Science.gov

Sample records for access control markup

  1. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  2. Toward a Unified Docuverse: Standardizing Document Markup and Access without Procrustean Bargains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Nancy M.; Sperberg-McQueen, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    In the case of digital collections of text, provision of a simple unified user interface faces several challenges, among them a tension between intellectual adequacy and simplicity of access. Examines the question of how to allow cross-collection searching and display while preserving the variation in texts and their markup and points to…

  3. Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zschocke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

  4. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  5. A Leaner, Meaner Markup Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online & CD-ROM Review, 1997

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 a working group of the World Wide Web Consortium developed and released a simpler form of markup language, Extensible Markup Language (XML), combining the flexibility of standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) and the Web suitability of HyperText Markup Language (HTML). Reviews SGML and discusses XML's suitability for journal…

  6. Improving School Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Few things are more important for school safety and security than controlling access to buildings and grounds. It is relatively easy to incorporate effective access control measures in new school designs but more difficult in existing schools, where most building and site features cannot be readily altered or reconfigured. The National…

  7. CAS. Controlled Access Security

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Pomeroy, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Security Alarm System is a data acquisition and control system which collects data from intrusion sensors and displays the information in a real-time environment for operators. The Access Control System monitors and controls the movement of personnel with the use of card readers and biometrics hand readers.

  8. A Framework for Context Sensitive Risk-Based Access Control in Medical Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Donghee; Kim, Dohoon; Park, Seog

    2015-01-01

    Since the access control environment has changed and the threat of insider information leakage has come to the fore, studies on risk-based access control models that decide access permissions dynamically have been conducted vigorously. Medical information systems should protect sensitive data such as medical information from insider threat and enable dynamic access control depending on the context such as life-threatening emergencies. In this paper, we suggest an approach and framework for context sensitive risk-based access control suitable for medical information systems. This approach categorizes context information, estimating and applying risk through context- and treatment-based permission profiling and specifications by expanding the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) to apply risk. The proposed framework supports quick responses to medical situations and prevents unnecessary insider data access through dynamic access authorization decisions in accordance with the severity of the context and treatment. PMID:26075013

  9. A Framework for Context Sensitive Risk-Based Access Control in Medical Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Donghee; Kim, Dohoon; Park, Seog

    2015-01-01

    Since the access control environment has changed and the threat of insider information leakage has come to the fore, studies on risk-based access control models that decide access permissions dynamically have been conducted vigorously. Medical information systems should protect sensitive data such as medical information from insider threat and enable dynamic access control depending on the context such as life-threatening emergencies. In this paper, we suggest an approach and framework for context sensitive risk-based access control suitable for medical information systems. This approach categorizes context information, estimating and applying risk through context- and treatment-based permission profiling and specifications by expanding the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) to apply risk. The proposed framework supports quick responses to medical situations and prevents unnecessary insider data access through dynamic access authorization decisions in accordance with the severity of the context and treatment. PMID:26075013

  10. Mobile access control vestibule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePoy, Jennifer M.

    1998-12-01

    The mobile access control vestibule (MACV) is an adaptation of techniques developed for mobile military command centers. The overall configuration of modules acts as an entry control/screening facility or transportable command center. The system would provide the following capabilities: (1) A key element for force protection, rapid deployment units sent to areas having no prepositioned equipment or where there has been a degradation of that equipment as a result of natural disasters or civil unrest. (2) A rapidly deployable security control center to upgrade the security at nonmilitary sites (e.g., diplomatic or humanitarian organizations). (3) Personnel screening, package screening, badge/identification card production for authorized personnel, centralized monitoring of deployed perimeter sensors, and centralized communications for law enforcement personnel. (4) Self-contained screening and threat detection systems, including explosives detection using the system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the FAA. When coupled with transportable electric generators, the system is self-sufficient. The communication system for the MACV would be a combination of physically wired and wireless communication units that supports by ad hoc networking.

  11. IML: An image markup language.

    PubMed Central

    Lober, W. B.; Trigg, L. J.; Bliss, D.; Brinkley, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Image Markup Language is an extensible markup language (XML) schema used to describe both image metadata and annotations. It describes both data pertaining to an entire image, and data that are tied to specific regions or features of the image. Developed for a specific domain in Medical Education, this pa-per describes extensions to take advantage of the Dublin Core metadata standard, and of an XML schema for vector graphics representation. We have developed a prototype system of open source tools implementing an authoring system, a client system, and an image annotation database which can be queried though the Web. PMID:11825219

  12. An approach to access control in electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Sucurovic, Snezana

    2010-08-01

    OASIS is a non-for-profit consortium that drives the development convergence and adoption of open standards for the global information society. It involves more than 600 organizations and individuals as well as IT leaders Sun, Microsoft, IBM and Oracle. One of its standards is XACML which appeared a few years ago and now there are about 150,000 hits on Google. XACML (eXtensible Access Control Markup Language) is not technology related. Sun published in 2004 open source Sun XACML which is in compliance with XACML 1.0. specification and now works to make it comply with XACML 2.0. The heart of XACML are attributes values of defined type and name that is to be attached to a subject, a resource, an action and an environment in which a subject request action on resource. In that way XACML is to replace Role Based Access Control which dominated for years. The paper examines performances in CEN 13 606 and ISO 22 600 based healthcare system which uses XACML for access control.

  13. The need for the use of XACML access control policy in a distributed EHR and some performance considerations.

    PubMed

    Sucurovic, Snezana; Milutinovic, Veljko

    2008-01-01

    The Internet based distributed large scale information systems implements attribute based access control (ABAC) rather than Role Based Access Control (RBAC). The reason is that the Internet is identity less and that ABAC scales better. EXtensible Access Control Markup Language is standardized language for writing access control policies, access control requests and access control responses in ABAC. XACML can provide decentralized administration and credentials distribution. In year 2002 version of CEN ENV 13 606 attributes have been attached to EHCR components and in such a system ABAC and XACML have been easy to implement. This paper presents writing XACML policies in the case when attributes are in hierarchical structure. It is presented two possible solutions to write XACML policy in that case and that the solution when set functions are used is more compact and provides 10% better performances.

  14. TOML - Telescope Observation Markup Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Witt, S.; Jenness, T.; Economou, F.; Folger, M.

    2005-12-01

    Telescope Observation Markup Language (TOML) has been developed by the Joint Astronomy Centre as a means of expressing an astronomical observing program in XML. It provides a means of encoding a program developed using a graphical tool in a language neutral format which can be sent over the web to a database or a colleague who is also working on the same project. This can then be loaded into any tool capable of accepting TOML.

  15. LANSCE personnel access control system

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  16. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    PubMed Central

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Mandelli, Laura; Iosue, Miriam; Andrisano, Costanza; Roy, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies. PMID:22408588

  17. ACCESS: Detector Control and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Bohlin, R.; Kurucz, R. L.; Riess, A. G.; Pelton, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (companion poster, Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been selected and integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been successfully performed. Further improvements to the flight controller housing have been made. A cryogenic ground test system has been built. Dark current and read noise tests have been performed, yielding results consistent with the initial characterization tests of the detector performed by Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL). Detector control software has been developed and implemented for ground testing. Performance and integration of the detector and controller with the flight software will be presented. NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  18. XML Based Markup Languages for Specific Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varde, Aparna; Rundensteiner, Elke; Fahrenholz, Sally

    A challenging area in web based support systems is the study of human activities in connection with the web, especially with reference to certain domains. This includes capturing human reasoning in information retrieval, facilitating the exchange of domain-specific knowledge through a common platform and developing tools for the analysis of data on the web from a domain expert's angle. Among the techniques and standards related to such work, we have XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This serves as a medium of communication for storing and publishing textual, numeric and other forms of data seamlessly. XML tag sets are such that they preserve semantics and simplify the understanding of stored information by users. Often domain-specific markup languages are designed using XML, with a user-centric perspective. Standardization bodies and research communities may extend these to include additional semantics of areas within and related to the domain. This chapter outlines the issues to be considered in developing domain-specific markup languages: the motivation for development, the semantic considerations, the syntactic constraints and other relevant aspects, especially taking into account human factors. Illustrating examples are provided from domains such as Medicine, Finance and Materials Science. Particular emphasis in these examples is on the Materials Markup Language MatML and the semantics of one of its areas, namely, the Heat Treating of Materials. The focus of this chapter, however, is not the design of one particular language but rather the generic issues concerning the development of domain-specific markup languages.

  19. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, Portia

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation presents NASA's Common Badging and Access Control System. NASA began a Smart Card implementation in January 2004. Following site surveys, it was determined that NASA's badging and access control systems required upgrades to common infrastructure in order to provide flexibly, usability, and return on investment prior to a smart card implantation. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) provides the common infrastructure from which FIPS-201 compliant processes, systems, and credentials can be developed and used.

  20. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  1. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  2. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  3. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  4. Proximity Displays for Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaniea, Kami

    2012-01-01

    Managing access to shared digital information, such as photographs and documents. is difficult for end users who are accumulating an increasingly large and diverse collection of data that they want to share with others. Current policy-management solutions require a user to proactively seek out and open a separate policy-management interface when…

  5. Formal Description of Trust-based Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoning, Ma

    Different from traditional access control technologies, such as discretionary access control, mandatory access control, role-based access control, trust-based access control can solve the problem of uncertainty, risk and vulnerability coming from authorization. In this paper, strict definition and formal description of trust-based access control is defined.

  6. Developing a Markup Language for Encoding Graphic Content in Plan Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jinghuan

    2009-01-01

    While deliberating and making decisions, participants in urban development processes need easy access to the pertinent content scattered among different plans. A Planning Markup Language (PML) has been proposed to represent the underlying structure of plans in an XML-compliant way. However, PML currently covers only textual information and lacks…

  7. A method to implement fine-grained access control for personal health records through standard relational database queries.

    PubMed

    Sujansky, Walter V; Faus, Sam A; Stone, Ethan; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2010-10-01

    Online personal health records (PHRs) enable patients to access, manage, and share certain of their own health information electronically. This capability creates the need for precise access-controls mechanisms that restrict the sharing of data to that intended by the patient. The authors describe the design and implementation of an access-control mechanism for PHR repositories that is modeled on the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) standard, but intended to reduce the cognitive and computational complexity of XACML. The authors implemented the mechanism entirely in a relational database system using ANSI-standard SQL statements. Based on a set of access-control rules encoded as relational table rows, the mechanism determines via a single SQL query whether a user who accesses patient data from a specific application is authorized to perform a requested operation on a specified data object. Testing of this query on a moderately large database has demonstrated execution times consistently below 100ms. The authors include the details of the implementation, including algorithms, examples, and a test database as Supplementary materials.

  8. Evaluation of an automatic markup system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghva, Kazem; Condit, Allen; Borsack, Julie

    1995-03-01

    One predominant application of OCR is the recognition of full text documents for information retrieval. Modern retrieval systems exploit both the textual content of the document as well as its structure. The relationship between textual content and character accuracy have been the focus of recent studies. It has been shown that due to the redundancies in text, average precision and recall is not heavily affected by OCR character errors. What is not fully known is to what extent OCR devices can provide reliable information that can be used to capture the structure of the document. In this paper, we present a preliminary report on the design and evaluation of a system to automatically markup technical documents, based on information provided by an OCR device. The device we use differs from traditional OCR devices in that it not only performs optical character recognition, but also provides detailed information about page layout, word geometry, and font usage. Our automatic markup program, which we call Autotag, uses this information, combined with dictionary lookup and content analysis, to identify structural components of the text. These include the document title, author information, abstract, sections, section titles, paragraphs, sentences, and de-hyphenated words. A visual examination of the hardcopy is compared to the output of our markup system to determine its correctness.

  9. An evaluation of an automatic markup system

    SciTech Connect

    Taghva, K.; Condit, A.; Borsack, J.

    1995-04-01

    One predominant application of OCR is the recognition of full text documents for information retrieval. Modern retrieval systems exploit both the textual content of the document as well as its structure. The relationship between textual content and character accuracy have been the focus of recent studies. It has been shown that due to the redundancies in text, average precision and recall is not heavily affected by OCR character errors. What is not fully known is to what extent OCR devices can provide reliable information that can be used to capture the structure of the document. In this paper, the authors present a preliminary report on the design and evaluation of a system to automatically markup technical documents, based on information provided by an OCR device. The device the authors use differs from traditional OCR devices in that it not only performs optical character recognition, but also provides detailed information about page layout, word geometry, and font usage. Their automatic markup program, which they call Autotag, uses this information, combined with dictionary, lookup and content analysis, to identify structural components of the text. These include the document title, author information, abstract, sections, section titles, paragraphs, sentences, and de-hyphenated words. A visual examination of the hardcopy will be compared to the output of their markup system to determine its correctness.

  10. Access Control Management for SCADA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seng-Phil; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Xu, Wenjuan

    The information technology revolution has transformed all aspects of our society including critical infrastructures and led a significant shift from their old and disparate business models based on proprietary and legacy environments to more open and consolidated ones. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems have been widely used not only for industrial processes but also for some experimental facilities. Due to the nature of open environments, managing SCADA systems should meet various security requirements since system administrators need to deal with a large number of entities and functions involved in critical infrastructures. In this paper, we identify necessary access control requirements in SCADA systems and articulate access control policies for the simulated SCADA systems. We also attempt to analyze and realize those requirements and policies in the context of role-based access control that is suitable for simplifying administrative tasks in large scale enterprises.

  11. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR... activation of the control. (g) Each entrance to the radiation room of a panoramic irradiator and each... required by 10 CFR 20.1902. Radiation postings for panoramic irradiators must comply with the...

  12. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR... activation of the control. (g) Each entrance to the radiation room of a panoramic irradiator and each... required by 10 CFR 20.1902. Radiation postings for panoramic irradiators must comply with the...

  13. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR... activation of the control. (g) Each entrance to the radiation room of a panoramic irradiator and each... required by 10 CFR 20.1902. Radiation postings for panoramic irradiators must comply with the...

  14. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR... activation of the control. (g) Each entrance to the radiation room of a panoramic irradiator and each... required by 10 CFR 20.1902. Radiation postings for panoramic irradiators must comply with the...

  15. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR... activation of the control. (g) Each entrance to the radiation room of a panoramic irradiator and each... required by 10 CFR 20.1902. Radiation postings for panoramic irradiators must comply with the...

  16. The Ins and Outs of Access Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longworth, David

    1999-01-01

    Presents basic considerations when school districts plan to acquire an access-control system for their education facilities. Topics cover cards and readers, controllers, software, automation, card technology, expandability, price, specification of needs beyond the canned specifications already supplied, and proper usage training to cardholders.…

  17. The linked medical data access control framework.

    PubMed

    Kamateri, Eleni; Kalampokis, Evangelos; Tambouris, Efthimios; Tarabanis, Konstantinos

    2014-08-01

    The integration of medical data coming from multiple sources is important in clinical research. Amongst others, it enables the discovery of appropriate subjects in patient-oriented research and the identification of innovative results in epidemiological studies. At the same time, the integration of medical data faces significant ethical and legal challenges that impose access constraints. Some of these issues can be addressed by making available aggregated instead of raw record-level data. In many cases however, there is still a need for controlling access even to the resulting aggregated data, e.g., due to data provider's policies. In this paper we present the Linked Medical Data Access Control (LiMDAC) framework that capitalizes on Linked Data technologies to enable controlling access to medical data across distributed sources with diverse access constraints. The LiMDAC framework consists of three Linked Data models, namely the LiMDAC metadata model, the LiMDAC user profile model, and the LiMDAC access policy model. It also includes an architecture that exploits these models. Based on the framework, a proof-of-concept platform is developed and its performance and functionality are evaluated by employing two usage scenarios.

  18. Chemical Markup, XML and the World-Wide Web. 8. Polymer Markup Language.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nico; Winter, Jerry; Murray-Rust, Peter; Rzepa, Henry S

    2008-11-01

    Polymers are among the most important classes of materials but are only inadequately supported by modern informatics. The paper discusses the reasons why polymer informatics is considerably more challenging than small molecule informatics and develops a vision for the computer-aided design of polymers, based on modern semantic web technologies. The paper then discusses the development of Polymer Markup Language (PML). PML is an extensible language, designed to support the (structural) representation of polymers and polymer-related information. PML closely interoperates with Chemical Markup Language (CML) and overcomes a number of the previously identified challenges.

  19. Access control mechanisms for distributed healthcare environments.

    PubMed

    Sergl-Pommerening, Marita

    2004-01-01

    Today's IT-infrastructure provides more and more possibilities to share electronic patient data across several healthcare organizations and hospital departments. A strong requirement is sufficient data protection and security measures complying with the medical confidentiality and the data protection laws of each state or country like the European directive on data protection or the U.S. HIPAA privacy rule. In essence, the access control mechanisms and authorization structures of information systems must be able to realize the Need-To-Access principle. This principle can be understood as a set of context-sensitive access rules, regarding the patient's path across the organizations. The access control mechanisms of today's health information systems do not sufficiently satisfy this requirement, because information about participation of persons or organizations is not available within each system in a distributed environment. This problem could be solved by appropriate security services. The CORBA healthcare domain standard contains such a service for obtaining authorization decisions and administrating access decision policies (RAD). At the university hospital of Mainz we have developed an access control system (MACS), which includes the main functionality of the RAD specification and the access control logic that is needed for such a service. The basic design principles of our approach are role-based authorization, user rights with static and dynamic authorization data, context rules and the separation of three cooperating servers that provide up-to-date knowledge about users, roles and responsibilities. This paper introduces the design principles and the system design and critically evaluates the concepts based on practical experience.

  20. Semantic Markup for Literary Scholars: How Descriptive Markup Affects the Study and Teaching of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, D. Grant

    2002-01-01

    Describes a qualitative study which investigated the attitudes of literary scholars towards the features of semantic markup for primary texts in XML format. Suggests that layout is a vital part of the reading process which implies that the standardization of DTDs (Document Type Definitions) should extend to styling as well. (Author/LRW)

  1. Network Access Control List Situation Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifers, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Network security is a large and complex problem being addressed by multiple communities. Nevertheless, current theories in networking security appear to overestimate network administrators' ability to understand network access control lists (NACLs), providing few context specific user analyses. Consequently, the current research generally seems to…

  2. Atom-Role-Based Access Control Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Weihong; Huang, Richeng; Hou, Xiaoli; Wei, Gang; Xiao, Shui; Chen, Yindong

    Role-based access control (RBAC) model has been widely recognized as an efficient access control model and becomes a hot research topic of information security at present. However, in the large-scale enterprise application environments, the traditional RBAC model based on the role hierarchy has the following deficiencies: Firstly, it is unable to reflect the role relationships in complicated cases effectively, which does not accord with practical applications. Secondly, the senior role unconditionally inherits all permissions of the junior role, thus if a user is under the supervisor role, he may accumulate all permissions, and this easily causes the abuse of permission and violates the least privilege principle, which is one of the main security principles. To deal with these problems, we, after analyzing permission types and role relationships, proposed the concept of atom role and built an atom-role-based access control model, called ATRBAC, by dividing the permission set of each regular role based on inheritance path relationships. Through the application-specific analysis, this model can well meet the access control requirements.

  3. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. Methods We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007). Results Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with < US $25,000 due to governmental resource-sharing. The network operated at break-even profit, leaving little room to lower medicine prices and mark-ups. Medicine mark-ups needed for sustainability were greater than originally envisioned by network administration. In 2005, 55%, 35%, and 10% of the network's top 50 products revealed mark-ups of < 50%, 50-99% and > 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of < 50% and 50-99%, respectively; while 35% of products revealed mark-ups > 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using

  4. Speed control system for an access gate

    SciTech Connect

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2012-03-20

    An access control apparatus for an access gate. The access gate typically has a rotator that is configured to rotate around a rotator axis at a first variable speed in a forward direction. The access control apparatus may include a transmission that typically has an input element that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input element is generally configured to rotate at an input speed that is proportional to the first variable speed. The transmission typically also has an output element that has an output speed that is higher than the input speed. The input element and the output element may rotate around a common transmission axis. A retardation mechanism may be employed. The retardation mechanism is typically configured to rotate around a retardation mechanism axis. Generally the retardation mechanism is operatively connected to the output element of the transmission and is configured to retard motion of the access gate in the forward direction when the first variable speed is above a control-limit speed. In many embodiments the transmission axis and the retardation mechanism axis are substantially co-axial. Some embodiments include a freewheel/catch mechanism that has an input connection that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input connection may be configured to engage an output connection when the rotator is rotated at the first variable speed in a forward direction and configured for substantially unrestricted rotation when the rotator is rotated in a reverse direction opposite the forward direction. The input element of the transmission is typically operatively connected to the output connection of the freewheel/catch mechanism.

  5. An Introduction to the Extensible Markup Language (XML).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Describes Extensible Markup Language (XML), a subset of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that is designed to make it easy to interchange structured documents over the Internet. Topics include Document Type Definition (DTD), components of XML, the use of XML, text and non-text elements, and uses for XML-coded files. (LRW)

  6. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldridge, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the project are: Achieve high business value through a common badging and access control system that integrates with smart cards. Provide physical (versus logical) deployment of smart cards initially. Provides a common consistent and reliable environment into which to release the smart card. Gives opportunity to develop agency-wide consistent processes, practices and policies. Enables enterprise data capture and management. Promotes data validation prior to SC issuance.

  7. External access to ALICE controls conditions data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadlovský, J.; Jadlovská, A.; Sarnovský, J.; Jajčišin, Š.; Čopík, M.; Jadlovská, S.; Papcun, P.; Bielek, R.; Čerkala, J.; Kopčík, M.; Chochula, P.; Augustinus, A.

    2014-06-01

    ALICE Controls data produced by commercial SCADA system WINCCOA is stored in ORACLE database on the private experiment network. The SCADA system allows for basic access and processing of the historical data. More advanced analysis requires tools like ROOT and needs therefore a separate access method to the archives. The present scenario expects that detector experts create simple WINCCOA scripts, which retrieves and stores data in a form usable for further studies. This relatively simple procedure generates a lot of administrative overhead - users have to request the data, experts needed to run the script, the results have to be exported outside of the experiment network. The new mechanism profits from database replica, which is running on the CERN campus network. Access to this database is not restricted and there is no risk of generating a heavy load affecting the operation of the experiment. The developed tools presented in this paper allow for access to this data. The users can use web-based tools to generate the requests, consisting of the data identifiers and period of time of interest. The administrators maintain full control over the data - an authorization and authentication mechanism helps to assign privileges to selected users and restrict access to certain groups of data. Advanced caching mechanism allows the user to profit from the presence of already processed data sets. This feature significantly reduces the time required for debugging as the retrieval of raw data can last tens of minutes. A highly configurable client allows for information retrieval bypassing the interactive interface. This method is for example used by ALICE Offline to extract operational conditions after a run is completed. Last but not least, the software can be easily adopted to any underlying database structure and is therefore not limited to WINCCOA.

  8. Access control and confidentiality in radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumeir, Rita; Chafik, Adil

    2005-04-01

    A medical record contains a large amount of data about the patient such as height, weight and blood pressure. It also contains sensitive information such as fertility, abortion, psychiatric data, sexually transmitted diseases and diagnostic results. Access to this information must be carefully controlled. Information technology has greatly improved patient care. The recent extensive deployment of digital medical images made diagnostic images promptly available to healthcare decision makers, regardless of their geographic location. Medical images are digitally archived, transferred on telecommunication networks, and visualized on computer screens. However, with the widespread use of computing and communication technologies in healthcare, the issue of data security has become increasingly important. Most of the work until now has focused on the security of data communication to ensure its integrity, authentication, confidentiality and user accountability. The mechanisms that have been proposed to achieve the security of data communication are not specific to healthcare. Data integrity can be achieved with data signature. Data authentication can be achieved with certificate exchange. Data confidentiality can be achieved with encryption. User accountability can be achieved with audits. Although these mechanisms are essential to ensure data security during its transfer on the network, access control is needed in order to ensure data confidentiality and privacy within the information system application. In this paper, we present and discuss an access control mechanism that takes into account the notion of a care process. Radiology information is categorized and a model to enforce data privacy is proposed.

  9. Collaborative Access Control For Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baina, Amine; El Kalam, Anas Abou; Deswarte, Yves; Kaaniche, Mohamed

    A critical infrastructure (CI) can fail with various degrees of severity due to physical and logical vulnerabilities. Since many interdependencies exist between CIs, failures can have dramatic consequences on the entire infrastructure. This paper focuses on threats that affect information and communication systems that constitute the critical information infrastructure (CII). A new collaborative access control framework called PolyOrBAC is proposed to address security problems that are specific to CIIs. The framework offers each organization participating in a CII the ability to collaborate with other organizations while maintaining control of its resources and internal security policy. The approach is demonstrated on a practical scenario involving the electrical power grid.

  10. 14 CFR 420.53 - Control of public access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of public access. 420.53 Section....53 Control of public access. (a) A licensee shall prevent unauthorized access to the launch site, and unauthorized, unescorted access to explosive hazard facilities or other hazard areas not otherwise...

  11. Cardea: Dynamic Access Control in Distributed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepro, Rebekah

    2004-01-01

    Modern authorization systems span domains of administration, rely on many different authentication sources, and manage complex attributes as part of the authorization process. This . paper presents Cardea, a distributed system that facilitates dynamic access control, as a valuable piece of an inter-operable authorization framework. First, the authorization model employed in Cardea and its functionality goals are examined. Next, critical features of the system architecture and its handling of the authorization process are then examined. Then the S A M L and XACML standards, as incorporated into the system, are analyzed. Finally, the future directions of this project are outlined and connection points with general components of an authorization system are highlighted.

  12. Situation-Based Access Control: privacy management via modeling of patient data access scenarios.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Mor; Beimel, Dizza; Dori, Dov; Denekamp, Yaron

    2008-12-01

    Access control is a central problem in privacy management. A common practice in controlling access to sensitive data, such as electronic health records (EHRs), is Role-Based Access Control (RBAC). RBAC is limited as it does not account for the circumstances under which access to sensitive data is requested. Following a qualitative study that elicited access scenarios, we used Object-Process Methodology to structure the scenarios and conceive a Situation-Based Access Control (SitBAC) model. SitBAC is a conceptual model, which defines scenarios where patient's data access is permitted or denied. The main concept underlying this model is the Situation Schema, which is a pattern consisting of the entities Data-Requestor, Patient, EHR, Access Task, Legal-Authorization, and Response, along with their properties and relations. The various data access scenarios are expressed via Situation Instances. While we focus on the medical domain, the model is generic and can be adapted to other domains.

  13. Concurrency and Time in Role-Based Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chia-Chu; Bayrak, Coskun

    Role-based access control (RBAC) has been proposed as an alternative solution for expressing access control policies. The generalized temporal RBAC (GTRBAC) extends RBAC by adding time in order to support timed based access control policies. However, GTRBAC does not address certain issues of concurrency such as, synchronization. We propose an approach to the expressions of time and concurrency in RBAC based on timed Petri nets. A formal verification method for access control policies is also proposed.

  14. Application-Defined Decentralized Access Control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Dunn, Alan M; Hofmann, Owen S; Lee, Michael Z; Mehdi, Syed Akbar; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    DCAC is a practical OS-level access control system that supports application-defined principals. It allows normal users to perform administrative operations within their privilege, enabling isolation and privilege separation for applications. It does not require centralized policy specification or management, giving applications freedom to manage their principals while the policies are still enforced by the OS. DCAC uses hierarchically-named attributes as a generic framework for user-defined policies such as groups defined by normal users. For both local and networked file systems, its execution time overhead is between 0%-9% on file system microbenchmarks, and under 1% on applications. This paper shows the design and implementation of DCAC, as well as several real-world use cases, including sandboxing applications, enforcing server applications' security policies, supporting NFS, and authenticating user-defined sub-principals in SSH, all with minimal code changes.

  15. Application-Defined Decentralized Access Control

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Dunn, Alan M.; Hofmann, Owen S.; Lee, Michael Z.; Mehdi, Syed Akbar; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    DCAC is a practical OS-level access control system that supports application-defined principals. It allows normal users to perform administrative operations within their privilege, enabling isolation and privilege separation for applications. It does not require centralized policy specification or management, giving applications freedom to manage their principals while the policies are still enforced by the OS. DCAC uses hierarchically-named attributes as a generic framework for user-defined policies such as groups defined by normal users. For both local and networked file systems, its execution time overhead is between 0%–9% on file system microbenchmarks, and under 1% on applications. This paper shows the design and implementation of DCAC, as well as several real-world use cases, including sandboxing applications, enforcing server applications’ security policies, supporting NFS, and authenticating user-defined sub-principals in SSH, all with minimal code changes. PMID:25426493

  16. Context-Based E-Health System Access Control Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Neyadi, Fahed; Abawajy, Jemal H.

    E-Health systems logically demand a sufficiently fine-grained authorization policy for access control. The access to medical information should not be just role-based but should also include the contextual condition of the role to access data. In this paper, we present a mechanism to extend the standard role-based access control to incorporate contextual information for making access control decisions in e-health application. We present an architecture consisting of authorisation and context infrastructure that work cooperatively to grant access rights based on context-aware authorization policies and context information.

  17. Modeling mandatory access control in role-based security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nyanchama, M.; Osborn, S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the realization of mandatory access control in role-based protection systems. Starting from the basic definitions of roles, their application in security and the basics of the concept of mandatory access control, we develop a scheme of role-based protection that realizes mandatory access control. The basis of this formulation develops from the recognition that roles can be seen as facilitating access to some given information context. By handling each of the role contexts as independent security levels of information, we simulate mandatory access by imposing the requirements of mandatory access control. Among the key considerations, we propose a means of taming Trojan horses by imposing acyclic information flow among contexts in role-based protection systems. The acyclic information flows and suitable access rules incorporate secrecy which is an essential component of mandatory access control.

  18. 14 CFR 420.53 - Control of public access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of public access. 420.53 Section 420.53 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION....53 Control of public access. (a) A licensee shall prevent unauthorized access to the launch site,...

  19. Emergency access for online personally controlled health records system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Dhileepan, Sunethra; Schmidt, Matthew; Zhong, Sheng

    2012-09-01

    A personally controlled health records (PCHR) system allows a patient user to share his/her health records with trusted physicians by manually granting them the access privilege to his/her online records. However, it presents the problem of emergency access in situations where the user is physically unable to grant the access and the access is required by an Emergency Room (ER) physician who does not have the privilege at that moment. To deal with such a problem, we introduce an online polling system to provide the emergency access control to PCHR systems. For each emergency access request, the access privilege is controlled according to the combined opinions of the patient's preset emergency contacts and other online registered physicians. Because our system is based on the demographic number of the physician community nationwide, it provides a stable emergency access control at all times.

  20. Changes in latent fingerprint examiners' markup between analysis and comparison.

    PubMed

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2015-02-01

    After the initial analysis of a latent print, an examiner will sometimes revise the assessment during comparison with an exemplar. Changes between analysis and comparison may indicate that the initial analysis of the latent was inadequate, or that confirmation bias may have affected the comparison. 170 volunteer latent print examiners, each randomly assigned 22 pairs of prints from a pool of 320 total pairs, provided detailed markup documenting their interpretations of the prints and the bases for their comparison conclusions. We describe changes in value assessments and markup of features and clarity. When examiners individualized, they almost always added or deleted minutiae (90.3% of individualizations); every examiner revised at least some markups. For inconclusive and exclusion determinations, changes were less common, and features were added more frequently when the image pair was mated (same source). Even when individualizations were based on eight or fewer corresponding minutiae, in most cases some of those minutiae had been added during comparison. One erroneous individualization was observed: the markup changes were notably extreme, and almost all of the corresponding minutiae had been added during comparison. Latents assessed to be of value for exclusion only (VEO) during analysis were often individualized when compared to a mated exemplar (26%); in our previous work, where examiners were not required to provide markup of features, VEO individualizations were much less common (1.8%). PMID:25553355

  1. Changes in latent fingerprint examiners' markup between analysis and comparison.

    PubMed

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2015-02-01

    After the initial analysis of a latent print, an examiner will sometimes revise the assessment during comparison with an exemplar. Changes between analysis and comparison may indicate that the initial analysis of the latent was inadequate, or that confirmation bias may have affected the comparison. 170 volunteer latent print examiners, each randomly assigned 22 pairs of prints from a pool of 320 total pairs, provided detailed markup documenting their interpretations of the prints and the bases for their comparison conclusions. We describe changes in value assessments and markup of features and clarity. When examiners individualized, they almost always added or deleted minutiae (90.3% of individualizations); every examiner revised at least some markups. For inconclusive and exclusion determinations, changes were less common, and features were added more frequently when the image pair was mated (same source). Even when individualizations were based on eight or fewer corresponding minutiae, in most cases some of those minutiae had been added during comparison. One erroneous individualization was observed: the markup changes were notably extreme, and almost all of the corresponding minutiae had been added during comparison. Latents assessed to be of value for exclusion only (VEO) during analysis were often individualized when compared to a mated exemplar (26%); in our previous work, where examiners were not required to provide markup of features, VEO individualizations were much less common (1.8%).

  2. Development of the Plate Tectonics and Seismology markup languages with XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, H.; Babaei, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Extensible Markup Language (XML) and its specifications such as the XSD Schema, allow geologists to design discipline-specific vocabularies such as Seismology Markup Language (SeismML) or Plate Tectonics Markup Language (TectML). These languages make it possible to store and interchange structured geological information over the Web. Development of a geological markup language requires mapping geological concepts, such as "Earthquake" or "Plate" into a UML object model, applying a modeling and design environment. We have selected four inter-related geological concepts: earthquake, fault, plate, and orogeny, and developed four XML Schema Definitions (XSD), that define the relationships, cardinalities, hierarchies, and semantics of these concepts. In such a geological concept model, the UML object "Earthquake" is related to one or more "Wave" objects, each arriving to a seismic station at a specific "DateTime", and relating to a specific "Epicenter" object that lies at a unique "Location". The "Earthquake" object occurs along a "Segment" of a "Fault" object, which is related to a specific "Plate" object. The "Fault" has its own associations with such things as "Bend", "Step", and "Segment", and could be of any kind (e.g., "Thrust", "Transform'). The "Plate" is related to many other objects such as "MOR", "Subduction", and "Forearc", and is associated with an "Orogeny" object that relates to "Deformation" and "Strain" and several other objects. These UML objects were mapped into XML Metadata Interchange (XMI) formats, which were then converted into four XSD Schemas. The schemas were used to create and validate the XML instance documents, and to create a relational database hosting the plate tectonics and seismological data in the Microsoft Access format. The SeismML and TectML allow seismologists and structural geologists, among others, to submit and retrieve structured geological data on the Internet. A seismologist, for example, can submit peer-reviewed and

  3. Cryptographic Enforcement of Role-Based Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crampton, Jason

    Many cryptographic schemes have been designed to enforce information flow policies. However, enterprise security requirements are often better encoded, or can only be encoded, using role-based access control policies rather than information flow policies. In this paper, we provide an alternative formulation of role-based access control that enables us to apply existing cryptographic schemes to core and hierarchical role-based access control policies. We then show that special cases of our cryptographic enforcement schemes for role-based access control are equivalent to cryptographic enforcement schemes for temporal access control and to ciphertext-policy and key-policy attribute-based encryption schemes. Finally, we describe how these special cases can be extended to support richer forms of temporal access control and attribute-based encryption.

  4. Health information system access control redesign - rationale and method.

    PubMed

    Moselle, Kenneth A

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of why a health service system might find it necessary to re-engineer the access control model that mediates the interaction of clinicians with health information systems. Factors that lead to increasingly complexity of the access control models are delineated, and consequences of that complexity are identified. Strategies are presented to address these factors, and a stepwise procedure is suggested to structure the access control model re-engineering process.

  5. Interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2016-07-01

    Latent print examiners often differ in the number of minutiae they mark during analysis of a latent, and also during comparison of a latent with an exemplar. Differences in minutia counts understate interexaminer variability: examiners' markups may have similar minutia counts but differ greatly in which specific minutiae were marked. We assessed variability in minutia markup among 170 volunteer latent print examiners. Each provided detailed markup documenting their examinations of 22 latent-exemplar pairs of prints randomly assigned from a pool of 320 pairs. An average of 12 examiners marked each latent. The primary factors associated with minutia reproducibility were clarity, which regions of the prints examiners chose to mark, and agreement on value or comparison determinations. In clear areas (where the examiner was "certain of the location, presence, and absence of all minutiae"), median reproducibility was 82%; in unclear areas, median reproducibility was 46%. Differing interpretations regarding which regions should be marked (e.g., when there is ambiguity in the continuity of a print) contributed to variability in minutia markup: especially in unclear areas, marked minutiae were often far from the nearest minutia marked by a majority of examiners. Low reproducibility was also associated with differences in value or comparison determinations. Lack of standardization in minutia markup and unfamiliarity with test procedures presumably contribute to the variability we observed. We have identified factors accounting for interexaminer variability; implementing standards for detailed markup as part of documentation and focusing future training efforts on these factors may help to facilitate transparency and reduce subjectivity in the examination process. PMID:27046517

  6. Open versus Controlled-Access Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    OCG employs stringent human subjects’ protection and data access policies to protect the privacy and confidentiality of the research participants. Depending on the risk of patient identification, OCG programs data are available to the scientific community in two tiers: open or controlled access. Both types of data can be accessed through its corresponding OCG program-specific data matrix or portal. Open-access Data

  7. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access control systems. (a) Secured area. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the measures...

  8. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access control systems. (a) Secured area. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the measures...

  9. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access control systems. (a) Secured area. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the measures...

  10. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access control systems. (a) Secured area. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the measures...

  11. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access control systems. (a) Secured area. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the measures...

  12. The Comparative Analysis of Main Access Control Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Su; Niu, Li; Chen, Jing

    Effective access control security design is an important precondition for the stable running of an information system. So it's necessary to establish a well-designed security mechanism to ensure the security of the system. This paper analysis and compares the main access control theories.

  13. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  14. Task Delegation Based Access Control Models for Workflow Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaaloul, Khaled; Charoy, François

    e-Government organisations are facilitated and conducted using workflow management systems. Role-based access control (RBAC) is recognised as an efficient access control model for large organisations. The application of RBAC in workflow systems cannot, however, grant permissions to users dynamically while business processes are being executed. We currently observe a move away from predefined strict workflow modelling towards approaches supporting flexibility on the organisational level. One specific approach is that of task delegation. Task delegation is a mechanism that supports organisational flexibility, and ensures delegation of authority in access control systems. In this paper, we propose a Task-oriented Access Control (TAC) model based on RBAC to address these requirements. We aim to reason about task from organisational perspectives and resources perspectives to analyse and specify authorisation constraints. Moreover, we present a fine grained access control protocol to support delegation based on the TAC model.

  15. Improving Interoperability by Incorporating UnitsML Into Markup Languages

    PubMed Central

    Celebi, Ismet; Dragoset, Robert A.; Olsen, Karen J.; Schaefer, Reinhold; Kramer, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of analytical data over time is a challenge. Years ago, data were recorded on paper that was pasted directly into a laboratory notebook. The digital age has made maintaining the integrity of data harder. Nowadays, digitized analytical data are often separated from information about how the sample was collected and prepared for analysis and how the data were acquired. The data are stored on digital media, while the related information about the data may be written in a paper notebook or stored separately in other digital files. Sometimes the connection between this “scientific meta-data” and the analytical data is lost, rendering the spectrum or chromatogram useless. We have been working with ASTM Subcommittee E13.15 on Analytical Data to create the Analytical Information Markup Language or AnIML—a new way to interchange and store spectroscopy and chromatography data based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). XML is a language for describing what data are by enclosing them in computer-useable tags. Recording the units associated with the analytical data and metadata is an essential issue for any data representation scheme that must be addressed by all domain-specific markup languages. As scientific markup languages proliferate, it is very desirable to have a single scheme for handling units to facilitate moving information between different data domains. At NIST, we have been developing a general markup language just for units that we call UnitsML. This presentation will describe how UnitsML is used and how it is being incorporated into AnIML. PMID:27134778

  16. Managed Access by Controlled Sensing (MACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    During chemical weapons challenge inspections, the CWC treaty allows ``alternate means`` of access to be proposed by the nation challenged. BNL`s Safeguards, Safety and Nonproliferation Division is funded by the Defense Nuclear Agency to develop a system to provide the challenge inspection team with a ``virtual presence`` within the facility while denying personal access. A general purpose configuration of a mobile station manned by site personnel and a base station manned by the challenge inspector, supported by a flexible communication system, will allow facility personnel to tailor the basic model to their site. Design of the MACS system is based on maximum use of commercial equipment that is available on the international market. Design requirements for the MACS system include methods of establishing geographical position, distance measuring equipment for use in verifying dimensions on floor plans, video and two-way audio links between the mobile unit and the base station, and portability and versatility of the equipment. The MACS platform will also support deployment of selected instrumentation which the site may offer to the challenge inspection team. This paper describes the design and construction of the prototype MACS system.

  17. Healthcare professionals' experiences with EHR-system access control mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Faxvaag, Arild; Johansen, Trond S; Heimly, Vigdis; Melby, Line; Grimsmo, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Access control mechanisms might influence on the information seeking and documentation behavior of clinicians. In this study, we have surveyed healthcare professionals in nursing homes and hospitals on their attitudes to, and experiences with using access control mechanisms. In some situations, the access control mechanisms of the EHR system made clinicians postpone documentation work. Their practice of reading what others have documented was also influenced. Not all clinicians logged out of the system when they left a workstation, and some clinicians reported to do some of their documentation work in the name of others. The reported practices might have implications for the safety of the patient.

  18. Urban Studies: A Study of Bibliographic Access and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Barbara E.

    This paper analyzes: (1) the bibliographic access to publications in urban studies via printed secondary sources; (2) development and scope of classification systems and of vocabulary control for urban studies; and (3) currently accessible automated collections of bibliographic citations. Urban studies is defined as "an agglomeration of…

  19. Access Control of Web- and Java-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cybersecurity has become a great concern as threats of service interruption, unauthorized access, stealing and altering of information, and spreading of viruses have become more prevalent and serious. Application layer access control of applications is a critical component in the overall security solution that also includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. An access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, was developed to provide protection to both Web-based and Javabased client and server applications. The DISA Security Service (DISA-SS) provides common access control capabilities for AMMOS software applications through a set of application programming interfaces (APIs) and network- accessible security services for authentication, single sign-on, authorization checking, and authorization policy management. The OpenAM access management technology designed for Web applications can be extended to meet the needs of Java thick clients and stand alone servers that are commonly used in the JPL AMMOS environment. The DISA-SS reusable components have greatly reduced the effort for each AMMOS subsystem to develop its own access control strategy. The novelty of this work is that it leverages an open-source access management product that was designed for Webbased applications to provide access control for Java thick clients and Java standalone servers. Thick clients and standalone servers are still commonly used in businesses and government, especially for applications that require rich graphical user interfaces and high-performance visualization that cannot be met by thin clients running on Web browsers

  20. Personnel Access Control System Evaluation for National Ignition Facility Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T; Brereton, S.; Hermes, G.; Singh, M.

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the baseline Access Control System for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and to assess its effectiveness at controlling access to hazardous locations during full NIF operations. It reviews the various hazards present during a NIF shot sequence, and evaluates the effectiveness of the applicable set of controls at preventing access while the hazards are present. It considers only those hazards that could potentially be lethal. In addition, various types of technologies that might be applicable at NIF are reviewed, as are systems currently in use at other facilities requiring access control for safety reasons. Recommendations on how this system might be modified to reduce risk are made.

  1. Role-based access control model for GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuqing; Sheng, Yehua; Zhou, Jieyu

    2007-06-01

    Access control of Geographical Information System (GIS) has more complex spatial constraints than the general MIS system, it makes the classic role-based access control model(RBAC) can't be used in GIS. To achieve an effective Access Control Model for GIS, an extension model of the RBAC is presented in the paper. Firstly, this paper introduce the three kinds spatial constraints that included layer constraints, region constraints and spatial object constraints; Then the paper expanded the basic RBAC model, added regional class, layers class and so on; Finally, the paper has given the system RABC control model as well as the realization method in view of GIS. An extension model of the RBAC is applicable to mobile computing, wireless access and system about location is concluded by analyzing.

  2. The Accelerator Markup Language and the Universal Accelerator Parser

    SciTech Connect

    Sagan, D.; Forster, M.; Bates, D.A.; Wolski, A.; Schmidt, F.; Walker, N.J.; Larrieu, T.; Roblin, Y.; Pelaia, T.; Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; Reiche, S.; /UCLA

    2006-10-06

    A major obstacle to collaboration on accelerator projects has been the sharing of lattice description files between modeling codes. To address this problem, a lattice description format called Accelerator Markup Language (AML) has been created. AML is based upon the standard eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format; this provides the flexibility for AML to be easily extended to satisfy changing requirements. In conjunction with AML, a software library, called the Universal Accelerator Parser (UAP), is being developed to speed the integration of AML into any program. The UAP is structured to make it relatively straightforward (by giving appropriate specifications) to read and write lattice files in any format. This will allow programs that use the UAP code to read a variety of different file formats. Additionally, this will greatly simplify conversion of files from one format to another. Currently, besides AML, the UAP supports the MAD lattice format.

  3. XML schemas and mark-up practices of taxonomic literature

    PubMed Central

    Penev, Lyubomir; Lyal, Christopher HC; Weitzman, Anna; Morse, David R.; King, David; Sautter, Guido; Georgiev, Teodor; Morris, Robert A.; Catapano, Terry; Agosti, Donat

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We review the three most widely used XML schemas used to mark-up taxonomic texts, TaxonX, TaxPub and taXMLit. These are described from the viewpoint of their development history, current status, implementation, and use cases. The concept of “taxon treatment” from the viewpoint of taxonomy mark-up into XML is discussed. TaxonX and taXMLit are primarily designed for legacy literature, the former being more lightweight and with a focus on recovery of taxon treatments, the latter providing a much more detailed set of tags to facilitate data extraction and analysis. TaxPub is an extension of the National Library of Medicine Document Type Definition (NLM DTD) for taxonomy focussed on layout and recovery and, as such, is best suited for mark-up of new publications and their archiving in PubMedCentral. All three schemas have their advantages and shortcomings and can be used for different purposes. PMID:22207808

  4. Accessible Gaming through Mainstreaming Kinetic Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Yolanda; Marco, Álvaro; Segura, Joaquín; Blanco, Teresa; Casas, Roberto

    Leisure is a very important aspect in our everyday life; and gaming is one of the main ways to it. Depending on the particular situation of each person, the way of playing could be very different. Motivation, preferences, skills, knowledge are some of the factors that influences this experience. When the person has a disability, additional agents come to scene such as cognitive level and mobility. Besides the design of the game, these factors clearly affect how the person interacts with the game; its user interface. In this paper we present a tool that allows people with disabilities to play games with a normalized user interface. This tool a) manages several wireless kinetic remote controllers, e.g. the Wiimotes; b) can be configured to capture any voluntary movements users could do and c) convert them into the specific inputs required by existing adapted games. As a result, users with disabilities can experience and enjoy games that were previously inaccessible to them.

  5. Control with a random access protocol and packet dropouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liyuan; Guo, Ge

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates networked control systems whose actuators communicate with the controller via a limited number of unreliable channels. The access to the channels is decided by a so-called group random access protocol, which is modelled as a binary Markov sequence. Data packet dropouts in the channels are modelled as independent Bernoulli processes. For such systems, a systematic characterisation for controller synthesis is established and stated in terms of the transition probabilities of the Markov protocol and the packet dropout probabilities. The results are illustrated via a numerical example.

  6. Implementing context and team based access control in healthcare intranets.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Christos K; Mavridis, Ioannis K; Nikolakopoulou, Georgia; Pangalos, George I

    2002-09-01

    The establishment of an efficient access control system in healthcare intranets is a critical security issue directly related to the protection of patients' privacy. Our C-TMAC (Context and Team-based Access Control) model is an active security access control model that layers dynamic access control concepts on top of RBAC (Role-based) and TMAC (Team-based) access control models. It also extends them in the sense that contextual information concerning collaborative activities is associated with teams of users and user permissions are dynamically filtered during runtime. These features of C-TMAC meet the specific security requirements of healthcare applications. In this paper, an experimental implementation of the C-TMAC model is described. More specifically, we present the operational architecture of the system that is used to implement C-TMAC security components in a healthcare intranet. Based on the technological platform of an Oracle Data Base Management System and Application Server, the application logic is coded with stored PL/SQL procedures that include Dynamic SQL routines for runtime value binding purposes. The resulting active security system adapts to current need-to-know requirements of users during runtime and provides fine-grained permission granularity. Apart from identity certificates for authentication, it uses attribute certificates for communicating critical security metadata, such as role membership and team participation of users.

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of biometric access control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lively, Valerie M.

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the contribution by the National Safe Skies Alliance (Safe Skies) in operational testing of biometric access control systems under the guidance of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). Safe Skies has been conducting operational tests of biometric access control systems on behalf of the TSA for approximately four years. The majority of this testing has occurred at the McGhee Tyson Airport (TYS) in Knoxville, Tennessee. Twelve separate biometric devices - eight fingerprint, facial, iris, hand geometry, and fingerprint and iris, have been tested to date. Tests were conducted at a TYS administrative door and different airports to evaluate the access control device under normal, abnormal, and attempt-to-defeat conditions.

  8. Secondary retention of rubber dam: effective moisture control access considerations.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, W H

    1995-04-01

    Primary rubber dam retention affects attachment of the latex sheet to the anchor teeth bordering the isolated working field. Secondary rubber dam retention is the provision of an effective seal at the dam-tooth junction, which is essential to the maintenance of adequate access and moisture control within the working field. Practical hints are offered to optimize access and moisture control through well-planned and properly executed secondary retention of classic rubber dam applications. In addition, innovative solutions to the limitations of general field isolation, which pertain mostly to secondary retention of the unrestrained buccal and lingual curtains of the slit dam, are introduced.

  9. Access and control of information and intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Gerald S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper introduces the technology of two pioneering patents for the secure distribution of information and intellectual property. The seminal technology has been used in the control of sensitive material such as medical records and imagery in distributed networks. It lends itself to the implementation of an open architecture access control system that provides local or remote user selective access to digital information stored on any computer system or storage medium, down to the data element, pixel, and sub-pixel levels. Use of this technology is especially suited for electronic publishing, health care records, MIS, and auditing.

  10. A Service Access Security Control Model in Cyberspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qianmu, Li; Jie, Yin; Jun, Hou; Jian, Xu; Hong, Zhang; Yong, Qi

    A service access control model in cyberspace is proposed, which provides a generalized and effective mechanism of security management with some items constraint specifications. These constraint specifications are organized to form a construction, and an enact process is proposed to make it scalable and flexible to meet the need of diversified service application systems in cyberspace. The model of this paper erases the downward information flow by extended rules of read/write, which is the breakthrough of the limitations when applying the standard role-based access control in cyberspace.

  11. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  12. Accessibility, stabilizability, and feedback control of continuous orbital transfer.

    PubMed

    Gurfil, Pini

    2004-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of low-thrust orbital transfer using orbital element feedback from a control-theoretic standpoint, concepts of controllability, feedback stabilizability, and their interaction. The Gauss variational equations (GVEs) are used to model the state-space dynamics. First, the notion of accessibility, a weaker form of controllability, is presented. It is then shown that the GVEs are globally accessible. Based on the accessibility result, a nonlinear feedback controller is derived that asymptotically steers a vehicle from an initial elliptic Keplerian orbit to any given elliptic Keplerian orbit. The performance of the new controller is illustrated by simulating an orbital transfer between two geosynchronous Earth orbits. It is shown that the low-thrust controller requires less fuel than an impulsive maneuver for the same transfer time. Closed-form, analytic expressions for the new orbital transfer controller are given. Finally, it is proved, based on a topological nonlinear stabilizability test, that there does not exist a continuous closed-loop controller that can transfer a spacecraft to a parabolic escape trajectory.

  13. Experimental Applications of Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; McCartney, Patrick; Gorringe, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe challenging use-cases for Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML), and evaluate solutions. The first case uses ATML Test Results to deliver active features to support test procedure development and test flow, and bridging mixed software development environments. The second case examines adding attributes to Systems Modelling Language (SysML) to create a linkage for deriving information from a model to fill in an ATML document set. Both cases are outside the original concept of operations for ATML but are typical when integrating large heterogeneous systems with modular contributions from multiple disciplines.

  14. Joint Access Control Based on Access Ratio and Resource Utilization for High-Speed Railway Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuzhe; Ai, Bo

    2015-05-01

    The fast development of high-speed rails makes people's life more and more convenient. However, provisioning of quality of service of multimedia applications for users on the high-speed train is a critical task for wireless communications. Therefore, new solutions are desirable to be found to address this kind of problem. Current researches mainly focus on providing seamless broadband wireless access for high-speed mobile terminals. In this paper, an algorithm to calculate the optimal resource reservation fraction of handovers is proposed. A joint access control scheme for high-speed railway communication handover scenario is proposed. Metrics of access ratio and resource utilization ratio are considered jointly in the analysis and the performance evaluation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm and the scheme improve quality of service compared with other conventional schemes.

  15. Access Control for Mobile Assessment Systems Using ID.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masaharu; Ishii, Tadashi; Morino, Kazuma

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of shelters during disaster is critical to ensure the health of evacuees and prevent pandemic. In the Ishinomaki area, one of the areas most damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the highly organized assessment helped to successfully manage a total of 328 shelters with a total of 46,480 evacuees. The input and analysis of vast amounts of data was tedious work for staff members. However, a web-based assessment system that utilized mobile devices was thought to decrease workload and standardize the evaluation form. The necessary access of information should be controlled in order to maintain individuals' privacy. We successfully developed an access control system using IDs. By utilizing a unique numerical ID, users can access the input form or assessment table. This avoids unnecessary queries to the server, resulting in a quick response and easy availability, even with poor internet connection. PMID:26262204

  16. Access Control of Web and Java Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.; Johnson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Cyber security has gained national and international attention as a result of near continuous headlines from financial institutions, retail stores, government offices and universities reporting compromised systems and stolen data. Concerns continue to rise as threats of service interruption, and spreading of viruses become ever more prevalent and serious. Controlling access to application layer resources is a critical component in a layered security solution that includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. In this paper we discuss the development of an application-level access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, to provide protection to both Web-based and Java-based client and server applications.

  17. Evaluating Drug Prices, Availability, Affordability, and Price Components: Implications for Access to Drugs in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Babar, Zaheer Ud Din; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Singh, Harpal; Bukahri, Nadeem Irfan; Creese, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Malaysia's stable health care system is facing challenges with increasing medicine costs. To investigate these issues a survey was carried out to evaluate medicine prices, availability, affordability, and the structure of price components. Methods and Findings The methodology developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Action International (HAI) was used. Price and availability data for 48 medicines was collected from 20 public sector facilities, 32 private sector retail pharmacies and 20 dispensing doctors in four geographical regions of West Malaysia. Medicine prices were compared with international reference prices (IRPs) to obtain a median price ratio. The daily wage of the lowest paid unskilled government worker was used to gauge the affordability of medicines. Price component data were collected throughout the supply chain, and markups, taxes, and other distribution costs were identified. In private pharmacies, innovator brand (IB) prices were 16 times higher than the IRPs, while generics were 6.6 times higher. In dispensing doctor clinics, the figures were 15 times higher for innovator brands and 7.5 for generics. Dispensing doctors applied high markups of 50%–76% for IBs, and up to 316% for generics. Retail pharmacy markups were also high—25%–38% and 100%–140% for IBs and generics, respectively. In the public sector, where medicines are free, availability was low even for medicines on the National Essential Drugs List. For a month's treatment for peptic ulcer disease and hypertension people have to pay about a week's wages in the private sector. Conclusions The free market by definition does not control medicine prices, necessitating price monitoring and control mechanisms. Markups for generic products are greater than for IBs. Reducing the base price without controlling markups may increase profits for retailers and dispensing doctors without reducing the price paid by end users. To increase access and affordability

  18. Access Control for Agent-based Computing: A Distributed Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonopoulos, Nick; Koukoumpetsos, Kyriakos; Shafarenko, Alex

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the mobile software agent paradigm that provides a foundation for the development of high performance distributed applications and presents a simple, distributed access control architecture based on the concept of distributed, active authorization entities (lock cells), any combination of which can be referenced by an agent to provide…

  19. Research on a dynamic workflow access control model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiliang; Deng, Jinxia

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, the access control technology has been researched widely in workflow system, two typical technologies of that are RBAC (Role-Based Access Control) and TBAC (Task-Based Access Control) model, which has been successfully used in the role authorizing and assigning in a certain extent. However, during the process of complicating a system's structure, these two types of technology can not be used in minimizing privileges and separating duties, and they are inapplicable when users have a request of frequently changing on the workflow's process. In order to avoid having these weakness during the applying, a variable flow dynamic role_task_view (briefly as DRTVBAC) of fine-grained access control model is constructed on the basis existed model. During the process of this model applying, an algorithm is constructed to solve users' requirements of application and security needs on fine-grained principle of privileges minimum and principle of dynamic separation of duties. The DRTVBAC model is implemented in the actual system, the figure shows that the task associated with the dynamic management of role and the role assignment is more flexible on authority and recovery, it can be met the principle of least privilege on the role implement of a specific task permission activated; separated the authority from the process of the duties completing in the workflow; prevented sensitive information discovering from concise and dynamic view interface; satisfied with the requirement of the variable task-flow frequently.

  20. Fine-Grained Access Control for Electronic Health Record Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, Pham Thi Bach; Wohlgemuth, Sven; Echizen, Isao; Thuy, Dong Thi Bich; Thuc, Nguyen Dinh

    There needs to be a strategy for securing the privacy of patients when exchanging health records between various entities over the Internet. Despite the fact that health care providers such as Google Health and Microsoft Corp.'s Health Vault comply with the U.S Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the privacy of patients is still at risk. Several encryption schemes and access control mechanisms have been suggested to protect the disclosure of a patient's health record especially from unauthorized entities. However, by implementing these approaches, data owners are not capable of controlling and protecting the disclosure of the individual sensitive attributes of their health records. This raises the need to adopt a secure mechanism to protect personal information against unauthorized disclosure. Therefore, we propose a new Fine-grained Access Control (FGAC) mechanism that is based on subkeys, which would allow a data owner to further control the access to his data at the column-level. We also propose a new mechanism to efficiently reduce the number of keys maintained by a data owner in cases when the users have different access privileges to different columns of the data being shared.

  1. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices, including any device intended to... with the individual's claim of loss or theft. (3) If an individual cannot present his or her TWIC for... approved Facility Security Plan (FSP) the frequency of application of any access controls, particularly...

  2. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices, including any device intended to... with the individual's claim of loss or theft. (3) If an individual cannot present his or her TWIC for... approved Facility Security Plan (FSP) the frequency of application of any access controls, particularly...

  3. Secure Dynamic access control scheme of PHR in cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Liu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chen, Chin-Sheng; Bau, Jian-Guo; Lin, Tzu-Ching

    2012-12-01

    With the development of information technology and medical technology, medical information has been developed from traditional paper records into electronic medical records, which have now been widely applied. The new-style medical information exchange system "personal health records (PHR)" is gradually developed. PHR is a kind of health records maintained and recorded by individuals. An ideal personal health record could integrate personal medical information from different sources and provide complete and correct personal health and medical summary through the Internet or portable media under the requirements of security and privacy. A lot of personal health records are being utilized. The patient-centered PHR information exchange system allows the public autonomously maintain and manage personal health records. Such management is convenient for storing, accessing, and sharing personal medical records. With the emergence of Cloud computing, PHR service has been transferred to storing data into Cloud servers that the resources could be flexibly utilized and the operation cost can be reduced. Nevertheless, patients would face privacy problem when storing PHR data into Cloud. Besides, it requires a secure protection scheme to encrypt the medical records of each patient for storing PHR into Cloud server. In the encryption process, it would be a challenge to achieve accurately accessing to medical records and corresponding to flexibility and efficiency. A new PHR access control scheme under Cloud computing environments is proposed in this study. With Lagrange interpolation polynomial to establish a secure and effective PHR information access scheme, it allows to accurately access to PHR with security and is suitable for enormous multi-users. Moreover, this scheme also dynamically supports multi-users in Cloud computing environments with personal privacy and offers legal authorities to access to PHR. From security and effectiveness analyses, the proposed PHR access

  4. Final Report for "FSML – Fusion Simulation Markup Language".

    SciTech Connect

    Shasharina, Svetlana

    2008-10-17

    The developed software consists of two parts: FSML and VizSchema. FSML is based on an XML schema that represents the visualization entities needed for displaying fields and particles data in visualization tools. Each application is then represented by an XML instance mapping its data into the XML schema. Such XML file is used by the FSML reading library to bring in fields, particles and meshes from HDF5 files into memory. Based on this library, we developed AVS/Express and VisIt plugins. The second (more flexible) part of the software is called VizSchema. It consists of the schema expressed as a set of conventions and static data in the VizSchema code. The conventions describe the markup and organization of HDF5 data that would allow easy interpretation of data in the visualization terms. Based on theses conventions, a C++ HDF5-specific API for reading the visualization data was created. Finally, based on this library, we developed a new VisIt plugin (called Vs), which allows importing data from multiple applications using the markup. These applications include VORPAL, FACETS, UEDGE, NIMROD and MODAVE. The plugin will be included into the next releases of VisIt.

  5. Access control and privacy in large distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiner, B. M.; Bishop, M.

    1986-01-01

    Large scale distributed systems consists of workstations, mainframe computers, supercomputers and other types of servers, all connected by a computer network. These systems are being used in a variety of applications including the support of collaborative scientific research. In such an environment, issues of access control and privacy arise. Access control is required for several reasons, including the protection of sensitive resources and cost control. Privacy is also required for similar reasons, including the protection of a researcher's proprietary results. A possible architecture for integrating available computer and communications security technologies into a system that meet these requirements is described. This architecture is meant as a starting point for discussion, rather that the final answer.

  6. Distributed reservation control protocols for random access broadcasting channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, E. P.; Ephremides, A.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to a communication network consisting of an arbitrary number of nodes which can communicate with each other via a time-division multiple access (TDMA) broadcast channel. The reported investigation is concerned with the development of efficient distributed multiple access protocols for traffic consisting primarily of single packet messages in a datagram mode of operation. The motivation for the design of the protocols came from the consideration of efficient multiple access utilization of moderate to high bandwidth (4-40 Mbit/s capacity) communication satellite channels used for the transmission of short (1000-10,000 bits) fixed length packets. Under these circumstances, the ratio of roundtrip propagation time to packet transmission time is between 100 to 10,000. It is shown how a TDMA channel can be adaptively shared by datagram traffic and constant bandwidth users such as in digital voice applications. The distributed reservation control protocols described are a hybrid between contention and reservation protocols.

  7. Tag Content Access Control with Identity-based Key Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Rong, Chunming

    2010-09-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology that used to identify objects and users has been applied to many applications such retail and supply chain recently. How to prevent tag content from unauthorized readout is a core problem of RFID privacy issues. Hash-lock access control protocol can make tag to release its content only to reader who knows the secret key shared between them. However, in order to get this shared secret key required by this protocol, reader needs to communicate with a back end database. In this paper, we propose to use identity-based secret key exchange approach to generate the secret key required for hash-lock access control protocol. With this approach, not only back end database connection is not needed anymore, but also tag cloning problem can be eliminated at the same time.

  8. Type-Based Access Control in Data-Centric Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caires, Luís; Pérez, Jorge A.; Seco, João Costa; Vieira, Hugo Torres; Ferrão, Lúcio

    Data-centric multi-user systems, such as web applications, require flexible yet fine-grained data security mechanisms. Such mechanisms are usually enforced by a specially crafted security layer, which adds extra complexity and often leads to error prone coding, easily causing severe security breaches. In this paper, we introduce a programming language approach for enforcing access control policies to data in data-centric programs by static typing. Our development is based on the general concept of refinement type, but extended so as to address realistic and challenging scenarios of permission-based data security, in which policies dynamically depend on the database state, and flexible combinations of column- and row-level protection of data are necessary. We state and prove soundness and safety of our type system, stating that well-typed programs never break the declared data access control policies.

  9. Rural providers' access to online resources: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Laura J.; McElfresh, Karen R.; Warner, Teddy D.; Stromberg, Tiffany L.; Trost, Jaren; Jelinek, Devin A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The research determined the usage and satisfaction levels with one of two point-of-care (PoC) resources among health care providers in a rural state. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, twenty-eight health care providers in rural areas were stratified by occupation and region, then randomized into either the DynaMed or the AccessMedicine study arm. Study participants were physicians, physician assistants, and nurses. A pre- and post-study survey measured participants' attitudes toward different information resources and their information-seeking activities. Medical student investigators provided training and technical support for participants. Data analyses consisted of analysis of variance (ANOVA), paired t tests, and Cohen's d statistic to compare pre- and post-study effects sizes. Results Participants in both the DynaMed and the AccessMedicine arms of the study reported increased satisfaction with their respective PoC resource, as expected. Participants in both arms also reported that they saved time in finding needed information. At baseline, both arms reported too little information available, which increased to “about right amounts of information” at the completion of the study. DynaMed users reported a Cohen's d increase of +1.50 compared to AccessMedicine users' reported use of 0.82. DynaMed users reported d2 satisfaction increases of 9.48 versus AccessMedicine satisfaction increases of 0.59 using a Cohen's d. Conclusion Participants in the DynaMed arm of the study used this clinically oriented PoC more heavily than the users of the textbook-based AccessMedicine. In terms of user satisfaction, DynaMed users reported higher levels of satisfaction than the users of AccessMedicine. PMID:26807050

  10. Authorisation and access control for electronic health record systems.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd

    2004-03-31

    Enabling the shared care paradigm, centralised or even decentralised electronic health record (EHR) systems increasingly become core applications in hospital information systems and health networks. For realising multipurpose use and reuse as well as inter-operability at knowledge level, EHR have to meet special architectural requirements. The component-oriented and model-based architecture should meet international standards. Especially in extended health networks realising inter-organisational communication and co-operation, authorisation cannot be organised at user level anymore. Therefore, models, methods and tools must be established to allow formal and structured policy definition, policy agreements, role definition, authorisation and access control. Based on the author's international engagement in EHR architecture and security standards referring to the revision of CEN ENV 13606, the GEHR/open EHR approach, HL7 and CORBA, models for health-specific and EHR-related roles, for authorisation management and access control have been developed. The basic concept is the separation of structural roles defining organisational entity-to-entity relationships and enabling specific acts on the one hand, and functional roles bound to specific activities and realising rights and duties on the other hand. Aggregation of organisational, functional, informational and technological components follows specific rules. Using UML and XML, the principles as well as some examples for analysis, design, implementation and maintenance of policy and authorisation management as well as access control have been practically implemented. PMID:15066555

  11. Authorisation and access control for electronic health record systems.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd

    2004-03-31

    Enabling the shared care paradigm, centralised or even decentralised electronic health record (EHR) systems increasingly become core applications in hospital information systems and health networks. For realising multipurpose use and reuse as well as inter-operability at knowledge level, EHR have to meet special architectural requirements. The component-oriented and model-based architecture should meet international standards. Especially in extended health networks realising inter-organisational communication and co-operation, authorisation cannot be organised at user level anymore. Therefore, models, methods and tools must be established to allow formal and structured policy definition, policy agreements, role definition, authorisation and access control. Based on the author's international engagement in EHR architecture and security standards referring to the revision of CEN ENV 13606, the GEHR/open EHR approach, HL7 and CORBA, models for health-specific and EHR-related roles, for authorisation management and access control have been developed. The basic concept is the separation of structural roles defining organisational entity-to-entity relationships and enabling specific acts on the one hand, and functional roles bound to specific activities and realising rights and duties on the other hand. Aggregation of organisational, functional, informational and technological components follows specific rules. Using UML and XML, the principles as well as some examples for analysis, design, implementation and maintenance of policy and authorisation management as well as access control have been practically implemented.

  12. Integration of access control and ancillary information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Ahrens, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    The DOE has identified the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ARGUS system as the standard entry control system for the DOE Complex. ARGUS integrates several key functions, specifically, badging, entry control, and verification of clearance status. Not all sites need or can afford an ARGUS system. Such sites are therefore limited to commercial equipment which provide ARGUS like features. In this project an alternative way to integrate commercial equipment into an integrated system to include badging, access control, property control, and automated verification of clearance status has been investigated. Such a system would provide smaller sites the same functionality as is provided by ARGUS. Further, it would allow sites to fully participate in the DOE`s concept of Complex wide access control. This multi-year task is comprised of three phases. Phase 1, system requirements and definitions, and phase 2, software and hardware development, were completed during fiscal year 1994. This report covers these two phases and the demonstration system which resulted. Phase three would employ the demonstration system to evaluate system performance, identify operational limits and to integrate additional features. The demonstration system includes a badging station, a database server, a managers workstation, an entry control system, and a property protection system. The functions have been integrated through the use of custom interfaces and operator screens which greatly increase ease of use.

  13. Geometry Description Markup Language for Physics Simulation And Analysis Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Chytracek, R.; McCormick, J.; Pokorski, W.; Santin, G.; /European Space Agency

    2007-01-23

    The Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) is a specialized XML-based language designed as an application-independent persistent format for describing the geometries of detectors associated with physics measurements. It serves to implement ''geometry trees'' which correspond to the hierarchy of volumes a detector geometry can be composed of, and to allow to identify the position of individual solids, as well as to describe the materials they are made of. Being pure XML, GDML can be universally used, and in particular it can be considered as the format for interchanging geometries among different applications. In this paper we will present the current status of the development of GDML. After having discussed the contents of the latest GDML schema, which is the basic definition of the format, we will concentrate on the GDML processors. We will present the latest implementation of the GDML ''writers'' as well as ''readers'' for either Geant4 [2], [3] or ROOT [4], [10].

  14. Earth Science Markup Language: Transitioning From Design to Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Karen; Graves, Sara; Ramachandran, Rahul

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of the proposed Earth Science Markup Language (ESML) research is to transition from design to application. The resulting schema and prototype software will foster community acceptance for the "define once, use anywhere" concept central to ESML. Supporting goals include: 1. Refinement of the ESML schema and software libraries in cooperation with the user community. 2. Application of the ESML schema and software libraries to a variety of Earth science data sets and analysis tools. 3. Development of supporting prototype software for enhanced ease of use. 4. Cooperation with standards bodies in order to assure ESML is aligned with related metadata standards as appropriate. 5. Widespread publication of the ESML approach, schema, and software.

  15. Pathology data integration with eXtensible Markup Language.

    PubMed

    Berman, Jules J

    2005-02-01

    It is impossible to overstate the importance of XML (eXtensible Markup Language) as a data organization tool. With XML, pathologists can annotate all of their data (clinical and anatomic) in a format that can transform every pathology report into a database, without compromising narrative structure. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an overview of XML for pathologists. Examples will demonstrate how pathologists can use XML to annotate individual data elements and to structure reports in a common format that can be merged with other XML files or queried using standard XML tools. This manuscript gives pathologists a glimpse into how XML allows pathology data to be linked to other types of biomedical data and reduces our dependence on centralized proprietary databases.

  16. Visualizing Scientific Data Using Keyhole Markup Language (KML)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcic, L.; Bailey, J. E.; Dehn, J.

    2006-12-01

    Over the last five years there has been a proliferation in the development of virtual globe programs. Programs such as Google Earth, NASA World Wind, SkylineGlobe, Geofusion and ArcGIS Explorer each have their own strengths and weaknesses, and whether a market will remain for all tools will be determined by user application. This market is currently led by Google Earth, the release of which on 28 Jun 2005 helped spark a revolution in virtual globe technology, by bringing it into the public view and imagination. Many would argue that such a revolution was due, but it was certainly aided by the world-wide name recognition of Google, and the creation of a user-friendly interface. Google Earth is an updated version of a program originally called Earth Viewer, which was developed by Keyhole Inc. It was renamed after Google purchased Keyhole and their technology in 2001. In order to manage the geospatial data within these viewers, the developers created a new XML-based (Extensible Markup Language) called Keyhole Markup Language (KML). Through manipulation of KML scientists are finding increasingly creative and more visually appealing methods to display and manipulate their data. A measure of the success of Google Earth and KML is demonstrated by the fact that other virtual globes are now including various levels of KML compatibility. This presentation will display examples of how KML has been applied to scientific data. It will offer a forum for questions pertaining to how KML can be applied to a user's dataset. Interested parties are encouraged to bring examples of projects under development or being planned.

  17. Hand geometry biometric device for secure access control

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, C.; Moles, D.R. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the authors developed for the Air Force the Mark VI Personal Identity Verifier (PIV) for controlling access to a fixed or mobile ICBM site, a computer terminal, or mainframe. The Mark VI records the digitized silhouettes of four fingers of each hand on an AT and T smart card. Like fingerprints, finger shapes, lengths, and widths constitute an unguessable biometric password. A Security Officer enrolls an authorized person who places each hand, in turn, on a backlighted panel. An overhead scanning camera records the right and left hand reference templates on the smart card. The Security Officer adds to the card: name, personal identification number (PIN), and access restrictions such as permitted days of the week, times of day, and doors. To gain access, cardowner inserts card into a reader slot and places either hand on the panel. Resulting access template is matched to the reference template by three sameness algorithms. The final match score is an average of 12 scores (each of the four fingers, matched for shape, length, and width), expressing the degree of sameness. (A perfect match would score 100.00.) The final match score is compared to a predetermined score (threshold), generating an accept or reject decision.

  18. Global Access-controlled Transfer e-frame (GATe)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-30

    Global Access-controlled Transfer e-frame (GATe) was designed to take advantage of the patterns that occur during an electronic record transfer process. The e-frame (or electronic framework or platform) is the foundation for developing secure information transfer to meet classified and unclassified business processes and is particularly useful when there is a need to share information with various entities in a controlled and secure environment. It can share, search, upload, download and retrieve sensitive information, as well as provides reporting capabilities.

  19. Global Access-controlled Transfer e-frame (GATe)

    2012-05-30

    Global Access-controlled Transfer e-frame (GATe) was designed to take advantage of the patterns that occur during an electronic record transfer process. The e-frame (or electronic framework or platform) is the foundation for developing secure information transfer to meet classified and unclassified business processes and is particularly useful when there is a need to share information with various entities in a controlled and secure environment. It can share, search, upload, download and retrieve sensitive information, asmore » well as provides reporting capabilities.« less

  20. A study of multiple access schemes in satellite control network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zijian; Wang, Zhonghai; Xiang, Xingyu; Wang, Gang; Chen, Genshe; Nguyen, Tien; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Satellite Control Networks (SCN) have provided launch control for space lift vehicles; tracking, telemetry and commanding (TTC) for on-orbit satellites; and, test support for space experiments since the 1960s. Currently, SCNs encounter a new challenge: how to maintain the high reliability of services when sharing the spectrum with emerging commercial services. To achieve this goal, the capability of multiple satellites reception is deserved as an update/modernization of SCN in the future. In this paper, we conducts an investigation of multiple access techniques in SCN scenario, e.g., frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and coded division multiple access (CDMA). First, we introduce two upgrade options of SCN based on FDMA and CDMA techniques. Correspondingly, we also provide their performance analysis, especially the system improvement in spectrum efficiency and interference mitigation. Finally, to determine the optimum upgrade option, this work uses CRISP, i.e., Cost, Risk, Installation, Supportability and Performance, as the baseline approach for a comprehensive trade study of these two options. Extensive numerical and simulation results are presented to illustrate the theoretical development.

  1. Access Control Model for Sharing Composite Electronic Health Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Covington, Michael J.; Zhang, Xinwen

    The adoption of electronically formatted medical records, so called Electronic Health Records (EHRs), has become extremely important in healthcare systems to enable the exchange of medical information among stakeholders. An EHR generally consists of data with different types and sensitivity degrees which must be selectively shared based on the need-to-know principle. Security mechanisms are required to guarantee that only authorized users have access to specific portions of such critical record for legitimate purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for modelling access control scheme for composite EHRs. Our model formulates the semantics and structural composition of an EHR document, from which we introduce a notion of authorized zones of the composite EHR at different granularity levels, taking into consideration of several important criteria such as data types, intended purposes and information sensitivities.

  2. Access Control of Cloud Service Based on UCON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danwei, Chen; Xiuli, Huang; Xunyi, Ren

    Cloud computing is an emerging computing paradigm, and cloud service is also becoming increasingly relevant. Most research communities have recently embarked in the area, and research challenges in every aspect. This paper mainly discusses cloud service security. Cloud service is based on Web Services, and it will face all kinds of security problems including what Web Services face. The development of cloud service closely relates to its security, so the research of cloud service security is a very important theme. This paper introduces cloud computing and cloud service firstly, and then gives cloud services access control model based on UCON and negotiation technologies, and also designs the negotiation module.

  3. Privacy and Access Control for IHE-Based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katt, Basel; Breu, Ruth; Hafner, Micahel; Schabetsberger, Thomas; Mair, Richard; Wozak, Florian

    Electronic Health Record (EHR) is the heart element of any e-health system, which aims at improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare through the use of information and communication technologies. The sensitivity of the data contained in the health record poses a great challenge to security. In this paper we propose a security architecture for EHR systems that are conform with IHE profiles. In this architecture we are tackling the problems of access control and privacy. Furthermore, a prototypical implementation of the proposed model is presented.

  4. Efficient identity management and access control in cloud environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloster, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    As more enterprises are enticed to move data to a cloud environment to enhance data sharing and reduce operating costs by exploiting shared resources, concerns have risen over the ability to secure information within the cloud. This paper examines how a traditional Identity and Access Control (IDAM) architecture can be adapted to address security concerns of a cloud environment. We propose changing the paradigm of IDAM form a pure trust model to a risk based model will enable information to be protected securely in a cloud environment without impacting efficiencies of cloud environments.

  5. Extending a Role Graph for Role-Based Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, Yoshiharu; Nakamoto, Yukikazu

    Role-based access control (RBAC) is widely used as an access control mechanism in various computer systems. Since an organization's lines of authority influence the authorized privileges of jobs, roles also form a hierarchical structure. A role graph is a model that represents role hierarchies and is suitable for the runtime phase of RBAC deployment. Since a role graph cannot take various forms for given roles and cannot handle abstraction of roles well, however, it is not suitable for the design phase of RBAC deployment. Hence, an extended role graph, which can take a more flexible form than that of a role graph, is proposed. The extended role graph improves diversity and clarifies abstraction of roles, making it suitable for the design phase. An equivalent transformation algorithm (ETA), for transforming an extended role graph into an equivalent role graph, is also proposed. Using the ETA, system administrators can deploy efficiently RBAC by using an extended role graph in the design phase and a standard role graph in the runtime phase.

  6. US Hospitals Are Still Using Chargemaster Markups To Maximize Revenues.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ge; Anderson, Gerard F

    2016-09-01

    Many hospital executives and economists have suggested that since Medicare adopted a hospital prospective payment system in 1985, prices on the hospital chargemaster (an exhaustive list of the prices for all hospital procedures and supplies) have become irrelevant. However, using 2013 nationally representative hospital data from Medicare, we found that a one-unit increase in the charge-to-cost ratio (chargemaster price divided by Medicare-allowable cost) was associated with $64 higher patient care revenue per adjusted discharge. Furthermore, hospitals appeared to systematically adjust their charge-to-cost ratios: The average ratio ranged between 1.8 and 28.5 across patient care departments, and for-profit hospitals were associated with a 2.30 and a 2.07 higher charge-to-cost ratio than government and nonprofit hospitals, respectively. We also found correlation between the proportion of uninsured patients, a hospital's system affiliation, and its regional power with the charge-to-cost ratio. These findings suggest that hospitals still consider the chargemaster price to be an important way to enhance revenue. Policy makers might consider developing additional policy tools that improve markup transparency to protect patients from unexpectedly high charges for specific services. PMID:27605648

  7. Extensions to the Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brian, Geoffrey J.; Jackson, E. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language (DAVE-ML) is a syntactical language for exchanging flight vehicle dynamic model data. It provides a framework for encoding entire flight vehicle dynamic model data packages for exchange and/or long-term archiving. Version 2.0.1 of DAVE-ML provides much of the functionality envisioned for exchanging aerospace vehicle data; however, it is limited in only supporting scalar time-independent data. Additional functionality is required to support vector and matrix data, abstracting sub-system models, detailing dynamics system models (both discrete and continuous), and defining a dynamic data format (such as time sequenced data) for validation of dynamics system models and vehicle simulation packages. Extensions to DAVE-ML have been proposed to manage data as vectors and n-dimensional matrices, and record dynamic data in a compatible form. These capabilities will improve the clarity of data being exchanged, simplify the naming of parameters, and permit static and dynamic data to be stored using a common syntax within a single file; thereby enhancing the framework provided by DAVE-ML for exchanging entire flight vehicle dynamic simulation models.

  8. 76 FR 60398 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies, 68 FR 62011... Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies, 71 FR 68472, 68480, published in... Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies, 65 FR 64556, 64564, published in the Federal...

  9. 76 FR 67019 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control... RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control. DATES:...

  10. Access control violation prevention by low-cost infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, Andrew N.

    2004-09-01

    A low cost 16x16 un-cooled pyroelectric detector array, allied with advanced tracking and detection algorithms, has enabled the development of a universal detector with a wide range of applications in people monitoring and homeland security. Violation of access control systems, whether controlled by proximity card, biometrics, swipe card or similar, may occur by 'tailgating' or 'piggybacking' where an 'approved' entrant with a valid entry card is accompanied by a closely spaced 'non-approved' entrant. The violation may be under duress, where the accompanying person is attempting to enter a secure facility by force or threat. Alternatively, the violation may be benign where staff members collude either through habit or lassitude, either with each other or with third parties, without considering the security consequences. Examples of the latter could include schools, hospitals or maternity homes. The 16x16 pyroelectric array is integrated into a detector or imaging system which incorporates data processing, target extraction and decision making algorithms. The algorithms apply interpolation to the array output, allowing a higher level of resolution than might otherwise be expected from such a low resolution array. The pyroelectric detection principle means that the detection will work in variable light conditions and even in complete darkness, if required. The algorithms can monitor the shape, form, temperature and number of persons in the scene and utilise this information to determine whether a violation has occurred or not. As people are seen as 'hot blobs' and are not individually recognisable, civil liberties are not infringed in the detection process. The output from the detector is a simple alarm signal which may act as input to the access control system as an alert or to trigger CCTV image display and storage. The applications for a tailgate detector can be demonstrated across many medium security applications where there are no physical means to prevent this

  11. BIOPACK: the ground controlled late access biological research facility.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Jack J W A

    2004-03-01

    Future Space Shuttle flights shall be characterized by activities necessary to further build the International Space Station, ISS. During these missions limited resources are available to conduct biological experiments in space. The Shuttles' Middeck is a very suitable place to conduct science during the ISS assembly missions or dedicated science missions. The BIOPACK, which flew its first mission during the STS-107, provides a versatile Middeck Locker based research tool for gravitational biology studies. The core facility occupies the space of only two Middeck Lockers. Experiment temperatures are controlled for bacteria, plant, invertebrate and mammalian cultures. Gravity levels and profiles can be set ranging from 0 to 2.0 x g on three independent centrifuges. This provides the experimenter with a 1.0 x g on-board reference and intermediate hypogravity and hypergravity data points to investigate e.g. threshold levels in biological responses. Temperature sensitive items can be stored in the facilities' -10 degrees C and +4 degrees C stowage areas. During STS-107 the facility also included a small glovebox (GBX) and passive temperature controlled units (PTCU). The GBX provides the experimenter with two extra levels of containment for safe sample handling. This biological research facility is a late access (L-10 hrs) laboratory, which, when reaching orbit, could automatically be starting up reducing important experiment lag-time and valuable crew time. The system is completely telecommanded when needed. During flight system parameters like temperatures, centrifuge speeds, experiment commanding or sensor readouts can be monitored and changed when needed. Although ISS provides a wide range of research facilities there is still need for an STS-based late access facility such as the BIOPACK providing experimenters with a very versatile research cabinet for biological experiments under microgravity and in-flight control conditions.

  12. Controlled Access under Review: Improving the Governance of Genomic Data Access

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Mahsa; Dyke, Stephanie O. M.; Joly, Yann; Borry, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In parallel with massive genomic data production, data sharing practices have rapidly expanded over the last decade. To ensure authorized access to data, access review by data access committees (DACs) has been utilized as one potential solution. Here we discuss core elements to be integrated into the fabric of access review by both established and emerging DACs in order to foster fair, efficient, and responsible access to datasets. We particularly highlight the fact that the access review process could be adversely influenced by the potential conflicts of interest of data producers, particularly when they are directly involved in DACs management. Therefore, in structuring DACs and access procedures, possible data withholding by data producers should receive thorough attention. PMID:26720729

  13. First Experiences Using XACML for Access Control in Distributed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorch, Marcus; Proctor, Seth; Lepro, Rebekah; Kafura, Dennis; Shah, Sumit

    2003-01-01

    Authorization systems today are increasingly complex. They span domains of administration, rely on many different authentication sources, and manage permissions that can be as complex as the system itself. Worse still, while there are many standards that define authentication mechanisms, the standards that address authorization are less well defined and tend to work only within homogeneous systems. This paper presents XACML, a standard access control language, as one component of a distributed and inter-operable authorization framework. Several emerging systems which incorporate XACML are discussed. These discussions illustrate how authorization can be deployed in distributed, decentralized systems. Finally, some new and future topics are presented to show where this work is heading and how it will help connect the general components of an authorization system.

  14. Safety systems and access control in the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Reed, Robert K; Bell, Jayce C

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest and most energetic laser system. The facility has the potential to generate ionizing radiation due to the interaction between the laser beams and target material, with neutrons and gamma rays being produced during deuterium-tritium fusion reactions. To perform these experiments, several types of hazards must be mitigated and controlled to ensure personnel safety. NIF uses a real-time safety system to monitor and mitigate the hazards presented by the facility. The NIF facility Safety Interlock System (SIS) monitors for oxygen deficiency and controls access to the facility preventing exposure to laser light and radiation from the Radiation Generating Devices. It also interfaces to radiation monitoring and other radiological monitoring and alarm systems. The SIS controls permissives to the hazard-generating equipment and annunciates hazard levels in the facility. To do this reliably and safely, the SIS has been designed as a fail-safe system with a proven performance record now spanning over 10 y. This paper discusses the SIS, its design, implementation, operator interfaces, validation/verification, and the hazard mitigation approaches employed in the NIF. A brief discussion of the Failure Modes and Effect Analysis supporting the SIS will also be presented. The paper ends with a general discussion of SIS do's and don'ts and common design flaws that should be avoided in SIS design. PMID:23629061

  15. Systematic reconstruction of TRANSPATH data into Cell System Markup Language

    PubMed Central

    Nagasaki, Masao; Saito, Ayumu; Li, Chen; Jeong, Euna; Miyano, Satoru

    2008-01-01

    Background Many biological repositories store information based on experimental study of the biological processes within a cell, such as protein-protein interactions, metabolic pathways, signal transduction pathways, or regulations of transcription factors and miRNA. Unfortunately, it is difficult to directly use such information when generating simulation-based models. Thus, modeling rules for encoding biological knowledge into system-dynamics-oriented standardized formats would be very useful for fully understanding cellular dynamics at the system level. Results We selected the TRANSPATH database, a manually curated high-quality pathway database, which provides a plentiful source of cellular events in humans, mice, and rats, collected from over 31,500 publications. In this work, we have developed 16 modeling rules based on hybrid functional Petri net with extension (HFPNe), which is suitable for graphical representing and simulating biological processes. In the modeling rules, each Petri net element is incorporated with Cell System Ontology to enable semantic interoperability of models. As a formal ontology for biological pathway modeling with dynamics, CSO also defines biological terminology and corresponding icons. By combining HFPNe with the CSO features, it is possible to make TRANSPATH data to simulation-based and semantically valid models. The results are encoded into a biological pathway format, Cell System Markup Language (CSML), which eases the exchange and integration of biological data and models. Conclusion By using the 16 modeling rules, 97% of the reactions in TRANSPATH are converted into simulation-based models represented in CSML. This reconstruction demonstrates that it is possible to use our rules to generate quantitative models from static pathway descriptions. PMID:18570683

  16. Improving access to malaria medicine through private-sector subsidies in seven African countries.

    PubMed

    Tougher, Sarah; Mann, Andrea G; Ye, Yazoume; Kourgueni, Idrissa A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Willey, Barbara A; Ansong, Daniel; Bruxvoort, Katia; Diap, Graciela; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Mallam, Oumarou; Mberu, Blessing; Ndiaye, Salif; Nguah, Samual Blay; Seydou, Moctar; Taylor, Mark; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Arnold, Fred; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Improving access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) is an important component of malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. In 2010 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm) program in seven African countries. The goal of the program was to decrease malaria morbidity and delay drug resistance by increasing the use of ACTs, primarily through subsidies intended to reduce costs. We collected data on price and retail markups on antimalarial medicines from 19,625 private for-profit retail outlets before and 6-15 months after the program's implementation. We found that in six of the AMFm pilot programs, prices for quality-assured ACTs decreased by US$1.28-$4.34, and absolute retail markups on these therapies decreased by US$0.31-$1.03. Prices and markups on other classes of antimalarials also changed during the evaluation period, but not to the same extent. In all but two of the pilot programs, we found evidence that prices could fall further without suppliers' losing money. Thus, concerns may be warranted that wholesalers and retailers are capturing subsidies instead of passing them on to consumers. These findings demonstrate that supranational subsidies can dramatically reduce retail prices of health commodities and that recommended retail prices communicated to a wide audience may be an effective mechanism for controlling the market power of private-sector antimalarial retailers and wholesalers.

  17. 75 FR 61819 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  18. 77 FR 64838 - Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held November 15,...

  19. 78 FR 16757 - Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 4, 2013 from...

  20. 76 FR 59481 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control...

  1. 77 FR 55894 - Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held September 27-28,...

  2. 77 FR 15448 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Notice of meeting RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held April 5, 2012, from 10...

  3. 76 FR 9632 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  4. 75 FR 80886 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  5. 76 FR 16470 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  6. 78 FR 22025 - Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 9-10,...

  7. 78 FR 43963 - Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 20,...

  8. 77 FR 71474 - Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held December 13,...

  9. 77 FR 2343 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA..., Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 9, 2012, from 10...

  10. Dynamic access control model for privacy preserving personalized healthcare in cloud environment.

    PubMed

    Son, Jiseong; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Na, Hong-Seok; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    When sharing and storing healthcare data in a cloud environment, access control is a central issue for preserving data privacy as a patient's personal health data may be accessed without permission from many stakeholders. Specifically, dynamic authorization for the access of data is required because personal health data is stored in cloud storage via wearable devices. Therefore, we propose a dynamic access control model for preserving the privacy of personal healthcare data in a cloud environment. The proposed model considers context information for dynamic access. According to the proposed model, access control can be dynamically determined by changing the context information; this means that even for a subject with the same role in the cloud, access permission is defined differently depending on the context information and access condition. Furthermore, we experiment the ability of the proposed model to provide correct responses by representing a dynamic access decision with real-life personalized healthcare system scenarios. PMID:26409546

  11. Dynamic access control model for privacy preserving personalized healthcare in cloud environment.

    PubMed

    Son, Jiseong; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Na, Hong-Seok; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    When sharing and storing healthcare data in a cloud environment, access control is a central issue for preserving data privacy as a patient's personal health data may be accessed without permission from many stakeholders. Specifically, dynamic authorization for the access of data is required because personal health data is stored in cloud storage via wearable devices. Therefore, we propose a dynamic access control model for preserving the privacy of personal healthcare data in a cloud environment. The proposed model considers context information for dynamic access. According to the proposed model, access control can be dynamically determined by changing the context information; this means that even for a subject with the same role in the cloud, access permission is defined differently depending on the context information and access condition. Furthermore, we experiment the ability of the proposed model to provide correct responses by representing a dynamic access decision with real-life personalized healthcare system scenarios.

  12. Advances in aircraft design: Multiobjective optimization and a markup language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Shubhangi

    Today's modern aerospace systems exhibit strong interdisciplinary coupling and require a multidisciplinary, collaborative approach. Analysis methods that were once considered feasible only for advanced and detailed design are now available and even practical at the conceptual design stage. This changing philosophy for conducting conceptual design poses additional challenges beyond those encountered in a low fidelity design of aircraft. This thesis takes some steps towards bridging the gaps in existing technologies and advancing the state-of-the-art in aircraft design. The first part of the thesis proposes a new Pareto front approximation method for multiobjective optimization problems. The method employs a hybrid optimization approach using two derivative free direct search techniques, and is intended for solving blackbox simulation based multiobjective optimization problems with possibly nonsmooth functions where the analytical formof the objectives is not known and/or the evaluation of the objective function(s) is very expensive (very common in multidisciplinary design optimization). A new adaptive weighting scheme is proposed to convert a multiobjective optimization problem to a single objective optimization problem. Results show that the method achieves an arbitrarily close approximation to the Pareto front with a good collection of well-distributed nondominated points. The second part deals with the interdisciplinary data communication issues involved in a collaborative mutidisciplinary aircraft design environment. Efficient transfer, sharing, and manipulation of design and analysis data in a collaborative environment demands a formal structured representation of data. XML, a W3C recommendation, is one such standard concomitant with a number of powerful capabilities that alleviate interoperability issues. A compact, generic, and comprehensive XML schema for an aircraft design markup language (ADML) is proposed here to provide a common language for data

  13. Bureau of Prisons access control system: functional and operational requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janus, Michael; Carlson, Peter M.; Kane, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) operates 86 correctional institutions nationwide. The BOP has grown dramatically, the size of its inmate population growing from just over 41,000 inmates in 1987 to over 100,000 today. The number of BOP staff managing these facilities has grown correspondingly, more than doubling in number in the same ten year period. Technology has paid a major role in keeping up with this growth while maintaining high standards of security in BOP institutions. In an attempt to further enhance security in its institutions, the BOP has recently begun pilot testing an access control and entry system (ACES). ACES is intended to provide an automated record of very entry and exit to a correctional institution. ACES takes advantage of several methods of identifying an individual (inmate, staff or visitor) to assure that the individual exiting the institution is the same as the individual entering. The pilot test has raised a number of questions regarding the implementation of a technologically sophisticated system in a correctional institution. Questions of training, support, 'ownership,' cost effectiveness, and future potential all influence the deployment of this system. Preliminary results indicate that an adequate training and support system is essential to the performance of any sophisticated system and that other organizational issues need to be addressed before the decision to implement is made.

  14. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... approved VSP. These additional security measures may include: (1) Increasing the frequency and detail of... operations to deter unauthorized access; (4) Limiting the number of access points to the vessel by...

  15. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... approved VSP. These additional security measures may include: (1) Increasing the frequency and detail of... operations to deter unauthorized access; (4) Limiting the number of access points to the vessel by...

  16. SBMLeditor: effective creation of models in the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML)

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Nicolas; Donizelli, Marco; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Background The need to build a tool to facilitate the quick creation and editing of models encoded in the Systems Biology Markup language (SBML) has been growing with the number of users and the increased complexity of the language. SBMLeditor tries to answer this need by providing a very simple, low level editor of SBML files. Users can create and remove all the necessary bits and pieces of SBML in a controlled way, that maintains the validity of the final SBML file. Results SBMLeditor is written in JAVA using JCompneur, a library providing interfaces to easily display an XML document as a tree. This decreases dramatically the development time for a new XML editor. The possibility to include custom dialogs for different tags allows a lot of freedom for the editing and validation of the document. In addition to Xerces, SBMLeditor uses libSBML to check the validity and consistency of SBML files. A graphical equation editor allows an easy manipulation of MathML. SBMLeditor can be used as a module of the Systems Biology Workbench. Conclusion SBMLeditor contains many improvements compared to a generic XML editor, and allow users to create an SBML model quickly and without syntactic errors. PMID:17341299

  17. 78 FR 31627 - Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 20,...

  18. 78 FR 7850 - Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 21,...

  19. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  20. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  1. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  2. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  3. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  4. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  5. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  6. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  7. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  8. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  9. 21 CFR 1311.130 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Institutional practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for establishing logical access...) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.130 Requirements for establishing logical access control—Institutional... practitioner that enters permissions for logical access controls into the application. The...

  10. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for establishing logical access... Prescriptions § 1311.125 Requirements for establishing logical access control—Individual practitioner. (a) At... his two-factor authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second...

  11. Broadband passive optical network media access control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quayle, Alan

    1996-11-01

    Most telecommunication operators are currently deciding on how to respond to customers' needs stimulated by the synergy between compression coding of multimedia and the emergence of broadband digital networks. This paper describes a range of broadband access architectures under consideration in the full services access network initiative. All architectures have a common requirement for a broadband ATM PON. A common broadband PON applicable to many operators increases the world-wide market for the product. With greater production volumes manufacturers' costs reduce because of the experience curve effect making broadband access systems economic.

  12. An object-oriented approach for harmonization of multimedia markup languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yih-Feng; Kuo, May-Chen; Sun, Xiaoming; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2003-12-01

    An object-oriented methodology is proposed to harmonize several different markup languages in this research. First, we adopt the Unified Modelling Language (UML) as the data model to formalize the concept and the process of the harmonization process between the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) applications. Then, we design the Harmonization eXtensible Markup Language (HXML) based on the data model and formalize the transformation between the Document Type Definitions (DTDs) of the original XML applications and HXML. The transformation between instances is also discussed. We use the harmonization of SMIL and X3D as an example to demonstrate the proposed methodology. This methodology can be generalized to various application domains.

  13. Role-based access control through on-demand classification of electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Basant; Kumar, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) provides convenient method to exchange medical information of patients between different healthcare providers. Access control mechanism in healthcare services characterises authorising users to access EHR records. Role Based Access Control helps to restrict EHRs to users in a certain role. Significant works have been carried out for access control since last one decade but little emphasis has been given to on-demand role based access control. Presented work achieved access control through physical data isolation which is more robust and secure. We propose an algorithm in which selective combination of policies for each user of the EHR database has been defined. We extend well known data mining technique 'classification' to group EHRs with respect to the given role. Algorithm works by taking various roles as class and defined their features as a vector. Here, features are used as a Feature Vector for classification to describe user authority. PMID:26559071

  14. Role-based access control through on-demand classification of electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Basant; Kumar, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) provides convenient method to exchange medical information of patients between different healthcare providers. Access control mechanism in healthcare services characterises authorising users to access EHR records. Role Based Access Control helps to restrict EHRs to users in a certain role. Significant works have been carried out for access control since last one decade but little emphasis has been given to on-demand role based access control. Presented work achieved access control through physical data isolation which is more robust and secure. We propose an algorithm in which selective combination of policies for each user of the EHR database has been defined. We extend well known data mining technique 'classification' to group EHRs with respect to the given role. Algorithm works by taking various roles as class and defined their features as a vector. Here, features are used as a Feature Vector for classification to describe user authority.

  15. TumorML: Concept and requirements of an in silico cancer modelling markup language.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David; Cooper, Jonathan; McKeever, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the initial groundwork carried out as part of the European Commission funded Transatlantic Tumor Model Repositories project, to develop a new markup language for computational cancer modelling, TumorML. In this paper we describe the motivations for such a language, arguing that current state-of-the-art biomodelling languages are not suited to the cancer modelling domain. We go on to describe the work that needs to be done to develop TumorML, the conceptual design, and a description of what existing markup languages will be used to compose the language specification.

  16. A Quality of Context-Aware Approach to Access Control in Pervasive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toninelli, Alessandra; Corradi, Antonio; Montanari, Rebecca

    The widespread diffusion of wireless-enabled portable devices creates novel opportunities for users to share resources anywhere and anytime, but makes access control a crucial issue. User/device mobility and heterogeneity, together with network topology and conditions variability, complicate access control and call for novel solutions to dynamically adapt access decisions to the different operating conditions. Several research efforts have emerged in recent years that propose to exploit context-awareness to control access to resources based on context visibility and changes. Context-based access control requires, however, to take into account the quality of context information used to drive access decisions (QoC). Quality of context has in fact a profound impact on the correct behavior of any context-aware access control framework. Using context information with insufficient quality might increase the risk of incorrect access control decisions, thus leading to dangerous security breaches in resource sharing. In this paper we propose a QoC-aware approach to access control for anywhere, anytime resource sharing. The paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of the Proteus policy framework, which combines two design guidelines to enable dynamic adaptation of policies depending on context changes: context-awareness with QoC guarantees and semantic technologies to allow high-level description of context/policy specification and reasoning about context/policies.

  17. An effective access control approach to support mobility in IPv6 networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xue-hai; Lin, Chuang

    2005-11-01

    Access control is an important method to improve network security and prevent protected resources from being used by some nodes without authority. Moreover, mobility is an important trend of internet. In this paper, based on the architecture of hierarchical mobile IPv6, we proposed an effective access control approach to support mobility in IPv6 networks, which can ensure the operation of access control when a mobile node roams in these domains with different polices, with decreased delay of access negotiation and cost of delivering messages.

  18. 76 FR 50811 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control...

  19. 78 FR 51810 - Twenty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control... RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224,...

  20. 77 FR 25525 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security... (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held May 30, 2012, from...

  1. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... unescorted access to secure areas for a period of no longer than 7 consecutive calendar days if: (i) The... paragraph (d) of this section. (5) Deny or revoke a person's authorization to be on the facility if...

  2. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... unescorted access to secure areas for a period of no longer than 7 consecutive calendar days if: (i) The... paragraph (d) of this section. (5) Deny or revoke a person's authorization to be on the facility if...

  3. A dynamic access control method based on QoS requirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunquan; Wang, Yanwei; Yang, Baoye; Hu, Chunyang

    2013-03-01

    A dynamic access control method is put forward to ensure the security of the sharing service in Cloud Manufacturing, according to the application characteristics of cloud manufacturing collaborative task. The role-based access control (RBAC) model is extended according to the characteristics of cloud manufacturing in this method. The constraints are considered, which are from QoS requirement of the task context to access control, based on the traditional static authorization. The fuzzy policy rules are established about the weighted interval value of permissions. The access control authorities of executable service by users are dynamically adjusted through the fuzzy reasoning based on the QoS requirement of task. The main elements of the model are described. The fuzzy reasoning algorithm of weighted interval value based QoS requirement is studied. An effective method is provided to resolve the access control of cloud manufacturing.

  4. The Adoption of Mark-Up Tools in an Interactive e-Textbook Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Sam; Russell, Jae-eun; Schuh, Kathy L.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have more often examined whether students prefer using an e-textbook over a paper textbook or whether e-textbooks provide a better resource for learning than paper textbooks, but students' adoption of mark-up tools has remained relatively unexamined. Drawing on the concept of Innovation Diffusion Theory, we used educational data mining…

  5. A Practical Introduction to the XML, Extensible Markup Language, by Way of Some Useful Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robin

    2004-01-01

    XML, Extensible Markup Language, is important as a way to represent and encapsulate the structure of underlying data in a portable way that supports data exchange regardless of the physical storage of the data. This paper (and session) introduces some useful and practical aspects of XML technology for sharing information in a educational setting…

  6. GeoSciML: Development of a generic GeoScience Markup Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Marcus; Duffy, Tim

    2005-11-01

    The use of eXtensible Markup Language (XML) schema for geoscience data exchange is an improvement on non XML data formats because the XML format is partially self-documenting and provides common methods for parsing files, obtaining their structure and transforming them to alternative formats. The British Geological Survey (BGS) believes it is important to develop some common ML for the exchange of generic geoscience information. If communities share a common data transfer model for their domains of interest, data exchange becomes even easier and more likely to take place efficiently. To address this need the BGS is proposing the development of GeoSciML, a geoscience information markup language, as an application of the OpenGIS Consortium's (OGC) Geography Markup Language (GML), building upon the applied geoscience domain focused eXploration and Mining Markup Language (XMML). We are aiming for an open standard with the support of bodies such as the International Union of Geological Sciences' (IUGS) Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information and the OGC. This paper illustrates the proposed approach with some initial development work to cover geoscientific domains of particular interest, such as boreholes, text and structural geology. The development process has been iterative, with successive prototypes incorporating the comments of experts in each geoscientific domain. We propose that development be extended to the wider geoscience community with the developing schemas and documentation available on a collaborative web site.

  7. An Electronic Finding Aid Using Extensible Markup Language (XML) and Encoded Archival Description (EAD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, May

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of electronic finding aids for archives at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign that used XML (extensible markup language) and EAD (encoded archival description) to enable more flexible information management and retrieval than using MARC or a relational database management system. EAD template is appended.…

  8. Modularization and Structured Markup for Learning Content in an Academic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schluep, Samuel; Bettoni, Marco; Schar, Sissel Guttormsen

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to present a flexible component model for modular, web-based learning content, and a simple structured markup schema for the separation of content and presentation. The article will also contain an overview of the dynamic Learning Content Management System (dLCMS) project, which implements these concepts. Content authors are a…

  9. Secure Remote Access Issues in a Control Center Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Lee; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ISS finally reached an operational state and exists for local and remote users. Onboard payload systems are managed by the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC). Users access HOSC systems by internet protocols in support of daily operations, preflight simulation, and test. In support of this diverse user community, a modem security architecture has been implemented. The architecture has evolved over time from an isolated but open system to a system which supports local and remote access to the ISS over broad geographic regions. This has been accomplished through the use of an evolved security strategy, PKI, and custom design. Through this paper, descriptions of the migration process and the lessons learned are presented. This will include product decision criteria, rationale, and the use of commodity products in the end architecture. This paper will also stress the need for interoperability of various products and the effects of seemingly insignificant details.

  10. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation model.

    PubMed

    Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Talbot, Skip; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge contained within in vivo imaging annotated by human experts or computer programs is typically stored as unstructured text and separated from other associated information. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation information model is an evolution of the National Institute of Health's (NIH) National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Cancer Bioinformatics Grid (caBIG®) AIM model. The model applies to various image types created by various techniques and disciplines. It has evolved in response to the feedback and changing demands from the imaging community at NCI. The foundation model serves as a base for other imaging disciplines that want to extend the type of information the model collects. The model captures physical entities and their characteristics, imaging observation entities and their characteristics, markups (two- and three-dimensional), AIM statements, calculations, image source, inferences, annotation role, task context or workflow, audit trail, AIM creator details, equipment used to create AIM instances, subject demographics, and adjudication observations. An AIM instance can be stored as a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structured reporting (SR) object or Extensible Markup Language (XML) document for further processing and analysis. An AIM instance consists of one or more annotations and associated markups of a single finding along with other ancillary information in the AIM model. An annotation describes information about the meaning of pixel data in an image. A markup is a graphical drawing placed on the image that depicts a region of interest. This paper describes fundamental AIM concepts and how to use and extend AIM for various imaging disciplines.

  11. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation model.

    PubMed

    Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Talbot, Skip; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge contained within in vivo imaging annotated by human experts or computer programs is typically stored as unstructured text and separated from other associated information. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation information model is an evolution of the National Institute of Health's (NIH) National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Cancer Bioinformatics Grid (caBIG®) AIM model. The model applies to various image types created by various techniques and disciplines. It has evolved in response to the feedback and changing demands from the imaging community at NCI. The foundation model serves as a base for other imaging disciplines that want to extend the type of information the model collects. The model captures physical entities and their characteristics, imaging observation entities and their characteristics, markups (two- and three-dimensional), AIM statements, calculations, image source, inferences, annotation role, task context or workflow, audit trail, AIM creator details, equipment used to create AIM instances, subject demographics, and adjudication observations. An AIM instance can be stored as a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structured reporting (SR) object or Extensible Markup Language (XML) document for further processing and analysis. An AIM instance consists of one or more annotations and associated markups of a single finding along with other ancillary information in the AIM model. An annotation describes information about the meaning of pixel data in an image. A markup is a graphical drawing placed on the image that depicts a region of interest. This paper describes fundamental AIM concepts and how to use and extend AIM for various imaging disciplines. PMID:24934452

  12. Proximity-based access control for context-sensitive information provision in SOA-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajappan, Gowri; Wang, Xiaofei; Grant, Robert; Paulini, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has enabled open-architecture integration of applications within an enterprise. For net-centric Command and Control (C2), this elucidates information sharing between applications and users, a critical requirement for mission success. The Information Technology (IT) access control schemes, which arbitrate who gets access to what information, do not yet have the contextual knowledge to dynamically allow this information sharing to happen dynamically. The access control might prevent legitimate users from accessing information relevant to the current mission context, since this context may be very different from the context for which the access privileges were configured. We evaluate a pair of data relevance measures - proximity and risk - and use these as the basis of dynamic access control. Proximity is a measure of the strength of connection between the user and the resource. However, proximity is not sufficient, since some data might have a negative impact, if leaked, which far outweighs importance to the subject's mission. For this, we use a risk measure to quantify the downside of data compromise. Given these contextual measures of proximity and risk, we investigate extending Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC), which is used by the Department of Defense, and Role-Based Access Control (RBAC), which is widely used in the civilian market, so that these standards-based access control models are given contextual knowledge to enable dynamic information sharing. Furthermore, we consider the use of such a contextual access control scheme in a SOA-based environment, in particular for net-centric C2.

  13. Fertility Effects of Abortion and Birth Control Pill Access for Minors

    PubMed Central

    GULDI, MELANIE

    2008-01-01

    This article empirically assesses whether age-restricted access to abortion and the birth control pill influence minors’ fertility in the United States. There is not a strong consensus in previous literature regarding the relationship between laws restricting minors’ access to abortion and minors’ birthrates. This is the first study to recognize that state laws in place prior to the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision enabled minors to legally consent to surgical treatment—including abortion—in some states but not in others, and to construct abortion access variables reflecting this. In this article, age-specific policy variables measure either a minor’s legal ability to obtain an abortion or to obtain the birth control pill without parental involvement. I find fairly strong evidence that young women’s birthrates dropped as a result of abortion access as well as evidence that birth control pill access led to a drop in birthrates among whites. PMID:19110899

  14. 75 FR 71790 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  15. 76 FR 38742 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  16. 76 FR 3931 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 Meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  17. The Smart Card concept applied to access control

    SciTech Connect

    Seidman, S.

    1986-01-01

    Passwords tend to be handled carelessly, and so are easily lost or stolen. Because they are intangible, their loss or theft generally goes unnoticed. Because they are constant, they may be used by anyone for as long as they remain in active use by a legitimate user. A step up in password security is offered by a new range of products which generate a new code each time the device is used. Devices are being produced in packages as small as a standard plastic credit card, including internal battery power, integral keyboard and LCD display. Security features of the Smart Card are reviewed, and several random access code generators currently available in the commercial marketplace are described.

  18. A contextual role-based access control authorization model for electronic patient record.

    PubMed

    Motta, Gustavo H M B; Furuie, Sergio S

    2003-09-01

    The design of proper models for authorization and access control for electronic patient record (EPR) is essential to a wide scale use of EPR in large health organizations. In this paper, we propose a contextual role-based access control authorization model aiming to increase the patient privacy and the confidentiality of patient data, whereas being flexible enough to consider specific cases. This model regulates user's access to EPR based on organizational roles. It supports a role-tree hierarchy with authorization inheritance; positive and negative authorizations; static and dynamic separation of duties based on weak and strong role conflicts. Contextual authorizations use environmental information available at access time, like user/patient relationship, in order to decide whether a user is allowed to access an EPR resource. This enables the specification of a more flexible and precise authorization policy, where permission is granted or denied according to the right and the need of the user to carry out a particular job function.

  19. An access control model with high security for distributed workflow and real-time application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ruo-Fei; Wang, Hou-Xiang

    2007-11-01

    The traditional mandatory access control policy (MAC) is regarded as a policy with strict regulation and poor flexibility. The security policy of MAC is so compelling that few information systems would adopt it at the cost of facility, except some particular cases with high security requirement as military or government application. However, with the increasing requirement for flexibility, even some access control systems in military application have switched to role-based access control (RBAC) which is well known as flexible. Though RBAC can meet the demands for flexibility but it is weak in dynamic authorization and consequently can not fit well in the workflow management systems. The task-role-based access control (T-RBAC) is then introduced to solve the problem. It combines both the advantages of RBAC and task-based access control (TBAC) which uses task to manage permissions dynamically. To satisfy the requirement of system which is distributed, well defined with workflow process and critically for time accuracy, this paper will analyze the spirit of MAC, introduce it into the improved T&RBAC model which is based on T-RBAC. At last, a conceptual task-role-based access control model with high security for distributed workflow and real-time application (A_T&RBAC) is built, and its performance is simply analyzed.

  20. 75 FR 69791 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Exchange Commission 17 CFR Part 240 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access... Regulations#0;#0; ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AK53 Risk Management Controls.... The required financial risk management controls and supervisory procedures must be reasonably...

  1. 76 FR 38293 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AK53 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures that... develop, test, and implement the relevant risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  2. Standard generalized markup language: A guide for transmitting encoded bibliographic records

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document provides the guidance necessary to transmit to DOE`s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) an encoded bibliographic record that conforms to International Standard ISO 8879, Information Processing -- Text and office systems -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Included in this document are element and attribute tag definitions, sample bibliographic records, the bibliographic document type definition, and instructions on how to transmit a bibliographic record electronically to OSTI.

  3. Development of Markup Language for Medical Record Charting: A Charting Language.

    PubMed

    Jung, Won-Mo; Chae, Younbyoung; Jang, Bo-Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays a lot of trials for collecting electronic medical records (EMRs) exist. However, structuring data format for EMR is an especially labour-intensive task for practitioners. Here we propose a new mark-up language for medical record charting (called Charting Language), which borrows useful properties from programming languages. Thus, with Charting Language, the text data described in dynamic situation can be easily used to extract information.

  4. Cognitive Control and Lexical Access in Younger and Older Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus; Luk, Gigi

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-six participants, who were younger (20 years) or older (68 years) adults and either monolingual or bilingual, completed tasks assessing working memory, lexical retrieval, and executive control. Younger participants performed most of the tasks better than older participants, confirming the effect of aging on these processes. The effect of…

  5. The role of markup for enabling interoperability in health informatics

    PubMed Central

    McKeever, Steve; Johnson, David

    2015-01-01

    Interoperability is the faculty of making information systems work together. In this paper we will distinguish a number of different forms that interoperability can take and show how they are realized on a variety of physiological and health care use cases. The last 15 years has seen the rise of very cheap digital storage both on and off site. With the advent of the Internet of Things people's expectations are for greater interconnectivity and seamless interoperability. The potential impact these technologies have on healthcare are dramatic: from improved diagnoses through immediate access to a patient's electronic health record, to in silico modeling of organs and early stage drug trials, to predictive medicine based on top-down modeling of disease progression and treatment. We will begin by looking at the underlying technology, classify the various kinds of interoperability that exist in the field, and discuss how they are realized. We conclude with a discussion on future possibilities that big data and further standardizations will enable. PMID:26042043

  6. The role of markup for enabling interoperability in health informatics.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Steve; Johnson, David

    2015-01-01

    Interoperability is the faculty of making information systems work together. In this paper we will distinguish a number of different forms that interoperability can take and show how they are realized on a variety of physiological and health care use cases. The last 15 years has seen the rise of very cheap digital storage both on and off site. With the advent of the Internet of Things people's expectations are for greater interconnectivity and seamless interoperability. The potential impact these technologies have on healthcare are dramatic: from improved diagnoses through immediate access to a patient's electronic health record, to in silico modeling of organs and early stage drug trials, to predictive medicine based on top-down modeling of disease progression and treatment. We will begin by looking at the underlying technology, classify the various kinds of interoperability that exist in the field, and discuss how they are realized. We conclude with a discussion on future possibilities that big data and further standardizations will enable. PMID:26042043

  7. Trust-Based Access Control Model from Sociological Approach in Dynamic Online Social Network Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungjoo

    2014-01-01

    There has been an explosive increase in the population of the OSN (online social network) in recent years. The OSN provides users with many opportunities to communicate among friends and family. Further, it facilitates developing new relationships with previously unknown people having similar beliefs or interests. However, the OSN can expose users to adverse effects such as privacy breaches, the disclosing of uncontrolled material, and the disseminating of false information. Traditional access control models such as MAC, DAC, and RBAC are applied to the OSN to address these problems. However, these models are not suitable for the dynamic OSN environment because user behavior in the OSN is unpredictable and static access control imposes a burden on the users to change the access control rules individually. We propose a dynamic trust-based access control for the OSN to address the problems of the traditional static access control. Moreover, we provide novel criteria to evaluate trust factors such as sociological approach and evaluate a method to calculate the dynamic trust values. The proposed method can monitor negative behavior and modify access permission levels dynamically to prevent the indiscriminate disclosure of information. PMID:25374943

  8. Trust-based access control model from sociological approach in dynamic online social network environment.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seungsoo; Kim, Seungjoo

    2014-01-01

    There has been an explosive increase in the population of the OSN (online social network) in recent years. The OSN provides users with many opportunities to communicate among friends and family. Further, it facilitates developing new relationships with previously unknown people having similar beliefs or interests. However, the OSN can expose users to adverse effects such as privacy breaches, the disclosing of uncontrolled material, and the disseminating of false information. Traditional access control models such as MAC, DAC, and RBAC are applied to the OSN to address these problems. However, these models are not suitable for the dynamic OSN environment because user behavior in the OSN is unpredictable and static access control imposes a burden on the users to change the access control rules individually. We propose a dynamic trust-based access control for the OSN to address the problems of the traditional static access control. Moreover, we provide novel criteria to evaluate trust factors such as sociological approach and evaluate a method to calculate the dynamic trust values. The proposed method can monitor negative behavior and modify access permission levels dynamically to prevent the indiscriminate disclosure of information.

  9. Generalized access control strategies for integrated services token passing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Joseph W. M.; Tobagi, Fouad A.; Boyd, Stephen

    1994-08-01

    The demand for integrated services local area networks is increasing at a rapid pace with the advent of many new and exciting applications: office and factory automation, distributed computing, and multimedia communications. To support these new applications, it is imperative to integrate traffic with diverse statistical characteristics and differing delay requirements on the same network. An attractive approach for integrating traffic has been adopted in two token passing local area network standards, the IEEE 802.4 token bus standard and FDDI. The idea is to control the transmissions of each station based on a distributed timing algorithm, so as to achieve the following goals: (1) to limit the token cycles so that time-critical traffic can be accommodated, and (2) to allocate pre-specified bandwidths to different stations when the network is overloaded. We have investigated the analysis and design of this protocol. In this paper, we generalize the transmission control algorithm used previously. The major advantages of the generalization over the original protocol are: (1) it provides a much expanded design space, (2) it guarantees convergent behavior, and (3) it gives meaningful insights into the dynamics of the basic control algorithm.

  10. An action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents and its application.

    PubMed

    Su, Mang; Li, Fenghua; Tang, Zhi; Yu, Yinyan; Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents. Firstly, we define a describing model for structured documents and analyze the application scenarios. The describing model could support the permission management on chapters, pages, sections, words, and pictures of structured documents. Secondly, based on the action-based access control (ABAC) model, we propose a fine-grained control protocol for structured documents by introducing temporal state and environmental state. The protocol covering different stages from document creation, to permission specification and usage control are given by using the Z-notation. Finally, we give the implementation of our mechanism and make the comparisons between the existing methods and our mechanism. The result shows that our mechanism could provide the better solution of fine-grained access control for structured documents in complicated networks. Moreover, it is more flexible and practical.

  11. An Action-Based Fine-Grained Access Control Mechanism for Structured Documents and Its Application

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mang; Li, Fenghua; Tang, Zhi; Yu, Yinyan; Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents. Firstly, we define a describing model for structured documents and analyze the application scenarios. The describing model could support the permission management on chapters, pages, sections, words, and pictures of structured documents. Secondly, based on the action-based access control (ABAC) model, we propose a fine-grained control protocol for structured documents by introducing temporal state and environmental state. The protocol covering different stages from document creation, to permission specification and usage control are given by using the Z-notation. Finally, we give the implementation of our mechanism and make the comparisons between the existing methods and our mechanism. The result shows that our mechanism could provide the better solution of fine-grained access control for structured documents in complicated networks. Moreover, it is more flexible and practical. PMID:25136651

  12. Advanced Guidance and Control for Hypersonics and Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Hall, Charles E.; Mulqueen, John A.; Jones, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety, reliability, and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV), whether it is fully rocket-powered or has air- breathing components. This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies could have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where t h i s technology applies, and the costs and time associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is the point where we can look to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AWC, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality. There are a number of approaches to AG&C that have the potential for achieving the desired goals. For some of these methods, we compare the results of tests designed to demonstrate the achievement of the goals. Tests up to now have been focused on rocket-powered vehicles; application to hypersonic air-breathers is planned. We list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, briefly describe an automated test scoring method, and display results of the tests. Some of the technology components have reached the maturity level where they are ready for application to a new vehicle concept, while others are not far along in development.

  13. Steganography-based access control to medical data hidden in electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Mai, Vu; Khalil, Ibrahim; Ibaida, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Steganographic techniques allow secret data to be embedded inside another host data such as an image or a text file without significant changes to the quality of the host data. In this research, we demonstrate how steganography can be used as the main mechanism to build an access control model that gives data owners complete control to their sensitive cardiac health information hidden in their own Electrocardiograms. Our access control model is able to protect the privacy of users, the confidentiality of medical data, reduce storage space and make it more efficient to upload and download large amount of data.

  14. Steganography-based access control to medical data hidden in electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Mai, Vu; Khalil, Ibrahim; Ibaida, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Steganographic techniques allow secret data to be embedded inside another host data such as an image or a text file without significant changes to the quality of the host data. In this research, we demonstrate how steganography can be used as the main mechanism to build an access control model that gives data owners complete control to their sensitive cardiac health information hidden in their own Electrocardiograms. Our access control model is able to protect the privacy of users, the confidentiality of medical data, reduce storage space and make it more efficient to upload and download large amount of data. PMID:24109934

  15. Analysis of Decision Factors for the Application of Information Access Controls within the Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foerster, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of access controls on internal information necessarily impacts the availability of that information for sharing inside the enterprise. The decisions establishing the degree of control are a crucial first step to balance the requirements to protect and share. This research develops a set of basic decision factors and examines other…

  16. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.17 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery Management Plan for the Golden Crab Fishery of...

  17. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.17 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery Management Plan for the Golden Crab Fishery of...

  18. 50 CFR 622.241 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.241 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the...

  19. 50 CFR 622.241 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.241 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the...

  20. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.17 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery Management Plan for the Golden Crab Fishery of...

  1. 48 CFR 1552.235-75 - Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to Toxic Substances... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.235-75 Access to Toxic Substances Control Act...: Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996) In order to...

  2. 48 CFR 1552.235-75 - Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Access to Toxic Substances... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.235-75 Access to Toxic Substances Control Act...: Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996) In order to...

  3. 48 CFR 1552.235-75 - Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to Toxic Substances... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.235-75 Access to Toxic Substances Control Act...: Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996) In order to...

  4. MAAC: a software tool for user authentication and access control to the electronic patient record in an open distributed environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Gustavo H.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2004-04-01

    Designing proper models for authorization and access control for the electronic patient record (EPR) is essential to wide scale use of the EPR in large health organizations. This work presents MAAC (Middleware for Authentication and Access Control), a tool that implements a contextual role-based access control (RBAC) authorization model. RBAC regulates user"s access to computers resources based on their organizational roles. A contextual authorization uses environmental information available at access-request time, like user/patient relationship, in order to decide whether a user has the right to access an EPR resource. The software architecture where MAAC is implemented uses Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, Java programming language and the CORBA/OMG standards CORBA Security Service and Resource Access Decision Facility. With those open and distributed standards, heterogeneous EPR components can request user authentication and access authorization services in a unified and consistent fashion across multiple platforms.

  5. Effects of automatic/controlled access processes on semantic memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Anlló, Eva M; Bellouard, Stéphanie; Ingrand, Pierre; Gil, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of automatic/controlled access processes on the semantic network in 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The AD group was compared with a control group using a battery of neuropsychological tests, a variation of Hodges's semantic testing battery, designed to assess semantic knowledge. The AD group had markedly lower scores than the normal group on each semantic test, but with a different degree of deterioration depending on the nature of the processes (controlled/automatic) in accessing the semantic network. AD patients had poorer performances on the explicit semantic tasks mainly involving controlled-process access (e.g., the WAIS Similarities Subtest) than those involving mainly automatic-process access (e.g., the Verbal Automatism test). Analyses of confidence intervals allowed a gradient of impaired performances in increasing order to be elaborated: a) the Verbal Automatism test, b) the WAIS Vocabulary Subtest, c) the WAIS Information Subtest, d) the Letter Fluency Task, e) Naming as a Response to Definition, f) the Category Fluency Task, g) the WAIS Similarities Subtest, and h) the Oral Denomination 80 Test. The results of our study suggest that explicit semantic tasks needing passive or automatic processes to access semantic memory would be better preserved in AD. PMID:21471640

  6. Dissecting the genetic control of natural variation in salt tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions

    PubMed Central

    Katori, Taku; Ikeda, Akiro; Iuchi, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Maehashi, Kenji; Sakata, Yoichi; Tanaka, Shigeo; Taji, Teruaki

    2010-01-01

    Many accessions (ecotypes) of Arabidopsis have been collected. Although few differences exist among their nucleotide sequences, these subtle differences induce large genetic variation in phenotypic traits such as stress tolerance and flowering time. To understand the natural variability in salt tolerance, large-scale soil pot experiments were performed to evaluate salt tolerance among 350 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. The evaluation revealed a wide variation in the salt tolerance among accessions. Several accessions, including Bu-5, Bur-0, Ll-1, Wl-0, and Zu-0, exhibited marked stress tolerance compared with a salt-sensitive experimental accession, Col-0. The salt-tolerant accessions were also evaluated by agar plate assays. The data obtained by the large-scale assay correlated well with the results of a salt acclimation (SA) assay, in which plants were transferred to high-salinity medium following placement on moderate-salinity medium for 7 d. Genetic analyses indicated that the salt tolerance without SA is a quantitative trait under polygenic control, whereas salt tolerance with SA is regulated by a single gene located on chromosome 5 that is common among the markedly salt-tolerant accessions. These results provide important information for understanding the mechanisms underlying natural variation of salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:20080827

  7. Automated biometric access control system for two-man-rule enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.P.; Maxwell, R.L. ); Henderson, R.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a limited access control system for nuclear facilities which makes use of the eye retinal identity verifier to control the passage of personnel into and out of one or a group of security controlled working areas. This access control system requires no keys, cards or credentials. The user simply enters his Personal Identification Number (PIN) and takes an eye reading to request passage. The PIN does not have to be kept secret. The system then relies on biometric identity verification of the user, along with other system information, to make the decision of whether or not to unlock the door. It also enforces multiple zones control with personnel tracking and the two-man-rule.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Virtualization Techniques for Control and Access of Storage Systems in Data Center Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-09-01

    Virtualization is a new technology that creates virtual environments based on the existing physical resources. This article evaluates effect of virtualization techniques on control servers and access method in storage systems [1, 2]. In control server virtualization, we have presented a tile based evaluation based on heterogeneous workloads to compare several key parameters and demonstrate effectiveness of virtualization techniques. Moreover, we have evaluated the virtualized model using VMotion techniques and maximum consolidation. In access method, we have prepared three different scenarios using direct, semi-virtual, and virtual attachment models. We have evaluated the proposed models with several workloads including OLTP database, data streaming, file server, web server, etc. Results of evaluation for different criteria confirm that server virtualization technique has high throughput and CPU usage as well as good performance with noticeable agility. Also virtual technique is a successful alternative for accessing to the storage systems especially in large capacity systems. This technique can therefore be an effective solution for expansion of storage area and reduction of access time. Results of different evaluation and measurements demonstrate that the virtualization in control server and full virtual access provide better performance and more agility as well as more utilization in the systems and improve business continuity plan.

  9. A Converter from the Systems Biology Markup Language to the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tramy; Roehner, Nicholas; Zundel, Zach; Myers, Chris J

    2016-06-17

    Standards are important to synthetic biology because they enable exchange and reproducibility of genetic designs. This paper describes a procedure for converting between two standards: the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL). SBML is a standard for behavioral models of biological systems at the molecular level. SBOL describes structural and basic qualitative behavioral aspects of a biological design. Converting SBML to SBOL enables a consistent connection between behavioral and structural information for a biological design. The conversion process described in this paper leverages Systems Biology Ontology (SBO) annotations to enable inference of a designs qualitative function.

  10. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Swat, M J; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, S M; Kristensen, N R; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, M K; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, A C; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, J N; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, H B; Parra-Guillen, Z P; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, I F; Yvon, F; Milligan, P A; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-06-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps. PMID:26225259

  11. Generating Systems Biology Markup Language Models from the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    PubMed

    Roehner, Nicholas; Zhang, Zhen; Nguyen, Tramy; Myers, Chris J

    2015-08-21

    In the context of synthetic biology, model generation is the automated process of constructing biochemical models based on genetic designs. This paper discusses the use cases for model generation in genetic design automation (GDA) software tools and introduces the foundational concepts of standards and model annotation that make this process useful. Finally, this paper presents an implementation of model generation in the GDA software tool iBioSim and provides an example of generating a Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model from a design of a 4-input AND sensor written in the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL).

  12. Accessibility to tuberculosis control services and tuberculosis programme performance in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the expansion of health services and community-based interventions in Ethiopia, limited evidence exists about the distribution of and access to health facilities and their relationship with the performance of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We aim to assess the geographical distribution of and physical accessibility to TB control services and their relationship with TB case notification rates (CNRs) and treatment outcome in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. Design We carried out an ecological study to assess physical accessibility to TB control facilities and the association of physical accessibility with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. We collected smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) cases treated during 2003–2012 from unit TB registers and TB service data such as availability of basic supplies for TB control and geographic locations of health services. We used ArcGIS 10.2 to measure the distance from each enumeration location to the nearest TB control facilities. A linear regression analysis was employed to assess factors associated with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. Results Over a decade the health service coverage (the health facility–to-population ratio) increased by 36% and the accessibility to TB control facilities also improved. Thus, the mean distance from TB control services was 7.6 km in 2003 (ranging from 1.8 to 25.5 km) between kebeles (the smallest administrative units) and had decreased to 3.2 km in 2012 (ranging from 1.5 to 12.4 km). In multivariate linear regression, as distance from TB diagnostic facilities (b-estimate=−0.25, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.31, p<0.001) increased, the CNRs of TB decreased, whereas a higher population density was associated with increased TB CNRs. Similarly, distance to TB control facilities (b-estimate=−0.27, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.30, p<0.001) were inversely associated with treatment success (proportion of treatment completed or cured cases). Conclusions

  13. Making journals accessible to the visually impaired: the future is near

    PubMed Central

    GARDNER, John; BULATOV, Vladimir; KELLY, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The American Physical Society (APS) has been a leader in using markup languages for publishing. ViewPlus has led development of innovative technologies for graphical information accessibility by people with print disabilities. APS, ViewPlus, and other collaborators in the Enhanced Reading Project are working together to develop the necessary technology and infrastructure for APS to publish its journals in the DAISY (Digital Accessible Information SYstem) eXtended Markup Language (XML) format, in which all text, math, and figures would be accessible to people who are blind or have other print disabilities. The first APS DAISY XML publications are targeted for late 2010. PMID:20676358

  14. A Study on Automated Context-aware Access Control Model Using Ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bokman; Jang, Hyokyung; Choi, Euiin

    Applications in context-aware computing environment will be connected wireless network and various devices. According to, recklessness access of information resource can make trouble of system. So, access authority management is very important issue both information resource and adapt to system through founding security policy of needed system. But, existing security model is easy of approach to resource through simply user ID and password. This model has a problem that is not concerned about user's environment information. In this paper, propose model of automated context-aware access control using ontology that can more efficiently control about resource through inference and judgment of context information that collect user's information and user's environment context information in order to ontology modeling.

  15. Pace: Privacy-Protection for Access Control Enforcement in P2P Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Artigas, Marc; García-López, Pedro

    In open environments such as peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, the decision to collaborate with multiple users — e.g., by granting access to a resource — is hard to achieve in practice due to extreme decentralization and the lack of trusted third parties. The literature contains a plethora of applications in which a scalable solution for distributed access control is crucial. This fact motivates us to propose a protocol to enforce access control, applicable to networks consisting entirely of untrusted nodes. The main feature of our protocol is that it protects both sensitive permissions and sensitive policies, and does not rely on any centralized authority. We analyze the efficiency (computational effort and communication overhead) as well as the security of our protocol.

  16. Hysteresis-based congestion control at the B-ISDN access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissing, Johannes

    1993-11-01

    Multiplexing of bursty sources and refined congestion control strategies are still the subject of numerous research activities. Broadband applications with very high peak-to-mean bitrate ratio and long silence periods like still picture video gave rise to different ideas of rate control at the B-ISDN network access. Contributions on Input Rate Control for source coded traffic as well as on Server Rate Control within a LAN/ATM Interworking Unit have recently been presented. This paper addresses a congestion avoidance strategy at the network access regarding the aggregated traffic of bursty sources. Depending on the number of active sources as well as on certain defined congestion levels the cell rate at the network access is controlled. The proposed analytical approach is based on the model of uniform and continuous arrival and service. The selected underlying Markov chain contains `split' states in order to handle the congestion correlation. The proposed model is extended to an adaptive Non-Markov system where the buffer filling level is evaluated using a switching hysteresis. This type of congestion measurement turns out to be very useful for an adaptive rate control mechanism that guarantees a certain quality of service while still achieving a good statistical gain. The analytical approach is confirmed by results of a computer simulation that is extended to the more complex case of adaptive rate control.

  17. Prevention and Control of Dental Disease through Improved Access to Comprehensive Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL.

    Prevention of dental disease is the key to improving the nation's oral health. The American Dental Association (ADA) program of prevention and control of dental disease through improved access to comprehensive care concentrates on those who have special difficulties in receiving care: the poor, the elderly, the handicapped, the institutionalized…

  18. A Stateful Multicast Access Control Mechanism for Future Metro-Area-Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei-qiang; Li, Jin-sheng; Hong, Pei-lin

    2003-01-01

    Multicasting is a necessity for a broadband metro-area-network; however security problems exist with current multicast protocols. A stateful multicast access control mechanism, based on MAPE, is proposed. The architecture of MAPE is discussed, as well as the states maintained and messages exchanged. The scheme is flexible and scalable. (Author/AEF)

  19. Mining Roles and Access Control for Relational Data under Privacy and Accuracy Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pervaiz, Zahid

    2013-01-01

    Access control mechanisms protect sensitive information from unauthorized users. However, when sensitive information is shared and a Privacy Protection Mechanism (PPM) is not in place, an authorized insider can still compromise the privacy of a person leading to identity disclosure. A PPM can use suppression and generalization to anonymize and…

  20. 77 FR 26789 - Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... violation of section 337 in the infringement of certain patents. 73 FR 75131. The principal respondent was... order. 75 FR 44989-90 (July 30, 2010). The Commission also issued cease and desist orders against those... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers...

  1. Predicting Health Care Utilization among Latinos: Health Locus of Control Beliefs or Access Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jesus, Maria; Xiao, Chenyang

    2014-01-01

    There are two competing research explanations to account for Latinos' underutilization of health services relative to non-Latino Whites in the United States. One hypothesis examines the impact of health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs, while the other focuses on the role of access factors on health care use. To date, the relative strength of…

  2. An Annotated and Cross-Referenced Bibliography on Computer Security and Access Control in Computer Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergart, Jeffrey G.; And Others

    This paper represents a careful study of published works on computer security and access control in computer systems. The study includes a selective annotated bibliography of some eighty-five important published results in the field and, based on these papers, analyzes the state of the art. In annotating these works, the authors try to be…

  3. 75 FR 47464 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Final Rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Copyright Office makes a nonsubstantial correction to its regulation announcing...

  4. 36 CFR 1256.70 - What controls access to national security-classified information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... materials; 44 U.S.C. 2111, 44 U.S.C. 2201 et seq., and 36 CFR part 1270 for Presidential records; and 44 U.S.C. 2111 note and 36 CFR part 1275 for Nixon Presidential materials. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What controls access...

  5. Secure Access Control and Large Scale Robust Representation for Online Multimedia Event Detection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changyu; Li, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    We developed an online multimedia event detection (MED) system. However, there are a secure access control issue and a large scale robust representation issue when we want to integrate traditional event detection algorithms into the online environment. For the first issue, we proposed a tree proxy-based and service-oriented access control (TPSAC) model based on the traditional role based access control model. Verification experiments were conducted on the CloudSim simulation platform, and the results showed that the TPSAC model is suitable for the access control of dynamic online environments. For the second issue, inspired by the object-bank scene descriptor, we proposed a 1000-object-bank (1000OBK) event descriptor. Feature vectors of the 1000OBK were extracted from response pyramids of 1000 generic object detectors which were trained on standard annotated image datasets, such as the ImageNet dataset. A spatial bag of words tiling approach was then adopted to encode these feature vectors for bridging the gap between the objects and events. Furthermore, we performed experiments in the context of event classification on the challenging TRECVID MED 2012 dataset, and the results showed that the robust 1000OBK event descriptor outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:25147840

  6. Secure access control and large scale robust representation for online multimedia event detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changyu; Lu, Bin; Li, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    We developed an online multimedia event detection (MED) system. However, there are a secure access control issue and a large scale robust representation issue when we want to integrate traditional event detection algorithms into the online environment. For the first issue, we proposed a tree proxy-based and service-oriented access control (TPSAC) model based on the traditional role based access control model. Verification experiments were conducted on the CloudSim simulation platform, and the results showed that the TPSAC model is suitable for the access control of dynamic online environments. For the second issue, inspired by the object-bank scene descriptor, we proposed a 1000-object-bank (1000OBK) event descriptor. Feature vectors of the 1000OBK were extracted from response pyramids of 1000 generic object detectors which were trained on standard annotated image datasets, such as the ImageNet dataset. A spatial bag of words tiling approach was then adopted to encode these feature vectors for bridging the gap between the objects and events. Furthermore, we performed experiments in the context of event classification on the challenging TRECVID MED 2012 dataset, and the results showed that the robust 1000OBK event descriptor outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches.

  7. Control of Access to Memory: The Use of Task Interference as a Behavioral Probe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Humphreys, Michael S.; Whitney, Susannah J.

    2008-01-01

    Directed forgetting and prospective memory methods were combined to examine differences in the control of memory access. Between studying two lists of target words, participants were either instructed to forget the first list, or to continue remembering the first list. After study participants performed a lexical decision task with an additional…

  8. The Role of Automatic Indexing in Access Control: A Modular View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartson, H. Rex

    1974-01-01

    A model which relates the access control and indexing functions. The model is based on concept protection which allows a practically unbounded number of levels (subsets) of protection without requiring a fixed hierarchy among the levels. This protection is offered independently for each of the user operations allowed. (Author)

  9. 50 CFR 648.92 - Effort-control program for monkfish limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effort-control program for monkfish limited access vessels. 648.92 Section 648.92 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.92...

  10. An Access Control and Trust Management Framework for Loosely-Coupled Multidomain Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yue

    2010-01-01

    Multidomain environments where multiple organizations interoperate with each other are becoming a reality as can be seen in emerging Internet-based enterprise applications. Access control to ensure secure interoperation in such an environment is a crucial challenge. A multidomain environment can be categorized as "tightly-coupled" and…

  11. The Use of Passwords for Controlled Access to Computer Resources. Computer Science & Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Helen M.

    This paper considers the generation of passwords and their effective application to the problem of controlling access to computer resources. After describing the need for and uses of passwords, password schemes are categorized according to selection technique, lifetime, physical characteristics, and information content. Password protection, both…

  12. Fast access control of the head positioning using a digital signal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Susumu; Mizoshita, Yoshifumi; Ueno, Takahisa; Takaishi, Kazuhiko

    1990-08-01

    We have developed a new digital servo controller for a 5"hard disk drive which has average access time of 10 ms for a 25 mm stroke. To obtain this fast access speed, we used a state estimator with a new acceleration irajectory model. The estimator and trajectory generator are implemented using a digital signal processor. There are two problems for fast access control: motor coil inductance and the mechanical resonance of the actuator and disk enclosure. To solve these problems and to achieve precise head positioning, we developed the following control method. To solve the voice coil motor inductance and actuator resonance problems, we used a new acceleration trajectory model which is not affected by the coil inductance when the head moves quickly. This design is based on an optinial control theory which minimizes the square of differentiated acceleration. By using this new trajectory model, the high harmonics of actuator drive are damped and the residual vibration ofactuator immediately after access is decreased.

  13. Functional requirements with survey results for integrated intrusion detection and access control annunciator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the guidance Functional Requirements for an Integrated Intrusion Detection and Access Control Annunciator System, and survey results of selected commercial systems. The survey questions were based upon the functional requirements; therefore, the results reflect which and sometimes how the guidance recommendations were met.

  14. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... least one of the individuals designated under paragraph (a) of this section must verify that the DEA... authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second individual must be a DEA registrant... practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed. (3) The...

  15. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... least one of the individuals designated under paragraph (a) of this section must verify that the DEA... authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second individual must be a DEA registrant... practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed. (3) The...

  16. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... least one of the individuals designated under paragraph (a) of this section must verify that the DEA... authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second individual must be a DEA registrant... practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed. (3) The...

  17. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... least one of the individuals designated under paragraph (a) of this section must verify that the DEA... authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second individual must be a DEA registrant... practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed. (3) The...

  18. An enhancement of the role-based access control model to facilitate information access management in context of team collaboration and workflow.

    PubMed

    Le, Xuan Hung; Doll, Terry; Barbosu, Monica; Luque, Amneris; Wang, Dongwen

    2012-12-01

    Although information access control models have been developed and applied to various applications, few of the previous works have addressed the issue of managing information access in the combined context of team collaboration and workflow. To facilitate this requirement, we have enhanced the Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) model through formulating universal constraints, defining bridging entities and contributing attributes, extending access permissions to include workflow contexts, synthesizing a role-based access delegation model to target on specific objects, and developing domain ontologies as instantiations of the general model to particular applications. We have successfully applied this model to the New York State HIV Clinical Education Initiative (CEI) project to address the specific needs of information management in collaborative processes. An initial evaluation has shown this model achieved a high level of agreement with an existing system when applied to 4576 cases (kappa=0.801). Comparing to a reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the enhanced RBAC model were at the level of 97-100%. These results indicate that the enhanced RBAC model can be effectively used for information access management in context of team collaboration and workflow to coordinate clinical education programs. Future research is required to incrementally develop additional types of universal constraints, to further investigate how the workflow context and access delegation can be enriched to support the various needs on information access management in collaborative processes, and to examine the generalizability of the enhanced RBAC model for other applications in clinical education, biomedical research, and patient care.

  19. Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 2 Version 5: Structures and Facilities for Model Definitions.

    PubMed

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Dräger, Andreas; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris J; Olivier, Brett G; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Waltemath, Dagmar; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 5 of SBML Level 2. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org. PMID:26528569

  20. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core.

    PubMed

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/. PMID:26528564

  1. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 2.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Le Novère, Nicolas; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) guidelines. This document presents Level 1 Version 2 of the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML), a computer-readable format for encoding simulation and analysis experiments to apply to computational models. SED-ML files are encoded in the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and can be used in conjunction with any XML-based model encoding format, such as CellML or SBML. A SED-ML file includes details of which models to use, how to modify them prior to executing a simulation, which simulation and analysis procedures to apply, which results to extract and how to present them. Level 1 Version 2 extends the format by allowing the encoding of repeated and chained procedures. PMID:26528560

  2. Extreme Markup: The Fifty US Hospitals With The Highest Charge-To-Cost Ratios.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ge; Anderson, Gerard F

    2015-06-01

    Using Medicare cost reports, we examined the fifty US hospitals with the highest charge-to-cost ratios in 2012. These hospitals have markups (ratios of charges over Medicare-allowable costs) approximately ten times their Medicare-allowable costs compared to a national average of 3.4 and a mode of 2.4. Analysis of the fifty hospitals showed that forty-nine are for profit (98 percent), forty-six are owned by for-profit hospital systems (92 percent), and twenty (40 percent) operate in Florida. One for-profit hospital system owns half of these fifty hospitals. While most public and private health insurers do not use hospital charges to set their payment rates, uninsured patients are commonly asked to pay the full charges, and out-of-network patients and casualty and workers' compensation insurers are often expected to pay a large portion of the full charges. Because it is difficult for patients to compare prices, market forces fail to constrain hospital charges. Federal and state governments may want to consider limitations on the charge-to-cost ratio, some form of all-payer rate setting, or mandated price disclosure to regulate hospital markups. PMID:26056196

  3. Biological Dynamics Markup Language (BDML): an open format for representing quantitative biological dynamics data

    PubMed Central

    Kyoda, Koji; Tohsato, Yukako; Ho, Kenneth H. L.; Onami, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Recent progress in live-cell imaging and modeling techniques has resulted in generation of a large amount of quantitative data (from experimental measurements and computer simulations) on spatiotemporal dynamics of biological objects such as molecules, cells and organisms. Although many research groups have independently dedicated their efforts to developing software tools for visualizing and analyzing these data, these tools are often not compatible with each other because of different data formats. Results: We developed an open unified format, Biological Dynamics Markup Language (BDML; current version: 0.2), which provides a basic framework for representing quantitative biological dynamics data for objects ranging from molecules to cells to organisms. BDML is based on Extensible Markup Language (XML). Its advantages are machine and human readability and extensibility. BDML will improve the efficiency of development and evaluation of software tools for data visualization and analysis. Availability and implementation: A specification and a schema file for BDML are freely available online at http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/bdml/. Contact: sonami@riken.jp Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25414366

  4. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core.

    PubMed

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-09-04

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/.

  5. Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 2 Version 5: Structures and Facilities for Model Definitions.

    PubMed

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Dräger, Andreas; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris J; Olivier, Brett G; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Waltemath, Dagmar; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-09-04

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 5 of SBML Level 2. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org.

  6. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 2.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Le Novère, Nicolas; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-09-04

    The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) guidelines. This document presents Level 1 Version 2 of the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML), a computer-readable format for encoding simulation and analysis experiments to apply to computational models. SED-ML files are encoded in the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and can be used in conjunction with any XML-based model encoding format, such as CellML or SBML. A SED-ML file includes details of which models to use, how to modify them prior to executing a simulation, which simulation and analysis procedures to apply, which results to extract and how to present them. Level 1 Version 2 extends the format by allowing the encoding of repeated and chained procedures.

  7. Accessibility of dog populations for rabies control in Kathmandu valley, Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Bögel, K.; Joshi, D. D.

    1990-01-01

    The accessibility of dogs in urban areas of Kathmandu valley was measured using the following approaches: determination of the proportion of dogs that bore signs of having been the objects of religious worship and other signs of household association, supplemented by information obtained by interviewing people in the neighbourhood; and the vaccination coverage attained in a rabies control campaign that was preceded by intensive activities to encourage the community to participate. An accessibility rate of 90-95% was determined using the first of these approaches, whereas 75-80% of the total dog population was reached in the vaccination campaign. PMID:2289296

  8. Access Scheme for Controlling Mobile Agents and its Application to Share Medical Information.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Ting; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chung, Yu-Fang; Chen, Yu- Xin; Hwang, Jen-Hung; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei

    2016-05-01

    This study is showing the advantage of mobile agents to conquer heterogeneous system environments and contribute to a virtual integrated sharing system. Mobile agents will collect medical information from each medical institution as a method to achieve the medical purpose of data sharing. Besides, this research also provides an access control and key management mechanism by adopting Public key cryptography and Lagrange interpolation. The safety analysis of the system is based on a network attacker's perspective. The achievement of this study tries to improve the medical quality, prevent wasting medical resources and make medical resources access to appropriate configuration. PMID:27010391

  9. The evolution of the CUAHSI Water Markup Language (WaterML)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D.; Maidment, D.; Tarboton, D. G.; Whiteaker, T.; Hooper, R.; Kirschtel, D.; Rodriguez, M.

    2009-04-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS, his.cuahsi.org) uses web services as the core data exchange mechanism which provides programmatic connection between many heterogeneous sources of hydrologic data and a variety of online and desktop client applications. The service message schema follows the CUAHSI Water Markup Language (WaterML) 1.x specification (see OGC Discussion Paper 07-041r1). Data sources that can be queried via WaterML-compliant water data services include national and international repositories such as USGS NWIS (National Water Information System), USEPA STORET (Storage & Retrieval), USDA SNOTEL (Snowpack Telemetry), NCDC ISH and ISD(Integrated Surface Hourly and Daily Data), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), and DAYMET (Daily Surface Weather Data and Climatological Summaries). Besides government data sources, CUAHSI HIS provides access to a growing number of academic hydrologic observation networks. These networks are registered by researchers associated with 11 hydrologic observatory testbeds around the US, and other research, government and commercial groups wishing to join the emerging CUAHSI Water Data Federation. The Hydrologic Information Server (HIS Server) software stack deployed at NSF-supported hydrologic observatory sites and other universities around the country, supports a hydrologic data publication workflow which includes the following steps: (1) observational data are loaded from static files or streamed from sensors into a local instance of an Observations Data Model (ODM) database; (2) a generic web service template is configured for the new ODM instance to expose the data as a WaterML-compliant water data service, and (3) the new water data service is registered at the HISCentral registry (hiscentral.cuahsi.org), its metadata are harvested and semantically tagged using concepts from a hydrologic ontology. As a result, the new service is indexed in the CUAHSI central metadata catalog, and becomes

  10. Computer vector multiprocessing control with multiple access memory and priority conflict resolution method

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.; Schiffleger, A.J.

    1990-02-13

    This patent describes a multiprocessor memory system. It comprises: a central memory comprised of a plurality of independently addressable memory banks organized into a plurality of sections each accessible through a plurality of access paths; a plurality of processing machines; each of the processing machine including a plurality of ports for generating memory references to any one of the central memory sections; and conflict resolution means interfacing each of the ports to each of the central memory sections through the central memory access paths. The resolution means for receiving references from the ports and coordinating and controlling the procession of the references along to the access paths. The conflict resolution means comprising a plurality of conflict resolution circuits corresponding in number to the memory sections, each of the circuits receiving the references to its corresponding section from any one of the ports and selectively conveying the references to the access paths for the corresponding section. The circuits each including; means for checking the readiness of the memory banks to be referenced and holding a reference to a busy one of the banks until the bank is ready to be referenced; means for detecting when more than one of the references is pending to the same bank simultaneously and holding all but one of the simultaneously pending references; and means communicating with the ports and the other of the conflict resolution circuits to cause one of the ports referencing the memory to suspend generation of further references when a reference from the referencing port is being held.

  11. Distributed joint power and access control algorithm for secondary spectrum sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyan; Chen, Enqing; Fu, Hongliang

    2010-08-01

    Based on interference temperature model, the problem of efficient secondary spectrum sharing is formulated as a power optimization problem with some constraints at physical layer. These constraints and optimization objective limit a feasible power vector set which leads to the need of access control besides power control. In this paper, we consider the decentralized cognitive radio network scenario where short-term data service is required, and the problem of distributed joint power and access control is studied to maximize the total secondary system throughput, subject to Quality of Service (QoS) constraints from individual secondary users and interference temperature limit (ITL) from primary system. Firstly, a pricing-based game model was used to solve distributed power allocation optimization problem in both high and low signal to interference noise ratio (SINR) scenarios. Secondly, when not all the secondary links can be supported with their QoS requirement and ITL, a distributed joint power and access control algorithm was introduced to find the allowable links which results in maximum network throughput with all the constraints satisfied, and the convergence performance is tested by simulations.

  12. Controlled Access Headings in EAD Finding Aids: Current Practices in Number of and Types of Headings Assigned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascaro, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a study of controlled access headings assigned to encoded archival description finding aids in the Ohio Library and Information Network Finding Aid Repository, focusing on the number of headings per finding aid and the category of terms assigned. Assigning multiple controlled access headings was widely…

  13. An Internet of Things Example: Classrooms Access Control over Near Field Communication

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Daniel; Agudo, Juan Enrique; Sánchez, Héctor; Macías, Miguel Macías

    2014-01-01

    The Internet of Things is one of the ideas that has become increasingly relevant in recent years. It involves connecting things to the Internet in order to retrieve information from them at any time and from anywhere. In the Internet of Things, sensor networks that exchange information wirelessly via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee or RF are common. In this sense, our paper presents a way in which each classroom control is accessed through Near Field Communication (NFC) and the information is shared via radio frequency. These data are published on the Web and could easily be used for building applications from the data collected. As a result, our application collects information from the classroom to create a control classroom tool that displays access to and the status of all the classrooms graphically and also connects this data with social networks. PMID:24755520

  14. An internet of things example: classrooms access control over near field communication.

    PubMed

    Palma, Daniel; Agudo, Juan Enrique; Sánchez, Héctor; Macías, Miguel Macías

    2014-04-21

    The Internet of Things is one of the ideas that has become increasingly relevant in recent years. It involves connecting things to the Internet in order to retrieve information from them at any time and from anywhere. In the Internet of Things, sensor networks that exchange information wirelessly via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee or RF are common. In this sense, our paper presents a way in which each classroom control is accessed through Near Field Communication (NFC) and the information is shared via radio frequency. These data are published on the Web and could easily be used for building applications from the data collected. As a result, our application collects information from the classroom to create a control classroom tool that displays access to and the status of all the classrooms graphically and also connects this data with social networks.

  15. A threat intelligence framework for access control security in the oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaskandrani, Faisal T.

    The research investigates the problem raised by the rapid development in the technology industry giving security concerns in facilities built by the energy industry containing diverse platforms. The difficulty of continuous updates to network security architecture and assessment gave rise to the need to use threat intelligence frameworks to better assess and address networks security issues. Focusing on access control security to the ICS and SCADA systems that is being utilized to carry out mission critical and life threatening operations. The research evaluates different threat intelligence frameworks that can be implemented in the industry seeking the most suitable and applicable one that address the issue and provide more security measures. The validity of the result is limited to the same environment that was researched as well as the technologies being utilized. The research concludes that it is possible to utilize a Threat Intelligence framework to prioritize security in Access Control Measures in the Oil Industry.

  16. A Privacy Access Control Framework for Web Services Collaboration with Role Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Linyuan; Huang, Zhiqiu; Zhu, Haibin

    With the popularity of Internet technology, web services are becoming the most promising paradigm for distributed computing. This increased use of web services has meant that more and more personal information of consumers is being shared with web service providers, leading to the need to guarantee the privacy of consumers. This paper proposes a role-based privacy access control framework for Web services collaboration, it utilizes roles to specify the privacy privileges of services, and considers the impact on the reputation degree of the historic experience of services in playing roles. Comparing to the traditional privacy access control approaches, this framework can make the fine-grained authorization decision, thus efficiently protecting consumers' privacy.

  17. Ver-i-Fus: an integrated access control and information monitoring and management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C.; Reisman, James G.; Papelis, Yiannis E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the Ver-i-Fus Integrated Access Control and Information Monitoring and Management (IAC-I2M) system that INTELNET Inc. has developed. The Ver-i-Fus IAC-I2M system has been designed to meet the most stringent security and information monitoring requirements while allowing two- way communication between the user and the system. The systems offers a flexible interface that permits to integrate practically any sensing device, or combination of sensing devices, including a live-scan fingerprint reader, thus providing biometrics verification for enhanced security. Different configurations of the system provide solutions to different sets of access control problems. The re-configurable hardware interface, tied together with biometrics verification and a flexible interface that allows to integrate Ver-i-Fus with an MIS, provide an integrated solution to security, time and attendance, labor monitoring, production monitoring, and payroll applications.

  18. A human rights view on access to controlled substances for medical purposes under the international drug control framework.

    PubMed

    Gispen, Marie Elske C

    2013-11-01

    The world is confronted with a major public health deficit caused by poor access to controlled essential medicines under the international drug control framework. This is affecting millions of patients on a daily basis and resulting in numerous human rights violations. The present review contextualises this deficit from a human rights perspective. Drug control efforts are informed by a twofold objective stemming from the double nature of scheduled substances: free access for medical purposes should be ensured, though non-medical use of substances such as opium should be restricted. The international drug control framework is, in theory, based on this twofold notion, however at the level of interpretation, monitoring, and implementation, a one-sided emphasis is demonstrated. By tracing a parallel between the obligations of states under the international drug control framework and those that derive from human rights law, the review shows that the two systems seem incoherent and conflicting in nature and flags the importance of cross-disciplinary research into drug control and human rights.

  19. The influence of patriarchal behavior on birth control access and use among recent Hispanic immigrants.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Eleazar U; Sable, Marjorie R; Campbell, James D; Dannerbeck, Anne

    2010-08-01

    It is commonly assumed that Hispanic immigrants in the United States subscribe to a patriarchal ideology that keeps women subordinated to men, often through violence and exploitative reproductive behaviors. If this assumption is true, we might expect to find that in the Hispanic culture patriarchal males control decision-making about access to and use of birth control. Structured interviews of 100 Hispanic men and 100 Hispanic women who were recent immigrants to a Midwest community were conducted to examine this assumption. Results did not support this assumption among this study population. We found no patriarchal ideology supporting women's subordination to men, violence as a mechanism of control, reproduction as a way of exploitation, or cultural influences discouraging access to and use of birth control in the Hispanic community. Rather, these immigrants revealed adequate knowledge of birth control use and positive perceptions of gender equality. Gaining a better understanding of the limited influence of patriarchal ideology on the use of birth control and family planning services among this Hispanic community may inform the development of family planning services tailored for new Hispanic immigrants.

  20. Using Extensible Markup Language (XML) for the Single Source Delivery of Educational Resources by Print and Online: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to provide an introduction to Extensible Markup Language (XML) by looking at its use in a single source publishing approach to the provision of teaching resources in both hardcopy and online. Using the development of the International Baccalaureate Organisation's online Economics Subject Guide as a practical example, this…

  1. Light at Night Markup Language (LANML): XML Technology for Light at Night Monitoring Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, B. L.; Craine, E. R.; Craine, E. M.; Crawford, D. L.

    2013-05-01

    Light at Night Markup Language (LANML) is a standard, based upon XML, useful in acquiring, validating, transporting, archiving and analyzing multi-dimensional light at night (LAN) datasets of any size. The LANML standard can accommodate a variety of measurement scenarios including single spot measures, static time-series, web based monitoring networks, mobile measurements, and airborne measurements. LANML is human-readable, machine-readable, and does not require a dedicated parser. In addition LANML is flexible; ensuring future extensions of the format will remain backward compatible with analysis software. The XML technology is at the heart of communicating over the internet and can be equally useful at the desktop level, making this standard particularly attractive for web based applications, educational outreach and efficient collaboration between research groups.

  2. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and "native" mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources-file system, location, camera, contacts, etc. Hybrid apps are typically developed using hybrid application frameworks such as PhoneGap. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, it provides an embedded Web browser (for example, WebView on Android) that executes the app's Web code. Second, it supplies "bridges" that allow Web code to escape the browser and access local resources on the device. We analyze the software stack created by hybrid frameworks and demonstrate that it does not properly compose the access-control policies governing Web code and local code, respectively. Web code is governed by the same origin policy, whereas local code is governed by the access-control policy of the operating system (for example, user-granted permissions in Android). The bridges added by the framework to the browser have the same local access rights as the entire application, but are not correctly protected by the same origin policy. This opens the door to fracking attacks, which allow foreign-origin Web content included into a hybrid app (e.g., ads confined in iframes) to drill through the layers and directly access device resources. Fracking vulnerabilities are generic: they affect all hybrid frameworks, all embedded Web browsers, all bridge mechanisms, and all platforms on which these frameworks are deployed. We study the prevalence of fracking vulnerabilities in free Android apps based on the PhoneGap framework. Each vulnerability exposes sensitive local resources-the ability to read and write contacts list, local files, etc.-to dozens of potentially malicious Web domains. We also analyze the defenses deployed by hybrid frameworks to prevent resource access by foreign-origin Web content

  3. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and "native" mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources-file system, location, camera, contacts, etc. Hybrid apps are typically developed using hybrid application frameworks such as PhoneGap. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, it provides an embedded Web browser (for example, WebView on Android) that executes the app's Web code. Second, it supplies "bridges" that allow Web code to escape the browser and access local resources on the device. We analyze the software stack created by hybrid frameworks and demonstrate that it does not properly compose the access-control policies governing Web code and local code, respectively. Web code is governed by the same origin policy, whereas local code is governed by the access-control policy of the operating system (for example, user-granted permissions in Android). The bridges added by the framework to the browser have the same local access rights as the entire application, but are not correctly protected by the same origin policy. This opens the door to fracking attacks, which allow foreign-origin Web content included into a hybrid app (e.g., ads confined in iframes) to drill through the layers and directly access device resources. Fracking vulnerabilities are generic: they affect all hybrid frameworks, all embedded Web browsers, all bridge mechanisms, and all platforms on which these frameworks are deployed. We study the prevalence of fracking vulnerabilities in free Android apps based on the PhoneGap framework. Each vulnerability exposes sensitive local resources-the ability to read and write contacts list, local files, etc.-to dozens of potentially malicious Web domains. We also analyze the defenses deployed by hybrid frameworks to prevent resource access by foreign-origin Web content

  4. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and “native” mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources—file system, location, camera, contacts, etc. Hybrid apps are typically developed using hybrid application frameworks such as PhoneGap. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, it provides an embedded Web browser (for example, WebView on Android) that executes the app's Web code. Second, it supplies “bridges” that allow Web code to escape the browser and access local resources on the device. We analyze the software stack created by hybrid frameworks and demonstrate that it does not properly compose the access-control policies governing Web code and local code, respectively. Web code is governed by the same origin policy, whereas local code is governed by the access-control policy of the operating system (for example, user-granted permissions in Android). The bridges added by the framework to the browser have the same local access rights as the entire application, but are not correctly protected by the same origin policy. This opens the door to fracking attacks, which allow foreign-origin Web content included into a hybrid app (e.g., ads confined in iframes) to drill through the layers and directly access device resources. Fracking vulnerabilities are generic: they affect all hybrid frameworks, all embedded Web browsers, all bridge mechanisms, and all platforms on which these frameworks are deployed. We study the prevalence of fracking vulnerabilities in free Android apps based on the PhoneGap framework. Each vulnerability exposes sensitive local resources—the ability to read and write contacts list, local files, etc.—to dozens of potentially malicious Web domains. We also analyze the defenses deployed by hybrid frameworks to prevent resource access by foreign

  5. MPEG-21 as an access control tool for the National Health Service Care Records Service.

    PubMed

    Brox, Georg A

    2005-01-01

    Since the launch of the National Health Service (NHS) Care Records Service with plans to share patient information across England, there has been an emphasis on the need for manageable access control methods. MPEG-21 is a structured file format which includes an Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) function using XML to present all digitally stored items in the patient record. Using DICreator software, patient records consisting of written text, audio-recordings, non-X-ray digital imaging and video sequences were linked up successfully. Audio records were created using Talk-Back 2002 to standardize and optimize recording quality. The recorded reports were then linked and archived using iTunes. A key was used each time the file was displayed to secure access to confidential patient data. The building of the correct file structure could be monitored during the entire creation of the file. The results demonstrated the ability to ensure secure access of the MPEG-21 file by both health-care professionals and patients by use of different keys and a specific MPEG-21 browser. The study also showed that the enabling of IPMP will provide accurate audit trails to authenticate appropriate access to medical information. PMID:16035983

  6. Toward an Open-Access Global Database for Mapping, Control, and Surveillance of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Boutsika, Konstantina; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Laserna de Himpsl, Maiti; Ziegelbauer, Kathrin; Laizer, Nassor; Camenzind, Lukas; Di Pasquale, Aurelio; Ekpo, Uwem F.; Simoonga, Christopher; Mushinge, Gabriel; Saarnak, Christopher F. L.; Utzinger, Jürg; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    Background After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark for monitoring and evaluation. What is currently missing is a georeferenced global database for NTDs providing open-access to the available survey data that is constantly updated and can be utilized by researchers and disease control managers to support other relevant stakeholders. We describe the steps taken toward the development of such a database that can be employed for spatial disease risk modeling and control of NTDs. Methodology With an emphasis on schistosomiasis in Africa, we systematically searched the literature (peer-reviewed journals and ‘grey literature’), contacted Ministries of Health and research institutions in schistosomiasis-endemic countries for location-specific prevalence data and survey details (e.g., study population, year of survey and diagnostic techniques). The data were extracted, georeferenced, and stored in a MySQL database with a web interface allowing free database access and data management. Principal Findings At the beginning of 2011, our database contained more than 12,000 georeferenced schistosomiasis survey locations from 35 African countries available under http://www.gntd.org. Currently, the database is expanded to a global repository, including a host of other NTDs, e.g. soil-transmitted helminthiasis and leishmaniasis. Conclusions An open-access, spatially explicit NTD database offers unique opportunities for disease risk modeling, targeting control interventions, disease monitoring, and surveillance. Moreover, it allows for detailed geostatistical analyses of disease distribution in space and time. With an initial focus on schistosomiasis in Africa, we demonstrate the proof-of-concept that the establishment and running of a

  7. The equipment access software for a distributed UNIX-based accelerator control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Nikolai; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Zharkov, Eugeny; Charrue, Pierre; Gareyte, Claire; Poirier, Hervé

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents a generic equipment access software package for a distributed control system using computers with UNIX or UNIX-like operating systems. The package consists of three main components, an application Equipment Access Library, Message Handler and Equipment Data Base. An application task, which may run in any computer in the network, sends requests to access equipment through Equipment Library calls. The basic request is in the form Equipment-Action-Data and is routed via a remote procedure call to the computer to which the given equipment is connected. In this computer the request is received by the Message Handler. According to the type of the equipment connection, the Message Handler either passes the request to the specific process software in the same computer or forwards it to a lower level network of equipment controllers using MIL1553B, GPIB, RS232 or BITBUS communication. The answer is then returned to the calling application. Descriptive information required for request routing and processing is stored in the real-time Equipment Data Base. The package has been written to be portable and is currently available on DEC Ultrix, LynxOS, HPUX, XENIX, OS-9 and Apollo domain.

  8. Frequency-selective design of wireless power transfer systems for controlled access applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschino, Tyler Stephen

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) has become a common way to charge or power many types of devices, ranging from cell phones to electric toothbrushes. WPT became popular through the introduction of a transmission mode known as strongly coupled magnetic resonance (SCMR). This means of transmission is non-radiative and enables mid-range WPT. Shortly after the development of WPT via SCMR, a group of researchers introduced the concept of resonant repeaters, which allows power to hop from the source to the device. These repeaters are in resonance with the WPT system, which enables them to propagate the power wirelessly with minimal losses to the environment. Resonant repeaters have rekindled the dream of ubiquitous wireless power. Inherent risks come with the realization of such a dream. One of the most prominent risks, which we set out in this thesis to address, is that of accessibility to the WPT system. We propose the incorporation of a controlled access schema within a WPT system to prevent unwarranted use of wireless power. Our thesis discusses the history of electromagnetism, examines the inception of WPT via SCMR, evaluates recent developments in WPT, and further elaborates on the controlled access schema we wish to contribute to the field.

  9. Electromagnetic interference-aware transmission scheduling and power control for dynamic wireless access in hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Phunchongharn, Phond; Hossain, Ekram; Camorlinga, Sergio

    2011-11-01

    We study the multiple access problem for e-Health applications (referred to as secondary users) coexisting with medical devices (referred to as primary or protected users) in a hospital environment. In particular, we focus on transmission scheduling and power control of secondary users in multiple spatial reuse time-division multiple access (STDMA) networks. The objective is to maximize the spectrum utilization of secondary users and minimize their power consumption subject to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) constraints for active and passive medical devices and minimum throughput guarantee for secondary users. The multiple access problem is formulated as a dual objective optimization problem which is shown to be NP-complete. We propose a joint scheduling and power control algorithm based on a greedy approach to solve the problem with much lower computational complexity. To this end, an enhanced greedy algorithm is proposed to improve the performance of the greedy algorithm by finding the optimal sequence of secondary users for scheduling. Using extensive simulations, the tradeoff in performance in terms of spectrum utilization, energy consumption, and computational complexity is evaluated for both the algorithms. PMID:21843997

  10. A Network Access Control Framework for 6LoWPAN Networks

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Luís M. L.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; de Sousa, Amaro F.; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Low power over wireless personal area networks (LoWPAN), in particular wireless sensor networks, represent an emerging technology with high potential to be employed in critical situations like security surveillance, battlefields, smart-grids, and in e-health applications. The support of security services in LoWPAN is considered a challenge. First, this type of networks is usually deployed in unattended environments, making them vulnerable to security attacks. Second, the constraints inherent to LoWPAN, such as scarce resources and limited battery capacity, impose a careful planning on how and where the security services should be deployed. Besides protecting the network from some well-known threats, it is important that security mechanisms be able to withstand attacks that have not been identified before. One way of reaching this goal is to control, at the network access level, which nodes can be attached to the network and to enforce their security compliance. This paper presents a network access security framework that can be used to control the nodes that have access to the network, based on administrative approval, and to enforce security compliance to the authorized nodes. PMID:23334610

  11. Electromagnetic interference-aware transmission scheduling and power control for dynamic wireless access in hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Phunchongharn, Phond; Hossain, Ekram; Camorlinga, Sergio

    2011-11-01

    We study the multiple access problem for e-Health applications (referred to as secondary users) coexisting with medical devices (referred to as primary or protected users) in a hospital environment. In particular, we focus on transmission scheduling and power control of secondary users in multiple spatial reuse time-division multiple access (STDMA) networks. The objective is to maximize the spectrum utilization of secondary users and minimize their power consumption subject to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) constraints for active and passive medical devices and minimum throughput guarantee for secondary users. The multiple access problem is formulated as a dual objective optimization problem which is shown to be NP-complete. We propose a joint scheduling and power control algorithm based on a greedy approach to solve the problem with much lower computational complexity. To this end, an enhanced greedy algorithm is proposed to improve the performance of the greedy algorithm by finding the optimal sequence of secondary users for scheduling. Using extensive simulations, the tradeoff in performance in terms of spectrum utilization, energy consumption, and computational complexity is evaluated for both the algorithms.

  12. An interaction-based access control model (IBAC) for collaborative services

    SciTech Connect

    Altunay, Mine; Byrd, Gregory T.; Brown, Doug E.; Dean, Ralph A.; /North Carolina State U.

    2008-04-01

    A collaboration is a collection of services that work together to achieve a common goal. Although collaborations help when tackling difficult problems, they lead to security issues. First, a collaboration is often performed by services that are drawn from different security domains. Second, a service interacts with multiple peer services during the collaboration. These interactions are not isolated from one another--e.g., data may flow through a sequence of different services. As a result, a service is exposed to multiple peer services in varying degrees, leading to different security threats. We identify the types of interactions that can be present in collaborations, and discuss the security threats due to each type. We propose a model for representing the collaboration context so that a service can be made aware of the existing interactions. We provide an access control model for a service participating in a collaboration. We couple our access control model with a policy model, so that the access requirements from collaborations can be expressed and evaluated.

  13. Communication, Control, and Computer Access for Disabled and Elderly Individuals. ResourceBook 2: Switches and Environmental Controls. Rehab/Education Technology ResourceBook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Sara A., Ed.; Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Ed.

    One of a series of three resource guides concerned with communication, control, and computer access for disabled and elderly individuals, the directory focuses on switches and environmental controls. The book's three chapters each cover products with the same primary function. Cross reference indexes allow access to listings of products by…

  14. Experimental Investigation on Transmission Control Protocol Throughput Behavior in Optical Fiber Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tego, Edion; Matera, Francesco; del Buono, Donato

    2016-03-01

    This article describes an experimental investigation on the behavior of transmission control protocol in throughput measurements to be used in the verification of the service-level agreement between the Internet service provider and user in terms of line capacity for ultra-broadband access networks typical of fiber-to-the-x architectures. It is experimentally shown different conditions in high bandwidth-delay product links where the estimation of the line capacity based on a single transmission control protocol session results are unreliable. Simple equations reported in this work, and experimentally verified, point out the conditions in terms of packet loss, time delay, and line capacity, that allow consideration of the reliability of the measurement carried out with a single transmission control protocol session test by adopting a suitable measurement time duration.

  15. Wireless Access Control with Smart Antenna for M2M Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Bandai, Masaki; Watanabe, Takashi

    Machine to machine (M2M) is a promising technology to achieve an ubiquitous environment by uniting machines and machines over the Internet. The network used for M2M consists of core network and access network. This paper discusses effective controls of the wireless access network for M2M. Among typical examples of the wireless access network for M2M is a wireless sensor network (WSN). WSN for M2M may require energy efficiency, high reliability and throughput. For these requirements, in this paper, we propose a scheme to build a hierarchical sensor network using smart antenna. The proposed scheme uses omni-directional antennas together with smart antennas. Since smart antennas can extend communications distance, the proposed scheme enables reduction of number of hops to reduce the traffic load on relay nodes. As a result, the energy consumption, data collection ratio and throughput can be improved. We implement the proposed scheme on a real testbed. The testbed uses UNAGI as smart antenna nodes and Mica Mote as sensor nodes. In addition to the fundamental evaluation on the testbed, we simulate large-scale sensor networks. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical sensor network with smart antennas.

  16. A High Throughput Medium Access Control Implementation Based on IEEE 802.11e Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min Li; Lee, Jin; Setiawan, Hendra; Ochi, Hiroshi; Park, Sin-Chong

    With the growing demand for high-performance multimedia applications over wireless channels, we need to develop a Medium Access Control (MAC) system that supports high throughput and quality of service enhancements. This paper presents the standard analysis, design architecture and design issues leading to the implementation of an IEEE 802.11e based MAC system that supports MAC throughput of over 100Mbps. In order to meet the MAC layer timing constraints, a hardware/software co-design approach is adopted. The proposed MAC architecture is implemented on the Xilinx Virtex-II Pro Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (XC2VP70-5FF1704C) prototype, and connected to a host computer through an external Universal Serial Bus (USB) interface. The total FPGA resource utilization is 11, 508 out of 33, 088 (34%) available slices. The measured MAC throughput is 100.7Mbps and 109.2Mbps for voice and video access categories, transmitted at a data rate of 260Mbps based on IEEE 802.11n Physical Layer (PHY), using the contention-based hybrid coordination function channel access mechanism.

  17. Prices and mark-ups on antimalarials: evidence from nationally representative studies in six malaria-endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Palafox, Benjamin; Patouillard, Edith; Tougher, Sarah; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Torres Rueda, Sergio; Kiefer, Sabine; O'Connell, Kate; Zinsou, Cyprien; Phok, Sochea; Akulayi, Louis; Arogundade, Ekundayo; Buyungo, Peter; Mpasela, Felton; Poyer, Stephen; Chavasse, Desmond

    2016-03-01

    The private for-profit sector is an important source of treatment for malaria. However, private patients face high prices for the recommended treatment for uncomplicated malaria, artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), which makes them more likely to receive cheaper, less effective non-artemisinin therapies (nATs). This study seeks to better understand consumer antimalarial prices by documenting and exploring the pricing behaviour of retailers and wholesalers. Using data collected in 2009-10, we present survey estimates of antimalarial retail prices, and wholesale- and retail-level price mark-ups from six countries (Benin, Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia), along with qualitative findings on factors affecting pricing decisions. Retail prices were lowest for nATs, followed by ACTs and artemisinin monotherapies (AMTs). Retailers applied the highest percentage mark-ups on nATs (range: 40% in Nigeria to 100% in Cambodia and Zambia), whereas mark-ups on ACTs (range: 22% in Nigeria to 71% in Zambia) and AMTs (range: 22% in Nigeria to 50% in Uganda) were similar in magnitude, but lower than those applied to nATs. Wholesale mark-ups were generally lower than those at retail level, and were similar across antimalarial categories in most countries. When setting prices wholesalers and retailers commonly considered supplier prices, prevailing market prices, product availability, product characteristics and the costs related to transporting goods, staff salaries and maintaining a property. Price discounts were regularly used to encourage sales and were sometimes used by wholesalers to reward long-term customers. Pricing constraints existed only in Benin where wholesaler and retailer mark-ups are regulated; however, unlicensed drug vendors based in open-air markets did not adhere to the pricing regime. These findings indicate that mark-ups on antimalarials are reasonable. Therefore, improving ACT affordability would be most readily

  18. Prices and mark-ups on antimalarials: evidence from nationally representative studies in six malaria-endemic countries

    PubMed Central

    Palafox, Benjamin; Patouillard, Edith; Tougher, Sarah; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Torres Rueda, Sergio; Kiefer, Sabine; O’Connell, Kate; Zinsou, Cyprien; Phok, Sochea; Akulayi, Louis; Arogundade, Ekundayo; Buyungo, Peter; Mpasela, Felton; Poyer, Stephen; Chavasse, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    The private for-profit sector is an important source of treatment for malaria. However, private patients face high prices for the recommended treatment for uncomplicated malaria, artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), which makes them more likely to receive cheaper, less effective non-artemisinin therapies (nATs). This study seeks to better understand consumer antimalarial prices by documenting and exploring the pricing behaviour of retailers and wholesalers. Using data collected in 2009–10, we present survey estimates of antimalarial retail prices, and wholesale- and retail-level price mark-ups from six countries (Benin, Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia), along with qualitative findings on factors affecting pricing decisions. Retail prices were lowest for nATs, followed by ACTs and artemisinin monotherapies (AMTs). Retailers applied the highest percentage mark-ups on nATs (range: 40% in Nigeria to 100% in Cambodia and Zambia), whereas mark-ups on ACTs (range: 22% in Nigeria to 71% in Zambia) and AMTs (range: 22% in Nigeria to 50% in Uganda) were similar in magnitude, but lower than those applied to nATs. Wholesale mark-ups were generally lower than those at retail level, and were similar across antimalarial categories in most countries. When setting prices wholesalers and retailers commonly considered supplier prices, prevailing market prices, product availability, product characteristics and the costs related to transporting goods, staff salaries and maintaining a property. Price discounts were regularly used to encourage sales and were sometimes used by wholesalers to reward long-term customers. Pricing constraints existed only in Benin where wholesaler and retailer mark-ups are regulated; however, unlicensed drug vendors based in open-air markets did not adhere to the pricing regime. These findings indicate that mark-ups on antimalarials are reasonable. Therefore, improving ACT affordability would be most readily

  19. Face Recognition for Access Control Systems Combining Image-Difference Features Based on a Probabilistic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Shotaro; Kage, Hiroshi; Hirai, Takashi; Sumi, Kazuhiko

    We propose a probabilistic face recognition algorithm for Access Control System(ACS)s. Comparing with existing ACSs using low cost IC-cards, face recognition has advantages in usability and security that it doesn't require people to hold cards over scanners and doesn't accept imposters with authorized cards. Therefore face recognition attracts more interests in security markets than IC-cards. But in security markets where low cost ACSs exist, price competition is important, and there is a limitation on the quality of available cameras and image control. Therefore ACSs using face recognition are required to handle much lower quality images, such as defocused and poor gain-controlled images than high security systems, such as immigration control. To tackle with such image quality problems we developed a face recognition algorithm based on a probabilistic model which combines a variety of image-difference features trained by Real AdaBoost with their prior probability distributions. It enables to evaluate and utilize only reliable features among trained ones during each authentication, and achieve high recognition performance rates. The field evaluation using a pseudo Access Control System installed in our office shows that the proposed system achieves a constant high recognition performance rate independent on face image qualities, that is about four times lower EER (Equal Error Rate) under a variety of image conditions than one without any prior probability distributions. On the other hand using image difference features without any prior probabilities are sensitive to image qualities. We also evaluated PCA, and it has worse, but constant performance rates because of its general optimization on overall data. Comparing with PCA, Real AdaBoost without any prior distribution performs twice better under good image conditions, but degrades to a performance as good as PCA under poor image conditions.

  20. Dynamic Key Management Schemes for Secure Group Access Control Using Hierarchical Clustering in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaur, Woei-Jiunn; Pai, Haw-Tyng

    2008-11-01

    The applications of group computing and communication motivate the requirement to provide group access control in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The operation in MANETs' groups performs a decentralized manner and accommodated membership dynamically. Moreover, due to lack of centralized control, MANETs' groups are inherently insecure and vulnerable to attacks from both within and outside the groups. Such features make access control more challenging in MANETs. Recently, several researchers have proposed group access control mechanisms in MANETs based on a variety of threshold signatures. However, these mechanisms cannot actually satisfy MANETs' dynamic environments. This is because the threshold-based mechanisms cannot be achieved when the number of members is not up to the threshold value. Hence, by combining the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem, self-certified public key cryptosystem and secure filter technique, we construct dynamic key management schemes based on hierarchical clustering for securing group access control in MANETs. Specifically, the proposed schemes can constantly accomplish secure group access control only by renewing the secure filters of few cluster heads, when a cluster head joins or leaves a cross-cluster. In such a new way, we can find that the proposed group access control scheme can be very effective for securing practical applications in MANETs.

  1. Privacy-aware access control for video data in intelligent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagts, Hauke; Jakoby, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Surveillance systems became powerful. Objects can be identified and intelligent surveillance services can generate events when a specific situation occurs. Such surveillance services can be organized in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to fulfill surveillance tasks for specific purposes. Therefore the services process information on a high level, e.g., just the position of an object. Video data is still required to visualize a situation to an operator and is required as evidence in court. Processing of personal related and sensitive information threatens privacy. To protect the user and to be compliant with legal requirements it must be ensured that sensitive information can only be processed for a defined propose by specific users or services. This work proposes an architecture for Access Control that enforces the separation of data between different surveillance tasks. Access controls are enforced at different levels: for the users starting the tasks, for the services within the tasks processing data stored in central store or calculated by other services and for sensor related services that extract information out of the raw data and provide them.

  2. Security analysis and improvements of authentication and access control in the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Ndibanje, Bruce; Lee, Hoon-Jae; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2014-08-13

    Internet of Things is a ubiquitous concept where physical objects are connected over the internet and are provided with unique identifiers to enable their self-identification to other devices and the ability to continuously generate data and transmit it over a network. Hence, the security of the network, data and sensor devices is a paramount concern in the IoT network as it grows very fast in terms of exchanged data and interconnected sensor nodes. This paper analyses the authentication and access control method using in the Internet of Things presented by Jing et al. (Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things. In Proceedings of the 2012 32nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Macau, China, 18-21 June 2012, pp. 588-592). According to our analysis, Jing et al.'s protocol is costly in the message exchange and the security assessment is not strong enough for such a protocol. Therefore, we propose improvements to the protocol to fill the discovered weakness gaps. The protocol enhancements facilitate many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, and secure session key establishment. Finally, the performance and security analysis show that the improved protocol possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low communication cost.

  3. Security Analysis and Improvements of Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Ndibanje, Bruce; Lee, Hoon-Jae; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Things is a ubiquitous concept where physical objects are connected over the internet and are provided with unique identifiers to enable their self-identification to other devices and the ability to continuously generate data and transmit it over a network. Hence, the security of the network, data and sensor devices is a paramount concern in the IoT network as it grows very fast in terms of exchanged data and interconnected sensor nodes. This paper analyses the authentication and access control method using in the Internet of Things presented by Jing et al (Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things. In Proceedings of the 2012 32nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Macau, China, 18–21 June 2012, pp. 588–592). According to our analysis, Jing et al.'s protocol is costly in the message exchange and the security assessment is not strong enough for such a protocol. Therefore, we propose improvements to the protocol to fill the discovered weakness gaps. The protocol enhancements facilitate many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, and secure session key establishment. Finally, the performance and security analysis show that the improved protocol possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low communication cost. PMID:25123464

  4. Security analysis and improvements of authentication and access control in the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Ndibanje, Bruce; Lee, Hoon-Jae; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Things is a ubiquitous concept where physical objects are connected over the internet and are provided with unique identifiers to enable their self-identification to other devices and the ability to continuously generate data and transmit it over a network. Hence, the security of the network, data and sensor devices is a paramount concern in the IoT network as it grows very fast in terms of exchanged data and interconnected sensor nodes. This paper analyses the authentication and access control method using in the Internet of Things presented by Jing et al. (Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things. In Proceedings of the 2012 32nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Macau, China, 18-21 June 2012, pp. 588-592). According to our analysis, Jing et al.'s protocol is costly in the message exchange and the security assessment is not strong enough for such a protocol. Therefore, we propose improvements to the protocol to fill the discovered weakness gaps. The protocol enhancements facilitate many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, and secure session key establishment. Finally, the performance and security analysis show that the improved protocol possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low communication cost. PMID:25123464

  5. Improved efficiency access control equipment and explosive, weapons and drug abuse detection

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, A.; Milford, A.; Woollven, J.

    1985-01-01

    The second generation portal explosives detector has been designed with increased detection capability and convenience in service. The method of detection and performance relative to the first generation is described. A novel method of auto-calibration and self diagnosis is described and results are discussed. Improvements in convenience of operation have been achieved and operating space and costs reduced by combining metal detection capability, together with explosives detection. This allows both alarm signal and diagnostic outputs to be combined on a single remote panel in the guard room, and reduces the number of guards needed to man the access control. This type of access control is entirely a defensive measure against attack but a further additional feature is proposed which will also check the state of mind of all personnel passing through the check point. Any person suffering from the effect of narcotic or alcohol will be detected by their inability to reproduce their normal signature. A new method of signature analysis in five dimensions is described together with proposals for integrating the check without increasing the time in the test area. Some recent results on the effects of alcohol on signature reproduction is given.

  6. Gate controllable resistive random access memory devices using reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Preetam; Resmi, A. N.; Jinesh, K. B.

    2016-04-01

    The biggest challenge in the resistive random access memory (ReRAM) technology is that the basic operational parameters, such as the set and reset voltages, the current on-off ratios (hence the power), and their operational speeds, strongly depend on the active and electrode materials and their processing methods. Therefore, for its actual technological implementations, the unification of the operational parameters of the ReRAM devices appears to be a difficult task. In this letter, we show that by fabricating a resistive memory device in a thin film transistor configuration and thus applying an external gate bias, we can control the switching voltage very accurately. Taking partially reduced graphene oxide, the gate controllable switching is demonstrated, and the possible mechanisms are discussed.

  7. Analysis of the TDRS multiple access system for possible use as an attitude control system sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, Bruce Allyn; Sank, Victor J.

    1993-01-01

    A member of the constellation of TDR satellites (TDRS) has experienced a failure of its prime earth sensor. Failure of the remaining earth sensor could result in the inability of the satellite to control its attitude and provide user services. Loss of the satellite would be a serious event. The multiple access (MA) antenna array on the TDRS has been proposed for use as a backup sensor for the attitude control system. This paper describes our analysis of the performance of the MA array as an interferometer used for accurate attitude determination. A least squares fit of a plane to the MA phase information appears to represent the TDRS body roll and pitch within about 0.1 deg. This is sufficient for SGL pointing and MA and SSA user services. Analytic improvements that include ionospheric correction may yield sufficient accuracy for KSA user services.

  8. Preliminary assessment of Tongue Drive System in medium term usage for computer access and wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Behnaz; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless, wearable assistive technology that enables individuals with severe motor impairments access computers, drive wheelchairs, and control their environments using tongue motion. In this paper, we have evaluated the TDS performance as a computer input device using ISO9241-9 standard tasks for pointing and selecting, based on the well known Fitts' Law, and as a powered wheelchair controller through an obstacle course navigation task. Nine able-bodied subjects who already had tongue piercing participated in this trial over 5 sessions during 5 weeks, allowing us to study the TDS learning process and its current limiting factors. Subjects worn tongue rings made of titanium in the form of a barbell with a small rare earth magnetic tracer hermetically sealed inside the upper ball. Comparing the results between 1(st) and 5(th) sessions showed that subjects' performance improved in all the measures through 5 sessions, demonstrating the effects of learning. PMID:22255650

  9. 17 CFR 240.15c3-5 - Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Risk management controls for... Markets § 240.15c3-5 Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access. (a) For the... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  10. 17 CFR 240.15c3-5 - Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Risk management controls for... Markets § 240.15c3-5 Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access. (a) For the... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  11. 17 CFR 240.15c3-5 - Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Risk management controls for... Markets § 240.15c3-5 Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access. (a) For the... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  12. 17 CFR 240.15c3-5 - Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Risk management controls for... Markets § 240.15c3-5 Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access. (a) For the... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  13. Computerized tomographic simulation compared with clinical mark-up in palliative radiotherapy: A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, Peiman; Cheung, Fred; Pond, Gregory; Easton, Debbie; Cops, Frederick; Bezjak, Andrea; McLean, Michael; Levin, Wilfred; Billingsley, Susan; Williams, Diane; Wong, Rebecca . E-mail: Rebecca.Wong@rmp.uhn.on.ca

    2006-07-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of computed tomographic (CT) planning in comparison to clinical mark-up (CM) for palliative radiation of chest wall metastases. Methods and Materials In patients treated with CM for chest wall bone metastases (without conventional simulation/fluoroscopy), two consecutive planning CT scans were acquired with and without an external marker to delineate the CM treatment field. The two sets of scans were fused for evaluation of clinical tumor volume (CTV) coverage by the CM technique. Under-coverage was defined as the proportion of CTV not covered by the CM 80% isodose. Results Twenty-one treatments (ribs 17, sternum 2, and scapula 2) formed the basis of our study. Due to technical reasons, comparable data between CM and CT plans were available for 19 treatments only. CM resulted in a mean CTV under-coverage of 36%. Eleven sites (58%) had an under-coverage of >20%. Mean volume of normal tissues receiving {>=}80% of the dose was 5.4% in CM and 9.3% in CT plans (p = 0.017). Based on dose-volume histogram comparisons, CT planning resulted in a change of treatment technique from direct apposition to a tangential pair in 7 of 19 cases. Conclusions CT planning demonstrated a 36% under-coverage of CTV with CM of ribs and chest wall metastases.

  14. Root system markup language: toward a unified root architecture description language.

    PubMed

    Lobet, Guillaume; Pound, Michael P; Diener, Julien; Pradal, Christophe; Draye, Xavier; Godin, Christophe; Javaux, Mathieu; Leitner, Daniel; Meunier, Félicien; Nacry, Philippe; Pridmore, Tony P; Schnepf, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased in recent years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tools is able to extract in an efficient way the growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML), which has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (1) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner, allowing seamless collaborative work; and (2) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories that will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store two- or three-dimensional image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths, and a suite of annotations at the image, plant, or root scale at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An XML schema describes the features and constraints of RSML, and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, and C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow. PMID:25614065

  15. Root System Markup Language: Toward a Unified Root Architecture Description Language1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pound, Michael P.; Pradal, Christophe; Draye, Xavier; Godin, Christophe; Leitner, Daniel; Meunier, Félicien; Pridmore, Tony P.; Schnepf, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased in recent years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tools is able to extract in an efficient way the growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML), which has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (1) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner, allowing seamless collaborative work; and (2) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories that will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store two- or three-dimensional image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths, and a suite of annotations at the image, plant, or root scale at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An XML schema describes the features and constraints of RSML, and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, and C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow. PMID:25614065

  16. SBML-SAT: a systems biology markup language (SBML) based sensitivity analysis tool

    PubMed Central

    Zi, Zhike; Zheng, Yanan; Rundell, Ann E; Klipp, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Background It has long been recognized that sensitivity analysis plays a key role in modeling and analyzing cellular and biochemical processes. Systems biology markup language (SBML) has become a well-known platform for coding and sharing mathematical models of such processes. However, current SBML compatible software tools are limited in their ability to perform global sensitivity analyses of these models. Results This work introduces a freely downloadable, software package, SBML-SAT, which implements algorithms for simulation, steady state analysis, robustness analysis and local and global sensitivity analysis for SBML models. This software tool extends current capabilities through its execution of global sensitivity analyses using multi-parametric sensitivity analysis, partial rank correlation coefficient, SOBOL's method, and weighted average of local sensitivity analyses in addition to its ability to handle systems with discontinuous events and intuitive graphical user interface. Conclusion SBML-SAT provides the community of systems biologists a new tool for the analysis of their SBML models of biochemical and cellular processes. PMID:18706080

  17. A two-way interface between limited Systems Biology Markup Language and R

    PubMed Central

    Radivoyevitch, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    Background Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is gaining broad usage as a standard for representing dynamical systems as data structures. The open source statistical programming environment R is widely used by biostatisticians involved in microarray analyses. An interface between SBML and R does not exist, though one might be useful to R users interested in SBML, and SBML users interested in R. Results A model structure that parallels SBML to a limited degree is defined in R. An interface between this structure and SBML is provided through two function definitions: write.SBML() which maps this R model structure to SBML level 2, and read.SBML() which maps a limited range of SBML level 2 files back to R. A published model of purine metabolism is provided in this SBML-like format and used to test the interface. The model reproduces published time course responses before and after its mapping through SBML. Conclusions List infrastructure preexisting in R makes it well-suited for manipulating SBML models. Further developments of this SBML-R interface seem to be warranted. PMID:15585059

  18. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Layout, Version 1 Core.

    PubMed

    Gauges, Ralph; Rost, Ursula; Sahle, Sven; Wengler, Katja; Bergmann, Frank Thomas

    2015-09-04

    Many software tools provide facilities for depicting reaction network diagrams in a visual form. Two aspects of such a visual diagram can be distinguished: the layout (i.e.: the positioning and connections) of the elements in the diagram, and the graphical form of the elements (for example, the glyphs used for symbols, the properties of the lines connecting them, and so on). For software tools that also read and write models in SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language) format, a common need is to store the network diagram together with the SBML representation of the model. This in turn raises the question of how to encode the layout and the rendering of these diagrams. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding diagrams, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The Layout package for SBML Level 3 adds the necessary features to SBML so that diagram layouts can be encoded in SBML files, and a companion package called SBML Rendering specifies how the graphical rendering of elements can be encoded. The SBML Layout package is based on the principle that reaction network diagrams should be described as representations of entities such as species and reactions (with direct links to the underlying SBML elements), and not as arbitrary drawings or graphs; for this reason, existing languages for the description of vector drawings (such as SVG) or general graphs (such as GraphML) cannot be used.

  19. Root system markup language: toward a unified root architecture description language.

    PubMed

    Lobet, Guillaume; Pound, Michael P; Diener, Julien; Pradal, Christophe; Draye, Xavier; Godin, Christophe; Javaux, Mathieu; Leitner, Daniel; Meunier, Félicien; Nacry, Philippe; Pridmore, Tony P; Schnepf, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased in recent years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tools is able to extract in an efficient way the growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML), which has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (1) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner, allowing seamless collaborative work; and (2) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories that will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store two- or three-dimensional image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths, and a suite of annotations at the image, plant, or root scale at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An XML schema describes the features and constraints of RSML, and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, and C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow.

  20. A highly efficient SDRAM controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Junzheng

    2016-03-01

    A highly efficient Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads is proposed in this paper. Based on the Principle of Locality, command First In First Out (FIFO) and address range detector are designed within this controller to accelerate its responses to discrete read requests, which dramatically improves the average Effective Bus Utilization Ratio (EBUR) of SDRAM. Our controller is finally verified by driving the Micron 256-Mb SDRAM MT48LC16M16A2. Successful simulation and verification results show that our controller exhibits much higher EBUR than do most existing designs in case of discrete reads.

  1. Controlled access of p53 to the nucleus regulates its proteasomal degradation by MDM2.

    PubMed

    Davis, James R; Mossalam, Mohanad; Lim, Carol S

    2013-04-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 can be sent to the proteasome for degradation by placing its nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling under ligand control. Endogenous p53 is ubiquitinated by MDM2 in the nucleus, and controlling the access of p53 to the nuclear compartment regulates its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. This was accomplished by the use of a protein switch that places nuclear translocation under the control of externally applied dexamethasone. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that sending protein switch p53 (PS-p53) to the nucleus produces a distinct punctate distribution in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The nuclear role in accessing the proteasome was investigated by inhibiting classical nuclear export with leptomycin B. Trapping PS-p53 in the nucleus only allows this punctate staining in that compartment, suggesting that PS-p53 must translocate first to the nuclear compartment for cytoplasmic punctate staining to occur. The role of MDM2 binding was explored by inhibiting MDM2/p53 binding with nutlin-3. Inhibition of this interaction blocked both nuclear export and cytoplasmic and nuclear punctate staining, providing evidence that any change in localization after nuclear translocation is due to MDM2 binding. Further, blocking the proteolytic activity of the proteasome maintained the nuclear localization of the construct. Truncations of p53 were made to determine smaller constructs still capable of interacting with MDM2, and their subcellular localization and degradation potential was observed. PS-p53 and a smaller construct containing the two MDM2 binding regions of p53 (Box I + V) were indeed degraded by the proteasome as measured by loss of enhanced green fluorescent protein that was also fused to the construct. The influence of these constructs on p53 gene transactivation function was assessed and revealed that PS-p53 decreased gene transactivation, while PS-p53(Box I + V) did not significantly change baseline gene transactivation.

  2. PANATIKI: A Network Access Control Implementation Based on PANA for IoT Devices

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro Moreno; Lopez, Rafa Marin; Gomez Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2013-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) networks are the pillar of recent novel scenarios, such as smart cities or e-healthcare applications. Among other challenges, these networks cover the deployment and interaction of small devices with constrained capabilities and Internet protocol (IP)-based networking connectivity. These constrained devices usually require connection to the Internet to exchange information (e.g., management or sensing data) or access network services. However, only authenticated and authorized devices can, in general, establish this connection. The so-called authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) services are in charge of performing these tasks on the Internet. Thus, it is necessary to deploy protocols that allow constrained devices to verify their credentials against AAA infrastructures. The Protocol for Carrying Authentication for Network Access (PANA) has been standardized by the Internet engineering task force (IETF) to carry the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which provides flexible authentication upon the presence of AAA. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first deep study of the feasibility of EAP/PANA for network access control in constrained devices. We provide light-weight versions and implementations of these protocols to fit them into constrained devices. These versions have been designed to reduce the impact in standard specifications. The goal of this work is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of EAP/PANA in IoT devices; (2) to provide the scientific community with the first light-weight interoperable implementation of EAP/PANA for constrained devices in the Contiki operating system (Contiki OS), called PANATIKI. The paper also shows a testbed, simulations and experimental results obtained from real and simulated constrained devices. PMID:24189332

  3. PANATIKI: a network access control implementation based on PANA for IoT devices.

    PubMed

    Moreno Sanchez, Pedro; Marin Lopez, Rafa; Gomez Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2013-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) networks are the pillar of recent novel scenarios, such as smart cities or e-healthcare applications. Among other challenges, these networks cover the deployment and interaction of small devices with constrained capabilities and Internet protocol (IP)-based networking connectivity. These constrained devices usually require connection to the Internet to exchange information (e.g., management or sensing data) or access network services. However, only authenticated and authorized devices can, in general, establish this connection. The so-called authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) services are in charge of performing these tasks on the Internet. Thus, it is necessary to deploy protocols that allow constrained devices to verify their credentials against AAA infrastructures. The Protocol for Carrying Authentication for Network Access (PANA) has been standardized by the Internet engineering task force (IETF) to carry the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which provides flexible authentication upon the presence of AAA. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first deep study of the feasibility of EAP/PANA for network access control in constrained devices. We provide light-weight versions and implementations of these protocols to fit them into constrained devices. These versions have been designed to reduce the impact in standard specifications. The goal of this work is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of EAP/PANA in IoT devices; (2) to provide the scientific community with the first light-weight interoperable implementation of EAP/PANA for constrained devices in the Contiki operating system (Contiki OS), called PANATIKI. The paper also shows a testbed, simulations and experimental results obtained from real and simulated constrained devices. PMID:24189332

  4. PANATIKI: a network access control implementation based on PANA for IoT devices.

    PubMed

    Moreno Sanchez, Pedro; Marin Lopez, Rafa; Gomez Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2013-11-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) networks are the pillar of recent novel scenarios, such as smart cities or e-healthcare applications. Among other challenges, these networks cover the deployment and interaction of small devices with constrained capabilities and Internet protocol (IP)-based networking connectivity. These constrained devices usually require connection to the Internet to exchange information (e.g., management or sensing data) or access network services. However, only authenticated and authorized devices can, in general, establish this connection. The so-called authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) services are in charge of performing these tasks on the Internet. Thus, it is necessary to deploy protocols that allow constrained devices to verify their credentials against AAA infrastructures. The Protocol for Carrying Authentication for Network Access (PANA) has been standardized by the Internet engineering task force (IETF) to carry the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which provides flexible authentication upon the presence of AAA. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first deep study of the feasibility of EAP/PANA for network access control in constrained devices. We provide light-weight versions and implementations of these protocols to fit them into constrained devices. These versions have been designed to reduce the impact in standard specifications. The goal of this work is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of EAP/PANA in IoT devices; (2) to provide the scientific community with the first light-weight interoperable implementation of EAP/PANA for constrained devices in the Contiki operating system (Contiki OS), called PANATIKI. The paper also shows a testbed, simulations and experimental results obtained from real and simulated constrained devices.

  5. Mosaic on Public-Access PCs: Letting the World-Wide Web into the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Timothy W.

    1995-01-01

    Describes installation and configuration of Mosaic and a World Wide Web (WWW) site at Grainger Library. Challenges include choosing a WINSOCK; customizing Mosaic for public-access computers; reducing security risks; maximizing Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME); designing a home page; producing Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) documents.…

  6. Privacy aware access controls for medical data disclosure on European healthgrids.

    PubMed

    Rahmouni, Hanene Boussi; Solomonides, Tony; Mont, Marco Casassa; Shiu, Simon

    2010-01-01

    To be processed within a healthgrid environment, medical data goes through a complete lifecycle and several stages until it is finally used for the primary reason it has been collected for. This stage is not always the final occurrence of when the data would have been manipulated. The data could rather continue to be needed for secondary purposes of legitimate or non legitimate nature. Although other privacy issues are related to the processing of patient data while it is residing on a healthgrid environment, the control of data disclosure is our primary interest. When sharing medical data between different Healthcare and biomedical research organizations in Europe, it is important that the different parties involved in the sharing handle the data in the same way indicated by the legislation of the member state where the data was originally collected as the requirements might differ from one state to another. Privacy requirements, such as patient consent, may be subject to conflicting conditions between different national frameworks as well as between different legal and ethical frameworks within a single member state. These circumstances have made the compliance management process in European healthgrid very challenging. In this paper we are presenting an approach to tackle these issues by relying on several technologies contained in the semantic web stack. Our work suggests a direct mapping from high level legislation on privacy and data protection to operational level privacy aware controls. Additionally we suggest an architecture for the enforcement of these controls on access control models adopted by healthgrids security infrastructures.

  7. Energy-efficient boarder node medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M

    2014-03-12

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  8. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  9. e-VLBI Access Point (eAXP) - a centralized control and EGAE configuration / management application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruszczyk, Chester Whitney, Alan

    Setting up experiments to utilize Experiment Guided Adaptive Endpoint (EGAE) and e-VLBI is presently a complex and time intensive process requiring scientific, Mark5 and networking knowledge. There is no central access to point to configure and manage all of these aspects of an experiment. The e-VLBI Access Point (eAXP) is a centralized control plane management tool that offers a GUI interface to augment the command line interface presently being used to set up and conduct experiments. eAXP contains three major toolsets: one to set up and execute an experiment using real-time or non-real time modes; the second to configure and manage EGAE; and a third to view statistics of the experiments. Initially the overall system architecture for eAXP is presented, followed by details of the Experiment Profiler toolset including screen shots of the system presently being tested. This will be followed by how eAXP will support real-time modes interfacing to the Dynamic Resource Allocation over GMPLS Optical Network (DRAGON) resource management project.

  10. Quantitative trait loci controlling light and hormone response in two accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Borevitz, Justin O; Maloof, Julin N; Lutes, Jason; Dabi, Tsegaye; Redfern, Joanna L; Trainer, Gabriel T; Werner, Jonathan D; Asami, Tadao; Berry, Charles C; Weigel, Detlef; Chory, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    We have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for natural variation in light and hormone response between the Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana using recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Hypocotyl length was measured in four light environments: white, blue, red, and far-red light and in the dark. In addition, white light plus gibberellin (GA) and dark plus the brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor brassinazole (BRZ) were used to detect hormone effects. Twelve QTL were identified that map to loci not previously known to affect light response, as well as loci where candidate genes have been identified from known mutations. Some QTL act in all environments while others show genotype-by-environment interaction. A global threshold was established to identify a significant epistatic interaction between two loci that have few main effects of their own. LIGHT1, a major QTL, has been confirmed in a near isogenic line (NIL) and maps to a new locus with effects in all light environments. The erecta mutation can explain the effect of the HYP2 QTL in the blue, BRZ, and dark environments, but not in far-red. LIGHT2, also confirmed in an NIL, has effects in white and red light and shows interaction with GA. The phenotype and map position of LIGHT2 suggest the photoreceptor PHYB as a candidate gene. Natural variation in light and hormone response thus defines both new genes and known genes that control light response in wild accessions. PMID:11861571

  11. Point and counterpoint: patient control of access to data in their electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Caine, Kelly; Tierney, William M

    2015-01-01

    Information collection, storage, and management is central to the practice of health care. For centuries, patients' and providers' expectations kept medical records confidential between providers and patients. With the advent of electronic health records, patient health information has become more widely available to providers and health care managers and has broadened its potential use beyond individual patient care. Adhering to the principles of Fair Information Practice, including giving patients control over the availability and use of their individual health records, would improve care by fostering the sharing of sensitive information between patients and providers. However, adherence to such principles could put patients at risk for unsafe care as a result of both missed opportunities for providing needed care as well as provision of contraindicated care, as it would prevent health care providers from having full access to health information. Patients' expectations for the highest possible quality and safety of care, therefore, may be at odds with their desire to limit provider access to their health records. Conversely, provider expectations that patients would willingly seek care for embarrassing conditions and disclose sensitive information may be at odds with patients' information privacy rights. An open dialogue between patients and providers will be necessary to balance respect for patient rights with provider need for patient information.

  12. Point and counterpoint: patient control of access to data in their electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Caine, Kelly; Tierney, William M

    2015-01-01

    Information collection, storage, and management is central to the practice of health care. For centuries, patients' and providers' expectations kept medical records confidential between providers and patients. With the advent of electronic health records, patient health information has become more widely available to providers and health care managers and has broadened its potential use beyond individual patient care. Adhering to the principles of Fair Information Practice, including giving patients control over the availability and use of their individual health records, would improve care by fostering the sharing of sensitive information between patients and providers. However, adherence to such principles could put patients at risk for unsafe care as a result of both missed opportunities for providing needed care as well as provision of contraindicated care, as it would prevent health care providers from having full access to health information. Patients' expectations for the highest possible quality and safety of care, therefore, may be at odds with their desire to limit provider access to their health records. Conversely, provider expectations that patients would willingly seek care for embarrassing conditions and disclose sensitive information may be at odds with patients' information privacy rights. An open dialogue between patients and providers will be necessary to balance respect for patient rights with provider need for patient information. PMID:25480723

  13. Iterative algorithm analysis for phase-only diffractive control access system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailescu, Mona; Preda, Alexandru; Cojoc, Dan; Scarlat, Eugen; Preda, Liliana

    2007-08-01

    A new architecture with two phases-only diffractive elements and one decryption mask for optical control access system is presented. Only three different persons which keep this element have the permission to access together. The Iterative Fourier Transform Algorithm (IFTA) is analyzed for phase-only diffractive optical elements (PODE) design with different constraints in the input and output plane and the optimal variant is chosen for better image quality in the output plane (big value for diffraction efficiency and small value for merit function and signal to noise ratio). For higher security we propose different incident waves. That are compared with the case when the first phase-only diffractive element and decryption masks are designed together in an extended iteration and the output images of them (first desired image) is taken over the second phase-only diffractive element. In order to increase security level, this finally PODE are designed to increase some parts from the first desired image. Only with this condition the key image on the detector is formed.

  14. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  15. New scheme of variable optical buffer for IP packets used in access control of HORNET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Nian; Wang, Lutang; Huang, Zhaoming

    2002-09-01

    A new scheme of variable optical buffer for IP packets is reported. It may be used in access control of HORNET (Hybrid Optoelectronic Ring NETwork), to avoid collision of added packet and the packet already on the ring and improve the loss ratio of the packets. In this scheme, a new multi-wavelength fiber loop memory technique is employed. This architecture uses the wavelength converter (WC) to specify the packets delay and wavelength conversion is accomplished by the technique of four-wave-mixing (FWM) with a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The range of delay is 10 to 9990 bytes periods. First, architecture, operation principle, characteristics and applications of this scheme of variable optical buffer are introduced. Next, a new unslotted CSMA/CA MAC scheme based on the variable optical buffer is briefly introduced too. Finally, the simulation results are presented.

  16. A Cloud-Assisted Random Linear Network Coding Medium Access Control Protocol for Healthcare Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kartsakli, Elli; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Relay sensor networks are often employed in end-to-end healthcare applications to facilitate the information flow between patient worn sensors and the medical data center. Medium access control (MAC) protocols, based on random linear network coding (RLNC), are a novel and suitable approach to efficiently handle data dissemination. However, several challenges arise, such as additional delays introduced by the intermediate relay nodes and decoding failures, due to channel errors. In this paper, we tackle these issues by adopting a cloud architecture where the set of relays is connected to a coordinating entity, called cloud manager. We propose a cloud-assisted RLNC-based MAC protocol (CLNC-MAC) and develop a mathematical model for the calculation of the key performance metrics, namely the system throughput, the mean completion time for data delivery and the energy efficiency. We show the importance of central coordination in fully exploiting the gain of RLNC under error-prone channels. PMID:24618727

  17. [Assessment of exposure to cancerogenic aromatic hydrocarbon during controlled-access highways management activities].

    PubMed

    Martinotti, I; Cirla, A M; Cottica, D; Cirla, P E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an integrated assessment of exposure to benzene and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in 29 workers employed to manage a controlled-access highways. A campaign was performed in summertime by environmental monitoring (active and passive airborne personal sampler), as well as by biological monitoring (urine samples of the beginning and of the end of daily shift, baseline after two days of vacation). The measured environmental levels did not differ from background environmental concentrations found in a metropolitan area (i.e. benzo[a]pyrene < 1 ng/m3; benzene < 5 mcg/m3), and the results of biological monitoring were in agreement and were compatible with extra-professional habits of the investigated subjects (1-hydroxipyrene 50-990 ng/g creatinine; unmetabolized benzene 15-2010 ng/I; t-t muconic acid < 4-222 mcg/g creatinine).

  18. A Time Tree Medium Access Control for Energy Efficiency and Collision Avoidance in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kilhung

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a medium access control and scheduling scheme for wireless sensor networks. It uses time trees for sending data from the sensor node to the base station. For an energy efficient operation of the sensor networks in a distributed manner, time trees are built in order to reduce the collision probability and to minimize the total energy required to send data to the base station. A time tree is a data gathering tree where the base station is the root and each sensor node is either a relaying or a leaf node of the tree. Each tree operates in a different time schedule with possibly different activation rates. Through the simulation, the proposed scheme that uses time trees shows better characteristics toward burst traffic than the previous energy and data arrival rate scheme. PMID:22319270

  19. An Extended Role-Based Access Control Model for Delegating Obligations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ghorbel-Talbi, Meriam; Cuppens, Frédéric; Cuppens-Boulahia, Nora; Bouhoula, Adel

    The main aim of access control models is to provide means to simplify the management of the security policy, which is a fastidious and error-prone task. Supporting delegation is considered as an important mean to decentralize the administration and therefore to allow security policy to be more flexible and easier to manipulate. Our main contribution is the proposition of a unified model to the administration and delegation of obligations. Managing such delegations implies more requirements than managing traditional privileges delegation. In fact, delegating obligations may include two interpretations: the delegation of the obligation and the delegation of the responsibility related to this obligation. Therefore, it is important to deal with these two notions separately. Moreover, since delegating an obligation involves the delegation of sanctions, then the consent of the user who receives this delegation may be required in some cases. We address in this paper these requirements and we propose a formalism to deal with them.

  20. Controlling electronic access to the spin excitations of a single molecule in a tunnel junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.; Warner, Ben; El Hallak, Fadi; Prueser, Henning; Ajibade, Afolabi; Gill, Tobias G.; Fisher, Andrew J.; Persson, Mats

    Spintronic phenomena can be utilized to create new devices with applications in data storage and sensing. Scaling these down to the single molecule level requires controlling the properties of the current-carrying orbitals to enable access to spin states through phenomena such as inelastic electron tunneling. Here we show that the spintronic properties of a tunnel junction containing a single molecule can be controlled by their coupling to the local environment. For tunneling through iron phthalocyanine (FePc) on an insulating copper nitride (Cu2N) monolayer above Cu(001), we find that spin transitions may be strongly excited depending on the binding site of the central Fe atom. Different interactions between the Fe and the underlying Cu or N atoms shift the Fe d-orbitals with respect to the Fermi energy, and control the relative strength of the spin excitations, an effect that can described in a simple co-tunneling model. This work demonstrates the importance of the atomic-scale environment in the development of single molecule spintronic devices.

  1. Thermal Control System Development to Support the Crew Exploration Vehicle and Lunar Surface Access Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Westheimer, David

    2006-01-01

    All space vehicles or habitats require thermal management to maintain a safe and operational environment for both crew and hardware. Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) perform the functions of acquiring heat from both crew and hardware within a vehicle, transporting that heat throughout the vehicle, and finally rejecting that energy into space. Almost all of the energy used in a space vehicle eventually turns into heat, which must be rejected in order to maintain an energy balance and temperature control of the vehicle. For crewed vehicles, Active Thermal Control Systems are pumped fluid loops that are made up of components designed to perform these functions. NASA has recently evaluated all of the agency s technology development work and identified key areas that must be addressed to aid in the successful development of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and a Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The technologies that have been selected and are currently under development include: fluids that enable single loop ATCS architectures, a gravity insensitive vapor compression cycle heat pump, a sublimator with reduced sensitivity to feedwater contamination, an evaporative heat sink that can operate in multiple ambient pressure environments, a compact spray evaporator, and lightweight radiators that take advantage of carbon composites and advanced optical coatings.

  2. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Layout, Version 1 Core.

    PubMed

    Gauges, Ralph; Rost, Ursula; Sahle, Sven; Wengler, Katja; Bergmann, Frank Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Many software tools provide facilities for depicting reaction network diagrams in a visual form. Two aspects of such a visual diagram can be distinguished: the layout (i.e.: the positioning and connections) of the elements in the diagram, and the graphical form of the elements (for example, the glyphs used for symbols, the properties of the lines connecting them, and so on). For software tools that also read and write models in SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language) format, a common need is to store the network diagram together with the SBML representation of the model. This in turn raises the question of how to encode the layout and the rendering of these diagrams. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding diagrams, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The Layout package for SBML Level 3 adds the necessary features to SBML so that diagram layouts can be encoded in SBML files, and a companion package called SBML Rendering specifies how the graphical rendering of elements can be encoded. The SBML Layout package is based on the principle that reaction network diagrams should be described as representations of entities such as species and reactions (with direct links to the underlying SBML elements), and not as arbitrary drawings or graphs; for this reason, existing languages for the description of vector drawings (such as SVG) or general graphs (such as GraphML) cannot be used. PMID:26528565

  3. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML - The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing use of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research creates new challenges to annotate, archive, share and reproduce such experiments. The recently published Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) proposes a minimal set of information that should be provided to allow the reproduction of simulation experiments among users and software tools. Results In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments. It has been developed as a community project and it is defined in a detailed technical specification and additionally provides an XML schema. The version of SED-ML described in this publication is Level 1 Version 1. It covers the description of the most frequent type of simulation experiments in the area, namely time course simulations. SED-ML documents specify which models to use in an experiment, modifications to apply on the models before using them, which simulation procedures to run on each model, what analysis results to output, and how the results should be presented. These descriptions are independent of the underlying model implementation. SED-ML is a software-independent format for encoding the description of simulation experiments; it is not specific to particular simulation tools. Here, we demonstrate that with the growing software support for SED-ML we can effectively exchange executable simulation descriptions. Conclusions With SED-ML, software can exchange simulation experiment descriptions, enabling the validation and reuse of simulation experiments in different tools. Authors of papers reporting simulation experiments can make their simulation protocols available for other scientists to reproduce the results. Because SED-ML is agnostic about exact modeling language(s) used, experiments covering models from

  4. Development and characterization of 96 microsatellite markers suitable for QTL mapping and accession control in an Arabidopsis core collection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To identify plant genes involved in various key traits, QTL mapping is a powerful approach. This approach is based on the use of mapped molecular markers to identify genomic regions controlling quantitative traits followed by a fine mapping and eventually positional cloning of candidate genes. Mapping technologies using SNP markers are still rather expensive and not feasible in every laboratory. In contrast, microsatellite (also called SSR for Simple Sequence Repeat) markers are technologically less demanding and less costly for any laboratory interested in genetic mapping. Results In this study, we present the development and the characterization of a panel of 96 highly polymorphic SSR markers along the Arabidopsis thaliana genome allowing QTL mapping among accessions of the Versailles 24 core collection that covers a high percentage of the A. thaliana genetic diversity. These markers can be used for any QTL mapping analysis involving any of these accessions. We optimized the use of these markers in order to reveal polymorphism using standard PCR conditions and agarose gel electrophoresis. In addition, we showed that the use of only three of these markers allows differentiating all 24 accessions which makes this set of markers a powerful tool to control accession identity or any cross between any of these accessions. Conclusion The set of SSR markers developed in this study provides a simple and efficient tool for any laboratory focusing on QTL mapping in A. thaliana and a simple means to control seed stock or crosses between accessions. PMID:24447639

  5. Controlling multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and access to expensive drugs: a rational framework.

    PubMed Central

    Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Gowda, Deepthiman K.; Frieden, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), i.e. involving resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, could threaten the control of TB globally. Controversy has emerged about the best way of confronting MDR-TB in settings with very limited resources. In 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) created a working group on DOTS-Plus, an initiative exploring the programmatic feasibility and cost-effectiveness of treating MDR-TB in low-income and middle-income countries, in order to consider the management of MDR-TB under programme conditions. The challenges of implementation have proved more daunting than those of access to second-line drugs, the prices of which are dropping. Using data from the WHO/International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease surveillance project, we have grouped countries according to the proportion of TB patients completing treatment successfully and the level of MDR-TB among previously untreated patients. The resulting matrix provides a reasonable framework for deciding whether to use second-line drugs in a national programme. Countries in which the treatment success rate, i.e. the proportion of new patients who complete the scheduled treatment, irrespective of whether bacteriological cure is documented, is below 70% should give the highest priority to introducing or improving DOTS, the five-point TB control strategy recommended by WHO and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. A poorly functioning programme can create MDR-TB much faster than it can be treated, even if unlimited resources are available. There is no single prescription for controlling MDR-TB but the various tools available should be applied wisely. Firstly, good DOTS and infection control; then appropriate use of second-line drug treatment. The interval between the two depends on the local context and resources. As funds are allocated to treat MDR-TB, human and financial resources should be increased to expand

  6. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Mars Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMars server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Mars images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of Mars. The OnMars server is an implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server. Unlike other Mars Internet map servers that provide Martian data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMars WMS server supports encoding of data in Mars-specific coordinate systems. The OnMars server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Martian image and elevation data, including an 8-meter-per-pixel uncontrolled mosaic of most of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) image collection, which is not available elsewhere. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. The OnMars server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  7. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Lunar Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMoon server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Lunar images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of the Moon. The OnMoon server implements the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server protocol and supports Moon-specific extensions. Unlike other Internet map servers that provide Lunar data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMoon server supports encoding of data in Moon-specific coordinate systems. The OnMoon server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Lunar image and elevation data. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF) or the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. Full-precision spectral arithmetic processing is also available, by use of a custom SLD extension. This server can dynamically add shaded relief based on the Lunar elevation to any image layer. This server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  8. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  9. The IEO Data Center Management System: Tools for quality control, analysis and access marine data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Antonia; Garcia, Maria Jesus; Nikouline, Andrei

    2010-05-01

    Since 1994 the Data Centre of the Spanish Oceanographic Institute develops system for archiving and quality control of oceanographic data. The work started in the frame of the European Marine Science & Technology Programme (MAST) when a consortium of several Mediterranean Data Centres began to work on the MEDATLAS project. Along the years, old software modules for MS DOS were rewritten, improved and migrated to Windows environment. Oceanographic data quality control includes now not only vertical profiles (mainly CTD and bottles observations) but also time series of currents and sea level observations. New powerful routines for analysis and for graphic visualization were added. Data presented originally in ASCII format were organized recently in an open source MySQL database. Nowadays, the IEO, as part of SeaDataNet Infrastructure, has designed and developed a new information system, consistent with the ISO 19115 and SeaDataNet standards, in order to manage the large and diverse marine data and information originated in Spain by different sources, and to interoperate with SeaDataNet. The system works with data stored in ASCII files (MEDATLAS, ODV) as well as data stored within the relational database. The components of the system are: 1.MEDATLAS Format and Quality Control - QCDAMAR: Quality Control of Marine Data. Main set of tools for working with data presented as text files. Includes extended quality control (searching for duplicated cruises and profiles, checking date, position, ship velocity, constant profiles, spikes, density inversion, sounding, acceptable data, impossible regional values,...) and input/output filters. - QCMareas: A set of procedures for the quality control of tide gauge data according to standard international Sea Level Observing System. These procedures include checking for unexpected anomalies in the time series, interpolation, filtering, computation of basic statistics and residuals. 2. DAMAR: A relational data base (MySql) designed to

  10. Standardized Semantic Markup for Reference Terminologies, Thesauri and Coding Systems: Benefits for distributed E-Health Applications.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Liu, Raymond; Rudolf, Dirk; Rieger, Joerg; Dudeck, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    With the introduction of the ICD-10 as the standard for diagnosis, the development of an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics and coding rules is necessary. Our concept refers to current efforts of the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in healthcare. We have developed an electronic representation of the ICD-10 with the extensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates the integration in current information systems or coding software taking into account different languages and versions. In this context, XML offers a complete framework of related technologies and standard tools for processing that helps to develop interoperable applications.

  11. Controlling the taste receptor accessible structure of rebaudioside A via binding to bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Mudgal, Samriddh; Keresztes, Ivan; Feigenson, Gerald W; Rizvi, S S H

    2016-04-15

    We illustrate a method that uses bovine serum albumin (BSA) to control the receptor-accessible part of rebaudioside A (Reb A). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Reb A was found to be 4.5 mM and 5 mM at pH 3 and 6.7 respectively. NMR studies show that below its CMC, Reb A binds weakly to BSA to generate a Reb A-protein complex ("RPC"), which is only modestly stable under varying conditions of pH (3.0-6.7) and temperature (4-40°C) with its binding affinities determined to be in the range of 5-280 mM. Furthermore, saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments confirm that the RPC has fast exchange of the bitterness-instigating diterpene of Reb A into the binding sites of BSA. Our method can be used to alter the strength of Reb A-receptor interaction, as a result of binding of Reb A to BSA, which may ultimately lead to moderation of its taste.

  12. Peptide-controlled access to the interior surface of empty virus nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Frank; Saunders, Keith; Aljabali, Alaa A A; Evans, David J; Lomonossoff, George P

    2011-11-01

    The structure of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is known to high resolution, thereby enabling the rational use of the particles in diverse applications, from vaccine design to nanotechnology. A recently devised method for the production of empty virus-like particles (eVLPs) has opened up new possibilities for CPMV capsid-based technologies, such as internal mineralisation of the particle. We have investigated the role of the carboxyl (C) terminus of the small coat (S) protein in controlling access to the interior of CPMV eVLPs by determining the efficiency of internal mineralisation. The presence of the C-terminal 24-amino acid peptide of the S protein was found to inhibit internal mineralisation, an effect that could be eliminated by enzymatic removal of this region. We have also demonstrated the amenability of the C terminus to genetic modification. Substitution with six histidine residues generated stable particles and facilitated external mineralisation by cobalt. These findings demonstrate consistent internal and external mineralisation of CPMV, and will aid the further exploration and development of the use of eVLPs for bionanotechnological and medical applications.

  13. Towards human-centric visual access control for clinical data management.

    PubMed

    Fahl, Sascha; Harbach, Marian; Smith, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel human-centric, visual, and context-aware access control (AC) system for distributed clinical data management and health information systems. Human-centricity in this context means that medical staff should be able to configure AC rules, both in a timesaving and reliable manner. Since medical data often includes (meta-) information about a patient, it is essential that an AC system includes the patient into the AC process. To cater for the strong security needs in the medical domain, both the AC policy creation by medical staff as well as the patient-interaction feature need to be taken into account. While traditional AC systems offer sufficient security in theory, they lack in comfort and flexibility and as a result find no widespread acceptance with non tech-savvy users. Distributed medical institutions could enormously benefit from the opportunity of dynamic AC configuration at an end-user level while adhering to legal, ethical or other privacy requirements. Hence, this paper presents a human-centric visual AC model for medical data, addressing usability, information security and patient interaction. PMID:22874293

  14. Controlling the taste receptor accessible structure of rebaudioside A via binding to bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Mudgal, Samriddh; Keresztes, Ivan; Feigenson, Gerald W; Rizvi, S S H

    2016-04-15

    We illustrate a method that uses bovine serum albumin (BSA) to control the receptor-accessible part of rebaudioside A (Reb A). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Reb A was found to be 4.5 mM and 5 mM at pH 3 and 6.7 respectively. NMR studies show that below its CMC, Reb A binds weakly to BSA to generate a Reb A-protein complex ("RPC"), which is only modestly stable under varying conditions of pH (3.0-6.7) and temperature (4-40°C) with its binding affinities determined to be in the range of 5-280 mM. Furthermore, saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments confirm that the RPC has fast exchange of the bitterness-instigating diterpene of Reb A into the binding sites of BSA. Our method can be used to alter the strength of Reb A-receptor interaction, as a result of binding of Reb A to BSA, which may ultimately lead to moderation of its taste. PMID:26616927

  15. The SH2 domain of Abl kinases regulates kinase autophosphorylation by controlling activation loop accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontanara, Allan Joaquim; Georgeon, Sandrine; Tria, Giancarlo; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Hantschel, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    The activity of protein kinases is regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms, and their disruption is a common driver of oncogenesis. A central and almost universal control element of protein kinase activity is the activation loop that utilizes both conformation and phosphorylation status to determine substrate access. In this study, we use recombinant Abl tyrosine kinases and conformation-specific kinase inhibitors to quantitatively analyse structural changes that occur after Abl activation. Allosteric SH2-kinase domain interactions were previously shown to be essential for the leukemogenesis caused by the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. We find that these allosteric interactions switch the Abl activation loop from a closed to a fully open conformation. This enables the trans-autophosphorylation of the activation loop and requires prior phosphorylation of the SH2-kinase linker. Disruption of the SH2-kinase interaction abolishes activation loop phosphorylation. Our analysis provides a molecular mechanism for the SH2 domain-dependent activation of Abl that may also regulate other tyrosine kinases.

  16. Guaranteeing synchronous message deadlines with the timed token medium access control protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Gopal; Chen, Baio; Zhao, Wei; Davari, Sadegh

    1992-01-01

    We study the problem of guaranteeing synchronous message deadlines in token ring networks where the timed token medium access control protocol is employed. Synchronous capacity, defined as the maximum time for which a node can transmit its synchronous messages every time it receives the token, is a key parameter in the control of synchronous message transmission. To ensure the transmission of synchronous messages before their deadlines, synchronous capacities must be properly allocated to individual nodes. We address the issue of appropriate allocation of the synchronous capacities. Several synchronous capacity allocation schemes are analyzed in terms of their ability to satisfy deadline constraints of synchronous messages. We show that an inappropriate allocation of the synchronous capacities could cause message deadlines to be missed even if the synchronous traffic is extremely low. We propose a scheme called the normalized proportional allocation scheme which can guarantee the synchronous message deadlines for synchronous traffic of up to 33 percent of available utilization. To date, no other synchronous capacity allocation scheme has been reported to achieve such substantial performance. Another major contribution of this paper is an extension to the previous work on the bounded token rotation time. We prove that the time elapsed between any consecutive visits to a particular node is bounded by upsilon TTRT, where TTRT is the target token rotation time set up at system initialization time. The previous result by Johnson and Sevcik is a special case where upsilon = 2. We use this result in the analysis of various synchronous allocation schemes. It can also be applied in other similar studies.

  17. An Ounce of Prevention: Technologists Use Network-Access Control to Protect System Resources, Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Whether for an entire district, a single campus, or one classroom, allowing authorized access to a computer network can be fraught with challenges. The login process should be fairly seamless to approved users, giving them speedy access to approved Web sites, databases, and other sources of information. It also should be tough on unauthorized…

  18. Suppressing NOM access to controlled porous TiO2 particles enhances the decomposition of target water contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suppressing access of natural organic matter (NOM) to TiO2 is a key to the successful photocatalytic decomposition of a target contaminant in water. This study first demonstrates simply controlling the porous structure of TiO2 can significantly improve the selective oxidation.

  19. On-Line Remote Catalog Access and Circulation Control System. Part I: Functional Specifications. Part II: User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., Gaithersburg, MD. Data Processing Div.

    The Ohio State University Libraries On-line Remote Catalog Access and Circulation Control System (LCS) began on-line operations with the conversion of one department library in November 1970. By December all 26 libraries had been converted to the automated system and LCS was fully operational one month ahead of schedule. LCS is designed as a…

  20. Open Access: From Myth to Paradox

    ScienceCinema

    Ginsparg, Paul [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States

    2016-07-12

    True open access to scientific publications not only gives readers the possibility to read articles without paying subscription, but also makes the material available for automated ingestion and harvesting by 3rd parties. Once articles and associated data become universally treatable as computable objects, openly available to 3rd party aggregators and value-added services, what new services can we expect, and how will they change the way that researchers interact with their scholarly communications infrastructure? I will discuss straightforward applications of existing ideas and services, including citation analysis, collaborative filtering, external database linkages, interoperability, and other forms of automated markup, and speculate on the sociology of the next generation of users.

  1. Open Access: From Myth to Paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, Paul

    2009-05-06

    True open access to scientific publications not only gives readers the possibility to read articles without paying subscription, but also makes the material available for automated ingestion and harvesting by 3rd parties. Once articles and associated data become universally treatable as computable objects, openly available to 3rd party aggregators and value-added services, what new services can we expect, and how will they change the way that researchers interact with their scholarly communications infrastructure? I will discuss straightforward applications of existing ideas and services, including citation analysis, collaborative filtering, external database linkages, interoperability, and other forms of automated markup, and speculate on the sociology of the next generation of users.

  2. Automating testbed documentation and database access using World Wide Web (WWW) tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Charles; Auernheimer, Brent; Lee, Young H.

    1994-01-01

    A method for providing uniform transparent access to disparate distributed information systems was demonstrated. A prototype testing interface was developed to access documentation and information using publicly available hypermedia tools. The prototype gives testers a uniform, platform-independent user interface to on-line documentation, user manuals, and mission-specific test and operations data. Mosaic was the common user interface, and HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) provided hypertext capability.

  3. Nurses' knowledge and practice of vascular access infection control in haemodialysis patients in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Margaret; Evans, David S

    2008-06-01

    Vascular access hygiene is an integral component of haemodialysis care. Ensuring nurses possess sufficient knowledge and utilise recommended guidelines on infection control is essential for safe practice and patient safety. The study aimed to investigate nurses' knowledge and practice of vascular access infection control among adult haemodialysis patients in the Republic of Ireland. A confidential self-completion questionnaire was sent to all 190 qualified nurses employed in nine haemodialysis units in the Republic of Ireland, which assessed knowledge and behaviour in infection control. Although 92% of respondents reported that policies had been developed by their units and 47% had received infection control education in the previous year, knowledge and adherence to best practice demonstrated significant scope for improvement. The study recommended the development of standard guidelines and regular reviews and updates of policies. Systems should also be developed to ensure a high level of compliance. PMID:18498567

  4. A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

  5. Transparent ICD and DRG coding using information technology: linking and associating information sources with the eXtensible Markup Language.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Dudeck, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    With the introduction of ICD-10 as the standard for diagnostics, it becomes necessary to develop an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics, and coding rules. The authors' design relates to the current efforts by the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in health care. The authors have developed an electronic representation of ICD-10 with the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates integration into current information systems and coding software, taking different languages and versions into account. In this context, XML provides a complete processing framework of related technologies and standard tools that helps develop interoperable applications. XML provides semantic markup. It allows domain-specific definition of tags and hierarchical document structure. The idea of linking and thus combining information from different sources is a valuable feature of XML. In addition, XML topic maps are used to describe relationships between different sources, or "semantically associated" parts of these sources. The issue of achieving a standardized medical vocabulary becomes more and more important with the stepwise implementation of diagnostically related groups, for example. The aim of the authors' work is to provide a transparent and open infrastructure that can be used to support clinical coding and to develop further software applications. The authors are assuming that a comprehensive representation of the content, structure, inherent semantics, and layout of medical classification systems can be achieved through a document-oriented approach.

  6. DOE`s nation-wide system for access control can solve problems for the federal government

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, S.; Tomes, D.; Davis, G.; Johnson, D.; Strait, S.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) ongoing efforts to improve its physical and personnel security systems while reducing its costs, provide a model for federal government visitor processing. Through the careful use of standardized badges, computer databases, and networks of automated access control systems, the DOE is increasing the security associated with travel throughout the DOE complex, and at the same time, eliminating paperwork, special badging, and visitor delays. The DOE is also improving badge accountability, personnel identification assurance, and access authorization timeliness and accuracy. Like the federal government, the DOE has dozens of geographically dispersed locations run by many different contractors operating a wide range of security systems. The DOE has overcome these obstacles by providing data format standards, a complex-wide virtual network for security, the adoption of a standard high security system, and an open-systems-compatible link for any automated access control system. If the location`s level of security requires it, positive visitor identification is accomplished by personal identification number (PIN) and/or by biometrics. At sites with automated access control systems, this positive identification is integrated into the portals.

  7. Semantically supporting data discovery, markup and aggregation in the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, Roy; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The semantic content of the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been developed over thirty years. It has been used to mark up metadata and data in a wide range of international projects, including the European Commission (EC) Framework Programme 7 projects SeaDataNet and The Open Service Network for Marine Environmental Data (NETMAR). Within the United States, the National Science Foundation projects Rolling Deck to Repository and Biological & Chemical Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) use concepts from NVS for markup. Further, typed relationships between NVS concepts and terms served by the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Registry and Repository. The vast majority of the concepts publicly served from NVS (35% of ~82,000) form the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) Parameter Usage Vocabulary (PUV). The PUV is instantiated on the NVS as a SKOS concept collection. These terms are used to describe the individual channels in data and metadata served by, for example, BODC, SeaDataNet and BCO-DMO. The PUV terms are designed to be very precise and may contain a high level of detail. Some users have reported that the PUV is difficult to navigate due to its size and complexity (a problem CSIRO have begun to address by deploying a SISSVoc interface to the NVS), and it has been difficult to aggregate data as multiple PUV terms can - with full validity - be used to describe the same data channels. Better approaches to data aggregation are required as a use case for the PUV from the EC European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) Chemistry project. One solution, proposed and demonstrated during the course of the NETMAR project, is to build new SKOS concept collections which formalise the desired aggregations for given applications, and uses typed relationships to state which PUV concepts contribute to a specific aggregation. Development of these new collections requires input from a group of experts in the application domain who can decide which PUV

  8. State preemption of local tobacco control policies restricting smoking, advertising, and youth access--United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-08-26

    Preemptive state tobacco control legislation prohibits localities from enacting tobacco control laws that are more stringent than state law. State preemption provisions can preclude any type of local tobacco control policy. The three broad types of state preemption tracked by CDC include preemption of local policies that restrict 1) smoking in workplaces and public places, 2) tobacco advertising, and 3) youth access to tobacco products. A Healthy People 2020 objective (TU-16) calls for eliminating state laws that preempt any type of local tobacco control law. A previous study reported that the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions in one or more of three settings (government worksites, private-sector worksites, and restaurants) has decreased substantially in recent years. To measure progress toward achieving Healthy People 2020 objectives, this study expands on the previous analysis to track changes in state laws that preempt local advertising and youth access restrictions and to examine policy changes from December 31, 2000, to December 31, 2010. This new analysis found that, in contrast with the substantial progress achieved during the past decade in reducing the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions, no progress has been made in reducing the number of states that preempt local advertising restrictions and youth access restrictions. Increased progress in removing state preemption provisions will be needed to achieve the relevant Healthy People 2020 objective.

  9. An efficient key-management scheme for hierarchical access control in e-medicine system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuhua; Chen, Kefei

    2012-08-01

    In e-medicine system, the sharing of patients' medical histories scattered among medical institutions through the Internet is highly desirable. The most immediate cryptographic need certainly is an efficient key management method to solve dynamic access problems in a user hierarchy. In this paper, we propose a practical solution for dynamic access problem in a user hierarchy based on hybrid cryptosystems. When compared with Nikooghadam et al.'s scheme proposed most recently, the time complexity and the required storage space is reduced significantly. Moreover, it provides provable security, and is easy to implement. Therefore, our scheme is more suitable for e-medicine system.

  10. Multi-component access to a commercially available weight loss program: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined weight loss between a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers PointsPlus that included three treatment access modes and a self-help condition. A total of 292 participants were randomized to a Weight Watchers (WW; n=147) or a self-help condition (...

  11. 75 FR 4007 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    .... See, e.g., Carol E. Curtis, Aite: More Oversight Inevitable for Sponsored Access, Securities Industry.... 40354 (August 24, 1998), 63 FR 46264 (August 31, 1998) (NASD NTM-98-66). Certain market participants may..., proprietary trading strategies, and reduce trading costs by lowering operational costs,\\7\\ commissions,...

  12. 50 CFR 648.92 - Effort-control program for monkfish limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 648.92, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... the SFMA must declare that they are fishing in this area through the vessel call-in system or VMS... fishing in the NFMA with a VMS unit. Any limited access NE multispecies vessel fishing on a sector trip...

  13. 50 CFR 648.92 - Effort-control program for monkfish limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 648.92, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... the vessel call-in system or VMS prior to the start of every trip. In addition, if a vessel does not... declaration provision for vessels fishing in the NFMA with a VMS unit. Any limited access NE...

  14. 50 CFR 648.92 - Effort-control program for monkfish limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 648.92, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... the SFMA must declare that they are fishing in this area through the vessel call-in system or VMS... fishing in the NFMA with a VMS unit. Any limited access NE multispecies vessel fishing on a sector trip...

  15. An effective and secure key-management scheme for hierarchical access control in E-medicine system.

    PubMed

    Odelu, Vanga; Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit

    2013-04-01

    Recently several hierarchical access control schemes are proposed in the literature to provide security of e-medicine systems. However, most of them are either insecure against 'man-in-the-middle attack' or they require high storage and computational overheads. Wu and Chen proposed a key management method to solve dynamic access control problems in a user hierarchy based on hybrid cryptosystem. Though their scheme improves computational efficiency over Nikooghadam et al.'s approach, it suffers from large storage space for public parameters in public domain and computational inefficiency due to costly elliptic curve point multiplication. Recently, Nikooghadam and Zakerolhosseini showed that Wu-Chen's scheme is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attack. In order to remedy this security weakness in Wu-Chen's scheme, they proposed a secure scheme which is again based on ECC (elliptic curve cryptography) and efficient one-way hash function. However, their scheme incurs huge computational cost for providing verification of public information in the public domain as their scheme uses ECC digital signature which is costly when compared to symmetric-key cryptosystem. In this paper, we propose an effective access control scheme in user hierarchy which is only based on symmetric-key cryptosystem and efficient one-way hash function. We show that our scheme reduces significantly the storage space for both public and private domains, and computational complexity when compared to Wu-Chen's scheme, Nikooghadam-Zakerolhosseini's scheme, and other related schemes. Through the informal and formal security analysis, we further show that our scheme is secure against different attacks and also man-in-the-middle attack. Moreover, dynamic access control problems in our scheme are also solved efficiently compared to other related schemes, making our scheme is much suitable for practical applications of e-medicine systems.

  16. An effective and secure key-management scheme for hierarchical access control in E-medicine system.

    PubMed

    Odelu, Vanga; Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit

    2013-04-01

    Recently several hierarchical access control schemes are proposed in the literature to provide security of e-medicine systems. However, most of them are either insecure against 'man-in-the-middle attack' or they require high storage and computational overheads. Wu and Chen proposed a key management method to solve dynamic access control problems in a user hierarchy based on hybrid cryptosystem. Though their scheme improves computational efficiency over Nikooghadam et al.'s approach, it suffers from large storage space for public parameters in public domain and computational inefficiency due to costly elliptic curve point multiplication. Recently, Nikooghadam and Zakerolhosseini showed that Wu-Chen's scheme is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attack. In order to remedy this security weakness in Wu-Chen's scheme, they proposed a secure scheme which is again based on ECC (elliptic curve cryptography) and efficient one-way hash function. However, their scheme incurs huge computational cost for providing verification of public information in the public domain as their scheme uses ECC digital signature which is costly when compared to symmetric-key cryptosystem. In this paper, we propose an effective access control scheme in user hierarchy which is only based on symmetric-key cryptosystem and efficient one-way hash function. We show that our scheme reduces significantly the storage space for both public and private domains, and computational complexity when compared to Wu-Chen's scheme, Nikooghadam-Zakerolhosseini's scheme, and other related schemes. Through the informal and formal security analysis, we further show that our scheme is secure against different attacks and also man-in-the-middle attack. Moreover, dynamic access control problems in our scheme are also solved efficiently compared to other related schemes, making our scheme is much suitable for practical applications of e-medicine systems. PMID:23392626

  17. A standard MIGS/MIMS compliant XML Schema: toward the development of the Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML).

    PubMed

    Kottmann, Renzo; Gray, Tanya; Murphy, Sean; Kagan, Leonid; Kravitz, Saul; Lombardot, Thierry; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2008-06-01

    The Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML) is a core project of the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) that implements the "Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence" (MIGS) specification and its extension, the "Minimum Information about a Metagenome Sequence" (MIMS). GCDML is an XML Schema for generating MIGS/MIMS compliant reports for data entry, exchange, and storage. When mature, this sample-centric, strongly-typed schema will provide a diverse set of descriptors for describing the exact origin and processing of a biological sample, from sampling to sequencing, and subsequent analysis. Here we describe the need for such a project, outline design principles required to support the project, and make an open call for participation in defining the future content of GCDML. GCDML is freely available, and can be downloaded, along with documentation, from the GSC Web site (http://gensc.org). PMID:18479204

  18. From data to analysis: linking NWChem and Avogadro with the syntax and semantics of Chemical Markup Language

    SciTech Connect

    De Jong, Wibe A.; Walker, Andrew M.; Hanwell, Marcus D.

    2013-05-24

    Background Multidisciplinary integrated research requires the ability to couple the diverse sets of data obtained from a range of complex experiments and computer simulations. Integrating data requires semantically rich information. In this paper the generation of semantically rich data from the NWChem computational chemistry software is discussed within the Chemical Markup Language (CML) framework. Results The NWChem computational chemistry software has been modified and coupled to the FoX library to write CML compliant XML data files. The FoX library was expanded to represent the lexical input files used by the computational chemistry software. Conclusions The production of CML compliant XML files for the computational chemistry software NWChem can be relatively easily accomplished using the FoX library. A unified computational chemistry or CompChem convention and dictionary needs to be developed through a community-based effort. The long-term goal is to enable a researcher to do Google-style chemistry and physics searches.

  19. A standard MIGS/MIMS compliant XML Schema: toward the development of the Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML).

    PubMed

    Kottmann, Renzo; Gray, Tanya; Murphy, Sean; Kagan, Leonid; Kravitz, Saul; Lombardot, Thierry; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2008-06-01

    The Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML) is a core project of the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) that implements the "Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence" (MIGS) specification and its extension, the "Minimum Information about a Metagenome Sequence" (MIMS). GCDML is an XML Schema for generating MIGS/MIMS compliant reports for data entry, exchange, and storage. When mature, this sample-centric, strongly-typed schema will provide a diverse set of descriptors for describing the exact origin and processing of a biological sample, from sampling to sequencing, and subsequent analysis. Here we describe the need for such a project, outline design principles required to support the project, and make an open call for participation in defining the future content of GCDML. GCDML is freely available, and can be downloaded, along with documentation, from the GSC Web site (http://gensc.org).

  20. Restructuring an EHR system and the Medical Markup Language (MML) standard to improve interoperability by archetype technology.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Kume, Naoto; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    In 2001, we developed an EHR system for regional healthcare information inter-exchange and to provide individual patient data to patients. This system was adopted in three regions in Japan. We also developed a Medical Markup Language (MML) standard for inter- and intra-hospital communications. The system was built on a legacy platform, however, and had not been appropriately maintained or updated to meet clinical requirements. To improve future maintenance costs, we reconstructed the EHR system using archetype technology on the Ruby on Rails platform, and generated MML equivalent forms from archetypes. The system was deployed as a cloud-based system for preliminary use as a regional EHR. The system now has the capability to catch up with new requirements, maintaining semantic interoperability with archetype technology. It is also more flexible than the legacy EHR system. PMID:26262183

  1. Restructuring an EHR system and the Medical Markup Language (MML) standard to improve interoperability by archetype technology.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Kume, Naoto; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    In 2001, we developed an EHR system for regional healthcare information inter-exchange and to provide individual patient data to patients. This system was adopted in three regions in Japan. We also developed a Medical Markup Language (MML) standard for inter- and intra-hospital communications. The system was built on a legacy platform, however, and had not been appropriately maintained or updated to meet clinical requirements. To improve future maintenance costs, we reconstructed the EHR system using archetype technology on the Ruby on Rails platform, and generated MML equivalent forms from archetypes. The system was deployed as a cloud-based system for preliminary use as a regional EHR. The system now has the capability to catch up with new requirements, maintaining semantic interoperability with archetype technology. It is also more flexible than the legacy EHR system.

  2. Descriptive Analysis on the Impacts of Universal Zero-Markup Drug Policy on a Chinese Urban Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background Universal Zero-Markup Drug Policy (UZMDP) mandates no price mark-ups on any drug dispensed by a healthcare institution, and covers the medicines not included in the China’s National Essential Medicine System. Five tertiary hospitals in Beijing, China implemented UZMDP in 2012. Its impacts on these hospitals are unknown. We described the effects of UZMDP on a participating hospital, Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing, China (JST). Methods This retrospective longitudinal study examined the hospital-level data of JST and city-level data of tertiary hospitals of Beijing, China (BJT) 2009–2015. Rank-sum tests and join-point regression analyses were used to assess absolute changes and differences in trends, respectively. Results In absolute terms, after the UZDMP implementation, there were increased annual patient-visits and decreased ratios of medicine-to-healthcare-charges (RMOH) in JST outpatient and inpatient services; however, in outpatient service, physician work-days decreased and physician-workload and inflation-adjusted per-visit healthcare charges increased, while the inpatient physician work-days increased and inpatient mortality-rate reduced. Interestingly, the decreasing trend in inpatient mortality-rate was neutralized after UZDMP implementation. Compared with BJT and under influence of UZDMP, JST outpatient and inpatient services both had increasing trends in annual patient-visits (annual percentage changes[APC] = 8.1% and 6.5%, respectively) and decreasing trends in RMOH (APC = -4.3% and -5.4%, respectively), while JST outpatient services had increasing trend in inflation-adjusted per-visit healthcare charges (APC = 3.4%) and JST inpatient service had decreasing trend in inflation-adjusted per-visit medicine-charges (APC = -5.2%). Conclusion Implementation of UZMDP seems to increase annual patient-visits, reduce RMOH and have different impacts on outpatient and inpatient services in a Chinese urban tertiary hospital. PMID:27627811

  3. Massive Access Control Aided by Knowledge-Extraction for Co-Existing Periodic and Random Services over Wireless Clinical Networks.

    PubMed

    Du, Qinghe; Zhao, Weidong; Li, Weimin; Zhang, Xuelin; Sun, Bo; Song, Houbing; Ren, Pinyi; Sun, Li; Wang, Yichen

    2016-07-01

    The prosperity of e-health is boosted by fast development of medical devices with wireless communications capability such as wearable devices, tiny sensors, monitoring equipments, etc., which are randomly distributed in clinic environments. The drastically-increasing population of such devices imposes new challenges on the limited wireless resources. To relieve this problem, key knowledge needs to be extracted from massive connection attempts dispersed in the air towards efficient access control. In this paper, a hybrid periodic-random massive access (HPRMA) scheme for wireless clinical networks employing ultra-narrow band (UNB) techniques is proposed. In particular, the proposed scheme towards accommodating a large population of devices include the following new features. On one hand, it can dynamically adjust the resource allocated for coexisting periodic and random services based on the traffic load learned from signal collision status. On the other hand, the resource allocation within periodic services is thoroughly designed to simultaneously align with the timing requests of differentiated services. Abundant simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed HPRMA scheme over baseline schemes including time-division multiple access (TDMA) and random access approach, in terms of channel utilization efficiency, packet drop ratio, etc., for the support of massive devices' services.

  4. The Effects of Hands Free Communication Devices on Clinical Communication: Balancing Communication Access Needs with User Control

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Joshua E.; Ash, Joan S.

    2008-01-01

    Hands Free Communication Device (HFCD) systems are a relatively new information and communication technology. HFCD systems enable clinicians to directly contact and communicate with one another using wearable, voice-controlled badges that are VoIP-based (voice-over IP) and are linked to one another over a wireless local area network (WLAN). This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory, multiple perspectives approach to understand how the use of HFCDs affected communication in the hospitals that implemented them. The study generated five themes revolving around HFCDs’ impact on communication. This paper specifically focuses on two of those themes: Communication Access and Control. PMID:18999046

  5. Apparatus, method and system to control accessibility of platform resources based on an integrity level

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Chris; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2016-10-25

    Techniques and mechanism to selectively provide resource access to a functional domain of a platform. In an embodiment, the platform includes both a report domain to monitor the functional domain and a policy domain to identify, based on such monitoring, a transition of the functional domain from a first integrity level to a second integrity level. In response to a change in integrity level, the policy domain may configure the enforcement domain to enforce against the functional domain one or more resource accessibility rules corresponding to the second integrity level. In another embodiment, the policy domain automatically initiates operations in aid of transitioning the platform from the second integrity level to a higher integrity level.

  6. Clinical utility of far-infrared therapy for improvement of vascular access blood flow and pain control in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo Jeong; Cho, Eun Hee; Jo, Hye Min; Min, Changwook; Ji, Young Sok; Park, Moo Yong; Kim, Jin Kuk; Hwang, Seung Duk

    2015-01-01

    Background Maintenance of a well-functioning vascular access and minimal needling pain are important goals for achieving adequate dialysis and improving the quality of life in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Far-infrared (FIR) therapy may improve endothelial function and increase access blood flow (Qa) and patency in HD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of FIR therapy on Qa and patency, and needling pain in HD patients. Methods This prospective clinical trial enrolled 25 outpatients who maintained HD with arteriovenous fistula. The other 25 patients were matched as control with age, sex, and diabetes. FIR therapy was administered for 40 minutes during HD 3 times/wk and continued for 12 months. The Qa was measured by the ultrasound dilution method, whereas pain was measured by a numeric rating scale at baseline, then once per month. Results One patient was transferred to another facility, and 7 patients stopped FIR therapy because of an increased body temperature and discomfort. FIR therapy improved the needling pain score from 4 to 2 after 1 year. FIR therapy increased the Qa by 3 months and maintained this change until 1 year, whereas control patients showed the decrease in Qa. The 1-year unassisted patency with FIR therapy was not significantly different from control. Conclusion FIR therapy improved needling pain. Although FIR therapy improved Qa, the unassisted patency was not different compared with the control. A larger and multicenter study is needed to evaluate the effect of FIR therapy. PMID:27069856

  7. Fingerprint authentication via joint transform correlator and its application in remote access control of a 3D microscopic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenqi; Lai, Hongji; Wang, Meng; Liu, Zeyi; Yin, Yongkai; Peng, Xiang

    2014-05-01

    We present a fingerprint authentication scheme based on the optical joint transform correlator (JTC) and further describe its application to the remote access control of a Network-based Remote Laboratory (NRL). It is built to share a 3D microscopy system of our realistic laboratory in Shenzhen University with the remote co-researchers in Stuttgart University. In this article, we would like to focus on the involved security issues, mainly on the verification of various remote visitors to our NRL. By making use of the JTC-based optical pattern recognition technique as well as the Personal Identification Number (PIN), we are able to achieve the aim of authentication and access control for any remote visitors. Note that only the authorized remote visitors could be guided to the Virtual Network Computer (VNC), a cross-platform software, which allows the remote visitor to access the desktop applications and visually manipulate the instruments of our NRL through the internet. Specifically to say, when a remote visitor attempts to access to our NRL, a PIN is mandatory required in advance, which is followed by fingerprint capturing and verification. Only if both the PIN and the fingerprint are correct, can one be regarded as an authorized visitor, and then he/she would get the authority to visit our NRL by the VNC. It is also worth noting that the aforementioned "two-step verification" strategy could be further applied to verify the identity levels of various remote visitors, and therefore realize the purpose of diversified visitor management.

  8. Wireless digital-ultrasonic sensors for proximity ID, access control, firearm control, and C3I in homeland security and law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcier, Bob

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a new patent-pending digital-ultrasonic sensor network technology, which provides a "security protection sphere" around the authorized user(s) and the infrastructure system or system(s) to achieve C3I in Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications. If the system device, such as a firearm, a secure computer, PDA, or vehicle is misplaced, stolen or removed from the security protective sphere, an alarm is activated. A digital-ultrasonic sensor/tag utilizes the system"s physical structure to form a 2 to 20 Meter programmable protection sphere around the device and the authorized user. In addition, the system allows only authorized users to utilize the system, thereby creating personalized weapons, secure vehicle access or secure computer hardware. If an unauthorized individual accesses the system device, the system becomes inoperative and an alarm is activated. As the command and control, the authorized individual is provided a secure wristwatch/PDA. Access control is provided by "touch" and is controlled through the wristwatch/PDA/smartcard with a unique digital-ultrasonic coding and matching protocol that provides a very high level of security for each wireless sensor.

  9. Accessibility Is the Mother of Invention: When It Comes to an Innovative Hand Control System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article features Sure Grip hand control, an innovative hand control system created by Keith Howell, the President and founder of Howell Ventures LTD. Howell was in his early teens when he experienced an accident that resulted in his quadriplegia. From that point on, Howell set about to manufacture a set of controls that would emulate the…

  10. One electron-controlled multiple-valued dynamic random-access-memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kye, H. W.; Song, B. N.; Lee, S. E.; Kim, J. S.; Shin, S. J.; Choi, J. B.; Yu, Y.-S.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a new architecture for a dynamic random-access-memory (DRAM) capable of storing multiple values by using a single-electron transistor (SET). The gate of a SET is designed to be connected to a plurality of DRAM unit cells that are arrayed at intersections of word lines and bitlines. In this SET-DRAM hybrid scheme, the multiple switching characteristics of SET enables multiple value data stored in a DRAM unit cell, and this increases the storage functionality of the device. Moreover, since refreshing data requires only a small amount of SET driving current, this enables device operating with low standby power consumption.

  11. Bearer channel control protocol for the dynamic VB5.2 interface in ATM access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoulopoulos, Stratos K.; Mavrommatis, K. I.; Venieris, Iakovos S.

    1996-12-01

    In the multi-vendor systems, a customer connected to an Access network (AN) must be capable of selecting a specific Service Node (SN) according to the services the SN provides. The multiplicity of technologically varying AN calls for the definition of a standard reference point between the AN and the SN widely known as the VB interface. Two versions are currently offered. The VB5.1 is simpler to implement but is not as flexible as the VB5.2, which supports switched connections. The VB5.2 functionality is closely coupled to the Broadband Bearer Channel Connection Protocol (B-BCCP). The B-BCCP is used for conveying the necessary information for dynamic resource allocation, traffic policing and routing in the AN as well as for information exchange concerning the status of the AN before a new call is established by the SN. By relying on such a protocol for the exchange of information instead of intercepting and interpreting signalling messages in the AN, the architecture of the AN is simplified because the functionality related to processing is not duplicated. In this paper a prominent B- BCCP candidate is defined, called the Service node Access network Interaction Protocol.

  12. A scheduling-function-based distributed access protocol that uses CDM to relay control information in a network with hidden nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, Y.I.; Franta, W.R.

    1987-05-01

    The authors introduce a method for broadcasting control information (such as the information essential for correct operation of SOSAM and other scheduling-function-based access protocols) in stationary networks with ''hidden'' nodes (multihop networks). Control information is transmitted as short bit-parallel control messages on a separate control channel whose capacity is shared among the bits of a control message using code division multiplexing (CDM). The CDM method takes advantage of spread-spectrum signal properties that allow, in particular, high accuracy of time-of-arrival measurement and relatively easy separation of multipath copies of a control message. Generalized versions of SOSAM's scheduling function and the protocol algorithm are also provided. The generalized protocol, which applies the new method for broadcasting control information, provides distributed collision-free channel-access control, and allows prioritized access with high channel utilization and small expected message delay.

  13. Communication, Control, and Computer Access for Disabled and Elderly Individuals. ResourceBook 3: Software and Hardware. Rehab/Education Technology ResourceBook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Sara A., Ed.; Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Ed.

    One of a series of three resource guides concerned with communication, control, and computer access for the disabled or the elderly, the book focuses on hardware and software. The guide's 13 chapters each cover products with the same primary function. Cross reference indexes allow access to listings of products by function, input/output…

  14. Communication, Control, and Computer Access for Disabled and Elderly Individuals. ResourceBook 1: Communication Aids. Rehab/Education Technology ResourceBook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Sara A., Ed.; Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Ed.

    One of a series of three resource guides concerned with communication, control, and computer access for disabled and elderly individuals, the directory focuses on communication aids. The book's six chapters each cover products with the same primary function. Cross reference indexes allow access to listings of products by function, input/output…

  15. Inferential networked ? control with accessibility constraints in both the sensor and actuator channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñarrocha, I.; Dolz, D.; Sanchis, R.

    2014-05-01

    The predictor and controller design for an inferential control scheme over a network is addressed. A linear plant with disturbances and measurement noise is assumed to be controlled by a controller that communicates with the sensors and the actuators through a constrained network. An algorithm is proposed such that the scarce available outputs are used to make a prediction of the system evolution with an observer that takes into account the amount of lost data between successful measurements transmissions. The state prediction is then used to calculate the control actions sent to the actuator. The possibility of control action drop due to network constraints is taken into account. This networked control scheme is analysed and both the predictor and controller designs are addressed taking into account the disturbances, the measurement noise, the scarce availability of output samples and the scarce capability of control actions update. The time-varying sampling periods that result for the process inputs and outputs due to network constraints have been determined as a function of the probability of successful transmission on a specified time with a Bernoulli distribution. For both designs ? performance has been established and linear matrix inequality (LMI) design techniques have been used to achieve a numerical solution.

  16. Autonomous Information Unit for Fine-Grain Data Access Control and Information Protection in a Net-Centric System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward T.; Woo, Simon S.; James, Mark; Paloulian, George K.

    2012-01-01

    As communication and networking technologies advance, networks will become highly complex and heterogeneous, interconnecting different network domains. There is a need to provide user authentication and data protection in order to further facilitate critical mission operations, especially in the tactical and mission-critical net-centric networking environment. The Autonomous Information Unit (AIU) technology was designed to provide the fine-grain data access and user control in a net-centric system-testing environment to meet these objectives. The AIU is a fundamental capability designed to enable fine-grain data access and user control in the cross-domain networking environments, where an AIU is composed of the mission data, metadata, and policy. An AIU provides a mechanism to establish trust among deployed AIUs based on recombining shared secrets, authentication and verify users with a username, X.509 certificate, enclave information, and classification level. AIU achieves data protection through (1) splitting data into multiple information pieces using the Shamir's secret sharing algorithm, (2) encrypting each individual information piece using military-grade AES-256 encryption, and (3) randomizing the position of the encrypted data based on the unbiased and memory efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Therefore, it becomes virtually impossible for attackers to compromise data since attackers need to obtain all distributed information as well as the encryption key and the random seeds to properly arrange the data. In addition, since policy can be associated with data in the AIU, different user access and data control strategies can be included. The AIU technology can greatly enhance information assurance and security management in the bandwidth-limited and ad hoc net-centric environments. In addition, AIU technology can be applicable to general complex network domains and applications where distributed user authentication and data protection are

  17. An Open-Access Educational Tool for Teaching Motion Dynamics in Multi-Axis Servomotor Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Guillen, J. R.; de Jesus Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, R.; Osornio-Rios, R. A.; Guevara-Gonzalez, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Servomotors are widely used in computerized numerically controlled (CNC) machines, hence motion control is a major topic covered in undergraduate/graduate engineering courses. Despite the fact that several syllabi include the motion dynamics topic in their courses, there are neither suitable tools available for designing and simulating multi-axis…

  18. Effective Simulation and Control Approaches for Alleviating the Access to High-Cost Manipulators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihali, Raul; Sobh, Tarek

    2005-01-01

    A problem that becomes increasingly obvious over time derives from purchasing and working with large scale, industrial type of manipulators. Primarily affected are higher level educational institutions, where manipulators are likely to be exposed to student projects that demand diversity in control strategies and various controlling software and…

  19. Performance of a Frequency-Hopped Real-Time Remote Control System in a Multiple Access Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes, Frank

    A recent trend is observed in the context of the radio-controlled aircrafts and automobiles within the hobby grade category and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) applications moving to the well-known Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. Based on this technological fact, the present thesis evaluates an individual user performance by featuring a multiple-user scenario where several point-to-point co-located real-time Remote Control (RC) applications operate using Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) as a medium access technique in order to handle interference efficiently. Commercial-off-the-shelf wireless transceivers ready to operate in the ISM band are considered as the operational platform supporting the above-mentioned applications. The impact of channel impairments and of different critical system engineering issues, such as working with real clock oscillators and variable packet duty cycle, are considered. Based on the previous, simulation results allowed us to evaluate the range of variation for those parameters for an acceptable system performance under Multiple Access (MA) environments.

  20. C+L band wavelength division multiplexing access network with distributed-controlled protection architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien Hung; Chow, Chi Wai

    2011-12-01

    In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel distributed-controlled protection architecture for automatic and fast network restoration in wavelength division multiplexing-passive optical network (WDM-PON). The proposed scheme can support both C and L bands. Besides, duplication of network equipments, such as optical networking unit (ONU) or optical line terminal, is not required. In this distributed-controlled system, each ONU can always keep track of the network status. Hence, this can facilitate the network manage by removing the work loads from the central office. Besides, the proposed scheme can tolerate simultaneous fiber cuts in the feeder and distributed fibers.

  1. Suicidal Behavior and Firearm Access: Results from the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Marian E.; Barber, Catherine; Miller, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The association between home firearms and the likelihood and nature of suicidal thoughts and plans was examined using the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey, a 2001-2003 representative telephone survey of U.S. households. Of 9,483 respondents, 7.4% reported past-year suicidal thoughts, 21.3% with a plan. Similar proportions of those with and…

  2. Improving Access to Online Health Information With Conversational Agents: A Randomized Controlled Experiment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional Web-based search engines may be unusable by individuals with low health literacy for finding health-related information, thus precluding their use by this population. Objective We describe a conversational search engine interface designed to allow individuals with low health and computer literacy identify and learn about clinical trials on the Internet. Methods A randomized trial involving 89 participants compared the conversational search engine interface (n=43) to the existing conventional keyword- and facet-based search engine interface (n=46) for the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials database. Each participant performed 2 tasks: finding a clinical trial for themselves and finding a trial that met prespecified criteria. Results Results indicated that all participants were more satisfied with the conversational interface based on 7-point self-reported satisfaction ratings (task 1: mean 4.9, SD 1.8 vs mean 3.2, SD 1.8, P<.001; task 2: mean 4.8, SD 1.9 vs mean 3.2, SD 1.7, P<.001) compared to the conventional Web form-based interface. All participants also rated the trials they found as better meeting their search criteria, based on 7-point self-reported scales (task 1: mean 3.7, SD 1.6 vs mean 2.7, SD 1.8, P=.01; task 2: mean 4.8, SD 1.7 vs mean 3.4, SD 1.9, P<.01). Participants with low health literacy failed to find any trials that satisfied the prespecified criteria for task 2 using the conventional search engine interface, whereas 36% (5/14) were successful at this task using the conversational interface (P=.05). Conclusions Conversational agents can be used to improve accessibility to Web-based searches in general and clinical trials in particular, and can help decrease recruitment bias against disadvantaged populations. PMID:26728964

  3. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Access Control and Traffic Improvements at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-23

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has assigned a continuing role to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in carrying out NNSA's national security mission. It is imperative that LANL continue this enduring responsibility and that NNSA adequately safeguard LANL capabilities. NNSA has identified the need to restrict vehicular access to certain areas within LANL for the purpose of permanently enhancing the physical security environment at LANL. It has also identified the need to change certain traffic flow patterns for the purpose of enhancing physical safety at LANL. The Proposed Action would include the construction of eastern and western bypass roads around the LANL Technical Area (TA) 3 area and the installation of vehicle access controls and related improvements to enhance security along Pajarito Road and in the LANL core area. This Proposed Action would modify the current roadway network and traffic patterns. It would also result in traversing Areas of Environmental Interest identified in the LANL Habitat Management Plan, demolition of part of an historic structure at Building 3-40, and traversing several potential release sites and part of the Los Alamos County landfill. The No Action Alternative was also considered. Under this alternative NNSA would not construct the eastern or western bypass roads, any access-control stations, or related improvements. Diamond Drive would continue to serve as the primary conduit for most vehicle traffic within the LANL core area regardless of actual trip destinations. The No Action Alternative does not meet NNSA's purpose and need for action. The proposed bypass road corridors traverse both developed and undeveloped areas. Several potential release sites are present. These would either be sampled and remediated in accordance with New Mexico Environment Department requirements before construction or avoided to allow for future remediation. In some cases, contaminant levels may fall below remediation thresholds

  4. KML (Keyhole Markup Language) : a key tool in the education of geo-resources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltz, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    Although going on the ground with pupils remains the best way to understand the geologic structure of a deposit, it is very difficult to bring them in a mining extraction site and it is impossible to explore whole regions in search of these resources. For those reasons the KML (with the Google earth interface) is a very complete tool for teaching geosciences. Simple and intuitive, its handling is quickly mastered by the pupils, it also allows the teachers to validate skills for IT certificates. It allows the use of KML files stemming from online banks, from personal productions of the teacher or from pupils' works. These tools offer a global approach in 3D as well as a geolocation-based access to any type of geological data. The resource on which I built this KML is taught in the curriculum of the 3 years of French high school, it is methane hydrate. This non conventional hydrocarbon molecule enters in this vague border between mineral an organic matter (as phosphate deposits). It has become for over ten year the subject of the race for the exploitation of the gas hydrates fields in order to try to supply to the world demand. The methane hydrate fields are very useful and interesting to study the 3 majors themes of geological resource: the exploration, the exploitation and the risks especially for environments and populations. The KML which I propose allows the pupils to put itself in the skin of a geologist in search of deposits or on the technician who is going to extract the resource. It also allows them to evaluate the risks connected to the effect of tectonics activity or climatic changes on the natural or catastrophic releasing of methane and its role in the increase of the greenhouse effect. This KML associated to plenty of pedagogic activities is directly downloadable for teachers at http://eduterre.ens-lyon.fr/eduterre-usages/actualites/methane/.

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mobile Clinical Decision Aid to Improve Access to Kidney Transplantation: iChoose Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Patzer, Rachel E.; Basu, Mohua; Mohan, Sumit; Smith, Kayla D.; Wolf, Michael; Ladner, Daniela; Friedewald, John J.; Chiles, Mariana; Russell, Allison; McPherson, Laura; Gander, Jennifer; Pastan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease, as it substantially increases a patient's survival and is cost saving compared to a lifetime of dialysis. However, transplantation is not universally chosen by patients with renal failure, and limited knowledge about the survival benefit of transplantation vs. dialysis may play a role. We created a mobile application clinical decision aid called iChoose Kidney to improve access to individualized prognosis information comparing dialysis and transplantation outcomes. We describe the iChoose Kidney study, a randomized controlled trial designed to test the clinical efficacy of a mobile health decision aid among end-stage renal disease patients referred for kidney transplantation at three large, diverse transplant centers across the U.S. Approximately 450 patients will be randomized to receive either: (1) standard of care or “usual” transplantation education, or (2) standard of care plus iChoose Kidney. The primary outcome is change in knowledge about the survival benefit of kidney transplantation vs. dialysis from baseline to immediate follow-up; secondary outcomes include change in treatment preferences, improved decisional conflict, and increased access to kidney transplantation. Analyses are also planned to examine effectiveness across subgroups of race, socioeconomic status, health literacy and health numeracy. Engaging patients in health care choices can increase patient empowerment and improve knowledge and understanding of treatment choices. If the effectiveness of iChoose Kidney has a greater impact on patients with low health literacy, lower socioeconomic status, and minority race, this decision aid could help reduce disparities in access to kidney transplantation. PMID:27610423

  6. Clinical Effectiveness, Access to, and Satisfaction with Care Using a Telehomecare Substitution Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Kathryn H.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Glick, Henry A.; Naylor, Mary D.; O'Connor, Melissa; Riegel, Barbara; Shih, Nai-Wei; Weiner, Mark G.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Hospitalization accounts for 70% of heart failure (HF) costs; readmission rates at 30 days are 24% and rise to 50% by 90 days. Agencies anticipate that telehomecare will provide the close monitoring necessary to prevent HF readmissions. Methods and Results. Randomized controlled trial to compare a telehomecare intervention for patients 55 and older following hospital discharge for HF to usual skilled home care. Primary endpoints were 30- and 60-day all-cause and HF readmission, hospital days, and time to readmission or death. Secondary outcomes were access to care, emergency department (ED) use, and satisfaction with care. All-cause readmissions at 30 days (16% versus 19%) and over six months (46% versus 52%) were lower in the telehomecare group but were not statistically significant. Access to care and satisfaction were significantly higher for the telehomecare patients, including the number of in-person visits and days in home care. Conclusions. Patient acceptance of the technology and current home care policies and processes of care were barriers to gaining clinical effectiveness and efficiency. PMID:22187551

  7. Medical-Grade Channel Access and Admission Control in 802.11e EDCA for Healthcare Applications

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sunghwa; Park, Kyung-Joon; Park, Eun-Chan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of assuring medical-grade quality of service (QoS) for real-time medical applications in wireless healthcare systems based on IEEE 802.11e. Firstly, we show that the differentiated channel access of IEEE 802.11e cannot effectively assure medical-grade QoS because of priority inversion. To resolve this problem, we propose an efficient channel access algorithm. The proposed algorithm adjusts arbitrary inter-frame space (AIFS) in the IEEE 802.11e protocol depending on the QoS measurement of medical traffic, to provide differentiated near-absolute priority for medical traffic. In addition, based on rigorous capacity analysis, we propose an admission control scheme that can avoid performance degradation due to network overload. Via extensive simulations, we show that the proposed mechanism strictly assures the medical-grade QoS and improves the throughput of low-priority traffic by more than several times compared to the conventional IEEE 802.11e. PMID:27490666

  8. Medical-Grade Channel Access and Admission Control in 802.11e EDCA for Healthcare Applications.

    PubMed

    Son, Sunghwa; Park, Kyung-Joon; Park, Eun-Chan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of assuring medical-grade quality of service (QoS) for real-time medical applications in wireless healthcare systems based on IEEE 802.11e. Firstly, we show that the differentiated channel access of IEEE 802.11e cannot effectively assure medical-grade QoS because of priority inversion. To resolve this problem, we propose an efficient channel access algorithm. The proposed algorithm adjusts arbitrary inter-frame space (AIFS) in the IEEE 802.11e protocol depending on the QoS measurement of medical traffic, to provide differentiated near-absolute priority for medical traffic. In addition, based on rigorous capacity analysis, we propose an admission control scheme that can avoid performance degradation due to network overload. Via extensive simulations, we show that the proposed mechanism strictly assures the medical-grade QoS and improves the throughput of low-priority traffic by more than several times compared to the conventional IEEE 802.11e. PMID:27490666

  9. The choice of disease control strategies to secure international market access for aquaculture products.

    PubMed

    Chinabut, S; Puttinaowarat, S

    2005-01-01

    Since production from capture fisheries cannot meet the demands of exports, aquaculture has subsequently played a major role in securing the raw materials for the world's food industries. Aquaculture has rapidly developed from extensive systems to semi-intensive, intensive and super-intensive systems. This has introduced the use of chemicals and drugs into the systems, which cause residual problems in the products. In the developed world, food safety has become a major issue of concern. The world market now demands healthy aquaculture products from farm to table. To achieve these requirements and to keep their markets, countries involved in aquaculture have implemented control measures such as farm licensing, code of conduct for sustainable aquaculture, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and good aquaculture practice. However, infectious diseases in aquaculture are of major concern to the industry and are typically controlled by eradication of the pathogen, treatment with antibiotic or chemotherapeutics, and/or by preventative measures such as the use of probiotics or vaccines. To limit the use of chemicals and antibiotics, good farm management is highly recommended. In terms of treatment, chemicals and antibiotics should be evaluated to establish recommended doses and withdrawal periods, otherwise alternative treatments should be developed. Environmentally-friendly probiotics have been introduced to aquaculture practice in the last decade to replace pathogenic bacteria with beneficial bacteria transient in the gut. Micro-organisms have also been prepared for the purpose of biocontrol and bioremediation. The application of probiotic, biocontrol and bioremediation seem promising; however considerable efforts of further research in terms of food and environmental safety are needed. Vaccination has proved highly effective in controlling diseases in the salmon industry mainly in Europe, America and Japan. In other Asian countries, this practice seem to

  10. Saccadic lateropulsion in Wallenberg syndrome: a window to access cerebellar control of saccades?

    PubMed

    Tilikete, Caroline; Koene, Ansgar; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Vighetto, Alain; Pélisson, Denis

    2006-10-01

    Saccadic lateropulsion is characterized by an undershoot of contralaterally directed saccades, an overshoot of ipsilaterally directed saccades and an ipsilateral deviation of vertical saccades. In Wallenberg syndrome, it is thought to result from altered signals in the olivo-cerebellar pathway to the oculomotor cerebellar network. In the current study we aimed to determine whether saccadic lateropulsion results from a cerebellar impairment of motor related signals or visuo-spatial related signals. We studied the trajectory, the accuracy, the direction and the amplitude of a variety of vertical and oblique saccades produced by five patients and nine control subjects. Some results are consistent with previous data suggesting altered motor related signals. Indeed, the horizontal error of contralesional saccades in patients increased with the desired horizontal saccade size. Furthermore, the initial directional error measured during the saccadic acceleration phase was smaller than the global directional error, suggesting that the eye trajectory curved progressively. However, some other results suggest that the processes that specify the horizontal spatial goal of the saccades might be impaired in the patients. Indeed, the horizontal error of ipsilesional saccades in patients did not change significantly with the desired horizontal saccade size. In addition, when comparing saccades with similar intended direction, it was found that the directional error was inversely related to the vertical saccade amplitude. Thus we conclude that the cerebellum might be involved both in controlling the motor execution of saccades and in determining the visuo-spatial information about their goal.

  11. Using XML for Instrument Description, Communication and Control of the SOFIA/HAWC Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, T. A.; Sall, K. B.; Warsaw, C. E.; Shafer, R. A.

    1998-12-01

    The goal of the Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project is to develop a distributed framework from science user to instrument which will provide robust interactive and reconfigurable control and monitoring of remote instrumentation. The focus of the joint effort between NASA/GSFC's Advanced Architectures and Automation branch (Code 588) and Century Computing has been infrared astronomy, although most of the techniques employed have much wider applicability. This poster presentation will describe the work currently underway for Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) in developing an Extensible Markup Language (XML) vocabulary to aid in instrument description, communication and control. In particular, the instruments to be controlled are the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and ultimately the Submillimeter And Far InfraRed Experiment (SAFIRE). IRC will enable trusted infrared astronomers around the world to easily access infrared astronomical instruments located in remote, inhospitable environments. The long-term focus is to develop an extensible framework to which new instruments can be added with relative ease. This will eventually be accomplished by implementing our own Instrument Control Markup Language (ICML) based on a custom Document Type Definition (DTD). ICML will be used to describe control capabilities, data streams, message formats, and communication mechanisms, as well as for online documentation and the association of housekeeping metadata with acquired images. Some of these aspects of instrument control will be reflected in Java graphical user interfaces, generated from the instrument descriptions. Other sections of the instrument description will be applied to data capture, as well as to other instrument subsystems.

  12. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ramos, José L.; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M. Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things. PMID:26140349

  13. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ramos, José L; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2015-07-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things.

  14. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ramos, José L; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2015-01-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things. PMID:26140349

  15. Vascular access and infection prevention and control: a national survey of routine practices in Irish haemodialysis units

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Margaret; Clarke, Michael; Mellotte, George; Plant, Liam; Fitzpatrick, Fidelma

    2013-01-01

    Background National and international guidelines recommend the use of effective vascular access (VA) and infection prevention and control practices within the haemodialysis environment. Establishing an arterio-venous fistula (AVF) and preventing central venous catheter (CVC)-related infections are ongoing challenges for all dialysis settings. We surveyed VA and routine infection prevention and control practices in dialysis units, to provide national data on these practices in Ireland. Methods A descriptive survey was emailed to nurse managers at all adult (n = 19) and children (n = 1) outpatient haemodialysis units in the Republic of Ireland. Data collected included AVF formation, CVC insertion and maintenance practices, VA use and surveillance of infection and screening protocols. Nineteen of the 20 units responded to the survey. Results The AVF prevalence was 49% for 1370 patients in 17 units who provided these data [mean prevalence per unit: 45.7% (SD 16.2)]; the CVC mean prevalence per unit was 52.5% (SD 16.0). Fourteen dialysis units experienced inadequate access to vascular surgical procedures either due to a lack of dedicated theatre time or hospital beds. Six units administered intravenous prophylactic antimicrobials prior to CVC insertion with only two units using a CVC insertion checklist at the time of catheter insertion. Conclusion In general, dialysis units in Ireland show a strong adherence to national guidelines. Compared with the 12 countries participating in the Dialysis Outcomes Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS 4), in 2010, AVF prevalence in Irish dialysis units is the second lowest. Recommendations include establishing an AVF national prevalence target rate, discontinuing the administration of intravenous prophylactic antimicrobials prior to CVC insertion and promoting the use of CVC insertion checklists. PMID:26019846

  16. Rat Strain Ontology: structured controlled vocabulary designed to facilitate access to strain data at RGD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Rat Genome Database (RGD) ( http://rgd.mcw.edu/) is the premier site for comprehensive data on the different strains of the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus). The strain data are collected from various publications, direct submissions from individual researchers, and rat providers worldwide. Rat strain, substrain designation and nomenclature follow the Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains, instituted by the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. While symbols and names aid in identifying strains correctly, the flat nature of this information prohibits easy search and retrieval, as well as other data mining functions. In order to improve these functionalities, particularly in ontology-based tools, the Rat Strain Ontology (RS) was developed. Results The Rat Strain Ontology (RS) reflects the breeding history, parental background, and genetic manipulation of rat strains. This controlled vocabulary organizes strains by type: inbred, outbred, chromosome altered, congenic, mutant and so on. In addition, under the chromosome altered category, strains are organized by chromosome, and further by type of manipulations, such as mutant or congenic. This allows users to easily retrieve strains of interest with modifications in specific genomic regions. The ontology was developed using the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) file format, and is organized on the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) structure. Rat Strain Ontology IDs are included as part of the strain report (RS: ######). Conclusions As rat researchers are often unaware of the number of substrains or altered strains within a breeding line, this vocabulary now provides an easy way to retrieve all substrains and accompanying information. Its usefulness is particularly evident in tools such as the PhenoMiner at RGD, where users can now easily retrieve phenotype measurement data for related strains, strains with similar backgrounds or those with similar

  17. Impact of adolescent sucrose access on cognitive control, recognition memory, and parvalbumin immunoreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Killcross, Simon; Hambly, Luke D.; Morris, Margaret J.; Westbrook, R. Fred

    2015-01-01

    In this study we sought to determine the effect of daily sucrose consumption in young rats on their subsequent performance in tasks that involve the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. High levels of sugar consumption have been associated with the development of obesity, however less is known about how sugar consumption influences behavioral control and high-order cognitive processes. Of particular concern is the fact that sugar intake is greatest in adolescence, an important neurodevelopmental period. We provided sucrose to rats when they were progressing through puberty and adolescence. Cognitive performance was assessed in adulthood on a task related to executive function, a rodent analog of the Stroop task. We found that sucrose-exposed rats failed to show context-appropriate responding during incongruent stimulus compounds presented at test, indicative of impairments in prefrontal cortex function. Sucrose exposed rats also showed deficits in an on object-in-place recognition memory task, indicating that both prefrontal and hippocampal function was impaired. Analysis of brains showed a reduction in expression of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, indicating that sucrose consumption during adolescence induced long-term pathology, potentially underpinning the cognitive deficits observed. These results suggest that consumption of high levels of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents may also impair neurocognitive functions affecting decision-making and memory, potentially rendering them at risk for developing mental health disorders. PMID:25776039

  18. Eight New Genomes and Synthetic Controls Increase the Accessibility of Rapid Melt-MAMA SNP Typing of Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    Byström, Mona; Forsman, Mats; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Janse, Ingmar; Larsson, Pär; Lindgren, Petter; Öhrman, Caroline; van Rotterdam, Bart; Sjödin, Andreas; Myrtennäs, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The case rate of Q fever in Europe has increased dramatically in recent years, mainly because of an epidemic in the Netherlands in 2009. Consequently, there is a need for more extensive genetic characterization of the disease agent Coxiella burnetii in order to better understand the epidemiology and spread of this disease. Genome reference data are essential for this purpose, but only thirteen genome sequences are currently available. Current methods for typing C. burnetii are criticized for having problems in comparing results across laboratories, require the use of genomic control DNA, and/or rely on markers in highly variable regions. We developed in this work a method for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing of C. burnetii isolates and tissue samples based on new assays targeting ten phylogenetically stable synonymous canonical SNPs (canSNPs). These canSNPs represent previously known phylogenetic branches and were here identified from sequence comparisons of twenty-one C. burnetii genomes, eight of which were sequenced in this work. Importantly, synthetic control templates were developed, to make the method useful to laboratories lacking genomic control DNA. An analysis of twenty-one C. burnetii genomes confirmed that the species exhibits high sequence identity. Most of its SNPs (7,493/7,559 shared by >1 genome) follow a clonal inheritance pattern and are therefore stable phylogenetic typing markers. The assays were validated using twenty-six genetically diverse C. burnetii isolates and three tissue samples from small ruminants infected during the epidemic in the Netherlands. Each sample was assigned to a clade. Synthetic controls (vector and PCR amplified) gave identical results compared to the corresponding genomic controls and are viable alternatives to genomic DNA. The results from the described method indicate that it could be useful for cheap and rapid disease source tracking at non-specialized laboratories, which requires accurate genotyping

  19. Eight new genomes and synthetic controls increase the accessibility of rapid melt-MAMA SNP typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Edvin; Macellaro, Anna; Byström, Mona; Forsman, Mats; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Janse, Ingmar; Larsson, Pär; Lindgren, Petter; Ohrman, Caroline; van Rotterdam, Bart; Sjödin, Andreas; Myrtennäs, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The case rate of Q fever in Europe has increased dramatically in recent years, mainly because of an epidemic in the Netherlands in 2009. Consequently, there is a need for more extensive genetic characterization of the disease agent Coxiella burnetii in order to better understand the epidemiology and spread of this disease. Genome reference data are essential for this purpose, but only thirteen genome sequences are currently available. Current methods for typing C. burnetii are criticized for having problems in comparing results across laboratories, require the use of genomic control DNA, and/or rely on markers in highly variable regions. We developed in this work a method for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing of C. burnetii isolates and tissue samples based on new assays targeting ten phylogenetically stable synonymous canonical SNPs (canSNPs). These canSNPs represent previously known phylogenetic branches and were here identified from sequence comparisons of twenty-one C. burnetii genomes, eight of which were sequenced in this work. Importantly, synthetic control templates were developed, to make the method useful to laboratories lacking genomic control DNA. An analysis of twenty-one C. burnetii genomes confirmed that the species exhibits high sequence identity. Most of its SNPs (7,493/7,559 shared by >1 genome) follow a clonal inheritance pattern and are therefore stable phylogenetic typing markers. The assays were validated using twenty-six genetically diverse C. burnetii isolates and three tissue samples from small ruminants infected during the epidemic in the Netherlands. Each sample was assigned to a clade. Synthetic controls (vector and PCR amplified) gave identical results compared to the corresponding genomic controls and are viable alternatives to genomic DNA. The results from the described method indicate that it could be useful for cheap and rapid disease source tracking at non-specialized laboratories, which requires accurate genotyping

  20. From data to analysis: linking NWChem and Avogadro with the syntax and semantics of Chemical Markup Language

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary integrated research requires the ability to couple the diverse sets of data obtained from a range of complex experiments and computer simulations. Integrating data requires semantically rich information. In this paper an end-to-end use of semantically rich data in computational chemistry is demonstrated utilizing the Chemical Markup Language (CML) framework. Semantically rich data is generated by the NWChem computational chemistry software with the FoX library and utilized by the Avogadro molecular editor for analysis and visualization. Results The NWChem computational chemistry software has been modified and coupled to the FoX library to write CML compliant XML data files. The FoX library was expanded to represent the lexical input files and molecular orbitals used by the computational chemistry software. Draft dictionary entries and a format for molecular orbitals within CML CompChem were developed. The Avogadro application was extended to read in CML data, and display molecular geometry and electronic structure in the GUI allowing for an end-to-end solution where Avogadro can create input structures, generate input files, NWChem can run the calculation and Avogadro can then read in and analyse the CML output produced. The developments outlined in this paper will be made available in future releases of NWChem, FoX, and Avogadro. Conclusions The production of CML compliant XML files for computational chemistry software such as NWChem can be accomplished relatively easily using the FoX library. The CML data can be read in by a newly developed reader in Avogadro and analysed or visualized in various ways. A community-based effort is needed to further develop the CML CompChem convention and dictionary. This will enable the long-term goal of allowing a researcher to run simple “Google-style” searches of chemistry and physics and have the results of computational calculations returned in a comprehensible form alongside articles from the

  1. XML in an Adaptive Framework for Instrument Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy J.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an extensible framework for instrument command and control, known as Instrument Remote Control (IRC), that combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A key aspect of the architecture is software that is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML). IML is an XML dialect used to describe interfaces to control and monitor the instrument, command sets and command formats, data streams, communication mechanisms, and data processing algorithms.

  2. imzML: Imaging Mass Spectrometry Markup Language: A common data format for mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Römpp, Andreas; Schramm, Thorsten; Hester, Alfons; Klinkert, Ivo; Both, Jean-Pierre; Heeren, Ron M A; Stöckli, Markus; Spengler, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is the method of scanning a sample of interest and generating an "image" of the intensity distribution of a specific analyte. The data sets consist of a large number of mass spectra which are usually acquired with identical settings. Existing data formats are not sufficient to describe an MS imaging experiment completely. The data format imzML was developed to allow the flexible and efficient exchange of MS imaging data between different instruments and data analysis software.For this purpose, the MS imaging data is divided in two separate files. The mass spectral data is stored in a binary file to ensure efficient storage. All metadata (e.g., instrumental parameters, sample details) are stored in an XML file which is based on the standard data format mzML developed by HUPO-PSI. The original mzML controlled vocabulary was extended to include specific parameters of imaging mass spectrometry (such as x/y position and spatial resolution). The two files (XML and binary) are connected by offset values in the XML file and are unambiguously linked by a universally unique identifier. The resulting datasets are comparable in size to the raw data and the separate metadata file allows flexible handling of large datasets.Several imaging MS software tools already support imzML. This allows choosing from a (growing) number of processing tools. One is no longer limited to proprietary software, but is able to use the processing software which is best suited for a specific question or application. On the other hand, measurements from different instruments can be compared within one software application using identical settings for data processing. All necessary information for evaluating and implementing imzML can be found at http://www.imzML.org . PMID:21063949

  3. Achieving fertility control through woman’s autonomy and access to maternal healthcare: Are we on track? In-depth analysis of PDHS-2012-13

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sehar-un-Nisa; Siddiqui, Salma; Mahmood, Ayeshah

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Fertility control preferences and maternal healthcare have recently become a major concern for developing nations with evidence suggesting that low fertility control rates and poor maternal healthcare are among major obstructions in ensuring health and social status for women. Our objective was toanalyze the factors that influence women’s autonomy, access to maternal healthcare, and fertility control preferences in Pakistan. Methods: Data consisted of 11,761 ever-married women of ages 15-49 years from PDHS, 2012-13. Variables included socio-demographics, women’s autonomy, fertility control preferences and access to maternal healthcare. Results: Findings from multivariate analysis showed that women’s younger age, having less than three number of children and independent or joint decision-making (indicators of high autonomy) remained the most significant predictors for access to better quality maternal healthcare and better fertility control preferences when other variables were controlled. Conclusion: Women’s access to good quality maternal health care and fertility control preferences are directly and indirectly influenced by their demographic characteristics and decision-making patterns in domestic affairs. PMID:26870096

  4. Sustained attention in mice: expanding the translational utility of the SAT by incorporating the Michigan Controlled Access Response Port (MICARP).

    PubMed

    St Peters, Megan; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Bradshaw, Marc; Sarter, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Advances in mouse genetic technology have spurred increasing interest in the development of cognitive tasks for mice. Here, we describe and discuss the modifications necessary to adapt a task for the assessment of sustained attention performance for use in mice, including for taxing the top-down control of such performance. The validity of the Sustained Attention Task (SAT), including the distractor version (dSAT), has previously been demonstrated in rats and humans. This task requires moveable or retractable operanda; insertion of operanda into the operant chambers cues animals to respond to a prior signal or non-signal event, reporting either a hit or a miss, or a correct rejection or false alarm, respectively. Retractable levers did not support sufficiently high and stable levels of performance in mice. Given the widespread use of static nose-poke devices for testing operant performance in mice, we therefore designed and fabricated a retractable nose-poke device. As this device extends into chambers, a hole for nose-poking is slowly opened and closed again as the device retracts (termed the "Michigan Controlled Access Response Port", MICARP). Results describe the effects of variation of signal duration and event rate, trial outcome and trial type probability, effects of mice deprivation levels, and the reliability of SAT and dSAT performance. Mice perform the SAT and dSAT at levels comparable to those observed in rats. This task will be of assistance in expanding the translational usefulness of the SAT and dSAT. PMID:21888929

  5. Central venous Access device SeCurement And Dressing Effectiveness (CASCADE) in paediatrics: protocol for pilot randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Victoria; Long, Debbie A; Williams, Tara; Hallahan, Andrew; Mihala, Gabor; Cooke, Marie; Rickard, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric central venous access devices (CVADs) are associated with a 25% incidence of failure. Securement and dressing are strategies used to reduce failure and complication; however, innovative technologies have not been evaluated for their effectiveness across device types. The primary aim of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of launching a full-scale randomised controlled efficacy trial across three CVAD types regarding CVAD securement and dressing, using predefined feasibility criteria. Methods and analysis Three feasibility randomised, controlled trials are to be undertaken at the Royal Children's Hospital and the Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. CVAD securement and dressing interventions under examination compare current practice with sutureless securement devices, integrated securement dressings and tissue adhesive. In total, 328 paediatric patients requiring a peripherally inserted central catheter (n=100); non-tunnelled CVAD (n=180) and tunnelled CVAD (n=48) to be inserted will be recruited and randomly allocated to CVAD securement and dressing products. Primary outcomes will be study feasibility measured by eligibility, recruitment, retention, attrition, missing data, parent/staff satisfaction and effect size. CVAD failure and complication (catheter-associated bloodstream infection, local infection, venous thrombosis, occlusion, dislodgement and breakage) will be compared between groups. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval to conduct the research has been obtained. All dissemination will be undertaken using the CONSORT Statement recommendations. Additionally, the results will be sent to the relevant organisations which lead CVAD focused clinical practice guidelines development. Trial registration numbers ACTRN12614001327673; ACTRN12615000977572; ACTRN12614000280606. PMID:27259529

  6. Authority of the Food and Drug Administration to require data access and control use rights in the Sentinel data network.

    PubMed

    Evans, Barbara J

    2010-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) authorized the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to develop a 100-million-person health data network known as the Sentinel system. When fully operational, the Sentinel network will offer a very rich, very large health data resource that has the potential to become one of history's most powerful engines of biomedical innovation and clinical translation of discoveries. Who controls this asset will be a matter of great scientific and commercial importance. This article explores two key questions--data access and use rights--that are under debate as various parties jostle for control of the network: First, does FDA have legal authority to require private healthcare data environments--such as insurers, healthcare providers, pharmacists and other entities that hold data in administrative and clinical databases--to make data available for inclusion in the network? Second, who will decide how the network is used, once it is built? The article explains why a neutral analysis of these questions is essential as FDA designs the governance framework for protecting the diverse stakeholders who will be touched by the Sentinel network. The conclusion describes threats to network operations, including federal and state constitutional claims and state legislative interventions, which could arise if FDA fails to devote timely attention to these issues.

  7. Fine Mapping and Characterization of Candidate Genes that Control Resistance to Cercospora sojina K. Hara in Two Soybean Germplasm Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Harris, Donna K.; Buck, James; Hoskins, Aaron; Serrano, Jonathan; Abdel-Haleem, Hussein; Cregan, Perry; Song, Qijian; Boerma, H. Roger; Li, Zenglu

    2015-01-01

    Frogeye leaf spot (FLS), caused by the fungus Cercospora sojina K. Hara, may cause a significant yield loss to soybean growers in regions with a warm and humid climate. Two soybean accessions, PI 594891 and PI 594774, were identified to carry a high level of resistance similar to that conditioned by the Rcs3 gene in 'Davis'. Previously, we reported that the resistance to FLS in these two plant introductions (PIs) was controlled by a novel gene (s) on chromosome 13 that is different from Rcs3. To fine-map the novel FLS resistance gene(s) in these two PIs, F2: 3 seeds from the crosses between PI 594891 and PI 594774, and the FLS susceptible genotype 'Blackhawk' were genotyped with SNP markers that were designed based on the SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip data to identify recombinant events and locate candidate genes. Analysis of lines possessing key recombination events helped narrow down the FLS-resistance genomic region in PI 594891 from 3.3 Mb to a 72.6 kb region with five annotated genes. The resistance gene in PI 594774 was fine-mapped into a 540 kb region that encompasses the 72.6 kb region found in PI 594891. Sequencing five candidate genes in PI 594891 identified three genes that have several mutations in the promoter, intron, 5', and 3' UTR regions. qPCR analysis showed a difference in expression levels of these genes in both lines compared to Blackhawk in the presence of C. sojina. Based on phenotype, genotype and haplotype analysis results, these two soybean accessions might carry different resistance alleles of the same gene or two different gene(s). The identified SNPs were used to develop Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) assays to detect the resistance alleles on chromosome 13 from the two PIs for marker-assisted selection. PMID:25993056

  8. Hyper Text Mark-up Language and Dublin Core metadata element set usage in websites of Iranian State Universities’ libraries

    PubMed Central

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Ramezan-Shirazi, Mahtab; Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Nouri, Rasool

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent progress in providing innovative solutions in the organization of electronic resources and research in this area shows a global trend in the use of new strategies such as metadata to facilitate description, place for, organization and retrieval of resources in the web environment. In this context, library metadata standards have a special place; therefore, the purpose of the present study has been a comparative study on the Central Libraries’ Websites of Iran State Universities for Hyper Text Mark-up Language (HTML) and Dublin Core metadata elements usage in 2011. Materials and Methods: The method of this study is applied-descriptive and data collection tool is the check lists created by the researchers. Statistical community includes 98 websites of the Iranian State Universities of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and Ministry of Science, Research and Technology and method of sampling is the census. Information was collected through observation and direct visits to websites and data analysis was prepared by Microsoft Excel software, 2011. Results: The results of this study indicate that none of the websites use Dublin Core (DC) metadata and that only a few of them have used overlaps elements between HTML meta tags and Dublin Core (DC) elements. The percentage of overlaps of DC elements centralization in the Ministry of Health were 56% for both description and keywords and, in the Ministry of Science, were 45% for the keywords and 39% for the description. But, HTML meta tags have moderate presence in both Ministries, as the most-used elements were keywords and description (56%) and the least-used elements were date and formatter (0%). Conclusion: It was observed that the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Science follows the same path for using Dublin Core standard on their websites in the future. Because Central Library Websites are an example of scientific web pages, special attention in designing them can help the researchers

  9. Flight Services and Aircraft Access: Active Flow Control Vertical Tail and Insect Accretion and Mitigation Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the Flight Services and Aircraft Access task order NNL14AA57T as part of NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project ITD12A+. It includes descriptions of flight test preparations and execution for the Active Flow Control (AFC) Vertical Tail and Insect Accretion and Mitigation (IAM) experiments conducted on the 757 ecoDemonstrator. For the AFC Vertical Tail, this is the culmination of efforts under two task orders. The task order was managed by Boeing Research & Technology and executed by an enterprise-wide Boeing team that included Boeing Research & Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Boeing Defense and Space and Boeing Test and Evaluation. Boeing BR&T in St. Louis was responsible for overall Boeing project management and coordination with NASA. The 757 flight test asset was provided and managed by the BCA ecoDemonstrator Program, in partnership with Stifel Aircraft Leasing and the TUI Group. With this report, all of the required deliverables related to management of this task order have been met and delivered to NASA as summarized in Table 1. In addition, this task order is part of a broader collaboration between NASA and Boeing.

  10. Giving High School Students a Research Grade Radio Telescope to Control; Motivational Results from Access to Real Scientific Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohrs, Russell; Langston, G.; Heatherly, S.

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever wondered what it might be like to place control of a six-story building in the hands of eager high school students? This past summer, the USNO 20m telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV was brought back online for just such a purpose. This telescope is equipped with an X-band receiver, capable of observing center frequencies from 8-10 GHz and is the first radio telescope accessible by students and observers through the SKYNET telescope network. Operated remotely with a queue-based system, students can now collect real radio data for any range of projects. This past summer, five lessons were written that were tailor-made for student exploration of radio astronomy. Each lesson explores various radio objects in the context of an action-packed sci-fi adventure. Some of the work required to bring the 20m online for student use will be discussed here, but the main focus of this presentation will be how this work has been received by the author’s own students in its first classroom application. Topics that are normally difficult to discuss with students in an inquiry-based classroom setting, such as HII regions, synchrotron radiation, lunar temperature profiles, and galactic supermassive black holes were addressed in the classroom using the lessons developed by the author for the 20m as well as data collected by students using the telescope via SKYNET.

  11. Sustained attention in mice: expanding the translational utility of the SAT by incorporating the Michigan Controlled Access Response Port (MICARP)

    PubMed Central

    St. Peters, Megan; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Bradshaw, Marc; Sarter, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Advances in mouse genetic technology have spurred increasing interest in the development of cognitive tasks for mice. Here, we describe and discuss the modifications necessary to adapt a task for the assessment of sustained attention performance for use in mice, including for taxing the top-down control of such performance. The validity of the Sustained Attention Task (SAT), including the distractor version (dSAT), have previously been demonstrated in rats and humans. This task requires moveable or retractable operanda; insertion of operanda into the operant chambers cues animals to respond to a prior signal or non-signal event, reporting either a hit or a miss, or a correct rejection or false alarm, respectively. Retractable levers did not support sufficiently high and stable levels of performance in mice. Given the widespread use of static nose-poke devices for testing operant performance in mice, we therefore designed and fabricated a retractable nose-poke device. As this device extends into chambers, a hole for nose-poking is slowly opened and closed again as the device retracts (termed the “Michigan Controlled Access Response Port”; MICARP). Results describe the effects of variation of signal duration and event rate, trial outcome and trial type probability, effects of mice deprivation levels, and the reliability of SAT and dSAT performance. Mice perform the SAT and dSAT at levels comparable to those observed in rats. This task will be of assistance in expanding the translational usefulness of the SAT and dSAT. PMID:21888929

  12. Energy-Efficiency Analysis of a Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Biomedical Wireless Sensor Networks in Saturation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Otal, Begonya; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The aging population and the high quality of life expectations in our society lead to the need of more efficient and affordable healthcare solutions. For this reason, this paper aims for the optimization of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for biomedical wireless sensor networks or wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs). The hereby presented schemes always have in mind the efficient management of channel resources and the overall minimization of sensors’ energy consumption in order to prolong sensors’ battery life. The fact that the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC does not fully satisfy BSN requirements highlights the need for the design of new scalable MAC solutions, which guarantee low-power consumption to the maximum number of body sensors in high density areas (i.e., in saturation conditions). In order to emphasize IEEE 802.15.4 MAC limitations, this article presents a detailed overview of this de facto standard for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which serves as a link for the introduction and initial description of our here proposed Distributed Queuing (DQ) MAC protocol for BSN scenarios. Within this framework, an extensive DQ MAC energy-consumption analysis in saturation conditions is presented to be able to evaluate its performance in relation to IEEE 802.5.4 MAC in highly dense BSNs. The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms IEEE 802.15.4 MAC in average energy consumption per information bit, thus providing a better overall performance that scales appropriately to BSNs under high traffic conditions. These benefits are obtained by eliminating back-off periods and collisions in data packet transmissions, while minimizing the control overhead. PMID:22319351

  13. Communication, Control, and Computer Access for Disabled and Elderly Individuals. ResourceBook 4: Update to Books 1, 2, and 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Peter A., Ed.; Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Ed.

    This update to the three-volume first edition of the "Rehab/Education ResourceBook Series" describes special software and products pertaining to communication, control, and computer access, designed specifically for the needs of disabled and elderly people. The 22 chapters cover: speech aids; pointing and typing aids; training and communication…

  14. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    SciTech Connect

    Amy E. Lewis, Craig Hollabaugh

    2006-09-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera’s user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  15. Microprocessor-controlled wide-range streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Amy E.; Hollabaugh, Craig

    2006-08-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  16. Accessibility Videos.

    PubMed

    Kurppa, Ari; Nordlund, Marika

    2016-01-01

    It can be difficult to understand accessibility, if you do not have the personal experience. The Accessibility Centre ESKE produced short videos which demonstrate the meaning of accessibility in different situations. Videos will raise accessibility awareness of architects, other planners and professionals in the construction field and maintenance. PMID:27534282

  17. The acceptability and impact of a randomised controlled trial of welfare rights advice accessed via primary health care: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Suzanne; Mackintosh, Joan; White, Martin; Howel, Denise; Sandell, Adam

    2006-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is increasingly used alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to study a range of factors including participants' experiences of a trial. The need for a sound evidence base within public health will increase the need for RCTs of non-clinical interventions. Welfare rights advice has been proposed as an intervention with potential to reduce health inequalities. This qualitative study, nested within an RCT of the impact of welfare rights advice, examined the acceptability of the intervention, the acceptability of the research process and the perceived impact of the intervention. Methods 25 men and women aged 60 years or over were recruited from four general practices in Newcastle upon Tyne (UK), a sub-sample of those who consented to be contacted (n = 96) during the RCT baseline interview. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken and analysed using the Framework Method. Results Participants viewed the trial positively although, despite agreeing that the information leaflet was clear, some had agreed to participate without being fully aware of what was involved. Some participants were unaware of the implications of randomisation. Most thought it fair, but a few concerns were raised about the control condition. The intervention was acceptable and made participants feel confident about applying for benefit entitlements. 14 out of 25 participants received some financial award; median weekly income gain was £57 (€84, $101). The perceived impact of additional finances was considerable and included: increased affordability of necessities and occasional expenses; increased capacity to deal with emergencies; and a reduction in stress related to financial worries. Overall, perceived independence and ability to participate in society increased. Most participants perceived benefits to their mental well-being, but no-one reported an improvement in physical health. The RCT showed little or no effect on a wide range of outcome measures

  18. Use of the venture wire-control catheter for accessing side branches during provisional stenting: an option for bifurcations with an unfavorable anatomy.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Soledad; Pan, Manuel; Mazuelos, Francisco; Romero, Miguel; Segura, José; Pavlovic, Djordje; Crespín, Manuel; Suárez de Lezo, José

    2010-12-01

    We report our experience with the Venture wire-control catheter in 20 patients with bifurcation lesions in which it was impossible to access the side branch using conventional techniques. This device was always used as a last resort and was employed during different stages in the treatment of the bifurcation lesions (i.e. initially, after stenting of the main vessel or both). In 17 patients (85%), use of the Venture catheter resulted in the success of the procedure. Only one complication associated with a monorail catheter was recorded. It was resolved successfully. One patient died from heart failure 10 days after the procedure and two patients, in whom it was impossible to access the side branch, had non-Q-wave myocardial infarctions. In conclusion, the Venture catheter was effective and safe, and enabled the side branches of complex bifurcation lesions to be accessed. PMID:21144413

  19. Instrument Remote Control Application Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Hostetter, Carl F.

    2006-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) architecture is a flexible, platform-independent application framework that is well suited for the control and monitoring of remote devices and sensors. IRC enables significant savings in development costs by utilizing extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptions to configure the framework for a specific application. The Instrument Markup Language (IML) is used to describe the commands used by an instrument, the data streams produced, the rules for formatting commands and parsing the data, and the method of communication. Often no custom code is needed to communicate with a new instrument or device. An IRC instance can advertise and publish a description about a device or subscribe to another device's description on a network. This simple capability of dynamically publishing and subscribing to interfaces enables a very flexible, self-adapting architecture for monitoring and control of complex instruments in diverse environments.

  20. Public accessibility of biomedical articles from PubMed Central reduces journal readership--retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Philip M

    2013-07-01

    Does PubMed Central--a government-run digital archive of biomedical articles--compete with scientific society journals? A longitudinal, retrospective cohort analysis of 13,223 articles (5999 treatment, 7224 control) published in 14 society-run biomedical research journals in nutrition, experimental biology, physiology, and radiology between February 2008 and January 2011 reveals a 21.4% reduction in full-text hypertext markup language (HTML) article downloads and a 13.8% reduction in portable document format (PDF) article downloads from the journals' websites when U.S. National Institutes of Health-sponsored articles (treatment) become freely available from the PubMed Central repository. In addition, the effect of PubMed Central on reducing PDF article downloads is increasing over time, growing at a rate of 1.6% per year. There was no longitudinal effect for full-text HTML downloads. While PubMed Central may be providing complementary access to readers traditionally underserved by scientific journals, the loss of article readership from the journal website may weaken the ability of the journal to build communities of interest around research papers, impede the communication of news and events to scientific society members and journal readers, and reduce the perceived value of the journal to institutional subscribers. PMID:23554455

  1. Public accessibility of biomedical articles from PubMed Central reduces journal readership--retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Philip M

    2013-07-01

    Does PubMed Central--a government-run digital archive of biomedical articles--compete with scientific society journals? A longitudinal, retrospective cohort analysis of 13,223 articles (5999 treatment, 7224 control) published in 14 society-run biomedical research journals in nutrition, experimental biology, physiology, and radiology between February 2008 and January 2011 reveals a 21.4% reduction in full-text hypertext markup language (HTML) article downloads and a 13.8% reduction in portable document format (PDF) article downloads from the journals' websites when U.S. National Institutes of Health-sponsored articles (treatment) become freely available from the PubMed Central repository. In addition, the effect of PubMed Central on reducing PDF article downloads is increasing over time, growing at a rate of 1.6% per year. There was no longitudinal effect for full-text HTML downloads. While PubMed Central may be providing complementary access to readers traditionally underserved by scientific journals, the loss of article readership from the journal website may weaken the ability of the journal to build communities of interest around research papers, impede the communication of news and events to scientific society members and journal readers, and reduce the perceived value of the journal to institutional subscribers.

  2. Channel Access in Erlang

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  3. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  4. Exploring access to cancer control services for Asian-American and Pacific Islander communities in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Tran, Jacqueline H; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foo, Mary Anne; Foong, Heng L; Lee, Susan W; Nguyen, Tu-Uyen Ngoc; Rickles, Jordan; Wang, Jennifer S

    2004-01-01

    During the last 25 years, numerous studies have been conducted to promote breast cancer and cervical cancer screening. Most of these studies focused on individual-level factors predicting screening, but we are unaware of any that directly examined community and ecological influences. The goal of this project, Promoting Access to Health for Pacific Islander and Southeast Asian Women (PATH for Women), was to increase community capacity for breast and cervical cancer screening and follow up in Los Angeles and Orange counties. We focused on Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander women because, although they have the lowest rates for cancer, compared to all other ethnic groups, relatively few programs have specifically targeted Asian-American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women to promote and sustain screening practices. The PATH for Women project involved a partnership between 5 community-based organizations and 2 universities, and included 7 Asian-American and Pacific Islander communities: Cambodians, Chamorros, Laotians, Thais, Tongans, Samoans, and Vietnamese. In this paper, we share our experiences in developing a Geographic Information System (GIS)-mapping evaluation component that was used to explore availability and accessibility to culturally responsive breast and cervical cancer screening services for Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander women in all 7 communities. We describe the methods used to develop the maps, and present the preliminary findings that demonstrate significant geographic and language barriers to accessing healthcare providers, services for breast and cervical cancer screening, and follow up, in each of the communities. Finally, we discuss implications for programs designed to promote breast and cervical screening and policy education.

  5. Conformation analysis of a surface loop that controls active site access in the GH11 xylanase A from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Davi Serradella; Ward, Richard John

    2012-04-01

    Xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8 endo-1,4-glycosyl hydrolase) catalyze the hydrolysis of xylan, an abundant hemicellulose of plant cell walls. Access to the catalytic site of GH11 xylanases is regulated by movement of a short β-hairpin, the so-called thumb region, which can adopt open or closed conformations. A crystallographic study has shown that the D11F/R122D mutant of the GH11 xylanase A from Bacillus subtilis (BsXA) displays a stable "open" conformation, and here we report a molecular dynamics simulation study comparing this mutant with the native enzyme over a range of temperatures. The mutant open conformation was stable at 300 and 328 K, however it showed a transition to the closed state at 338 K. Analysis of dihedral angles identified thumb region residues Y113 and T123 as key hinge points which determine the open-closed transition at 338 K. Although the D11F/R122D mutations result in a reduction in local inter-intramolecular hydrogen bonding, the global energies of the open and closed conformations in the native enzyme are equivalent, suggesting that the two conformations are equally accessible. These results indicate that the thumb region shows a broader degree of energetically permissible conformations which regulate the access to the active site region. The R122D mutation contributes to the stability of the open conformation, but is not essential for thumb dynamics, i.e., the wild type enzyme can also adapt to the open conformation.

  6. Cu-catalyzed silylation of alkynes: a traceless 2-pyridylsulfonyl controller allows access to either regioisomer on demand.

    PubMed

    García-Rubia, Alfonso; Romero-Revilla, Jose A; Mauleón, Pablo; Gómez Arrayás, Ramón; Carretero, Juan C

    2015-06-01

    The Cu-catalyzed silylation of terminal and internal alkynes bearing a 2-pyridyl sulfonyl group (SO2Py) at the propargylic position affords a breadth of vinyl silanes in good yields and with excellent regio- and stereocontrol under mild conditions. The directing SO2Py group is essential in terms of reaction efficiency and chemoselectivity. Importantly, this group also provides the ability to reverse the regiochemical outcome of the reaction, opening the access to either regioisomer without modification of the starting substrate by virtue of an in situ base-promoted alkyne to allene equilibration which takes place prior to the silylcupration process. Furthermore, removal of the directing SO2Py allows for further elaboration of the silylation products. In particular, a one-pot tandem alkyne silylation/allylic substitution sequence, in which both steps are catalyzed by the same Cu species, opens up a new approach for the access to either formal hydrosilylation regioisomer of unsymmetrical aliphatic-substituted internal alkynes from propargyl sulfones. PMID:25955333

  7. Usage and Effectiveness of a Fully Automated, Open-Access, Spanish Web-Based Smoking Cessation Program: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is an optimal setting to provide massive access to tobacco treatments. To evaluate open-access Web-based smoking cessation programs in a real-world setting, adherence and retention data should be taken into account as much as abstinence rate. Objective The objective was to analyze the usage and effectiveness of a fully automated, open-access, Web-based smoking cessation program by comparing interactive versus noninteractive versions. Methods Participants were randomly assigned either to the interactive or noninteractive version of the program, both with identical content divided into 4 interdependent modules. At baseline, we collected demographic, psychological, and smoking characteristics of the smokers self-enrolled in the Web-based program of Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (National Distance Education University; UNED) in Madrid, Spain. The following questionnaires were administered: the anxiety and depression subscales from the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale, and the Heaviness of Smoking Index. At 3 months, we analyzed dropout rates, module completion, user satisfaction, follow-up response rate, and self-assessed smoking abstinence. Results A total of 23,213 smokers were registered, 50.06% (11,620/23,213) women and 49.94% (11,593/23,213) men, with a mean age of 39.5 years (SD 10.3). Of these, 46.10% (10,701/23,213) were married and 34.43% (7992/23,213) were single, 46.03% (10,686/23,213) had university education, and 78.73% (18,275/23,213) were employed. Participants smoked an average of 19.4 cigarettes per day (SD 10.3). Of the 11,861 smokers randomly assigned to the interactive version, 2720 (22.93%) completed the first module, 1052 (8.87%) the second, 624 (5.26%) the third, and 355 (2.99%) the fourth. Completion data was not available for the noninteractive version (no way to record it automatically). The 3-month follow-up questionnaire was completed by 1085 of 23,213 enrolled smokers

  8. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  9. Improving Post-Hospitalization Transition Outcomes through Accessible Health Information Technology and Caregiver Support: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Piette, John D; Striplin, Dana; Marinec, Nicolle; Chen, Jenny; Gregory, Lynn A; Sumerlin, Denise L; DeSantis, Angela M; Gibson, Carolyn; Crause, Ingrid; Rouse, Marylena; Aikens, James E

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this trial is to evaluate a novel intervention designed to improve post-hospitalization support for older adults with chronic conditions via: (a) direct tailored communication to patients using regular automated calls post discharge, (b) support for informal caregivers outside of the patient’s household via structured automated feedback about the patient’s status plus advice about how caregivers can help, and (c) support for care management including a web-based disease management tool and alerts about potential problems. Methods 846 older adults with common chronic conditions are being identified upon hospital admission. Patients are asked to identify a “CarePartner” (CP) living outside their household, i.e., an adult child or other social network member willing to play an active role in their post-discharge transition support. Patient-CP pairs are randomized to the intervention or usual care. Intervention patients receive automated assessment and behavior change calls, and their CPs receives structured feedback and advice via email and automated calls following each assessment. Clinical teams have access to assessment results via the web and receive automated reports about urgent health problems. Patients complete surveys at baseline, 30 days, and 90 days post discharge; utilization data is obtained from hospital records. CPs, other caregivers, and clinicians are interviewed to evaluate intervention effects on processes of self-care support, caregiver stress and communication, and the intervention’s potential for broader implementation. The primary outcome is 30-day readmission rates; other outcomes measured at 30 days and 90 days include functional status, self-care behaviors, and mortality risk. Conclusion This trial uses accessible health technologies and coordinated communication among informal caregivers and clinicians to fill the growing gap between what discharged patients need and available resources. A unique feature of

  10. A Review of Existing Studies Reporting the Negative Effects of Alcohol Access and Positive Effects of Alcohol Control Policies on Interpersonal Violence.

    PubMed

    Fitterer, Jessica L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Stockwell, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 87 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-one (82%) reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offenses. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%), with trading hours (63%), and alcohol price following (58%). Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offenses. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local-level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater uptake of local-level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes, such as 1% increases in alcohol price, 1 h changes to closing times

  11. A Review of Existing Studies Reporting the Negative Effects of Alcohol Access and Positive Effects of Alcohol Control Policies on Interpersonal Violence.

    PubMed

    Fitterer, Jessica L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Stockwell, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 87 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-one (82%) reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offenses. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%), with trading hours (63%), and alcohol price following (58%). Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offenses. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local-level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater uptake of local-level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes, such as 1% increases in alcohol price, 1 h changes to closing times

  12. A Review of Existing Studies Reporting the Negative Effects of Alcohol Access and Positive Effects of Alcohol Control Policies on Interpersonal Violence

    PubMed Central

    Fitterer, Jessica L.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stockwell, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 87 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-one (82%) reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offenses. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%), with trading hours (63%), and alcohol price following (58%). Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offenses. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local-level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater uptake of local-level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes, such as 1% increases in alcohol price, 1 h changes to closing times

  13. Access to a polymerase chain reaction assay method targeting 13 respiratory viruses can reduce antibiotics: a randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Viral respiratory infections are common worldwide and range from completely benign disease to life-threatening illness. Symptoms can be unspecific, and an etiologic diagnosis is rarely established because of a lack of suitable diagnostic tools. Improper use of antibiotics is common in this setting, which is detrimental in light of the development of bacterial resistance. It has been suggested that the use of diagnostic tests could reduce antibiotic prescription rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay panel for etiologic diagnosis of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) would have an impact on antibiotic prescription rate in primary care clinical settings. Methods Adult patients with symptoms of ARTI were prospectively included. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were analysed by using a multiplex real-time PCR method targeting thirteen viruses and two bacteria. Patients were recruited at 12 outpatient units from October 2006 through April 2009, and samples were collected on the day of inclusion (initial visit) and after 10 days (follow-up visit). Patients were randomised in an open-label treatment protocol to receive a rapid or delayed result (on the following day or after eight to twelve days). The primary outcome measure was the antibiotic prescription rate at the initial visit, and the secondary outcome was the total antibiotic prescription rate during the study period. Results A total sample of 447 patients was randomised. Forty-one were excluded, leaving 406 patients for analysis. In the group of patients randomised for a rapid result, 4.5% (9 of 202) of patients received antibiotics at the initial visit, compared to 12.3% (25 of 204) (P = 0.005) of patients in the delayed result group. At follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups: 13.9% (28 of 202) in the rapid result group and 17.2% (35 of 204) in the delayed result group (P = 0

  14. Gaining Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Discusses issues schools and universities have encountered in complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and making their facilities more accessible to the disabled. The ADA's vagueness and the architect's need for understanding the regulations is highlighted. (GR)

  15. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  16. Capital access.

    PubMed

    Towne, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    To maintain their viability, hospitals are being compelled to invest in big capital projects such as information technology and renovation and construction. This gatefold examines the trends in credit and capital, and how they affect hospitals' access to money.

  17. Combining controlled-vocabulary and free-text search options in order to enhance the retrieval of metadata for access to environmental data

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, R.L.; Northcutt, R.T.

    1997-08-01

    NASA`s Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) is an online service which assists the scientific community in the discovery of and linkage to environmental data. The GCMD consists of a relational database with over 3600 descriptions of data from over 650 data centers worldwide. Over 35% of the data descriptions are related to marine and coastal environments, representing both remotely-sensed and in-situ data. In addition to oceanography, the GCMD features data descriptions in meteorology, ecology, hydrology and geology, thereby facilitating interdisciplinary searches for data. Two search interfaces allow users to retrieve the descriptions: one uses controlled vocabulary, the other permits the input of free-text. The offering of search options presents the opportunity to test user preferences and search successes. For one month in which user accesses were analyzed, users retrieved information more often using the free-text search option than with the controlled search option.

  18. UK publicly funded Clinical Trials Units supported a controlled access approach to share individual participant data but highlighted concerns

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Carolyn; Sydes, Matthew; Murray, Gordon; Woolfall, Kerry; Clarke, Mike; Williamson, Paula; Tudur Smith, Catrin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate current data sharing activities of UK publicly funded Clinical Trial Units (CTUs) and identify good practices and barriers. Study Design and Setting Web-based survey of Directors of 45 UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC)–registered CTUs. Results Twenty-three (51%) CTUs responded: Five (22%) of these had an established data sharing policy and eight (35%) specifically requested consent to use patient data beyond the scope of the original trial. Fifteen (65%) CTUs had received requests for data, and seven (30%) had made external requests for data in the previous 12 months. CTUs supported the need for increased data sharing activities although concerns were raised about patient identification, misuse of data, and financial burden. Custodianship of clinical trial data and requirements for a CTU to align its policy to their parent institutes were also raised. No CTUs supported the use of an open access model for data sharing. Conclusion There is support within the publicly funded UKCRC-registered CTUs for data sharing, but many perceived barriers remain. CTUs are currently using a variety of approaches and procedures for sharing data. This survey has informed further work, including development of guidance for publicly funded CTUs, to promote good practice and facilitate data sharing. PMID:26169841

  19. Diiron Oxidation State Control of Substrate Access to the Active Site of Soluble Methane Monooxygenase Mediated by the Regulatory Component

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory component (MMOB) of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) has a unique N-terminal tail not found in regulatory proteins of other bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases. This N-terminal tail is indispensable for proper function, yet its solution structure and role in catalysis remain elusive. Here, by using double electron–electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy, we show that the oxidation state of the hydroxylase component, MMOH, modulates the conformation of the N-terminal tail in the MMOH–2MMOB complex, which in turn facilitates catalysis. The results reveal that the N-terminal tail switches from a relaxed, flexible conformational state to an ordered state upon MMOH reduction from the diiron(III) to the diiron(II) state. This observation suggests that some of the crystallographically observed allosteric effects that result in the connection of substrate ingress cavities in the MMOH–2MMOB complex may not occur in solution in the diiron(III) state. Thus, O2 may not have easy access to the active site until after reduction of the diiron center. The observed conformational change is also consistent with a higher binding affinity of MMOB to MMOH in the diiron(II) state, which may allow MMOB to displace more readily the reductase component (MMOR) from MMOH following reduction. PMID:24476336

  20. aPKC Inhibition by Par3 CR3 Flanking Regions Controls Substrate Access and Underpins Apical-Junctional Polarization.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Erika V; Ivanova, Marina E; Fletcher, Georgina; Riou, Philippe; Knowles, Philip P; Barnouin, Karin; Purkiss, Andrew; Kostelecky, Brenda; Saiu, Peter; Linch, Mark; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Kjær, Svend; O'Reilly, Nicola; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Parker, Peter J; Thompson, Barry J; McDonald, Neil Q

    2016-08-22

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is a key apical-basal polarity determinant and Par complex component. It is recruited by Par3/Baz (Bazooka in Drosophila) into epithelial apical domains through high-affinity interaction. Paradoxically, aPKC also phosphorylates Par3/Baz, provoking its relocalization to adherens junctions (AJs). We show that Par3 conserved region 3 (CR3) forms a tight inhibitory complex with a primed aPKC kinase domain, blocking substrate access. A CR3 motif flanking its PKC consensus site disrupts the aPKC kinase N lobe, separating P-loop/αB/αC contacts. A second CR3 motif provides a high-affinity anchor. Mutation of either motif switches CR3 to an efficient in vitro substrate by exposing its phospho-acceptor site. In vivo, mutation of either CR3 motif alters Par3/Baz localization from apical to AJs. Our results reveal how Par3/Baz CR3 can antagonize aPKC in stable apical Par complexes and suggests that modulation of CR3 inhibitory arms or opposing aPKC pockets would perturb the interaction, promoting Par3/Baz phosphorylation. PMID:27554858

  1. Cytosolic access of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: critical impact of phagosomal acidification control and demonstration of occurrence in vivo.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Roxane; Sayes, Fadel; Song, Okryul; Gröschel, Matthias I; Brodin, Priscille; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2015-02-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) uses efficient strategies to evade the eradication by professional phagocytes, involving--as recently confirmed--escape from phagosomal confinement. While Mtb determinants, such as the ESX-1 type VII secretion system, that contribute to this phenomenon are known, the host cell factors governing this important biological process are yet unexplored. Using a newly developed flow-cytometric approach for Mtb, we show that macrophages expressing the phagosomal bivalent cation transporter Nramp-1, are much less susceptible to phagosomal rupture. Together with results from the use of the phagosome acidification inhibitor bafilomycin, we demonstrate that restriction of phagosomal acidification is a prerequisite for mycobacterial phagosomal rupture and cytosolic contact. Using different in vivo approaches including an enrichment and screen for tracking rare infected phagocytes carrying the CD45.1 hematopoietic allelic marker, we here provide first and unique evidence of M. tuberculosis-mediated phagosomal rupture in mouse spleen and lungs and in numerous phagocyte types. Our results, linking the ability of restriction of phagosome acidification to cytosolic access, provide an important conceptual advance for our knowledge on host processes targeted by Mtb evasion strategies.

  2. Utilizing Internet Technologies in Observatory Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cording, Dean

    2002-12-01

    The 'Internet boom' of the past few years has spurred the development of a number of technologies to provide services such as secure communications, reliable messaging, information publishing and application distribution for commercial applications. Over the same period, a new generation of computer languages have also developed to provide object oriented design and development, improved reliability, and cross platform compatibility. Whilst the business models of the 'dot.com' era proved to be largely unviable, the technologies that they were based upon have survived and have matured to the point were they can now be utilized to build secure, robust and complete observatory control control systems. This paper will describe how Electro Optic Systems has utilized these technologies in the development of its third generation Robotic Observatory Control System (ROCS). ROCS provides an extremely flexible configuration capability within a control system structure to provide truly autonomous robotic observatory operation including observation scheduling. ROCS was built using Internet technologies such as Java, Java Messaging Service (JMS), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), eXtendible Markup Language (XML), Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Java WebStart. ROCS was designed to be capable of controlling all aspects of an observatory and be able to be reconfigured to handle changing equipment configurations or user requirements without the need for an expert computer programmer. ROCS consists of many small components, each designed to perform a specific task, with the configuration of the system specified using a simple meta language. The use of small components facilitates testing and makes it possible to prove that the system is correct.

  3. Constraints and challenges in access to insulin: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Beran, David; Ewen, Margaret; Laing, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Substantial attention has been given to the issue of access to medicines for communicable diseases; however, access to essential medicines for diabetes, especially insulin, has had insufficient focus. Although insulin was discovered in 1921, the drug is unattainable to many globally, and this Review aims to highlight the range and complexity of factors that contribute to this unattainability. Manufacturers' selling prices of various insulin formulations and presentations, duties, taxes, mark-ups, and other supply chain costs affect the price of insulin and hence the drug's affordability to health systems and individuals. Unlike drugs for HIV and AIDS, the production of generic or biosimilar insulin has not had an effect on the overall market. Other factors contributing to poor availability of insulin include its quantification at the national level, in-country distribution, and determination of needs at lower levels of the health system. Although insulin is essential for the survival of people with type 1 diabetes and is needed for improved management of diabetes for some people with type 2 diabetes, very little has been done globally to address the issue of access, despite the UN's political commitment to address non-communicable diseases and ensure universal access to drugs for these disorders. PMID:26857998

  4. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  5. The Quik Fix study: a randomised controlled trial of brief interventions for young people with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses accessing emergency department and crisis support care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a major preventable cause of injury, disability and death in young people. Large numbers of young people with alcohol-related injuries and medical conditions present to hospital emergency departments (EDs). Access to brief, efficacious, accessible and cost effective treatment is an international health priority within this age group. While there is growing evidence for the efficacy of brief motivational interviewing (MI) for reducing alcohol use in young people, there is significant scope to increase its impact, and determine if it is the most efficacious and cost effective type of brief intervention available. The efficacy of personality-targeted interventions (PIs) for alcohol misuse delivered individually to young people is yet to be determined or compared to MI, despite growing evidence for school-based PIs. This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of telephone-delivered MI, PI and an Assessment Feedback/Information (AF/I) only control for reducing alcohol use and related harm in young people. Methods/design Participants will be 390 young people aged 16 to 25 years presenting to a crisis support service or ED with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses (including severe alcohol intoxication). This single blinded superiority trial randomized young people to (i) 2 sessions of MI; (ii) 2 sessions of a new PI or (iii) a 1 session AF/I only control. Participants are reassessed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months on the primary outcomes of alcohol use and related problems and secondary outcomes of mental health symptoms, functioning, severity of problematic alcohol use, alcohol injuries, alcohol-related knowledge, coping self-efficacy to resist using alcohol, and cost effectiveness. Discussion This study will identify the most efficacious and cost-effective telephone-delivered brief intervention for reducing alcohol misuse and related problems in young people presenting to crisis support

  6. An Optimal Mobile Service for Telecare Data Synchronization using a Role-based Access Control Model and Mobile Peer-to-Peer Technology.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chih-Kun; Lin, Zheng-Hua

    2015-09-01

    The progress of information and communication technologies (ICT) has promoted the development of healthcare which has enabled the exchange of resources and services between organizations. Organizations want to integrate mobile devices into their hospital information systems (HIS) due to the convenience to employees who are then able to perform specific healthcare processes from any location. The collection and merage of healthcare data from discrete mobile devices are worth exploring possible ways for further use, especially in remote districts without public data network (PDN) to connect the HIS. In this study, we propose an optimal mobile service which automatically synchronizes the telecare file resources among discrete mobile devices. The proposed service enforces some technical methods. The role-based access control model defines the telecare file resources accessing mechanism; the symmetric data encryption method protects telecare file resources transmitted over a mobile peer-to-peer network. The multi-criteria decision analysis method, ELECTRE (Elimination Et Choice Translating Reality), evaluates multiple criteria of the candidates' mobile devices to determine a ranking order. This optimizes the synchronization of telecare file resources among discrete mobile devices. A prototype system is implemented to examine the proposed mobile service. The results of the experiment show that the proposed mobile service can automatically and effectively synchronize telecare file resources among discrete mobile devices. The contribution of this experiment is to provide an optimal mobile service that enhances the security of telecare file resource synchronization and strengthens an organization's mobility. PMID:26259633

  7. An Optimal Mobile Service for Telecare Data Synchronization using a Role-based Access Control Model and Mobile Peer-to-Peer Technology.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chih-Kun; Lin, Zheng-Hua

    2015-09-01

    The progress of information and communication technologies (ICT) has promoted the development of healthcare which has enabled the exchange of resources and services between organizations. Organizations want to integrate mobile devices into their hospital information systems (HIS) due to the convenience to employees who are then able to perform specific healthcare processes from any location. The collection and merage of healthcare data from discrete mobile devices are worth exploring possible ways for further use, especially in remote districts without public data network (PDN) to connect the HIS. In this study, we propose an optimal mobile service which automatically synchronizes the telecare file resources among discrete mobile devices. The proposed service enforces some technical methods. The role-based access control model defines the telecare file resources accessing mechanism; the symmetric data encryption method protects telecare file resources transmitted over a mobile peer-to-peer network. The multi-criteria decision analysis method, ELECTRE (Elimination Et Choice Translating Reality), evaluates multiple criteria of the candidates' mobile devices to determine a ranking order. This optimizes the synchronization of telecare file resources among discrete mobile devices. A prototype system is implemented to examine the proposed mobile service. The results of the experiment show that the proposed mobile service can automatically and effectively synchronize telecare file resources among discrete mobile devices. The contribution of this experiment is to provide an optimal mobile service that enhances the security of telecare file resource synchronization and strengthens an organization's mobility.

  8. Effectiveness of a neonatal intensive care unit access intercom linked audiovisual display monitor highlighting infection control procedures.

    PubMed

    El-Kafrawy, Ula; Taylor, Robert J; Francis, Natalie; Boussabaine, Emaan; Badrideen, Maysoon

    2013-08-01

    This prospective interventional study aimed at increasing knowledge and adherence to 4 infection control standards by visitors to a neonatal intensive care unit. Visitors were interviewed and observed for knowledge of and adherence to the standards pre- and postinstallation of an audiovisual display monitor, which demonstrates handwashing and delivers an auditory and written list of the standards. Handwashing adherence and watch removal improved from 79.2% to 100% and 67% to 89.7%, respectively. Recall of the standards increased from 19% to 81%.

  9. Concurrent use of data base and graphics computer workstations to provide graphic access to large, complex data bases for robotics control of nuclear surveillance and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, G.R.; Tulenko, J.S.; Zhou, X. )

    1990-06-01

    The University of Florida is part of a multiuniversity research effort, sponsored by the US Department of Energy which is under way to develop and deploy an advanced semi-autonomous robotic system for use in nuclear power stations. This paper reports on the development of the computer tools necessary to gain convenient graphic access to the intelligence implicit in a large complex data base such as that in a nuclear reactor plant. This program is integrated as a man/machine interface within the larger context of the total computerized robotic planning and control system. The portion of the project described here addresses the connection between the three-dimensional displays on an interactive graphic workstation and a data-base computer running a large data-base server program. Programming the two computers to work together to accept graphic queries and return answers on the graphic workstation is a key part of the interactive capability developed.

  10. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  11. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  12. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  13. An ultra low-power and traffic-adaptive medium access control protocol for wireless body area network.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-06-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of low-power, miniaturized, and autonomous wireless sensor nodes that enable physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real-time feedback with medical diagnosis and consultations. It is the most reliable and cheaper way to take care of patients suffering from chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Some of the most important attributes of WBAN is low-power consumption and delay. This can be achieved by introducing flexible duty cycling techniques on the energy constraint sensor nodes. Stated otherwise, low duty cycle nodes should not receive frequent synchronization and control packets if they have no data to send/receive. In this paper, we introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) by taking into account the traffic information of the sensor nodes. The protocol dynamically adjusts the duty cycle of the sensor nodes according to their traffic-patterns, thus solving the idle listening and overhearing problems. The traffic-patterns of all sensor nodes are organized and maintained by the coordinator. The TaMAC protocol is supported by a wakeup radio that is used to accommodate emergency and on-demand events in a reliable manner. The wakeup radio uses a separate control channel along with the data channel and therefore it has considerably low power consumption requirements. Analytical expressions are derived to analyze and compare the performance of the TaMAC protocol with the well-known beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC, WiseMAC, and SMAC protocols. The analytical derivations are further validated by simulation results. It is shown that the TaMAC protocol outperforms all other protocols in terms of power consumption and delay.

  14. What Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) could look like in common object request broker (CORBA) and extensible markup language (XML).

    PubMed

    Van Nguyen, A; Avrin, D E; Tellis, W M; Andriole, K P; Arenson, R L

    2001-06-01

    Common object request broker architecture (CORBA) is a method for invoking distributed objects across a network. There has been some activity in applying this software technology to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), but no documented demonstration of how this would actually work. We report a CORBA demonstration that is functionally equivalent and in some ways superior to the DICOM communication protocol. In addition, in and outside of medicine, there is great interest in the use of extensible markup language (XML) to provide interoperation between databases. An example implementation of the DICOM data structure in XML will also be demonstrated. Using Visibroker ORB from Inprise (Scotts Valley, CA), a test bed was developed to simulate the principle DICOM operations: store, query, and retrieve (SQR). SQR is the most common interaction between a modality device application entity (AE) such as a computed tomography (CT) scanner, and a storage component, as well as between a storage component and a workstation. The storage of a CT study by invoking one of several storage objects residing on a network was simulated and demonstrated. In addition, XML database descriptors were used to facilitate the transfer of DICOM header information between independent databases. CORBA is demonstrated to have great potential for the next version of DICOM. It can provide redundant protection against single points of failure. XML appears to be an excellent method of providing interaction between separate databases managing the DICOM information object model, and may therefore eliminate the common use of proprietary client-server databases in commercial implementations of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS).

  15. The Financial Impact of the ‘Zero-Markup Policy for Essential Drugs’ on Patients in County Hospitals in Western Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhongliang; Su, Yanfang; Campbell, Benjamin; Zhou, Zhiying; Gao, Jianmin; Yu, Qiang; Chen, Jiuhao; Pan, Yishan

    2015-01-01

    Objective With a quasi-experimental design, this study aims to assess whether the Zero-markup Policy for Essential Drugs (ZPED) reduces the medical expense for patients at county hospitals, the major healthcare provider in rural China. Methods Data from Ningshan county hospital and Zhenping county hospital, China, include 2014 outpatient records and 9239 inpatient records. Quantitative methods are employed to evaluate ZPED. Both hospital-data difference-in-differences and individual-data regressions are applied to analyze the data from inpatient and outpatient departments. Results In absolute terms, the total expense per visit reduced by 19.02 CNY (3.12 USD) for outpatient services and 399.6 CNY (65.60 USD) for inpatient services. In relative terms, the expense per visit was reduced by 11% for both outpatient and inpatient services. Due to the reduction of inpatient expense, the estimated reduction of outpatient visits is 2% among the general population and 3.39% among users of outpatient services. The drug expense per visit dropped by 27.20 CNY (4.47 USD) for outpatient services and 278.7 CNY (45.75 USD) for inpatient services. The proportion of drug expense out of total expense per visit dropped by 11.73 percentage points in outpatient visits and by 3.92 percentage points in inpatient visits. Conclusion Implementation of ZPED is a benefit for patients in both absolute and relative terms. The absolute monetary reduction of the per-visit inpatient expense is 20 times of that in outpatient care. According to cross-price elasticity, the substitution between inpatient and outpatient due to the change in inpatient price is small. Furthermore, given that the relative reductions are the same for outpatient and inpatient visits, according to relative thinking theory, the incentive to utilize outpatient or inpatient care attributed to ZPED is equivalent, regardless of the 20-times price difference in absolute terms. PMID:25790443

  16. ccML, a new mark-up language to improve ISO/EN 13606-based electronic health record extracts practical edition

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Cáceres, Jesús; Somolinos, Roberto; Pascual, Mario; Martínez, Ignacio; Salvador, Carlos H; Monteagudo, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this paper is to introduce a new language called ccML, designed to provide convenient pragmatic information to applications using the ISO/EN13606 reference model (RM), such as electronic health record (EHR) extracts editors. EHR extracts are presently built using the syntactic and semantic information provided in the RM and constrained by archetypes. The ccML extra information enables the automation of the medico-legal context information edition, which is over 70% of the total in an extract, without modifying the RM information. Materials and Methods ccML is defined using a W3C XML schema file. Valid ccML files complement the RM with additional pragmatics information. The ccML language grammar is defined using formal language theory as a single-type tree grammar. The new language is tested using an EHR extracts editor application as proof-of-concept system. Results Seven ccML PVCodes (predefined value codes) are introduced in this grammar to cope with different realistic EHR edition situations. These seven PVCodes have different interpretation strategies, from direct look up in the ccML file itself, to more complex searches in archetypes or system precomputation. Discussion The possibility to declare generic types in ccML gives rise to ambiguity during interpretation. The criterion used to overcome ambiguity is that specificity should prevail over generality. The opposite would make the individual specific element declarations useless. Conclusion A new mark-up language ccML is introduced that opens up the possibility of providing applications using the ISO/EN13606 RM with the necessary pragmatics information to be practical and realistic. PMID:23019241

  17. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operational control over the records in a system of records determines that an individual seeking access has... Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing... employees. Current or former employees requesting access to records pertaining to them in a system...

  18. 77 FR 26149 - Access Authorization Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Access and Management System (ADAMS): You may access publicly available documents online in the NRC... 11--CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR... RIN 3150-AJ00 Access Authorization Fees AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Direct...

  19. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operational control over the records in a system of records determines that an individual seeking access has... Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing... employees. Current or former employees requesting access to records pertaining to them in a system...

  20. Controlling access time to a high-fat diet during the inactive period protects against obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Atsushi; Aoki, Natsumi; Ohtsu, Teiji; Ikeda, Yuko; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2014-10-01

    Free feeding (FF) with a high fat diet (HFD) causes excessive body weight gain, whereas restricted feeding (RF) with a HFD attenuates body weight gain. The effects of timing of feeding with a HFD (day vs. night) and feeding duration on energy homeostasis have not yet been investigated. In this study, we fed mice a HFD or a normal diet (ND) twice a day, during their active and inactive periods, on a schedule. The amount of food was regulated by feeding duration (2, 4 or 8 h). First, we investigated the effects of 4-h RF during active-inactive periods (ND-ND, HFD-HFD, ND-HFD or HFD-ND). Among all the 4-h RF groups, mice consumed almost the same amount of calories as those in the FF[ND] group, even those fed a HFD. Body weight and visceral fat in these three groups were lower than that in the FF[HFD] group. Second, we investigated the effects of RF duration. Body weight and visceral fat were higher in the 8-h groups than in the 4-h groups. Body weight and visceral fat were higher in the 2-h groups than in the 4-h groups even though the 2-h groups had less food. Third, we investigated the effects of eating a HFD during the inactive period, when RF duration was extended (2, 6 or 12 h). Mice were fed with a HFD during the inactive period for 2 h and fed with a ND during the active period for 2, 6 or 12 h. Body weight and visceral fat in these mice were comparable to those in the FF[ND] mice. The results of our first set of experiments suggest that 4-h RF was an adequate feeding duration to control the effect of a HFD on obesity. The results of our second set of experiments suggest 2-h RF (such as speed-eating) and 8-h RF, representative of eating disorders, are unhealthy feeding patterns related to obesity. The results of our third set of experiments suggest that eating a HFD for a short period during the night does not affect body weight and visceral fat. Taken together, these results indicate that consideration to feeding with a HFD during the inactive period and

  1. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks.

    Scope of Contributions

    This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to:
    • Optical access network architectures and protocols
    • Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.)
    • Active optical networks
    • Multiple access control
    • Multiservices and QoS provisioning
    • Network survivability
    • Field trials and standards
    • Performance modeling and analysis

    Manuscript Submission

    To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating ``Optical Access Networks feature' in the ``Comments' field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line ``Optical Access Networks' Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

  2. Out-of-Pocket Costs and Other Determinants of Access to Healthcare for Children with Febrile Illnesses: A Case-Control Study in Rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Castellani, Joëlle; Mihaylova, Borislava; Evers, Silvia M. A. A.; Paulus, Aggie T. G.; Mrango, Zakayo E.; Kimbute, Omari; Shishira, Joseph P.; Mulokozi, Francis; Petzold, Max; Singlovic, Jan; Gomes, Melba

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study private costs and other determinants of access to healthcare for childhood fevers in rural Tanzania. Methods A case-control study was conducted in Tanzania to establish factors that determine access to a health facility in acute febrile illnesses in children less than 5 years of age. Carers of eligible children were interviewed in the community; cases were represented by patients who went to a facility and controls by those who did not. A Household Wealth Index was estimated using principal components analysis. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to understand the factors which influenced attendance of healthcare facility including severity of the illness and household wealth/socio-demographic indicators. To complement the data on costs from community interviews, a hospital-based study obtained details of private expenditures for hospitalised children under the age of 5. Results Severe febrile illness is strongly associated with health facility attendance (OR: 35.76, 95%CI: 3.68-347.43, p = 0.002 compared with less severe febrile illness). Overall, the private costs of an illness for patients who went to a hospital were six times larger than private costs of controls ($5.68 vs. $0.90, p<0.0001). Household wealth was not significantly correlated with total costs incurred. The separate hospital based cost study indicated that private costs were three times greater for admissions at the mission versus public hospital: $13.68 mission vs. $4.47 public hospital (difference $ 9.21 (95% CI: 7.89 -10.52), p<0.0001). In both locations, approximately 50% of the cost was determined by the duration of admission, with each day in hospital increasing private costs by about 12% (95% CI: 5% - 21%). Conclusion The more severely ill a child, the higher the probability of attending hospital. We did not find association between household wealth and attending a health facility; nor was there an association between household wealth and private

  3. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to investigate whether home access to electronic games decreases children's physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Straker, Leon M; Abbott, Rebecca A; Piek, Jan P; Pollock, Clare M; Davies, Peter S; Smith, Anne J

    2009-01-01

    Background Many children are reported to have insufficient physical activity (PA) placing them at greater risk of poor health outcomes. Participating in sedentary activities such as playing electronic games is widely believed to contribute to less PA. However there is no experimental evidence that playing electronic games reduces PA. There is also no evidence regarding the effect of different types of electronic games (traditional sedentary electronic games versus new active input electronic games) on PA. Further, there is a poor understanding about how characteristics of children may moderate the impact of electronic game access on PA and about what leisure activities are displaced when children play electronic games. Given that many children play electronic games, a better understanding of the effect of electronic game use on PA is critical to inform child health policy and intervention. Methods This randomised and controlled trial will examine whether PA is decreased by access to electronic games and whether any effect is dependent on the type of game input or the child's characteristics. Children aged 10–12 years (N = 72, 36 females) will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no electronic games', 'traditional' electronic games and 'active' electronic games. Each child will participate in each condition for 8 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is PA, assessed by Actical accelerometers worn for 7 days on the wrist and hip. Energy expenditure will be assessed by the doubly labelled water technique and motor coordination, adiposity, self-confidence, attitudes to technology and PA and leisure activities will also be assessed. A sample of 72 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 15 mins difference in PA (sd = 30 mins). Discussion This is the first such trial and will provide critical information to understand whether access to electronic games affects children's PA. Given the

  4. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-dialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-dialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency-dialysis access; Chronic kidney failure-dialysis access; Chronic renal failure-dialysis access

  5. Is Your Church Accessible? Houses of Worship: Physical Accessibility Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Arselia, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This checklist is intended to help churches evaluate the accessibility of their facilities to those with physical disabilities. Categories covered are: basic accessibility, parking lots, walks, ramps, entrances/exits, doors and doorways, stairs and steps, floors, worship space, rest rooms, controls, water fountains, identification, warning…

  6. Associations between Motivational Orientations and Chronically Accessible Outcomes in Leisure-Time Physical Activity: Are Appearance-Related Outcomes Controlling in Nature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Sarah; Hagger, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore relations between chronically accessible outcomes in physical activity and scaled measures of motivational orientations from a self-determination perspective. Methods from construct and attitude accessibility research and the Levesque and Pelletier (2003) study were used to identify participants' chronically accessible…

  7. Genetic and Chemical Profiling of Gymnema sylvestre Accessions from Central India: Its Implication for Quality Control and Therapeutic Potential of Plant

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Singh, Seema; Bharati, Kumar Avinash; Jyotsana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gymnema sylvestre, a vulnerable plant species, is mentioned in Indian Pharmacopeia as an antidiabetic drug Objective: Study of genetic and chemical diversity and its implications in accessions of G. sylvestre Materials and Methods: Fourteen accessions of G. sylvestre collected from Central India and assessment of their genetic and chemical diversity were carried out using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) fingerprinting methods Results: Among the screened 40 ISSR primers, 15 were found polymorphic and collectively produced nine unique accession-specific bands. The maximum and minimum numbers of amplicones were noted for ISSR-15 and ISSR-11, respectively. The ISSR -11 and ISSR-13 revealed 100% polymorphism. HPLC chromatograms showed that accessions possess the secondary metabolites of mid-polarity with considerable variability. Unknown peaks with retention time 2.63, 3.41, 23.83, 24.50, and 44.67 were found universal type. Comparative hierarchical clustering analysis based on foresaid fingerprints indicates that both techniques have equal potential to discriminate accessions according to percentage gymnemic acid in their leaf tissue. Second approach was noted more efficiently for separation of accessions according to their agro-climatic/collection site Conclusion: Highly polymorphic ISSRs could be utilized as molecular probes for further selection of high gymnemic acid yielding accessions. Observed accession specific bands may be used as a descriptor for plant accessions protection and converted into sequence tagged sites markers. Identified five universal type peaks could be helpful in identification of G. sylvestre-based various herbal preparations. SUMMARY Nine accession specific unique bandsFive marker peaks for G. sylvestre.Suitability of genetic and chemical fingerprinting Abbreviations used: HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, ISSR: Inter Simple Sequence Repeats, CTAB: Cetyl

  8. Web-based X-ray quality control documentation.

    PubMed

    David, George; Burnett, Lou Ann; Schenkel, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The department of radiology at the Medical College of Georgia Hospital and Clinics has developed an equipment quality control web site. Our goal is to provide immediate access to virtually all medical physics survey data. The web site is designed to assist equipment engineers, department management and technologists. By improving communications and access to equipment documentation, we believe productivity is enhanced. The creation of the quality control web site was accomplished in three distinct steps. First, survey data had to be placed in a computer format. The second step was to convert these various computer files to a format supported by commercial web browsers. Third, a comprehensive home page had to be designed to provide convenient access to the multitude of surveys done in the various x-ray rooms. Because we had spent years previously fine-tuning the computerization of the medical physics quality control program, most survey documentation was already in spreadsheet or database format. A major technical decision was the method of conversion of survey spreadsheet and database files into documentation appropriate for the web. After an unsatisfactory experience with a HyperText Markup Language (HTML) converter (packaged with spreadsheet and database software), we tried creating Portable Document Format (PDF) files using Adobe Acrobat software. This process preserves the original formatting of the document and takes no longer than conventional printing; therefore, it has been very successful. Although the PDF file generated by Adobe Acrobat is a proprietary format, it can be displayed through a conventional web browser using the freely distributed Adobe Acrobat Reader program that is available for virtually all platforms. Once a user installs the software, it is automatically invoked by the web browser whenever the user follows a link to a file with a PDF extension. Although no confidential patient information is available on the web site, our legal

  9. Web-based X-ray quality control documentation.

    PubMed

    David, George; Burnett, Lou Ann; Schenkel, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The department of radiology at the Medical College of Georgia Hospital and Clinics has developed an equipment quality control web site. Our goal is to provide immediate access to virtually all medical physics survey data. The web site is designed to assist equipment engineers, department management and technologists. By improving communications and access to equipment documentation, we believe productivity is enhanced. The creation of the quality control web site was accomplished in three distinct steps. First, survey data had to be placed in a computer format. The second step was to convert these various computer files to a format supported by commercial web browsers. Third, a comprehensive home page had to be designed to provide convenient access to the multitude of surveys done in the various x-ray rooms. Because we had spent years previously fine-tuning the computerization of the medical physics quality control program, most survey documentation was already in spreadsheet or database format. A major technical decision was the method of conversion of survey spreadsheet and database files into documentation appropriate for the web. After an unsatisfactory experience with a HyperText Markup Language (HTML) converter (packaged with spreadsheet and database software), we tried creating Portable Document Format (PDF) files using Adobe Acrobat software. This process preserves the original formatting of the document and takes no longer than conventional printing; therefore, it has been very successful. Although the PDF file generated by Adobe Acrobat is a proprietary format, it can be displayed through a conventional web browser using the freely distributed Adobe Acrobat Reader program that is available for virtually all platforms. Once a user installs the software, it is automatically invoked by the web browser whenever the user follows a link to a file with a PDF extension. Although no confidential patient information is available on the web site, our legal

  10. Increasing Access to Mental Health Care With Breathe, an Internet-Based Program for Anxious Adolescents: Study Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wozney, Lori; Bagnell, Alexa; Fitzpatrick, Eleanor; Curtis, Sarah; Jabbour, Mona; Johnson, David; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Young, Michael; Ohinmaa, Arto; Joyce, Anthony; McGrath, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a demand to make first-line treatments, including cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for adolescent anxiety disorders, more widely available. Internet-based CBT is proposed to circumvent access and availability barriers and reduce health care system costs. Recent reviews suggest more evidence is needed to establish the treatment effects of Internet-based CBT in children and adolescents and to determine related economic impacts. Objective This pilot trial aims to collect the necessary data to inform the planning of a full-scale RCT to test the effectiveness of the Internet-based CBT program Breathe (Being Real, Easing Anxiety: Tools Helping Electronically). Methods We are conducting a 27-month, 2-arm parallel-group, pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT). Outcomes will inform the planning of a full-scale RCT aimed to test the effectiveness of Internet-based CBT with a population of adolescents with moderate to mild anxiety problems. In the pilot RCT we will: (1) define a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for the primary outcome measure (total anxiety score using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children); (2) determine a sample size for the full-scale RCT; (3) estimate recruitment and retention rates; (4) measure intervention acceptability to inform critical intervention changes; (5) determine the use of co-interventions; and (6) conduct a cost-consequence analysis to inform a cost-effectiveness analysis in the full-scale RCT. Adolescents aged 13-17 years seeking care for an anxiety complaint from a participating emergency department, mobile or school-based crisis team, or primary care clinic are being screened for interest and eligibility. Enrolled adolescents are being randomly allocated to either 8 weeks of Internet-based CBT with limited telephone and e-mail support, or a control group with access to a static webpage listing anxiety resources. Adolescents are randomly assigned using a computer generated allocation

  11. Circadian Regulation of Myocardial Sarcomeric Titin-cap (Tcap, Telethonin): Identification of Cardiac Clock-Controlled Genes Using Open Access Bioinformatics Data

    PubMed Central

    Podobed, Peter S.; Alibhai, Faisal J.; Chow, Chi-Wing; Martino, Tami A.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are important for healthy cardiovascular physiology and are regulated at the molecular level by a circadian clock mechanism. We and others previously demonstrated that 9–13% of the cardiac transcriptome is rhythmic over 24 h daily cycles; the heart is genetically a different organ day versus night. However, which rhythmic mRNAs are regulated by the circadian mechanism is not known. Here, we used open access bioinformatics databases to identify 94 transcripts with expression profiles characteristic of CLOCK and BMAL1 targeted genes, using the CircaDB website and JTK_Cycle. Moreover, 22 were highly expressed in the heart as determined by the BioGPS website. Furthermore, 5 heart-enriched genes had human/mouse conserved CLOCK:BMAL1 promoter binding sites (E-boxes), as determined by UCSC table browser, circadian mammalian promoter/enhancer database PEDB, and the European Bioinformatics Institute alignment tool (EMBOSS). Lastly, we validated findings by demonstrating that Titin cap (Tcap, telethonin) was targeted by transcriptional activators CLOCK and BMAL1 by showing 1) Tcap mRNA and TCAP protein had a diurnal rhythm in murine heart; 2) cardiac Tcap mRNA was rhythmic in animals kept in constant darkness; 3) Tcap and control Per2 mRNA expression and cyclic amplitude were blunted in ClockΔ19/Δ19 hearts; 4) BMAL1 bound to the Tcap promoter by ChIP assay; 5) BMAL1 bound to Tcap promoter E-boxes by biotinylated oligonucleotide assay; and 6) CLOCK and BMAL1 induced tcap expression by luciferase reporter assay. Thus this study identifies circadian regulated genes in silico, with validation of Tcap, a critical regulator of cardiac Z-disc sarcomeric structure and function. PMID:25121604

  12. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operational control over the records in a system of records determines that an individual seeking access has... employees. Current or former employees requesting access to records pertaining to them in a system of... employees requesting access to records pertaining to them in a system of records must produce...

  13. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operational control over the records in a system of records determines that an individual seeking access has... employees. Current or former employees requesting access to records pertaining to them in a system of... employees requesting access to records pertaining to them in a system of records must produce...

  14. Issues in Public Access: The Solomons Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprehe, J. Timothy

    1993-01-01

    Reports on conferences held by federal agencies in 1991 and 1992 that addressed issues of public access to electronic government information. Topics discussed include agency information dissemination programs; public access to federal computers; security controls; and user charges. A working draft policy framework on public access to government…

  15. 77 FR 26213 - Access Authorization Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... for Docket ID NRC-2011-0161. NRC's Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS): You may... ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL 1. The authority citation for part 11 is... REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 11 and 25 RIN 3150-AJ00 Access Authorization Fees AGENCY:...

  16. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  17. Intermittent access to liquid sucrose differentially modulates energy intake and related central pathways in control or high-fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Soto, Marion; Chaumontet, Catherine; Even, Patrick C; Nadkarni, Nachiket; Piedcoq, Julien; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2015-03-01

    Intake of sodas has been shown to increase energy intake and to contribute to obesity in humans and in animal models, although the magnitude and importance of these effects are still debated. Moreover, intake of sugar sweetened beverages is often associated with high-fat food consumption in humans. We studied two different accesses to a sucrose-sweetened water (SSW, 12.3%, a concentration similar to that usually found in sugar sweetened beverages) in C57BL/6 mice fed a normal-fat (NF) or a high-fat (HF) diet in a scheduled access (7.5h). NF-fed and HF-fed mice received during 5weeks access to water, to SSW continuously for 7.5h (SSW), or to water plus SSW for 2h (randomly-chosen time slot for only 5 random days/week) (SSW-2h). Mouse preference for SSW was greater in HF-fed mice than NF-fed mice. Continuous SSW access induced weight gain whatever the diet and led to greater caloric intake than mice drinking water in NF-fed mice and in the first three weeks in HF-fed mice. In HF-fed mice, 2h-intermittent access to SSW induced a greater body weight gain than mice drinking water, and led to hyperphagia on the HF diet when SSW was accessible compared to days without SSW 2h-access (leading to greater overall caloric intake), possibly through inactivation of the anorexigenic neuropeptide POMC in the hypothalamus. This was not observed in NF-fed mice, but 2h-intermittent access to SSW stimulated the expression of dopamine, opioid and endocannabinoid receptors in the nucleus accumbens compared to water-access. In conclusion, in mice, a sucrose solution provided 2h-intermittently and a high-fat diet have combined effects on peripheral and central homeostatic systems involved in food intake regulation, a finding which has significant implications for human obesity.

  18. Computer access security code system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.

  19. A randomised controlled non-inferiority trial of primary care-based facilitated access to an alcohol reduction website (EFAR Spain): the study protocol

    PubMed Central

    López-Pelayo, Hugo; Wallace, Paul; Segura, Lidia; Miquel, Laia; Díaz, Estela; Teixidó, Lidia; Baena, Begoña; Struzzo, Pierliugio; Palacio-Vieira, Jorge; Casajuana, Cristina; Colom, Joan; Gual, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Early identification (EI) and brief interventions (BIs) for risky drinkers are effective tools in primary care. Lack of time in daily practice has been identified as one of the main barriers to implementation of BI. There is growing evidence that facilitated access by primary healthcare professionals (PHCPs) to a web-based BI can be a time-saving alternative to standard face-to-face BIs, but there is as yet no evidence about the effectiveness of this approach relative to conventional BI. The main aim of this study is to test non-inferiority of facilitation to a web-based BI for risky drinkers delivered by PHCP against face-to-face BI. Method and analysis A randomised controlled non-inferiority trial comparing both interventions will be performed in primary care health centres in Catalonia, Spain. Unselected adult patients attending participating centres will be given a leaflet inviting them to log on to a website to complete the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) alcohol screening questionnaire. Participants with positive results will be requested online to complete a trial module including consent, baseline assessment and randomisation to either face-to-face BI by the practitioner or BI via the alcohol reduction website. Follow-up assessment of risky drinking will be undertaken online at 3 months and 1 year using the full AUDIT and D5-EQD5 scale. Proportions of risky drinkers in each group will be calculated and non-inferiority assessed against a specified margin of 10%. Assuming reduction of 30% of risky drinkers receiving standard intervention, 1000 patients will be required to give 90% power to reject the null hypothesis. Ethics and dissemination The protocol was approved by the Ethics Commmittee of IDIAP Jordi Gol i Gurina P14/028. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02082990. PMID

  20. ScienceCentral: open access full-text archive of scientific journals based on Journal Article Tag Suite regardless of their languages.

    PubMed

    Huh, Sun

    2013-01-01

    ScienceCentral, a free or open access, full-text archive of scientific journal literature at the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies, was under test in September 2013. Since it is a Journal Article Tag Suite-based full text database, extensible markup language files of all languages can be presented, according to Unicode Transformation Format 8-bit encoding. It is comparable to PubMed Central: however, there are two distinct differences. First, its scope comprises all science fields; second, it accepts all language journals. Launching ScienceCentral is the first step for free access or open access academic scientific journals of all languages to leap to the world, including scientific journals from Croatia. PMID:24266292