traditional mandatory access control policy (MAC) is regarded as a policy with strict regulation and poor flexibility. The security policy of MAC is so compelling that few information systems would adopt it at the cost of facility, except some particular cases with high security requirement as military or government application. However, with the increasing requirement for flexibility, even some access control systems in military application have switched to role-based access control (RBAC) which is well known as flexible. Though RBAC can meet the demands for flexibility but it is weak in dynamic authorization and consequently can not fit well in the workflow management systems. The task-role-based access control (T-RBAC) is then introduced to solve the problem. It combines both the advantages of RBAC and task-based access control (TBAC) which uses task to manage permissions dynamically. To satisfy the requirement of system which is distributed, well defined with workflow process and critically for time accuracy, this paper will analyze the spirit of MAC, introduce it into the improved T&RBAC model which is based on T-RBAC. At last, a conceptual task-role-based access control model with high security for distributed workflow and real-time application (A_T&RBAC) is built, and its performance is simply analyzed.

  6. 75 FR 69791 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Exchange Commission 17 CFR Part 240 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access... Regulations#0;#0; ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AK53 Risk Management Controls.... The required financial risk management controls and supervisory procedures must be reasonably...

  7. 76 FR 38293 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AK53 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures that... develop, test, and implement the relevant risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  8. Micropatterning strategies to engineer controlled cell and tissue architecture in vitro.

    PubMed

    D'Arcangelo, Elisa; McGuigan, Alison P

    2015-01-01

    Micropatterning strategies, which enable control over cell and tissue architecture in vitro, have emerged as powerful platforms for modelling tissue microenvironments at different scales and complexities. Here, we provide an overview of popular micropatterning techniques, along with detailed descriptions, to guide new users through the decision making process of which micropatterning procedure to use, and how to best obtain desired tissue patterns. Example techniques and the types of biological observations that can be made are provided from the literature. A focus is placed on microcontact printing to obtain co-cultures of patterned, confluent sheets, and the challenges associated with optimizing this protocol. Many issues associated with microcontact printing, however, are relevant to all micropatterning methodologies. Finally, we briefly discuss challenges in addressing key limitations associated with current micropatterning technologies.

  9. Multimodal sensory integration in insects--towards insect brain control architectures.

    PubMed

    Wessnitzer, Jan; Webb, Barbara

    2006-09-01

    Although a variety of basic insect behaviours have inspired successful robot implementations, more complex capabilities in these 'simple' animals are often overlooked. By reviewing the general architecture of their nervous systems, we gain insight into how they are able to integrate behaviours, perform pattern recognition, context-dependent learning, and combine many sensory inputs in tasks such as navigation. We review in particular what is known about two specific 'higher' areas in the insect brain, the mushroom bodies and the central complex, and how they are involved in controlling an insect's behaviour. While much of the functional interpretation of this information is still speculative, it nevertheless suggests some promising new approaches to obtaining adaptive behaviour in robots. PMID:17671308

  10. Multimodal sensory integration in insects--towards insect brain control architectures.

    PubMed

    Wessnitzer, Jan; Webb, Barbara

    2006-09-01

    Although a variety of basic insect behaviours have inspired successful robot implementations, more complex capabilities in these 'simple' animals are often overlooked. By reviewing the general architecture of their nervous systems, we gain insight into how they are able to integrate behaviours, perform pattern recognition, context-dependent learning, and combine many sensory inputs in tasks such as navigation. We review in particular what is known about two specific 'higher' areas in the insect brain, the mushroom bodies and the central complex, and how they are involved in controlling an insect's behaviour. While much of the functional interpretation of this information is still speculative, it nevertheless suggests some promising new approaches to obtaining adaptive behaviour in robots.

  11. Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Reveals Regions of the Maize Genome Controlling Root System Architecture1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Benfey, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    The quest to determine the genetic basis of root system architecture (RSA) has been greatly facilitated by recent developments in root phenotyping techniques. Methods that are accurate, high throughput, and control for environmental factors are especially attractive for quantitative trait locus mapping. Here, we describe the adaptation of a nondestructive in vivo gel-based root imaging platform for use in maize (Zea mays). We identify a large number of contrasting RSA traits among 25 founder lines of the maize nested association mapping population and locate 102 quantitative trait loci using the B73 (compact RSA) × Ki3 (exploratory RSA) mapping population. Our results suggest that a phenotypic tradeoff exists between small, compact RSA and large, exploratory RSA. PMID:25673779

  12. Hydrologic regime controls pattern and architecture of woody debris in mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, L. A.; Grant, G.; Lewis, S.

    2015-12-01

    differences in flow-dictated wood architecture control channel stability and key channel structures. Understanding how flow regimes control wood accumulations and patterns is therefore fundamental to properly interpreting the geomorphic and ecologic role of wood in streams.

  13. Cognitive Control and Lexical Access in Younger and Older Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus; Luk, Gigi

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-six participants, who were younger (20 years) or older (68 years) adults and either monolingual or bilingual, completed tasks assessing working memory, lexical retrieval, and executive control. Younger participants performed most of the tasks better than older participants, confirming the effect of aging on these processes. The effect of…

  14. Architectures and Evaluation for Adjustable Control Autonomy for Space-Based Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    In the past five years, a number of automation applications for control of crew life support systems have been developed and evaluated in the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This paper surveys progress on an adjustable autonomous control architecture for situations where software and human operators work together to manage anomalies and other system problems. When problems occur, the level of control autonomy can be adjusted, so that operators and software agents can work together on diagnosis and recovery. In 1997 adjustable autonomy software was developed to manage gas transfer and storage in a closed life support test. Four crewmembers lived and worked in a chamber for 91 days, with both air and water recycling. CO2 was converted to O2 by gas processing systems and wheat crops. With the automation software, significantly fewer hours were spent monitoring operations. System-level validation testing of the software by interactive hybrid simulation revealed problems both in software requirements and implementation. Since that time, we have been developing multi-agent approaches for automation software and human operators, to cooperatively control systems and manage problems. Each new capability has been tested and demonstrated in realistic dynamic anomaly scenarios, using the hybrid simulation tool.

  15. Trust-Based Access Control Model from Sociological Approach in Dynamic Online Social Network Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungjoo

    2014-01-01

    There has been an explosive increase in the population of the OSN (online social network) in recent years. The OSN provides users with many opportunities to communicate among friends and family. Further, it facilitates developing new relationships with previously unknown people having similar beliefs or interests. However, the OSN can expose users to adverse effects such as privacy breaches, the disclosing of uncontrolled material, and the disseminating of false information. Traditional access control models such as MAC, DAC, and RBAC are applied to the OSN to address these problems. However, these models are not suitable for the dynamic OSN environment because user behavior in the OSN is unpredictable and static access control imposes a burden on the users to change the access control rules individually. We propose a dynamic trust-based access control for the OSN to address the problems of the traditional static access control. Moreover, we provide novel criteria to evaluate trust factors such as sociological approach and evaluate a method to calculate the dynamic trust values. The proposed method can monitor negative behavior and modify access permission levels dynamically to prevent the indiscriminate disclosure of information. PMID:25374943

  16. Trust-based access control model from sociological approach in dynamic online social network environment.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seungsoo; Kim, Seungjoo

    2014-01-01

    There has been an explosive increase in the population of the OSN (online social network) in recent years. The OSN provides users with many opportunities to communicate among friends and family. Further, it facilitates developing new relationships with previously unknown people having similar beliefs or interests. However, the OSN can expose users to adverse effects such as privacy breaches, the disclosing of uncontrolled material, and the disseminating of false information. Traditional access control models such as MAC, DAC, and RBAC are applied to the OSN to address these problems. However, these models are not suitable for the dynamic OSN environment because user behavior in the OSN is unpredictable and static access control imposes a burden on the users to change the access control rules individually. We propose a dynamic trust-based access control for the OSN to address the problems of the traditional static access control. Moreover, we provide novel criteria to evaluate trust factors such as sociological approach and evaluate a method to calculate the dynamic trust values. The proposed method can monitor negative behavior and modify access permission levels dynamically to prevent the indiscriminate disclosure of information.

  17. Generalized access control strategies for integrated services token passing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Joseph W. M.; Tobagi, Fouad A.; Boyd, Stephen

    1994-08-01

    The demand for integrated services local area networks is increasing at a rapid pace with the advent of many new and exciting applications: office and factory automation, distributed computing, and multimedia communications. To support these new applications, it is imperative to integrate traffic with diverse statistical characteristics and differing delay requirements on the same network. An attractive approach for integrating traffic has been adopted in two token passing local area network standards, the IEEE 802.4 token bus standard and FDDI. The idea is to control the transmissions of each station based on a distributed timing algorithm, so as to achieve the following goals: (1) to limit the token cycles so that time-critical traffic can be accommodated, and (2) to allocate pre-specified bandwidths to different stations when the network is overloaded. We have investigated the analysis and design of this protocol. In this paper, we generalize the transmission control algorithm used previously. The major advantages of the generalization over the original protocol are: (1) it provides a much expanded design space, (2) it guarantees convergent behavior, and (3) it gives meaningful insights into the dynamics of the basic control algorithm.

  18. An action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents and its application.

    PubMed

    Su, Mang; Li, Fenghua; Tang, Zhi; Yu, Yinyan; Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents. Firstly, we define a describing model for structured documents and analyze the application scenarios. The describing model could support the permission management on chapters, pages, sections, words, and pictures of structured documents. Secondly, based on the action-based access control (ABAC) model, we propose a fine-grained control protocol for structured documents by introducing temporal state and environmental state. The protocol covering different stages from document creation, to permission specification and usage control are given by using the Z-notation. Finally, we give the implementation of our mechanism and make the comparisons between the existing methods and our mechanism. The result shows that our mechanism could provide the better solution of fine-grained access control for structured documents in complicated networks. Moreover, it is more flexible and practical.

  19. An Action-Based Fine-Grained Access Control Mechanism for Structured Documents and Its Application

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mang; Li, Fenghua; Tang, Zhi; Yu, Yinyan; Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents. Firstly, we define a describing model for structured documents and analyze the application scenarios. The describing model could support the permission management on chapters, pages, sections, words, and pictures of structured documents. Secondly, based on the action-based access control (ABAC) model, we propose a fine-grained control protocol for structured documents by introducing temporal state and environmental state. The protocol covering different stages from document creation, to permission specification and usage control are given by using the Z-notation. Finally, we give the implementation of our mechanism and make the comparisons between the existing methods and our mechanism. The result shows that our mechanism could provide the better solution of fine-grained access control for structured documents in complicated networks. Moreover, it is more flexible and practical. PMID:25136651

  20. Tracker controls development and control architecture for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Wide Field Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Jason R.; Beno, Joe; Rafferty, Tom H.; Cornell, Mark E.

    2010-07-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Wide Field Upgrade, the University of Texas Center for Electromechanics and McDonald Observatory are developing a precision tracker system - a 15,000 kg robot to position a 3,100 kg payload within 10 microns of a desired dynamic track. Performance requirements to meet science needs and safety requirements that emerged from detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis resulted in a system of 14 precision controlled actuators and 100 additional analog and digital devices (primarily sensors and safety limit switches). This level of system complexity and emphasis on fail-safe operation is typical of large modern telescopes and numerous industrial applications. Due to this complexity, demanding accuracy requirements, and stringent safety requirements, a highly versatile and easily configurable centralized control system that easily links with modeling and simulation tools during the hardware and software design process was deemed essential. The Matlab/Simulink simulation environment, coupled with dSPACE controller hardware, was selected for controls development and realization. The dSPACE real-time operating system collects sensor information; motor commands are transmitted over a PROFIBUS network to servo amplifiers and drive motor status is received over the same network. Custom designed position feedback loops, supplemented by feed forward force commands for enhanced performance, and algorithms to accommodate self-locking gearboxes (for safety), reside in dSPACE. To interface the dSPACE controller directly to absolute Heidenhain sensors with EnDat 2.2 protocol, a custom communication board was developed. This paper covers details of software and hardware, design choices and analysis, and supporting simulations (primarily Simulink).

  1. Architecture, constraints, and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, John C.; Csete, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to bridge progress in neuroscience involving sophisticated quantitative analysis of behavior, including the use of robust control, with other relevant conceptual and theoretical frameworks from systems engineering, systems biology, and mathematics. Familiar and accessible case studies are used to illustrate concepts of robustness, organization, and architecture (modularity and protocols) that are central to understanding complex networks. These essential organizational features are hidden during normal function of a system but are fundamental for understanding the nature, design, and function of complex biologic and technologic systems. PMID:21788505

  2. Simulink-Based Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christhilf, David m.; Bacon, Barton J.

    2006-01-01

    The Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV) is a Simulink-based approach to providing an engineering quality desktop simulation capability for finding trim solutions, extracting linear models for vehicle analysis and control law development, and generating open-loop and closed-loop time history responses for control system evaluation. It represents a useful level of maturity rather than a finished product. The layout is hierarchical and supports concurrent component development and validation, with support from the Concurrent Versions System (CVS) software management tool. Real Time Workshop (RTW) is used to generate pre-compiled code for substantial component modules, and templates permit switching seamlessly between original Simulink and code compiled for various platforms. Two previous limitations are addressed. Turn around time for incorporating tabular model components was improved through auto-generation of required Simulink diagrams based on data received in XML format. The layout was modified to exploit a Simulink "compile once, evaluate multiple times" capability for zero elapsed time for use in trimming and linearizing. Trim is achieved through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) with a narrow, script definable interface to the vehicle model which facilitates incorporating new models.

  3. Command and Control Architectures for Autonomous Micro-Robotic Forces - FY-2000 Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald Dean

    2001-04-01

    Advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and micro-technologies will soon give rise to production of large-scale forces of autonomous micro-robots with systems of innate behaviors and with capabilities of self-organization and real world tasking. Such organizations have been compared to schools of fish, flocks of birds, herds of animals, swarms of insects, and military squadrons. While these systems are envisioned as maintaining a high degree of autonomy, it is important to understand the relationship of man with such machines. In moving from research studies to the practical deployment of large-scale numbers of robots, one of critical pieces that must be explored is the command and control architecture for humans to re-task and also inject global knowledge, experience, and intuition into the force. Tele-operation should not be the goal, but rather a level of adjustable autonomy and high-level control. If a herd of sheep is comparable to the collective of robots, then the human element is comparable to the shepherd pulling in strays and guiding the herd in the direction of greener pastures. This report addresses the issues and development of command and control for largescale numbers of autonomous robots deployed as a collective force.

  4. Distributed multiport memory architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, W. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A multiport memory architecture is diclosed for each of a plurality of task centers connected to a command and data bus. Each task center, includes a memory and a plurality of devices which request direct memory access as needed. The memory includes an internal data bus and an internal address bus to which the devices are connected, and direct timing and control logic comprised of a 10-state ring counter for allocating memory devices by enabling AND gates connected to the request signal lines of the devices. The outputs of AND gates connected to the same device are combined by OR gates to form an acknowledgement signal that enables the devices to address the memory during the next clock period. The length of the ring counter may be effectively lengthened to any multiple of ten to allow for more direct memory access intervals in one repetitive sequence. One device is a network bus adapter which serially shifts onto the command and data bus, a data word (8 bits plus control and parity bits) during the next ten direct memory access intervals after it has been granted access. The NBA is therefore allocated only one access in every ten intervals, which is a predetermined interval for all centers. The ring counters of all centers are periodically synchronized by DMA SYNC signal to assure that all NBAs be able to function in synchronism for data transfer from one center to another.

  5. bFGF-containing electrospun gelatin scaffolds with controlled nano-architectural features for directed angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Montero, Ramon B; Vial, Ximena; Nguyen, Dat Tat; Farhand, Sepehr; Reardon, Mark; Pham, Si M; Tsechpenakis, Gavriil; Andreopoulos, Fotios M

    2012-05-01

    Current therapeutic angiogenesis strategies are focused on the development of biologically responsive scaffolds that can deliver multiple angiogenic cytokines and/or cells in ischemic regions. Herein, we report on a novel electrospinning approach to fabricate cytokine-containing nanofibrous scaffolds with tunable architecture to promote angiogenesis. Fiber diameter and uniformity were controlled by varying the concentration of the polymeric (i.e. gelatin) solution, the feed rate, needle to collector distance, and electric field potential between the collector plate and injection needle. Scaffold fiber orientation (random vs. aligned) was achieved by alternating the polarity of two parallel electrodes placed on the collector plate thus dictating fiber deposition patterns. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was physically immobilized within the gelatin scaffolds at variable concentrations and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were seeded on the top of the scaffolds. Cell proliferation and migration was assessed as a function of growth factor loading and scaffold architecture. HUVECs successfully adhered onto gelatin B scaffolds and cell proliferation was directly proportional to the loading concentrations of the growth factor (0-100 bFGF ng/mL). Fiber orientation had a pronounced effect on cell morphology and orientation. Cells were spread along the fibers of the electrospun scaffolds with the aligned orientation and developed a spindle-like morphology parallel to the scaffold's fibers. In contrast, cells seeded onto the scaffolds with random fiber orientation, did not demonstrate any directionality and appeared to have a rounder shape. Capillary formation (i.e. sprouts length and number of sprouts per bead), assessed in a 3-D in vitro angiogenesis assay, was a function of bFGF loading concentration (0 ng, 50 ng and 100 ng per scaffold) for both types of electrospun scaffolds (i.e. with aligned or random fiber orientation).

  6. Advanced Guidance and Control for Hypersonics and Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Hall, Charles E.; Mulqueen, John A.; Jones, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety, reliability, and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV), whether it is fully rocket-powered or has air- breathing components. This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies could have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where t h i s technology applies, and the costs and time associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is the point where we can look to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AWC, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality. There are a number of approaches to AG&C that have the potential for achieving the desired goals. For some of these methods, we compare the results of tests designed to demonstrate the achievement of the goals. Tests up to now have been focused on rocket-powered vehicles; application to hypersonic air-breathers is planned. We list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, briefly describe an automated test scoring method, and display results of the tests. Some of the technology components have reached the maturity level where they are ready for application to a new vehicle concept, while others are not far along in development.

  7. Genetic architecture of sex determination in fish: applications to sex ratio control in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Paulino; Viñas, Ana M; Sánchez, Laura; Díaz, Noelia; Ribas, Laia; Piferrer, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the sex ratio is essential in finfish farming. A balanced sex ratio is usually good for broodstock management, since it enables to develop appropriate breeding schemes. However, in some species the production of monosex populations is desirable because the existence of sexual dimorphism, primarily in growth or first time of sexual maturation, but also in color or shape, can render one sex more valuable. The knowledge of the genetic architecture of sex determination (SD) is convenient for controlling sex ratio and for the implementation of breeding programs. Unlike mammals and birds, which show highly conserved master genes that control a conserved genetic network responsible for gonad differentiation (GD), a huge diversity of SD mechanisms has been reported in fish. Despite theory predictions, more than one gene is in many cases involved in fish SD and genetic differences have been observed in the GD network. Environmental factors also play a relevant role and epigenetic mechanisms are becoming increasingly recognized for the establishment and maintenance of the GD pathways. Although major genetic factors are frequently involved in fish SD, these observations strongly suggest that SD in this group resembles a complex trait. Accordingly, the application of quantitative genetics combined with genomic tools is desirable to address its study and in fact, when applied, it has frequently demonstrated a multigene trait interacting with environmental factors in model and cultured fish species. This scenario has notable implications for aquaculture and, depending upon the species, from chromosome manipulation or environmental control techniques up to classical selection or marker assisted selection programs, are being applied. In this review, we selected four relevant species or fish groups to illustrate this diversity and hence the technologies that can be used by the industry for the control of sex ratio: turbot and European sea bass, two reference species of

  8. Genetic architecture of sex determination in fish: applications to sex ratio control in aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Paulino; Viñas, Ana M.; Sánchez, Laura; Díaz, Noelia; Ribas, Laia; Piferrer, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the sex ratio is essential in finfish farming. A balanced sex ratio is usually good for broodstock management, since it enables to develop appropriate breeding schemes. However, in some species the production of monosex populations is desirable because the existence of sexual dimorphism, primarily in growth or first time of sexual maturation, but also in color or shape, can render one sex more valuable. The knowledge of the genetic architecture of sex determination (SD) is convenient for controlling sex ratio and for the implementation of breeding programs. Unlike mammals and birds, which show highly conserved master genes that control a conserved genetic network responsible for gonad differentiation (GD), a huge diversity of SD mechanisms has been reported in fish. Despite theory predictions, more than one gene is in many cases involved in fish SD and genetic differences have been observed in the GD network. Environmental factors also play a relevant role and epigenetic mechanisms are becoming increasingly recognized for the establishment and maintenance of the GD pathways. Although major genetic factors are frequently involved in fish SD, these observations strongly suggest that SD in this group resembles a complex trait. Accordingly, the application of quantitative genetics combined with genomic tools is desirable to address its study and in fact, when applied, it has frequently demonstrated a multigene trait interacting with environmental factors in model and cultured fish species. This scenario has notable implications for aquaculture and, depending upon the species, from chromosome manipulation or environmental control techniques up to classical selection or marker assisted selection programs, are being applied. In this review, we selected four relevant species or fish groups to illustrate this diversity and hence the technologies that can be used by the industry for the control of sex ratio: turbot and European sea bass, two reference species of

  9. Steganography-based access control to medical data hidden in electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Mai, Vu; Khalil, Ibrahim; Ibaida, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Steganographic techniques allow secret data to be embedded inside another host data such as an image or a text file without significant changes to the quality of the host data. In this research, we demonstrate how steganography can be used as the main mechanism to build an access control model that gives data owners complete control to their sensitive cardiac health information hidden in their own Electrocardiograms. Our access control model is able to protect the privacy of users, the confidentiality of medical data, reduce storage space and make it more efficient to upload and download large amount of data.

  10. Steganography-based access control to medical data hidden in electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Mai, Vu; Khalil, Ibrahim; Ibaida, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Steganographic techniques allow secret data to be embedded inside another host data such as an image or a text file without significant changes to the quality of the host data. In this research, we demonstrate how steganography can be used as the main mechanism to build an access control model that gives data owners complete control to their sensitive cardiac health information hidden in their own Electrocardiograms. Our access control model is able to protect the privacy of users, the confidentiality of medical data, reduce storage space and make it more efficient to upload and download large amount of data. PMID:24109934

  11. Analysis of Decision Factors for the Application of Information Access Controls within the Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foerster, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of access controls on internal information necessarily impacts the availability of that information for sharing inside the enterprise. The decisions establishing the degree of control are a crucial first step to balance the requirements to protect and share. This research develops a set of basic decision factors and examines other…

  12. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.17 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery Management Plan for the Golden Crab Fishery of...

  13. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.17 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery Management Plan for the Golden Crab Fishery of...

  14. 50 CFR 622.241 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.241 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the...

  15. 50 CFR 622.241 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.241 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the...

  16. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.17 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery Management Plan for the Golden Crab Fishery of...

  17. Reconfiguration of brain network architecture to support executive control in aging.

    PubMed

    Gallen, Courtney L; Turner, Gary R; Adnan, Areeba; D'Esposito, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by declines in executive control abilities and changes in underlying brain network architecture. Here, we examined brain networks in young and older adults during a task-free resting state and an N-back task and investigated age-related changes in the modular network organization of the brain. Compared with young adults, older adults showed larger changes in network organization between resting state and task. Although young adults exhibited increased connectivity between lateral frontal regions and other network modules during the most difficult task condition, older adults also exhibited this pattern of increased connectivity during less-demanding task conditions. Moreover, the increase in between-module connectivity in older adults was related to faster task performance and greater fractional anisotropy of the superior longitudinal fasciculus. These results demonstrate that older adults who exhibit more pronounced network changes between a resting state and task have better executive control performance and greater structural connectivity of a core frontal-posterior white matter pathway.

  18. Control of in vivo microvessel ingrowth by modulation of biomaterial local architecture and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Joan E.; Baker, Aaron B.; Golledge, Stephen

    2002-04-01

    We developed a method for controlling local architecture and chemistry simultaneously in biomaterial implants to control microvessel ingrowth in vivo. Porous polypropylene disks (5 mm in diameter and 40 um thick) were plasma-coated with a fluoropolymer and then laser-drilled with 50-*m-diameter holes through their thickness. We then oxidized the disks to create hydroxyl functionality on the exposed polypropylene (inside the holes). Acrylamide was grafted to the hydroxyl groups through polymerization in the presence of activating ceric ions. Staining with toluidine blue O demonstrated that grafting occurred only inside the holes. We used the Hoffman degradation reaction to convert the amide groups of acrylamide to amine groups, and then we used ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether to attach biomolecules of interest inside the holes: secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) peptide Lys-Gly-His-Lys (KGHK; angiogenic), thrombospondin-2 (TSP; antiangiogenic), or albumin (rat; neutral). In vivo testing in a rat subcutaneous dorsum model for a 3-week interval demonstrated a greater vessel surface area (p = 0.032) and a greater number of vessels (p = 0.043) in tissue local to the holes with KGHKimmobilized disks than with TSP-immobilized disks. However, differences between KGHK-immobilized and albuminimmobilized disks were less significant (p = 0.120 and p = 0.289 for the vessel surface area and number of vessels, respectively). The developed methods have potential applications in biomaterial design applications for which selective neovascularization is desired.

  19. RoCoMAR: Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing and Relay Architecture for Mobile Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Van Le, Duc; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2013-01-01

    In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN) suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing) that uses robotic nodes' controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay. PMID:23881134

  20. Dendrite architecture organized by transcriptional control of the F-actin nucleator Spire.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Tiago; Ou, Yimiao; Li, Sally; Giniger, Edward; van Meyel, Donald J

    2014-02-01

    The architectures of dendritic trees are crucial for the wiring and function of neuronal circuits because they determine coverage of receptive territories, as well as the nature and strength of sensory or synaptic inputs. Here, we describe a cell-intrinsic pathway sculpting dendritic arborization (da) neurons in Drosophila that requires Longitudinals Lacking (Lola), a BTB/POZ transcription factor, and its control of the F-actin cytoskeleton through Spire (Spir), an actin nucleation protein. Loss of Lola from da neurons reduced the overall length of dendritic arbors, increased the expression of Spir, and produced inappropriate F-actin-rich dendrites at positions too near the cell soma. Selective removal of Lola from only class IV da neurons decreased the evasive responses of larvae to nociception. The increased Spir expression contributed to the abnormal F-actin-rich dendrites and the decreased nocifensive responses because both were suppressed by reduced dose of Spir. Thus, an important role of Lola is to limit expression of Spir to appropriate levels within da neurons. We found Spir to be expressed in dendritic arbors and to be important for their development. Removal of Spir from class IV da neurons reduced F-actin levels and total branch number, shifted the position of greatest branch density away from the cell soma, and compromised nocifensive behavior. We conclude that the Lola-Spir pathway is crucial for the spatial arrangement of branches within dendritic trees and for neural circuit function because it provides balanced control of the F-actin cytoskeleton.

  1. A Programmer-Interpreter Neural Network Architecture for Prefrontal Cognitive Control.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Francesco; Prevete, Roberto; Chersi, Fabian; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    There is wide consensus that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is able to exert cognitive control on behavior by biasing processing toward task-relevant information and by modulating response selection. This idea is typically framed in terms of top-down influences within a cortical control hierarchy, where prefrontal-basal ganglia loops gate multiple input-output channels, which in turn can activate or sequence motor primitives expressed in (pre-)motor cortices. Here we advance a new hypothesis, based on the notion of programmability and an interpreter-programmer computational scheme, on how the PFC can flexibly bias the selection of sensorimotor patterns depending on internal goal and task contexts. In this approach, multiple elementary behaviors representing motor primitives are expressed by a single multi-purpose neural network, which is seen as a reusable area of "recycled" neurons (interpreter). The PFC thus acts as a "programmer" that, without modifying the network connectivity, feeds the interpreter networks with specific input parameters encoding the programs (corresponding to network structures) to be interpreted by the (pre-)motor areas. Our architecture is validated in a standard test for executive function: the 1-2-AX task. Our results show that this computational framework provides a robust, scalable and flexible scheme that can be iterated at different hierarchical layers, supporting the realization of multiple goals. We discuss the plausibility of the "programmer-interpreter" scheme to explain the functioning of prefrontal-(pre)motor cortical hierarchies. PMID:25986752

  2. RoCoMAR: robots' controllable mobility aided routing and relay architecture for mobile sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Le, Duc Van; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2013-07-05

    In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN) suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing) that uses robotic nodes' controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay.

  3. 48 CFR 1552.235-75 - Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to Toxic Substances... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.235-75 Access to Toxic Substances Control Act...: Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996) In order to...

  4. 48 CFR 1552.235-75 - Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Access to Toxic Substances... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.235-75 Access to Toxic Substances Control Act...: Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996) In order to...

  5. 48 CFR 1552.235-75 - Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to Toxic Substances... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.235-75 Access to Toxic Substances Control Act...: Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996) In order to...

  6. Interfacing sensory input with motor output: does the control architecture converge to a serial process along a single channel?

    PubMed

    van de Kamp, Cornelis; Gawthrop, Peter J; Gollee, Henrik; Lakie, Martin; Loram, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    Modular organization in control architecture may underlie the versatility of human motor control; but the nature of the interface relating sensory input through task-selection in the space of performance variables to control actions in the space of the elemental variables is currently unknown. Our central question is whether the control architecture converges to a serial process along a single channel? In discrete reaction time experiments, psychologists have firmly associated a serial single channel hypothesis with refractoriness and response selection [psychological refractory period (PRP)]. Recently, we developed a methodology and evidence identifying refractoriness in sustained control of an external single degree-of-freedom system. We hypothesize that multi-segmental whole-body control also shows refractoriness. Eight participants controlled their whole body to ensure a head marker tracked a target as fast and accurately as possible. Analysis showed enhanced delays in response to stimuli with close temporal proximity to the preceding stimulus. Consistent with our preceding work, this evidence is incompatible with control as a linear time invariant process. This evidence is consistent with a single-channel serial ballistic process within the intermittent control paradigm with an intermittent interval of around 0.5 s. A control architecture reproducing intentional human movement control must reproduce refractoriness. Intermittent control is designed to provide computational time for an online optimization process and is appropriate for flexible adaptive control. For human motor control we suggest that parallel sensory input converges to a serial, single channel process involving planning, selection, and temporal inhibition of alternative responses prior to low dimensional motor output. Such design could aid robots to reproduce the flexibility of human control.

  7. Effects of automatic/controlled access processes on semantic memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Anlló, Eva M; Bellouard, Stéphanie; Ingrand, Pierre; Gil, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of automatic/controlled access processes on the semantic network in 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The AD group was compared with a control group using a battery of neuropsychological tests, a variation of Hodges's semantic testing battery, designed to assess semantic knowledge. The AD group had markedly lower scores than the normal group on each semantic test, but with a different degree of deterioration depending on the nature of the processes (controlled/automatic) in accessing the semantic network. AD patients had poorer performances on the explicit semantic tasks mainly involving controlled-process access (e.g., the WAIS Similarities Subtest) than those involving mainly automatic-process access (e.g., the Verbal Automatism test). Analyses of confidence intervals allowed a gradient of impaired performances in increasing order to be elaborated: a) the Verbal Automatism test, b) the WAIS Vocabulary Subtest, c) the WAIS Information Subtest, d) the Letter Fluency Task, e) Naming as a Response to Definition, f) the Category Fluency Task, g) the WAIS Similarities Subtest, and h) the Oral Denomination 80 Test. The results of our study suggest that explicit semantic tasks needing passive or automatic processes to access semantic memory would be better preserved in AD. PMID:21471640

  8. The new efficient multi-beamforming method based on multiple-access register block on a post-fractional filtering architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeeun; Kim, Giduck; Yoon, Changhan; Yoo, Yangmo; Song, Tai-Kyong

    2011-03-01

    In medical ultrasound imaging, a multi-beamforming (MBF) method is used for supporting high frame rate imaging or functional imaging where multiple scanlines are reconstructed from a single excitation event. For efficient MBF, a time-sharing technique (i.e., MBF-TS) can be applied. However, the MBF-TS could degrade image quality due to the decreased beamforming frequency. In this paper, the multi-access register-based MBF (MBF-MAR) method running on the post-fractional filtering (PFF) architecture is presented. In PFF-MBF-MAR, instead of lowering beamforming frequency, a multi-access register at each channel is utilized for generating multiple scanlines simultaneously. To evaluate the performance of the proposed PFF-MBF-MAR method, the phantom experiment was conducted where 64- channel pre-beamformed radio-frequency (RF) data were captured from a tissue mimicking phantom by using a modified commercial ultrasound system (SONOLINE G40, Siemens Inc., USA) using a 3-MHz phased array probe. From the phantom experiment, the PFF-MBF-MAR method showed 4.7 dB and 0.6 improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), respectively, compared to the PFF-MBF-TS method, while slightly increasing the hardware complexity (<5.2%). The similar results were achieved with the in vivo thyroid data. These results indicate that the proposed PFF-MBF-MAR method can be used for high frame rate imaging or functional imaging without sacrificing image quality while slightly increasing the hardware complexity.

  9. Dissecting the genetic control of natural variation in salt tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions

    PubMed Central

    Katori, Taku; Ikeda, Akiro; Iuchi, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Maehashi, Kenji; Sakata, Yoichi; Tanaka, Shigeo; Taji, Teruaki

    2010-01-01

    Many accessions (ecotypes) of Arabidopsis have been collected. Although few differences exist among their nucleotide sequences, these subtle differences induce large genetic variation in phenotypic traits such as stress tolerance and flowering time. To understand the natural variability in salt tolerance, large-scale soil pot experiments were performed to evaluate salt tolerance among 350 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. The evaluation revealed a wide variation in the salt tolerance among accessions. Several accessions, including Bu-5, Bur-0, Ll-1, Wl-0, and Zu-0, exhibited marked stress tolerance compared with a salt-sensitive experimental accession, Col-0. The salt-tolerant accessions were also evaluated by agar plate assays. The data obtained by the large-scale assay correlated well with the results of a salt acclimation (SA) assay, in which plants were transferred to high-salinity medium following placement on moderate-salinity medium for 7 d. Genetic analyses indicated that the salt tolerance without SA is a quantitative trait under polygenic control, whereas salt tolerance with SA is regulated by a single gene located on chromosome 5 that is common among the markedly salt-tolerant accessions. These results provide important information for understanding the mechanisms underlying natural variation of salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:20080827

  10. Performance analysis and receiver architectures of DCF77 radio-controlled clocks.

    PubMed

    Engeler, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    DCF77 is a longwave radio transmitter located in Germany. Atomic clocks generate a 77.5-kHz carrier which is amplitude- and phase-modulated to broadcast the official time. The signal is used by industrial and consumer radio-controlled clocks. DCF77 faces competition from the Global Positioning System (GPS) which provides higher accuracy time. Still, DCF77 and other longwave time services worldwide remain popular because they allow indoor reception at lower cost, lower power, and sufficient accuracy. Indoor longwave reception is challenged by signal attenuation and electromagnetic interference from an increasing number of devices, particularly switched-mode power supplies. This paper introduces new receiver architectures and compares them with existing detectors and time decoders. Simulations and analytical calculations characterize the performance in terms of bit error rate and decoding probability, depending on input noise and narrowband interference. The most promising detector with maximum-likelihood time decoder displays the time in less than 60 s after powerup and at a noise level of E(b)/N(0) = 2.7 dB, an improvement of 20 dB over previous receivers. A field-programmable gate array-based demonstration receiver built for the purposes of this paper confirms the capabilities of these new algorithms. The findings of this paper enable future high-performance DCF77 receivers and further study of indoor longwave reception.

  11. Performance analysis and receiver architectures of DCF77 radio-controlled clocks.

    PubMed

    Engeler, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    DCF77 is a longwave radio transmitter located in Germany. Atomic clocks generate a 77.5-kHz carrier which is amplitude- and phase-modulated to broadcast the official time. The signal is used by industrial and consumer radio-controlled clocks. DCF77 faces competition from the Global Positioning System (GPS) which provides higher accuracy time. Still, DCF77 and other longwave time services worldwide remain popular because they allow indoor reception at lower cost, lower power, and sufficient accuracy. Indoor longwave reception is challenged by signal attenuation and electromagnetic interference from an increasing number of devices, particularly switched-mode power supplies. This paper introduces new receiver architectures and compares them with existing detectors and time decoders. Simulations and analytical calculations characterize the performance in terms of bit error rate and decoding probability, depending on input noise and narrowband interference. The most promising detector with maximum-likelihood time decoder displays the time in less than 60 s after powerup and at a noise level of E(b)/N(0) = 2.7 dB, an improvement of 20 dB over previous receivers. A field-programmable gate array-based demonstration receiver built for the purposes of this paper confirms the capabilities of these new algorithms. The findings of this paper enable future high-performance DCF77 receivers and further study of indoor longwave reception. PMID:22622972

  12. Genetic architecture of trout from Albania as revealed by mtDNA control region variation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    To determine the genetic architecture of trout in Albania, 87 individuals were collected from 19 riverine and lacustrine sites in Albania, FYROM and Greece. All individuals were analyzed for sequence variation in the mtDNA control region. Among fourteen haplotypes detected, four previously unpublished haplotypes, bearing a close relationship to haplotypes of the Adriatic and marmoratus lineages of Salmo trutta, were revealed. Ten previously described haplotypes, characteristic of S. ohridanus, S. letnica and the Adriatic and Mediterranean lineages of S. trutta, were also detected. Haplotypes detected in this study were placed in a well supported branch of S. ohridanus, and a cluster of Mediterranean – Adriatic – marmoratus haplotypes, which were further delimited into three subdivisions of Mediterranean, marmoratus, and a previously non-described formation of four Adriatic haplotypes (Balkan cluster). Haplotypes of the Balkan cluster and the other Adriatic haplotypes, do not represent a contiguous haplotype lineage and appear not to be closely related, indicating independent arrivals into the Adriatic drainage and suggesting successive colonization events. Despite the presence of marmoratus haplotypes in Albania, no marbled phenotype was found, confirming previously reported findings that there is no association between this phenotype and marmoratus haplotypes. PMID:19284692

  13. Genetic architecture of trout from Albania as revealed by mtDNA control region variation.

    PubMed

    Snoj, Ales; Marić, Sasa; Berrebi, Patrick; Crivelli, Alain J; Shumka, Spase; Susnik, Simona

    2009-02-02

    To determine the genetic architecture of trout in Albania, 87 individuals were collected from 19 riverine and lacustrine sites in Albania, FYROM and Greece. All individuals were analyzed for sequence variation in the mtDNA control region. Among fourteen haplotypes detected, four previously unpublished haplotypes, bearing a close relationship to haplotypes of the Adriatic and marmoratus lineages of Salmo trutta, were revealed. Ten previously described haplotypes, characteristic of S. ohridanus, S. letnica and the Adriatic and Mediterranean lineages of S. trutta, were also detected. Haplotypes detected in this study were placed in a well supported branch of S. ohridanus, and a cluster of Mediterranean-Adriatic-marmoratus haplotypes, which were further delimited into three subdivisions of Mediterranean, marmoratus, and a previously non-described formation of four Adriatic haplotypes (Balkan cluster). Haplotypes of the Balkan cluster and the other Adriatic haplotypes, do not represent a contiguous haplotype lineage and appear not to be closely related, indicating independent arrivals into the Adriatic drainage and suggesting successive colonization events. Despite the presence of marmoratus haplotypes in Albania, no marbled phenotype was found, confirming previously reported findings that there is no association between this phenotype and marmoratus haplotypes.

  14. On Event-Triggered Adaptive Architectures for Decentralized and Distributed Control of Large-Scale Modular Systems.

    PubMed

    Albattat, Ali; Gruenwald, Benjamin C; Yucelen, Tansel

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an increased interest in physical systems controlled over wireless networks (networked control systems). These systems allow the computation of control signals via processors that are not attached to the physical systems, and the feedback loops are closed over wireless networks. The contribution of this paper is to design and analyze event-triggered decentralized and distributed adaptive control architectures for uncertain networked large-scale modular systems; that is, systems consist of physically-interconnected modules controlled over wireless networks. Specifically, the proposed adaptive architectures guarantee overall system stability while reducing wireless network utilization and achieving a given system performance in the presence of system uncertainties that can result from modeling and degraded modes of operation of the modules and their interconnections between each other. In addition to the theoretical findings including rigorous system stability and the boundedness analysis of the closed-loop dynamical system, as well as the characterization of the effect of user-defined event-triggering thresholds and the design parameters of the proposed adaptive architectures on the overall system performance, an illustrative numerical example is further provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed decentralized and distributed control approaches.

  15. On Event-Triggered Adaptive Architectures for Decentralized and Distributed Control of Large-Scale Modular Systems.

    PubMed

    Albattat, Ali; Gruenwald, Benjamin C; Yucelen, Tansel

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an increased interest in physical systems controlled over wireless networks (networked control systems). These systems allow the computation of control signals via processors that are not attached to the physical systems, and the feedback loops are closed over wireless networks. The contribution of this paper is to design and analyze event-triggered decentralized and distributed adaptive control architectures for uncertain networked large-scale modular systems; that is, systems consist of physically-interconnected modules controlled over wireless networks. Specifically, the proposed adaptive architectures guarantee overall system stability while reducing wireless network utilization and achieving a given system performance in the presence of system uncertainties that can result from modeling and degraded modes of operation of the modules and their interconnections between each other. In addition to the theoretical findings including rigorous system stability and the boundedness analysis of the closed-loop dynamical system, as well as the characterization of the effect of user-defined event-triggering thresholds and the design parameters of the proposed adaptive architectures on the overall system performance, an illustrative numerical example is further provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed decentralized and distributed control approaches. PMID:27537894

  16. On Event-Triggered Adaptive Architectures for Decentralized and Distributed Control of Large-Scale Modular Systems

    PubMed Central

    Albattat, Ali; Gruenwald, Benjamin C.; Yucelen, Tansel

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an increased interest in physical systems controlled over wireless networks (networked control systems). These systems allow the computation of control signals via processors that are not attached to the physical systems, and the feedback loops are closed over wireless networks. The contribution of this paper is to design and analyze event-triggered decentralized and distributed adaptive control architectures for uncertain networked large-scale modular systems; that is, systems consist of physically-interconnected modules controlled over wireless networks. Specifically, the proposed adaptive architectures guarantee overall system stability while reducing wireless network utilization and achieving a given system performance in the presence of system uncertainties that can result from modeling and degraded modes of operation of the modules and their interconnections between each other. In addition to the theoretical findings including rigorous system stability and the boundedness analysis of the closed-loop dynamical system, as well as the characterization of the effect of user-defined event-triggering thresholds and the design parameters of the proposed adaptive architectures on the overall system performance, an illustrative numerical example is further provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed decentralized and distributed control approaches. PMID:27537894

  17. Automated biometric access control system for two-man-rule enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.P.; Maxwell, R.L. ); Henderson, R.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a limited access control system for nuclear facilities which makes use of the eye retinal identity verifier to control the passage of personnel into and out of one or a group of security controlled working areas. This access control system requires no keys, cards or credentials. The user simply enters his Personal Identification Number (PIN) and takes an eye reading to request passage. The PIN does not have to be kept secret. The system then relies on biometric identity verification of the user, along with other system information, to make the decision of whether or not to unlock the door. It also enforces multiple zones control with personnel tracking and the two-man-rule.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Virtualization Techniques for Control and Access of Storage Systems in Data Center Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-09-01

    Virtualization is a new technology that creates virtual environments based on the existing physical resources. This article evaluates effect of virtualization techniques on control servers and access method in storage systems [1, 2]. In control server virtualization, we have presented a tile based evaluation based on heterogeneous workloads to compare several key parameters and demonstrate effectiveness of virtualization techniques. Moreover, we have evaluated the virtualized model using VMotion techniques and maximum consolidation. In access method, we have prepared three different scenarios using direct, semi-virtual, and virtual attachment models. We have evaluated the proposed models with several workloads including OLTP database, data streaming, file server, web server, etc. Results of evaluation for different criteria confirm that server virtualization technique has high throughput and CPU usage as well as good performance with noticeable agility. Also virtual technique is a successful alternative for accessing to the storage systems especially in large capacity systems. This technique can therefore be an effective solution for expansion of storage area and reduction of access time. Results of different evaluation and measurements demonstrate that the virtualization in control server and full virtual access provide better performance and more agility as well as more utilization in the systems and improve business continuity plan.

  19. Accessibility to tuberculosis control services and tuberculosis programme performance in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the expansion of health services and community-based interventions in Ethiopia, limited evidence exists about the distribution of and access to health facilities and their relationship with the performance of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We aim to assess the geographical distribution of and physical accessibility to TB control services and their relationship with TB case notification rates (CNRs) and treatment outcome in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. Design We carried out an ecological study to assess physical accessibility to TB control facilities and the association of physical accessibility with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. We collected smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) cases treated during 2003–2012 from unit TB registers and TB service data such as availability of basic supplies for TB control and geographic locations of health services. We used ArcGIS 10.2 to measure the distance from each enumeration location to the nearest TB control facilities. A linear regression analysis was employed to assess factors associated with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. Results Over a decade the health service coverage (the health facility–to-population ratio) increased by 36% and the accessibility to TB control facilities also improved. Thus, the mean distance from TB control services was 7.6 km in 2003 (ranging from 1.8 to 25.5 km) between kebeles (the smallest administrative units) and had decreased to 3.2 km in 2012 (ranging from 1.5 to 12.4 km). In multivariate linear regression, as distance from TB diagnostic facilities (b-estimate=−0.25, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.31, p<0.001) increased, the CNRs of TB decreased, whereas a higher population density was associated with increased TB CNRs. Similarly, distance to TB control facilities (b-estimate=−0.27, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.30, p<0.001) were inversely associated with treatment success (proportion of treatment completed or cured cases). Conclusions

  20. Nanoscale architectural tuning of parylene patch devices to control therapeutic release rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierstorff, Erik; Lam, Robert; Ho, Dean

    2008-11-01

    The advent of therapeutic functionalized implant coatings has significantly impacted the medical device field by enabling prolonged device functionality for enhanced patient treatment. Incorporation of drug release from a stable, biocompatible surface is instrumental in decreasing systemic application of toxic therapeutics and increasing the lifespan of implants by the incorporation of antibiotics and anti-inflammatories. In this study, we have developed a parylene C-based device for controlled release of Doxorubicin, an anti-cancer chemotherapy and definitive read-out for preserved drug functionality, and further characterized the parylene deposition condition-dependent tunability of drug release. Drug release is controlled by the deposition of a layer of 20-200 nm thick parylene over the drug layer. This places a porous layer above the Doxorubicin, limiting drug elution based on drug accessibility to solvent and the solvent used. An increase in the thickness of the porous top layer prolongs the elution of active drug from the device from, in the conditions tested, the order of 10 min to the order of 2 d in water and from the order of 10 min to no elution in PBS. Thus, the controlled release of an anti-cancer therapeutic has been achieved via scalably fabricated, parylene C-encapsulated drug delivery devices.

  1. Architecture Controls on Reservoir Performance of Zubair Formation, Rumaila and West Qurna Oilfields in the Southern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ziayyir, Haitham; Hodgetts, David

    2015-04-01

    The main reservoir in Rumaila /West Qurna oilfields is the Zubair Formation of Hautervian and Barremian age. This silicilastic formation extends over the regions of central and southern Iraq. This study attempts to improve the understanding of the architectural elements and their control on fluid flow paths within the Zubair Formation. A significant source of uncertainty in the zubair formation is the control on hydrodynamic pressure distribution. The reasons for pressure variation in the Zubair are not well understood. This work aims to reduce this uncertainty by providing a more detailed knowledge of reservoir architecture, distribution of barriers and baffles, and reservoir compartmentalization. To characterize the stratigraphic architecture of the Zubair formation,high resolution reservoir models that incorporate dynamic and static data were built. Facies modelling is accomplished by means of stochastic modelling techniques.The work is based on a large data set collected from the Rumaila oilfields. These data, comprising conventional logs of varying vintages, NMR logs, cores from six wells, and pressure data, were used for performing geological and petrophysical analyses.Flow simulation studies have also been applied to examine the impact of architecture on recovery. Understanding of geology and reservoir performance can be greatly improved by using an efficient, quick and viable integrated analysis, interpretation, and modelling.

  2. A Study on Automated Context-aware Access Control Model Using Ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bokman; Jang, Hyokyung; Choi, Euiin

    Applications in context-aware computing environment will be connected wireless network and various devices. According to, recklessness access of information resource can make trouble of system. So, access authority management is very important issue both information resource and adapt to system through founding security policy of needed system. But, existing security model is easy of approach to resource through simply user ID and password. This model has a problem that is not concerned about user's environment information. In this paper, propose model of automated context-aware access control using ontology that can more efficiently control about resource through inference and judgment of context information that collect user's information and user's environment context information in order to ontology modeling.

  3. Pace: Privacy-Protection for Access Control Enforcement in P2P Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Artigas, Marc; García-López, Pedro

    In open environments such as peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, the decision to collaborate with multiple users — e.g., by granting access to a resource — is hard to achieve in practice due to extreme decentralization and the lack of trusted third parties. The literature contains a plethora of applications in which a scalable solution for distributed access control is crucial. This fact motivates us to propose a protocol to enforce access control, applicable to networks consisting entirely of untrusted nodes. The main feature of our protocol is that it protects both sensitive permissions and sensitive policies, and does not rely on any centralized authority. We analyze the efficiency (computational effort and communication overhead) as well as the security of our protocol.

  4. FTS2000 network architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenart, John

    1991-01-01

    The network architecture of FTS2000 is graphically depicted. A map of network A topology is provided, with interservice nodes. Next, the four basic element of the architecture is laid out. Then, the FTS2000 time line is reproduced. A list of equipment supporting FTS2000 dedicated transmissions is given. Finally, access alternatives are shown.

  5. The architecture of the active surface control system of the Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souccar, Kamal; Wallace, Gary; Grosslein, Ron; Schloerb, F. Peter

    2014-07-01

    One of the fundamental design principles of the LMT is that its segmented primary surface must be active: the position and orientation of each of the segments must be moved in order to maintain the precise parabolic surface that is required by the specifications. Consequently, a system of actuators, one at the corner of each segment, is used to move the segments to counteract surface deformations attributed to gravity or thermal effects. A new control system was designed and built within the project to implement an active surface at the LMT. The technical concept for the active surface control system is to provide a set of bus boxes with built-in control and I/O capabilities to run four actuators each. Bus boxes read the LVDT sensor position and limit switch status for each actuator and use this information to drive the actuator's DC motor, closing the position loop. Each bus box contains a DC power supply for the electronics, a second DC power supply for the motors, an embedded controller with I/O to close the position loop, and a custom printed circuit board to condition the LVDT signals and drive the motors. An interface printed circuit board resides in each actuator providing a single connector access to the LVDT, the motor, and the limit switches. During the fall of 2013, 84 bus boxes were commissioned to control the 336 actuators of the inner three rings of the telescope. The surface correction model was determined using holography measurements and the active surface system has been in regular use during the scientific observation at the LMT.

  6. Hysteresis-based congestion control at the B-ISDN access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissing, Johannes

    1993-11-01

    Multiplexing of bursty sources and refined congestion control strategies are still the subject of numerous research activities. Broadband applications with very high peak-to-mean bitrate ratio and long silence periods like still picture video gave rise to different ideas of rate control at the B-ISDN network access. Contributions on Input Rate Control for source coded traffic as well as on Server Rate Control within a LAN/ATM Interworking Unit have recently been presented. This paper addresses a congestion avoidance strategy at the network access regarding the aggregated traffic of bursty sources. Depending on the number of active sources as well as on certain defined congestion levels the cell rate at the network access is controlled. The proposed analytical approach is based on the model of uniform and continuous arrival and service. The selected underlying Markov chain contains `split' states in order to handle the congestion correlation. The proposed model is extended to an adaptive Non-Markov system where the buffer filling level is evaluated using a switching hysteresis. This type of congestion measurement turns out to be very useful for an adaptive rate control mechanism that guarantees a certain quality of service while still achieving a good statistical gain. The analytical approach is confirmed by results of a computer simulation that is extended to the more complex case of adaptive rate control.

  7. The need for the use of XACML access control policy in a distributed EHR and some performance considerations.

    PubMed

    Sucurovic, Snezana; Milutinovic, Veljko

    2008-01-01

    The Internet based distributed large scale information systems implements attribute based access control (ABAC) rather than Role Based Access Control (RBAC). The reason is that the Internet is identity less and that ABAC scales better. EXtensible Access Control Markup Language is standardized language for writing access control policies, access control requests and access control responses in ABAC. XACML can provide decentralized administration and credentials distribution. In year 2002 version of CEN ENV 13 606 attributes have been attached to EHCR components and in such a system ABAC and XACML have been easy to implement. This paper presents writing XACML policies in the case when attributes are in hierarchical structure. It is presented two possible solutions to write XACML policy in that case and that the solution when set functions are used is more compact and provides 10% better performances.

  8. Prevention and Control of Dental Disease through Improved Access to Comprehensive Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL.

    Prevention of dental disease is the key to improving the nation's oral health. The American Dental Association (ADA) program of prevention and control of dental disease through improved access to comprehensive care concentrates on those who have special difficulties in receiving care: the poor, the elderly, the handicapped, the institutionalized…

  9. Mining Roles and Access Control for Relational Data under Privacy and Accuracy Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pervaiz, Zahid

    2013-01-01

    Access control mechanisms protect sensitive information from unauthorized users. However, when sensitive information is shared and a Privacy Protection Mechanism (PPM) is not in place, an authorized insider can still compromise the privacy of a person leading to identity disclosure. A PPM can use suppression and generalization to anonymize and…

  10. 77 FR 26789 - Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... violation of section 337 in the infringement of certain patents. 73 FR 75131. The principal respondent was... order. 75 FR 44989-90 (July 30, 2010). The Commission also issued cease and desist orders against those... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers...

  11. Predicting Health Care Utilization among Latinos: Health Locus of Control Beliefs or Access Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jesus, Maria; Xiao, Chenyang

    2014-01-01

    There are two competing research explanations to account for Latinos' underutilization of health services relative to non-Latino Whites in the United States. One hypothesis examines the impact of health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs, while the other focuses on the role of access factors on health care use. To date, the relative strength of…

  12. An Annotated and Cross-Referenced Bibliography on Computer Security and Access Control in Computer Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergart, Jeffrey G.; And Others

    This paper represents a careful study of published works on computer security and access control in computer systems. The study includes a selective annotated bibliography of some eighty-five important published results in the field and, based on these papers, analyzes the state of the art. In annotating these works, the authors try to be…

  13. 75 FR 47464 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Final Rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Copyright Office makes a nonsubstantial correction to its regulation announcing...

  14. 36 CFR 1256.70 - What controls access to national security-classified information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... materials; 44 U.S.C. 2111, 44 U.S.C. 2201 et seq., and 36 CFR part 1270 for Presidential records; and 44 U.S.C. 2111 note and 36 CFR part 1275 for Nixon Presidential materials. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What controls access...

  15. Secure Access Control and Large Scale Robust Representation for Online Multimedia Event Detection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changyu; Li, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    We developed an online multimedia event detection (MED) system. However, there are a secure access control issue and a large scale robust representation issue when we want to integrate traditional event detection algorithms into the online environment. For the first issue, we proposed a tree proxy-based and service-oriented access control (TPSAC) model based on the traditional role based access control model. Verification experiments were conducted on the CloudSim simulation platform, and the results showed that the TPSAC model is suitable for the access control of dynamic online environments. For the second issue, inspired by the object-bank scene descriptor, we proposed a 1000-object-bank (1000OBK) event descriptor. Feature vectors of the 1000OBK were extracted from response pyramids of 1000 generic object detectors which were trained on standard annotated image datasets, such as the ImageNet dataset. A spatial bag of words tiling approach was then adopted to encode these feature vectors for bridging the gap between the objects and events. Furthermore, we performed experiments in the context of event classification on the challenging TRECVID MED 2012 dataset, and the results showed that the robust 1000OBK event descriptor outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:25147840

  16. Secure access control and large scale robust representation for online multimedia event detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changyu; Lu, Bin; Li, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    We developed an online multimedia event detection (MED) system. However, there are a secure access control issue and a large scale robust representation issue when we want to integrate traditional event detection algorithms into the online environment. For the first issue, we proposed a tree proxy-based and service-oriented access control (TPSAC) model based on the traditional role based access control model. Verification experiments were conducted on the CloudSim simulation platform, and the results showed that the TPSAC model is suitable for the access control of dynamic online environments. For the second issue, inspired by the object-bank scene descriptor, we proposed a 1000-object-bank (1000OBK) event descriptor. Feature vectors of the 1000OBK were extracted from response pyramids of 1000 generic object detectors which were trained on standard annotated image datasets, such as the ImageNet dataset. A spatial bag of words tiling approach was then adopted to encode these feature vectors for bridging the gap between the objects and events. Furthermore, we performed experiments in the context of event classification on the challenging TRECVID MED 2012 dataset, and the results showed that the robust 1000OBK event descriptor outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches.

  17. Control of Access to Memory: The Use of Task Interference as a Behavioral Probe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Humphreys, Michael S.; Whitney, Susannah J.

    2008-01-01

    Directed forgetting and prospective memory methods were combined to examine differences in the control of memory access. Between studying two lists of target words, participants were either instructed to forget the first list, or to continue remembering the first list. After study participants performed a lexical decision task with an additional…

  18. The Role of Automatic Indexing in Access Control: A Modular View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartson, H. Rex

    1974-01-01

    A model which relates the access control and indexing functions. The model is based on concept protection which allows a practically unbounded number of levels (subsets) of protection without requiring a fixed hierarchy among the levels. This protection is offered independently for each of the user operations allowed. (Author)

  19. 50 CFR 648.92 - Effort-control program for monkfish limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effort-control program for monkfish limited access vessels. 648.92 Section 648.92 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.92...

  20. An Access Control and Trust Management Framework for Loosely-Coupled Multidomain Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yue

    2010-01-01

    Multidomain environments where multiple organizations interoperate with each other are becoming a reality as can be seen in emerging Internet-based enterprise applications. Access control to ensure secure interoperation in such an environment is a crucial challenge. A multidomain environment can be categorized as "tightly-coupled" and…