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Sample records for access control rbac

  1. RBAC Driven Least Privilege Architecture For Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Julie; Markham, Mark

    2014-01-25

    The concept of role based access control (RBAC) within the IT environment has been studied by researchers and was supported by NIST (circa 1992). This earlier work highlighted the benefits of RBAC which include reduced administrative workload and policies which are easier to analyze and apply. The goals of this research were to expand the application of RBAC in the following ways. • Apply RBAC to the control systems environment: The typical RBAC model within the IT environment is used to control a user’s access to files. Within the control system environment files are replaced with measurement (e.g., temperature) and control (e.g. valve) points organized as a hierarchy of control assets (e.g. a boiler, compressor, refinery unit). Control points have parameters (e.g., high alarm limit, set point, etc.) associated with them. The RBAC model is extended to support access to points and their parameters based upon roles while at the same time allowing permissions for the points to be defined at the asset level or point level directly. In addition, centralized policy administration with distributed access enforcement mechanisms was developed to support the distributed architecture of distributed control systems and SCADA. • Extend the RBAC model to include access control for software and devices: The established RBAC approach is to assign users to roles. This work extends that notion by first breaking the control system down into three layers 1) users, 2) software and 3) devices. An RBAC model is then created for each of these three layers. The result is that RBAC can be used to define machine-to-machine policy enforced via the IP security (IPsec) protocol. This highlights the potential to use RBAC for machine-to-machine connectivity within the internet of things. • Enable dynamic policy based upon the operating mode of the system: The IT environment is generally static with respect to policy. However, large cyber physical systems such as industrial controls have

  2. Role Based Access Control system in the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsan, M. L.; Dobson, M.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schlenker, S.; Filimonov, V.; Khomoutnikov, V.; Dumitru, I.; Zaytsev, A. S.; Korol, A. A.; Bogdantchikov, A.; Avolio, G.; Caramarcu, C.; Ballestrero, S.; Darlea, G. L.; Twomey, M.; Bujor, F.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity of the ATLAS experiment motivated the deployment of an integrated Access Control System in order to guarantee safe and optimal access for a large number of users to the various software and hardware resources. Such an integrated system was foreseen since the design of the infrastructure and is now central to the operations model. In order to cope with the ever growing needs of restricting access to all resources used within the experiment, the Roles Based Access Control (RBAC) previously developed has been extended and improved. The paper starts with a short presentation of the RBAC design, implementation and the changes made to the system to allow the management and usage of roles to control access to the vast and diverse set of resources. The RBAC implementation uses a directory service based on Lightweight Directory Access Protocol to store the users (~3000), roles (~320), groups (~80) and access policies. The information is kept in sync with various other databases and directory services: human resources, central CERN IT, CERN Active Directory and the Access Control Database used by DCS. The paper concludes with a detailed description of the integration across all areas of the system.

  3. Atom-Role-Based Access Control Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Weihong; Huang, Richeng; Hou, Xiaoli; Wei, Gang; Xiao, Shui; Chen, Yindong

    Role-based access control (RBAC) model has been widely recognized as an efficient access control model and becomes a hot research topic of information security at present. However, in the large-scale enterprise application environments, the traditional RBAC model based on the role hierarchy has the following deficiencies: Firstly, it is unable to reflect the role relationships in complicated cases effectively, which does not accord with practical applications. Secondly, the senior role unconditionally inherits all permissions of the junior role, thus if a user is under the supervisor role, he may accumulate all permissions, and this easily causes the abuse of permission and violates the least privilege principle, which is one of the main security principles. To deal with these problems, we, after analyzing permission types and role relationships, proposed the concept of atom role and built an atom-role-based access control model, called ATRBAC, by dividing the permission set of each regular role based on inheritance path relationships. Through the application-specific analysis, this model can well meet the access control requirements.

  4. Developing Access Control Model of Web OLAP over Trusted and Collaborative Data Warehouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugkeaw, Somchart; Mitrpanont, Jarernsri L.; Manpanpanich, Piyawit; Juntapremjitt, Sekpon

    This paper proposes the design and development of Role- based Access Control (RBAC) model for the Single Sign-On (SSO) Web-OLAP query spanning over multiple data warehouses (DWs). The model is based on PKI Authentication and Privilege Management Infrastructure (PMI); it presents a binding model of RBAC authorization based on dimension privilege specified in attribute certificate (AC) and user identification. Particularly, the way of attribute mapping between DW user authentication and privilege of dimensional access is illustrated. In our approach, we apply the multi-agent system to automate flexible and effective management of user authentication, role delegation as well as system accountability. Finally, the paper culminates in the prototype system A-COLD (Access Control of web-OLAP over multiple DWs) that incorporates the OLAP features and authentication and authorization enforcement in the multi-user and multi-data warehouse environment.

  5. An enhancement of the role-based access control model to facilitate information access management in context of team collaboration and workflow.

    PubMed

    Le, Xuan Hung; Doll, Terry; Barbosu, Monica; Luque, Amneris; Wang, Dongwen

    2012-12-01

    Although information access control models have been developed and applied to various applications, few of the previous works have addressed the issue of managing information access in the combined context of team collaboration and workflow. To facilitate this requirement, we have enhanced the Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) model through formulating universal constraints, defining bridging entities and contributing attributes, extending access permissions to include workflow contexts, synthesizing a role-based access delegation model to target on specific objects, and developing domain ontologies as instantiations of the general model to particular applications. We have successfully applied this model to the New York State HIV Clinical Education Initiative (CEI) project to address the specific needs of information management in collaborative processes. An initial evaluation has shown this model achieved a high level of agreement with an existing system when applied to 4576 cases (kappa=0.801). Comparing to a reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the enhanced RBAC model were at the level of 97-100%. These results indicate that the enhanced RBAC model can be effectively used for information access management in context of team collaboration and workflow to coordinate clinical education programs. Future research is required to incrementally develop additional types of universal constraints, to further investigate how the workflow context and access delegation can be enriched to support the various needs on information access management in collaborative processes, and to examine the generalizability of the enhanced RBAC model for other applications in clinical education, biomedical research, and patient care. PMID:22732236

  6. Access control in healthcare: the methodology from legislation to practice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana; Correia, Ricardo; Chadwick, David; Antunes, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Translating legislation and regulations into access control systems in healthcare is, in practice, not a straightforward task. Excessive regulation can create barriers to appropriate patient treatment. The main objective of this paper is to present a new methodology that can define, from legislation to practice, an access control policy as well as a RBAC model, in order to comprise generic legislation and regulation issues together with the access control needs from the ends users of a healthcare information system. The methodology includes the use of document analysis as well as grounded theory and mixed methods research. This methodology can be easily applied within a healthcare practice or any other domain with similar requirements. It helps to bridge the gap between legislation and end users' needs, while integrating information security into the healthcare processes in a more meaningful way. PMID:20841770

  7. A dynamic access control method based on QoS requirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunquan; Wang, Yanwei; Yang, Baoye; Hu, Chunyang

    2013-03-01

    A dynamic access control method is put forward to ensure the security of the sharing service in Cloud Manufacturing, according to the application characteristics of cloud manufacturing collaborative task. The role-based access control (RBAC) model is extended according to the characteristics of cloud manufacturing in this method. The constraints are considered, which are from QoS requirement of the task context to access control, based on the traditional static authorization. The fuzzy policy rules are established about the weighted interval value of permissions. The access control authorities of executable service by users are dynamically adjusted through the fuzzy reasoning based on the QoS requirement of task. The main elements of the model are described. The fuzzy reasoning algorithm of weighted interval value based QoS requirement is studied. An effective method is provided to resolve the access control of cloud manufacturing.

  8. Implementing context and team based access control in healthcare intranets.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Christos K; Mavridis, Ioannis K; Nikolakopoulou, Georgia; Pangalos, George I

    2002-09-01

    The establishment of an efficient access control system in healthcare intranets is a critical security issue directly related to the protection of patients' privacy. Our C-TMAC (Context and Team-based Access Control) model is an active security access control model that layers dynamic access control concepts on top of RBAC (Role-based) and TMAC (Team-based) access control models. It also extends them in the sense that contextual information concerning collaborative activities is associated with teams of users and user permissions are dynamically filtered during runtime. These features of C-TMAC meet the specific security requirements of healthcare applications. In this paper, an experimental implementation of the C-TMAC model is described. More specifically, we present the operational architecture of the system that is used to implement C-TMAC security components in a healthcare intranet. Based on the technological platform of an Oracle Data Base Management System and Application Server, the application logic is coded with stored PL/SQL procedures that include Dynamic SQL routines for runtime value binding purposes. The resulting active security system adapts to current need-to-know requirements of users during runtime and provides fine-grained permission granularity. Apart from identity certificates for authentication, it uses attribute certificates for communicating critical security metadata, such as role membership and team participation of users. PMID:12507264

  9. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  10. Mandatory and Location-Aware Access Control for Relational Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Michael

    Access control is concerned with determining which operations a particular user is allowed to perform on a particular electronic resource. For example, an access control decision could say that user Alice is allowed to perform the operation read (but not write) on the resource research report. With conventional access control this decision is based on the user's identity whereas the basic idea of Location-Aware Access Control (LAAC) is to evaluate also a user's current location when making the decision if a particular request should be granted or denied. LAAC is an interesting approach for mobile information systems because these systems are exposed to specific security threads like the loss of a device. Some data models for LAAC can be found in literature, but almost all of them are based on RBAC and none of them is designed especially for Database Management Systems (DBMS). In this paper we therefore propose a LAAC-approach for DMBS and describe a prototypical implementation of that approach that is based on database triggers.

  11. Research on a dynamic workflow access control model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiliang; Deng, Jinxia

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, the access control technology has been researched widely in workflow system, two typical technologies of that are RBAC (Role-Based Access Control) and TBAC (Task-Based Access Control) model, which has been successfully used in the role authorizing and assigning in a certain extent. However, during the process of complicating a system's structure, these two types of technology can not be used in minimizing privileges and separating duties, and they are inapplicable when users have a request of frequently changing on the workflow's process. In order to avoid having these weakness during the applying, a variable flow dynamic role_task_view (briefly as DRTVBAC) of fine-grained access control model is constructed on the basis existed model. During the process of this model applying, an algorithm is constructed to solve users' requirements of application and security needs on fine-grained principle of privileges minimum and principle of dynamic separation of duties. The DRTVBAC model is implemented in the actual system, the figure shows that the task associated with the dynamic management of role and the role assignment is more flexible on authority and recovery, it can be met the principle of least privilege on the role implement of a specific task permission activated; separated the authority from the process of the duties completing in the workflow; prevented sensitive information discovering from concise and dynamic view interface; satisfied with the requirement of the variable task-flow frequently.

  12. Improving School Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Few things are more important for school safety and security than controlling access to buildings and grounds. It is relatively easy to incorporate effective access control measures in new school designs but more difficult in existing schools, where most building and site features cannot be readily altered or reconfigured. The National…

  13. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  14. CAS. Controlled Access Security

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Pomeroy, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Security Alarm System is a data acquisition and control system which collects data from intrusion sensors and displays the information in a real-time environment for operators. The Access Control System monitors and controls the movement of personnel with the use of card readers and biometrics hand readers.

  15. Trust-Based Access Control Model from Sociological Approach in Dynamic Online Social Network Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungjoo

    2014-01-01

    There has been an explosive increase in the population of the OSN (online social network) in recent years. The OSN provides users with many opportunities to communicate among friends and family. Further, it facilitates developing new relationships with previously unknown people having similar beliefs or interests. However, the OSN can expose users to adverse effects such as privacy breaches, the disclosing of uncontrolled material, and the disseminating of false information. Traditional access control models such as MAC, DAC, and RBAC are applied to the OSN to address these problems. However, these models are not suitable for the dynamic OSN environment because user behavior in the OSN is unpredictable and static access control imposes a burden on the users to change the access control rules individually. We propose a dynamic trust-based access control for the OSN to address the problems of the traditional static access control. Moreover, we provide novel criteria to evaluate trust factors such as sociological approach and evaluate a method to calculate the dynamic trust values. The proposed method can monitor negative behavior and modify access permission levels dynamically to prevent the indiscriminate disclosure of information. PMID:25374943

  16. Proximity-based access control for context-sensitive information provision in SOA-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajappan, Gowri; Wang, Xiaofei; Grant, Robert; Paulini, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has enabled open-architecture integration of applications within an enterprise. For net-centric Command and Control (C2), this elucidates information sharing between applications and users, a critical requirement for mission success. The Information Technology (IT) access control schemes, which arbitrate who gets access to what information, do not yet have the contextual knowledge to dynamically allow this information sharing to happen dynamically. The access control might prevent legitimate users from accessing information relevant to the current mission context, since this context may be very different from the context for which the access privileges were configured. We evaluate a pair of data relevance measures - proximity and risk - and use these as the basis of dynamic access control. Proximity is a measure of the strength of connection between the user and the resource. However, proximity is not sufficient, since some data might have a negative impact, if leaked, which far outweighs importance to the subject's mission. For this, we use a risk measure to quantify the downside of data compromise. Given these contextual measures of proximity and risk, we investigate extending Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC), which is used by the Department of Defense, and Role-Based Access Control (RBAC), which is widely used in the civilian market, so that these standards-based access control models are given contextual knowledge to enable dynamic information sharing. Furthermore, we consider the use of such a contextual access control scheme in a SOA-based environment, in particular for net-centric C2.

  17. Mobile access control vestibule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePoy, Jennifer M.

    1998-12-01

    The mobile access control vestibule (MACV) is an adaptation of techniques developed for mobile military command centers. The overall configuration of modules acts as an entry control/screening facility or transportable command center. The system would provide the following capabilities: (1) A key element for force protection, rapid deployment units sent to areas having no prepositioned equipment or where there has been a degradation of that equipment as a result of natural disasters or civil unrest. (2) A rapidly deployable security control center to upgrade the security at nonmilitary sites (e.g., diplomatic or humanitarian organizations). (3) Personnel screening, package screening, badge/identification card production for authorized personnel, centralized monitoring of deployed perimeter sensors, and centralized communications for law enforcement personnel. (4) Self-contained screening and threat detection systems, including explosives detection using the system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the FAA. When coupled with transportable electric generators, the system is self-sufficient. The communication system for the MACV would be a combination of physically wired and wireless communication units that supports by ad hoc networking.

  18. Bibliographic Access and Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Betsy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents a brief summary of the functions of the Bibliographic Access & Control System (BACS) implemented at the Washington University School of Medicine Library, and outlines the design, development, and uses of the system. Bibliographic control of books and serials and user access to the system are also discussed. (Author/JL)

  19. LANSCE personnel access control system

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  20. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    PubMed Central

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Mandelli, Laura; Iosue, Miriam; Andrisano, Costanza; Roy, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies. PMID:22408588

  1. ACCESS: Detector Control and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Bohlin, R.; Kurucz, R. L.; Riess, A. G.; Pelton, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (companion poster, Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been selected and integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been successfully performed. Further improvements to the flight controller housing have been made. A cryogenic ground test system has been built. Dark current and read noise tests have been performed, yielding results consistent with the initial characterization tests of the detector performed by Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL). Detector control software has been developed and implemented for ground testing. Performance and integration of the detector and controller with the flight software will be presented. NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  2. Logical Access Control Mechanisms in Computer Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, David K.

    The subject of access control mechanisms in computer systems is concerned with effective means to protect the anonymity of private information on the one hand, and to regulate the access to shareable information on the other hand. Effective means for access control may be considered on three levels: memory, process and logical. This report is a…

  3. Efficient Access Control in Multimedia Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachan, Amit; Emmanuel, Sabu

    Multimedia social networks (MMSNs) have provided a convenient way to share multimedia contents such as images, videos, blogs, etc. Contents shared by a person can be easily accessed by anybody else over the Internet. However, due to various privacy, security, and legal concerns people often want to selectively share the contents only with their friends, family, colleagues, etc. Access control mechanisms play an important role in this situation. With access control mechanisms one can decide the persons who can access a shared content and who cannot. But continuously growing content uploads and accesses, fine grained access control requirements (e.g. different access control parameters for different parts in a picture), and specific access control requirements for multimedia contents can make the time complexity of access control to be very large. So, it is important to study an efficient access control mechanism suitable for MMSNs. In this chapter we present an efficient bit-vector transform based access control mechanism for MMSNs. The proposed approach is also compatible with other requirements of MMSNs, such as access rights modification, content deletion, etc. Mathematical analysis and experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed approach.

  4. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, Portia

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation presents NASA's Common Badging and Access Control System. NASA began a Smart Card implementation in January 2004. Following site surveys, it was determined that NASA's badging and access control systems required upgrades to common infrastructure in order to provide flexibly, usability, and return on investment prior to a smart card implantation. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) provides the common infrastructure from which FIPS-201 compliant processes, systems, and credentials can be developed and used.

  5. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.23 Access control. (a) Each entrance to a radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must have a door or other...

  6. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  7. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  8. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  9. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  10. Proximity Displays for Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaniea, Kami

    2012-01-01

    Managing access to shared digital information, such as photographs and documents. is difficult for end users who are accumulating an increasingly large and diverse collection of data that they want to share with others. Current policy-management solutions require a user to proactively seek out and open a separate policy-management interface when…

  11. Access Control Management for SCADA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seng-Phil; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Xu, Wenjuan

    The information technology revolution has transformed all aspects of our society including critical infrastructures and led a significant shift from their old and disparate business models based on proprietary and legacy environments to more open and consolidated ones. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems have been widely used not only for industrial processes but also for some experimental facilities. Due to the nature of open environments, managing SCADA systems should meet various security requirements since system administrators need to deal with a large number of entities and functions involved in critical infrastructures. In this paper, we identify necessary access control requirements in SCADA systems and articulate access control policies for the simulated SCADA systems. We also attempt to analyze and realize those requirements and policies in the context of role-based access control that is suitable for simplifying administrative tasks in large scale enterprises.

  12. The Ins and Outs of Access Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longworth, David

    1999-01-01

    Presents basic considerations when school districts plan to acquire an access-control system for their education facilities. Topics cover cards and readers, controllers, software, automation, card technology, expandability, price, specification of needs beyond the canned specifications already supplied, and proper usage training to cardholders.…

  13. Network Access Control List Situation Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifers, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Network security is a large and complex problem being addressed by multiple communities. Nevertheless, current theories in networking security appear to overestimate network administrators' ability to understand network access control lists (NACLs), providing few context specific user analyses. Consequently, the current research generally seems to…

  14. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... required by 10 CFR 20.1902. Radiation postings for panoramic irradiators must comply with the posting requirements of 10 CFR 20.1902, except that signs may be removed, covered, or otherwise made inoperative when... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy...

  15. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... required by 10 CFR 20.1902. Radiation postings for panoramic irradiators must comply with the posting requirements of 10 CFR 20.1902, except that signs may be removed, covered, or otherwise made inoperative when... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy...

  16. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... required by 10 CFR 20.1902. Radiation postings for panoramic irradiators must comply with the posting requirements of 10 CFR 20.1902, except that signs may be removed, covered, or otherwise made inoperative when... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy...

  17. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... required by 10 CFR 20.1902. Radiation postings for panoramic irradiators must comply with the posting requirements of 10 CFR 20.1902, except that signs may be removed, covered, or otherwise made inoperative when... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy...

  18. Speed control system for an access gate

    SciTech Connect

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2012-03-20

    An access control apparatus for an access gate. The access gate typically has a rotator that is configured to rotate around a rotator axis at a first variable speed in a forward direction. The access control apparatus may include a transmission that typically has an input element that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input element is generally configured to rotate at an input speed that is proportional to the first variable speed. The transmission typically also has an output element that has an output speed that is higher than the input speed. The input element and the output element may rotate around a common transmission axis. A retardation mechanism may be employed. The retardation mechanism is typically configured to rotate around a retardation mechanism axis. Generally the retardation mechanism is operatively connected to the output element of the transmission and is configured to retard motion of the access gate in the forward direction when the first variable speed is above a control-limit speed. In many embodiments the transmission axis and the retardation mechanism axis are substantially co-axial. Some embodiments include a freewheel/catch mechanism that has an input connection that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input connection may be configured to engage an output connection when the rotator is rotated at the first variable speed in a forward direction and configured for substantially unrestricted rotation when the rotator is rotated in a reverse direction opposite the forward direction. The input element of the transmission is typically operatively connected to the output connection of the freewheel/catch mechanism.

  19. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldridge, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the project are: Achieve high business value through a common badging and access control system that integrates with smart cards. Provide physical (versus logical) deployment of smart cards initially. Provides a common consistent and reliable environment into which to release the smart card. Gives opportunity to develop agency-wide consistent processes, practices and policies. Enables enterprise data capture and management. Promotes data validation prior to SC issuance.

  20. External access to ALICE controls conditions data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadlovský, J.; Jadlovská, A.; Sarnovský, J.; Jajčišin, Š.; Čopík, M.; Jadlovská, S.; Papcun, P.; Bielek, R.; Čerkala, J.; Kopčík, M.; Chochula, P.; Augustinus, A.

    2014-06-01

    ALICE Controls data produced by commercial SCADA system WINCCOA is stored in ORACLE database on the private experiment network. The SCADA system allows for basic access and processing of the historical data. More advanced analysis requires tools like ROOT and needs therefore a separate access method to the archives. The present scenario expects that detector experts create simple WINCCOA scripts, which retrieves and stores data in a form usable for further studies. This relatively simple procedure generates a lot of administrative overhead - users have to request the data, experts needed to run the script, the results have to be exported outside of the experiment network. The new mechanism profits from database replica, which is running on the CERN campus network. Access to this database is not restricted and there is no risk of generating a heavy load affecting the operation of the experiment. The developed tools presented in this paper allow for access to this data. The users can use web-based tools to generate the requests, consisting of the data identifiers and period of time of interest. The administrators maintain full control over the data - an authorization and authentication mechanism helps to assign privileges to selected users and restrict access to certain groups of data. Advanced caching mechanism allows the user to profit from the presence of already processed data sets. This feature significantly reduces the time required for debugging as the retrieval of raw data can last tens of minutes. A highly configurable client allows for information retrieval bypassing the interactive interface. This method is for example used by ALICE Offline to extract operational conditions after a run is completed. Last but not least, the software can be easily adopted to any underlying database structure and is therefore not limited to WINCCOA.

  1. Access control and confidentiality in radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumeir, Rita; Chafik, Adil

    2005-04-01

    A medical record contains a large amount of data about the patient such as height, weight and blood pressure. It also contains sensitive information such as fertility, abortion, psychiatric data, sexually transmitted diseases and diagnostic results. Access to this information must be carefully controlled. Information technology has greatly improved patient care. The recent extensive deployment of digital medical images made diagnostic images promptly available to healthcare decision makers, regardless of their geographic location. Medical images are digitally archived, transferred on telecommunication networks, and visualized on computer screens. However, with the widespread use of computing and communication technologies in healthcare, the issue of data security has become increasingly important. Most of the work until now has focused on the security of data communication to ensure its integrity, authentication, confidentiality and user accountability. The mechanisms that have been proposed to achieve the security of data communication are not specific to healthcare. Data integrity can be achieved with data signature. Data authentication can be achieved with certificate exchange. Data confidentiality can be achieved with encryption. User accountability can be achieved with audits. Although these mechanisms are essential to ensure data security during its transfer on the network, access control is needed in order to ensure data confidentiality and privacy within the information system application. In this paper, we present and discuss an access control mechanism that takes into account the notion of a care process. Radiology information is categorized and a model to enforce data privacy is proposed.

  2. Constructing RBAC Based Security Model in u-Healthcare Service Platform

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Moon Sun; Jeon, Heung Seok; Ju, Yong Wan; Lee, Bum Ju; Jeong, Seon-Phil

    2015-01-01

    In today's era of aging society, people want to handle personal health care by themselves in everyday life. In particular, the evolution of medical and IT convergence technology and mobile smart devices has made it possible for people to gather information on their health status anytime and anywhere easily using biometric information acquisition devices. Healthcare information systems can contribute to the improvement of the nation's healthcare quality and the reduction of related cost. However, there are no perfect security models or mechanisms for healthcare service applications, and privacy information can therefore be leaked. In this paper, we examine security requirements related to privacy protection in u-healthcare service and propose an extended RBAC based security model. We propose and design u-healthcare service integration platform (u-HCSIP) applying RBAC security model. The proposed u-HCSIP performs four main functions: storing and exchanging personal health records (PHR), recommending meals and exercise, buying/selling private health information or experience, and managing personal health data using smart devices. PMID:25695104

  3. Constructing RBAC based security model in u-healthcare service platform.

    PubMed

    Shin, Moon Sun; Jeon, Heung Seok; Ju, Yong Wan; Lee, Bum Ju; Jeong, Seon-Phil

    2015-01-01

    In today's era of aging society, people want to handle personal health care by themselves in everyday life. In particular, the evolution of medical and IT convergence technology and mobile smart devices has made it possible for people to gather information on their health status anytime and anywhere easily using biometric information acquisition devices. Healthcare information systems can contribute to the improvement of the nation's healthcare quality and the reduction of related cost. However, there are no perfect security models or mechanisms for healthcare service applications, and privacy information can therefore be leaked. In this paper, we examine security requirements related to privacy protection in u-healthcare service and propose an extended RBAC based security model. We propose and design u-healthcare service integration platform (u-HCSIP) applying RBAC security model. The proposed u-HCSIP performs four main functions: storing and exchanging personal health records (PHR), recommending meals and exercise, buying/selling private health information or experience, and managing personal health data using smart devices. PMID:25695104

  4. 14 CFR 420.53 - Control of public access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of public access. 420.53 Section....53 Control of public access. (a) A licensee shall prevent unauthorized access to the launch site, and unauthorized, unescorted access to explosive hazard facilities or other hazard areas not otherwise...

  5. Cardea: Dynamic Access Control in Distributed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepro, Rebekah

    2004-01-01

    Modern authorization systems span domains of administration, rely on many different authentication sources, and manage complex attributes as part of the authorization process. This . paper presents Cardea, a distributed system that facilitates dynamic access control, as a valuable piece of an inter-operable authorization framework. First, the authorization model employed in Cardea and its functionality goals are examined. Next, critical features of the system architecture and its handling of the authorization process are then examined. Then the S A M L and XACML standards, as incorporated into the system, are analyzed. Finally, the future directions of this project are outlined and connection points with general components of an authorization system are highlighted.

  6. Context-Based E-Health System Access Control Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Neyadi, Fahed; Abawajy, Jemal H.

    E-Health systems logically demand a sufficiently fine-grained authorization policy for access control. The access to medical information should not be just role-based but should also include the contextual condition of the role to access data. In this paper, we present a mechanism to extend the standard role-based access control to incorporate contextual information for making access control decisions in e-health application. We present an architecture consisting of authorisation and context infrastructure that work cooperatively to grant access rights based on context-aware authorization policies and context information.

  7. Application-Defined Decentralized Access Control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Dunn, Alan M; Hofmann, Owen S; Lee, Michael Z; Mehdi, Syed Akbar; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    DCAC is a practical OS-level access control system that supports application-defined principals. It allows normal users to perform administrative operations within their privilege, enabling isolation and privilege separation for applications. It does not require centralized policy specification or management, giving applications freedom to manage their principals while the policies are still enforced by the OS. DCAC uses hierarchically-named attributes as a generic framework for user-defined policies such as groups defined by normal users. For both local and networked file systems, its execution time overhead is between 0%-9% on file system microbenchmarks, and under 1% on applications. This paper shows the design and implementation of DCAC, as well as several real-world use cases, including sandboxing applications, enforcing server applications' security policies, supporting NFS, and authenticating user-defined sub-principals in SSH, all with minimal code changes. PMID:25426493

  8. Application-Defined Decentralized Access Control

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Dunn, Alan M.; Hofmann, Owen S.; Lee, Michael Z.; Mehdi, Syed Akbar; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    DCAC is a practical OS-level access control system that supports application-defined principals. It allows normal users to perform administrative operations within their privilege, enabling isolation and privilege separation for applications. It does not require centralized policy specification or management, giving applications freedom to manage their principals while the policies are still enforced by the OS. DCAC uses hierarchically-named attributes as a generic framework for user-defined policies such as groups defined by normal users. For both local and networked file systems, its execution time overhead is between 0%–9% on file system microbenchmarks, and under 1% on applications. This paper shows the design and implementation of DCAC, as well as several real-world use cases, including sandboxing applications, enforcing server applications’ security policies, supporting NFS, and authenticating user-defined sub-principals in SSH, all with minimal code changes. PMID:25426493

  9. Modeling mandatory access control in role-based security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nyanchama, M.; Osborn, S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the realization of mandatory access control in role-based protection systems. Starting from the basic definitions of roles, their application in security and the basics of the concept of mandatory access control, we develop a scheme of role-based protection that realizes mandatory access control. The basis of this formulation develops from the recognition that roles can be seen as facilitating access to some given information context. By handling each of the role contexts as independent security levels of information, we simulate mandatory access by imposing the requirements of mandatory access control. Among the key considerations, we propose a means of taming Trojan horses by imposing acyclic information flow among contexts in role-based protection systems. The acyclic information flows and suitable access rules incorporate secrecy which is an essential component of mandatory access control.

  10. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access control... individuals authorized to have unescorted access to the secured area are able to gain entry; (2) Ensure...

  11. 14 CFR 420.53 - Control of public access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of public access. 420.53 Section 420.53 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION....53 Control of public access. (a) A licensee shall prevent unauthorized access to the launch site,...

  12. Open versus Controlled-Access Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    OCG employs stringent human subjects’ protection and data access policies to protect the privacy and confidentiality of the research participants. Depending on the risk of patient identification, OCG programs data are available to the scientific community in two tiers: open or controlled access. Both types of data can be accessed through its corresponding OCG program-specific data matrix or portal. Open-access Data

  13. 14 CFR 420.53 - Control of public access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of public access. 420.53 Section 420.53 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.53 Control of public access. (a) A...

  14. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access control systems. (a) Secured...

  15. 14 CFR 420.53 - Control of public access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of public access. 420.53 Section 420.53 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.53 Control of public access. (a) A...

  16. 14 CFR 420.53 - Control of public access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of public access. 420.53 Section 420.53 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.53 Control of public access. (a) A...

  17. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  18. A design of tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yi; Huang, Der-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Jan, Jinn-Ke

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a tamper resistant prescription RFID access control protocol for different authorized readers. Not only the authentication mechanism but also the access right authorization mechanism is designed in our scheme. Only the specific doctor, usually the patient's doctor, can access the tag. Moreover, some related information of patient's prescription is attached to a RFID tag for tamper resistance. The patients' rights will be guaranteed. PMID:21751015

  19. A Study of Context-Awareness RBAC Model Using User Profile on Ubiquitous Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bokman; Park, Sungdo; Chang, Hyokyung; Ahn, Hyosik; Choi, Euiin

    Recently, With the IT technique growth, there is getting formed to convert to ubiquitous environment that means it can access information everywhere and every-time using various devices, and the computer can decide to provide useful services to users. But, in this computing environment will be connected to wireless network and various devices. According to, recklessness approaches of information resource make trouble to system. So, access authority management is very important issue both information resource and adapt to system through founding security policy to need a system. So, this model has a problem that is not concerned about user's context information as user's profile. In this paper suppose to context-awareness RABC model that based on profile about which user's information which provide efficiently access control to user through active classification, inference and judgment about user who access to system and resource.

  20. Managed Access by Controlled Sensing (MACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    During chemical weapons challenge inspections, the CWC treaty allows ``alternate means`` of access to be proposed by the nation challenged. BNL`s Safeguards, Safety and Nonproliferation Division is funded by the Defense Nuclear Agency to develop a system to provide the challenge inspection team with a ``virtual presence`` within the facility while denying personal access. A general purpose configuration of a mobile station manned by site personnel and a base station manned by the challenge inspector, supported by a flexible communication system, will allow facility personnel to tailor the basic model to their site. Design of the MACS system is based on maximum use of commercial equipment that is available on the international market. Design requirements for the MACS system include methods of establishing geographical position, distance measuring equipment for use in verifying dimensions on floor plans, video and two-way audio links between the mobile unit and the base station, and portability and versatility of the equipment. The MACS platform will also support deployment of selected instrumentation which the site may offer to the challenge inspection team. This paper describes the design and construction of the prototype MACS system.

  1. Urban Studies: A Study of Bibliographic Access and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Barbara E.

    This paper analyzes: (1) the bibliographic access to publications in urban studies via printed secondary sources; (2) development and scope of classification systems and of vocabulary control for urban studies; and (3) currently accessible automated collections of bibliographic citations. Urban studies is defined as "an agglomeration of…

  2. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access...

  3. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access...

  4. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access...

  5. Access control within military C4ISR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschino, Mike

    2003-07-01

    Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) tactical battlefield systems must provide the right information and resources to the right individuals at the right time. At the same time, the C4ISR system must enforce access controls to prevent the wrong individuals from obtaining sensitive information, or consuming scarce resources. Because lives, missions and property depend upon them, these access control mechanisms must be effective, reliable, efficient and flexible. The mechanisms employed must suit the nature of the items that are to be protected, as well as the varieties of access policies that must be enforced, and the types of access that will be made to these items. Some access control technologies are inherently centralized, while others are suitable for distributed implementation. The C4ISR architect must select from among the available technologies a combination of mechanisms that eases the burden of policy administration, but is inherently survivable, accurate, resource efficient, and which provides low latency. This paper explores various alternative access enforcement mechanisms, and assesses their effectiveness in managing policy-driven access control within the battlespace.

  6. Access Control of Web- and Java-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cybersecurity has become a great concern as threats of service interruption, unauthorized access, stealing and altering of information, and spreading of viruses have become more prevalent and serious. Application layer access control of applications is a critical component in the overall security solution that also includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. An access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, was developed to provide protection to both Web-based and Javabased client and server applications. The DISA Security Service (DISA-SS) provides common access control capabilities for AMMOS software applications through a set of application programming interfaces (APIs) and network- accessible security services for authentication, single sign-on, authorization checking, and authorization policy management. The OpenAM access management technology designed for Web applications can be extended to meet the needs of Java thick clients and stand alone servers that are commonly used in the JPL AMMOS environment. The DISA-SS reusable components have greatly reduced the effort for each AMMOS subsystem to develop its own access control strategy. The novelty of this work is that it leverages an open-source access management product that was designed for Webbased applications to provide access control for Java thick clients and Java standalone servers. Thick clients and standalone servers are still commonly used in businesses and government, especially for applications that require rich graphical user interfaces and high-performance visualization that cannot be met by thin clients running on Web browsers

  7. Personnel Access Control System Evaluation for National Ignition Facility Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T; Brereton, S.; Hermes, G.; Singh, M.

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the baseline Access Control System for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and to assess its effectiveness at controlling access to hazardous locations during full NIF operations. It reviews the various hazards present during a NIF shot sequence, and evaluates the effectiveness of the applicable set of controls at preventing access while the hazards are present. It considers only those hazards that could potentially be lethal. In addition, various types of technologies that might be applicable at NIF are reviewed, as are systems currently in use at other facilities requiring access control for safety reasons. Recommendations on how this system might be modified to reduce risk are made.

  8. Authenticated IGMP for Controlling Access to Multicast Distribution Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang-Seop; Kang, Hyun-Sun

    A receiver access control scheme is proposed to protect the multicast distribution tree from DoS attack induced by unauthorized use of IGMP, by extending the security-related functionality of IGMP. Based on a specific network and business model adopted for commercial deployment of IP multicast applications, a key management scheme is also presented for bootstrapping the proposed access control as well as accounting and billing for CP (Content Provider), NSP (Network Service Provider), and group members.

  9. Control with a random access protocol and packet dropouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liyuan; Guo, Ge

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates networked control systems whose actuators communicate with the controller via a limited number of unreliable channels. The access to the channels is decided by a so-called group random access protocol, which is modelled as a binary Markov sequence. Data packet dropouts in the channels are modelled as independent Bernoulli processes. For such systems, a systematic characterisation for controller synthesis is established and stated in terms of the transition probabilities of the Markov protocol and the packet dropout probabilities. The results are illustrated via a numerical example.

  10. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... individual has reported the TWIC as lost, damaged, or stolen to TSA as required in 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii... control. 105.255 Section 105.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... measures for access control. (a) General. The facility owner or operator must ensure the implementation...

  11. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... individual has reported the TWIC as lost, damaged, or stolen to TSA as required in 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii... control. 105.255 Section 105.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... measures for access control. (a) General. The facility owner or operator must ensure the implementation...

  12. Emergency access authorization for personally controlled online health care data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingting; Zhong, Sheng

    2012-02-01

    Personally controlled health records (PCHR) systems have emerged to allow patients to control their own medical data. In a PCHR system, all the access privileges to a patient's data are granted by the patient. However, in many emergency cases, it is impossible for the patient to participate in access authorization on site when immediate medical treatment is needed. To solve the emergency access authorization problem in the absence of patients, we consider two cases: a) the requester is already in the PCHR system but has not obtained the access privilege of the patient's health records, and b) the requester does not even have an account in the PCHR system to submit its request. For each of the two cases, we present a method for emergency access authorization, utilizing the weighted voting and source authentication cryptographic techniques. Our methods provide an effective, secure and private solution for emergency access authorization, that makes the existing PCHR system frameworks more practical and thus improves the patients' experiences of health care when using PCHR systems. We have implemented a prototype system as a proof of concept. PMID:20703719

  13. A Service Access Security Control Model in Cyberspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qianmu, Li; Jie, Yin; Jun, Hou; Jian, Xu; Hong, Zhang; Yong, Qi

    A service access control model in cyberspace is proposed, which provides a generalized and effective mechanism of security management with some items constraint specifications. These constraint specifications are organized to form a construction, and an enact process is proposed to make it scalable and flexible to meet the need of diversified service application systems in cyberspace. The model of this paper erases the downward information flow by extended rules of read/write, which is the breakthrough of the limitations when applying the standard role-based access control in cyberspace.

  14. Access and control of information and intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Gerald S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper introduces the technology of two pioneering patents for the secure distribution of information and intellectual property. The seminal technology has been used in the control of sensitive material such as medical records and imagery in distributed networks. It lends itself to the implementation of an open architecture access control system that provides local or remote user selective access to digital information stored on any computer system or storage medium, down to the data element, pixel, and sub-pixel levels. Use of this technology is especially suited for electronic publishing, health care records, MIS, and auditing.

  15. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  16. Joint Access Control Based on Access Ratio and Resource Utilization for High-Speed Railway Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuzhe; Ai, Bo

    2015-05-01

    The fast development of high-speed rails makes people's life more and more convenient. However, provisioning of quality of service of multimedia applications for users on the high-speed train is a critical task for wireless communications. Therefore, new solutions are desirable to be found to address this kind of problem. Current researches mainly focus on providing seamless broadband wireless access for high-speed mobile terminals. In this paper, an algorithm to calculate the optimal resource reservation fraction of handovers is proposed. A joint access control scheme for high-speed railway communication handover scenario is proposed. Metrics of access ratio and resource utilization ratio are considered jointly in the analysis and the performance evaluation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm and the scheme improve quality of service compared with other conventional schemes.

  17. Access Control of Web and Java Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.; Johnson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Cyber security has gained national and international attention as a result of near continuous headlines from financial institutions, retail stores, government offices and universities reporting compromised systems and stolen data. Concerns continue to rise as threats of service interruption, and spreading of viruses become ever more prevalent and serious. Controlling access to application layer resources is a critical component in a layered security solution that includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. In this paper we discuss the development of an application-level access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, to provide protection to both Web-based and Java-based client and server applications.

  18. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a) General... 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii) The individual can present another identification credential that meets...

  19. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a) General... 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii) The individual can present another identification credential that meets...

  20. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a) General... 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii) The individual can present another identification credential that meets...

  1. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a) General... 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii) The individual can present another identification credential that meets...

  2. Fine-Grained Access Control for Electronic Health Record Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, Pham Thi Bach; Wohlgemuth, Sven; Echizen, Isao; Thuy, Dong Thi Bich; Thuc, Nguyen Dinh

    There needs to be a strategy for securing the privacy of patients when exchanging health records between various entities over the Internet. Despite the fact that health care providers such as Google Health and Microsoft Corp.'s Health Vault comply with the U.S Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the privacy of patients is still at risk. Several encryption schemes and access control mechanisms have been suggested to protect the disclosure of a patient's health record especially from unauthorized entities. However, by implementing these approaches, data owners are not capable of controlling and protecting the disclosure of the individual sensitive attributes of their health records. This raises the need to adopt a secure mechanism to protect personal information against unauthorized disclosure. Therefore, we propose a new Fine-grained Access Control (FGAC) mechanism that is based on subkeys, which would allow a data owner to further control the access to his data at the column-level. We also propose a new mechanism to efficiently reduce the number of keys maintained by a data owner in cases when the users have different access privileges to different columns of the data being shared.

  3. Access Control for Agent-based Computing: A Distributed Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonopoulos, Nick; Koukoumpetsos, Kyriakos; Shafarenko, Alex

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the mobile software agent paradigm that provides a foundation for the development of high performance distributed applications and presents a simple, distributed access control architecture based on the concept of distributed, active authorization entities (lock cells), any combination of which can be referenced by an agent to provide…

  4. Secure Dynamic access control scheme of PHR in cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Liu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chen, Chin-Sheng; Bau, Jian-Guo; Lin, Tzu-Ching

    2012-12-01

    With the development of information technology and medical technology, medical information has been developed from traditional paper records into electronic medical records, which have now been widely applied. The new-style medical information exchange system "personal health records (PHR)" is gradually developed. PHR is a kind of health records maintained and recorded by individuals. An ideal personal health record could integrate personal medical information from different sources and provide complete and correct personal health and medical summary through the Internet or portable media under the requirements of security and privacy. A lot of personal health records are being utilized. The patient-centered PHR information exchange system allows the public autonomously maintain and manage personal health records. Such management is convenient for storing, accessing, and sharing personal medical records. With the emergence of Cloud computing, PHR service has been transferred to storing data into Cloud servers that the resources could be flexibly utilized and the operation cost can be reduced. Nevertheless, patients would face privacy problem when storing PHR data into Cloud. Besides, it requires a secure protection scheme to encrypt the medical records of each patient for storing PHR into Cloud server. In the encryption process, it would be a challenge to achieve accurately accessing to medical records and corresponding to flexibility and efficiency. A new PHR access control scheme under Cloud computing environments is proposed in this study. With Lagrange interpolation polynomial to establish a secure and effective PHR information access scheme, it allows to accurately access to PHR with security and is suitable for enormous multi-users. Moreover, this scheme also dynamically supports multi-users in Cloud computing environments with personal privacy and offers legal authorities to access to PHR. From security and effectiveness analyses, the proposed PHR access

  5. Access control and interlock system at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Forrestal, J.; Hogrefe, R.; Knott, M.; McDowell, W.; Reigle, D.; Solita, L.; Koldenhoven, R.; Haid, D.

    1997-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of a linac, position accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron, storage ring, and up to 70 experimental beamlines. The Access Control and Interlock System (ACIS) utilizes redundant programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a third hard-wired chain to protect personnel from prompt radiation generated by the linac, PAR, synchrotron, and storage ring. This paper describes the ACIS`s design philosophy, configuration, hardware, functionality, validation requirements, and operational experience.

  6. Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/accessibility.html MedlinePlus Accessibility To use the sharing features on this page, ... Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs ...

  7. Access control and privacy in large distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiner, B. M.; Bishop, M.

    1986-01-01

    Large scale distributed systems consists of workstations, mainframe computers, supercomputers and other types of servers, all connected by a computer network. These systems are being used in a variety of applications including the support of collaborative scientific research. In such an environment, issues of access control and privacy arise. Access control is required for several reasons, including the protection of sensitive resources and cost control. Privacy is also required for similar reasons, including the protection of a researcher's proprietary results. A possible architecture for integrating available computer and communications security technologies into a system that meet these requirements is described. This architecture is meant as a starting point for discussion, rather that the final answer.

  8. Distributed reservation control protocols for random access broadcasting channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, E. P.; Ephremides, A.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to a communication network consisting of an arbitrary number of nodes which can communicate with each other via a time-division multiple access (TDMA) broadcast channel. The reported investigation is concerned with the development of efficient distributed multiple access protocols for traffic consisting primarily of single packet messages in a datagram mode of operation. The motivation for the design of the protocols came from the consideration of efficient multiple access utilization of moderate to high bandwidth (4-40 Mbit/s capacity) communication satellite channels used for the transmission of short (1000-10,000 bits) fixed length packets. Under these circumstances, the ratio of roundtrip propagation time to packet transmission time is between 100 to 10,000. It is shown how a TDMA channel can be adaptively shared by datagram traffic and constant bandwidth users such as in digital voice applications. The distributed reservation control protocols described are a hybrid between contention and reservation protocols.

  9. Type-Based Access Control in Data-Centric Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caires, Luís; Pérez, Jorge A.; Seco, João Costa; Vieira, Hugo Torres; Ferrão, Lúcio

    Data-centric multi-user systems, such as web applications, require flexible yet fine-grained data security mechanisms. Such mechanisms are usually enforced by a specially crafted security layer, which adds extra complexity and often leads to error prone coding, easily causing severe security breaches. In this paper, we introduce a programming language approach for enforcing access control policies to data in data-centric programs by static typing. Our development is based on the general concept of refinement type, but extended so as to address realistic and challenging scenarios of permission-based data security, in which policies dynamically depend on the database state, and flexible combinations of column- and row-level protection of data are necessary. We state and prove soundness and safety of our type system, stating that well-typed programs never break the declared data access control policies.

  10. RDFacl: A Secure Access Control Model Based on RDF Triple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehoon; Park, Seog

    An expectation for more intelligent Web is recently being reflected through the new research field called Semantic Web. In this paper, related with Semantic Web security, we introduce an RDF triple based access control model having explicit authorization propagation by inheritance and implicit authorization propagation by inference. Especially, we explain an authorization conflict problem between the explicit and the implicit authorization propagation, which is an important concept in access control for Semantic Web. We also propose a novel conflict detection algorithm using graph labeling techniques in order to efficiently find authorization conflicts. Some experimental results show that the proposed detection algorithm has much better performance than the existing detection algorithm when data size and number of specified authorizations become larger.

  11. Current status of link access control and encryption system

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop necessary technologies for the secure protection of data communication networks. Data encryption equipment, using the federal government's Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm, was designed and developed. This equipment is the Link Access Control and Encryption (Link ACE) system. It protects unclassified sensitive data transmissions over unprotected lines between central computers and remote terminals. Link ACE units have been installed and are operational in the Department of Energy's Central Personnel Clearance Index (CPCI) system.

  12. Rural providers' access to online resources: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Laura J.; McElfresh, Karen R.; Warner, Teddy D.; Stromberg, Tiffany L.; Trost, Jaren; Jelinek, Devin A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The research determined the usage and satisfaction levels with one of two point-of-care (PoC) resources among health care providers in a rural state. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, twenty-eight health care providers in rural areas were stratified by occupation and region, then randomized into either the DynaMed or the AccessMedicine study arm. Study participants were physicians, physician assistants, and nurses. A pre- and post-study survey measured participants' attitudes toward different information resources and their information-seeking activities. Medical student investigators provided training and technical support for participants. Data analyses consisted of analysis of variance (ANOVA), paired t tests, and Cohen's d statistic to compare pre- and post-study effects sizes. Results Participants in both the DynaMed and the AccessMedicine arms of the study reported increased satisfaction with their respective PoC resource, as expected. Participants in both arms also reported that they saved time in finding needed information. At baseline, both arms reported too little information available, which increased to “about right amounts of information” at the completion of the study. DynaMed users reported a Cohen's d increase of +1.50 compared to AccessMedicine users' reported use of 0.82. DynaMed users reported d2 satisfaction increases of 9.48 versus AccessMedicine satisfaction increases of 0.59 using a Cohen's d. Conclusion Participants in the DynaMed arm of the study used this clinically oriented PoC more heavily than the users of the textbook-based AccessMedicine. In terms of user satisfaction, DynaMed users reported higher levels of satisfaction than the users of AccessMedicine. PMID:26807050

  13. Integration of access control and ancillary information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Ahrens, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    The DOE has identified the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ARGUS system as the standard entry control system for the DOE Complex. ARGUS integrates several key functions, specifically, badging, entry control, and verification of clearance status. Not all sites need or can afford an ARGUS system. Such sites are therefore limited to commercial equipment which provide ARGUS like features. In this project an alternative way to integrate commercial equipment into an integrated system to include badging, access control, property control, and automated verification of clearance status has been investigated. Such a system would provide smaller sites the same functionality as is provided by ARGUS. Further, it would allow sites to fully participate in the DOE`s concept of Complex wide access control. This multi-year task is comprised of three phases. Phase 1, system requirements and definitions, and phase 2, software and hardware development, were completed during fiscal year 1994. This report covers these two phases and the demonstration system which resulted. Phase three would employ the demonstration system to evaluate system performance, identify operational limits and to integrate additional features. The demonstration system includes a badging station, a database server, a managers workstation, an entry control system, and a property protection system. The functions have been integrated through the use of custom interfaces and operator screens which greatly increase ease of use.

  14. Authorisation and access control for electronic health record systems.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd

    2004-03-31

    Enabling the shared care paradigm, centralised or even decentralised electronic health record (EHR) systems increasingly become core applications in hospital information systems and health networks. For realising multipurpose use and reuse as well as inter-operability at knowledge level, EHR have to meet special architectural requirements. The component-oriented and model-based architecture should meet international standards. Especially in extended health networks realising inter-organisational communication and co-operation, authorisation cannot be organised at user level anymore. Therefore, models, methods and tools must be established to allow formal and structured policy definition, policy agreements, role definition, authorisation and access control. Based on the author's international engagement in EHR architecture and security standards referring to the revision of CEN ENV 13606, the GEHR/open EHR approach, HL7 and CORBA, models for health-specific and EHR-related roles, for authorisation management and access control have been developed. The basic concept is the separation of structural roles defining organisational entity-to-entity relationships and enabling specific acts on the one hand, and functional roles bound to specific activities and realising rights and duties on the other hand. Aggregation of organisational, functional, informational and technological components follows specific rules. Using UML and XML, the principles as well as some examples for analysis, design, implementation and maintenance of policy and authorisation management as well as access control have been practically implemented. PMID:15066555

  15. An approach to access control in electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Sucurovic, Snezana

    2010-08-01

    OASIS is a non-for-profit consortium that drives the development convergence and adoption of open standards for the global information society. It involves more than 600 organizations and individuals as well as IT leaders Sun, Microsoft, IBM and Oracle. One of its standards is XACML which appeared a few years ago and now there are about 150,000 hits on Google. XACML (eXtensible Access Control Markup Language) is not technology related. Sun published in 2004 open source Sun XACML which is in compliance with XACML 1.0. specification and now works to make it comply with XACML 2.0. The heart of XACML are attributes values of defined type and name that is to be attached to a subject, a resource, an action and an environment in which a subject request action on resource. In that way XACML is to replace Role Based Access Control which dominated for years. The paper examines performances in CEN 13 606 and ISO 22 600 based healthcare system which uses XACML for access control. PMID:20703920

  16. Segmented proportional spacing medium access control protocol for APONs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongbin; Yu, Yiqing; Zhou, Dongru; Meng, Bo

    2004-04-01

    Combining asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) over a passive optical network (APON) can provide broadband services as defined by the international telecommunications union (ITU). The medium access control (MAC) layer is of primary importance to the access scheme as in controls the flow of traffic in the access network. This paper presents a novel MAC protocol-segmented proportional spacing MAC protocol, which complies with ITU-T recommendations, is firstly designed for APON system based on the analysis of different type of bandwidth allocation algorithms. The main idea of protocol is: frame structure adopts the structure regulated by ITU; fine time division for the optical network unit (ONU) to apply bandwidth; the bandwidth"s application is not based on the T-interface but ONU, the bandwidth allocation algorithm uses segmented proportional spacing algorithm. At last, we compare our protocol to other MAC protocols, the results show that proportional spacing and segmented bandwidth allocation control the cell jitter with satisfactory and improve the system bandwidth efficiency at same time, the correlative conclusions are given finally.

  17. Global Access-controlled Transfer e-frame (GATe)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-30

    Global Access-controlled Transfer e-frame (GATe) was designed to take advantage of the patterns that occur during an electronic record transfer process. The e-frame (or electronic framework or platform) is the foundation for developing secure information transfer to meet classified and unclassified business processes and is particularly useful when there is a need to share information with various entities in a controlled and secure environment. It can share, search, upload, download and retrieve sensitive information, as well as provides reporting capabilities.

  18. Global Access-controlled Transfer e-frame (GATe)

    2012-05-30

    Global Access-controlled Transfer e-frame (GATe) was designed to take advantage of the patterns that occur during an electronic record transfer process. The e-frame (or electronic framework or platform) is the foundation for developing secure information transfer to meet classified and unclassified business processes and is particularly useful when there is a need to share information with various entities in a controlled and secure environment. It can share, search, upload, download and retrieve sensitive information, asmore » well as provides reporting capabilities.« less

  19. Hand geometry biometric device for secure access control

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, C.; Moles, D.R. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the authors developed for the Air Force the Mark VI Personal Identity Verifier (PIV) for controlling access to a fixed or mobile ICBM site, a computer terminal, or mainframe. The Mark VI records the digitized silhouettes of four fingers of each hand on an AT and T smart card. Like fingerprints, finger shapes, lengths, and widths constitute an unguessable biometric password. A Security Officer enrolls an authorized person who places each hand, in turn, on a backlighted panel. An overhead scanning camera records the right and left hand reference templates on the smart card. The Security Officer adds to the card: name, personal identification number (PIN), and access restrictions such as permitted days of the week, times of day, and doors. To gain access, cardowner inserts card into a reader slot and places either hand on the panel. Resulting access template is matched to the reference template by three sameness algorithms. The final match score is an average of 12 scores (each of the four fingers, matched for shape, length, and width), expressing the degree of sameness. (A perfect match would score 100.00.) The final match score is compared to a predetermined score (threshold), generating an accept or reject decision.

  20. Access Control Model for Sharing Composite Electronic Health Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Covington, Michael J.; Zhang, Xinwen

    The adoption of electronically formatted medical records, so called Electronic Health Records (EHRs), has become extremely important in healthcare systems to enable the exchange of medical information among stakeholders. An EHR generally consists of data with different types and sensitivity degrees which must be selectively shared based on the need-to-know principle. Security mechanisms are required to guarantee that only authorized users have access to specific portions of such critical record for legitimate purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for modelling access control scheme for composite EHRs. Our model formulates the semantics and structural composition of an EHR document, from which we introduce a notion of authorized zones of the composite EHR at different granularity levels, taking into consideration of several important criteria such as data types, intended purposes and information sensitivities.

  1. Privacy and Access Control for IHE-Based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katt, Basel; Breu, Ruth; Hafner, Micahel; Schabetsberger, Thomas; Mair, Richard; Wozak, Florian

    Electronic Health Record (EHR) is the heart element of any e-health system, which aims at improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare through the use of information and communication technologies. The sensitivity of the data contained in the health record poses a great challenge to security. In this paper we propose a security architecture for EHR systems that are conform with IHE profiles. In this architecture we are tackling the problems of access control and privacy. Furthermore, a prototypical implementation of the proposed model is presented.

  2. Efficient identity management and access control in cloud environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloster, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    As more enterprises are enticed to move data to a cloud environment to enhance data sharing and reduce operating costs by exploiting shared resources, concerns have risen over the ability to secure information within the cloud. This paper examines how a traditional Identity and Access Control (IDAM) architecture can be adapted to address security concerns of a cloud environment. We propose changing the paradigm of IDAM form a pure trust model to a risk based model will enable information to be protected securely in a cloud environment without impacting efficiencies of cloud environments.

  3. Access Control of Cloud Service Based on UCON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danwei, Chen; Xiuli, Huang; Xunyi, Ren

    Cloud computing is an emerging computing paradigm, and cloud service is also becoming increasingly relevant. Most research communities have recently embarked in the area, and research challenges in every aspect. This paper mainly discusses cloud service security. Cloud service is based on Web Services, and it will face all kinds of security problems including what Web Services face. The development of cloud service closely relates to its security, so the research of cloud service security is a very important theme. This paper introduces cloud computing and cloud service firstly, and then gives cloud services access control model based on UCON and negotiation technologies, and also designs the negotiation module.

  4. 76 FR 67019 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control... RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control. DATES:...

  5. 76 FR 60398 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies, 65 FR 64556, 64564, published in the Federal Register... Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies, 68 FR 62011... Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies, 71 FR 68472, 68480, published...

  6. Access control violation prevention by low-cost infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, Andrew N.

    2004-09-01

    A low cost 16x16 un-cooled pyroelectric detector array, allied with advanced tracking and detection algorithms, has enabled the development of a universal detector with a wide range of applications in people monitoring and homeland security. Violation of access control systems, whether controlled by proximity card, biometrics, swipe card or similar, may occur by 'tailgating' or 'piggybacking' where an 'approved' entrant with a valid entry card is accompanied by a closely spaced 'non-approved' entrant. The violation may be under duress, where the accompanying person is attempting to enter a secure facility by force or threat. Alternatively, the violation may be benign where staff members collude either through habit or lassitude, either with each other or with third parties, without considering the security consequences. Examples of the latter could include schools, hospitals or maternity homes. The 16x16 pyroelectric array is integrated into a detector or imaging system which incorporates data processing, target extraction and decision making algorithms. The algorithms apply interpolation to the array output, allowing a higher level of resolution than might otherwise be expected from such a low resolution array. The pyroelectric detection principle means that the detection will work in variable light conditions and even in complete darkness, if required. The algorithms can monitor the shape, form, temperature and number of persons in the scene and utilise this information to determine whether a violation has occurred or not. As people are seen as 'hot blobs' and are not individually recognisable, civil liberties are not infringed in the detection process. The output from the detector is a simple alarm signal which may act as input to the access control system as an alert or to trigger CCTV image display and storage. The applications for a tailgate detector can be demonstrated across many medium security applications where there are no physical means to prevent this

  7. Controlled Access under Review: Improving the Governance of Genomic Data Access.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Mahsa; Dyke, Stephanie O M; Joly, Yann; Borry, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    In parallel with massive genomic data production, data sharing practices have rapidly expanded over the last decade. To ensure authorized access to data, access review by data access committees (DACs) has been utilized as one potential solution. Here we discuss core elements to be integrated into the fabric of access review by both established and emerging DACs in order to foster fair, efficient, and responsible access to datasets. We particularly highlight the fact that the access review process could be adversely influenced by the potential conflicts of interest of data producers, particularly when they are directly involved in DACs management. Therefore, in structuring DACs and access procedures, possible data withholding by data producers should receive thorough attention. PMID:26720729

  8. Controlled Access under Review: Improving the Governance of Genomic Data Access

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Mahsa; Dyke, Stephanie O. M.; Joly, Yann; Borry, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In parallel with massive genomic data production, data sharing practices have rapidly expanded over the last decade. To ensure authorized access to data, access review by data access committees (DACs) has been utilized as one potential solution. Here we discuss core elements to be integrated into the fabric of access review by both established and emerging DACs in order to foster fair, efficient, and responsible access to datasets. We particularly highlight the fact that the access review process could be adversely influenced by the potential conflicts of interest of data producers, particularly when they are directly involved in DACs management. Therefore, in structuring DACs and access procedures, possible data withholding by data producers should receive thorough attention. PMID:26720729

  9. Trust-based Access Control in Virtual Learning Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shujuan; Liu, Qingtang

    The virtual learning community is an important application pattern of E-Learning. It emphasizes the cooperation of the members in the community, the members would like to share their learning resources, to exchange their experience and complete the study task together. This instructional mode has already been proved as an effective way to improve the quality and efficiency of instruction. At the present time, the virtual learning communities are mostly designed using static access control policy by which the access permission rights are authorized by the super administrator, the super administrator assigns different rights to different roles, but the virtual and social characteristics of virtual learning community make information sharing and collaboration a complex problem, the community realizes its instructional goal only if the members in it believe that others will offer the knowledge they owned and believe the knowledge others offered is well-meaning and worthy. This paper tries to constitute an effective trust mechanism, which could promise favorable interaction and lasting knowledge sharing.

  10. First Experiences Using XACML for Access Control in Distributed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorch, Marcus; Proctor, Seth; Lepro, Rebekah; Kafura, Dennis; Shah, Sumit

    2003-01-01

    Authorization systems today are increasingly complex. They span domains of administration, rely on many different authentication sources, and manage permissions that can be as complex as the system itself. Worse still, while there are many standards that define authentication mechanisms, the standards that address authorization are less well defined and tend to work only within homogeneous systems. This paper presents XACML, a standard access control language, as one component of a distributed and inter-operable authorization framework. Several emerging systems which incorporate XACML are discussed. These discussions illustrate how authorization can be deployed in distributed, decentralized systems. Finally, some new and future topics are presented to show where this work is heading and how it will help connect the general components of an authorization system.

  11. Safety systems and access control in the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Reed, Robert K; Bell, Jayce C

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest and most energetic laser system. The facility has the potential to generate ionizing radiation due to the interaction between the laser beams and target material, with neutrons and gamma rays being produced during deuterium-tritium fusion reactions. To perform these experiments, several types of hazards must be mitigated and controlled to ensure personnel safety. NIF uses a real-time safety system to monitor and mitigate the hazards presented by the facility. The NIF facility Safety Interlock System (SIS) monitors for oxygen deficiency and controls access to the facility preventing exposure to laser light and radiation from the Radiation Generating Devices. It also interfaces to radiation monitoring and other radiological monitoring and alarm systems. The SIS controls permissives to the hazard-generating equipment and annunciates hazard levels in the facility. To do this reliably and safely, the SIS has been designed as a fail-safe system with a proven performance record now spanning over 10 y. This paper discusses the SIS, its design, implementation, operator interfaces, validation/verification, and the hazard mitigation approaches employed in the NIF. A brief discussion of the Failure Modes and Effect Analysis supporting the SIS will also be presented. The paper ends with a general discussion of SIS do's and don'ts and common design flaws that should be avoided in SIS design. PMID:23629061

  12. A Framework for Context Sensitive Risk-Based Access Control in Medical Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Donghee; Kim, Dohoon; Park, Seog

    2015-01-01

    Since the access control environment has changed and the threat of insider information leakage has come to the fore, studies on risk-based access control models that decide access permissions dynamically have been conducted vigorously. Medical information systems should protect sensitive data such as medical information from insider threat and enable dynamic access control depending on the context such as life-threatening emergencies. In this paper, we suggest an approach and framework for context sensitive risk-based access control suitable for medical information systems. This approach categorizes context information, estimating and applying risk through context- and treatment-based permission profiling and specifications by expanding the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) to apply risk. The proposed framework supports quick responses to medical situations and prevents unnecessary insider data access through dynamic access authorization decisions in accordance with the severity of the context and treatment. PMID:26075013

  13. A Framework for Context Sensitive Risk-Based Access Control in Medical Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Donghee; Kim, Dohoon; Park, Seog

    2015-01-01

    Since the access control environment has changed and the threat of insider information leakage has come to the fore, studies on risk-based access control models that decide access permissions dynamically have been conducted vigorously. Medical information systems should protect sensitive data such as medical information from insider threat and enable dynamic access control depending on the context such as life-threatening emergencies. In this paper, we suggest an approach and framework for context sensitive risk-based access control suitable for medical information systems. This approach categorizes context information, estimating and applying risk through context- and treatment-based permission profiling and specifications by expanding the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) to apply risk. The proposed framework supports quick responses to medical situations and prevents unnecessary insider data access through dynamic access authorization decisions in accordance with the severity of the context and treatment. PMID:26075013

  14. 77 FR 71474 - Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held December 13,...

  15. 78 FR 22025 - Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 9-10,...

  16. 75 FR 80886 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  17. 77 FR 2343 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA..., Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 9, 2012, from 10...

  18. 77 FR 64838 - Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held November 15,...

  19. 77 FR 55894 - Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held September 27-28,...

  20. 76 FR 9632 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  1. 77 FR 15448 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Notice of meeting RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held April 5, 2012, from 10...

  2. 76 FR 59481 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control...

  3. 78 FR 43963 - Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 20,...

  4. 76 FR 16470 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  5. 78 FR 16757 - Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 4, 2013 from...

  6. 75 FR 61819 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  7. Dynamic access control model for privacy preserving personalized healthcare in cloud environment.

    PubMed

    Son, Jiseong; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Na, Hong-Seok; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    When sharing and storing healthcare data in a cloud environment, access control is a central issue for preserving data privacy as a patient's personal health data may be accessed without permission from many stakeholders. Specifically, dynamic authorization for the access of data is required because personal health data is stored in cloud storage via wearable devices. Therefore, we propose a dynamic access control model for preserving the privacy of personal healthcare data in a cloud environment. The proposed model considers context information for dynamic access. According to the proposed model, access control can be dynamically determined by changing the context information; this means that even for a subject with the same role in the cloud, access permission is defined differently depending on the context information and access condition. Furthermore, we experiment the ability of the proposed model to provide correct responses by representing a dynamic access decision with real-life personalized healthcare system scenarios. PMID:26409546

  8. Concurrency control and recovery on lightweight directory access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potnis, Rohit R.; Sathaye, Archana S.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper we provide a concurrency control and recovery (CCR) mechanism over cached LDAP objects. An LDAP server can be directly queried using system calls to retrieve data. Existing LDAP implementations do not provide CCR mechanisms. In such cases, it is up to the application to verify that accesses remain serialized. Our mechanism provides an independent layer over an existing LDAP server (Sun One Directory Server), which handles all user requests, serializes them based on 2 Phase Locking and Timestamp Ordering mechanisms and provides XML-based logging for recovery management. Furthermore, while current LDAP servers only provide object-level locking, our scheme serializes transactions on individual attributes of LDAP objects (attribute-level locking). We have developed a Directory Enabled Network (DEN) Simulator that operates on a subset of directory objects on an existing LDAP server to test the proposed mechanism. We perform experiments to show that our mechanism can gracefully address concurrency and recovery related issues over and LDAP server.

  9. Bureau of Prisons access control system: functional and operational requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janus, Michael; Carlson, Peter M.; Kane, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) operates 86 correctional institutions nationwide. The BOP has grown dramatically, the size of its inmate population growing from just over 41,000 inmates in 1987 to over 100,000 today. The number of BOP staff managing these facilities has grown correspondingly, more than doubling in number in the same ten year period. Technology has paid a major role in keeping up with this growth while maintaining high standards of security in BOP institutions. In an attempt to further enhance security in its institutions, the BOP has recently begun pilot testing an access control and entry system (ACES). ACES is intended to provide an automated record of very entry and exit to a correctional institution. ACES takes advantage of several methods of identifying an individual (inmate, staff or visitor) to assure that the individual exiting the institution is the same as the individual entering. The pilot test has raised a number of questions regarding the implementation of a technologically sophisticated system in a correctional institution. Questions of training, support, 'ownership,' cost effectiveness, and future potential all influence the deployment of this system. Preliminary results indicate that an adequate training and support system is essential to the performance of any sophisticated system and that other organizational issues need to be addressed before the decision to implement is made.

  10. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... individual has reported the TWIC as lost, damaged, or stolen to TSA as required in 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii... persons seeking unescorted access to secure areas must present their TWIC for inspection before being allowed unescorted access, in accordance with § 101.514 of this subchapter. Inspection must include: (i)...

  11. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... individual has reported the TWIC as lost, damaged, or stolen to TSA as required in 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii... persons seeking unescorted access to secure areas must present their TWIC for inspection before being allowed unescorted access, in accordance with § 101.514 of this subchapter. Inspection must include: (i)...

  12. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... individual has reported the TWIC as lost, damaged, or stolen to TSA as required in 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii... persons seeking unescorted access to secure areas must present their TWIC for inspection before being allowed unescorted access, in accordance with § 101.514 of this subchapter. Inspection must include: (i)...

  13. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the requirements in...

  14. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall ensure that...

  15. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  16. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  17. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  18. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  19. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  20. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  1. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  2. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  3. 21 CFR 1311.130 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Institutional practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for establishing logical access... Prescriptions § 1311.130 Requirements for establishing logical access control—Institutional practitioner. (a... practitioner that enters permissions for logical access controls into the application. The...

  4. 21 CFR 1311.130 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Institutional practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for establishing logical access...) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.130 Requirements for establishing logical access control—Institutional... practitioner that enters permissions for logical access controls into the application. The...

  5. Broadband passive optical network media access control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quayle, Alan

    1996-11-01

    Most telecommunication operators are currently deciding on how to respond to customers' needs stimulated by the synergy between compression coding of multimedia and the emergence of broadband digital networks. This paper describes a range of broadband access architectures under consideration in the full services access network initiative. All architectures have a common requirement for a broadband ATM PON. A common broadband PON applicable to many operators increases the world-wide market for the product. With greater production volumes manufacturers' costs reduce because of the experience curve effect making broadband access systems economic.

  6. Role-based access control through on-demand classification of electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Basant; Kumar, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) provides convenient method to exchange medical information of patients between different healthcare providers. Access control mechanism in healthcare services characterises authorising users to access EHR records. Role Based Access Control helps to restrict EHRs to users in a certain role. Significant works have been carried out for access control since last one decade but little emphasis has been given to on-demand role based access control. Presented work achieved access control through physical data isolation which is more robust and secure. We propose an algorithm in which selective combination of policies for each user of the EHR database has been defined. We extend well known data mining technique 'classification' to group EHRs with respect to the given role. Algorithm works by taking various roles as class and defined their features as a vector. Here, features are used as a Feature Vector for classification to describe user authority. PMID:26559071

  7. A Quality of Context-Aware Approach to Access Control in Pervasive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toninelli, Alessandra; Corradi, Antonio; Montanari, Rebecca

    The widespread diffusion of wireless-enabled portable devices creates novel opportunities for users to share resources anywhere and anytime, but makes access control a crucial issue. User/device mobility and heterogeneity, together with network topology and conditions variability, complicate access control and call for novel solutions to dynamically adapt access decisions to the different operating conditions. Several research efforts have emerged in recent years that propose to exploit context-awareness to control access to resources based on context visibility and changes. Context-based access control requires, however, to take into account the quality of context information used to drive access decisions (QoC). Quality of context has in fact a profound impact on the correct behavior of any context-aware access control framework. Using context information with insufficient quality might increase the risk of incorrect access control decisions, thus leading to dangerous security breaches in resource sharing. In this paper we propose a QoC-aware approach to access control for anywhere, anytime resource sharing. The paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of the Proteus policy framework, which combines two design guidelines to enable dynamic adaptation of policies depending on context changes: context-awareness with QoC guarantees and semantic technologies to allow high-level description of context/policy specification and reasoning about context/policies.

  8. An effective access control approach to support mobility in IPv6 networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xue-hai; Lin, Chuang

    2005-11-01

    Access control is an important method to improve network security and prevent protected resources from being used by some nodes without authority. Moreover, mobility is an important trend of internet. In this paper, based on the architecture of hierarchical mobile IPv6, we proposed an effective access control approach to support mobility in IPv6 networks, which can ensure the operation of access control when a mobile node roams in these domains with different polices, with decreased delay of access negotiation and cost of delivering messages.

  9. 78 FR 51810 - Twenty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control... RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224,...

  10. 77 FR 25525 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security... (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held May 30, 2012, from...

  11. 76 FR 50811 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control...

  12. 78 FR 7850 - Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 21, 2013... Federal Aviation Administration Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security...

  13. 78 FR 31627 - Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 20, 2013... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security...

  14. Efficient Authorization of Rich Presence Using Secure and Composed Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Chou, Wu

    This paper presents an extended Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) model for efficient authorization of rich presence using secure web services composed with an abstract presence data model. Following the information symmetry principle, the standard RBAC model is extended to support context sensitive social relations and cascaded authority. In conjunction with the extended RBAC model, we introduce an extensible presence architecture prototype using WS-Security and WS-Eventing to secure rich presence information exchanges based on PKI certificates. Applications and performance measurements of our presence system are presented to show that the proposed RBAC framework for presence and collaboration is well suited for real-time communication and collaboration.

  15. Discretionary access control in a heterogeneous distributed data base management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.

    1986-01-01

    An important technical problem in building a distributed database management system (DDBMS) is access control which prevents unauthorized access or malicious destruction of a database. Consider a DDBMS that uses a uniform global data model to integrate the local schemes of existing DBMSs at the sites of a network. The local DBMSs are unchanged, and the DDBMS is implemented as a module on top of the existing DBMSs at each site. The DBMS at each site is expected to retain its autonomy. That is, the local DBMS at each site maintains control of the data stored at that site. Each local DBMS decides for itself if a user (of the local DBMS or of the DDBMS) may access the data it manages. The design of the access control system for the database in such an environment presents several problems. First, the DBMSs at different sites may have different and incompatible access control mechanisms. Second, queries involving data from multiple sites must be processed by the access control mechanisms of multiple and possible different local DBMSs. Coordinating the access control mechanisms of these DBMSs to provide a consistent access control facility to the users of the heterogeneous DDBMS is a difficult task. This research discusses the problem described above. A general architecture for a DDBMS was developed. Data abstraction techniques were adapted to specify the architecture. A formal verification for the specification was completed.

  16. Secure Remote Access Issues in a Control Center Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Lee; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ISS finally reached an operational state and exists for local and remote users. Onboard payload systems are managed by the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC). Users access HOSC systems by internet protocols in support of daily operations, preflight simulation, and test. In support of this diverse user community, a modem security architecture has been implemented. The architecture has evolved over time from an isolated but open system to a system which supports local and remote access to the ISS over broad geographic regions. This has been accomplished through the use of an evolved security strategy, PKI, and custom design. Through this paper, descriptions of the migration process and the lessons learned are presented. This will include product decision criteria, rationale, and the use of commodity products in the end architecture. This paper will also stress the need for interoperability of various products and the effects of seemingly insignificant details.

  17. 75 FR 8043 - National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Employing Role-based Access Control,'' NIST Docket No. 96-052 to Rockwise, Inc., having a place of business... each segment in the order specified by that process definition. Role-based access control (RBAC)...

  18. 76 FR 3931 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 Meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  19. 75 FR 71790 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  20. 76 FR 38742 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  1. WWW--Wealth, Weariness or Waste. Controlled Vocabulary and Thesauri in Support of Online Information Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batty, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the problems of access to information in a machine-sensible environment, and the potential of modern library techniques to help in solving them. Explains how authors and publishers can make information more accessible by providing indexing information that uses controlled vocabulary, terms from a thesaurus, or other linguistic assistance…

  2. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. 816.66 Section 816.66 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access...

  3. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. 816.66 Section 816.66 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access...

  4. The Smart Card concept applied to access control

    SciTech Connect

    Seidman, S.

    1986-01-01

    Passwords tend to be handled carelessly, and so are easily lost or stolen. Because they are intangible, their loss or theft generally goes unnoticed. Because they are constant, they may be used by anyone for as long as they remain in active use by a legitimate user. A step up in password security is offered by a new range of products which generate a new code each time the device is used. Devices are being produced in packages as small as a standard plastic credit card, including internal battery power, integral keyboard and LCD display. Security features of the Smart Card are reviewed, and several random access code generators currently available in the commercial marketplace are described.

  5. 75 FR 43825 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ...The Librarian of Congress announces that the prohibition against circumvention of technological measures that effectively control access to copyrighted works shall not apply to persons who engage in noninfringing uses of six classes of copyrighted...

  6. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... controlled substances are current and in good standing. (c) After one individual designated under paragraph... required by the two-factor authentication protocol is lost, stolen, or compromised. Such access must...

  7. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... controlled substances are current and in good standing. (c) After one individual designated under paragraph... required by the two-factor authentication protocol is lost, stolen, or compromised. Such access must...

  8. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... controlled substances are current and in good standing. (c) After one individual designated under paragraph... required by the two-factor authentication protocol is lost, stolen, or compromised. Such access must...

  9. 75 FR 47464 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ...The Copyright Office makes a nonsubstantial correction to its regulation announcing the prohibition against circumvention of technological measures that effectively control access to copyrighted works shall not apply to persons who engage in noninfringing uses of six classes of copyrighted...

  10. Increasing software testability with standard access and control interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, Allen P; Some, Raphael R.; Tamir, Yuval

    2003-01-01

    We describe an approach to improving the testability of complex software systems with software constructs modeled after the hardware JTAG bus, used to provide visibility and controlability in testing digital circuits.

  11. Cognitive Control and Lexical Access in Younger and Older Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus; Luk, Gigi

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-six participants, who were younger (20 years) or older (68 years) adults and either monolingual or bilingual, completed tasks assessing working memory, lexical retrieval, and executive control. Younger participants performed most of the tasks better than older participants, confirming the effect of aging on these processes. The effect of…

  12. An Action-Based Fine-Grained Access Control Mechanism for Structured Documents and Its Application

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mang; Li, Fenghua; Tang, Zhi; Yu, Yinyan; Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents. Firstly, we define a describing model for structured documents and analyze the application scenarios. The describing model could support the permission management on chapters, pages, sections, words, and pictures of structured documents. Secondly, based on the action-based access control (ABAC) model, we propose a fine-grained control protocol for structured documents by introducing temporal state and environmental state. The protocol covering different stages from document creation, to permission specification and usage control are given by using the Z-notation. Finally, we give the implementation of our mechanism and make the comparisons between the existing methods and our mechanism. The result shows that our mechanism could provide the better solution of fine-grained access control for structured documents in complicated networks. Moreover, it is more flexible and practical. PMID:25136651

  13. Generalized access control strategies for integrated services token passing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Joseph W. M.; Tobagi, Fouad A.; Boyd, Stephen

    1994-08-01

    The demand for integrated services local area networks is increasing at a rapid pace with the advent of many new and exciting applications: office and factory automation, distributed computing, and multimedia communications. To support these new applications, it is imperative to integrate traffic with diverse statistical characteristics and differing delay requirements on the same network. An attractive approach for integrating traffic has been adopted in two token passing local area network standards, the IEEE 802.4 token bus standard and FDDI. The idea is to control the transmissions of each station based on a distributed timing algorithm, so as to achieve the following goals: (1) to limit the token cycles so that time-critical traffic can be accommodated, and (2) to allocate pre-specified bandwidths to different stations when the network is overloaded. We have investigated the analysis and design of this protocol. In this paper, we generalize the transmission control algorithm used previously. The major advantages of the generalization over the original protocol are: (1) it provides a much expanded design space, (2) it guarantees convergent behavior, and (3) it gives meaningful insights into the dynamics of the basic control algorithm.

  14. Advanced Guidance and Control for Hypersonics and Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Hall, Charles E.; Mulqueen, John A.; Jones, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety, reliability, and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV), whether it is fully rocket-powered or has air- breathing components. This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies could have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where t h i s technology applies, and the costs and time associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is the point where we can look to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AWC, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality. There are a number of approaches to AG&C that have the potential for achieving the desired goals. For some of these methods, we compare the results of tests designed to demonstrate the achievement of the goals. Tests up to now have been focused on rocket-powered vehicles; application to hypersonic air-breathers is planned. We list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, briefly describe an automated test scoring method, and display results of the tests. Some of the technology components have reached the maturity level where they are ready for application to a new vehicle concept, while others are not far along in development.

  15. Steganography-based access control to medical data hidden in electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Mai, Vu; Khalil, Ibrahim; Ibaida, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Steganographic techniques allow secret data to be embedded inside another host data such as an image or a text file without significant changes to the quality of the host data. In this research, we demonstrate how steganography can be used as the main mechanism to build an access control model that gives data owners complete control to their sensitive cardiac health information hidden in their own Electrocardiograms. Our access control model is able to protect the privacy of users, the confidentiality of medical data, reduce storage space and make it more efficient to upload and download large amount of data. PMID:24109934

  16. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.17 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery Management Plan for the Golden Crab Fishery of...

  17. 50 CFR 622.241 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.241 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the...

  18. 50 CFR 622.241 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.241 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the...

  19. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.17 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery Management Plan for the Golden Crab Fishery of...

  20. 76 FR 38293 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... reports.\\10\\ \\1\\ See Exchange Act Release No. 63241 (Nov. 3, 2010), 75 FR 69792 (Nov. 15, 2010) (``Rule... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AK53 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  1. 50 CFR 648.82 - Effort-control program for NE multispecies limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effort-control program for NE...-control program for NE multispecies limited access vessels. (a) Except as provided in §§ 648.17 and 648.82... program described in this section, unless otherwise provided elsewhere in this part. (1) End-of-year...

  2. 75 FR 4007 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    .... 40354 (August 24, 1998), 63 FR 46264 (August 31, 1998) (NASD NTM-98-66). Certain market participants may... subscribers to ATSs, appropriately control the risks associated with market access, so as not to jeopardize... unaware of the trading activity occurring under its market identifier and have no mechanism to control...

  3. Analysis of Decision Factors for the Application of Information Access Controls within the Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foerster, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of access controls on internal information necessarily impacts the availability of that information for sharing inside the enterprise. The decisions establishing the degree of control are a crucial first step to balance the requirements to protect and share. This research develops a set of basic decision factors and examines other…

  4. Joint Random Access and Power Control Game in Ad Hoc Networks with Noncooperative Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Chengnian; Guan, Xinping

    We consider a distributed joint random access and power control scheme for interference management in wireless ad hoc networks. To derive decentralized solutions that do not require any cooperation among the users, we formulate this problem as non-cooperative joint random access and power control game, in which each user minimizes its average transmission cost with a given rate constraint. Using supermodular game theory, the existence and uniqueness of Nash equilibrium are established. Furthermore, we present an asynchronous distributed algorithm to compute the solution of the game based on myopic best response updates, which converges to Nash equilibrium globally.

  5. Automated biometric access control system for two-man-rule enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.P.; Maxwell, R.L. ); Henderson, R.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a limited access control system for nuclear facilities which makes use of the eye retinal identity verifier to control the passage of personnel into and out of one or a group of security controlled working areas. This access control system requires no keys, cards or credentials. The user simply enters his Personal Identification Number (PIN) and takes an eye reading to request passage. The PIN does not have to be kept secret. The system then relies on biometric identity verification of the user, along with other system information, to make the decision of whether or not to unlock the door. It also enforces multiple zones control with personnel tracking and the two-man-rule.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Virtualization Techniques for Control and Access of Storage Systems in Data Center Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-09-01

    Virtualization is a new technology that creates virtual environments based on the existing physical resources. This article evaluates effect of virtualization techniques on control servers and access method in storage systems [1, 2]. In control server virtualization, we have presented a tile based evaluation based on heterogeneous workloads to compare several key parameters and demonstrate effectiveness of virtualization techniques. Moreover, we have evaluated the virtualized model using VMotion techniques and maximum consolidation. In access method, we have prepared three different scenarios using direct, semi-virtual, and virtual attachment models. We have evaluated the proposed models with several workloads including OLTP database, data streaming, file server, web server, etc. Results of evaluation for different criteria confirm that server virtualization technique has high throughput and CPU usage as well as good performance with noticeable agility. Also virtual technique is a successful alternative for accessing to the storage systems especially in large capacity systems. This technique can therefore be an effective solution for expansion of storage area and reduction of access time. Results of different evaluation and measurements demonstrate that the virtualization in control server and full virtual access provide better performance and more agility as well as more utilization in the systems and improve business continuity plan.

  7. Nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA with Received-Power Adaptive Access Control Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komuro, Nobuyoshi; Habuchi, Hiromasa; Tsuboi, Toshinori

    The measurements for Multiple Access Interference (MAI) problems and the improvement of the data rate are key issues on the advanced wireless networks. In this paper, the nonorthogonal Code Shift Keying Code Division Multiple Access (CSK/CDMA) with received-power adaptive access control scheme is proposed. In our system, a user who is ready to send measures the received power from other users, and then the user decides whether to transmit or refrain from transmission according to the received power and a pre-decided threshold. Not only overcoming the MAI problems, but our system also improve the throughput performance. The throughput performance of the proposed system is evaluated by theoretical analysis. Consequently, the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA system improves by applying received-power adaptive access control. It was also found that the throughput performance of the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA system is better than that of the orthogonal CSK/CDMA system at any Eb/N0. We conclude that the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA system with received-power adaptive access control scheme is expected to be effective in advanced wireless networks.

  8. Toward Federated Security and Data Access Control within a Services Oriented Architecture for Publishing Hydrologic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsburgh, J. S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Schreuders, K.; Patil, K. S.

    2010-12-01

    Academic researchers who manage experimental watersheds, observatories, and research sites need the ability to effectively collect, manage, and publish hydrologic data. This often requires the ability to control and document access to the data. One current mechanism for publishing data from experimental sites uses the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS). The CUAHSI HIS Project has developed a software stack called HydroServer for publishing hydrologic data. HydroServer relies on a standard relational database schema for storing hydrologic observations, called the Observations Data Model (ODM), a standard set of web services for publishing observations stored in an ODM database, called WaterOneFlow, and a standard XML schema for exchanging hydrologic observations data, called Water Markup Language (WaterML). These standards make is possible for disparate investigators to publish their data as web services within a federated network of HydroServers. Once a HydroServer is operational, all Internet users can access all of the data on the server, with no requirement for users to identify themselves, or restriction on what can be accessed. There are a number of situations where data producers want to take advantage of the organization and functionality that ODM and the HydroServer software stack provides, but without providing unrestricted and unlogged access to all of the data that they are putting on their server. These include the desire of academic data collectors to: 1) control who can access/download data; 2) publish research results based on data before the data are released to the general public; 3) keep track of who is downloading and using their data to evaluate and document its impact on the community; 4) have and use a data use/access agreement and ensure that they get credit and appropriate citation for the data that they publish; 5) expose the best or highest quality data

  9. Accessibility to tuberculosis control services and tuberculosis programme performance in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the expansion of health services and community-based interventions in Ethiopia, limited evidence exists about the distribution of and access to health facilities and their relationship with the performance of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We aim to assess the geographical distribution of and physical accessibility to TB control services and their relationship with TB case notification rates (CNRs) and treatment outcome in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. Design We carried out an ecological study to assess physical accessibility to TB control facilities and the association of physical accessibility with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. We collected smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) cases treated during 2003–2012 from unit TB registers and TB service data such as availability of basic supplies for TB control and geographic locations of health services. We used ArcGIS 10.2 to measure the distance from each enumeration location to the nearest TB control facilities. A linear regression analysis was employed to assess factors associated with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. Results Over a decade the health service coverage (the health facility–to-population ratio) increased by 36% and the accessibility to TB control facilities also improved. Thus, the mean distance from TB control services was 7.6 km in 2003 (ranging from 1.8 to 25.5 km) between kebeles (the smallest administrative units) and had decreased to 3.2 km in 2012 (ranging from 1.5 to 12.4 km). In multivariate linear regression, as distance from TB diagnostic facilities (b-estimate=−0.25, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.31, p<0.001) increased, the CNRs of TB decreased, whereas a higher population density was associated with increased TB CNRs. Similarly, distance to TB control facilities (b-estimate=−0.27, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.30, p<0.001) were inversely associated with treatment success (proportion of treatment completed or cured cases). Conclusions

  10. Efficient Service Delivery for High-speed Railway Communications Using MIMO and Access Control Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuzhe; Ai, Bo

    2014-07-01

    In order to realize the notion of "anytime, anywhere" communication for high-speed train passengers, the Long Term Evolution for Railway is designed to provide broadband accesses and reliable communications for high-speed train passengers. However, with the increase of train speed, the system is subject to high bit error rate, Doppler frequency shift, and call drops. This paper is trying to solve these problems by employing the Multiple-Input Multiple-Output technique and access control schemes. The goal is to provide higher quality of services such as data rate, reliability, and delay for train passengers. Physical layer performance analysis and access control schemes are proposed in a two-hop model. Handovers and service types are also considered. Simulation results show that proposed models and schemes perform better in improving the quality of services.

  11. A Study on Automated Context-aware Access Control Model Using Ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bokman; Jang, Hyokyung; Choi, Euiin

    Applications in context-aware computing environment will be connected wireless network and various devices. According to, recklessness access of information resource can make trouble of system. So, access authority management is very important issue both information resource and adapt to system through founding security policy of needed system. But, existing security model is easy of approach to resource through simply user ID and password. This model has a problem that is not concerned about user's environment information. In this paper, propose model of automated context-aware access control using ontology that can more efficiently control about resource through inference and judgment of context information that collect user's information and user's environment context information in order to ontology modeling.

  12. Pace: Privacy-Protection for Access Control Enforcement in P2P Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Artigas, Marc; García-López, Pedro

    In open environments such as peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, the decision to collaborate with multiple users — e.g., by granting access to a resource — is hard to achieve in practice due to extreme decentralization and the lack of trusted third parties. The literature contains a plethora of applications in which a scalable solution for distributed access control is crucial. This fact motivates us to propose a protocol to enforce access control, applicable to networks consisting entirely of untrusted nodes. The main feature of our protocol is that it protects both sensitive permissions and sensitive policies, and does not rely on any centralized authority. We analyze the efficiency (computational effort and communication overhead) as well as the security of our protocol.

  13. Mining Roles and Access Control for Relational Data under Privacy and Accuracy Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pervaiz, Zahid

    2013-01-01

    Access control mechanisms protect sensitive information from unauthorized users. However, when sensitive information is shared and a Privacy Protection Mechanism (PPM) is not in place, an authorized insider can still compromise the privacy of a person leading to identity disclosure. A PPM can use suppression and generalization to anonymize and…

  14. Kinetically Controlled Chemoselective Cyclization Simplifies the Access to Cyclic and Branched Peptides.

    PubMed

    Boll, Emmanuelle; Drobecq, Hervé; Lissy, Elizabeth; Cantrelle, François-Xavier; Melnyk, Oleg

    2016-08-01

    A bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amido group reacts significantly faster with cysteinyl peptides when installed on the C-terminal end of a peptide in comparison with the side-chain of Asp and Glu. This property enabled the design of a kinetically controlled chemoselective peptide cyclization reaction, giving straightforward access to cyclic and branched peptides in one pot. PMID:27398649

  15. 50 CFR 648.82 - Effort-control program for NE multispecies limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effort-control program for NE multispecies limited access vessels. 648.82 Section 648.82 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures...

  16. 77 FR 26789 - Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... violation of section 337 in the infringement of certain patents. 73 FR 75131. The principal respondent was... order. 75 FR 44989-90 (July 30, 2010). The Commission also issued cease and desist orders against those... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers...

  17. Secure Access Control and Large Scale Robust Representation for Online Multimedia Event Detection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changyu; Li, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    We developed an online multimedia event detection (MED) system. However, there are a secure access control issue and a large scale robust representation issue when we want to integrate traditional event detection algorithms into the online environment. For the first issue, we proposed a tree proxy-based and service-oriented access control (TPSAC) model based on the traditional role based access control model. Verification experiments were conducted on the CloudSim simulation platform, and the results showed that the TPSAC model is suitable for the access control of dynamic online environments. For the second issue, inspired by the object-bank scene descriptor, we proposed a 1000-object-bank (1000OBK) event descriptor. Feature vectors of the 1000OBK were extracted from response pyramids of 1000 generic object detectors which were trained on standard annotated image datasets, such as the ImageNet dataset. A spatial bag of words tiling approach was then adopted to encode these feature vectors for bridging the gap between the objects and events. Furthermore, we performed experiments in the context of event classification on the challenging TRECVID MED 2012 dataset, and the results showed that the robust 1000OBK event descriptor outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:25147840

  18. A Stateful Multicast Access Control Mechanism for Future Metro-Area-Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei-qiang; Li, Jin-sheng; Hong, Pei-lin

    2003-01-01

    Multicasting is a necessity for a broadband metro-area-network; however security problems exist with current multicast protocols. A stateful multicast access control mechanism, based on MAPE, is proposed. The architecture of MAPE is discussed, as well as the states maintained and messages exchanged. The scheme is flexible and scalable. (Author/AEF)

  19. The Use of Passwords for Controlled Access to Computer Resources. Computer Science & Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Helen M.

    This paper considers the generation of passwords and their effective application to the problem of controlling access to computer resources. After describing the need for and uses of passwords, password schemes are categorized according to selection technique, lifetime, physical characteristics, and information content. Password protection, both…

  20. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. 817.66 Section 817.66 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM...

  1. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. 817.66 Section 817.66 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM...

  2. An Annotated and Cross-Referenced Bibliography on Computer Security and Access Control in Computer Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergart, Jeffrey G.; And Others

    This paper represents a careful study of published works on computer security and access control in computer systems. The study includes a selective annotated bibliography of some eighty-five important published results in the field and, based on these papers, analyzes the state of the art. In annotating these works, the authors try to be…

  3. An Application Instance of Fingerprint Identification in the School Office Access Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lijun

    This paper designs the school office access control system by using the fingerprint identification method, and introduces the software design and the adopted hardware modules. These include fingerprint collection, fingerprint image processing, and fingerprint identification and verification. As proved in the experimental results, this design can fully meet the expectation.

  4. Control of Access to Memory: The Use of Task Interference as a Behavioral Probe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Humphreys, Michael S.; Whitney, Susannah J.

    2008-01-01

    Directed forgetting and prospective memory methods were combined to examine differences in the control of memory access. Between studying two lists of target words, participants were either instructed to forget the first list, or to continue remembering the first list. After study participants performed a lexical decision task with an additional…

  5. Functional requirements with survey results for integrated intrusion detection and access control annunciator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the guidance Functional Requirements for an Integrated Intrusion Detection and Access Control Annunciator System, and survey results of selected commercial systems. The survey questions were based upon the functional requirements; therefore, the results reflect which and sometimes how the guidance recommendations were met.

  6. Longitudinal occupancy of controlled access right-of-way by utilities. A synthesis of highway practice

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    This synthesis will be of interest to transportation agency administrators, design engineers, maintenance engineers and maintenance staff, traffic engineers, and safety officials. It will also provide useful information to the utilities and telecommunications industries. Information is presented on the state transportation agencies` policies, practices, and experience associated with occupancy of the rights-of-way on controlled- (or Limited-) access highways.

  7. Predicting Health Care Utilization among Latinos: Health Locus of Control Beliefs or Access Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jesus, Maria; Xiao, Chenyang

    2014-01-01

    There are two competing research explanations to account for Latinos' underutilization of health services relative to non-Latino Whites in the United States. One hypothesis examines the impact of health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs, while the other focuses on the role of access factors on health care use. To date, the relative strength of…

  8. An Access Control and Trust Management Framework for Loosely-Coupled Multidomain Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yue

    2010-01-01

    Multidomain environments where multiple organizations interoperate with each other are becoming a reality as can be seen in emerging Internet-based enterprise applications. Access control to ensure secure interoperation in such an environment is a crucial challenge. A multidomain environment can be categorized as "tightly-coupled" and…

  9. Distributed data access in the LAMPF (Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility) control system

    SciTech Connect

    Schaller, S.C.; Bjorklund, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    We have extended the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) control system software to allow uniform access to data and controls throughout the control system network. Two aspects of this work are discussed here. Of primary interest is the use of standard interfaces and standard messages to allow uniform and easily expandable inter-node communication. A locally designed remote procedure call protocol will be described. Of further interest is the use of distributed databases to allow maximal hardware independence in the controls software. Application programs use local partial copies of the global device description database to resolve symbolic device names.

  10. Accessibility of dog populations for rabies control in Kathmandu valley, Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Bögel, K.; Joshi, D. D.

    1990-01-01

    The accessibility of dogs in urban areas of Kathmandu valley was measured using the following approaches: determination of the proportion of dogs that bore signs of having been the objects of religious worship and other signs of household association, supplemented by information obtained by interviewing people in the neighbourhood; and the vaccination coverage attained in a rabies control campaign that was preceded by intensive activities to encourage the community to participate. An accessibility rate of 90-95% was determined using the first of these approaches, whereas 75-80% of the total dog population was reached in the vaccination campaign. PMID:2289296

  11. Access Scheme for Controlling Mobile Agents and its Application to Share Medical Information.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Ting; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chung, Yu-Fang; Chen, Yu- Xin; Hwang, Jen-Hung; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei

    2016-05-01

    This study is showing the advantage of mobile agents to conquer heterogeneous system environments and contribute to a virtual integrated sharing system. Mobile agents will collect medical information from each medical institution as a method to achieve the medical purpose of data sharing. Besides, this research also provides an access control and key management mechanism by adopting Public key cryptography and Lagrange interpolation. The safety analysis of the system is based on a network attacker's perspective. The achievement of this study tries to improve the medical quality, prevent wasting medical resources and make medical resources access to appropriate configuration. PMID:27010391

  12. Joint Power and Multiple Access Control for Wireless Mesh Network with Rose Projection Method

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Meiqin; Shang, Lili; Xin, Yalin; Liu, Xiaohua; Wei, Xinjiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the utility maximization problem for the downlink of the multi-interface multichannel wireless mesh network with orthogonal frequency division multiple access. A cross-layer joint power and multiple access control algorithm are proposed. Rosen projection matrix is combined with Solodov projection techniques to build a three-memory gradient Rosen projection method, which is applied to solve this optimization problem. The convergence analysis is given and simulations show that the proposed solution achieves significant throughput compared with existing approaches. PMID:24883384

  13. The Virtual Jason Control Van: A GeoBrowser Application for Automatic Data Cataloging and Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, S.

    2001-12-01

    Today's scientific underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) generate a tremendous amount of data collected from a variety of sensors in real-time. Often integrated information such as multiple video streams, vehicle telemetry, and scientific data are only available to the users in the ROV control-van during real-time operations. Although all the data is logged, it is extremely difficult for scientists to re-create this integrated information and have the ability to view and access an entire cruise dataset in an integrated fashion. We introduce a methodology of taking real-time information snapshots during events that occur within the ROV control-van and using these snapshots for data access and analysis. We take control-van snapshots during "interesting" events as defined whenever a scientist enters an event via a computer, and we also take snapshots at regular time intervals such as once a minute to ensure complete data coverage. As part of the JasonII ROV upgrade, we have developed a prototype system that automatically captures the information in the control-van during ROV operations including up to four simultaneous video sources, vehicle data, scientific instrument data, and event data. These control-van snapshots are automatically cataloged and immediately accessible and searchable via a web-browser. The system is designed for both scientific and public outreach needs and will be integrated with the SeaNet system to provide remote access on-shore for scientific collaboration and public outreach. During this past year, the prototype system has been deployed on four Jason cruises and has captured over 40,000 control-van snapshots, containing more than 160,000 images. Each control-van snapshot seamlessly integrates the four simultaneous video snapshots with vehicle data such as navigation, depth, and heading, scientific instrument data from instruments such as a ctd and a magnetometer, and event data as entered by scientists. All this information is

  14. BARTER: Behavior Profile Exchange for Behavior-Based Admission and Access Control in MANETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frias-Martinez, Vanessa; Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Keromytis, Angelos D.

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are very dynamic networks with devices continuously entering and leaving the group. The highly dynamic nature of MANETs renders the manual creation and update of policies associated with the initial incorporation of devices to the MANET (admission control) as well as with anomaly detection during communications among members (access control) a very difficult task. In this paper, we present BARTER, a mechanism that automatically creates and updates admission and access control policies for MANETs based on behavior profiles. BARTER is an adaptation for fully distributed environments of our previously introduced BB-NAC mechanism for NAC technologies. Rather than relying on a centralized NAC enforcer, MANET members initially exchange their behavior profiles and compute individual local definitions of normal network behavior. During admission or access control, each member issues an individual decision based on its definition of normalcy. Individual decisions are then aggregated via a threshold cryptographic infrastructure that requires an agreement among a fixed amount of MANET members to change the status of the network. We present experimental results using content and volumetric behavior profiles computed from the ENRON dataset. In particular, we show that the mechanism achieves true rejection rates of 95% with false rejection rates of 9%.

  15. Controlled Access Headings in EAD Finding Aids: Current Practices in Number of and Types of Headings Assigned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascaro, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a study of controlled access headings assigned to encoded archival description finding aids in the Ohio Library and Information Network Finding Aid Repository, focusing on the number of headings per finding aid and the category of terms assigned. Assigning multiple controlled access headings was widely…

  16. An Internet of Things Example: Classrooms Access Control over Near Field Communication

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Daniel; Agudo, Juan Enrique; Sánchez, Héctor; Macías, Miguel Macías

    2014-01-01

    The Internet of Things is one of the ideas that has become increasingly relevant in recent years. It involves connecting things to the Internet in order to retrieve information from them at any time and from anywhere. In the Internet of Things, sensor networks that exchange information wirelessly via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee or RF are common. In this sense, our paper presents a way in which each classroom control is accessed through Near Field Communication (NFC) and the information is shared via radio frequency. These data are published on the Web and could easily be used for building applications from the data collected. As a result, our application collects information from the classroom to create a control classroom tool that displays access to and the status of all the classrooms graphically and also connects this data with social networks. PMID:24755520

  17. An internet of things example: classrooms access control over near field communication.

    PubMed

    Palma, Daniel; Agudo, Juan Enrique; Sánchez, Héctor; Macías, Miguel Macías

    2014-01-01

    The Internet of Things is one of the ideas that has become increasingly relevant in recent years. It involves connecting things to the Internet in order to retrieve information from them at any time and from anywhere. In the Internet of Things, sensor networks that exchange information wirelessly via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee or RF are common. In this sense, our paper presents a way in which each classroom control is accessed through Near Field Communication (NFC) and the information is shared via radio frequency. These data are published on the Web and could easily be used for building applications from the data collected. As a result, our application collects information from the classroom to create a control classroom tool that displays access to and the status of all the classrooms graphically and also connects this data with social networks. PMID:24755520

  18. A threat intelligence framework for access control security in the oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaskandrani, Faisal T.

    The research investigates the problem raised by the rapid development in the technology industry giving security concerns in facilities built by the energy industry containing diverse platforms. The difficulty of continuous updates to network security architecture and assessment gave rise to the need to use threat intelligence frameworks to better assess and address networks security issues. Focusing on access control security to the ICS and SCADA systems that is being utilized to carry out mission critical and life threatening operations. The research evaluates different threat intelligence frameworks that can be implemented in the industry seeking the most suitable and applicable one that address the issue and provide more security measures. The validity of the result is limited to the same environment that was researched as well as the technologies being utilized. The research concludes that it is possible to utilize a Threat Intelligence framework to prioritize security in Access Control Measures in the Oil Industry.

  19. A Privacy Access Control Framework for Web Services Collaboration with Role Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Linyuan; Huang, Zhiqiu; Zhu, Haibin

    With the popularity of Internet technology, web services are becoming the most promising paradigm for distributed computing. This increased use of web services has meant that more and more personal information of consumers is being shared with web service providers, leading to the need to guarantee the privacy of consumers. This paper proposes a role-based privacy access control framework for Web services collaboration, it utilizes roles to specify the privacy privileges of services, and considers the impact on the reputation degree of the historic experience of services in playing roles. Comparing to the traditional privacy access control approaches, this framework can make the fine-grained authorization decision, thus efficiently protecting consumers' privacy.

  20. Gain transient control for wavelength division multiplexed access networks using semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbon, T. B.; Osadchiy, A. V.; Kjær, R.; Jensen, J. B.; Monroy, I. Tafur

    2009-06-01

    Gain transients can severely hamper the upstream network performance in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) access networks featuring erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) or Raman amplification. We experimentally demonstrate for the first time using 10 Gb/s fiber transmission bit error rate measurements how a near-saturated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) can be used to control these gain transients. An SOA is shown to reduce the penalty of transients originating in an EDFA from 2.3 dB to 0.2 dB for 10 Gb/s transmission over standard single mode fiber using a 2 31-1 PRBS pattern. The results suggest that a single SOA integrated within a WDM receiver at the metro node could offer a convenient all-optical solution for upstream transient control in WDM access networks.

  1. Ver-i-Fus: an integrated access control and information monitoring and management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C.; Reisman, James G.; Papelis, Yiannis E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the Ver-i-Fus Integrated Access Control and Information Monitoring and Management (IAC-I2M) system that INTELNET Inc. has developed. The Ver-i-Fus IAC-I2M system has been designed to meet the most stringent security and information monitoring requirements while allowing two- way communication between the user and the system. The systems offers a flexible interface that permits to integrate practically any sensing device, or combination of sensing devices, including a live-scan fingerprint reader, thus providing biometrics verification for enhanced security. Different configurations of the system provide solutions to different sets of access control problems. The re-configurable hardware interface, tied together with biometrics verification and a flexible interface that allows to integrate Ver-i-Fus with an MIS, provide an integrated solution to security, time and attendance, labor monitoring, production monitoring, and payroll applications.

  2. Dramatic reduction of read disturb through pulse width control in spin torque random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zihui; Wang, Xiaobin; Gan, Huadong; Jung, Dongha; Satoh, Kimihiro; Lin, Tsann; Zhou, Yuchen; Zhang, Jing; Huai, Yiming; Chang, Yao-Jen; Wu, Te-ho

    2013-09-01

    Magnetizations dynamic effect in low current read disturb region is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Dramatic read error rate reduction through read pulse width control is theoretically predicted and experimentally observed. The strong dependence of read error rate upon pulse width contrasts conventional energy barrier approach and can only be obtained considering detailed magnetization dynamics at long time thermal magnetization reversal region. Our study provides a design possibility for ultra-fast low current spin torque random access memory.

  3. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and “native” mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources—file system, location, camera, contacts, etc. Hybrid apps are typically developed using hybrid application frameworks such as PhoneGap. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, it provides an embedded Web browser (for example, WebView on Android) that executes the app's Web code. Second, it supplies “bridges” that allow Web code to escape the browser and access local resources on the device. We analyze the software stack created by hybrid frameworks and demonstrate that it does not properly compose the access-control policies governing Web code and local code, respectively. Web code is governed by the same origin policy, whereas local code is governed by the access-control policy of the operating system (for example, user-granted permissions in Android). The bridges added by the framework to the browser have the same local access rights as the entire application, but are not correctly protected by the same origin policy. This opens the door to fracking attacks, which allow foreign-origin Web content included into a hybrid app (e.g., ads confined in iframes) to drill through the layers and directly access device resources. Fracking vulnerabilities are generic: they affect all hybrid frameworks, all embedded Web browsers, all bridge mechanisms, and all platforms on which these frameworks are deployed. We study the prevalence of fracking vulnerabilities in free Android apps based on the PhoneGap framework. Each vulnerability exposes sensitive local resources—the ability to read and write contacts list, local files, etc.—to dozens of potentially malicious Web domains. We also analyze the defenses deployed by hybrid frameworks to prevent resource access by foreign

  4. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and "native" mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources-file system, location, camera, contacts, etc. Hybrid apps are typically developed using hybrid application frameworks such as PhoneGap. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, it provides an embedded Web browser (for example, WebView on Android) that executes the app's Web code. Second, it supplies "bridges" that allow Web code to escape the browser and access local resources on the device. We analyze the software stack created by hybrid frameworks and demonstrate that it does not properly compose the access-control policies governing Web code and local code, respectively. Web code is governed by the same origin policy, whereas local code is governed by the access-control policy of the operating system (for example, user-granted permissions in Android). The bridges added by the framework to the browser have the same local access rights as the entire application, but are not correctly protected by the same origin policy. This opens the door to fracking attacks, which allow foreign-origin Web content included into a hybrid app (e.g., ads confined in iframes) to drill through the layers and directly access device resources. Fracking vulnerabilities are generic: they affect all hybrid frameworks, all embedded Web browsers, all bridge mechanisms, and all platforms on which these frameworks are deployed. We study the prevalence of fracking vulnerabilities in free Android apps based on the PhoneGap framework. Each vulnerability exposes sensitive local resources-the ability to read and write contacts list, local files, etc.-to dozens of potentially malicious Web domains. We also analyze the defenses deployed by hybrid frameworks to prevent resource access by foreign-origin Web content

  5. Layered Multicast Encryption of Motion JPEG2000 Code Streams for Flexible Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakachi, Takayuki; Toyoshima, Kan; Tonomura, Yoshihide; Fujii, Tatsuya

    In this paper, we propose a layered multicast encryption scheme that provides flexible access control to motion JPEG2000 code streams. JPEG2000 generates layered code streams and offers flexible scalability in characteristics such as resolution and SNR. The layered multicast encryption proposal allows a sender to multicast the encrypted JPEG2000 code streams such that only designated groups of users can decrypt the layered code streams. While keeping the layering functionality, the proposed method offers useful properties such as 1) video quality control using only one private key, 2) guaranteed security, and 3) low computational complexity comparable to conventional non-layered encryption. Simulation results show the usefulness of the proposed method.

  6. MPEG-21 as an access control tool for the National Health Service Care Records Service.

    PubMed

    Brox, Georg A

    2005-01-01

    Since the launch of the National Health Service (NHS) Care Records Service with plans to share patient information across England, there has been an emphasis on the need for manageable access control methods. MPEG-21 is a structured file format which includes an Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) function using XML to present all digitally stored items in the patient record. Using DICreator software, patient records consisting of written text, audio-recordings, non-X-ray digital imaging and video sequences were linked up successfully. Audio records were created using Talk-Back 2002 to standardize and optimize recording quality. The recorded reports were then linked and archived using iTunes. A key was used each time the file was displayed to secure access to confidential patient data. The building of the correct file structure could be monitored during the entire creation of the file. The results demonstrated the ability to ensure secure access of the MPEG-21 file by both health-care professionals and patients by use of different keys and a specific MPEG-21 browser. The study also showed that the enabling of IPMP will provide accurate audit trails to authenticate appropriate access to medical information. PMID:16035983

  7. Hypertension Detection, Management, Control and Associated Factors Among Residents Accessing Community Health Services In Beijing

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, Bin; LIU, Hongmei; RU, Xiaojuan; ZHANG, Hui; WU, Shengping; WANG, Wenzhi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse high blood pressure detection, management, control and associated factors among residents accessing community health services (CHSs) in Beijing. We screened for HBP in 9524 individuals aged 50 years or older who accessed care in four Beijing CHSs. Among the 9397 residents with questionnaire responses that qualified them for inclusion in the study, 5029 patients with HBP were identified, 1510 (i.e., 30% of the HBP patient group) of whom were newly identified cases. The rate of hypertension detection was 53.5%. Among the 5029 HBP patients, the rates of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were 70.0%, 62.1% and 29.6%, respectively. In general, the rate of hypertension control was higher when the rates of hypertension awareness and treatment were higher in subgroups stratified by different sociodemographic and risk factors, except for the overweight and obesity subgroups. In conclusion, suboptimal HBP awareness, treatment, and control are still major problems confronting CHSs in Beijing. Control of hypertension in the population may be improved by increasing awareness and improving the treatment of hypertension in CHSs. PMID:24784167

  8. Toward an Open-Access Global Database for Mapping, Control, and Surveillance of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Boutsika, Konstantina; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Laserna de Himpsl, Maiti; Ziegelbauer, Kathrin; Laizer, Nassor; Camenzind, Lukas; Di Pasquale, Aurelio; Ekpo, Uwem F.; Simoonga, Christopher; Mushinge, Gabriel; Saarnak, Christopher F. L.; Utzinger, Jürg; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    Background After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark for monitoring and evaluation. What is currently missing is a georeferenced global database for NTDs providing open-access to the available survey data that is constantly updated and can be utilized by researchers and disease control managers to support other relevant stakeholders. We describe the steps taken toward the development of such a database that can be employed for spatial disease risk modeling and control of NTDs. Methodology With an emphasis on schistosomiasis in Africa, we systematically searched the literature (peer-reviewed journals and ‘grey literature’), contacted Ministries of Health and research institutions in schistosomiasis-endemic countries for location-specific prevalence data and survey details (e.g., study population, year of survey and diagnostic techniques). The data were extracted, georeferenced, and stored in a MySQL database with a web interface allowing free database access and data management. Principal Findings At the beginning of 2011, our database contained more than 12,000 georeferenced schistosomiasis survey locations from 35 African countries available under http://www.gntd.org. Currently, the database is expanded to a global repository, including a host of other NTDs, e.g. soil-transmitted helminthiasis and leishmaniasis. Conclusions An open-access, spatially explicit NTD database offers unique opportunities for disease risk modeling, targeting control interventions, disease monitoring, and surveillance. Moreover, it allows for detailed geostatistical analyses of disease distribution in space and time. With an initial focus on schistosomiasis in Africa, we demonstrate the proof-of-concept that the establishment and running of a

  9. A network access control framework for 6LoWPAN networks.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luís M L; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; de Sousa, Amaro F; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Low power over wireless personal area networks (LoWPAN), in particular wireless sensor networks, represent an emerging technology with high potential to be employed in critical situations like security surveillance, battlefields, smart-grids, and in e-health applications. The support of security services in LoWPAN is considered a challenge. First, this type of networks is usually deployed in unattended environments, making them vulnerable to security attacks. Second, the constraints inherent to LoWPAN, such as scarce resources and limited battery capacity, impose a careful planning on how and where the security services should be deployed. Besides protecting the network from some well-known threats, it is important that security mechanisms be able to withstand attacks that have not been identified before. One way of reaching this goal is to control, at the network access level, which nodes can be attached to the network and to enforce their security compliance. This paper presents a network access security framework that can be used to control the nodes that have access to the network, based on administrative approval, and to enforce security compliance to the authorized nodes. PMID:23334610

  10. Frequency-selective design of wireless power transfer systems for controlled access applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschino, Tyler Stephen

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) has become a common way to charge or power many types of devices, ranging from cell phones to electric toothbrushes. WPT became popular through the introduction of a transmission mode known as strongly coupled magnetic resonance (SCMR). This means of transmission is non-radiative and enables mid-range WPT. Shortly after the development of WPT via SCMR, a group of researchers introduced the concept of resonant repeaters, which allows power to hop from the source to the device. These repeaters are in resonance with the WPT system, which enables them to propagate the power wirelessly with minimal losses to the environment. Resonant repeaters have rekindled the dream of ubiquitous wireless power. Inherent risks come with the realization of such a dream. One of the most prominent risks, which we set out in this thesis to address, is that of accessibility to the WPT system. We propose the incorporation of a controlled access schema within a WPT system to prevent unwarranted use of wireless power. Our thesis discusses the history of electromagnetism, examines the inception of WPT via SCMR, evaluates recent developments in WPT, and further elaborates on the controlled access schema we wish to contribute to the field.

  11. A Network Access Control Framework for 6LoWPAN Networks

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Luís M. L.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; de Sousa, Amaro F.; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Low power over wireless personal area networks (LoWPAN), in particular wireless sensor networks, represent an emerging technology with high potential to be employed in critical situations like security surveillance, battlefields, smart-grids, and in e-health applications. The support of security services in LoWPAN is considered a challenge. First, this type of networks is usually deployed in unattended environments, making them vulnerable to security attacks. Second, the constraints inherent to LoWPAN, such as scarce resources and limited battery capacity, impose a careful planning on how and where the security services should be deployed. Besides protecting the network from some well-known threats, it is important that security mechanisms be able to withstand attacks that have not been identified before. One way of reaching this goal is to control, at the network access level, which nodes can be attached to the network and to enforce their security compliance. This paper presents a network access security framework that can be used to control the nodes that have access to the network, based on administrative approval, and to enforce security compliance to the authorized nodes. PMID:23334610

  12. An interaction-based access control model (IBAC) for collaborative services

    SciTech Connect

    Altunay, Mine; Byrd, Gregory T.; Brown, Doug E.; Dean, Ralph A.; /North Carolina State U.

    2008-04-01

    A collaboration is a collection of services that work together to achieve a common goal. Although collaborations help when tackling difficult problems, they lead to security issues. First, a collaboration is often performed by services that are drawn from different security domains. Second, a service interacts with multiple peer services during the collaboration. These interactions are not isolated from one another--e.g., data may flow through a sequence of different services. As a result, a service is exposed to multiple peer services in varying degrees, leading to different security threats. We identify the types of interactions that can be present in collaborations, and discuss the security threats due to each type. We propose a model for representing the collaboration context so that a service can be made aware of the existing interactions. We provide an access control model for a service participating in a collaboration. We couple our access control model with a policy model, so that the access requirements from collaborations can be expressed and evaluated.

  13. A stochastic control approach to Slotted-ALOHA random access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrabissa, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    ALOHA random access protocols are distributed protocols based on transmission probabilities, that is, each node decides upon packet transmissions according to a transmission probability value. In the literature, ALOHA protocols are analysed by giving necessary and sufficient conditions for the stability of the queues of the node buffers under a control vector (whose elements are the transmission probabilities assigned to the nodes), given an arrival rate vector (whose elements represent the rates of the packets arriving in the node buffers). The innovation of this work is that, given an arrival rate vector, it computes the optimal control vector by defining and solving a stochastic control problem aimed at maximising the overall transmission efficiency, while keeping a grade of fairness among the nodes. Furthermore, a more general case in which the arrival rate vector changes in time is considered. The increased efficiency of the proposed solution with respect to the standard ALOHA approach is evaluated by means of numerical simulations.

  14. Experimental Investigation on Transmission Control Protocol Throughput Behavior in Optical Fiber Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tego, Edion; Matera, Francesco; del Buono, Donato

    2016-03-01

    This article describes an experimental investigation on the behavior of transmission control protocol in throughput measurements to be used in the verification of the service-level agreement between the Internet service provider and user in terms of line capacity for ultra-broadband access networks typical of fiber-to-the-x architectures. It is experimentally shown different conditions in high bandwidth-delay product links where the estimation of the line capacity based on a single transmission control protocol session results are unreliable. Simple equations reported in this work, and experimentally verified, point out the conditions in terms of packet loss, time delay, and line capacity, that allow consideration of the reliability of the measurement carried out with a single transmission control protocol session test by adopting a suitable measurement time duration.

  15. Towards real Interoperable, real Trusted Network Access Control: Experiences from Implementation and Application of Trusted Network Connect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Helden, Josef; Bente, Ingo

    Network Access Control (NAC) is the most promising approach to provide protection against sophisticated attacks that first compromise endpoints to subsequently continue their evil work in networks accessible via the compromised endpoint. Trusted Network Connect (TNC) is a NAC approach featuring interoperability and unforgeability due to its openness, broad vendor support and integration of Trusted Computing functions.

  16. A High Throughput Medium Access Control Implementation Based on IEEE 802.11e Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min Li; Lee, Jin; Setiawan, Hendra; Ochi, Hiroshi; Park, Sin-Chong

    With the growing demand for high-performance multimedia applications over wireless channels, we need to develop a Medium Access Control (MAC) system that supports high throughput and quality of service enhancements. This paper presents the standard analysis, design architecture and design issues leading to the implementation of an IEEE 802.11e based MAC system that supports MAC throughput of over 100Mbps. In order to meet the MAC layer timing constraints, a hardware/software co-design approach is adopted. The proposed MAC architecture is implemented on the Xilinx Virtex-II Pro Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (XC2VP70-5FF1704C) prototype, and connected to a host computer through an external Universal Serial Bus (USB) interface. The total FPGA resource utilization is 11, 508 out of 33, 088 (34%) available slices. The measured MAC throughput is 100.7Mbps and 109.2Mbps for voice and video access categories, transmitted at a data rate of 260Mbps based on IEEE 802.11n Physical Layer (PHY), using the contention-based hybrid coordination function channel access mechanism.

  17. A Flexible Component based Access Control Architecture for OPeNDAP Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kershaw, Philip; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Cinquini, Luca; Lawrence, Bryan; Pascoe, Stephen; Siebenlist, Frank

    2010-05-01

    Network data access services such as OPeNDAP enable widespread access to data across user communities. However, without ready means to restrict access to data for such services, data providers and data owners are constrained from making their data more widely available. Even with such capability, the range of different security technologies available can make interoperability between services and user client tools a challenge. OPeNDAP is a key data access service in the infrastructure under development to support the CMIP5 (Couple Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). The work is being carried out as part of an international collaboration including the US Earth System Grid and Curator projects and the EU funded IS-ENES and Metafor projects. This infrastructure will bring together Petabytes of climate model data and associated metadata from over twenty modelling centres around the world in a federation with a core archive mirrored at three data centres. A security system is needed to meet the requirements of organisations responsible for model data including the ability to restrict data access to registered users, keep them up to date with changes to data and services, audit access and protect finite computing resources. Individual organisations have existing tools and services such as OPeNDAP with which users in the climate research community are already familiar. The security system should overlay access control in a way which maintains the usability and ease of access to these services. The BADC (British Atmospheric Data Centre) has been working in collaboration with the Earth System Grid development team and partner organisations to develop the security architecture. OpenID and MyProxy were selected at an early stage in the ESG project to provide single sign-on capability across the federation of participating organisations. Building on the existing OPeNDAP specification an architecture based on pluggable server side components has been developed at the BADC

  18. Dynamic Key Management Schemes for Secure Group Access Control Using Hierarchical Clustering in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaur, Woei-Jiunn; Pai, Haw-Tyng

    2008-11-01

    The applications of group computing and communication motivate the requirement to provide group access control in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The operation in MANETs' groups performs a decentralized manner and accommodated membership dynamically. Moreover, due to lack of centralized control, MANETs' groups are inherently insecure and vulnerable to attacks from both within and outside the groups. Such features make access control more challenging in MANETs. Recently, several researchers have proposed group access control mechanisms in MANETs based on a variety of threshold signatures. However, these mechanisms cannot actually satisfy MANETs' dynamic environments. This is because the threshold-based mechanisms cannot be achieved when the number of members is not up to the threshold value. Hence, by combining the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem, self-certified public key cryptosystem and secure filter technique, we construct dynamic key management schemes based on hierarchical clustering for securing group access control in MANETs. Specifically, the proposed schemes can constantly accomplish secure group access control only by renewing the secure filters of few cluster heads, when a cluster head joins or leaves a cross-cluster. In such a new way, we can find that the proposed group access control scheme can be very effective for securing practical applications in MANETs.

  19. Overview of the Altair Lunar Lander Thermal Control System Design and the Impacts of Global Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program (CxP) was developed to successfully return humans to the Lunar surface prior to 2020. The CxP included several different project offices including Altair, which was planned to be the next generation Lunar Lander. The Altair missions were architected to be quite different than the Lunar missions accomplished during the Apollo era. These differences resulted in a significantly dissimilar Thermal Control System (TCS) design. The current paper will summarize the Altair mission architecture and the various operational phases associated with the planned mission. In addition, the derived thermal requirements and the TCS designed to meet these unique and challenging thermal requirements will be presented. During the past year, the design team has focused on developing a vehicle architecture capable of accessing the entire Lunar surface. Due to the widely varying Lunar thermal environment, this global access requirement resulted in major changes to the thermal control system architecture. These changes, and the rationale behind the changes, will be detailed throughout the current paper.

  20. Security analysis and improvements of authentication and access control in the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Ndibanje, Bruce; Lee, Hoon-Jae; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Things is a ubiquitous concept where physical objects are connected over the internet and are provided with unique identifiers to enable their self-identification to other devices and the ability to continuously generate data and transmit it over a network. Hence, the security of the network, data and sensor devices is a paramount concern in the IoT network as it grows very fast in terms of exchanged data and interconnected sensor nodes. This paper analyses the authentication and access control method using in the Internet of Things presented by Jing et al. (Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things. In Proceedings of the 2012 32nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Macau, China, 18-21 June 2012, pp. 588-592). According to our analysis, Jing et al.'s protocol is costly in the message exchange and the security assessment is not strong enough for such a protocol. Therefore, we propose improvements to the protocol to fill the discovered weakness gaps. The protocol enhancements facilitate many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, and secure session key establishment. Finally, the performance and security analysis show that the improved protocol possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low communication cost. PMID:25123464

  1. Overview of the Altair Lunar Lander Thermal Control System Design and the Impacts of Global Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program (CxP) was developed to successfully return humans to the Lunar surface prior to 2020. The CxP included several different project offices including Altair, which was planned to be the next generation Lunar Lander. The Altair missions were architected to be quite different than the Lunar missions accomplished during the Apollo era. These differences resulted in a significantly dissimilar Thermal Control System (TCS) design. The current paper will summarize the Altair mission architecture and the various operational phases associated with the planned mission. In addition, the derived thermal requirements and the TCS designed to meet these unique and challenging thermal requirements will be presented. During the past year, the design team has focused on developing a vehicle architecture capable of accessing the entire Lunar surface. Due to the widely varying Lunar thermal environment, this global access requirement resulted in major changes to the thermal control system architecture. These changes, and the rationale behind the changes, will be detailed throughout the current paper.

  2. Control of substrate access to the active site in methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jae; McCormick, Michael S; Lippard, Stephen J; Cho, Uhn-Soo

    2013-02-21

    Methanotrophs consume methane as their major carbon source and have an essential role in the global carbon cycle by limiting escape of this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. These bacteria oxidize methane to methanol by soluble and particulate methane monooxygenases (MMOs). Soluble MMO contains three protein components, a 251-kilodalton hydroxylase (MMOH), a 38.6-kilodalton reductase (MMOR), and a 15.9-kilodalton regulatory protein (MMOB), required to couple electron consumption with substrate hydroxylation at the catalytic diiron centre of MMOH. Until now, the role of MMOB has remained ambiguous owing to a lack of atomic-level information about the MMOH-MMOB (hereafter termed H-B) complex. Here we remedy this deficiency by providing a crystal structure of H-B, which reveals the manner by which MMOB controls the conformation of residues in MMOH crucial for substrate access to the active site. MMOB docks at the α(2)β(2) interface of α(2)β(2)γ(2) MMOH, and triggers simultaneous conformational changes in the α-subunit that modulate oxygen and methane access as well as proton delivery to the diiron centre. Without such careful control by MMOB of these substrate routes to the diiron active site, the enzyme operates as an NADH oxidase rather than a monooxygenase. Biological catalysis involving small substrates is often accomplished in nature by large proteins and protein complexes. The structure presented in this work provides an elegant example of this principle. PMID:23395959

  3. Privacy-aware access control for video data in intelligent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagts, Hauke; Jakoby, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Surveillance systems became powerful. Objects can be identified and intelligent surveillance services can generate events when a specific situation occurs. Such surveillance services can be organized in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to fulfill surveillance tasks for specific purposes. Therefore the services process information on a high level, e.g., just the position of an object. Video data is still required to visualize a situation to an operator and is required as evidence in court. Processing of personal related and sensitive information threatens privacy. To protect the user and to be compliant with legal requirements it must be ensured that sensitive information can only be processed for a defined propose by specific users or services. This work proposes an architecture for Access Control that enforces the separation of data between different surveillance tasks. Access controls are enforced at different levels: for the users starting the tasks, for the services within the tasks processing data stored in central store or calculated by other services and for sensor related services that extract information out of the raw data and provide them.

  4. Security Analysis and Improvements of Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Ndibanje, Bruce; Lee, Hoon-Jae; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Things is a ubiquitous concept where physical objects are connected over the internet and are provided with unique identifiers to enable their self-identification to other devices and the ability to continuously generate data and transmit it over a network. Hence, the security of the network, data and sensor devices is a paramount concern in the IoT network as it grows very fast in terms of exchanged data and interconnected sensor nodes. This paper analyses the authentication and access control method using in the Internet of Things presented by Jing et al (Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things. In Proceedings of the 2012 32nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Macau, China, 18–21 June 2012, pp. 588–592). According to our analysis, Jing et al.'s protocol is costly in the message exchange and the security assessment is not strong enough for such a protocol. Therefore, we propose improvements to the protocol to fill the discovered weakness gaps. The protocol enhancements facilitate many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, and secure session key establishment. Finally, the performance and security analysis show that the improved protocol possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low communication cost. PMID:25123464

  5. Analysis of the TDRS multiple access system for possible use as an attitude control system sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, Bruce Allyn; Sank, Victor J.

    1993-01-01

    A member of the constellation of TDR satellites (TDRS) has experienced a failure of its prime earth sensor. Failure of the remaining earth sensor could result in the inability of the satellite to control its attitude and provide user services. Loss of the satellite would be a serious event. The multiple access (MA) antenna array on the TDRS has been proposed for use as a backup sensor for the attitude control system. This paper describes our analysis of the performance of the MA array as an interferometer used for accurate attitude determination. A least squares fit of a plane to the MA phase information appears to represent the TDRS body roll and pitch within about 0.1 deg. This is sufficient for SGL pointing and MA and SSA user services. Analytic improvements that include ionospheric correction may yield sufficient accuracy for KSA user services.

  6. Gate controllable resistive random access memory devices using reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Preetam; Resmi, A. N.; Jinesh, K. B.

    2016-04-01

    The biggest challenge in the resistive random access memory (ReRAM) technology is that the basic operational parameters, such as the set and reset voltages, the current on-off ratios (hence the power), and their operational speeds, strongly depend on the active and electrode materials and their processing methods. Therefore, for its actual technological implementations, the unification of the operational parameters of the ReRAM devices appears to be a difficult task. In this letter, we show that by fabricating a resistive memory device in a thin film transistor configuration and thus applying an external gate bias, we can control the switching voltage very accurately. Taking partially reduced graphene oxide, the gate controllable switching is demonstrated, and the possible mechanisms are discussed.

  7. 17 CFR 240.15c3-5 - Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Risk management controls for... Markets § 240.15c3-5 Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access. (a) For the... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  8. 17 CFR 240.15c3-5 - Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Risk management controls for... Markets § 240.15c3-5 Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access. (a) For the... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  9. 17 CFR 240.15c3-5 - Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Risk management controls for... Markets § 240.15c3-5 Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access. (a) For the... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  10. 17 CFR 240.15c3-5 - Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Risk management controls for... Markets § 240.15c3-5 Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access. (a) For the... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  11. A highly efficient SDRAM controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Junzheng

    2016-03-01

    A highly efficient Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads is proposed in this paper. Based on the Principle of Locality, command First In First Out (FIFO) and address range detector are designed within this controller to accelerate its responses to discrete read requests, which dramatically improves the average Effective Bus Utilization Ratio (EBUR) of SDRAM. Our controller is finally verified by driving the Micron 256-Mb SDRAM MT48LC16M16A2. Successful simulation and verification results show that our controller exhibits much higher EBUR than do most existing designs in case of discrete reads.

  12. Controlled Access of p53 to the Nucleus Regulates its Proteasomal Degradation by MDM2

    PubMed Central

    Davis, James R.; Mossalam, Mohanad; Lim, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 can be sent to the proteasome for degradation by placing its nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling under ligand control. Endogenous p53 is ubiquitinated by MDM2 in the nucleus, and controlling the access of p53 to the nuclear compartment regulates its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. This was accomplished by the use of a “protein switch” that places nuclear translocation under the control of externally applied dexamethasone. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that sending protein switch p53 (PS-p53) to the nucleus produces a distinct punctate distribution in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The nuclear role in accessing the proteasome was investigated by inhibiting classical nuclear export with leptomycin B. Trapping PS-p53 in the nucleus only allows this punctate staining in that compartment, suggesting that PS-p53 must translocate first to the nuclear compartment for cytoplasmic punctate staining to occur. The role of MDM2 binding was explored by inhibiting MDM2/p53 binding with nutlin-3. Inhibition of this interaction blocked both nuclear export and cytoplasmic and nuclear punctate staining, providing evidence that any change in localization after nuclear translocation is due to MDM2 binding. Further, blocking the proteolytic activity of the proteasome maintained the nuclear localization of the construct. Truncations of p53 were made to determine smaller constructs still capable of interacting with MDM2, and their subcellular localization and degradation potential was observed. PS-p53 and a smaller construct, construct containing the two MDM2 binding regions of p53 (Box I+V) were indeed degraded by the proteasome as measured by loss of enhanced green fluorescent protein that was also fused to the construct. The influence of these constructs on p53 gene transactivation function was assessed, and revealed that PS-p53 decreased gene transactivation, while PS-p53(BoxI+V) did not significantly change baseline gene transactivation. PMID

  13. PANATIKI: a network access control implementation based on PANA for IoT devices.

    PubMed

    Moreno Sanchez, Pedro; Marin Lopez, Rafa; Gomez Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2013-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) networks are the pillar of recent novel scenarios, such as smart cities or e-healthcare applications. Among other challenges, these networks cover the deployment and interaction of small devices with constrained capabilities and Internet protocol (IP)-based networking connectivity. These constrained devices usually require connection to the Internet to exchange information (e.g., management or sensing data) or access network services. However, only authenticated and authorized devices can, in general, establish this connection. The so-called authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) services are in charge of performing these tasks on the Internet. Thus, it is necessary to deploy protocols that allow constrained devices to verify their credentials against AAA infrastructures. The Protocol for Carrying Authentication for Network Access (PANA) has been standardized by the Internet engineering task force (IETF) to carry the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which provides flexible authentication upon the presence of AAA. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first deep study of the feasibility of EAP/PANA for network access control in constrained devices. We provide light-weight versions and implementations of these protocols to fit them into constrained devices. These versions have been designed to reduce the impact in standard specifications. The goal of this work is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of EAP/PANA in IoT devices; (2) to provide the scientific community with the first light-weight interoperable implementation of EAP/PANA for constrained devices in the Contiki operating system (Contiki OS), called PANATIKI. The paper also shows a testbed, simulations and experimental results obtained from real and simulated constrained devices. PMID:24189332

  14. A method for protecting and controlling access to JPEG2000 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrão, Carlos; Serra, Antonio; Fonseca, Pedro; Salles Dias, Jose M.

    2003-11-01

    The image compression standard JPEG2000 brings not only powerful compression performance but also new functionality unavailable in previous standards (such as region of interest, scalability and random access to image data, through flexible code stream description of the image). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG1, which is the ISO Committee working group for JPEG2000 standardization is currently defining additional parts to the standard that will allow extended functionalities. One of these extensions is Part 8 JPSEC - JPEG2000 security, which deals with the protection and access control of JPEG2000 code-stream. This paper reports the JPSEC activities detailing with the three core experiments which are in progress to supply the JPEG2000 ISO Committee, with the appropriate protection technology. These core experiments are focusing on the protection of the code-stream itself and on the overall security infrastructure that is needed to manage the access rights of users and applications to that protected code-stream. Regarding the encryption/scrambling process, this one deals with the JPEG2000 code stream in such a way that only the packets, which contain image data information are encrypted. All the other code-stream data will be in clear mode. This paper will also advance details of one of the JPSEC proposed solutions for the security infrastructure - OpenSDRM (Open and Secure Digital Rights Management), which provides security and rights management from the content provider to the content final user. A use case where this security infrastructure was successfully used will also be provided.

  15. PANATIKI: A Network Access Control Implementation Based on PANA for IoT Devices

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro Moreno; Lopez, Rafa Marin; Gomez Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2013-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) networks are the pillar of recent novel scenarios, such as smart cities or e-healthcare applications. Among other challenges, these networks cover the deployment and interaction of small devices with constrained capabilities and Internet protocol (IP)-based networking connectivity. These constrained devices usually require connection to the Internet to exchange information (e.g., management or sensing data) or access network services. However, only authenticated and authorized devices can, in general, establish this connection. The so-called authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) services are in charge of performing these tasks on the Internet. Thus, it is necessary to deploy protocols that allow constrained devices to verify their credentials against AAA infrastructures. The Protocol for Carrying Authentication for Network Access (PANA) has been standardized by the Internet engineering task force (IETF) to carry the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which provides flexible authentication upon the presence of AAA. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first deep study of the feasibility of EAP/PANA for network access control in constrained devices. We provide light-weight versions and implementations of these protocols to fit them into constrained devices. These versions have been designed to reduce the impact in standard specifications. The goal of this work is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of EAP/PANA in IoT devices; (2) to provide the scientific community with the first light-weight interoperable implementation of EAP/PANA for constrained devices in the Contiki operating system (Contiki OS), called PANATIKI. The paper also shows a testbed, simulations and experimental results obtained from real and simulated constrained devices. PMID:24189332

  16. Energy-efficient boarder node medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  17. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  18. Point and counterpoint: patient control of access to data in their electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Caine, Kelly; Tierney, William M

    2015-01-01

    Information collection, storage, and management is central to the practice of health care. For centuries, patients' and providers' expectations kept medical records confidential between providers and patients. With the advent of electronic health records, patient health information has become more widely available to providers and health care managers and has broadened its potential use beyond individual patient care. Adhering to the principles of Fair Information Practice, including giving patients control over the availability and use of their individual health records, would improve care by fostering the sharing of sensitive information between patients and providers. However, adherence to such principles could put patients at risk for unsafe care as a result of both missed opportunities for providing needed care as well as provision of contraindicated care, as it would prevent health care providers from having full access to health information. Patients' expectations for the highest possible quality and safety of care, therefore, may be at odds with their desire to limit provider access to their health records. Conversely, provider expectations that patients would willingly seek care for embarrassing conditions and disclose sensitive information may be at odds with patients' information privacy rights. An open dialogue between patients and providers will be necessary to balance respect for patient rights with provider need for patient information. PMID:25480723

  19. e-VLBI Access Point (eAXP) - a centralized control and EGAE configuration / management application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruszczyk, Chester Whitney, Alan

    Setting up experiments to utilize Experiment Guided Adaptive Endpoint (EGAE) and e-VLBI is presently a complex and time intensive process requiring scientific, Mark5 and networking knowledge. There is no central access to point to configure and manage all of these aspects of an experiment. The e-VLBI Access Point (eAXP) is a centralized control plane management tool that offers a GUI interface to augment the command line interface presently being used to set up and conduct experiments. eAXP contains three major toolsets: one to set up and execute an experiment using real-time or non-real time modes; the second to configure and manage EGAE; and a third to view statistics of the experiments. Initially the overall system architecture for eAXP is presented, followed by details of the Experiment Profiler toolset including screen shots of the system presently being tested. This will be followed by how eAXP will support real-time modes interfacing to the Dynamic Resource Allocation over GMPLS Optical Network (DRAGON) resource management project.

  20. Multi-static networked 3D ladar for surveillance and access control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Ogirala, S. S. R.; Hu, B.; Le, Han Q.

    2007-04-01

    A theoretical design and simulation of a 3D ladar system concept for surveillance, intrusion detection, and access control is described. It is a non-conventional system architecture that consists of: i) multi-static configuration with an arbitrarily scalable number of transmitters (Tx's) and receivers (Rx's) that form an optical wireless code-division-multiple-access (CDMA) network, and ii) flexible system architecture with modular plug-and-play components that can be deployed for any facility with arbitrary topology. Affordability is a driving consideration; and a key feature for low cost is an asymmetric use of many inexpensive Rx's in conjunction with fewer Tx's, which are generally more expensive. The Rx's are spatially distributed close to the surveyed area for large coverage, and capable of receiving signals from multiple Tx's with moderate laser power. The system produces sensing information that scales as NxM, where N, M are the number of Tx's and Rx's, as opposed to linear scaling ~N in non-network system. Also, for target positioning, besides laser pointing direction and time-of-flight, the algorithm includes multiple point-of-view image fusion and triangulation for enhanced accuracy, which is not applicable to non-networked monostatic ladars. Simulation and scaled model experiments on some aspects of this concept are discussed.

  1. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  2. A Cloud-Assisted Random Linear Network Coding Medium Access Control Protocol for Healthcare Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kartsakli, Elli; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Relay sensor networks are often employed in end-to-end healthcare applications to facilitate the information flow between patient worn sensors and the medical data center. Medium access control (MAC) protocols, based on random linear network coding (RLNC), are a novel and suitable approach to efficiently handle data dissemination. However, several challenges arise, such as additional delays introduced by the intermediate relay nodes and decoding failures, due to channel errors. In this paper, we tackle these issues by adopting a cloud architecture where the set of relays is connected to a coordinating entity, called cloud manager. We propose a cloud-assisted RLNC-based MAC protocol (CLNC-MAC) and develop a mathematical model for the calculation of the key performance metrics, namely the system throughput, the mean completion time for data delivery and the energy efficiency. We show the importance of central coordination in fully exploiting the gain of RLNC under error-prone channels. PMID:24618727

  3. A Time Tree Medium Access Control for Energy Efficiency and Collision Avoidance in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kilhung

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a medium access control and scheduling scheme for wireless sensor networks. It uses time trees for sending data from the sensor node to the base station. For an energy efficient operation of the sensor networks in a distributed manner, time trees are built in order to reduce the collision probability and to minimize the total energy required to send data to the base station. A time tree is a data gathering tree where the base station is the root and each sensor node is either a relaying or a leaf node of the tree. Each tree operates in a different time schedule with possibly different activation rates. Through the simulation, the proposed scheme that uses time trees shows better characteristics toward burst traffic than the previous energy and data arrival rate scheme. PMID:22319270

  4. Thermal Control System Development to Support the Crew Exploration Vehicle and Lunar Surface Access Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Westheimer, David

    2006-01-01

    All space vehicles or habitats require thermal management to maintain a safe and operational environment for both crew and hardware. Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) perform the functions of acquiring heat from both crew and hardware within a vehicle, transporting that heat throughout the vehicle, and finally rejecting that energy into space. Almost all of the energy used in a space vehicle eventually turns into heat, which must be rejected in order to maintain an energy balance and temperature control of the vehicle. For crewed vehicles, Active Thermal Control Systems are pumped fluid loops that are made up of components designed to perform these functions. NASA has recently evaluated all of the agency s technology development work and identified key areas that must be addressed to aid in the successful development of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and a Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The technologies that have been selected and are currently under development include: fluids that enable single loop ATCS architectures, a gravity insensitive vapor compression cycle heat pump, a sublimator with reduced sensitivity to feedwater contamination, an evaporative heat sink that can operate in multiple ambient pressure environments, a compact spray evaporator, and lightweight radiators that take advantage of carbon composites and advanced optical coatings.

  5. Controlling electronic access to the spin excitations of a single molecule in a tunnel junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.; Warner, Ben; El Hallak, Fadi; Prueser, Henning; Ajibade, Afolabi; Gill, Tobias G.; Fisher, Andrew J.; Persson, Mats

    Spintronic phenomena can be utilized to create new devices with applications in data storage and sensing. Scaling these down to the single molecule level requires controlling the properties of the current-carrying orbitals to enable access to spin states through phenomena such as inelastic electron tunneling. Here we show that the spintronic properties of a tunnel junction containing a single molecule can be controlled by their coupling to the local environment. For tunneling through iron phthalocyanine (FePc) on an insulating copper nitride (Cu2N) monolayer above Cu(001), we find that spin transitions may be strongly excited depending on the binding site of the central Fe atom. Different interactions between the Fe and the underlying Cu or N atoms shift the Fe d-orbitals with respect to the Fermi energy, and control the relative strength of the spin excitations, an effect that can described in a simple co-tunneling model. This work demonstrates the importance of the atomic-scale environment in the development of single molecule spintronic devices.

  6. Development and characterization of 96 microsatellite markers suitable for QTL mapping and accession control in an Arabidopsis core collection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To identify plant genes involved in various key traits, QTL mapping is a powerful approach. This approach is based on the use of mapped molecular markers to identify genomic regions controlling quantitative traits followed by a fine mapping and eventually positional cloning of candidate genes. Mapping technologies using SNP markers are still rather expensive and not feasible in every laboratory. In contrast, microsatellite (also called SSR for Simple Sequence Repeat) markers are technologically less demanding and less costly for any laboratory interested in genetic mapping. Results In this study, we present the development and the characterization of a panel of 96 highly polymorphic SSR markers along the Arabidopsis thaliana genome allowing QTL mapping among accessions of the Versailles 24 core collection that covers a high percentage of the A. thaliana genetic diversity. These markers can be used for any QTL mapping analysis involving any of these accessions. We optimized the use of these markers in order to reveal polymorphism using standard PCR conditions and agarose gel electrophoresis. In addition, we showed that the use of only three of these markers allows differentiating all 24 accessions which makes this set of markers a powerful tool to control accession identity or any cross between any of these accessions. Conclusion The set of SSR markers developed in this study provides a simple and efficient tool for any laboratory focusing on QTL mapping in A. thaliana and a simple means to control seed stock or crosses between accessions. PMID:24447639

  7. Controlling multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and access to expensive drugs: a rational framework.

    PubMed Central

    Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Gowda, Deepthiman K.; Frieden, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), i.e. involving resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, could threaten the control of TB globally. Controversy has emerged about the best way of confronting MDR-TB in settings with very limited resources. In 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) created a working group on DOTS-Plus, an initiative exploring the programmatic feasibility and cost-effectiveness of treating MDR-TB in low-income and middle-income countries, in order to consider the management of MDR-TB under programme conditions. The challenges of implementation have proved more daunting than those of access to second-line drugs, the prices of which are dropping. Using data from the WHO/International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease surveillance project, we have grouped countries according to the proportion of TB patients completing treatment successfully and the level of MDR-TB among previously untreated patients. The resulting matrix provides a reasonable framework for deciding whether to use second-line drugs in a national programme. Countries in which the treatment success rate, i.e. the proportion of new patients who complete the scheduled treatment, irrespective of whether bacteriological cure is documented, is below 70% should give the highest priority to introducing or improving DOTS, the five-point TB control strategy recommended by WHO and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. A poorly functioning programme can create MDR-TB much faster than it can be treated, even if unlimited resources are available. There is no single prescription for controlling MDR-TB but the various tools available should be applied wisely. Firstly, good DOTS and infection control; then appropriate use of second-line drug treatment. The interval between the two depends on the local context and resources. As funds are allocated to treat MDR-TB, human and financial resources should be increased to expand

  8. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  9. A Multi-Domain Access Control Infrastructure Based on Diameter and EAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Ayed, Souheil; Teraoka, Fumio

    The evolution of Internet, the growth of Internet users and the new enabled technological capabilities place new requirements to form the Future Internet. Many features improvements and challenges were imposed to build a better Internet, including securing roaming of data and services over multiple administrative domains. In this research, we propose a multi-domain access control infrastructure to authenticate and authorize roaming users through the use of the Diameter protocol and EAP. The Diameter Protocol is a AAA protocol that solves the problems of previous AAA protocols such as RADIUS. The Diameter EAP Application is one of Diameter applications that extends the Diameter Base Protocol to support authentication using EAP. The contributions in this paper are: 1) first implementation of Diameter EAP Application, called DiamEAP, capable of practical authentication and authorization services in a multi-domain environment, 2) extensibility design capable of adding any new EAP methods, as loadable plugins, without modifying the main part, and 3) provision of EAP-TLS plugin as one of the most secure EAP methods. DiamEAP Server basic performances were evaluated and tested in a real multi-domain environment where 200 users attempted to access network using the EAP-TLS method during an event of 4 days. As evaluation results, the processing time of DiamEAP using the EAP-TLS plugin for authentication of 10 requests is about 20ms while that for 400 requests/second is about 1.9 second. Evaluation and operation results show that DiamEAP is scalable and stable with the ability to handle more than 6 hundreds of authentication requests per second without any crashes. DiamEAP is supported by the AAA working group of the WIDE Project.

  10. The IEO Data Center Management System: Tools for quality control, analysis and access marine data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Antonia; Garcia, Maria Jesus; Nikouline, Andrei

    2010-05-01

    Since 1994 the Data Centre of the Spanish Oceanographic Institute develops system for archiving and quality control of oceanographic data. The work started in the frame of the European Marine Science & Technology Programme (MAST) when a consortium of several Mediterranean Data Centres began to work on the MEDATLAS project. Along the years, old software modules for MS DOS were rewritten, improved and migrated to Windows environment. Oceanographic data quality control includes now not only vertical profiles (mainly CTD and bottles observations) but also time series of currents and sea level observations. New powerful routines for analysis and for graphic visualization were added. Data presented originally in ASCII format were organized recently in an open source MySQL database. Nowadays, the IEO, as part of SeaDataNet Infrastructure, has designed and developed a new information system, consistent with the ISO 19115 and SeaDataNet standards, in order to manage the large and diverse marine data and information originated in Spain by different sources, and to interoperate with SeaDataNet. The system works with data stored in ASCII files (MEDATLAS, ODV) as well as data stored within the relational database. The components of the system are: 1.MEDATLAS Format and Quality Control - QCDAMAR: Quality Control of Marine Data. Main set of tools for working with data presented as text files. Includes extended quality control (searching for duplicated cruises and profiles, checking date, position, ship velocity, constant profiles, spikes, density inversion, sounding, acceptable data, impossible regional values,...) and input/output filters. - QCMareas: A set of procedures for the quality control of tide gauge data according to standard international Sea Level Observing System. These procedures include checking for unexpected anomalies in the time series, interpolation, filtering, computation of basic statistics and residuals. 2. DAMAR: A relational data base (MySql) designed to

  11. Underwater acoustic sensor networks: Medium access control, routing and reliable transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Peng

    Recently there have been growing interests in monitoring aquatic environments for scientific exploration, commercial exploitation and coastline protection. The ideal vehicle for this type of extensive monitoring is a mobile underwater sensor network (M-UWSN), consisting of a large number of low cost underwater sensors that can move with water currents and dispersion. M-UWSNs are significantly different from terrestrial sensor networks: (1) Radio channels do not work well under water. They must be replaced by acoustic channels, which feature long propagation delays, low communication bandwidth and high channel error rates; (2) While most ground sensors are static, underwater sensor nodes may move with water currents (and other underwater activities), as introduces passive sensor mobility. Due to the very different environment properties and the unique characteristics of acoustic channels, the protocols developed for terrestrial sensor networks are not applicable to M-UWSNs, and new research at every level of the protocol suite is demanded. In this dissertation work, we investigate three fundamental networking problems in M-UWSN design: medium access control, multi-hop routing and reliable data transfer. (1) Medium access control (MAC): the long propagation delays and narrow communication bandwidth of acoustic channels pose the major challenges to the energy-efficient MAC design in M-UWSNs. For the first time, we formally investigate the random access and RTS/CTS techniques in networks with long propagation delays and low communication bandwidth (as in M-UWSNs). Based on this study, we propose a novel reservation-based MAC approach, called R-MAC, for dense underwater sensor networks with unevenly distributed (spatially and temporally) traffic. Simulation results show that R-MAC is not only energy efficient but also supports fairness. (2) Multi-hop routing: In M-UWSNs, energy efficiency and mobility handling are the two major concerns for multi-hop routing, which have

  12. Ongoing Spontaneous Activity Controls Access to Consciousness: A Neuronal Model for Inattentional Blindness

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Even in the absence of sensory inputs, cortical and thalamic neurons can show structured patterns of ongoing spontaneous activity, whose origins and functional significance are not well understood. We use computer simulations to explore the conditions under which spontaneous activity emerges from a simplified model of multiple interconnected thalamocortical columns linked by long-range, top-down excitatory axons, and to examine its interactions with stimulus-induced activation. Simulations help characterize two main states of activity. First, spontaneous gamma-band oscillations emerge at a precise threshold controlled by ascending neuromodulator systems. Second, within a spontaneously active network, we observe the sudden “ignition” of one out of many possible coherent states of high-level activity amidst cortical neurons with long-distance projections. During such an ignited state, spontaneous activity can block external sensory processing. We relate those properties to experimental observations on the neural bases of endogenous states of consciousness, and particularly the blocking of access to consciousness that occurs in the psychophysical phenomenon of “inattentional blindness,” in which normal subjects intensely engaged in mental activity fail to notice salient but irrelevant sensory stimuli. Although highly simplified, the generic properties of a minimal network may help clarify some of the basic cerebral phenomena underlying the autonomy of consciousness. PMID:15819609

  13. The ribosome quality control pathway can access nascent polypeptides stalled at the Sec61 translocon.

    PubMed

    von der Malsburg, Karina; Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S

    2015-06-15

    Cytosolic ribosomes that stall during translation are split into subunits, and nascent polypeptides trapped in the 60S subunit are ubiquitinated by the ribosome quality control (RQC) pathway. Whether the RQC pathway can also target stalls during cotranslational translocation into the ER is not known. Here we report that listerin and NEMF, core RQC components, are bound to translocon-engaged 60S subunits on native ER membranes. RQC recruitment to the ER in cultured cells is stimulated by translation stalling. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that translocon-targeted nascent polypeptides that subsequently stall are polyubiquitinated in 60S complexes. Ubiquitination at the translocon requires cytosolic exposure of the polypeptide at the ribosome-Sec61 junction. This exposure can result from either failed insertion into the Sec61 channel or partial backsliding of translocating nascent chains. Only Sec61-engaged nascent chains early in their biogenesis were relatively refractory to ubiquitination. Modeling based on recent 60S-RQC and 80S-Sec61 structures suggests that the E3 ligase listerin accesses nascent polypeptides via a gap in the ribosome-translocon junction near the Sec61 lateral gate. Thus the RQC pathway can target stalled translocation intermediates for degradation from the Sec61 channel. PMID:25877867

  14. Analysis of driver injury severity in wrong-way driving crashes on controlled-access highways.

    PubMed

    Pour-Rouholamin, Mahdi; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-09-01

    For more than five decades, wrong-way driving (WWD) has been notorious as a traffic safety issue for controlled-access highways. Numerous studies and efforts have tried to identify factors that contribute to WWD occurrences at these sites in order to delineate between WWD and non-WWD crashes. However, none of the studies investigate the effect of various confounding variables on the injury severity being sustained by the at-fault drivers in a WWD crash. This study tries to fill this gap in the existing literature by considering possible variables and taking into account the ordinal nature of injury severity using three different ordered-response models: ordered logit or proportional odds (PO), generalized ordered logit (GOL), and partial proportional odds (PPO) model. The findings of this study reveal that a set of variables, including driver's age, condition (i.e., intoxication), seatbelt use, time of day, airbag deployment, type of setting, surface condition, lighting condition, and type of crash, has a significant effect on the severity of a WWD crash. Additionally, a comparison was made between the three proposed methods. The results corroborate that the PPO model outperforms the other two models in terms of modeling injury severity using our database. Based on the findings, several countermeasures at the engineering, education, and enforcement levels are recommended. PMID:27263080

  15. Controlling the taste receptor accessible structure of rebaudioside A via binding to bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Mudgal, Samriddh; Keresztes, Ivan; Feigenson, Gerald W; Rizvi, S S H

    2016-04-15

    We illustrate a method that uses bovine serum albumin (BSA) to control the receptor-accessible part of rebaudioside A (Reb A). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Reb A was found to be 4.5 mM and 5 mM at pH 3 and 6.7 respectively. NMR studies show that below its CMC, Reb A binds weakly to BSA to generate a Reb A-protein complex ("RPC"), which is only modestly stable under varying conditions of pH (3.0-6.7) and temperature (4-40°C) with its binding affinities determined to be in the range of 5-280 mM. Furthermore, saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments confirm that the RPC has fast exchange of the bitterness-instigating diterpene of Reb A into the binding sites of BSA. Our method can be used to alter the strength of Reb A-receptor interaction, as a result of binding of Reb A to BSA, which may ultimately lead to moderation of its taste. PMID:26616927

  16. The SH2 domain of Abl kinases regulates kinase autophosphorylation by controlling activation loop accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontanara, Allan Joaquim; Georgeon, Sandrine; Tria, Giancarlo; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Hantschel, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    The activity of protein kinases is regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms, and their disruption is a common driver of oncogenesis. A central and almost universal control element of protein kinase activity is the activation loop that utilizes both conformation and phosphorylation status to determine substrate access. In this study, we use recombinant Abl tyrosine kinases and conformation-specific kinase inhibitors to quantitatively analyse structural changes that occur after Abl activation. Allosteric SH2-kinase domain interactions were previously shown to be essential for the leukemogenesis caused by the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. We find that these allosteric interactions switch the Abl activation loop from a closed to a fully open conformation. This enables the trans-autophosphorylation of the activation loop and requires prior phosphorylation of the SH2-kinase linker. Disruption of the SH2-kinase interaction abolishes activation loop phosphorylation. Our analysis provides a molecular mechanism for the SH2 domain-dependent activation of Abl that may also regulate other tyrosine kinases.

  17. An energy-efficient media access control protocol for chain-type wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Chang Wen

    2005-06-01

    We present in this paper an energy efficient media access control (MAC) protocol for chain-type wireless sensor networks. The chain-type sensor networks are fundamentally different from traditional sensor networks in that the sensor nodes in this class of networks are deployed along narrow and elongated geographical areas and form a chain-type topology. Recently, we have successfully developed hierarchical network architecture, sensor deployment strategy, and corresponding network initialization and operation protocols for this class of sensor networks. In this paper, we present a novel TDMA scheduling protocol that takes full advantages of the available channel reuse inherent in the chain-type sensor networks to develop energy efficient and high data throughput MAC protocols for sensor data transmission. The synchronized TDMA scheduling allows the nodes to power on only when it is scheduled to send and receive and therefore results in additional energy saving. Within a cluster, parallel transmission is made possible because of the linear distribution of nodes within the chain-type topology and this yields the desired high throughput. Preliminary simulations have been carried out to show that the proposed TDMA scheduling outperforms the well-know SMAC scheme in terms of energy efficiency and data throughput under various duty cycles.

  18. Guaranteeing synchronous message deadlines with the timed token medium access control protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Gopal; Chen, Baio; Zhao, Wei; Davari, Sadegh

    1992-01-01

    We study the problem of guaranteeing synchronous message deadlines in token ring networks where the timed token medium access control protocol is employed. Synchronous capacity, defined as the maximum time for which a node can transmit its synchronous messages every time it receives the token, is a key parameter in the control of synchronous message transmission. To ensure the transmission of synchronous messages before their deadlines, synchronous capacities must be properly allocated to individual nodes. We address the issue of appropriate allocation of the synchronous capacities. Several synchronous capacity allocation schemes are analyzed in terms of their ability to satisfy deadline constraints of synchronous messages. We show that an inappropriate allocation of the synchronous capacities could cause message deadlines to be missed even if the synchronous traffic is extremely low. We propose a scheme called the normalized proportional allocation scheme which can guarantee the synchronous message deadlines for synchronous traffic of up to 33 percent of available utilization. To date, no other synchronous capacity allocation scheme has been reported to achieve such substantial performance. Another major contribution of this paper is an extension to the previous work on the bounded token rotation time. We prove that the time elapsed between any consecutive visits to a particular node is bounded by upsilon TTRT, where TTRT is the target token rotation time set up at system initialization time. The previous result by Johnson and Sevcik is a special case where upsilon = 2. We use this result in the analysis of various synchronous allocation schemes. It can also be applied in other similar studies.

  19. An Ounce of Prevention: Technologists Use Network-Access Control to Protect System Resources, Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Whether for an entire district, a single campus, or one classroom, allowing authorized access to a computer network can be fraught with challenges. The login process should be fairly seamless to approved users, giving them speedy access to approved Web sites, databases, and other sources of information. It also should be tough on unauthorized…

  20. On-Line Remote Catalog Access and Circulation Control System. Part I: Functional Specifications. Part II: User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., Gaithersburg, MD. Data Processing Div.

    The Ohio State University Libraries On-line Remote Catalog Access and Circulation Control System (LCS) began on-line operations with the conversion of one department library in November 1970. By December all 26 libraries had been converted to the automated system and LCS was fully operational one month ahead of schedule. LCS is designed as a…

  1. Suppressing NOM access to controlled porous TiO2 particles enhances the decomposition of target water contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suppressing access of natural organic matter (NOM) to TiO2 is a key to the successful photocatalytic decomposition of a target contaminant in water. This study first demonstrates simply controlling the porous structure of TiO2 can significantly improve the selective oxidation.

  2. A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

  3. DOE`s nation-wide system for access control can solve problems for the federal government

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, S.; Tomes, D.; Davis, G.; Johnson, D.; Strait, S.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) ongoing efforts to improve its physical and personnel security systems while reducing its costs, provide a model for federal government visitor processing. Through the careful use of standardized badges, computer databases, and networks of automated access control systems, the DOE is increasing the security associated with travel throughout the DOE complex, and at the same time, eliminating paperwork, special badging, and visitor delays. The DOE is also improving badge accountability, personnel identification assurance, and access authorization timeliness and accuracy. Like the federal government, the DOE has dozens of geographically dispersed locations run by many different contractors operating a wide range of security systems. The DOE has overcome these obstacles by providing data format standards, a complex-wide virtual network for security, the adoption of a standard high security system, and an open-systems-compatible link for any automated access control system. If the location`s level of security requires it, positive visitor identification is accomplished by personal identification number (PIN) and/or by biometrics. At sites with automated access control systems, this positive identification is integrated into the portals.

  4. Controls upon microbial accessibility to soil organic matter following woody plant encroachment into grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, C. A.; Boutton, T. W.; Filley, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    Woody plant encroachment (WPE) into savannas and grasslands is a global phenomenon that alters soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics through changes in litter quality and quantity, soil structure, microbial ecology, and soil hydrology. To elucidate the controls upon microbial accessibility to SOM, bulk soils from a chronosequence of progressive WPE into native grasslands at the Texas A&M Agricultural Experimental Station La Copita Research Area were incubated for one year. The quantity and stable carbon isotope composition of respired CO2, plant biopolymer chemistry in SOM, and microbial community structure were tracked. Respiration rates declined steadily over the course of the experiment with 15-25% of the total CO2 respired released in the first month of incubation. Between 8 and 18% of the total carbon was mineralized to CO2 throughout the incubation. After day 84 a significantly (p < 0.05) greater portion of carbon was mineralized from soils of older woody clusters (34-86 years) than from soils of younger clusters (14-23 years) and the native grassland. Approximately 80% of patterns seen in cumulative CO2 loss could be explained by the proportions of macro- and micro-aggregates within each soil, suggesting soil structure is a major controlling factor of respiration rates. Despite documented carbon accrual within La Copita soils due to WPE, we observed no evidence of enhanced carbon stabilization in these respiration experiments. In fact, a greater proportion of total carbon was lost from the soil of mature woody stands than from young stands, suggesting carbon accumulation observed with WPE may be due to greater input rates or microbial dynamics not captured in the laboratory incubation. A cluster approximately 34 years in age represents a transition point in WPE where respiration dynamics become distinct between grassland and wooded elements. By day 84 of the incubation CO2 respired from all soils was depleted with respect to bulk SOM (1.5 to 5‰) and this

  5. Slotted Aloha multiple access and error control coding for land mobile satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Erich

    1992-10-01

    This paper considers a satellite network with data messages being transmitted by land mobile users according to slotted Aloha multiple access. The mobile communication links suffering from multipath fading and signal shadowing are modelled as Gilbert-Elliott channels. FEC block coding is used to correct transmission errors. The maximum achievable information throughput and the mean packet delay are derived from a combined analysis of the multiple access and FEC/ARQ protocol. The results show that the additional overhead necessary for FEC is outweighed by the benefit in throughput and delay. Finally, the capture effect and its consequences are discussed.

  6. An effective and secure key-management scheme for hierarchical access control in E-medicine system.

    PubMed

    Odelu, Vanga; Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit

    2013-04-01

    Recently several hierarchical access control schemes are proposed in the literature to provide security of e-medicine systems. However, most of them are either insecure against 'man-in-the-middle attack' or they require high storage and computational overheads. Wu and Chen proposed a key management method to solve dynamic access control problems in a user hierarchy based on hybrid cryptosystem. Though their scheme improves computational efficiency over Nikooghadam et al.'s approach, it suffers from large storage space for public parameters in public domain and computational inefficiency due to costly elliptic curve point multiplication. Recently, Nikooghadam and Zakerolhosseini showed that Wu-Chen's scheme is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attack. In order to remedy this security weakness in Wu-Chen's scheme, they proposed a secure scheme which is again based on ECC (elliptic curve cryptography) and efficient one-way hash function. However, their scheme incurs huge computational cost for providing verification of public information in the public domain as their scheme uses ECC digital signature which is costly when compared to symmetric-key cryptosystem. In this paper, we propose an effective access control scheme in user hierarchy which is only based on symmetric-key cryptosystem and efficient one-way hash function. We show that our scheme reduces significantly the storage space for both public and private domains, and computational complexity when compared to Wu-Chen's scheme, Nikooghadam-Zakerolhosseini's scheme, and other related schemes. Through the informal and formal security analysis, we further show that our scheme is secure against different attacks and also man-in-the-middle attack. Moreover, dynamic access control problems in our scheme are also solved efficiently compared to other related schemes, making our scheme is much suitable for practical applications of e-medicine systems. PMID:23392626

  7. Multi-component access to a commercially available weight loss program: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined weight loss between a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers PointsPlus that included three treatment access modes and a self-help condition. A total of 292 participants were randomized to a Weight Watchers (WW; n=147) or a self-help condition (...

  8. Enrollment Quota Control, Elite Selection and Access to Education in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Luan

    2010-01-01

    In China, the access to education is determined by not only student's demand for schooling, but also the allocation of educational resources and the schools' selection of candidate students. Based on the data obtained from the rural life level and rural social assistance household surveys in four provinces in 2005, the demand-identified bivariate…

  9. Enhancer control of local accessibility to V(D)J recombinase.

    PubMed Central

    McMurry, M T; Hernandez-Munain, C; Lauzurica, P; Krangel, M S

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the role of transcriptional enhancers in providing recombination signal sequence (RSS) accessibility to V(D)J recombinase by examining mice carrying a transgenic human T-cell receptor (TCR) delta gene minilocus. This transgene is composed of unrearranged variable (Vdelta and Vdelta2), diversity (Ddelta3), joining (Jdelta1 and Jdelta3), and constant (Cdelta) gene segments. Previous data indicated that with the TCR delta enhancer (Edelta) present in the Jdelta3-Cdelta intron, V(D)J recombination proceeds stepwise, first V to D and then VD to J. With the enhancer deleted or mutated, V-to-D rearrangement is intact, but VD-to-J rearrangement is inhibited. We proposed that Edelta is necessary for J segment but not D segment accessibility and that J segment inaccessibility in the enhancerless minilocus resulted in the observed V(D)J recombination phenotype. In this study, we tested this notion by using ligation-mediated PCR to assess the formation of recombination-activating gene (RAG)-dependent double-strand breaks (DSBs) at RSSs 3' of Ddelta3 and 5' of Jdelta1. In five lines of mice carrying multicopy integrants of constructs that either lacked Edelta or carried an inactivated Edelta, the frequency of DSBs 5' of Jdelta1 was dramatically reduced relative to that in the wild type, whereas the frequency of DSBs 3' of Ddelta3 was unaffected. We interpret these results to indicate that Edelta is required for Jdelta1 but not Ddelta3 accessibility within the minilocus, and we conclude that enhancers regulate V(D)J recombination by providing local accessibility to the recombinase. cis-acting elements other than Edelta must maintain Ddelta3 in an accessible state in the absence of Edelta. The analysis of DSB formation in a single-copy minilocus integrant indicates that efficient DSB formation at the accessible RSS 3' of Ddelta3 requires an accessible partner RSS, arguing that RSS synapsis is required for DSB formation in chromosomal substrates in vivo. PMID

  10. Novel implementations of optical switch control module and 3D-CSP for 10 Gbps active optical access system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakayama, Koji; Okuno, Michitaka; Matsuoka, Yasunobu; Hosomi, Kazuhiko; Sagawa, Misuzu; Sugawara, Toshiki

    2009-11-01

    We propose an optical switch control procedure for high-performance and cost-effective 10 Gbps Active Optical Access System (AOAS) in which optical switches are used instead of optical splitters in PON (Passive Optical Network). We demonstrate the implemented optical switch control module on Optical Switching Unit (OSW) with logic circuits works effectively. We also propose a compact optical 3D-CSP (Chip Scale Package) to achieve the high performance of AOAS without losing cost advantage of PON. We demonstrate the implemented 3D-CSP works effectively.

  11. The effects of hands free communication devices on clinical communication: balancing communication access needs with user control.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Joshua E; Richardson, Joshua Edwin; Ash, Joan S; Ash, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Hands Free Communication Device (HFCD) systems are a relatively new information and communication technology. HFCD systems enable clinicians to directly contact and communicate with one another using wearable, voice-controlled badges that are VoIP-based (voice-over IP) and are linked to one another over a wireless local area network (WLAN). This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory, multiple perspectives approach to understand how the use of HFCDs affected communication in the hospitals that implemented them. The study generated five themes revolving around HFCDs impact on communication. This paper specifically focuses on two of those themes: Communication Access and Control. PMID:18999046

  12. Massive Access Control Aided by Knowledge-Extraction for Co-Existing Periodic and Random Services over Wireless Clinical Networks.

    PubMed

    Du, Qinghe; Zhao, Weidong; Li, Weimin; Zhang, Xuelin; Sun, Bo; Song, Houbing; Ren, Pinyi; Sun, Li; Wang, Yichen

    2016-07-01

    The prosperity of e-health is boosted by fast development of medical devices with wireless communications capability such as wearable devices, tiny sensors, monitoring equipments, etc., which are randomly distributed in clinic environments. The drastically-increasing population of such devices imposes new challenges on the limited wireless resources. To relieve this problem, key knowledge needs to be extracted from massive connection attempts dispersed in the air towards efficient access control. In this paper, a hybrid periodic-random massive access (HPRMA) scheme for wireless clinical networks employing ultra-narrow band (UNB) techniques is proposed. In particular, the proposed scheme towards accommodating a large population of devices include the following new features. On one hand, it can dynamically adjust the resource allocated for coexisting periodic and random services based on the traffic load learned from signal collision status. On the other hand, the resource allocation within periodic services is thoroughly designed to simultaneously align with the timing requests of differentiated services. Abundant simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed HPRMA scheme over baseline schemes including time-division multiple access (TDMA) and random access approach, in terms of channel utilization efficiency, packet drop ratio, etc., for the support of massive devices' services. PMID:27240842

  13. Controls on microbial accessibility to soil organic carbon following woody plant encroachment into grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, Courtney; Boutton, Thomas; Olk, Dan; Filley, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    Woody plant encroachment (WPE) into savannas and grasslands is a global phenomenon that alters soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics through changes in litter quality and quantity, soil structure, microbial ecology, and hydrology. To elucidate the controls on microbial accessibility to SOC, bulk soils from a chronosequence of progressive WPE into native grasslands at the Texas Agrilife La Copita Research Area were incubated for one year. The quantity and stable carbon isotope composition of respired CO2, and plant biopolymer chemistry in SOC were tracked. Respiration rates declined exponentially over the course of the experiment with 15-25% of the total CO2 respired released in the first month of incubation. Between 8 and 18% of the total SOC was mineralized to CO2 throughout the incubation. After day 84 a significantly (p<0.05) greater portion of SOC was mineralized from soils of older woody clusters (34-86 years) than from soils of younger woody clusters (14-23 years) and the native grassland. Invading woody stands of ≃≥35 years of age represent a transition point in WPE where respiration dynamics become distinct in wooded elements compared to grasslands; this distinction has been previously observed through changes in belowground SOC accrual, C input chemistry, and mycorrhizal productivity. Despite documented SOC accrual following WPE at La Copita, we observed no evidence of enhanced SOC stabilization in these respiration experiments. In fact, a greater proportion of total SOC was lost from the soil of mature woody stands than from young stands, suggesting SOC accumulation observed with WPE may be due to greater input rates or microbial dynamics not captured in the laboratory incubation. Compound-specific analyses indicated there was a significant (p<0.05) loss of C from carbohydrates, amino acids, and amino sugars during the incubation. Amino nitrogen tended to become more concentrated during the incubation, although the trend was not significant. Relatively

  14. Unsynchronized Energy-Efficient Medium Access Control and Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurni, Philipp

    This master thesis investigates optimizations on recently proposed fully unsynchronized power saving sensor MAC protocols. In contrast to many other sensor MAC protocols, unsynchronized sensor MAC protocols renounce on any kind of network- or cluster-wide synchronization for channel access coordination and maintenance of a common wake-sleep pattern, because in wireless sensor networks with low traffic requirements, the overhead for maintaining synchronization is likely to exceed the energy spent for the actual data traffic.

  15. 50 CFR 648.262 - Effort-control program for red crab limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... described in § 648.4(a)(13)(i)(J) for the entire fishing year preceding the carry-over year, limited access... fishery consistent with § 648.4(a)(13)(i)(B)(2) or the TAC is adjusted consistent with § 648.260. (3... and calls out of the fishery at 10 p.m. on Friday, the next day, that vessel shall be assessed 2...

  16. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) chemical substances inventory: PMN number to EPA accession number link (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The PMN Number to EPA Accession Number Link Diskette provides a cross-reference of these numbers for commenced PMNs on the confidential portion of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Master Inventory File. Neither this cross-reference nor the additional information included is TSCA Confidential Business Information. Provided on the diskette for each confidential commenced PMN are the PMN Case Number, EPA Accession Number, Generic Name, and EPA special flags. For more detailed information on the confidential portion of the TSCA Inventory, including generic names, users can consult the introductory material of the printed TSCA Inventory: 1985 Edition and its 1990 Supplement. New versions of this file may be issued in the future.

  17. Clinical utility of far-infrared therapy for improvement of vascular access blood flow and pain control in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo Jeong; Cho, Eun Hee; Jo, Hye Min; Min, Changwook; Ji, Young Sok; Park, Moo Yong; Kim, Jin Kuk; Hwang, Seung Duk

    2015-01-01

    Background Maintenance of a well-functioning vascular access and minimal needling pain are important goals for achieving adequate dialysis and improving the quality of life in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Far-infrared (FIR) therapy may improve endothelial function and increase access blood flow (Qa) and patency in HD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of FIR therapy on Qa and patency, and needling pain in HD patients. Methods This prospective clinical trial enrolled 25 outpatients who maintained HD with arteriovenous fistula. The other 25 patients were matched as control with age, sex, and diabetes. FIR therapy was administered for 40 minutes during HD 3 times/wk and continued for 12 months. The Qa was measured by the ultrasound dilution method, whereas pain was measured by a numeric rating scale at baseline, then once per month. Results One patient was transferred to another facility, and 7 patients stopped FIR therapy because of an increased body temperature and discomfort. FIR therapy improved the needling pain score from 4 to 2 after 1 year. FIR therapy increased the Qa by 3 months and maintained this change until 1 year, whereas control patients showed the decrease in Qa. The 1-year unassisted patency with FIR therapy was not significantly different from control. Conclusion FIR therapy improved needling pain. Although FIR therapy improved Qa, the unassisted patency was not different compared with the control. A larger and multicenter study is needed to evaluate the effect of FIR therapy. PMID:27069856

  18. Fingerprint authentication via joint transform correlator and its application in remote access control of a 3D microscopic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenqi; Lai, Hongji; Wang, Meng; Liu, Zeyi; Yin, Yongkai; Peng, Xiang

    2014-05-01

    We present a fingerprint authentication scheme based on the optical joint transform correlator (JTC) and further describe its application to the remote access control of a Network-based Remote Laboratory (NRL). It is built to share a 3D microscopy system of our realistic laboratory in Shenzhen University with the remote co-researchers in Stuttgart University. In this article, we would like to focus on the involved security issues, mainly on the verification of various remote visitors to our NRL. By making use of the JTC-based optical pattern recognition technique as well as the Personal Identification Number (PIN), we are able to achieve the aim of authentication and access control for any remote visitors. Note that only the authorized remote visitors could be guided to the Virtual Network Computer (VNC), a cross-platform software, which allows the remote visitor to access the desktop applications and visually manipulate the instruments of our NRL through the internet. Specifically to say, when a remote visitor attempts to access to our NRL, a PIN is mandatory required in advance, which is followed by fingerprint capturing and verification. Only if both the PIN and the fingerprint are correct, can one be regarded as an authorized visitor, and then he/she would get the authority to visit our NRL by the VNC. It is also worth noting that the aforementioned "two-step verification" strategy could be further applied to verify the identity levels of various remote visitors, and therefore realize the purpose of diversified visitor management.

  19. Wireless digital-ultrasonic sensors for proximity ID, access control, firearm control, and C3I in homeland security and law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcier, Bob

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a new patent-pending digital-ultrasonic sensor network technology, which provides a "security protection sphere" around the authorized user(s) and the infrastructure system or system(s) to achieve C3I in Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications. If the system device, such as a firearm, a secure computer, PDA, or vehicle is misplaced, stolen or removed from the security protective sphere, an alarm is activated. A digital-ultrasonic sensor/tag utilizes the system"s physical structure to form a 2 to 20 Meter programmable protection sphere around the device and the authorized user. In addition, the system allows only authorized users to utilize the system, thereby creating personalized weapons, secure vehicle access or secure computer hardware. If an unauthorized individual accesses the system device, the system becomes inoperative and an alarm is activated. As the command and control, the authorized individual is provided a secure wristwatch/PDA. Access control is provided by "touch" and is controlled through the wristwatch/PDA/smartcard with a unique digital-ultrasonic coding and matching protocol that provides a very high level of security for each wireless sensor.

  20. Accessibility Is the Mother of Invention: When It Comes to an Innovative Hand Control System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article features Sure Grip hand control, an innovative hand control system created by Keith Howell, the President and founder of Howell Ventures LTD. Howell was in his early teens when he experienced an accident that resulted in his quadriplegia. From that point on, Howell set about to manufacture a set of controls that would emulate the…

  1. One electron-controlled multiple-valued dynamic random-access-memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kye, H. W.; Song, B. N.; Lee, S. E.; Kim, J. S.; Shin, S. J.; Choi, J. B.; Yu, Y.-S.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a new architecture for a dynamic random-access-memory (DRAM) capable of storing multiple values by using a single-electron transistor (SET). The gate of a SET is designed to be connected to a plurality of DRAM unit cells that are arrayed at intersections of word lines and bitlines. In this SET-DRAM hybrid scheme, the multiple switching characteristics of SET enables multiple value data stored in a DRAM unit cell, and this increases the storage functionality of the device. Moreover, since refreshing data requires only a small amount of SET driving current, this enables device operating with low standby power consumption.

  2. Bearer channel control protocol for the dynamic VB5.2 interface in ATM access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoulopoulos, Stratos K.; Mavrommatis, K. I.; Venieris, Iakovos S.

    1996-12-01

    In the multi-vendor systems, a customer connected to an Access network (AN) must be capable of selecting a specific Service Node (SN) according to the services the SN provides. The multiplicity of technologically varying AN calls for the definition of a standard reference point between the AN and the SN widely known as the VB interface. Two versions are currently offered. The VB5.1 is simpler to implement but is not as flexible as the VB5.2, which supports switched connections. The VB5.2 functionality is closely coupled to the Broadband Bearer Channel Connection Protocol (B-BCCP). The B-BCCP is used for conveying the necessary information for dynamic resource allocation, traffic policing and routing in the AN as well as for information exchange concerning the status of the AN before a new call is established by the SN. By relying on such a protocol for the exchange of information instead of intercepting and interpreting signalling messages in the AN, the architecture of the AN is simplified because the functionality related to processing is not duplicated. In this paper a prominent B- BCCP candidate is defined, called the Service node Access network Interaction Protocol.

  3. Communication, Control, and Computer Access for Disabled and Elderly Individuals. ResourceBook 3: Software and Hardware. Rehab/Education Technology ResourceBook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Sara A., Ed.; Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Ed.

    One of a series of three resource guides concerned with communication, control, and computer access for the disabled or the elderly, the book focuses on hardware and software. The guide's 13 chapters each cover products with the same primary function. Cross reference indexes allow access to listings of products by function, input/output…

  4. Communication, Control, and Computer Access for Disabled and Elderly Individuals. ResourceBook 1: Communication Aids. Rehab/Education Technology ResourceBook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Sara A., Ed.; Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Ed.

    One of a series of three resource guides concerned with communication, control, and computer access for disabled and elderly individuals, the directory focuses on communication aids. The book's six chapters each cover products with the same primary function. Cross reference indexes allow access to listings of products by function, input/output…

  5. Effect of Information and Telephone-Guided Access to Community Support for People with Chronic Kidney Disease: Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Blakeman, Tom; Blickem, Christian; Kennedy, Anne; Reeves, David; Bower, Peter; Gaffney, Hannah; Gardner, Caroline; Lee, Victoria; Jariwala, Praksha; Dawson, Shoba; Mossabir, Rahena; Brooks, Helen; Richardson, Gerry; Spackman, Eldon; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background Implementation of self-management support in traditional primary care settings has proved difficult, encouraging the development of alternative models which actively link to community resources. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common condition usually diagnosed in the presence of other co-morbidities. This trial aimed to determine the effectiveness of an intervention to provide information and telephone-guided access to community support versus usual care for patients with stage 3 CKD. Methods and Findings In a pragmatic, two-arm, patient level randomised controlled trial 436 patients with a diagnosis of stage 3 CKD were recruited from 24 general practices in Greater Manchester. Patients were randomised to intervention (215) or usual care (221). Primary outcome measures were health related quality of life (EQ-5D health questionnaire), blood pressure control, and positive and active engagement in life (heiQ) at 6 months. At 6 months, mean health related quality of life was significantly higher for the intervention group (adjusted mean difference = 0.05; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.08) and blood pressure was controlled for a significantly greater proportion of patients in the intervention group (adjusted odds-ratio = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.25, 2.72). Patients did not differ significantly in positive and active engagement in life. The intervention group reported a reduction in costs compared with control. Conclusions An intervention to provide tailored information and telephone-guided access to community resources was associated with modest but significant improvements in health related quality of life and better maintenance of blood pressure control for patients with stage 3 CKD compared with usual care. However, further research is required to identify the mechanisms of action of the intervention. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN45433299 PMID:25330169

  6. Cancer control in developing countries: using health data and health services research to measure and improve access, quality and efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer is a rapidly increasing problem in developing countries. Access, quality and efficiency of cancer services in developing countries must be understood to advance effective cancer control programs. Health services research can provide insights into these areas. Discussion This article provides an overview of oncology health services in developing countries. We use selected examples from peer-reviewed literature in health services research and relevant publicly available documents. In spite of significant limitations in the available data, it is clear there are substantial barriers to access to cancer control in developing countries. This includes prevention, early detection, diagnosis/treatment and palliation. There are also substantial limitations in the quality of cancer control and a great need to improve economic efficiency. We describe how the application of health data may assist in optimizing (1) Structure: strengthening planning, collaboration, transparency, research development, education and capacity building. (2) Process: enabling follow-up, knowledge translation, patient safety and quality assurance. (3) Outcome: facilitating evaluation, monitoring and improvement of national cancer control efforts. There is currently limited data and capacity to use this data in developing countries for these purposes. Summary There is an urgent need to improve health services for cancer control in developing countries. Current resources and much-needed investments must be optimally managed. To achieve this, we would recommend investment in four key priorities: (1) Capacity building in oncology health services research, policy and planning relevant to developing countries. (2) Development of high-quality health data sources. (3) More oncology-related economic evaluations in developing countries. (4) Exploration of high-quality models of cancer control in developing countries. Meeting these needs will require national, regional and international

  7. Autonomous Information Unit for Fine-Grain Data Access Control and Information Protection in a Net-Centric System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward T.; Woo, Simon S.; James, Mark; Paloulian, George K.

    2012-01-01

    As communication and networking technologies advance, networks will become highly complex and heterogeneous, interconnecting different network domains. There is a need to provide user authentication and data protection in order to further facilitate critical mission operations, especially in the tactical and mission-critical net-centric networking environment. The Autonomous Information Unit (AIU) technology was designed to provide the fine-grain data access and user control in a net-centric system-testing environment to meet these objectives. The AIU is a fundamental capability designed to enable fine-grain data access and user control in the cross-domain networking environments, where an AIU is composed of the mission data, metadata, and policy. An AIU provides a mechanism to establish trust among deployed AIUs based on recombining shared secrets, authentication and verify users with a username, X.509 certificate, enclave information, and classification level. AIU achieves data protection through (1) splitting data into multiple information pieces using the Shamir's secret sharing algorithm, (2) encrypting each individual information piece using military-grade AES-256 encryption, and (3) randomizing the position of the encrypted data based on the unbiased and memory efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Therefore, it becomes virtually impossible for attackers to compromise data since attackers need to obtain all distributed information as well as the encryption key and the random seeds to properly arrange the data. In addition, since policy can be associated with data in the AIU, different user access and data control strategies can be included. The AIU technology can greatly enhance information assurance and security management in the bandwidth-limited and ad hoc net-centric environments. In addition, AIU technology can be applicable to general complex network domains and applications where distributed user authentication and data protection are

  8. Effective Simulation and Control Approaches for Alleviating the Access to High-Cost Manipulators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihali, Raul; Sobh, Tarek

    2005-01-01

    A problem that becomes increasingly obvious over time derives from purchasing and working with large scale, industrial type of manipulators. Primarily affected are higher level educational institutions, where manipulators are likely to be exposed to student projects that demand diversity in control strategies and various controlling software and…

  9. An Open-Access Educational Tool for Teaching Motion Dynamics in Multi-Axis Servomotor Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Guillen, J. R.; de Jesus Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, R.; Osornio-Rios, R. A.; Guevara-Gonzalez, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Servomotors are widely used in computerized numerically controlled (CNC) machines, hence motion control is a major topic covered in undergraduate/graduate engineering courses. Despite the fact that several syllabi include the motion dynamics topic in their courses, there are neither suitable tools available for designing and simulating multi-axis…

  10. Generalized control and data access at the LANSCE Accelerator Complex -- Gateway, migrators, and other servers

    SciTech Connect

    Schaller, S.C.; Oothoudt, M.A.

    1995-12-01

    All large accelerator control systems eventually outlast the technologies with which they were built. This has happened several times during the lifetime of the accelerators at Los Alamos in the LAMPF/PSR beam delivery complex. Most recently, the EPICS control system has been integrated with the existing LAMPF and PSR control systems. In this paper, the authors discuss the provisions that were made to provide uniform, and nearly transparent sharing of data among the three control systems. The data sharing mechanisms have now been in use during a very successful beam production period. They comment on the successes and failures of the project and indicate the control system properties that make such sharing possible.

  11. Utilizing SELinux to mandate ultra-secure access control of medical records.

    PubMed

    Croll, Peter R; Henricksen, Matt; Caelli, Bill; Liu, Vicky

    2007-01-01

    Ongoing concerns have been raised over the effectiveness of information technology products and systems in maintaining privacy protection for sensitive data. The aim is to ensure that sensitive health information can be adequately protected yet still be accessible only to those that "need-to-know". To achieve this and ensure sustainability over the longer term, it is advocated that an alternative, stable and secure system architecture is required. This paper considers the adoption of a model targeted at health information that provides much higher degrees of protection. A purpose built demonstrator that was developed based on enterprise-level systems software products is detailed. The long term aim is to provide a viable solution by utilizing contemporary, commercially supported operating system and allied software. The advantages and limitations in its application with a medical database are discussed. The future needs in terms of research, software development and changes in organizational policy for healthcare providers, are outlined. PMID:17911767

  12. On the control, stability, and waiting time in a slotted ALOHA random-access system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    This paper explores some of the boundaries in performance of slotted ALOHA systems by analyzing a simple and almost optimal centrally supervised control. The control results in a very simple Markov chain model and allows an examination of stability, conditional waiting time distribution of transmitting terminals, and many other system measures. The key to the simplicity is to have a probability of successful packet transmission that is independent of the number of transmitting terminals. In considering waiting time, we calculate the mean and other moments of the waiting time of a terminal when it enters the system to find (n - 1) other terminals already there competing for the channel. Under this control, the average time is proportional to n. The control requires exact knowledge of the number of terminals contending for the channel, and hence is not implementable, except as an approximation.

  13. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... electronic prescriptions for controlled substances are current and in good standing. (c) After one individual... authentication factor required by the two-factor authentication protocol is lost, stolen, or compromised....

  14. Performance of a Frequency-Hopped Real-Time Remote Control System in a Multiple Access Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes, Frank

    A recent trend is observed in the context of the radio-controlled aircrafts and automobiles within the hobby grade category and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) applications moving to the well-known Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. Based on this technological fact, the present thesis evaluates an individual user performance by featuring a multiple-user scenario where several point-to-point co-located real-time Remote Control (RC) applications operate using Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) as a medium access technique in order to handle interference efficiently. Commercial-off-the-shelf wireless transceivers ready to operate in the ISM band are considered as the operational platform supporting the above-mentioned applications. The impact of channel impairments and of different critical system engineering issues, such as working with real clock oscillators and variable packet duty cycle, are considered. Based on the previous, simulation results allowed us to evaluate the range of variation for those parameters for an acceptable system performance under Multiple Access (MA) environments.

  15. Is paleoanthropology science? Naming new fossils and control of access to them.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H

    2002-12-15

    Progress in paleoanthropology is impeded when new fossil materials are published but unavailable for comparative study, as is too often the case. In this commentary, we review the stages of description and analysis that new fossils must undergo and conclude that it is disingenuous to argue that fossils have not been properly "published" when descriptions and new names formulated in accordance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature have appeared in leading scientific journals. Once such names and descriptions have been published, it is imperative that the original fossils concerned be available to the scientific community for comparative analysis, for by the very nature of science, no statement about such fossils, however carefully prepared by the original describers (or anyone else), can be regarded as definitive. Science is a system of provisional knowledge that constantly requires re-examination and testing. It cannot function as a system in which assertions have to be left unchallenged for want of free access to the primary data. PMID:12467080

  16. Suicidal Behavior and Firearm Access: Results from the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Marian E.; Barber, Catherine; Miller, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The association between home firearms and the likelihood and nature of suicidal thoughts and plans was examined using the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey, a 2001-2003 representative telephone survey of U.S. households. Of 9,483 respondents, 7.4% reported past-year suicidal thoughts, 21.3% with a plan. Similar proportions of those with and…

  17. Access Point Analysis: What Do Adolescents in South Africa Say about Tobacco Control Programmes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, Dehran; Panday, Saadhna; Reddy, S Priscilla; Bergstrom, Erik; de Vries, Hein

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores adolescent preferences for the setting, timing, delivery format, provider and key elements of tobacco control programmes. The need for programme sensitivity towards urban/rural, gender and ethnic subgroups is also discussed. Schools were purposively selected from the Southern Cape-Karoo Region, South Africa. Twelve prevention…

  18. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Access Control and Traffic Improvements at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-23

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has assigned a continuing role to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in carrying out NNSA's national security mission. It is imperative that LANL continue this enduring responsibility and that NNSA adequately safeguard LANL capabilities. NNSA has identified the need to restrict vehicular access to certain areas within LANL for the purpose of permanently enhancing the physical security environment at LANL. It has also identified the need to change certain traffic flow patterns for the purpose of enhancing physical safety at LANL. The Proposed Action would include the construction of eastern and western bypass roads around the LANL Technical Area (TA) 3 area and the installation of vehicle access controls and related improvements to enhance security along Pajarito Road and in the LANL core area. This Proposed Action would modify the current roadway network and traffic patterns. It would also result in traversing Areas of Environmental Interest identified in the LANL Habitat Management Plan, demolition of part of an historic structure at Building 3-40, and traversing several potential release sites and part of the Los Alamos County landfill. The No Action Alternative was also considered. Under this alternative NNSA would not construct the eastern or western bypass roads, any access-control stations, or related improvements. Diamond Drive would continue to serve as the primary conduit for most vehicle traffic within the LANL core area regardless of actual trip destinations. The No Action Alternative does not meet NNSA's purpose and need for action. The proposed bypass road corridors traverse both developed and undeveloped areas. Several potential release sites are present. These would either be sampled and remediated in accordance with New Mexico Environment Department requirements before construction or avoided to allow for future remediation. In some cases, contaminant levels may fall below remediation thresholds

  19. Improving Access to Online Health Information With Conversational Agents: A Randomized Controlled Experiment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional Web-based search engines may be unusable by individuals with low health literacy for finding health-related information, thus precluding their use by this population. Objective We describe a conversational search engine interface designed to allow individuals with low health and computer literacy identify and learn about clinical trials on the Internet. Methods A randomized trial involving 89 participants compared the conversational search engine interface (n=43) to the existing conventional keyword- and facet-based search engine interface (n=46) for the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials database. Each participant performed 2 tasks: finding a clinical trial for themselves and finding a trial that met prespecified criteria. Results Results indicated that all participants were more satisfied with the conversational interface based on 7-point self-reported satisfaction ratings (task 1: mean 4.9, SD 1.8 vs mean 3.2, SD 1.8, P<.001; task 2: mean 4.8, SD 1.9 vs mean 3.2, SD 1.7, P<.001) compared to the conventional Web form-based interface. All participants also rated the trials they found as better meeting their search criteria, based on 7-point self-reported scales (task 1: mean 3.7, SD 1.6 vs mean 2.7, SD 1.8, P=.01; task 2: mean 4.8, SD 1.7 vs mean 3.4, SD 1.9, P<.01). Participants with low health literacy failed to find any trials that satisfied the prespecified criteria for task 2 using the conventional search engine interface, whereas 36% (5/14) were successful at this task using the conversational interface (P=.05). Conclusions Conversational agents can be used to improve accessibility to Web-based searches in general and clinical trials in particular, and can help decrease recruitment bias against disadvantaged populations. PMID:26728964

  20. Accessibility control on copper(II) complexes in mesostructured porous silica obtained by direct synthesis using bidentate organosilane ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Juan; Albela, Belén; Perriat, Pascal; He, Ming-Yuan; Bonneviot, Laurent

    2010-08-17

    The accessibility of metal(II) complexes in 2D hexagonal mesostructured porous silicas obtained by direct synthesis is controlled using an appropriate organosilane ligand. This is exemplified here using copper(II) as a transition metal probe and a neutral or negatively charged ligand: N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, L(A), and, N-salicylaldimine-propylamine-trimethoxysilane, L(B)(-), respectively. L(A) leads to inaccessible complexes located into the pore wall and called "embedded" sites here where silanolate groups from the siliceous network block the access to Cu(II) ions. By contrast, L(B)(-) generates accessible complexes, named "showing-on" sites here. The copper-containing silicas were synthesized with various metal molar ratios (M/SiO(2) = 0.5-3%) in basic media, with cetyltrimethylammonium p-toluenesulfonate (CTATos) as template and with sodium silicate solution as silicon source. A soft template extraction procedure has been developed to preserve the complex integrity of the showing-on copper sites during the treatment. The embedded copper(II) and nickel(II) sites were compared. Materials containing embedded, showing-on, and grafted sites were also compared with regard to pore size, surface polarity, and metal leaching. The material containing showing-on sites was found to be catalytically active for the hydroxylation of phenol into catechol and hydroquinone. Both textural and structural properties of the material and the copper sites were investigated using XRD, TEM, N(2) sorption isotherms, TGA, FT-IR, UV-visible, and EPR spectroscopies. PMID:20695596

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mobile Clinical Decision Aid to Improve Access to Kidney Transplantation: iChoose Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Patzer, Rachel E.; Basu, Mohua; Mohan, Sumit; Smith, Kayla D.; Wolf, Michael; Ladner, Daniela; Friedewald, John J.; Chiles, Mariana; Russell, Allison; McPherson, Laura; Gander, Jennifer; Pastan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease, as it substantially increases a patient's survival and is cost saving compared to a lifetime of dialysis. However, transplantation is not universally chosen by patients with renal failure, and limited knowledge about the survival benefit of transplantation vs. dialysis may play a role. We created a mobile application clinical decision aid called iChoose Kidney to improve access to individualized prognosis information comparing dialysis and transplantation outcomes. We describe the iChoose Kidney study, a randomized controlled trial designed to test the clinical efficacy of a mobile health decision aid among end-stage renal disease patients referred for kidney transplantation at three large, diverse transplant centers across the U.S. Approximately 450 patients will be randomized to receive either: (1) standard of care or “usual” transplantation education, or (2) standard of care plus iChoose Kidney. The primary outcome is change in knowledge about the survival benefit of kidney transplantation vs. dialysis from baseline to immediate follow-up; secondary outcomes include change in treatment preferences, improved decisional conflict, and increased access to kidney transplantation. Analyses are also planned to examine effectiveness across subgroups of race, socioeconomic status, health literacy and health numeracy. Engaging patients in health care choices can increase patient empowerment and improve knowledge and understanding of treatment choices. If the effectiveness of iChoose Kidney has a greater impact on patients with low health literacy, lower socioeconomic status, and minority race, this decision aid could help reduce disparities in access to kidney transplantation.

  2. Medical-Grade Channel Access and Admission Control in 802.11e EDCA for Healthcare Applications

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sunghwa; Park, Kyung-Joon; Park, Eun-Chan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of assuring medical-grade quality of service (QoS) for real-time medical applications in wireless healthcare systems based on IEEE 802.11e. Firstly, we show that the differentiated channel access of IEEE 802.11e cannot effectively assure medical-grade QoS because of priority inversion. To resolve this problem, we propose an efficient channel access algorithm. The proposed algorithm adjusts arbitrary inter-frame space (AIFS) in the IEEE 802.11e protocol depending on the QoS measurement of medical traffic, to provide differentiated near-absolute priority for medical traffic. In addition, based on rigorous capacity analysis, we propose an admission control scheme that can avoid performance degradation due to network overload. Via extensive simulations, we show that the proposed mechanism strictly assures the medical-grade QoS and improves the throughput of low-priority traffic by more than several times compared to the conventional IEEE 802.11e. PMID:27490666

  3. Medical-Grade Channel Access and Admission Control in 802.11e EDCA for Healthcare Applications.

    PubMed

    Son, Sunghwa; Park, Kyung-Joon; Park, Eun-Chan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of assuring medical-grade quality of service (QoS) for real-time medical applications in wireless healthcare systems based on IEEE 802.11e. Firstly, we show that the differentiated channel access of IEEE 802.11e cannot effectively assure medical-grade QoS because of priority inversion. To resolve this problem, we propose an efficient channel access algorithm. The proposed algorithm adjusts arbitrary inter-frame space (AIFS) in the IEEE 802.11e protocol depending on the QoS measurement of medical traffic, to provide differentiated near-absolute priority for medical traffic. In addition, based on rigorous capacity analysis, we propose an admission control scheme that can avoid performance degradation due to network overload. Via extensive simulations, we show that the proposed mechanism strictly assures the medical-grade QoS and improves the throughput of low-priority traffic by more than several times compared to the conventional IEEE 802.11e. PMID:27490666

  4. [Exploration of the design of media access control layer of wireless body area network for medical healthcare].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuemei; Ge, Baofeng

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a media access control (MAC) layer design for wireless body area network (WBAN) systems. WBAN is a technology that targets for wireless networking of wearable and implantable body sensors which monitor vital body signs, such as heart-rate, body temperature, blood pressure, etc. It has been receiving attentions from international organizations, e. g. the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), due to its capability of providing efficient healthcare services and clinical management. This paper reviews the standardization procedure of WBAN and summarizes the challenge of the MAC layer design. It also discusses the methods of improving power consumption performance, which is one of the major issues of WBAN systems. PMID:22616194

  5. Speaking Two Languages for the Price of One: Bypassing Language Control Mechanisms via Accessibility-Driven Switches.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Daniel; Gollan, Tamar H

    2016-05-01

    How do bilinguals switch easily between languages in everyday conversation, even though studies have consistently found that switching slows responses? In previous work, researchers have not considered that although switches may happen for different reasons, only some switches-including those typically studied in laboratory experiments-might be costly. Using a repeated picture-naming task, we found that bilinguals can maintain and use two languages as efficiently as a single language, switching between them frequently without any cost, if they switch only when a word is more accessible in the other language. These results suggest that language switch costs arise during lexical selection, that top-down language control mechanisms can be suspended, and that language-mixing efficiency can be strategically increased with instruction. Thus, bilinguals might switch languages spontaneously because doing so is not always costly, and there appears to be greater flexibility and efficiency in the cognitive mechanisms that enable switching than previously assumed. PMID:27016240

  6. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ramos, José L.; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M. Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things. PMID:26140349

  7. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ramos, José L; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2015-01-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things. PMID:26140349

  8. Quality control and analytical methods for baculovirus-based products.

    PubMed

    Roldão, António; Vicente, Tiago; Peixoto, Cristina; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

    2011-07-01

    Recombinant baculoviruses (rBac) are used for many different applications, ranging from bio-insecticides to the production of heterologous proteins, high-throughput screening of gene functions, drug delivery, in vitro assembly studies, design of antiviral drugs, bio-weapons, building blocks for electronics, biosensors and chemistry, and recently as a delivery system in gene therapy. Independent of the application, the quality, quantity and purity of rBac-based products are pre-requisites demanded by regulatory authorities for product licensing. To guarantee maximization utility, it is necessary to delineate optimized production schemes either using trial-and-error experimental setups ("brute force" approach) or rational design of experiments by aid of in silico mathematical models (Systems Biology approach). For that, one must define all of the main steps in the overall process, identify the main bioengineering issues affecting each individual step and implement, if required, accurate analytical methods for product characterization. In this review, current challenges for quality control (QC) technologies for up- and down-stream processing of rBac-based products are addressed. In addition, a collection of QC methods for monitoring/control of the production of rBac derived products are presented as well as innovative technologies for faster process optimization and more detailed product characterization. PMID:21784235

  9. Eight New Genomes and Synthetic Controls Increase the Accessibility of Rapid Melt-MAMA SNP Typing of Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    Byström, Mona; Forsman, Mats; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Janse, Ingmar; Larsson, Pär; Lindgren, Petter; Öhrman, Caroline; van Rotterdam, Bart; Sjödin, Andreas; Myrtennäs, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The case rate of Q fever in Europe has increased dramatically in recent years, mainly because of an epidemic in the Netherlands in 2009. Consequently, there is a need for more extensive genetic characterization of the disease agent Coxiella burnetii in order to better understand the epidemiology and spread of this disease. Genome reference data are essential for this purpose, but only thirteen genome sequences are currently available. Current methods for typing C. burnetii are criticized for having problems in comparing results across laboratories, require the use of genomic control DNA, and/or rely on markers in highly variable regions. We developed in this work a method for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing of C. burnetii isolates and tissue samples based on new assays targeting ten phylogenetically stable synonymous canonical SNPs (canSNPs). These canSNPs represent previously known phylogenetic branches and were here identified from sequence comparisons of twenty-one C. burnetii genomes, eight of which were sequenced in this work. Importantly, synthetic control templates were developed, to make the method useful to laboratories lacking genomic control DNA. An analysis of twenty-one C. burnetii genomes confirmed that the species exhibits high sequence identity. Most of its SNPs (7,493/7,559 shared by >1 genome) follow a clonal inheritance pattern and are therefore stable phylogenetic typing markers. The assays were validated using twenty-six genetically diverse C. burnetii isolates and three tissue samples from small ruminants infected during the epidemic in the Netherlands. Each sample was assigned to a clade. Synthetic controls (vector and PCR amplified) gave identical results compared to the corresponding genomic controls and are viable alternatives to genomic DNA. The results from the described method indicate that it could be useful for cheap and rapid disease source tracking at non-specialized laboratories, which requires accurate genotyping

  10. Impact of adolescent sucrose access on cognitive control, recognition memory, and parvalbumin immunoreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Killcross, Simon; Hambly, Luke D.; Morris, Margaret J.; Westbrook, R. Fred

    2015-01-01

    In this study we sought to determine the effect of daily sucrose consumption in young rats on their subsequent performance in tasks that involve the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. High levels of sugar consumption have been associated with the development of obesity, however less is known about how sugar consumption influences behavioral control and high-order cognitive processes. Of particular concern is the fact that sugar intake is greatest in adolescence, an important neurodevelopmental period. We provided sucrose to rats when they were progressing through puberty and adolescence. Cognitive performance was assessed in adulthood on a task related to executive function, a rodent analog of the Stroop task. We found that sucrose-exposed rats failed to show context-appropriate responding during incongruent stimulus compounds presented at test, indicative of impairments in prefrontal cortex function. Sucrose exposed rats also showed deficits in an on object-in-place recognition memory task, indicating that both prefrontal and hippocampal function was impaired. Analysis of brains showed a reduction in expression of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, indicating that sucrose consumption during adolescence induced long-term pathology, potentially underpinning the cognitive deficits observed. These results suggest that consumption of high levels of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents may also impair neurocognitive functions affecting decision-making and memory, potentially rendering them at risk for developing mental health disorders. PMID:25776039

  11. TRMM On-Orbit Performance Re-Accessed After Control Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilanow, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft, a joint mission between the U.S. and Japan, launched onboard an HI1 rocket on November 27,1997 and transitioned in August, 2001 from an average operating altitude of 350 kilometers to 402.5 kilometers. Due to problems using the Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA) at the higher altitude, TRMM switched to a backup attitude control mode. Prior to the orbit boost TRMM controlled pitch and roll to the local vertical using ESA measurements while using gyro data to propagate yaw attitude between yaw updates from the Sun sensors. After the orbit boost, a Kalman filter used 3-axis gyro data with Sun sensor and magnetometers to estimate onboard attitude. While originally intended to meet a degraded attitude accuracy of 0.7 degrees, the new control mode met the original 0.2 degree attitude accuracy requirement after improving onboard ephemeris prediction and adjusting the magnetometer calibration onboard. Independent roll attitude checks using a science instrument, the Precipitation Radar (PR) which was built in Japan, provided a novel insight into the pointing performance. The PR data helped identify the pointing errors after the orbit boost, track the performance improvements, and show subtle effects from ephemeris errors and gyro bias errors. It also helped identify average bias trends throughout the mission. Roll errors tracked by the PR from sample orbits pre-boost and post-boost are shown in Figure 1. Prior to the orbit boost the largest attitude errors were due to occasional interference in the ESA. These errors were sometime larger than 0.2 degrees in pitch and roll, but usually less, as estimated from a comprehensive review of the attitude excursions using gyro data. Sudden jumps in the onboard roll show up as spikes in the reported attitude since the control responds within tens of seconds to null the pointing error. The PR estimated roll tracks well with an estimate of the roll history propagated using gyro data

  12. Achieving fertility control through woman’s autonomy and access to maternal healthcare: Are we on track? In-depth analysis of PDHS-2012-13

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sehar-un-Nisa; Siddiqui, Salma; Mahmood, Ayeshah

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Fertility control preferences and maternal healthcare have recently become a major concern for developing nations with evidence suggesting that low fertility control rates and poor maternal healthcare are among major obstructions in ensuring health and social status for women. Our objective was toanalyze the factors that influence women’s autonomy, access to maternal healthcare, and fertility control preferences in Pakistan. Methods: Data consisted of 11,761 ever-married women of ages 15-49 years from PDHS, 2012-13. Variables included socio-demographics, women’s autonomy, fertility control preferences and access to maternal healthcare. Results: Findings from multivariate analysis showed that women’s younger age, having less than three number of children and independent or joint decision-making (indicators of high autonomy) remained the most significant predictors for access to better quality maternal healthcare and better fertility control preferences when other variables were controlled. Conclusion: Women’s access to good quality maternal health care and fertility control preferences are directly and indirectly influenced by their demographic characteristics and decision-making patterns in domestic affairs. PMID:26870096

  13. Energy Efficient Medium Access Control Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks with Adaptive Cross-Layer Scheduling.

    PubMed

    Sefuba, Maria; Walingo, Tom; Takawira, Fambirai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an Energy Efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for clustered wireless sensor networks that aims to improve energy efficiency and delay performance. The proposed protocol employs an adaptive cross-layer intra-cluster scheduling and an inter-cluster relay selection diversity. The scheduling is based on available data packets and remaining energy level of the source node (SN). This helps to minimize idle listening on nodes without data to transmit as well as reducing control packet overhead. The relay selection diversity is carried out between clusters, by the cluster head (CH), and the base station (BS). The diversity helps to improve network reliability and prolong the network lifetime. Relay selection is determined based on the communication distance, the remaining energy and the channel quality indicator (CQI) for the relay cluster head (RCH). An analytical framework for energy consumption and transmission delay for the proposed MAC protocol is presented in this work. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated based on transmission delay, energy consumption, and network lifetime. The results obtained indicate that the proposed MAC protocol provides improved performance than traditional cluster based MAC protocols. PMID:26393608

  14. Energy Efficient Medium Access Control Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks with Adaptive Cross-Layer Scheduling

    PubMed Central

    Sefuba, Maria; Walingo, Tom; Takawira, Fambirai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an Energy Efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for clustered wireless sensor networks that aims to improve energy efficiency and delay performance. The proposed protocol employs an adaptive cross-layer intra-cluster scheduling and an inter-cluster relay selection diversity. The scheduling is based on available data packets and remaining energy level of the source node (SN). This helps to minimize idle listening on nodes without data to transmit as well as reducing control packet overhead. The relay selection diversity is carried out between clusters, by the cluster head (CH), and the base station (BS). The diversity helps to improve network reliability and prolong the network lifetime. Relay selection is determined based on the communication distance, the remaining energy and the channel quality indicator (CQI) for the relay cluster head (RCH). An analytical framework for energy consumption and transmission delay for the proposed MAC protocol is presented in this work. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated based on transmission delay, energy consumption, and network lifetime. The results obtained indicate that the proposed MAC protocol provides improved performance than traditional cluster based MAC protocols. PMID:26393608

  15. Central venous Access device SeCurement And Dressing Effectiveness (CASCADE) in paediatrics: protocol for pilot randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Victoria; Long, Debbie A; Williams, Tara; Hallahan, Andrew; Mihala, Gabor; Cooke, Marie; Rickard, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric central venous access devices (CVADs) are associated with a 25% incidence of failure. Securement and dressing are strategies used to reduce failure and complication; however, innovative technologies have not been evaluated for their effectiveness across device types. The primary aim of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of launching a full-scale randomised controlled efficacy trial across three CVAD types regarding CVAD securement and dressing, using predefined feasibility criteria. Methods and analysis Three feasibility randomised, controlled trials are to be undertaken at the Royal Children's Hospital and the Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. CVAD securement and dressing interventions under examination compare current practice with sutureless securement devices, integrated securement dressings and tissue adhesive. In total, 328 paediatric patients requiring a peripherally inserted central catheter (n=100); non-tunnelled CVAD (n=180) and tunnelled CVAD (n=48) to be inserted will be recruited and randomly allocated to CVAD securement and dressing products. Primary outcomes will be study feasibility measured by eligibility, recruitment, retention, attrition, missing data, parent/staff satisfaction and effect size. CVAD failure and complication (catheter-associated bloodstream infection, local infection, venous thrombosis, occlusion, dislodgement and breakage) will be compared between groups. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval to conduct the research has been obtained. All dissemination will be undertaken using the CONSORT Statement recommendations. Additionally, the results will be sent to the relevant organisations which lead CVAD focused clinical practice guidelines development. Trial registration numbers ACTRN12614001327673; ACTRN12615000977572; ACTRN12614000280606. PMID:27259529

  16. Sustained attention in mice: expanding the translational utility of the SAT by incorporating the Michigan Controlled Access Response Port (MICARP).

    PubMed

    St Peters, Megan; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Bradshaw, Marc; Sarter, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Advances in mouse genetic technology have spurred increasing interest in the development of cognitive tasks for mice. Here, we describe and discuss the modifications necessary to adapt a task for the assessment of sustained attention performance for use in mice, including for taxing the top-down control of such performance. The validity of the Sustained Attention Task (SAT), including the distractor version (dSAT), has previously been demonstrated in rats and humans. This task requires moveable or retractable operanda; insertion of operanda into the operant chambers cues animals to respond to a prior signal or non-signal event, reporting either a hit or a miss, or a correct rejection or false alarm, respectively. Retractable levers did not support sufficiently high and stable levels of performance in mice. Given the widespread use of static nose-poke devices for testing operant performance in mice, we therefore designed and fabricated a retractable nose-poke device. As this device extends into chambers, a hole for nose-poking is slowly opened and closed again as the device retracts (termed the "Michigan Controlled Access Response Port", MICARP). Results describe the effects of variation of signal duration and event rate, trial outcome and trial type probability, effects of mice deprivation levels, and the reliability of SAT and dSAT performance. Mice perform the SAT and dSAT at levels comparable to those observed in rats. This task will be of assistance in expanding the translational usefulness of the SAT and dSAT. PMID:21888929

  17. Fine Mapping and Characterization of Candidate Genes that Control Resistance to Cercospora sojina K. Hara in Two Soybean Germplasm Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Harris, Donna K.; Buck, James; Hoskins, Aaron; Serrano, Jonathan; Abdel-Haleem, Hussein; Cregan, Perry; Song, Qijian; Boerma, H. Roger; Li, Zenglu

    2015-01-01

    Frogeye leaf spot (FLS), caused by the fungus Cercospora sojina K. Hara, may cause a significant yield loss to soybean growers in regions with a warm and humid climate. Two soybean accessions, PI 594891 and PI 594774, were identified to carry a high level of resistance similar to that conditioned by the Rcs3 gene in 'Davis'. Previously, we reported that the resistance to FLS in these two plant introductions (PIs) was controlled by a novel gene (s) on chromosome 13 that is different from Rcs3. To fine-map the novel FLS resistance gene(s) in these two PIs, F2: 3 seeds from the crosses between PI 594891 and PI 594774, and the FLS susceptible genotype 'Blackhawk' were genotyped with SNP markers that were designed based on the SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip data to identify recombinant events and locate candidate genes. Analysis of lines possessing key recombination events helped narrow down the FLS-resistance genomic region in PI 594891 from 3.3 Mb to a 72.6 kb region with five annotated genes. The resistance gene in PI 594774 was fine-mapped into a 540 kb region that encompasses the 72.6 kb region found in PI 594891. Sequencing five candidate genes in PI 594891 identified three genes that have several mutations in the promoter, intron, 5', and 3' UTR regions. qPCR analysis showed a difference in expression levels of these genes in both lines compared to Blackhawk in the presence of C. sojina. Based on phenotype, genotype and haplotype analysis results, these two soybean accessions might carry different resistance alleles of the same gene or two different gene(s). The identified SNPs were used to develop Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) assays to detect the resistance alleles on chromosome 13 from the two PIs for marker-assisted selection. PMID:25993056

  18. Increasing access to care for sick newborns: evidence from the Ghana Newhints cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Manu, Alexander; Hill, Zelee; ten Asbroek, Augustinus HA; Soremekun, Seyi; Weobong, Benedict; Gyan, Thomas; Tawiah-Agyemang, Charlotte; Danso, Samuel; Amenga-Etego, Seeba; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of Newhints community-based surveillance volunteer (CBSV) assessments and referrals on access to care for sick newborns and on existing inequities in access. Design We evaluated a prospective cohort nested within the Newhints cluster-randomised controlled trial. Setting Community-based intervention involving more than 750 000, predominantly rural, population in seven contiguous districts in the Brong-Ahafo Region, Ghana. Participants Participants were recently delivered women (from more than 120 000 women under surveillance) and their 16 168 liveborn babies. Qualitative in-depth interviews with referral narratives (IDIs) were conducted with 92 mothers, CBSVs and health facility front-desk and maternity/paediatrics ward staff. Interventions Newhints trained and effectively supervised 475 CBSVs (existing within the Ghana Health Service) in 49 of 98 supervisory zones (clusters) to assess and refer newborns with any of the 10-key-danger signs to health facilities within the first week after birth; promote independent care seeking for sick newborns and problem-solve around barriers between November 2008 and December 2009. Primary outcomes The main evaluation outcomes were rates of compliance with referrals and independent care seeking for newborn illnesses. Results Of 4006 sampled, 2795 (69.8%) recently delivered women received CBSV assessment visits and 279 (10.0%) newborns were referred with danger signs. Compliance with referrals was unprecedentedly high (86.0%) with women in the poorest quintile (Q1) complying better than the least poor (Q5):87.5%(Q1) vs 69.7%(Q5); p=0.038. Three-quarters went to hospitals; 18% were admitted and 58% received outpatient treatment. Some (24%) mothers were turned away at facilities and follow-on IDIs showed that some of these untreated babies subsequently died. Independent care seeking for severe newborn illness increased from 55.4% in control to 77.3% in Newhints zones, especially among Q1 where

  19. Flight Services and Aircraft Access: Active Flow Control Vertical Tail and Insect Accretion and Mitigation Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the Flight Services and Aircraft Access task order NNL14AA57T as part of NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project ITD12A+. It includes descriptions of flight test preparations and execution for the Active Flow Control (AFC) Vertical Tail and Insect Accretion and Mitigation (IAM) experiments conducted on the 757 ecoDemonstrator. For the AFC Vertical Tail, this is the culmination of efforts under two task orders. The task order was managed by Boeing Research & Technology and executed by an enterprise-wide Boeing team that included Boeing Research & Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Boeing Defense and Space and Boeing Test and Evaluation. Boeing BR&T in St. Louis was responsible for overall Boeing project management and coordination with NASA. The 757 flight test asset was provided and managed by the BCA ecoDemonstrator Program, in partnership with Stifel Aircraft Leasing and the TUI Group. With this report, all of the required deliverables related to management of this task order have been met and delivered to NASA as summarized in Table 1. In addition, this task order is part of a broader collaboration between NASA and Boeing.

  20. Energy-Efficiency Analysis of a Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Biomedical Wireless Sensor Networks in Saturation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Otal, Begonya; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The aging population and the high quality of life expectations in our society lead to the need of more efficient and affordable healthcare solutions. For this reason, this paper aims for the optimization of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for biomedical wireless sensor networks or wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs). The hereby presented schemes always have in mind the efficient management of channel resources and the overall minimization of sensors’ energy consumption in order to prolong sensors’ battery life. The fact that the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC does not fully satisfy BSN requirements highlights the need for the design of new scalable MAC solutions, which guarantee low-power consumption to the maximum number of body sensors in high density areas (i.e., in saturation conditions). In order to emphasize IEEE 802.15.4 MAC limitations, this article presents a detailed overview of this de facto standard for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which serves as a link for the introduction and initial description of our here proposed Distributed Queuing (DQ) MAC protocol for BSN scenarios. Within this framework, an extensive DQ MAC energy-consumption analysis in saturation conditions is presented to be able to evaluate its performance in relation to IEEE 802.5.4 MAC in highly dense BSNs. The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms IEEE 802.15.4 MAC in average energy consumption per information bit, thus providing a better overall performance that scales appropriately to BSNs under high traffic conditions. These benefits are obtained by eliminating back-off periods and collisions in data packet transmissions, while minimizing the control overhead. PMID:22319351

  1. Sustained attention in mice: expanding the translational utility of the SAT by incorporating the Michigan Controlled Access Response Port (MICARP)

    PubMed Central

    St. Peters, Megan; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Bradshaw, Marc; Sarter, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Advances in mouse genetic technology have spurred increasing interest in the development of cognitive tasks for mice. Here, we describe and discuss the modifications necessary to adapt a task for the assessment of sustained attention performance for use in mice, including for taxing the top-down control of such performance. The validity of the Sustained Attention Task (SAT), including the distractor version (dSAT), have previously been demonstrated in rats and humans. This task requires moveable or retractable operanda; insertion of operanda into the operant chambers cues animals to respond to a prior signal or non-signal event, reporting either a hit or a miss, or a correct rejection or false alarm, respectively. Retractable levers did not support sufficiently high and stable levels of performance in mice. Given the widespread use of static nose-poke devices for testing operant performance in mice, we therefore designed and fabricated a retractable nose-poke device. As this device extends into chambers, a hole for nose-poking is slowly opened and closed again as the device retracts (termed the “Michigan Controlled Access Response Port”; MICARP). Results describe the effects of variation of signal duration and event rate, trial outcome and trial type probability, effects of mice deprivation levels, and the reliability of SAT and dSAT performance. Mice perform the SAT and dSAT at levels comparable to those observed in rats. This task will be of assistance in expanding the translational usefulness of the SAT and dSAT. PMID:21888929

  2. Timing of access to secondary healthcare services and lower extremity amputations in patients with diabetes: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Claire M; Ali, Fauzi; Roberts, Graham A; Kearney, Patricia M; Perry, Ivan J; Bradley, Colin P

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between timing of patient access to secondary healthcare services for diabetes management and lower extremity amputation (LEA) among patients with diabetes. Research design and methods A case–control study was conducted in the secondary healthcare system in Ireland. Cases were 116 patients with diabetes who underwent a first major non-traumatic LEA between 2006 and 2012. Controls were 348 patients with diabetes, over 45 years, admitted to the same hospital as an emergency or electively, frequency-matched for gender, type of diabetes, and year. Data were collected for 7 years prior to the event year. ORs for LEA in patients with diabetes comparing early versus late referral from primary to secondary healthcare were calculated. Results Statistically significant risk factors associated with LEA in patients with diabetes included being single, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. Documented retinopathy was a significant protective factor. In unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders, there was no evidence of a reduced risk of LEA among patients referred earlier to secondary healthcare for diabetes management. Conclusions Specialist referral may need to occur earlier than the 7-year cut-off used to demonstrate an effect on reducing LEA risk. Documented retinopathy was associated with reduced risk of LEA, most likely as a proxy for better self-care. Variation in the management of diabetes in primary care may also be impacting on outcomes. Efforts to develop more integrated care between primary and secondary services may be beneficial, rather than focusing on timing of referral to secondary healthcare. PMID:26336607

  3. Communication, Control, and Computer Access for Disabled and Elderly Individuals. ResourceBook 4: Update to Books 1, 2, and 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Peter A., Ed.; Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Ed.

    This update to the three-volume first edition of the "Rehab/Education ResourceBook Series" describes special software and products pertaining to communication, control, and computer access, designed specifically for the needs of disabled and elderly people. The 22 chapters cover: speech aids; pointing and typing aids; training and communication…

  4. Health Access Livelihood Framework Reveals Potential Barriers in the Control of Schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake Area of Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Donald P.; Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg; Xiao, Shui-Yuan; Yu, Dong-Bao; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan; Li, Yue-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis. Methodology Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care. Principal Findings We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed. Conclusions/Significance There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached. PMID:23936580

  5. Improving access to shared decision-making for Hispanics/Latinos with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Jaime A; Rosales, Aracely; Shillington, Alicia C; Bailey, Robert A; Kabir, Chris; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the cultural and linguistic adaptation and Spanish translation of an English-language patient decision aid (PDA) for use in supporting shared decision-making in Hispanics/Latinos with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a group at a high risk for complications. Patients and methods A steering committee of endocrinologists, a primary care physician, a certified diabetes educator, and a dietician, each with extensive experience in providing care to Hispanics/Latinos was convened to assess a PDA developed for English-speaking patients with T2DM. English content was reviewed for cultural sensitivity and appropriateness for a Hispanic/Latino population. A consensus-building process and iterative version edits incorporated clinician perspectives. The content was adapted to be consistent with traditional Hispanic/Latino cultural communication precepts (eg, avoidance of hostile confrontation; value for warm interaction; respect for authority; value of family support for decisions). The PDA was translated by native-speaking individuals with diabetes expertise. Results The PDA underwent testing during cognitive interviews with ten Spanish-speaking Hispanics/Latinos with T2DM to ensure that the content is reflective of the experience, understanding, and language Hispanic/Latino patients use to describe diabetes and treatment. Content edits were made to assure a literacy level appropriate to the audience, and the PDA was produced for online video dissemination. Conclusion High-quality, well-developed tools to facilitate shared decision-making in populations with limited access to culturally sensitive information can narrow gaps and align care with individual patient preferences. A newly developed PDA is available for shared decision-making that provides culturally appropriate treatment information for inadequately controlled Hispanics/Latinos with T2DM. The impact on the overall health of patients and care management of T2DM requires further study. PMID

  6. The acceptability and impact of a randomised controlled trial of welfare rights advice accessed via primary health care: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Suzanne; Mackintosh, Joan; White, Martin; Howel, Denise; Sandell, Adam

    2006-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is increasingly used alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to study a range of factors including participants' experiences of a trial. The need for a sound evidence base within public health will increase the need for RCTs of non-clinical interventions. Welfare rights advice has been proposed as an intervention with potential to reduce health inequalities. This qualitative study, nested within an RCT of the impact of welfare rights advice, examined the acceptability of the intervention, the acceptability of the research process and the perceived impact of the intervention. Methods 25 men and women aged 60 years or over were recruited from four general practices in Newcastle upon Tyne (UK), a sub-sample of those who consented to be contacted (n = 96) during the RCT baseline interview. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken and analysed using the Framework Method. Results Participants viewed the trial positively although, despite agreeing that the information leaflet was clear, some had agreed to participate without being fully aware of what was involved. Some participants were unaware of the implications of randomisation. Most thought it fair, but a few concerns were raised about the control condition. The intervention was acceptable and made participants feel confident about applying for benefit entitlements. 14 out of 25 participants received some financial award; median weekly income gain was £57 (€84, $101). The perceived impact of additional finances was considerable and included: increased affordability of necessities and occasional expenses; increased capacity to deal with emergencies; and a reduction in stress related to financial worries. Overall, perceived independence and ability to participate in society increased. Most participants perceived benefits to their mental well-being, but no-one reported an improvement in physical health. The RCT showed little or no effect on a wide range of outcome measures

  7. Social determinants of equity in access to healthcare for tuberculosis patients in Republic of Macedonia – results from a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Gudeva Nikovska, Dance; Tozija, Fimka

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health is a complex phenomenon and equity as a basic human right an integral part of constitutions in almost all countries in the world. In Republic of Macedonia (RM), Tuberculosis (TB) is clustered regionally and in certain ethnic groups. The main objective of this study was to analyze Social Determinants of Health (SDH) and equity in access to healthcare services for TB patients in RM, aimed at complex analysis of factors that cause inequities. Methods: Case-control study was conducted in the period March–December, 2013; "cases" are households of TB patients registered in the period July, 2012–June, 2013 and controls are households with no TB patients in their immediate vicinity. World Health Organization (WHO) World Health Survey questionnaire was used to collect data. Results: Analysis of SDH of TB patients shows that patients are mostly males, of lower socio-economic status, are less educated, unemployed and TB is clustered in certain ethnic groups. Analysis of access has identified these determinants as important barriers in access to health services. Conclusion: The study has documented the basic SDH of TB patients in RM, as well as barriers in access to healthcare, providing useful baseline information to facilitate determination where to concentrate future efforts. PMID:25279382

  8. Spatial Accessibility of Drug Treatment Facilities and the Effects on Locus of Control, Drug Abuse, and Service Use among Heroin-Injecting Mexican American Men

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Dennis; Torres, Luis R.; Guerrero, Erick G.; Mauldin, Rebecca; Bordnick, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study explores the spatial accessibility of outpatient drug treatment facilities and the potential relationship with drug abuse-related outcomes among Mexican American heroin users. Methods Secondary data on 219 current and former heroin-injecting Mexican American men aged 45 and older were drawn from a research study in Houston, Texas. We used geographic information systems (GIS) to derive two spatial accessibility measures: distance from one’s place of residence to the closest drug treatment facility (in minutes); and the number of facilities within a 10-minute driving distance from one’s place of residence. Exploratory logistic regression analyses examined the association between the spatial accessibility of drug treatment facilities and several drug abuse-related outcomes: internal locus of control (LOC); perceived chances and worries of injecting in the next six months; treatment utilization; and location of last heroin purchase. Results Participants with greater spatial access to treatment programs were more likely to report a higher chance of injecting in the near future. However, while current heroin users were more worried about injecting in the next six months, greater spatial access to treatment programs seemed to have a buffering effect. Finally, those who lived closer to a treatment programs were more likely to have last purchased heroin inside the neighborhood versus outside the neighborhood. Spatial accessibility was not associated with internal LOC or treatment utilization. Conclusion The findings showed that the presence of outpatient treatment facilities—particularly services in Spanish—may influence perceived risk of future heroin use and purchasing behaviors among Mexican American men. Implications for future spatially-informed drug abuse research and the planning of culturally and linguistically responsive drug treatment programs are discussed. PMID:24440123

  9. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  10. Impact of Community-based Health Insurance on Access and Financial Protection: Evidence from Three Randomized Control Trials in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Raza, Wameq A; van de Poel, Ellen; Bedi, Arjun; Rutten, Frans

    2016-06-01

    Since the 1990s, community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes have been proposed to reduce the financial consequences of illness and enhance access to healthcare in developing countries. Convincing evidence on the ability of such schemes to meet their objectives is scarce. This paper uses randomized control trials conducted in rural Uttar Pradesh and Bihar (India) to evaluate the effects of three CBHI schemes on healthcare utilization and expenditure. We find that the schemes have no effect on these outcomes. The results suggest that CBHI schemes of the type examined in this paper are unlikely to have a substantial impact on access and financial protection in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26708298

  11. Demystifying Open Access

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a 'fair share' scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  12. Demystifying Open Access

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a "fair share" scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  13. Tuning resistance states by thickness control in an electroforming-free nanometallic complementary resistance random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiang; Lu, Yang; Lee, Jongho; Chen, I.-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Tuning low resistance state is crucial for resistance random access memory (RRAM) that aims to achieve optimal read margin and design flexibility. By back-to-back stacking two nanometallic bipolar RRAMs with different thickness into a complementary structure, we have found that its low resistance can be reliably tuned over several orders of magnitude. Such high tunability originates from the exponential thickness dependence of the high resistance state of nanometallic RRAM, in which electron wave localization in a random network gives rise to the unique scaling behavior. The complementary nanometallic RRAM provides electroforming-free, multi-resistance-state, sub-100 ns switching capability with advantageous characteristics for memory arrays.

  14. Cu-catalyzed silylation of alkynes: a traceless 2-pyridylsulfonyl controller allows access to either regioisomer on demand.

    PubMed

    García-Rubia, Alfonso; Romero-Revilla, Jose A; Mauleón, Pablo; Gómez Arrayás, Ramón; Carretero, Juan C

    2015-06-01

    The Cu-catalyzed silylation of terminal and internal alkynes bearing a 2-pyridyl sulfonyl group (SO2Py) at the propargylic position affords a breadth of vinyl silanes in good yields and with excellent regio- and stereocontrol under mild conditions. The directing SO2Py group is essential in terms of reaction efficiency and chemoselectivity. Importantly, this group also provides the ability to reverse the regiochemical outcome of the reaction, opening the access to either regioisomer without modification of the starting substrate by virtue of an in situ base-promoted alkyne to allene equilibration which takes place prior to the silylcupration process. Furthermore, removal of the directing SO2Py allows for further elaboration of the silylation products. In particular, a one-pot tandem alkyne silylation/allylic substitution sequence, in which both steps are catalyzed by the same Cu species, opens up a new approach for the access to either formal hydrosilylation regioisomer of unsymmetrical aliphatic-substituted internal alkynes from propargyl sulfones. PMID:25955333

  15. Usage and Effectiveness of a Fully Automated, Open-Access, Spanish Web-Based Smoking Cessation Program: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is an optimal setting to provide massive access to tobacco treatments. To evaluate open-access Web-based smoking cessation programs in a real-world setting, adherence and retention data should be taken into account as much as abstinence rate. Objective The objective was to analyze the usage and effectiveness of a fully automated, open-access, Web-based smoking cessation program by comparing interactive versus noninteractive versions. Methods Participants were randomly assigned either to the interactive or noninteractive version of the program, both with identical content divided into 4 interdependent modules. At baseline, we collected demographic, psychological, and smoking characteristics of the smokers self-enrolled in the Web-based program of Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (National Distance Education University; UNED) in Madrid, Spain. The following questionnaires were administered: the anxiety and depression subscales from the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale, and the Heaviness of Smoking Index. At 3 months, we analyzed dropout rates, module completion, user satisfaction, follow-up response rate, and self-assessed smoking abstinence. Results A total of 23,213 smokers were registered, 50.06% (11,620/23,213) women and 49.94% (11,593/23,213) men, with a mean age of 39.5 years (SD 10.3). Of these, 46.10% (10,701/23,213) were married and 34.43% (7992/23,213) were single, 46.03% (10,686/23,213) had university education, and 78.73% (18,275/23,213) were employed. Participants smoked an average of 19.4 cigarettes per day (SD 10.3). Of the 11,861 smokers randomly assigned to the interactive version, 2720 (22.93%) completed the first module, 1052 (8.87%) the second, 624 (5.26%) the third, and 355 (2.99%) the fourth. Completion data was not available for the noninteractive version (no way to record it automatically). The 3-month follow-up questionnaire was completed by 1085 of 23,213 enrolled smokers

  16. 10 CFR 1017.19 - Access limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.19 Access limitations. A person may only have access to UCNI if he or she has been granted routine access by an Authorized Individual (see... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access limitations. 1017.19 Section 1017.19...

  17. 10 CFR 1017.21 - Limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.21 Limited access. (a) A person who is not eligible for routine access to specific UCNI under § 1017.20 may request limited access to... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited access. 1017.21 Section 1017.21 Energy...

  18. 10 CFR 1017.21 - Limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.21 Limited access. (a) A person who is not eligible for routine access to specific UCNI under § 1017.20 may request limited access to... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limited access. 1017.21 Section 1017.21 Energy...

  19. 10 CFR 1017.19 - Access limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.19 Access limitations. A person may only have access to UCNI if he or she has been granted routine access by an Authorized Individual (see... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Access limitations. 1017.19 Section 1017.19...

  20. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  1. Access to Base Adducts of Low-Valent Organotin-Hydride Compounds by Controlled, Stepwise Hydrogen Abstraction from a Tetravalent Organotin Trihydride.

    PubMed

    Sindlinger, Christian P; Grahneis, Wiebke; Aicher, Frederik S W; Wesemann, Lars

    2016-05-23

    Hydrogen can be selectively removed from organotin trihydrides to generate the corresponding organohydrostannylene intermediates. Depending on the size of the substituent and the mode of generation, the intermediates undergo further reactions. Herein, we report on the formation of a variety of organotin hydrides with tin in the oxidation states Sn(II) , Sn(I) -Sn(III) and Sn(III) -Sn(III) , all accessed by the controlled removal of hydrogen from the tetravalent Ar'Sn(IV) trihydride (Ar'=2,6-dimesitylphenyl, mesityl=2,4,6-trimethylphenyl). PMID:27113089

  2. Improving Post-Hospitalization Transition Outcomes through Accessible Health Information Technology and Caregiver Support: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Piette, John D; Striplin, Dana; Marinec, Nicolle; Chen, Jenny; Gregory, Lynn A; Sumerlin, Denise L; DeSantis, Angela M; Gibson, Carolyn; Crause, Ingrid; Rouse, Marylena; Aikens, James E

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this trial is to evaluate a novel intervention designed to improve post-hospitalization support for older adults with chronic conditions via: (a) direct tailored communication to patients using regular automated calls post discharge, (b) support for informal caregivers outside of the patient’s household via structured automated feedback about the patient’s status plus advice about how caregivers can help, and (c) support for care management including a web-based disease management tool and alerts about potential problems. Methods 846 older adults with common chronic conditions are being identified upon hospital admission. Patients are asked to identify a “CarePartner” (CP) living outside their household, i.e., an adult child or other social network member willing to play an active role in their post-discharge transition support. Patient-CP pairs are randomized to the intervention or usual care. Intervention patients receive automated assessment and behavior change calls, and their CPs receives structured feedback and advice via email and automated calls following each assessment. Clinical teams have access to assessment results via the web and receive automated reports about urgent health problems. Patients complete surveys at baseline, 30 days, and 90 days post discharge; utilization data is obtained from hospital records. CPs, other caregivers, and clinicians are interviewed to evaluate intervention effects on processes of self-care support, caregiver stress and communication, and the intervention’s potential for broader implementation. The primary outcome is 30-day readmission rates; other outcomes measured at 30 days and 90 days include functional status, self-care behaviors, and mortality risk. Conclusion This trial uses accessible health technologies and coordinated communication among informal caregivers and clinicians to fill the growing gap between what discharged patients need and available resources. A unique feature of

  3. A Review of Existing Studies Reporting the Negative Effects of Alcohol Access and Positive Effects of Alcohol Control Policies on Interpersonal Violence

    PubMed Central

    Fitterer, Jessica L.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stockwell, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 87 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-one (82%) reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offenses. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%), with trading hours (63%), and alcohol price following (58%). Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offenses. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local-level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater uptake of local-level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes, such as 1% increases in alcohol price, 1 h changes to closing times

  4. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-05-01

    are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis

  5. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan; Jersey Inst Ansari, New; Jersey Inst, New

    2005-04-01

    are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis

  6. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis

  7. Access to a polymerase chain reaction assay method targeting 13 respiratory viruses can reduce antibiotics: a randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Viral respiratory infections are common worldwide and range from completely benign disease to life-threatening illness. Symptoms can be unspecific, and an etiologic diagnosis is rarely established because of a lack of suitable diagnostic tools. Improper use of antibiotics is common in this setting, which is detrimental in light of the development of bacterial resistance. It has been suggested that the use of diagnostic tests could reduce antibiotic prescription rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay panel for etiologic diagnosis of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) would have an impact on antibiotic prescription rate in primary care clinical settings. Methods Adult patients with symptoms of ARTI were prospectively included. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were analysed by using a multiplex real-time PCR method targeting thirteen viruses and two bacteria. Patients were recruited at 12 outpatient units from October 2006 through April 2009, and samples were collected on the day of inclusion (initial visit) and after 10 days (follow-up visit). Patients were randomised in an open-label treatment protocol to receive a rapid or delayed result (on the following day or after eight to twelve days). The primary outcome measure was the antibiotic prescription rate at the initial visit, and the secondary outcome was the total antibiotic prescription rate during the study period. Results A total sample of 447 patients was randomised. Forty-one were excluded, leaving 406 patients for analysis. In the group of patients randomised for a rapid result, 4.5% (9 of 202) of patients received antibiotics at the initial visit, compared to 12.3% (25 of 204) (P = 0.005) of patients in the delayed result group. At follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups: 13.9% (28 of 202) in the rapid result group and 17.2% (35 of 204) in the delayed result group (P = 0

  8. UK publicly funded Clinical Trials Units supported a controlled access approach to share individual participant data but highlighted concerns

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Carolyn; Sydes, Matthew; Murray, Gordon; Woolfall, Kerry; Clarke, Mike; Williamson, Paula; Tudur Smith, Catrin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate current data sharing activities of UK publicly funded Clinical Trial Units (CTUs) and identify good practices and barriers. Study Design and Setting Web-based survey of Directors of 45 UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC)–registered CTUs. Results Twenty-three (51%) CTUs responded: Five (22%) of these had an established data sharing policy and eight (35%) specifically requested consent to use patient data beyond the scope of the original trial. Fifteen (65%) CTUs had received requests for data, and seven (30%) had made external requests for data in the previous 12 months. CTUs supported the need for increased data sharing activities although concerns were raised about patient identification, misuse of data, and financial burden. Custodianship of clinical trial data and requirements for a CTU to align its policy to their parent institutes were also raised. No CTUs supported the use of an open access model for data sharing. Conclusion There is support within the publicly funded UKCRC-registered CTUs for data sharing, but many perceived barriers remain. CTUs are currently using a variety of approaches and procedures for sharing data. This survey has informed further work, including development of guidance for publicly funded CTUs, to promote good practice and facilitate data sharing. PMID:26169841

  9. Cytosolic Access of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Critical Impact of Phagosomal Acidification Control and Demonstration of Occurrence In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Simeone, Roxane; Sayes, Fadel; Song, Okryul; Gröschel, Matthias I.; Brodin, Priscille; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) uses efficient strategies to evade the eradication by professional phagocytes, involving—as recently confirmed—escape from phagosomal confinement. While Mtb determinants, such as the ESX-1 type VII secretion system, that contribute to this phenomenon are known, the host cell factors governing this important biological process are yet unexplored. Using a newly developed flow-cytometric approach for Mtb, we show that macrophages expressing the phagosomal bivalent cation transporter Nramp-1, are much less susceptible to phagosomal rupture. Together with results from the use of the phagosome acidification inhibitor bafilomycin, we demonstrate that restriction of phagosomal acidification is a prerequisite for mycobacterial phagosomal rupture and cytosolic contact. Using different in vivo approaches including an enrichment and screen for tracking rare infected phagocytes carrying the CD45.1 hematopoietic allelic marker, we here provide first and unique evidence of M. tuberculosis-mediated phagosomal rupture in mouse spleen and lungs and in numerous phagocyte types. Our results, linking the ability of restriction of phagosome acidification to cytosolic access, provide an important conceptual advance for our knowledge on host processes targeted by Mtb evasion strategies. PMID:25658322

  10. aPKC Inhibition by Par3 CR3 Flanking Regions Controls Substrate Access and Underpins Apical-Junctional Polarization.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Erika V; Ivanova, Marina E; Fletcher, Georgina; Riou, Philippe; Knowles, Philip P; Barnouin, Karin; Purkiss, Andrew; Kostelecky, Brenda; Saiu, Peter; Linch, Mark; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Kjær, Svend; O'Reilly, Nicola; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Parker, Peter J; Thompson, Barry J; McDonald, Neil Q

    2016-08-22

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is a key apical-basal polarity determinant and Par complex component. It is recruited by Par3/Baz (Bazooka in Drosophila) into epithelial apical domains through high-affinity interaction. Paradoxically, aPKC also phosphorylates Par3/Baz, provoking its relocalization to adherens junctions (AJs). We show that Par3 conserved region 3 (CR3) forms a tight inhibitory complex with a primed aPKC kinase domain, blocking substrate access. A CR3 motif flanking its PKC consensus site disrupts the aPKC kinase N lobe, separating P-loop/αB/αC contacts. A second CR3 motif provides a high-affinity anchor. Mutation of either motif switches CR3 to an efficient in vitro substrate by exposing its phospho-acceptor site. In vivo, mutation of either CR3 motif alters Par3/Baz localization from apical to AJs. Our results reveal how Par3/Baz CR3 can antagonize aPKC in stable apical Par complexes and suggests that modulation of CR3 inhibitory arms or opposing aPKC pockets would perturb the interaction, promoting Par3/Baz phosphorylation. PMID:27554858

  11. The Quik Fix study: a randomised controlled trial of brief interventions for young people with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses accessing emergency department and crisis support care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a major preventable cause of injury, disability and death in young people. Large numbers of young people with alcohol-related injuries and medical conditions present to hospital emergency departments (EDs). Access to brief, efficacious, accessible and cost effective treatment is an international health priority within this age group. While there is growing evidence for the efficacy of brief motivational interviewing (MI) for reducing alcohol use in young people, there is significant scope to increase its impact, and determine if it is the most efficacious and cost effective type of brief intervention available. The efficacy of personality-targeted interventions (PIs) for alcohol misuse delivered individually to young people is yet to be determined or compared to MI, despite growing evidence for school-based PIs. This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of telephone-delivered MI, PI and an Assessment Feedback/Information (AF/I) only control for reducing alcohol use and related harm in young people. Methods/design Participants will be 390 young people aged 16 to 25 years presenting to a crisis support service or ED with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses (including severe alcohol intoxication). This single blinded superiority trial randomized young people to (i) 2 sessions of MI; (ii) 2 sessions of a new PI or (iii) a 1 session AF/I only control. Participants are reassessed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months on the primary outcomes of alcohol use and related problems and secondary outcomes of mental health symptoms, functioning, severity of problematic alcohol use, alcohol injuries, alcohol-related knowledge, coping self-efficacy to resist using alcohol, and cost effectiveness. Discussion This study will identify the most efficacious and cost-effective telephone-delivered brief intervention for reducing alcohol misuse and related problems in young people presenting to crisis support

  12. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  13. An Optimal Mobile Service for Telecare Data Synchronization using a Role-based Access Control Model and Mobile Peer-to-Peer Technology.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chih-Kun; Lin, Zheng-Hua

    2015-09-01

    The progress of information and communication technologies (ICT) has promoted the development of healthcare which has enabled the exchange of resources and services between organizations. Organizations want to integrate mobile devices into their hospital information systems (HIS) due to the convenience to employees who are then able to perform specific healthcare processes from any location. The collection and merage of healthcare data from discrete mobile devices are worth exploring possible ways for further use, especially in remote districts without public data network (PDN) to connect the HIS. In this study, we propose an optimal mobile service which automatically synchronizes the telecare file resources among discrete mobile devices. The proposed service enforces some technical methods. The role-based access control model defines the telecare file resources accessing mechanism; the symmetric data encryption method protects telecare file resources transmitted over a mobile peer-to-peer network. The multi-criteria decision analysis method, ELECTRE (Elimination Et Choice Translating Reality), evaluates multiple criteria of the candidates' mobile devices to determine a ranking order. This optimizes the synchronization of telecare file resources among discrete mobile devices. A prototype system is implemented to examine the proposed mobile service. The results of the experiment show that the proposed mobile service can automatically and effectively synchronize telecare file resources among discrete mobile devices. The contribution of this experiment is to provide an optimal mobile service that enhances the security of telecare file resource synchronization and strengthens an organization's mobility. PMID:26259633

  14. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - ...

  15. Evaluation and Control of Break-Even Time of Nonvolatile Static Random Access Memory Based on Spin-Transistor Architecture with Spin-Transfer-Torque Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuto, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Shuu'ichirou; Sugahara, Satoshi

    2012-04-01

    The energy performance of a nonvolatile static random access memory (NV-SRAM) cell for power gating applications was quantitatively analyzed for the first time using the performance index of break-even time (BET). The NV-SRAM cell is based on spin-transistor architecture using ordinary metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and spin-transfer-torque magnetic tunnel junctions (STT-MTJs), whose circuit representation of spin-transistor is referred to as a pseudo-spin-MOSFET (PS-MOSFET). The cell is configured with a standard six-transistor SRAM cell and two PS-MOSFETs. The NV-SRAM cell basically has a short BET of submicroseconds. Although the write (store) operation to the STT-MTJs causes an increase in the BET, it can be successfully reduced by the proposed power-aware bias-control for the PS-MOSFETs.

  16. An ultra low-power and traffic-adaptive medium access control protocol for wireless body area network.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-06-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of low-power, miniaturized, and autonomous wireless sensor nodes that enable physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real-time feedback with medical diagnosis and consultations. It is the most reliable and cheaper way to take care of patients suffering from chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Some of the most important attributes of WBAN is low-power consumption and delay. This can be achieved by introducing flexible duty cycling techniques on the energy constraint sensor nodes. Stated otherwise, low duty cycle nodes should not receive frequent synchronization and control packets if they have no data to send/receive. In this paper, we introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) by taking into account the traffic information of the sensor nodes. The protocol dynamically adjusts the duty cycle of the sensor nodes according to their traffic-patterns, thus solving the idle listening and overhearing problems. The traffic-patterns of all sensor nodes are organized and maintained by the coordinator. The TaMAC protocol is supported by a wakeup radio that is used to accommodate emergency and on-demand events in a reliable manner. The wakeup radio uses a separate control channel along with the data channel and therefore it has considerably low power consumption requirements. Analytical expressions are derived to analyze and compare the performance of the TaMAC protocol with the well-known beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC, WiseMAC, and SMAC protocols. The analytical derivations are further validated by simulation results. It is shown that the TaMAC protocol outperforms all other protocols in terms of power consumption and delay. PMID:20703634

  17. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  18. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  19. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  20. Role prediction using Electronic Medical Record system audits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Gunter, Carl A; Liebovitz, David; Tian, Jian; Malin, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) provide convenient access to patient data for parties who should have it, but, unless managed properly, may also provide it to those who should not. Distinguishing the two is a core security challenge for EMRs. Strategies proposed to address these problems include Role Based Access Control (RBAC), which assigns collections of privileges called roles to users, and Experience Based Access Management (EBAM), which analyzes audit logs to determine access rights. In this paper, we integrate RBAC and EBAM through an algorithm, called Roll-Up, to manage roles effectively. In doing so, we introduce the concept of "role prediction" to identify roles from audit data. We apply the algorithm to three months of logs from Northwestern Memorial Hospital's Cerner system with approximately 8000 users and 140 roles. We demonstrate that existing roles can be predicted with 50% accuracy and intelligent grouping of roles through Roll-Up can facilitate 65% accuracy. PMID:22195144

  1. Resistive switching and electrical control of ferromagnetism in a Ag/HfO₂/Nb:SrTiO₃/Ag resistive random access memory (RRAM) device at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shaoqing; Zhu, Gengchang; Xie, Jihao; Bu, Jianpei; Qin, Hongwei; Hu, Jifan

    2016-02-10

    Electrically induced resistive switching and modulated ferromagnetism are simultaneously found in a Ag/HfO2/Nb:SrTiO3/Ag resistive random access memory device at room temperature. The bipolar resistive switching (RS) can be controlled by the modification of a Schottky-like barrier with an electron injection-trapped/detrapped process at the interface of HfO2-Nb:SrTiO3. The multilevel RS transition can be observed in the reset process with larger negative voltage sweepings, which is connected to the different degree of electron detrapping in the interfacial depletion region of the HfO2 layer during the reset process. The origin of the electrical control of room-temperature ferromagnetism may be connected to the change of density of oxygen vacancies in the HfO2 film. The multilevel resistance states and the electric field controlled ferromagnetism have potential for applications in ultrahigh-density storage and magnetic logic device. PMID:26761365

  2. Intron-less RNA injected into the nucleus of Xenopus oocytes accesses a regulated translation control pathway.

    PubMed

    Braddock, M; Muckenthaler, M; White, M R; Thorburn, A M; Sommerville, J; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1994-12-11

    The translation of a capped, polyadenylated RNA after injection into the nucleus of Xenopus oocytes occurs only if the RNA contains an intron. A single point mutation in the splice donor site prevents translation. Intron-less RNA is exported efficiently to the cytoplasm and is held, undegraded, in a translationally inert state for several days. Translation can be activated by treating the oocytes with progesterone or by injecting antibodies that bind the FRGY2 class of messenger RNA binding proteins, p56 and p60, but these antibodies are only effective if delivered to the nucleus. Inhibitors of casein kinase II also activate translation whereas phosphatase inhibitors block progesterone-mediated activation of translation. These data suggest the presence of an RNA handling pathway in the nucleus of Xenopus oocytes which is regulated by casein kinase type II phosphorylation and which directs transcripts to be sequestered by p56/p60 or by closely related proteins. This pathway can be bypassed if the RNA contains an intron and it can be reversed by progesterone treatment. These data may have implications for understanding translational control during early development. PMID:7816614

  3. 10 CFR 1017.20 - Routine access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.20 Routine access. (a) Authorized... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Routine access. 1017.20 Section 1017.20 Energy DEPARTMENT... access to the UCNI, subject to limitations in paragraph (b) of this section, and who may...

  4. 10 CFR 1017.20 - Routine access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.20 Routine access. (a) Authorized... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Routine access. 1017.20 Section 1017.20 Energy DEPARTMENT... access to the UCNI, subject to limitations in paragraph (b) of this section, and who may...

  5. Controlling access time to a high-fat diet during the inactive period protects against obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Atsushi; Aoki, Natsumi; Ohtsu, Teiji; Ikeda, Yuko; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2014-10-01

    Free feeding (FF) with a high fat diet (HFD) causes excessive body weight gain, whereas restricted feeding (RF) with a HFD attenuates body weight gain. The effects of timing of feeding with a HFD (day vs. night) and feeding duration on energy homeostasis have not yet been investigated. In this study, we fed mice a HFD or a normal diet (ND) twice a day, during their active and inactive periods, on a schedule. The amount of food was regulated by feeding duration (2, 4 or 8 h). First, we investigated the effects of 4-h RF during active-inactive periods (ND-ND, HFD-HFD, ND-HFD or HFD-ND). Among all the 4-h RF groups, mice consumed almost the same amount of calories as those in the FF[ND] group, even those fed a HFD. Body weight and visceral fat in these three groups were lower than that in the FF[HFD] group. Second, we investigated the effects of RF duration. Body weight and visceral fat were higher in the 8-h groups than in the 4-h groups. Body weight and visceral fat were higher in the 2-h groups than in the 4-h groups even though the 2-h groups had less food. Third, we investigated the effects of eating a HFD during the inactive period, when RF duration was extended (2, 6 or 12 h). Mice were fed with a HFD during the inactive period for 2 h and fed with a ND during the active period for 2, 6 or 12 h. Body weight and visceral fat in these mice were comparable to those in the FF[ND] mice. The results of our first set of experiments suggest that 4-h RF was an adequate feeding duration to control the effect of a HFD on obesity. The results of our second set of experiments suggest 2-h RF (such as speed-eating) and 8-h RF, representative of eating disorders, are unhealthy feeding patterns related to obesity. The results of our third set of experiments suggest that eating a HFD for a short period during the night does not affect body weight and visceral fat. Taken together, these results indicate that consideration to feeding with a HFD during the inactive period and

  6. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks.

    Scope of Contributions

    This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to:
    • Optical access network architectures and protocols
    • Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.)
    • Active optical networks
    • Multiple access control
    • Multiservices and QoS provisioning
    • Network survivability
    • Field trials and standards
    • Performance modeling and analysis

    Manuscript Submission

    To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating ``Optical Access Networks feature' in the ``Comments' field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line ``Optical Access Networks' Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

  7. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to investigate whether home access to electronic games decreases children's physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Straker, Leon M; Abbott, Rebecca A; Piek, Jan P; Pollock, Clare M; Davies, Peter S; Smith, Anne J

    2009-01-01

    Background Many children are reported to have insufficient physical activity (PA) placing them at greater risk of poor health outcomes. Participating in sedentary activities such as playing electronic games is widely believed to contribute to less PA. However there is no experimental evidence that playing electronic games reduces PA. There is also no evidence regarding the effect of different types of electronic games (traditional sedentary electronic games versus new active input electronic games) on PA. Further, there is a poor understanding about how characteristics of children may moderate the impact of electronic game access on PA and about what leisure activities are displaced when children play electronic games. Given that many children play electronic games, a better understanding of the effect of electronic game use on PA is critical to inform child health policy and intervention. Methods This randomised and controlled trial will examine whether PA is decreased by access to electronic games and whether any effect is dependent on the type of game input or the child's characteristics. Children aged 10–12 years (N = 72, 36 females) will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no electronic games', 'traditional' electronic games and 'active' electronic games. Each child will participate in each condition for 8 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is PA, assessed by Actical accelerometers worn for 7 days on the wrist and hip. Energy expenditure will be assessed by the doubly labelled water technique and motor coordination, adiposity, self-confidence, attitudes to technology and PA and leisure activities will also be assessed. A sample of 72 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 15 mins difference in PA (sd = 30 mins). Discussion This is the first such trial and will provide critical information to understand whether access to electronic games affects children's PA. Given the

  8. Is Your Church Accessible? Houses of Worship: Physical Accessibility Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Arselia, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This checklist is intended to help churches evaluate the accessibility of their facilities to those with physical disabilities. Categories covered are: basic accessibility, parking lots, walks, ramps, entrances/exits, doors and doorways, stairs and steps, floors, worship space, rest rooms, controls, water fountains, identification, warning…

  9. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-dialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-dialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency-dialysis access; Chronic kidney failure-dialysis access; Chronic renal failure-dialysis access

  10. Associations between Motivational Orientations and Chronically Accessible Outcomes in Leisure-Time Physical Activity: Are Appearance-Related Outcomes Controlling in Nature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Sarah; Hagger, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore relations between chronically accessible outcomes in physical activity and scaled measures of motivational orientations from a self-determination perspective. Methods from construct and attitude accessibility research and the Levesque and Pelletier (2003) study were used to identify participants' chronically accessible…

  11. Increasing Access to Mental Health Care With Breathe, an Internet-Based Program for Anxious Adolescents: Study Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wozney, Lori; Bagnell, Alexa; Fitzpatrick, Eleanor; Curtis, Sarah; Jabbour, Mona; Johnson, David; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Young, Michael; Ohinmaa, Arto; Joyce, Anthony; McGrath, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a demand to make first-line treatments, including cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for adolescent anxiety disorders, more widely available. Internet-based CBT is proposed to circumvent access and availability barriers and reduce health care system costs. Recent reviews suggest more evidence is needed to establish the treatment effects of Internet-based CBT in children and adolescents and to determine related economic impacts. Objective This pilot trial aims to collect the necessary data to inform the planning of a full-scale RCT to test the effectiveness of the Internet-based CBT program Breathe (Being Real, Easing Anxiety: Tools Helping Electronically). Methods We are conducting a 27-month, 2-arm parallel-group, pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT). Outcomes will inform the planning of a full-scale RCT aimed to test the effectiveness of Internet-based CBT with a population of adolescents with moderate to mild anxiety problems. In the pilot RCT we will: (1) define a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for the primary outcome measure (total anxiety score using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children); (2) determine a sample size for the full-scale RCT; (3) estimate recruitment and retention rates; (4) measure intervention acceptability to inform critical intervention changes; (5) determine the use of co-interventions; and (6) conduct a cost-consequence analysis to inform a cost-effectiveness analysis in the full-scale RCT. Adolescents aged 13-17 years seeking care for an anxiety complaint from a participating emergency department, mobile or school-based crisis team, or primary care clinic are being screened for interest and eligibility. Enrolled adolescents are being randomly allocated to either 8 weeks of Internet-based CBT with limited telephone and e-mail support, or a control group with access to a static webpage listing anxiety resources. Adolescents are randomly assigned using a computer generated allocation

  12. 40 CFR 258.25 - Access requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Access requirements. 258.25 Section 258.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.25 Access requirements. Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must control public access...

  13. Issues in Public Access: The Solomons Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprehe, J. Timothy

    1993-01-01

    Reports on conferences held by federal agencies in 1991 and 1992 that addressed issues of public access to electronic government information. Topics discussed include agency information dissemination programs; public access to federal computers; security controls; and user charges. A working draft policy framework on public access to government…

  14. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  15. Intermittent access to liquid sucrose differentially modulates energy intake and related central pathways in control or high-fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Soto, Marion; Chaumontet, Catherine; Even, Patrick C; Nadkarni, Nachiket; Piedcoq, Julien; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2015-03-01

    Intake of sodas has been shown to increase energy intake and to contribute to obesity in humans and in animal models, although the magnitude and importance of these effects are still debated. Moreover, intake of sugar sweetened beverages is often associated with high-fat food consumption in humans. We studied two different accesses to a sucrose-sweetened water (SSW, 12.3%, a concentration similar to that usually found in sugar sweetened beverages) in C57BL/6 mice fed a normal-fat (NF) or a high-fat (HF) diet in a scheduled access (7.5h). NF-fed and HF-fed mice received during 5weeks access to water, to SSW continuously for 7.5h (SSW), or to water plus SSW for 2h (randomly-chosen time slot for only 5 random days/week) (SSW-2h). Mouse preference for SSW was greater in HF-fed mice than NF-fed mice. Continuous SSW access induced weight gain whatever the diet and led to greater caloric intake than mice drinking water in NF-fed mice and in the first three weeks in HF-fed mice. In HF-fed mice, 2h-intermittent access to SSW induced a greater body weight gain than mice drinking water, and led to hyperphagia on the HF diet when SSW was accessible compared to days without SSW 2h-access (leading to greater overall caloric intake), possibly through inactivation of the anorexigenic neuropeptide POMC in the hypothalamus. This was not observed in NF-fed mice, but 2h-intermittent access to SSW stimulated the expression of dopamine, opioid and endocannabinoid receptors in the nucleus accumbens compared to water-access. In conclusion, in mice, a sucrose solution provided 2h-intermittently and a high-fat diet have combined effects on peripheral and central homeostatic systems involved in food intake regulation, a finding which has significant implications for human obesity. PMID:25484353

  16. Computer access security code system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.

  17. Access channel residues Ser315 and Asp137 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase-peroxidase (KatG) control peroxidatic activation of the pro-drug isoniazid

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiangbo; Hersleth, Hans-Petter; Zhu, Janan; Andersson, K. Kristoffer; Magliozzo, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Peroxidatic activation of the anti-tuberculosis pro-drug isoniazid by Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase-peroxidase (KatG) is regulated by gating residues of a heme access channel. The steric restriction at the bottleneck of this channel is alleviated by replacement of residue Asp137 with Ser, according to crystallographic and kinetic studies. PMID:24185282

  18. How Much Control Do Children and Adolescents Have over Genomic Testing, Parental Access to Their Results, and Parental Communication of Those Results to Others?

    PubMed

    Clayton, Ellen Wright

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents may often have opinions about whether they want genetic and genomic testing in both the clinic and research and about who should have access to the results. This legal analysis demonstrates that the law provides very little protection to minors' wishes. PMID:26479563

  19. The Public's Information: Striking a Balance Between Access and Control: A Summary of Proceedings of the FLICC Forum on Federal Information Policies (Washington, DC, March 19, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Library and Information Center Committee, Washington, DC.

    This report is a summary of topics presented at the annual forum of the Federal Library and Information Center Committee (FLICC) of the Library of Congress. The first portion of the Forum examined information availability issues and reviewed government publishing and access arrangements in the United States and other democratic countries.…

  20. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. ...

  1. Database Access Integration Services (DAIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, P. . Sensor and System Development Center); Nordell, D. )

    1992-12-01

    The Database Access Integration Services (DAIS) is a collection of services that facilitate access to data among diverse data systems in an electric utility communications network. DAIS provides access to data in distributed, heterogeneous data systems that include relational database management systems, other database management systems, control systems, file systems, and application systems. It also provides a common method for describing data, common data access operations and essential support services including a data dictionary, a data directory and distributed data access management capabilities. The DAIS project has developed specifications intended for vendor and third-party implementation. The software developed is only to implement a data access integration demonstration. These specifications can serve as a basis for influencing industry standards development. One important consequence of this strategy is that most actual software development will be performed by vendors, not utilities. DAIS is a tool to support data access. It is policy neutral regarding issues such as local or central administration of data or standardization of information model contents (e.g., EPRI Plant Information Network). As a tool, it can be used to help realize such policies. The DAIS does not provide data storage facilities, schema integration, distributed query processing, distributed applications or cooperative processing. Rather, DAIS is complementary to these functions and can be used with other software that does provide these functions. This project documented the requirements for the DAIS. These requirements are the basis for design of the DAIS specifications. The key requirements for a DAIS are: Uniform access to heterogeneous utility data systems, remote update; coexistence with local data systems; local autonomy ; Security and access restriction enforcement; OSI compatibility; open architecture and extensibility; and operating platform independence.

  2. A Theory of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribot, Jesse C.; Peluso, Nancy Lee

    2003-01-01

    The term "access" is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as "the "ability" to derive benefits from things," broadening from property's classical definition as…

  3. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  4. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Access. 9.32 Section 9.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.32 Access. (a) No access on, across or through lands or waters owned or controlled by the United States to...

  5. Federal Family Education Loan Information System. Weak Computer Controls Increase Risk of Unauthorized Access to Sensitive Data. Report to the Secretary of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Accounting and Information Management Div.

    This report presents an evaluation of the general controls over the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) information system maintained and operated by a contractor for the U.S. Department of Education (ED), which administers FFELP. The evaluation found that ED's general controls over the FFELP information system did not adequately protect…

  6. NP1 Protein of the Bocaparvovirus Minute Virus of Canines Controls Access to the Viral Capsid Genes via Its Role in RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Fasina, Olufemi O.; Dong, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Minute virus of canines (MVC) is an autonomous parvovirus in the genus Bocaparvovirus. It has a single promoter that generates a single pre-mRNA processed via alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation to produce at least 8 mRNA transcripts. MVC contains two polyadenylation sites, one at the right-hand end of the genome, (pA)d, and another complex site, (pA)p, within the capsid-coding region. During viral infection, the mRNAs must extend through (pA)p and undergo additional splicing of the immediately upstream 3D∕3A intron to access the capsid gene. MVC NP1 is a 22-kDa nuclear phosphoprotein unique to the genus Bocaparvovirus of the Parvovirinae which we have shown governs suppression of (pA)p independently of viral genome replication. We show here that in addition to suppression of (pA)p, NP1 is also required for the excision of the MVC 3D∕3A intron, independently of its effect on alternative polyadenylation. Mutations of the arginine∕serine (SR) di-repeats within the intrinsically disordered amino terminus of NP1 are required for splicing of the capsid transcript but not suppression of polyadenylation at (pA)p. 3′-end processing of MVC mRNAs at (pA)p is critical for viral genome replication and the optimal expression of NP1 and NS1. Thus, a finely tuned balance between (pA)p suppression and usage is necessary for efficient virus replication. NP1 is the first parvovirus protein implicated in RNA processing. Its characterization reveals another way that parvoviruses govern access to their capsid protein genes, namely, at the RNA level, by regulating the essential splicing of an intron and the suppression of an internal polyadenylation site. IMPORTANCE The Parvovirinae are small nonenveloped icosahedral viruses that are important pathogens in many animal species, including humans. Although parvoviruses have only subtle early-to-late expression shifts, they all regulate access to their capsid genes. Minute virus of canines (MVC) is an

  7. Multi-step resistive switching behavior of Li-doped ZnO resistance random access memory device controlled by compliance current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng; Tang, Jian-Fu; Su, Hsiu-Hsien; Hong, Cheng-Shong; Huang, Chih-Yu; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    The multi-step resistive switching (RS) behavior of a unipolar Pt/Li0.06Zn0.94O/Pt resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is investigated. It is found that the RRAM device exhibits normal, 2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors under different compliance currents. The transport mechanism within the device is investigated by means of current-voltage curves, in-situ transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect (normal RS behavior) or Li+ ion diffusion (2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors) under high electric fields.

  8. 42 CFR 431.818 - Access to records: MEQC program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Control Medicaid Eligibility Quality Control (meqc) Program § 431.818 Access to records: MEQC program. (a... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to records: MEQC program. 431.818 Section... which the State has access, including information available under part 435, subpart I, of this...

  9. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis . Updated July 23, 2014. Available at: kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/vascularaccess/index.aspx. Accessed: February 9, 2015. ...

  10. 5 CFR 1320.14 - Public access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public access. 1320.14 Section 1320.14 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.14 Public access. (a) In order to enable the public to participate in and provide...

  11. 5 CFR 1320.14 - Public access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public access. 1320.14 Section 1320.14 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.14 Public access. (a) In order to enable the public to participate in and provide...

  12. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  13. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  14. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  15. Open Access and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shawn; Schmidt, Christian; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Philip W

    2006-01-01

    Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature. PMID:16956402

  16. Early intervention for depression and anxiety in 16-18-year-olds: Protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of open-access psychological workshops in schools (DISCOVER).

    PubMed

    Michelson, Daniel; Sclare, Irene; Stahl, Daniel; Morant, Nicola; Bonin, Eva-Maria; Brown, June S L

    2016-05-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of mental health problems. The DISCOVER intervention aims to provide accessible, acceptable and cost-effective psychological support for stressed adolescents in inner-city secondary schools. The intervention uses age-appropriate cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) methods and materials, delivered in an interactive 1-day workshop with additional telephone support. An open-access entry route allows students to self-refer. This protocol describes a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing DISCOVER with a waitlist control condition. The study will run across 10 clusters (secondary schools) in the inner London Boroughs of Southwark and Lambeth. Participants are students aged over 16years who are seeking help with anxiety and/or depressive symptoms. Key feasibility parameters relate to the proportion of students willing to participate in the research following publicity events; the proportion of students who complete the intervention; and response rates for outcome measures. Outcome variance estimates and intra-cluster correlations will be obtained for future power calculations. Qualitative methods will be used to explore the acceptability of the intervention and research procedures for students and school staff. The feasibility of an economic evaluation will also be examined. The results will (i) determine the appropriateness of proceeding to a definitive full-scale trial; and (ii) inform the development of an optimised version of the DISCOVER intervention that can be tested within feasible parameters. PMID:26883283

  17. What's Hot--and Not--in Card Access Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Describes four uses of newer card access systems on college campuses: stored value, entitlement, access control, and vending. Discusses the continued reluctance of schools to move to cards containing computer chips rather than simply magnetic stripes. (EV)

  18. To remove or to replace traditional electronic games? A crossover randomised controlled trial on the impact of removing or replacing home access to electronic games on physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children aged 10–12 years

    PubMed Central

    Straker, Leon M; Abbott, Rebecca A; Smith, Anne J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of (1) the removal of home access to traditional electronic games or (2) their replacement with active input electronic games, on daily physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children aged 10–12 years. Design Crossover randomised controlled trial, over 6 months. Setting Family homes in metropolitan Perth, Australia from 2007 to 2010. Participants 10-year-old to 12-year-old children were recruited through school and community media. From 210 children who were eligible, 74 met inclusion criteria, 8 withdrew and 10 had insufficient primary outcome measures, leaving 56 children (29 female) for analysis. Intervention A counterbalanced randomised order of three conditions sustained for 8 weeks each: no home access to electronic games, home access to traditional electronic games and home access to active input electronic games. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was accelerometer assessed moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes included sedentary time and diary assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Results Daily MVPA across the whole week was not significantly different between conditions. However, compared with home access to traditional electronic games, removal of all electronic games resulted in a significant increase in MVPA (mean 3.8 min/day, 95% CI 1.5 to 6.1) and a decrease in sedentary time (4.7 min/day, 0.0 to 9.5) in the after-school period. Similarly, replacing traditional games with active input games resulted in a significant increase in MVPA (3.2 min/day, 0.9 to 5.5) and a decrease in sedentary time (6.2 min/day, 1.4 to 11.4) in the after-school period. Diary reports supported an increase in physical activity and a decrease in screen-based sedentary behaviours with both interventions. Conclusions Removal of sedentary electronic games from the child's home and replacing these with active electronic games both resulted in small, objectively measured improvements in

  19. Randomized controlled clinical trial to access efficacy and safety of miltefosine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis in Manaus, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Dietze, Reynaldo; Chrusciak Talhari, Carolina; da Silva, Roberto Moreira; Gadelha Yamashita, Ellen Priscila; de Oliveira Penna, Gerson; Lima Machado, Paulo Roberto; Talhari, Sinésio

    2011-02-01

    Miltefosine has been used in the treatment of several new world cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) species with variable efficacy. Our study is the first evidence on its clinical efficacy in Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. In this phase II/III randomized clinical trial, 90 CL patients were randomly allocated (2:1) to oral miltefosine (2.5 mg/kg/day/28 days) (N = 60) or parenteral antimony (15-20 mg/Sb/kg/day/20 days) (N = 30) according to age groups: 2-12 y/o and 13-65 y/o. Patients were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) noninfected parasitological proven CL without previous treatment. Definitive cure was accessed at 6 months follow-up visit. No severe adverse events occurred. Vomiting was the most frequent adverse event (48.3%) followed by nausea (8.6%) and diarrhea (6.7%). Cure rates were 71.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 57.8-82.7) and 53.6% (95% CI = 33.9-72.5) (P = 0.05) for miltefosine and antimonial, respectively. There were no differences in cure rates between age groups within the same treatment arms. Miltefosine was safe and relatively well tolerated and cure rate was higher than antimony. PMID:21292895

  20. Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial to Access Efficacy and Safety of Miltefosine in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis in Manaus, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Dietze, Reynaldo; Chrusciak Talhari, Carolina; da Silva, Roberto Moreira; Gadelha Yamashita, Ellen Priscila; de Oliveira Penna, Gerson; Lima Machado, Paulo Roberto; Talhari, Sinésio

    2011-01-01

    Miltefosine has been used in the treatment of several new world cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) species with variable efficacy. Our study is the first evidence on its clinical efficacy in Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. In this phase II/III randomized clinical trial, 90 CL patients were randomly allocated (2:1) to oral miltefosine (2.5 mg/kg/day/28 days) (N = 60) or parenteral antimony (15–20 mg/Sb/kg/day/20 days) (N = 30) according to age groups: 2–12 y/o and 13–65 y/o. Patients were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) noninfected parasitological proven CL without previous treatment. Definitive cure was accessed at 6 months follow-up visit. No severe adverse events occurred. Vomiting was the most frequent adverse event (48.3%) followed by nausea (8.6%) and diarrhea (6.7%). Cure rates were 71.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 57.8–82.7) and 53.6% (95% CI = 33.9–72.5) (P = 0.05) for miltefosine and antimonial, respectively. There were no differences in cure rates between age groups within the same treatment arms. Miltefosine was safe and relatively well tolerated and cure rate was higher than antimony. PMID:21292895

  1. 40 CFR 258.25 - Access requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MSWLF units must control public access and prevent unauthorized vehicular traffic and illegal dumping of wastes by using artificial barriers, natural barriers, or both, as appropriate to protect human...

  2. 40 CFR 258.25 - Access requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MSWLF units must control public access and prevent unauthorized vehicular traffic and illegal dumping of wastes by using artificial barriers, natural barriers, or both, as appropriate to protect human...

  3. ACCESS: Detector Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Foltz, R.; McCandliss, S. R.; Pelton, R. S.; Wright, E. L.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Riess, A. G.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Woodgate, B. E.; Bohlin, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Kurucz, R. L.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.

    2013-01-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (overview Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been performed. The flight detector controller boards have been installed into a ruggedized flight housing. They have been successfully vacuum tested for periods significantly longer than the flight length, and components have been heat-sunk and reinforced as necessary. Thermal stability tests have been performed, and results will be presented. Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL) executed initial characterization tests for the flight detector in 2007. These were repeated in 2012, to ensure and establish baseline performance. Current lab characterization tests at Johns Hopkins are ongoing, and results will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  4. Multilocus sequence typing of Metarhizium anisopliae var acridum isolates as microbial agents for locust and grasshopper control. Genbank Accession numbers FJ787311 to FJ787325

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing interest in the biological control of locusts and grasshoppers (Acrididae) has led to the development of biopesticides based on naturally occurring pathogens which offers an environmentally safe alternative to chemical pesticides. However, the fungal strains which are being sought for biop...

  5. Accessibility of cysteine residues in a cytoplasmic loop of CitS of Klebsiella pneumoniae is controlled by the catalytic state of the transporter.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Iwona; Lolkema, Juke S

    2003-08-19

    The citrate transporter CitS of Klebsiella pneumoniae is a secondary transporter that transports citrate in symport with two sodium ions and one proton. Treatment of CitS with the alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide resulted in a complete loss of transport activity. Treatment of mutant proteins in which the five endogenous cysteine residues were mutated into serines in different combinations revealed that two cysteine residues located in the C-terminal cytoplasmic loop, Cys-398 and Cys-414, were responsible for the inactivation. Labeling with the membrane impermeable methanethiosulfonate derivatives MTSET and MTSES in right-side-out membrane vesicles showed that the cytoplasmic loop was accessible from the periplasmic side of the membrane. The membrane impermeable but more bulky maleimide AmdiS did not inactivate the transporter in right-side-out membrane vesicles. Inactivation by N-ethylmaleimide, MTSES, and MTSET was prevented by the presence of the co-ion Na(+). Protection was obtained upon binding 2 Na(+), which equals the transport stoichiometry. In the absence of Na(+), the substrate citrate had no effect on the inactivation by permeable or impermeable thiol reagents. In contrast, when subsaturating concentrations of Na(+) were present, citrate significantly reduced inactivation suggesting ordered binding of the substrate and co-ion; citrate is bound after Na(+). In the presence of the proton motive force, the reactivity of the Cys residues was increased significantly for the membrane permeable N-ethylmaleimide, while no difference was observed for the membrane impermeable thiol reagents. The results are discussed in the context of a model for the opening and closing of the translocation pore during turnover of the transporter. PMID:12911322

  6. A randomised controlled trial of structured nurse-led outpatient clinic follow-up for dyspeptic patients after direct access gastroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Dyspepsia is a common disorder in the community, with many patients referred for diagnostic gastroscopy by their General Practitioner (GP). The National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommends follow-up after investigation for cost effective management, including lifestyle advice and drug use. An alternative strategy may be the use of a gastro-intestinal nurse practitioner (GNP) instead of the GP. The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness and costs of systematic GNP led follow-up to usual care by GPs in dyspeptic patients following gastroscopy. Results Direct access adult dyspeptic patients referred for gastroscopy; without serious pathology, were followed-up in a structured nurse-led outpatient clinic. Outcome measurement used to compare the two study cohorts (GNP versus GP) included Glasgow dyspepsia severity (Gladys) score, Health Status Short Form 12 (SF12), ulcer healing drug (UHD) use and costs. One hundred and seventy five patients were eligible after gastroscopy, 89 were randomised to GNP follow-up and 86 to GP follow-up. Follow-up at 6 months was 81/89 (91%) in the GNP arm and 79/86 (92%) in the GP arm. On an intention to treat analysis, adjusted mean differences (95%CI) at follow-up between Nurse and GP follow-up were: Gladys score 2.30 (1.4–3.2) p < 0.001, SF12 140.6 (96.5–184.8) p =< 0.001 and UHD costs £39.60 (£24.20–£55.10) p =< 0.001, all in favour of nurse follow-up. Conclusion A standardised and structured follow-up by one gastrointestinal nurse practitioner was effective and may save drug costs in patients after gastroscopy. These findings need replication in other centres. PMID:19200356

  7. Computer-Access-Code Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Authorized users respond to changing challenges with changing passwords. Scheme for controlling access to computers defeats eavesdroppers and "hackers". Based on password system of challenge and password or sign, challenge, and countersign correlated with random alphanumeric codes in matrices of two or more dimensions. Codes stored on floppy disk or plug-in card and changed frequently. For even higher security, matrices of four or more dimensions used, just as cubes compounded into hypercubes in concurrent processing.

  8. Access Interface Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fager, Susan; Beukelman, David R.; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Jakobs, Tom; Baker, John

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices to support their communication often have physical movement challenges that require alternative methods of access. Technology that supports access, particularly for those with the most severe movement deficits, have expanded substantially over the years. The purposes of this article are to review the state of the science of access technologies that interface with augmentative and alternative communication devices and to propose a future research and development agenda that will enhance access options for people with limited movement capability due to developmental and acquired conditions. PMID:22590797

  9. Control of carbon content in amorphous GeTe films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) for phase-change random access memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoukar, M.; Szkutnik, P. D.; Jourde, D.; Pelissier, B.; Michallon, P.; Noé, P.; Vallée, C.

    2015-07-01

    Amorphous and smooth GeTe thin films are deposited on 200 mm silicon substrates by plasma enhanced—metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) using the commercial organometallic precursors TDMAGe and DIPTe as Ge and Te precursors, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements show a stoichiometric composition of the deposited GeTe films but with high carbon contamination. Using information collected by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) and XPS, the origin of carbon contamination is determined and the dissociation mechanisms of Ge and Te precursors in H2 + Ar plasma are proposed. As a result, carbon level is properly controlled by varying operating parameters such as plasma radio frequency power, pressure and H2 rate. Finally, GeTe films with carbon level as low as 5 at. % are obtained.

  10. Resistive switching and electrical control of ferromagnetism in a Ag/HfO2/Nb:SrTiO3/Ag resistive random access memory (RRAM) device at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shaoqing; Zhu, Gengchang; Xie, Jihao; Bu, Jianpei; Qin, Hongwei; Hu, Jifan

    2016-02-01

    Electrically induced resistive switching and modulated ferromagnetism are simultaneously found in a Ag/HfO2/Nb:SrTiO3/Ag resistive random access memory device at room temperature. The bipolar resistive switching (RS) can be controlled by the modification of a Schottky-like barrier with an electron injection-trapped/detrapped process at the interface of HfO2-Nb:SrTiO3. The multilevel RS transition can be observed in the reset process with larger negative voltage sweepings, which is connected to the different degree of electron detrapping in the interfacial depletion region of the HfO2 layer during the reset process. The origin of the electrical control of room-temperature ferromagnetism may be connected to the change of density of oxygen vacancies in the HfO2 film. The multilevel resistance states and the electric field controlled ferromagnetism have potential for applications in ultrahigh-density storage and magnetic logic device.

  11. A Web-Based Remote Access Laboratory Using SCADA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogmus, Z.; Aydogmus, O.

    2009-01-01

    The Internet provides an opportunity for students to access laboratories from outside the campus. This paper presents a Web-based remote access real-time laboratory using SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) control. The control of an induction motor is used as an example to demonstrate the effectiveness of this remote laboratory,…

  12. A Digitally Addressable Random-Access Image Selector and Random-Access Audio System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitzer, Donald L.; And Others

    The requirements of PLATO IV, a computer based education system at the University of Illinois, have led to the development of an improved, digitally addressable, random access image selector and a digitally addressable, random access audio device. Both devices utilize pneumatically controlled mechanical binary adders to position the mecahnical…

  13. Accessing the Microform Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Stan

    1985-01-01

    Characterizes types of indexing programs used by Research Publications, Inc. and describes provision of access to four major projects: "The Official Washington Post Index" (provides access to newspaper and microfilm edition); "The Eighteenth Century"; "The Declassified Documents Reference System" (ongoing fiche project abstracted and indexed…

  14. Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia; De Oliver, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This case study researches the degree to which the location and services offered by a multicampus university, geographically situated consistent with the commercial principles of a large mass-market enterprise, facilitate access for educationally underserved groups. First, the necessity of democratizing educational access to an underprivileged…

  15. Intellectual Access to Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-Liang; Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1999-01-01

    The increased availability of digital images is accompanied by a need for solutions to the problems inherent in indexing them for retrieval. Problems in image description and access are discussed, with a perspective on traditional and new solutions. Recent developments in intellectual access to images are surveyed and contrasted with…

  16. The Universal Access System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Neil G.

    This final report discusses the outcomes of a project that created a Universal Access System (UAS), a system that gives students with disabilities access to the same computers as their classmates. The project developed a new approach in which the needs of the individual with disabilities are handled separately from the computers and other devices…

  17. MedlinePlus: Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools Español You Are Here: Home → MedlinePlus Accessibility URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/accessibility.html ... or (301) 594-5983 and provide the address (URL) of the page on which you need assistance, ...

  18. Access and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Lemuel W.

    2004-01-01

    Community colleges are well positioned to provide underserved student populations with access to computer technology. This chapter explores the issues of access and technology from multiple perspectives in the community college, and explains how community colleges can develop a foundation for their technology plan.

  19. Localized Translation of gurken/TGF-α mRNA during Axis Specification Is Controlled by Access to Orb/CPEB on Processing Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Alexander; Parton, Richard M.; Rabouille, Catherine; Weil, Timothy T.; Davis, Ilan

    2016-01-01

    Summary In Drosophila oocytes, gurken/TGF-α mRNA is essential for establishing the future embryonic axes. gurken remains translationally silent during transport from its point of synthesis in nurse cells to its final destination in the oocyte, where it associates with the edge of processing bodies. Here we show that, in nurse cells, gurken is kept translationally silent by the lack of sufficient Orb/CPEB, its translational activator. Processing bodies in nurse cells have a similar protein complement and ultrastructure to those in the oocyte, but they markedly less Orb and do not associate with gurken mRNA. Ectopic expression of Orb in nurse cells at levels similar to the wild-type oocyte dorso-anterior corner at mid-oogenesis is sufficient to cause gurken mRNA to associate with processing bodies and translate prematurely. We propose that controlling the spatial distribution of translational activators is a fundamental mechanism for regulating localized translation. PMID:26947065

  20. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It is... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Passenger access area. 104.106... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.106 Passenger access area. (a) A ferry, passenger...

  1. 33 CFR 104.107 - Employee access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... measures for access control, of a ferry or passenger vessel that is open only to employees and not to... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employee access area. 104.107... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.107 Employee access area. (a) A ferry or passenger...

  2. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It is... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Passenger access area. 104.106... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.106 Passenger access area. (a) A ferry, passenger...

  3. 33 CFR 104.107 - Employee access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... measures for access control, of a ferry or passenger vessel that is open only to employees and not to... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee access area. 104.107... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.107 Employee access area. (a) A ferry or passenger...

  4. Accessing conjugated polymers with precisely controlled heterobisfunctional chain ends via post-polymerization modification of the OTf group and controlled Pd(0)/t-Bu3P-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qiao -Sheng; Hong, Kunlun; Zhang, Hong -Hai

    2015-08-12

    In this study, a general strategy toward the synthesis of well-defined conjugated polymers with controlled heterobisfunctional chain ends via combination of controlled Pd(0)/t-Bu3P Suzuki cross-coupling polymerization with the post-polymerization modification of the triflate (OTf) group was disclosed.

  5. Accessing conjugated polymers with precisely controlled heterobisfunctional chain ends via post-polymerization modification of the OTf group and controlled Pd(0)/t-Bu3P-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling polymerization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hu, Qiao -Sheng; Hong, Kunlun; Zhang, Hong -Hai

    2015-08-12

    In this study, a general strategy toward the synthesis of well-defined conjugated polymers with controlled heterobisfunctional chain ends via combination of controlled Pd(0)/t-Bu3P Suzuki cross-coupling polymerization with the post-polymerization modification of the triflate (OTf) group was disclosed.

  6. Surveillance and Monitoring of Dialysis Access

    PubMed Central

    Kumbar, Lalathaksha; Karim, Jariatul; Besarab, Anatole

    2012-01-01

    Vascular access is the lifeline of a hemodialysis patient. Currently arteriovenous fistula and graft are considered the permanent options for vascular access. Monitoring and surveillance of vascular access are an integral part of the care of hemodialysis patient. Although different techniques and methods are available for identifying access dysfunction, the scientific evidence for the optimal methodology is lacking. A small number of randomized controlled trials have been performed evaluating different surveillance techniques. We performed a study of the recent literature published in the PUBMED, to review the scientific evidence on different methodologies currently being used for surveillance and monitoring and their impact on the care of the dialysis access. The limited randomized studies especially involving fistulae and small sample size of the published studies with conflicting results highlight the need for a larger multicentered randomized study with hard clinical end points to evaluate the optimal surveillance strategy for both fistula and graft. PMID:22164333

  7. Improving access to preparatory information for children undergoing general anaesthesia for tooth extraction and their families: study protocol for a Phase III randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children can find anaesthesia induction especially distressing and postoperative psychological and physical morbidity are common. Preparation programmes for general anaesthesia (GA) are highly effective in reducing this distress. A Phase II study has already verified the effectiveness of a prototype preoperative GA-coping computer game to help children cope with induction in a dental GA setting. The biggest patient users of pediatric GA services in the UK are children who need to have teeth removed (estimated to be 100,000 yearly). Tooth decay is the most common disease in children worldwide. This study is a Phase III randomized controlled trial (RCT) and will evaluate the effectiveness of the new internet version of this game. Methods/design The Phase III RCT will use a double-blind three-armed design. The clinical trial will recruit up to 210 children and will compare the web-based game against standard care and another non-medical game. At least 53 patients in each group will be required for 90% statistical power. Distress will be assessed through an evaluation of the child’s behaviour during the visit and later parental reports of physical and psychological morbidity. The satisfaction of parents and children will be measured; the mode of usage of the web-based game will be automatically recorded and the impact on the service (for example, recovery time and throughput) will be reported. The Phase III study primary outcome will measure: (1) patient experience: acceptance of anaesthetic induction, child cooperation and distress, reduction of peri- and postoperative morbidity, child and family satisfaction, and (2) service improvement: anaesthetic time and improvement in throughput. Measures will be administered at baseline, at the time of the GA treatment visit, and at 48 hours and one week postoperatively. Discussion This study aims to determine the effectiveness of an online GA-coping game for children and families undergoing tooth extraction under

  8. Automated Computer Access Request System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Automated Computer Access Request (AutoCAR) system is a Web-based account provisioning application that replaces the time-consuming paper-based computer-access request process at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Auto- CAR combines rules-based and role-based functionality in one application to provide a centralized system that is easily and widely accessible. The system features a work-flow engine that facilitates request routing, a user registration directory containing contact information and user metadata, an access request submission and tracking process, and a system administrator account management component. This provides full, end-to-end disposition approval chain accountability from the moment a request is submitted. By blending both rules-based and rolebased functionality, AutoCAR has the flexibility to route requests based on a user s nationality, JSC affiliation status, and other export-control requirements, while ensuring a user s request is addressed by either a primary or backup approver. All user accounts that are tracked in AutoCAR are recorded and mapped to the native operating system schema on the target platform where user accounts reside. This allows for future extensibility for supporting creation, deletion, and account management directly on the target platforms by way of AutoCAR. The system s directory-based lookup and day-today change analysis of directory information determines personnel moves, deletions, and additions, and automatically notifies a user via e-mail to revalidate his/her account access as a result of such changes. AutoCAR is a Microsoft classic active server page (ASP) application hosted on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).

  9. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-03-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  10. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  11. HRP Data Accessibility 2009

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Clarence Sams spoke at the 2009 Human Research Program's Investigators Workshop on the current status of Data Accessibility. In this presentation he discusses the content of the Human Life Scie...

  12. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CAH Conditions of Participation . What are the location requirements for CAH status? Critical Access Hospitals must be ... clinic that does not meet the CAH distance requirements? As of January 1, 2008, all CAHs, including ...

  13. Computer memory access technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zottarelli, L. J.

    1967-01-01

    Computer memory access commutator and steering gate configuration produces bipolar current pulses while still employing only the diodes and magnetic cores of the classic commutator, thereby appreciably reducing the complexity of the memory assembly.

  14. Adapting Web Browsers for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Paul; Birkmire, Mike

    This paper examines ways to make World Wide Web browsers accessible for individuals with disabilities, and through them, gain access to the information on the Web. It discusses which browsers can be made more accessible and evaluates different types of input. Mouse access, keyboard access, and voice input are reviewed. Processing aids, such as…

  15. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  16. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  17. Vascular Access in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh Keller, Marc S.

    2011-02-15

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the 'expert procedural pyramid' is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  18. Access to health care

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Martin; Maltais, Danielle; Hudon, Catherine; Lapointe, Lise; Ntetu, Antoine Lutumba

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore access to health care for patients presenting with multiple chronic conditions and to identify barriers and factors conducive to access. DESIGN Qualitative study with focus groups. SETTING Family practice unit in Chicoutimi (Saguenay), Que. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-five male and female adult patients with at least four chronic conditions but no cognitive disorders or decompensating conditions. METHODS For this pilot study, only three focus group discussions were held. MAIN FINDINGS The main barriers to accessing follow-up appointments included long waits on the telephone, automated telephone-answering systems, and needing to attend at specific times to obtain appointments. The main barriers to specialized care were long waiting times and the need to get prescriptions and referrals from family physicians. Factors reported conducive to access included systematic callbacks and the personal involvement of family physicians. Good communication between family physicians and specialists was also perceived to be an important factor in access. CONCLUSION Systematic callbacks, family physicians’ personal efforts to obtain follow-up visits, and better physician-specialist communication were all suggested as ways to improve access to care for patients with multiple chronic conditions. PMID:16926944

  19. Integrating Communication, Computer Access, Environmental Control & Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romich, Barry A.; Vagnini, Carol B.

    Severely physically disabled people can be helped to reach their goals in educational, vocational, and personal pursuits through appropriate use of current technology. The expressive communication needs of people without functional speech can be met through an analysis of selection techniques, processing, and outputs. Examples of new systems…

  20. Remote access of modem by digital control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, H.

    1976-01-01

    Semiautomated system enables operator to measure overall quality of communications link between console (point A) and far-end location (point B). By transmitting test pattern from point A, receiving it at point B, and transmitting back to point A in loopback, unassisted operator can evaluate overall link performance.

  1. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  2. Integrated semiconductor-magnetic random access memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Blaes, Brent R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present disclosure describes a non-volatile magnetic random access memory (RAM) system having a semiconductor control circuit and a magnetic array element. The integrated magnetic RAM system uses CMOS control circuit to read and write data magnetoresistively. The system provides a fast access, non-volatile, radiation hard, high density RAM for high speed computing.

  3. Advanced access appointments

    PubMed Central

    Hudec, John C.; MacDougall, Steven; Rankin, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of advanced access (same-day physician appointments) on patient and provider satisfaction and to determine its association with other variables such as physician income and patient emergency department use. DESIGN Patient satisfaction survey and semistructured interviews with physicians and support staff; analysis of physician medical insurance billings and patient emergency department visits. SETTING Cape Breton, NS. PARTICIPANTS Patients, physicians, and support staff of 3 comparable family physician practices that had not implemented advanced access and an established advanced access practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported provider and patient satisfaction, physician office income, and patients’ emergency department use. RESULTS The key benefits of implementation of advanced access were an increase in provider and patient satisfaction levels, same or greater physician office income, and fewer less urgent (triage level 4) and nonurgent (triage level 5) emergency department visits by patients. CONCLUSION Currently within the Central Cape Breton Region, 33% of patients wait 4 or more days for urgent appointments. Findings from this study can be used to enhance primary care physician practice redesign. This research supports many benefits of transitioning to an advanced access model of patient booking. PMID:20944024

  4. ISDC Data Access Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D.; Borkowski, J.; Contessi, T.; Lock, T.; Rohlfs, R.; Walter, R.

    The ISDC Data Access Layer (DAL) is an ANSI C and \\fortran 90 compatible library under development in support of the ESA INTEGRAL mission data analysis software. DALs primary purpose is to isolate the analysis software from the specifics of the data formats while at the same time providing new data abstraction and access capabilities. DAL supports the creation and manipulation of hierarchical data sets which may span multiple files and, in theory, multiple computer systems. A number of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are supported by DAL that allow software to view and access data at different levels of complexity. DAL also allows data sets to reside on disk, in conventional memory or in shared memory in a way that is transparent to the user/application.

  5. Role of multidetector computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of patients attending the rapid access chest pain clinic, The Scottish computed tomography of the heart (SCOT-HEART) trial: study protocol for randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid access chest pain clinics have facilitated the early diagnosis and treatment of patients with coronary heart disease and angina. Despite this important service provision, coronary heart disease continues to be under-diagnosed and many patients are left untreated and at risk. Recent advances in imaging technology have now led to the widespread use of noninvasive computed tomography, which can be used to measure coronary artery calcium scores and perform coronary angiography in one examination. However, this technology has not been robustly evaluated in its application to the clinic. Methods/design The SCOT-HEART study is an open parallel group prospective multicentre randomized controlled trial of 4,138 patients attending the rapid access chest pain clinic for evaluation of suspected cardiac chest pain. Following clinical consultation, participants will be approached and randomized 1:1 to receive standard care or standard care plus ≥64-multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography and coronary calcium score. Randomization will be conducted using a web-based system to ensure allocation concealment and will incorporate minimization. The primary endpoint of the study will be the proportion of patients diagnosed with angina pectoris secondary to coronary heart disease at 6 weeks. Secondary endpoints will include the assessment of subsequent symptoms, diagnosis, investigation and treatment. In addition, long-term health outcomes, safety endpoints, such as radiation dose, and health economic endpoints will be assessed. Assuming a clinic rate of 27.0% for the diagnosis of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease, we will need to recruit 2,069 patients per group to detect an absolute increase of 4.0% in the rate of diagnosis at 80% power and a two-sided P value of 0.05. The SCOT-HEART study is currently recruiting participants and expects to report in 2014. Discussion This is the first study to look at the implementation of computed

  6. Access to space studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently considering possible directions in Earth-to-orbit vehicle development under a study called 'Access to Space.' This agency-wide study is considering commercial launch vehicles, human transportation, space station logistics, and other space transportation requirements over the next 40 years. Three options are being considered for human transportation: continued use of the Space Shuttle; development of a small personnel carrier (personnel logistics system (PLS)); or development of an advanced vehicle such as a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO). Several studies related to the overall Access to Space study are reported in this document.

  7. Accessibility | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Smokefree.gov is committed to providing access to all individuals—disabled or not—who are seeking information on its Web sites. To provide this information, the smokefree.gov Web site has been designed to comply with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (as amended). Section 508 requires that all individuals with disabilities (whether they are federal government employees or members of the general public) have access to and use of information and data comparable to that provided to individuals without disabilities, unless an undue burden would be imposed.

  8. 32 CFR 2001.45 - Information controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... control measures which may include records of internal distribution, access, generation, inventory....45 Information controls. (a) General. Agency heads shall establish a system of control measures which assure that access to classified information is provided to authorized persons. The control...

  9. Migrants' access to healthcare.

    PubMed

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-10-01

    There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were used to explore differences: 1) cancer stage at diagnosis as a clinical outcome and 2) emergency room (ER) contacts as a utilisation measure. Both informal and formal barriers to access were studied to explore why possible differences existed including: 1) motivation for using ER; and 2) asylum seekers' healthcare entitlements. Different definitions of migration and ethnicity were investigated including: country of birth and residence status. Substudy I showed a tendency towards more advanced stage at diagnosis or unknown stage among most subgroups of migrant women with a history of cancer compared to non-migrant women. Sub-study II found that some migrants (those born in Somalia, Turkey and Ex-Yugoslavia) use ER services more frequently than do non-migrants whereas others have the same or lower utilisation levels. As a consequence, substudy III was undertaken, which documented that more migrant within all subgroups had considered contacting a primary caregiver before visiting the ER compared to non-migrants, but that migrants experienced communication problems herein

  10. NASA's UAS NAS Access Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    this Project is limited ($150M over the five years), the focus is on reducing the technical barriers where NASA has unique capabilities. As a result, technical areas, such as Sense and Avoid (SAA) and beyond line of sight command and control will not be addressed. While these are critical barriers to UAS access, currently, there is a great deal of global effort being exercised to address these challenge areas. Instead, specific technology development in areas where there is certainty that NASA can advance the research to high technology readiness levels will be the Project's focus. Specific sub-projects include Separation Assurance, Human Systems Integration, Communications, Certification, and Integrated Test and Evaluation. Each sub-project will transfer technologies to relevant key stakeholders and decision makers through research transition teams, technology forums, or through other analogous means.

  11. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  12. Unique Access to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  13. Internet 2 Access Grid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

  14. A matter of access

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Chen, Kaifu; Li, Wei; Tyler, Jessica K

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism whereby transcriptional activators facilitate transcription activation has been debated. Our recent genome-wide profiling of gene expression during aging, where nucleosomes are depleted, indicates that the function of seemingly all transcriptional activators is to trigger nucleosome disassembly from promoters to allow the general transcription machinery access to the DNA. PMID:25764221

  15. Serving up Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    When low-income students returned to Chicago public schools this fall, many had better access to technology, thanks to a public-private partnership. Chicago families with children enrolled in the National School Lunch Program are eligible for subsidized computers and Internet connections through an agreement between the city and telecom giant…

  16. ACCESS PENNSYLVANIA Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Library, Harrisburg.

    This curriculum guide was prepared as a tool for teaching students the purpose and function of the ACCESS PENNSYLVANIA database in the total concept of information literacy. The database on compact laser disc contains information about the holdings of hundreds of school, public, academic, and special use libraries. The database can be searched at…

  17. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  18. College Access Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  19. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  20. Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

    The document presents uniform standards for facility accessibility by physically handicapped persons for Federal and federally funded facilities. The standards are to be applied during the design, construction, and alteration of buildings and facilities to the extent required by the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968, as amended. Technical…

  1. Improved Access to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra; Simkins, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes efforts by principal of the Willow Elementary School in the Charter Oak Unified School District (California) to provide students with technology-enhanced access to information and learning resources to improve reading and mathematics skills. Includes list of the Web addresses for the skills software used at the school. (PKP)

  2. ACCESS Project: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, Heiko

    2015-04-01

    The ACCESS project addressed the development, testing, and demonstration of the proposed advanced technologies and the associated emission and fuel economy improvement at an engine dynamometer and on a full-scale vehicle. Improve fuel economy by 25% with minimum performance penalties Achieve SULEV level emissions with gasoline Demonstrate multi-mode combustion engine management system

  3. Strategies for Improving Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore, Terry; Barwood, Bryan

    1989-01-01

    The development of the varied strategies that have been introduced in order to improve access for disadvantaged groups at Monash University is discussed. The Junior University Programme, the Monash Orientation Scheme for Aborigines, the Mature Age Special Admission Scheme, Special Entry Scheme, and the Schools Link Programme are described. (MLW)

  4. Access to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunken, Anna; Delly, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Changes to education in Australia have seen new government legislations increasing educational pathways so students can more easily enter university, the aim being to increase participation. Now, many domestic students utilise various pathways to access university. Some have undertaken basic Further Education Diplomas, received subject credits,…

  5. 17 CFR 38.607 - Direct access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Direct access. 38.607 Section 38.607 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DESIGNATED CONTRACT... financial risk, such as automated pre-trade controls that enable member futures commission merchants...

  6. 17 CFR 38.607 - Direct access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Direct access. 38.607 Section 38.607 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DESIGNATED CONTRACT... financial risk, such as automated pre-trade controls that enable member futures commission merchants...

  7. Century High School: Better Than Accessible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Century High School, Rochester, MN.

    A 6-minute videotape shows ways that one newly-built high school (Century High School, Rochester, MN) accommodates the needs of people with disabilities. Various building and room designs are detailed showing both poor and good design provisions. The accessibility and usefulness of the auditorium control room, emergency exits, elevators, science…

  8. [Patients' access to their medical records].

    PubMed

    Laranjo, Liliana; Neves, Ana Luisa; Villanueva, Tiago; Cruz, Jorge; Brito de Sá, Armando; Sakellarides, Constantitno

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the medical record was seen exclusively as being the property of health institutions and doctors. Its great technical and scientific components, as well as the personal characteristics attributed by each doctor, have been the reasons appointed for that control. However, nowadays throughout the world that paradigm has been changing. In Portugal, since 2007 patients are allowed full and direct access to their medical records. Nevertheless, the Deontological Code of the Portuguese Medical Association (2009) explicitly states that patients' access to their medical records should have a doctor as intermediary and that the records are each physician's intellectual property. Furthermore, several doctors and health institutions, receiving requests from patients to access their medical records, end up requesting the legal opinion of the Commission for access to administrative documents. Each and every time, that opinion goes in line with the notion of full and direct patient access. Sharing medical records with patients seems crucial and inevitable in the current patient-centred care model, having the potential to improve patient empowerment, health literacy, autonomy, self-efficacy and satisfaction with care. With the recent technological developments and the fast dissemination of Personal Health Records, it is foreseeable that a growing number of patients will want to access their medical records. Therefore, promoting awareness on this topic is essential, in order to allow an informed debate between all the stakeholders. PMID:23815842

  9. Accessing Space Weather Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, D.; Weiss, M.; Immer, E. A.; Patrone, D.; Potter, M.; Barnes, R. J.; Colclough, C.; Holder, R.

    2009-12-01

    To meet the needs of our technology based society, space weather forecasting needs to be advanced and this will entail collaboration amongst research, military and commercial communities to find new ways to understand, characterize, and forecast. In this presentation VITMO, the Virtual Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere Observatory will be used as a prototype for a generalized system as a means to bring together a set of tools to access data, models and online collaboration tools to enable rapid progress. VITMO, available at http://vitmo.jhuapl.edu/, currently provides a data access portal for researchers and scientists to enable finding data products as well as access to tools and models. To further the needs of space weather forecasters, the existing VITMO data holdings need to be expanded to provide additional datasets as well as integrating relevant models and model output. VITMO can easily be adapted for the Space Weather domain in its entirety. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how VITMO and the VITMO architecture can be utilized as a prototype in support of integration of Space Weather forecasting tools, models and data.

  10. Working Concept of Accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Bastian J.; Rouphail, Nagui M.; Hughes, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    This research presents an analysis framework and associated performance measures for quantifying the accessibility of pedestrian crossings at modern roundabouts for pedestrians who are blind. The measures, developed under two ongoing national research projects, NCHRP Project 3-78A and a bioengineering research grant from the National Institutes of Health–National Eye Institute, attempt to isolate the components of the crossing task for a blind pedestrian into computable and replicable quantities that allow the comparison of accessibility across individuals or sites. The framework differentiates between crossing opportunities in the form of yields and crossable gaps and the utilization of these opportunities by the pedestrian. It further accounts for the amount of delay and risk involved in the crossing. The analysis framework and measures are demonstrated for two single-lane roundabouts in North Carolina evaluated under the aforementioned research projects. The application shows that the accessibility of a pedestrian crossing to a blind pedestrian is characterized by a combination of different measures and further depends on crossing geometry, traffic volume, driver behavior, and the travel skills and risk-taking behavior of the individual. With successful demonstration at roundabout crosswalks, the analysis framework is hypothesized to have broader application to unsignalized pedestrian crossings, including midblock locations. PMID:20664802

  11. Remote access thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Parisha; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Kadi, Abida; Walvekar, Rohan R.

    2015-01-01

    Robot assisted thyroid surgery has been the latest advance in the evolution of thyroid surgery after endoscopy assisted procedures. The advantage of a superior field vision and technical advancements of robotic technology have permitted novel remote access (trans-axillary and retro-auricular) surgical approaches. Interestingly, several remote access surgical ports using robot surgical system and endoscopic technique have been customized to avoid the social stigma of a visible scar. Current literature has displayed their various advantages in terms of post-operative outcomes; however, the associated financial burden and also additional training and expertise necessary hinder its widespread adoption into endocrine surgery practices. These approaches offer excellent cosmesis, with a shorter learning curve and reduce discomfort to surgeons operating ergonomically through a robotic console. This review aims to provide details of various remote access techniques that are being offered for thyroid resection. Though these have been reported to be safe and feasible approaches for thyroid surgery, further evaluation for their efficacy still remains. PMID:26425450

  12. Digital imaging access library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Jay F.; Hansen, Mark; Francoise, James J.; Leckie, Robert G.; Smith, Donald V.

    1994-05-01

    The ability to access a vast array of radiological and pathologic diagnoses through computer searches of local medical facility databases is a by-product of the continued development of filmless imaging systems. The Department of Defense (DoD) Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support initiative is expanding through the addition of on-line systems at several DoD health care facilities. Madigan Army Medical Center, as the initial site, will soon be 90% filmless, with over one million images archived. Multiple other DoD medical centers are under installation. The eventual goal is an interconnected network of PACS systems of DoD medical centers and their supported medical facilities throughout the United States. To access this potential pool of medical information requires a centralized database capable of acting as a diagnostic index system. The establishment of a multi-center film library index begins with an initial analysis of issues regarding data storage and access, indexing, cross-coding with pathological files, communication formats, cost sharing, and patient confidentiality. In initiating these first steps to developing this telecommunications library these issues and their implications are discussed. The final implementation of this system will facilitate markedly improved research and teaching capabilities in both radiological and pathological fields.

  13. Satellite multiple access systems for mobile communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper considers multiple access techniques for a mobile radio system which incorporates a geosynchronous orbiting satellite repeater through which mobile terminals communicate. The communication capacities of FDMA, TDMA and CDMA systems are examined for a 4 MHz bandwidth system to serve up to 10,000 users. An FDMA system with multibeam coverage is analyzed in detail. The system includes an order-wire network for demand-access control and reassignment of satellite channels. Satellite and terminal configurations are developed to a block diagram level and system costs and implementation requirements are discussed.

  14. After Access: Underrepresented Students' Postmatriculation Perceptions of College Access Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Darris R.; Pyne, Kimberly B.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the perceived impact of college-going capital gained during participation in a college access program. In three, semistructured interviews spanning the first-year college experience, 10 first-year college students who participated in a college access program articulate the value of access programming and also raise…

  15. Trends in communicative access solutions for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Myrden, Andrew; Schudlo, Larissa; Weyand, Sabine; Zeyl, Timothy; Chau, Tom

    2014-08-01

    Access solutions may facilitate communication in children with limited functional speech and motor control. This study reviews current trends in access solution development for children with cerebral palsy, with particular emphasis on the access technology that harnesses a control signal from the user (eg, movement or physiological change) and the output device (eg, augmentative and alternative communication system) whose behavior is modulated by the user's control signal. Access technologies have advanced from simple mechanical switches to machine vision (eg, eye-gaze trackers), inertial sensing, and emerging physiological interfaces that require minimal physical effort. Similarly, output devices have evolved from bulky, dedicated hardware with limited configurability, to platform-agnostic, highly personalized mobile applications. Emerging case studies encourage the consideration of access technology for all nonverbal children with cerebral palsy with at least nascent contingency awareness. However, establishing robust evidence of the effectiveness of the aforementioned advances will require more expansive studies. PMID:24820337

  16. SDO Data Access And Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somani, A.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Cheung, C.; Freeland, S. L.; Slater, G. L.; Seguin, R.; Timmons, R.; Green, S.; Chang, L.; Kobashi, A.; Jaffey, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), Event Detection System (EDS), iSolSearch, Panorama, Event Viewer and Control Software (EVACS), and a variety of SolarSoft routines all work together to provide a suite of tools to facilitate access and analysis of SDO data. The HEK, which consists of the Heliophysics Event Registry (HER) and the Heliophysics Coverage Registry (HCR), uses XML formats built upon the IVOA VOEvent specification to ingest, store, and search events. Web services and SolarSoft routines are available to make use of these functions. The EDS is one of the sources that provides events for ingest into the HEK. The EDS continuously runs feature finding modules on SDO data. It's a distributed system that allows it to keep up with SDO's data rate. iSolSearch allows the user to browse the events in the HER and search for events given a specific time interval and other constraints. Panorama is the software tool used for rapid visualization of large volumes of solar image data in multiple channels/wavelengths. With the EVACS front-end GUI tool, Panorama allows the user to, in real-time, change channel pixel scaling, weights, alignment, blending and colorization of data. The user can also easily create WYSIWYG movies and launch the Annotator tool to describe events and features the user observes in the data. Panorama can also be used to drive clustered HiperSpace walls using the CGLX toolkit. Panorama harnesses the power of the GPU and OpenGL fragment shaders to enable stunning visualization. EVACS provides a JOGL powered GUI that the user can search both the HER and HCR with. EVACS displays the searched for events on a full disk magnetogram of the sun while displaying more detailed information for events. EVACS can also be used to launch Panorama with a selected set of FITS or PRGB files, as well as control many aspects of Panorama. A host of SolarSoft routines are available to not only access functions of the HEK, but to also access metadata and/or image

  17. The Effect of Access to an Online Tutorial Service on College Algebra Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersaint, Gladis; Dogbey, James; Barber, Jeff; Kephart, David

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated outcomes (achievement, attitude, and retention) of college algebra students who had access to an online tutoring resource using a pre-posttest control group design. Students in the experimental groups were provided access to an online tutoring service unlike the students in the control group. Both groups had access to other…

  18. Technicians monitor Access Telerobotic Assembly Demonstration (ATAD) at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Technicians monitor Access Telerobotic Assembly Demonstration (ATAD) at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Structures and Mechanics Laboratory Bldg 13 high bay. Technician seated at the table operates a control stick as others watch remote activity via display screen. Assembly of Structures - Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectabel Space Structures (EASE / ACCESS) mockup appears in the background.

  19. Accessible Microscopy Workstation for Students and Scientists with Mobility Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerstock, Bradley S.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated accessible microscopy workstation was designed and developed to allow persons with mobility impairments to control all aspects of light microscopy with minimal human assistance. This system, named AccessScope, is capable of performing brightfield and fluorescence microscopy, image analysis, and tissue morphometry requisite for…

  20. Forseeable Problems in a System of Maximum Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, John de J., Jr.

    A maximum-access cable television system will eliminate some legal and regulatory problems and introduce others. The operator of a system will no longer be responsible for and in control of what is transmitted over his system. With access unlimited and unrestricted, such regulations of content as the "fairness doctrine" and "equal time" become…