Science.gov

Sample records for access equity quality

  1. Access & Equity Newsletter. Volume 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Included in this edition of the "In-the-Know" Access & Equity Newsletter are: (1) State Losing Black Instructors (Gina Smith); (2) Time to Join Together to Seek "Economic Rights" (Darla Moore); and (3) "Advancing Diversity in Higher Education--Diversity Digest" (Mark Giles, Ed.), which is a reprint of an article originally published in…

  2. Resource Adequacy, Equity, and the Right to Learn: Access to High-Quality Teachers in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoeppel, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Using school-level descriptive data, this study examined the distribution of teachers in the Commonwealth of Kentucky in an attempt to build on previous research concerning the equity of the finance system in the state. Rather than focusing on revenue from the perspective of horizontal equity, this study used human resource data to examine the…

  3. Globalisation and schooling: equity and access issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajda, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    This review essay focuses on the prominence given to globalisation and discourses of globalisation in education reforms and pedagogy, as well as the way conceptual thinking in this area has changed and developed, due to competing ideologies, forces of globalisation and political, economic and cultural transformations. It analyses and evaluates the shifts in methodological approaches to globalisation and its effects on education policy and pedagogy. It focuses on forces of globalisation, ideology, social inequality and implications for equity and access to quality education.

  4. South Africa: Distance Higher Education Policies for Access, Social Equity, Quality, and Social and Economic Responsiveness in a Context of the Diversity of Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badat, Saleem

    2005-01-01

    The principal concern of this paper is the implication of the increasing diversity of higher education provision in South Africa for equity of access and opportunity for historically disadvantaged social groups, high-quality provision, and social and economic responsiveness in distance higher education. This diversity is signalled by a variety of…

  5. Language Diversity and Language Policy in Educational Access and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, James W.; Tsui, Amy B. M.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the role of language policies in mediating access and equity in education. By examining a range of research and case studies on language policies, the authors explore how educational language policies serve as a central gatekeeper to education itself, as well as to quality education that may fundamentally depend on language…

  6. [Personalized medicine: equity and access].

    PubMed

    Joly, Yann; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2014-11-01

    Personalized medicine has seen a recent increase in popularity amongst medical researchers and policymakers. Nevertheless, there are persistent legal, ethical, and social questions that need to be explored, particularly related to the criticism that personalized medicine constitutes an elitist model of healthcare. Investigating this critique the current manuscript argues that personalized medicine has the potential to become a positive force for equitable access to better healthcare at a national and international level.

  7. Access and utilisation of healthcare services in rural Tanzania: A comparison of public and non-public facilities using quality, equity, and trust dimensions.

    PubMed

    Shayo, Elizabeth H; Senkoro, Kesheni P; Momburi, Romanus; Olsen, Øystein E; Byskov, Jens; Makundi, Emmanuel A; Kamuzora, Peter; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the access and utilisation of health services in public and non-public health facilities in terms of quality, equity and trust in the Mbarali district, Tanzania. Interviews, focus group discussions, and informal discussions were used to generate data. Of the 1836 respondents, 1157 and 679 respondents sought healthcare services on their last visit at public or non-public health facilities, respectively. While 45.5% rated the quality of services to be good in both types of facilities, reported medicine shortages were more pronounced among those who visited public rather than non-public health facilities (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.4, 2.1). Respondents who visited public facilities were 4.9 times less likely than those who visited non-public facilities to emphasise the influence of cost in accessing and utilising health care (OR = 4.9, CI 3.9-6.1). A significant difference was also found in the provider-client relationship satisfaction level between non-public (89.1%) and public facilities (74.7%) (OR = 2.8, CI: 1.5-5.0), indicating a level of lower trust in the later. Revised strategies are needed to ensure availability of medicines in public facilities, which are used by the majority of the population, while strengthening private-public partnerships to harmonise healthcare costs.

  8. Equity and Access in the Workplace: A Feminist HRD Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenziano, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The issues of equity and access are becoming increasingly important as the workforce becomes diversified. As the number of minority groups in the ranks of organizations grows, there is a need to examine the issues related to equity and access from a perspective that strives for equality, e.g. feminist theory. This paper examines feminism's…

  9. Medical interpreters: improvements to address access, equity, and quality of care for limited-English-proficient patients.

    PubMed

    VanderWielen, Lynn M; Enurah, Alexander S; Rho, Helen Y; Nagarkatti-Gude, David R; Michelsen-King, Patricia; Crossman, Steven H; Vanderbilt, Allison A

    2014-10-01

    Limited-English-proficient (LEP) patients in the United States experience a variety of health care disparities associated with language barriers, including reduced clinical encounter time and substandard medical treatment compared with their English-speaking counterparts. In most current U.S. health care settings, interpretation services are provided by personnel ranging from employed professional interpreters to untrained, ad hoc interpreters such as friends, family, or medical staff. Studies have demonstrated that untrained individuals commit many interpretation errors that may critically compromise patient safety and ultimately prove to be life-threatening. Despite documented risks, the U.S. health care system lacks a required standardized certification for medical interpreters. The authors propose that the standardization of medical interpreter training and certification would substantially reduce the barriers to equitable care experienced by LEP patients in the U.S. health care system, including the occurrence of preventable clinical errors. Recent efforts of the U.S. federal court system are cited as a successful and realistic example of how these goals may be achieved. As guided by the evolution of the federal court interpreting certification program, subsequent research will be required to demonstrate the improvements and challenges that would result from national certification standards and policy for medical interpreters. Research should examine cost-effectiveness and ensure that certified interpreting services are appropriately used by health care practitioners. Ongoing commitment is required from lawmakers, health care providers, and researchers to remove barriers to care and to demand that equity remain a consistent goal of our health care system.

  10. Three Dimensions of Equity of Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Concerns over equity of access to higher education are widespread, but there is significant disagreement over what should constitute a fair system. This article assesses diverse conceptualisations of equity and explores the ways in which they embody themselves in the policies of three systems, those of England, Brazil and Kenya. While showing…

  11. Vocational Education: Access, Equity, and Consequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul B.

    1986-01-01

    Describes five patterns of student participation in vocational courses: (1) concentrators, (2) limited concentrators, (3) concentrators/explorers, (4) explorers, and (5) incidental/personals. Highlights some equity issues. (Author/CH)

  12. The Sublime Objects of Education Policy: Quality, Equity and Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Quality and equity are touchstones of education policy in the twenty-first century in a range of global contexts. On the surface, this seems fitting: after all, who could object to more quality and greater equity in education? Yet what do we mean by quality and equity, and how are they related? This paper draws on Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to…

  13. Equity for open-access journal publishing.

    PubMed

    Shieber, Stuart M

    2009-08-01

    Open-access journals, which provide access to their scholarly articles freely and without limitations, are at a systematic disadvantage relative to traditional closed-access journal publishing and its subscription-based business model. A simple, cost-effective remedy to this inequity could put open-access publishing on a path to become a sustainable, efficient system. PMID:19652697

  14. Equity of access to health care: outlining the foundations for action

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, A.; Mossialos, E.

    2004-01-01

    The Ministers of Health from Chile, Germany, Greece, New Zealand, Slovenia, Sweden, and the United Kingdom recently established The International Forum on Common Access to Health Care Services, based on a common belief that their citizens should enjoy universal and equitable access to good quality health care. The ministers intend to form a network to share thinking and evidence on healthcare improvements, with the specific aim of sustaining and promoting equitable access to health care. Despite a vast literature on the notion of equity of access, little agreement has been reached in the literature on exactly what this notion ought to mean. This article provides a brief description of the relevance of the access principle of equity, and summarises the research programme that is necessary for turning the principle into a useful, operational policy objective. PMID:15252067

  15. Gender, sexuality and the discursive representation of access and equity in health services literature: implications for LGBT communities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    about, and ideological commitments to, sexual and gender diversity and health services access and equity. Thus, the continuum of discourses may serve as an important element of a health care organization's access and equity framework for the evaluation of access to good quality care for diverse LGBT populations. More specfically, the analysis offers four important points of consideration in relation to the development of a health services access and equity framework. PMID:21957894

  16. Equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Gerardo; De-Regil, Luz Maria

    2014-01-01

    Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described. PMID:24329609

  17. Access to treatment in developing countries: a global issue of equity and human rights.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J

    1998-04-01

    People are highly optimistic about the possibility of recent developments in combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS to effectively treat people with HIV/AIDS, thereby prolonging their survival and improving the quality of life. Access to advanced retroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in developing countries, however, is rarely discussed as feasible. Many people even believe that access for all to optimum AIDS care is an utopian ideal not worth pursuing. Imaginative, radical steps together with political will could, however, help to broaden access to advanced therapy for people with HIV/AIDS. A global AIDS-related biomedical technology transfer initiative is needed. Such an initiative should foster a partnership between governments, industry, and international organizations based upon a maximalist perspective of the ethics of access to treatment, global equity considerations, and a global perspective upon individual and community rights. Challenges, a global AIDS trade protocol, and political will are discussed.

  18. Student Equity at Antelope Valley College: An Examination of Underrepresented Student Access and Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewallen, Willard Clark

    In February 1994, Antelope Valley College (AVC), in California, adopted a Student Equity Plan to determine the access and success of historically underrepresented students. As part of the Plan, AVC collected data on five student equity indicators: a comparison of ethnic group enrollment to representation in the service area, the ratio of courses…

  19. Access to Education and Equity in Plural Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiztegui-Onate, Concepcion; Santibanez-Gruber, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of school systems which, under the assumption of formal equality, do not correct, but rather legitimate, social differences, has a long tradition in educational research. This topic has been broadened and enriched through the discourse of equity. In effect, equity in education pivots on redistribution proportional to the needs of…

  20. Improving Research and Systemic Reform toward Equity and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confrey, Jere

    This chapter presents some ways to reorganize science and mathematics education guided by a wisely chosen, strategic, and secure research base. Needs for systemic reform, educational equity and quality as complementary goals, and urgent and strategic investment in research are discussed. Targets for new research and development are also identified…

  1. Social Equity and Access to a Philippine STEM School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talaue, Frederick Toralballa

    2014-01-01

    Like most developing countries in the world, there is a huge gap in opportunities to access quality science education between students from the high- and low-socioeconomic strata of Philippine society. In establishing its own science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high school, despite limited public funding in 1964, the…

  2. The effects of mandatory health insurance on equity in access to outpatient care in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hidayat, Budi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Dong, Hengjin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2004-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of mandatory health insurance on access and equity in access to public and private outpatient care in Indonesia. Data from the second round of the 1997 Indonesian Family Life Survey were used. We adopted the concentration index as a measure of equity, and this was calculated from actual data and from predicted probability of outpatient-care use saved from a multinomial logit regression. The study found that a mandatory insurance scheme for civil servants (Askes) had a strongly positive impact on access to public outpatient care, while a mandatory insurance scheme for private employees (Jamsostek) had a positive impact on access to both public and private outpatient care. The greatest effects of Jamsostek were observed amongst poor beneficiaries. A substantial increase in access will be gained by expanding insurance to the whole population. However, neither Askes nor Jamsostek had a positive impact on equity. Policy implications are discussed.

  3. The association of equity, accessibility, and price with primary healthcare user's satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Alexandrina; Duarte, Paulo; Carvalho, Amâncio; Rodrigues, Vitor; Monteiro, Maria João; Alves, Helena

    2014-02-01

    The assessment of user satisfaction, and the knowledge of what factors influence satisfaction are very important for the improvement of services' quality provided. This study aims to evaluate user satisfaction with primary healthcare services. A sample of 6,113 healthcare services users was interviewed to evaluate satisfaction and determine a global satisfaction index using a Partial Least Squares Path Model. The global user satisfaction index with healthcare centers is 58.4 points on a 100-point scale, showing that users are only moderately satisfied with the service provided. The results show that the medical care and the price of services are the main predictors of user satisfaction. Other factors such as the perception of health equity and nursing services also seem to be important contributors to satisfaction. A more disturbing result is the negative relationship between perceived accessibility and satisfaction, which requires further research. PMID:23912802

  4. Quality and equity in early childhood care in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izu, Regina Moromizato

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The study concludes with a reference to the importance of monitoring quality and equity in early childhood care.

  5. Rocks in the Whirlpool: Equity of Access and the American Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCook, Kathleen de la Pena

    This paper provides some of the historical context of the efforts of the American Library Association (ALA) to define, extend, protect and advocate for equity of access, focusing on central tendencies rather than internal debate. The first section, "Toward the Concept of Access," discusses: how ALA became a public service organization; extension…

  6. New Technology and Digital Worlds: Analyzing Evidence of Equity in Access, Use, and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark; Matuchniak, Tina

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors take a broad perspective on how to analyze issues of technology and equity for youth in the United States. They begin with "access" as a starting point, but consider not only whether diverse groups of youth have digital media available to them but also how that access is supported or constrained by technological and…

  7. Equity of access to health care services: theory and evidence from the UK.

    PubMed

    Goddard, M; Smith, P

    2001-11-01

    The pursuit of equity of access to health care is a central objective of many health care systems. This paper first sets out a general theoretical framework within which equity of access can be examined. It then applies the framework by examining the extent to which research evidence has been able to detect systematic inequities of access in UK, where equity of access has been a central focus in the National Health Service since its inception in 1948. Inequity between socio-economic groups is used as an illustrative example, and the extent of inequity of access experienced is explored in each of five service areas: general practitioner consultations; acute hospital care; mental health services; preventative medicine and health promotion; and long-term health care. The paper concludes that there appear to be important inequities in access to some types of health care in the UK, but that the evidence is often methodologically inadequate, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions. In particular, it is difficult to establish the causes of inequities which in turn limits the scope for recommending appropriate policy to reduce inequities of access. The theoretical framework and the lessons learned from the UK are of direct relevance to researchers from other countries seeking to examine equity of access in a wide variety of institutional settings.

  8. Universal health insurance in India: ensuring equity, efficiency, and quality.

    PubMed

    Prinja, Shankar; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-07-01

    Indian health system is characterized by a vast public health infrastructure which lies underutilized, and a largely unregulated private market which caters to greater need for curative treatment. High out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures poses barrier to access for healthcare. Among those who get hospitalized, nearly 25% are pushed below poverty line by catastrophic impact of OOP healthcare expenditure. Moreover, healthcare costs are spiraling due to epidemiologic, demographic, and social transition. Hence, the need for risk pooling is imperative. The present article applies economic theories to various possibilities for providing risk pooling mechanism with the objective of ensuring equity, efficiency, and quality care. Asymmetry of information leads to failure of actuarially administered private health insurance (PHI). Large proportion of informal sector labor in India's workforce prevents major upscaling of social health insurance (SHI). Community health insurance schemes are difficult to replicate on a large scale. We strongly recommend institutionalization of tax-funded Universal Health Insurance Scheme (UHIS), with complementary role of PHI. The contextual factors for development of UHIS are favorable. SHI schemes should be merged with UHIS. Benefit package of this scheme should include preventive and in-patient curative care to begin with, and gradually include out-patient care. State-specific priorities should be incorporated in benefit package. Application of such an insurance system besides being essential to the goals of an effective health system provides opportunity to regulate private market, negotiate costs, and plan health services efficiently. Purchaser-provider split provides an opportunity to strengthen public sector by allowing providers to compete. PMID:23112438

  9. Universal Health Insurance in India: Ensuring Equity, Efficiency, and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Indian health system is characterized by a vast public health infrastructure which lies underutilized, and a largely unregulated private market which caters to greater need for curative treatment. High out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures poses barrier to access for healthcare. Among those who get hospitalized, nearly 25% are pushed below poverty line by catastrophic impact of OOP healthcare expenditure. Moreover, healthcare costs are spiraling due to epidemiologic, demographic, and social transition. Hence, the need for risk pooling is imperative. The present article applies economic theories to various possibilities for providing risk pooling mechanism with the objective of ensuring equity, efficiency, and quality care. Asymmetry of information leads to failure of actuarially administered private health insurance (PHI). Large proportion of informal sector labor in India's workforce prevents major upscaling of social health insurance (SHI). Community health insurance schemes are difficult to replicate on a large scale. We strongly recommend institutionalization of tax-funded Universal Health Insurance Scheme (UHIS), with complementary role of PHI. The contextual factors for development of UHIS are favorable. SHI schemes should be merged with UHIS. Benefit package of this scheme should include preventive and in-patient curative care to begin with, and gradually include out-patient care. State-specific priorities should be incorporated in benefit package. Application of such an insurance system besides being essential to the goals of an effective health system provides opportunity to regulate private market, negotiate costs, and plan health services efficiently. Purchaser-provider split provides an opportunity to strengthen public sector by allowing providers to compete. PMID:23112438

  10. After-School for All? Exploring Access and Equity in After-School Programs. Out-of-School Time Policy Commentary #4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Karen; Wilson-Ahlstrom, Alicia; Yohalem, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    While significant progress has occurred over the past several years regarding the expansion of the quantity and quality of after-school opportunities, the ambitious idea of "after-school for all" remains a distant goal. In this commentary, we push beyond some of the numbers to take a close look at questions related to access and equity, in order…

  11. Equity and Access to Higher Education in the Context of Educational Expansion and Differentiation in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, higher education has expanded greatly since the closing decades of the twentieth century. China was no exception. This study is intended to examine the status quo of issues relating to equity and access to higher education in the context of educational expansion and differentiation in China. Two research questions are addressed in…

  12. School Boards and Education Finance in Manitoba: The Politics of Equity, Access and Local Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henley, Dick; Young, Jon

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of current educational finance debates in Manitoba within a broader discussion of the essential character of public education in Canada. Arguing that public accessibility and equity, public funding, and public control constitute three touchstones of public education, the paper describes the Manitoba debates over…

  13. Access and Equity: California Master Plan for Higher Education and Disadvantaged Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The California Master Plan for Higher Education sets a policy objective of equity through access to higher education. The California State University system is California's primary institution for providing the social mobility that accompanies a four-year college degree. The purpose of this study is to examine the education lifecycle outcomes for…

  14. Faculty Collaboration to Improve Equity, Access, and Inclusion in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernacchio, Charlie; Ross, Flynn; Washburn, Kimberley Robinson; Whitney, Jean; Wood, Diane R.

    2007-01-01

    This article documents the Critical Friends Group (CFG) process five university colleagues used to blend the theoretical frameworks of Universal Design for Learning (Rose & Meyer, 2002) and Interactive Phase Theory (McIntosh, 1990) as tools to increase equity and access in our classrooms. Using the CFG reflective approach, the faculty…

  15. Access, Equity, and Capacity in Asia-Pacific Higher Education. International and Development Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Deane, Ed.; Tanaka, Yoshiro, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Access, equity and capacity are elements within the higher education environment that interact in complex ways to affect virtually all other aspects of such institutions. This volume examines various features of how these concepts are generated, transformed throughout policy environments, and deployed across the complex differences of higher…

  16. Access & Equity for All Students: LGBT Student Needs. Commission Report 08-22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Access and equity for all students in California colleges and universities have always been high priorities of the California Postsecondary Education Commission. The Commission has conducted research, gathered data, and made recommendations to expand opportunities and improve outcomes for all students in the state's postsecondary systems.…

  17. Implications of Financing Higher Education for Access and Equity: The Case of Syria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabbani, Nader; Salloum, Siba

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the implications for access and equity of the Syrian government's efforts to reform higher education in the country over the past decade. In the context of social and economic reforms that are moving the county from a state-controlled to a social market economy, it focuses on adequacy in financing higher education, as well as…

  18. Equity in Access to Health Promotion and Risk Reduction Services: Implications for Elder Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nancy H.; Howze, Elizabeth Harper

    Although there is a national emphasis on health promotion and preventive practices, questions remain regarding the equity of access to these services by low income and minority groups, and the implications of inequities for elder health. Data from a systematic survey of 500 public and private providers of health promotion services in northern…

  19. Access and Equity for All Students: Meeting the Needs of LGBT Students. Report 09-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeli, Mallory

    2009-01-01

    Access and equity for all students in California colleges and universities is a high priority of the California Postsecondary Education Commission. Over the past year, CPEC staff have reviewed research, collected data, convened an advisory committee, and hosted a panel of experts, students, and advocates on the issues faced by lesbian, gay,…

  20. Revisiting Educational Equity and Quality in China through Confucianism, Policy, Research, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael; Zheng, Xinrong; Jia, Ning; Li, Xiaohua; Wang, Shaoyi; Chen, Yanchuan; He, Ying; May, Lyn; Carter, Merilyn; Dooley, Karen; Berwick, Adon; Sobyra, Angela; Diezmann, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    The promotion of educational equity and improvement of educational quality in China are contextualised in tenets of Confucianism and policy directives, inspiring educational research and practice. In this paper, we first explore the historical and cultural roots of educational equity and quality through Confucianism and elaborate on the current…

  1. Poverty, Equity and Access to Education in Bangladesh. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 51

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Altaf; Zeitlyn, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Bangladesh has made great improvements in the scale and quality of access to education in recent years and gender equality has almost been achieved in primary education (World Bank, 2008). Evidence from CREATE's nationwide community and school survey (ComSS) confirms results from other research (such as Al-Samarrai, 2009) which suggests that…

  2. Access and Equity in Higher Education in Antigua and Barbuda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewlett-Thomas, Elsie

    2009-01-01

    Across the international higher education spectrum access represents a significant issue. The literature is replete with analyses of access in various higher education systems. Low and inequitable patterns of participation in higher education are particularly prominent in developing countries. This dissertation is a case study of the higher…

  3. Equity in Access to Health Care Services in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Glorioso, Valeria; Subramanian, S V

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide new evidence on whether and how patterns of health care utilization deviate from horizontal equity in a country with a universal and egalitarian public health care system: Italy. Data Sources Secondary analysis of data from the Health Conditions and Health Care Utilization Survey 2005, conducted by the Italian National Institute of Statistics on a probability sample of the noninstitutionalized Italian population. Study Design Using multilevel logistic regression, we investigated how the probability of utilizing five health care services varies among individuals with equal health status but different SES. Data Collection/Extraction Respondents aged 18 or older at the interview time (n = 103,651). Principal Findings Overall, we found that use of primary care is inequitable in favor of the less well-off, hospitalization is equitable, and use of outpatient specialist care, basic medical tests, and diagnostic services is inequitable in favor of the well-off. Stratifying the analysis by health status, however, we found that the degree of inequity varies according to health status. Conclusions Despite its universal and egalitarian public health care system, Italy exhibits a significant degree of SES-related horizontal inequity in health services utilization. PMID:24949515

  4. Equity in health care access to: assessing the urban health insurance reform in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gordon G; Zhao, Zhongyun; Cai, Renhua; Yamada, Tetsuji; Yamada, Tadashi

    2002-11-01

    This study evaluates changes in access to health care in response to the pilot experiment of urban health insurance reform in China. The pilot reform began in Zhenjiang and Jiujiang cities in 1994, followed by an expansion to 57 other cities in 1996, and finally to a nationwide campaign in the end of 1998. Specifically, this study examines the pre- and post-reform changes in the likelihood of obtaining various health care services across sub-population groups with different socioeconomic status and health conditions, in an attempt to shed light on the impact of reform on both vertical and horizontal equity measures in health care utilization. Empirical estimates were obtained in an econometric model using data from the annual surveys conducted in Zhenjiang City from 1994 through 1996. The main findings are as follows. Before the insurance reform, the likelihood of obtaining basic care at outpatient setting was much higher for those with higher income, education, and job status at work, indicating a significant measure of horizontal inequity against the lower socioeconomic groups. On the other hand, there was no evidence suggesting vertical inequity against people of chronic disease conditions in access to care at various settings. After the reform, the new insurance plan led to a significant increase in outpatient care utilization by the lower socioeconomic groups, making a great contribution to achieving horizontal equity in access to basic care. The new plan also has maintained the measure of vertical equity in the use of all types of care. Despite reform, people with poor socioeconomic status continue to be disadvantaged in accessing expensive and advanced diagnostic technologies. In conclusion, the reform model has demonstrated promising advantages over pre-reform insurance programs in many aspects, especially in the improvement of equity in access to basic care provided at outpatient settings. It also appears to be more efficient overall in allocating health

  5. Spatial access to health care in Costa Rica and its equity: a GIS-based study.

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2004-04-01

    This study assembles a geographic information system (GIS) to relate the 2000 census population (demand) with an inventory of health facilities (supply). It assesses the equity in access to health care by Costa Ricans and the impact on it by the ongoing reform of the health sector. It uses traditional measurements of access based on the distance to the closest facility and proposes a more comprehensive index of accessibility that results from the aggregation of all facilities weighted by their size, proximity, and characteristics of both the population and the facility. The weighting factors of this index were determined with an econometric analysis of clinic choice in a national household sample. Half Costa Ricans reside less than 1 km away from an outpatient care outlet and 5 km away from a hospital. In equity terms, 12-14% of population are underserved according to three indicators: having an outpatient outlet within 4 km, a hospital within 25 km, and less than 0.2 MD yearly hours per person. The data show substantial improvements in access (and equity) to outpatient care between 1994 and 2000. These improvements are linked to the health sector reform implemented since 1995. The share of the population whose access to outpatient health care (density indicator) was inequitable declined from 30% to 22% in pioneering areas where reform began in 1995-96. By contrast, in areas where reform has not occurred by 2001, the proportion underserved has slightly increased from 7% to 9%. Similar results come from a simpler index based on the distance to the nearest facility. Access to hospital care has held steady in this period. The reform achieved this result by targeting the least privileged population first, and by including such measures as new community medical offices and Basic Teams for Integrated Health Care (EBAIS) to work with these populations. The GIS platform developed for this study allows pinpointing communities with inadequate access to health care, where

  6. 'Net Equity: A Report on Income and Internet Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Mitchell; Mitra, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Examines the structure of the subscriber base formed under the current pricing policies of Internet providers and investigates how access to the Internet varies in communities with different demographic characteristics. Report is based on a survey from a national Internet service provided in 1997. (SLD)

  7. Overcoming Exclusion through Quality Schooling. Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 65

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govinda, R.; Bandyopadhyay, Madhumita

    2011-01-01

    In the era of globalisation, provision of quality education is increasingly gaining importance across the world. Like elsewhere, it has already been realised in India that equal attention is needed simultaneously on access, equity and quality to achieve the goal of universalisation of elementary education. It has also been experienced that…

  8. Equity and Access: All Students Are Mathematical Problem Solvers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Dana Pompkyl; Ivy, Jessica; McKissick, Bethany R.

    2016-01-01

    Often mathematical instruction for students with disabilities, especially those with learning disabilities, includes an overabundance of instruction on mathematical computation and does not include high-quality instruction on mathematical reasoning and problem solving. In fact, it is a common misconception that students with learning disabilities…

  9. University Admission Models that Address Quality and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Rolf; Shulruf, Boaz; Li, Meisong; Yuan, Johnson

    2012-01-01

    University entrance criteria can be a contentious topic, particularly in respect of equity. In this paper we discuss studies which demonstrate that revisions of entrance criteria which are designed with no explicit reference to equity issues can have a surprisingly positive impact on the fractions of disadvantaged subgroups admitted. We…

  10. The Impact of a Middle School 1:1 Laptop Initiative on the Quality of Instruction, Teacher Engagement, and Digital Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pack, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated a school district's middle school 1:1 initiative and its potential to raise the quality of instruction, to increase levels of teacher engagement, and to provide equity of access to enriched learning experiences for students within the district's two middle schools. Through utilizing a mixed method design, data were…

  11. Cyber Charter Schools and Students with Dis/abilities: Rebooting the IDEA to Address Equity, Access, and Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M.; Green, Preston C., III; Nelson, Steven L.; Madahar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    This article takes up the question of equity, access, and cyber charter schools from the perspective of disability studies in education (DSE). DSE positions inclusion and educational access as social justice concerns. In doing so, we assert the importance of making visible the social justice implications of the current laws that impact cyber…

  12. Measuring Equity in Access to Pharmaceutical Services Using Concentration Curve; Model Development.

    PubMed

    Davari, Majid; Khorasani, Elahe; Bakhshizade, Zahra; Jafarian Jazi, Marzie; Ghaffari Darab, Mohsen; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    This paper has two objectives. First, it establishes a model for scoring the access to pharmaceutical services. Second, it develops a model for measuring socioeconomic indicators independent of the time and place of study. These two measures are used for measuring equity in access to pharmaceutical services using concentration curve. We prepared an open-ended questionnaire and distributed it to academic experts to get their ideas to form access indicators and assign score to each indicator based on the pharmaceutical system. An extensive literature review was undertaken for the selection of indicators in order to determine the socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals. Experts' opinions were also considered for scoring these indicators. These indicators were weighted by the Stepwise Adoption of Weights and were used to develop a model for measuring SES independent of the time and place of study. Nine factors were introduced for assessing the access to pharmaceutical services, based on pharmaceutical systems in middle-income countries. Five indicators were selected for determining the SES of individuals. A model for income classification based on poverty line was established. Likewise, a model for scoring home status based on national minimum wage was introduced. In summary, five important findings emerged from this study. These findings may assist researchers in measuring equity in access to pharmaceutical services and also could help them to apply a model for determining SES independent of the time and place of study. These also could provide a good opportunity for researchers to compare the results of various studies in a reasonable way; particularly in middle-income countries. PMID:26664403

  13. Measuring Equity in Access to Pharmaceutical Services Using Concentration Curve; Model Development

    PubMed Central

    Davari, Majid; Khorasani, Elahe; Bakhshizade, Zahra; Jafarian Jazi, Marzie; Ghaffari Darab, Mohsen; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    This paper has two objectives. First, it establishes a model for scoring the access to pharmaceutical services. Second, it develops a model for measuring socioeconomic indicators independent of the time and place of study. These two measures are used for measuring equity in access to pharmaceutical services using concentration curve. We prepared an open-ended questionnaire and distributed it to academic experts to get their ideas to form access indicators and assign score to each indicator based on the pharmaceutical system. An extensive literature review was undertaken for the selection of indicators in order to determine the socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals. Experts’ opinions were also considered for scoring these indicators. These indicators were weighted by the Stepwise Adoption of Weights and were used to develop a model for measuring SES independent of the time and place of study. Nine factors were introduced for assessing the access to pharmaceutical services, based on pharmaceutical systems in middle-income countries. Five indicators were selected for determining the SES of individuals. A model for income classification based on poverty line was established. Likewise, a model for scoring home status based on national minimum wage was introduced. In summary, five important findings emerged from this study. These findings may assist researchers in measuring equity in access to pharmaceutical services and also could help them to apply a model for determining SES independent of the time and place of study. These also could provide a good opportunity for researchers to compare the results of various studies in a reasonable way; particularly in middle-income countries. PMID:26664403

  14. Coverage, universal access and equity in health: a characterization of scientific production in nursing

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Parra, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to characterize the scientific contribution nursing has made regarding coverage, universal access and equity in health, and to understand this production in terms of subjects and objects of study. Material and methods: this was cross-sectional, documentary research; the units of analysis were 97 journals and 410 documents, retrieved from the Web of Science in the category, "nursing". Descriptors associated to coverage, access and equity in health, and the Mesh thesaurus, were applied. We used bibliometric laws and indicators, and analyzed the most important articles according to amount of citations and collaboration. Results: the document retrieval allowed for 25 years of observation of production, an institutional and an international collaboration of 31% and 7%, respectively. The mean number of coauthors per article was 3.5, with a transience rate of 93%. The visibility index was 67.7%, and 24.6% of production was concentrated in four core journals. A review from the nursing category with 286 citations, and a Brazilian author who was the most productive, are issues worth highlighting. Conclusions: the nursing collective should strengthen future research on the subject, defining lines and sub-lines of research, increasing internationalization and building it with the joint participation of the academy and nursing community. PMID:26959329

  15. Assessing Coverage, Equity and Quality Gaps in Maternal and Neonatal Care in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Integrated Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wilunda, Calistus; Putoto, Giovanni; Riva, Donata Dalla; Manenti, Fabio; Atzori, Andrea; Calia, Federico; Assefa, Tigist; Turri, Bruno; Emmanuel, Onapa; Straneo, Manuela; Kisika, Firma; Tarmbulini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Background Gaps in coverage, equity and quality of health services hinder the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa as well as in other high-burden countries, yet few studies attempt to assess all these dimensions as part of the situation analysis. We present the base-line data of a project aimed at simultaneously addressing coverage, equity and quality issues in maternal and neonatal health care in five districts belonging to three African countries. Methods Data were collected in cross-sectional studies with three types of tools. Coverage was assessed in three hospitals and 19 health centres (HCs) utilising emergency obstetric and newborn care needs assessment tools developed by the Averting Maternal Death and Disability program. Emergency obstetrics care (EmOC) indicators were calculated. Equity was assessed in three hospitals and 13 HCs by means of proxy wealth indices and women delivering in health facilities were compared with those in the general population to identify inequities. Quality was assessed in three hospitals using the World Health Organization’s maternal and neonatal quality of hospital care assessment tool which evaluates the whole range of aspects of obstetric and neonatal care and produces an average score for each main area of care. Results All the three hospitals qualified as comprehensive EmOC facilities but none of the HCs qualified for basic EmOC. None of the districts met the minimum requisites for EmOC indicators. In two out of three hospitals, there were major quality gaps which were generally greater in neonatal care, management of emergency and complicated cases and monitoring. Higher access to care was coupled by low quality and good quality by very low access. Stark inequities in utilisation of institutional delivery care were present in all districts and across all health facilities, especially at hospital level. Conclusion Our findings confirm the existence of serious

  16. An Ethics of Access: Using Life History to Trace Preservice Teachers' Initial Viewpoints on Teaching for Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Amy Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This article demonstrates how life history methods can be used to trace preservice teachers' emergent ethics toward teaching for equity and social justice. Through qualitative analyses of 10 European American, middle-class, female preservice teachers' life history interviews, access to diverse individuals and diverse materials was identified as a…

  17. Pathways to Results: How Practitioners Address Student Access, Outcomes, and Equity in an Associate Degree Nursing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickel, Jessica; Bragg, Debra D.

    2015-01-01

    At a time when the nation is focusing so much attention on college completion, what do we know about how students are completing their community college programs? Does the open-access mission of community colleges translate into equitable outcomes? Pathways to Results (PTR) engages practitioners in using data to close equity gaps for student…

  18. Access and Equity in Vocational Education and Training: Results from Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. ACER Research Monograph No. 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Stephen; Long, Michael; Malley, Jeff

    A study examined access and equity in vocational education and training (VET) in Australia for youth from different social and educational backgrounds using data from a program of national longitudinal surveys. Secondary VET participation was low; youth from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were more likely to enroll; and students were more likely…

  19. The Renewal of Quality Assurance in Australian Higher Education: The Challenge of Balancing Academic Rigour, Equity and Quality Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood; Lewis, Ione; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The renewal of quality in Australian higher education comes at a time of significant change in the external policy framework. Such changes are timely due to the growth of higher education and the emergence of the quality and equity agenda in the context of ongoing decline in public funding. The article provides an overview of current quality…

  20. Excellence, Equity, and Access: Educators' Perceptions of Students in Open Access Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Justyna Plichta

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines educators' perceptions regarding open access Advanced Placement (AP) program courses and their impact on non-traditional AP students in one suburban school district. The data were collected during the 2009-2010 school year through a 15-item Likert scale (and one open-ended item) survey which was disseminated during…

  1. Teaching Large Classes in an Increasingly Internationalising Higher Education Environment: Pedagogical, Quality and Equity Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maringe, Felix; Sing, Nevensha

    2014-01-01

    Marketisation, increased student mobility, the massification of Higher Education (HE) and stagnating staff numbers in universities have combined to cause a ripple effect of change both in the demography and size of university classes across the world. This has implications for the quality and equity of learning and the need to examine and to…

  2. An Examination of Possible Relationships between Service Quality and Brand Equity in Online Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and marketers lack information about possible relationships between service quality and online brand equity in intangible and often undifferentiated service businesses. The services sector of the economy is large with 72% of the economic output and 80% of the workers in the United States in 2007. Within the services sector, Internet…

  3. The Master Plan Renewed: Unity, Equity, Quality, and Efficiency in California Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Commission for the Review of the Master Plan for Higher Education, Sacramento.

    This report presents 33 recommendations for improving the 1960 California State Master Plan for Higher Education. The report's five sections focus on: (1) a unified educational system; (2) greater equity; (3) educational quality; (4) efficient use of educational resources; and (5) resources and responsibility. Recommendations for increased unity…

  4. Project Exploration's personalized curriculum: Fostering access and equity in science out-of-school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Gabrielle Helena

    Participation and achievement in science by students of color and girls remains inequitable despite decades of initiatives aimed at leveling the playing field. Science in out-of-school-time is a strategy that emphasizes the role of informal education, however, robust descriptions of learning environments which effectively recruit and retain historically underrepresented populations to science are lacking. Greater understanding of the potential of such efforts for increasing access and equity in science is needed. In 1999, I co-founded Project Exploration, a science education organization, to increase access to science for minority youth and girls through personalized experiences with science and scientists. This dissertation explores the personalized curriculum at the heart of Project Exploration's approach to science out-of-school, and contextualizes this approach in terms of the historic and present-day landscape of out-of-school efforts intended to increase the diversity of participation in science. This thesis is intended to be a contribution to an intellectual and practical curriculum conversation about how to effectively engage and retain minorities and girls to science. Ultimately I hope this study will raise questions about the hidden curriculum of a national competitiveness framework and offer an alternative way to value science in---and out---of school.

  5. Social franchising of TB care through private GPs in Myanmar: an assessment of treatment results, access, equity and financial protection.

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, Knut; Aung, Tin; Maung, Win; Kluge, Hans; Uplekar, Mukund

    2007-05-01

    This article assesses whether social franchising of tuberculosis (TB) services in Myanmar has succeeded in providing quality treatment while ensuring equity in access and financial protection for poor patients. Newly diagnosed TB patients receiving treatment from private general practitioners (GPs) belonging to the franchise were identified. They were interviewed about social conditions, health seeking and health care costs at the time of starting treatment and again after 6 months follow-up. Routine data were used to ascertain clinical outcomes as well as to monitor trends in case notification. The franchisees contributed 2097 (21%) of the total 9951 total new sputum smear-positive pulmonary cases notified to the national TB programme in the study townships. The treatment success rate for new smear-positive cases was 84%, close to the World Health Organization target of 85% and similar to the treatment success of 81% in the national TB programme in Myanmar. People from the lower socio-economic groups represented 68% of the TB patients who access care in the franchise. Financial burden related to direct and indirect health care costs for tuberculosis was high, especially among the poor. Patients belonging to lower socio-economic groups incurred on average costs equivalent to 68% of annual per capita household income, with a median of 28%. However, 83% of all costs were incurred before starting treatment in the franchise, while 'shopping' for care. During treatment in the franchise, the cost of care was relatively low, corresponding to a median proportion of annual per capita income of 3% for people from lower socio-economic groups. This study shows that highly subsidized TB care delivered through a social franchise scheme in the private sector in Myanmar helped reach the poor with quality services, while partly protecting them from high health care expenditure. Extended outreach to others parts of the private sector may reduce diagnostic delay and patient costs

  6. Simple Solutions to Complex Problems: Moral Panic and the Fluid Shift from "Equity" to "Quality" in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockler, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Education is increasingly conceptualised by governments and policymakers in western democracies in terms of productivity and human capital, emphasising elements of individualism and competition over concerns around democracy and equity. More and more, solutions to intransigent educational problems related to equity are seen in terms of quality and…

  7. On evaluating health centers groups in Lisbon and Tagus Valley: efficiency, equity and quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bearing in mind the increasing health expenses and their weight in the Portuguese gross domestic product, it is of the utmost importance to evaluate the performance of Primary Health Care providers taking into account both efficiency, quality and equity. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the performance of Primary Health Care by measuring it in a Portuguese region (Lisbon and Tagus Valley) and identifying best practices. It also intends to evaluate the quality and equity provided. Methods For the purpose of measuring the efficiency of the health care centers (ACES) the non-parametric full frontier technique of data envelopment analysis (DEA) was adopted. The recent partial frontier method of order-m was also used to estimate the influence of exogenous variables on the efficiency of the ACES. The horizontal equity was investigated by applying the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test with multiple comparisons. Moreover, the quality of service was analyzed by using the ratio between the complaints and the total activity of the ACES. Results On the whole, a significant level of inefficiency was observed, although there was a general improvement in efficiency between 2009 and 2010. It was found that nursing was the service with the lowest scores. Concerning the horizontal equity, the analysis showed that there is no evidence of relevant disparities between the different subregions(NUTS III). Concerning the exogenous variables, the purchasing power, the percentage of patients aged 65 years old or older and the population size affect the efficiency negatively. Conclusions This research shows that better usage of the available resources and the creation of a learning network and dissemination of best practices will contribute to improvements in the efficiency of the ACES while maintaining or even improving quality and equity. It was also proved that the market structure does matter when efficiency measurement is addressed. PMID:24359014

  8. The Patient-Centered Medical Home: How Is It Related to Quality and Equity Among the General Adult Population?

    PubMed

    Reibling, Nadine

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates whether patient-reported characteristics of the medical home are associated with improved quality and equity of preventive care, advice on health habits, and emergency department use. We used adjusted risk ratios to examine the association between medical home characteristics and care measures based on the 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Medical home characteristics are associated with 6 of the 11 outcome measures, including flu shots, smoking advice, exercise advice, nutrition advice, all advice, and emergency department visits. Educational and income groups benefit relatively equally from medical home characteristics. However, compared with insurance and access to a provider, medical home characteristics have little influence on overall disparities in care. In sum, our findings support that medical home characteristics can improve quality and reduce emergency visits but we find no evidence that medical home characteristics alleviate disparities in care.

  9. Access and Equity in Financing Higher Education: The Case of Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bougroum, Mohammed; Ibourk, Aomar

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the higher education financing policy in Morocco in light of the central issue of equity. First, it surveys the current situation, using a critical approach to the present financing policy, and looking at the three dimensions of adequacy, efficiency, and equity. Second, it describes the principal policy challenges in financing…

  10. Cross-border assisted reproduction care in Asia: implications for access, equity and regulations.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Andrea

    2011-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of the global commercialised market in assisted reproduction treatment in low-resource countries in Asia and raises concerns about access and equity, the potential commercial exploitation of the bodies of subaltern women to service the demand for donated ova and surrogate pregnancy, and the need for protections through regulations. A lack of systematic data about cross-border reproductive care is a significant obstacle to debate and policy intervention. Little is known about the extent, experience or conditions of cross-border reproductive care outside of Europe and the United States. Further research is needed in Asia on the local effects of this trade upon local health systems, couples seeking care, and those women whose body tissues and nurturing capacities facilitate it. More attention needs to be paid to the provision of publicly funded reproductive health services to address the inequitable distribution of treatment and to investigate means to regulate this trade by governments, international NGOs, professional organisations and civil society groups in developing countries. The global trade in assisted reproduction challenges us to balance the rights of individuals to pursue health care across national borders with the rights of those providing services to meet their needs, especially vulnerable groups in situations of economic disparity.

  11. Expansion without Equity: An Analysis of Current Policy on Access to Higher Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2007-01-01

    Access to higher education in Brazil is to a large extent restricted to the higher socio-economic groups. Public universities have limited places and entry is determined by highly competitive exams, thereby excluding those who have not had a high quality secondary education or attended an expensive preparatory course. There has been considerable…

  12. The 20-Year Trajectory of Marital Quality in Enduring Marriages: Does Equity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    DeMaris, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    I examine the trajectory of marital quality as a function of relationship equity with data from a six-wave panel study of 704 married respondents between 1980 and 2000. Reporting that one “gives more” to the marriage (subjective underbenefit) is more likely for women than men at any given marital duration. Respondent’s relative contribution to income, paid labor, housework, and health (objective underbenefit) raises this probability for women of average religiosity. For the more religious, objective underbenefit has no effect on women’s sense of underbenefit, but reduces men’s sense of underbenefit. Objective underbenefit lowers women’s, but raises men’s, marital quality, at any marital duration. The relevance of equity was not diluted by the passage of time in marriage. PMID:21966079

  13. Equity in Informal Science Education: Developing an Access and Equity Framework for Science Museums and Science Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Informal science education (ISE) is a popular pursuit, with millions of people visiting science museums, science centres, zoos, botanic gardens, aquaria, science festivals and more around the world. Questions remain, however, about how accessible and inclusive ISE practices are. This article reviews research on participation in ISE through the…

  14. Equity and Quality in Private Education: The Haitian Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmi, J.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Haitian educational system. Assesses whether private education is playing an appropriate role in Haiti in terms of providing and promoting quality education. Reviews strategies that could allow the government to use its limited financial resources in a more cost-effective and equitable manner. (CMK)

  15. China's women leaders promote quality and equity in family planning.

    PubMed

    He, S

    1995-08-01

    In China, key policy-makers at the highest levels of government recognize that the success of the family planning (FP) program depends upon improving the status of Chinese women. The highest ranking female government official, Peng Peiyun, a State Councilor and the Minister of the State Family Planning (FP) Commission, has initiated a new policy of improving the quality of service in the FP program. She recognizes that women who are gainfully employed and control their income are less likely to desire large families. One aspect of the effort to improve quality involves training FP personnel in interpersonal communication and counseling skills. The results of a pilot training program show that clients are pleased with the new approach and that use of FP services has increased. The FP Commission is also experimenting with programs which integrate all the needs of women and their families (FP, credit availability, old age support) in rural areas. Traditionally, sons provided for their elderly parents, so families with only one daughter are concerned about old age provision. Thus, national efforts are underway to develop social security systems. In the meantime, women at all levels, from grassroots FP acceptors to FP staff members and researchers are the major contributors to the innovations which will allow China to control its population growth. PMID:12290276

  16. Equity of Access to Higher Education in the Context of South-South Cooperation in Latin America: A Pluri-Scalar Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an education governance approach to conduct a pluri-scalar analysis of equity of access to tertiary education in the context of South-South cooperation. An account of distributional justice in access to tertiary education in the Federative Republic of Brazil and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is integrated with a…

  17. Accessibility and equity of health and social care services: exploring the views and experiences of Bangladeshi carers in South Wales, UK.

    PubMed

    Merrell, Joy; Kinsella, Faye; Murphy, Fiona; Philpin, Sue; Ali, Amina

    2006-05-01

    There is a paucity of information regarding the extent and nature of caring provided by minority ethnic communities. The proportion of older people from these communities will dramatically increase in the next 20 years, which will be accompanied by increasing health and social care needs and an increased demand for carers. A qualitative, exploratory study was conducted to identify the health and social care needs of informal carers, who were caring for a dependent adult from a Bangladeshi community in South Wales, UK. This paper focuses on Bangladeshi carers' access to formal support services provided by the statutory, private and voluntary sectors to assist them with their caring responsibilities. The findings are based on data collected using face-to-face, focused interviews with 20 Bangladeshi carers. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit the sample. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis. The dimensions of accessibility and equity of quality of care were drawn upon to aid understanding of the findings. Bangladeshi carers faced a number of barriers in accessing health and social service provision, which impeded uptake of these services. Additionally, there was evidence of inequity in service provision. Recommendations for improving the accessibility of health and social care services are proposed, which may assist in promoting more equitable services for carers from the Bangladeshi community.

  18. In pursuit of high-value healthcare: the case for improving quality and achieving equity in a time of healthcare transformation.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and current efforts in payment reform signal the beginning of a significant transformation for the US healthcare system. As we embark on this transformation, disparities have emerged as the hallmark of low-value healthcare--care that does not meet quality standards, is inefficient, and is usually of high cost. A new set of structures is being developed to facilitate increased access to care that is cost-effective and high in quality--otherwise known as high-value healthcare. Addressing disparities and achieving equity are the perfect target areas for recouping value, and doing so will pave the way for high-value healthcare. As healthcare leaders make difficult choices, they should consider the realities of healthcare equity. First, racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare persist and are a clear sign of poor-quality, low-value healthcare. Second, the root causes of these disparities are complex, but a well-developed set of evidence-based approaches is available to help leaders address healthcare inequity. Third, evidence suggests that being inattentive to the root causes of disparities adversely affects efficiency and an organization's bottom line. Finally, if healthcare organizations are progressive, thoughtful, and prepared for success in such an environment, a new healthcare system that offers accessible, high-value, equitable, culturally competent, and high-quality care to all is well within reach. PMID:25291891

  19. In pursuit of high-value healthcare: the case for improving quality and achieving equity in a time of healthcare transformation.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and current efforts in payment reform signal the beginning of a significant transformation for the US healthcare system. As we embark on this transformation, disparities have emerged as the hallmark of low-value healthcare--care that does not meet quality standards, is inefficient, and is usually of high cost. A new set of structures is being developed to facilitate increased access to care that is cost-effective and high in quality--otherwise known as high-value healthcare. Addressing disparities and achieving equity are the perfect target areas for recouping value, and doing so will pave the way for high-value healthcare. As healthcare leaders make difficult choices, they should consider the realities of healthcare equity. First, racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare persist and are a clear sign of poor-quality, low-value healthcare. Second, the root causes of these disparities are complex, but a well-developed set of evidence-based approaches is available to help leaders address healthcare inequity. Third, evidence suggests that being inattentive to the root causes of disparities adversely affects efficiency and an organization's bottom line. Finally, if healthcare organizations are progressive, thoughtful, and prepared for success in such an environment, a new healthcare system that offers accessible, high-value, equitable, culturally competent, and high-quality care to all is well within reach.

  20. Assessing barriers to health insurance and threats to equity in comparative perspective: The Health Insurance Access Database

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Typologies traditionally used for international comparisons of health systems often conflate many system characteristics. To capture policy changes over time and by service in health systems regulation of public and private insurance, we propose a database containing explicit, standardized indicators of policy instruments. Methods The Health Insurance Access Database (HIAD) will collect policy information for ten OECD countries, over a range of eight health services, from 1990–2010. Policy indicators were selected through a comprehensive literature review which identified policy instruments most likely to constitute barriers to health insurance, thus potentially posing a threat to equity. As data collection is still underway, we present here the theoretical bases and methodology adopted, with a focus on the rationale underpinning the study instruments. Results These harmonized data will allow the capture of policy changes in health systems regulation of public and private insurance over time and by service. The standardization process will permit international comparisons of systems’ performance with regards to health insurance access and equity. Conclusion This research will inform and feed the current debate on the future of health care in developed countries and on the role of the private sector in these changes. PMID:22551599

  1. Designing at Scale: Lessons in Relevance, Quality, and Equity from ChangeScale, a Bay Area environmental education collaborative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, E.

    2015-12-01

    The best environmental education equips people with the know-how and drive to create healthy communities and a healthy planet. While there are many wonderful organizations providing environmental learning, ensuring quality, cultural relevance and equity of access remains an elusive goal--especially if environmental education organizations work in isolation. Organizations across 12 counties in the Bay Area have come together to create a different model. They have founded ChangeScale, a regional collaborative dedicated to providing high quality environmental education to hundreds of thousands of youth---by working together. ChangeScale's work involves setting up school district-level partnerships, providing technical assistance to local environmental education networks, and training environmental educators across the region. In this talk, the presenter, who is a founding member and steering committee chair for ChangeScale, will outline the challenges of working at a regional scale with dozens of organizations. She will share the processes ChangeScale has used to develop a business plan and build membership. She will conclude by sharing the short term and long term potential impacts of working collectively for environmental literacy in the Bay Area.

  2. Education and Social Equity: With a Special Focus on Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in Elementary Education. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedwal, Mona; Kamat, Sangeeta

    2008-01-01

    The Scheduled Castes (SCs, also known as Dalits) and Scheduled Tribes (STs, also known as Adivasis) are among the most socially and educationally disadvantaged groups in India. This paper examines issues concerning school access and equity for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe communities and also highlights their unique problems, which may…

  3. Educational Equity in the Access to Post-Secondary Education: A Comparison of Ethnic Minorities in China with Aboriginals in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This study provides insight into equity issues in post-secondary education by exploring and assessing the history, the reality and the potential developments in higher education for minority students in China, in comparison to post-secondary education for aboriginal students in Canada. It highlights access to post-secondary education by these…

  4. New Directions For Foundations In Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Doykos, Patricia; Gray-Akpa, Kristina; Mitchell, Faith

    2016-08-01

    Rising income inequality and pessimism about the current and future status of race relations in the United States make this both a challenging time for the pursuit of health equity and also an important opportunity for action. We glean lessons from past and ongoing philanthropic investments in health equity and recommend approaches that can guide future work by foundations. Improving health equity is a complex process that must take into account a variety of factors that affect health, of which access to high-quality health care is just one element. Accordingly, improving health equity will require the combined forces of philanthropy, the public sector, and sectors that have not traditionally been identified with health. PMID:27503980

  5. Equity in access to health care provision under the medicare security for small scale entrepreneurs in Dar es Salaam.

    PubMed

    Urassa, J A E

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess equity in access to health care provision under the Medicare Security for Small Scale Entrepreneurs (SSE). Methodological triangulation was used to an exploratory and randomized cross- sectional study in order to supplement information on the topic under investigation. Questionnaires were administered to 281 respondents and 6 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were held with males and females. Documentary review was also used. For quantitative aspect of the study, significant associations were measured using confidence intervals (95% CI) testing. Qualitative data were analyzed with assistance of Open code software. The results show that inequalities in access to health care services were found in respect to affordability of medical care costs, distance from home to health facilities, availability of drugs as well as medical equipments and supplies. As the result of existing inequalities some of clients were not satisfied with the provided health services. The study concludes by drawing policy and research implications of the findings. PMID:23120940

  6. Global pharmaceutical development and access: critical issues of ethics and equity.

    PubMed

    Lage, Agustín

    2011-07-01

    The article presents global data on access to pharmaceuticals and discusses underlying barriers. Two are highly visible: pricing policies and intellectual property rights; two are less recognized: the regulatory environment and scientific and technological capacities. Two ongoing transitions influence and even distort the problem of universal access to medications: the epidemiologic transition to an increasing burden of chronic non-communicable diseases; and the growing role of biotechnology products (especially immunobiologicals) in the pharmacopeia. Examples from Cuba and Brazil are used to explore what can and should be done to address commercial, regulatory, and technological aspects of assuring universal access to medications.

  7. Open access: academic publishing and its implications for knowledge equity in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Matheka, Duncan Mwangangi; Nderitu, Joseph; Mutonga, Daniel; Otiti, Mary Iwaret; Siegel, Karen; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll

    2014-01-01

    Traditional, subscription-based scientific publishing has its limitations: often, articles are inaccessible to the majority of researchers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where journal subscriptions or one-time access fees are cost-prohibitive. Open access (OA) publishing, in which journals provide online access to articles free of charge, breaks this barrier and allows unrestricted access to scientific and scholarly information to researchers all over the globe. At the same time, one major limitation to OA is a high publishing cost that is placed on authors. Following recent developments to OA publishing policies in the UK and even LMICs, this article highlights the current status and future challenges of OA in Africa. We place particular emphasis on Kenya, where multidisciplinary efforts to improve access have been established. We note that these efforts in Kenya can be further strengthened and potentially replicated in other African countries, with the goal of elevating the visibility of African research and improving access for African researchers to global research, and, ultimately, bring social and economic benefits to the region. We (1) offer recommendations for overcoming the challenges of implementing OA in Africa and (2) call for urgent action by African governments to follow the suit of high-income countries like the UK and Australia, mandating OA for publicly-funded research in their region and supporting future research into how OA might bring social and economic benefits to Africa. PMID:24716579

  8. Open access: academic publishing and its implications for knowledge equity in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional, subscription-based scientific publishing has its limitations: often, articles are inaccessible to the majority of researchers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where journal subscriptions or one-time access fees are cost-prohibitive. Open access (OA) publishing, in which journals provide online access to articles free of charge, breaks this barrier and allows unrestricted access to scientific and scholarly information to researchers all over the globe. At the same time, one major limitation to OA is a high publishing cost that is placed on authors. Following recent developments to OA publishing policies in the UK and even LMICs, this article highlights the current status and future challenges of OA in Africa. We place particular emphasis on Kenya, where multidisciplinary efforts to improve access have been established. We note that these efforts in Kenya can be further strengthened and potentially replicated in other African countries, with the goal of elevating the visibility of African research and improving access for African researchers to global research, and, ultimately, bring social and economic benefits to the region. We (1) offer recommendations for overcoming the challenges of implementing OA in Africa and (2) call for urgent action by African governments to follow the suit of high-income countries like the UK and Australia, mandating OA for publicly-funded research in their region and supporting future research into how OA might bring social and economic benefits to Africa. PMID:24716579

  9. Increasing access and building equity into mental health services: an examination of the potential for change.

    PubMed

    Williams, C C

    2001-01-01

    This article explores the use of mental health care services by ethnoracial people in Canada and distinguishes between the reasons for underutilization of services by ethnoracial groups and the barriers which prevent ethnoracial groups from accessing services. Research focusing on Canadian race relations is reviewed to reveal how they are paralleled in the functioning of mainstream mental health care organizations. Existing policies and attitudes are then considered in relation to how they support or impede interventions to increase accessibility to services. Finally, frameworks for organizational change based on multiculturalism and anti-racism are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of both are articulated. PMID:11599135

  10. Increasing access and building equity into mental health services: an examination of the potential for change.

    PubMed

    Williams, C C

    2001-01-01

    This article explores the use of mental health care services by ethnoracial people in Canada and distinguishes between the reasons for underutilization of services by ethnoracial groups and the barriers which prevent ethnoracial groups from accessing services. Research focusing on Canadian race relations is reviewed to reveal how they are paralleled in the functioning of mainstream mental health care organizations. Existing policies and attitudes are then considered in relation to how they support or impede interventions to increase accessibility to services. Finally, frameworks for organizational change based on multiculturalism and anti-racism are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of both are articulated.

  11. Argumentation in Educational Policy Disputes: Competing Visions of Quality and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagnostopoulos, Dorothea; Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Current debates about test-based accountability policies revolve around questions of how to ensure that all students have access to high-quality schools and teachers. Whether and how one can meet this goal depend, in part, on the nature of the arguments that policy proponents and opponents mobilize in these debates. This article examines these…

  12. Broadband Access and Implications for Efforts to Address Equity Gaps in Postsecondary Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisneros, Lauren; Sponsler, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    This education trends report focuses on two related but distinct challenges confronting state policy leaders and students as they seek to leverage online distance education to meet personal and statewide education goals: (1) access to the infrastructure necessary to provide industry-standard broadband speeds and (2) ensuring availability of the…

  13. Abolishing School Fees in Malawi: The Impact on Education Access and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Samarrai, Samer; Zaman, Hassan

    2007-01-01

    In 1994, the newly elected Government in Malawi abolished primary school fees. Using household survey data from 1990/91 and 1997/98, this paper assesses the impact this major policy change, combined with increased Government spending on education, has had on access to schooling by the poor. This paper shows that enrolment rates have increased…

  14. An Equity Perspective on Access to, Enrolment in and Finance of Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asplund, Rita; Adbelkarim, Oussama Ben; Skalli, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Failure to achieve equitable access to university studies has contributed to turning the focus to the funding of higher education systems. This paper aims to review critically the literature assessing the effectiveness of existing financing schemes and changes in them as a means for reducing the prevalent under-representation of students from a…

  15. Minority Group Equity at Delta College: Trends in Student Access and Affirmative Action Hiring. Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John W.; Morris, Anita

    To provide a progress report on efforts to increase access to minority students and diversify the teaching and administrative ranks, a study was conducted at San Joaquin Delta College (SJDC), in California, of recent trends in minority student attendance and graduation rates and the ethnic composition of faculty and administrative staff. Results…

  16. Equity in access to exercise tolerance testing, coronary angiography, and coronary artery bypass grafting by age, sex and clinical indications

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, A; Bond, M; McKee, D; McClay, M; Banning, A; Dudley, N; Elder, A; Martin, A; Blackman, I

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess whether patients with heart disease in a single UK hospital have equitable access to exercise testing, coronary angiography, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG).
METHOD—Retrospective analysis of patients' medical case notes (n = 1790), tracking each case back 12 months and forward 12 months from the patient's date of entry to the study.
SETTING—Single UK district hospital in the Thames Region.
PATIENTS—Patients (elective and emergency) with a cardiac ICD inpatient code at discharge or death, or who were referred to cardiology or care of the elderly unit over a 12 month period in 1996-7 (new episodes) were included.
RESULTS—Analysis of 1790 hospital case notes revealed that, despite having indications for intervention identical to those of younger patients, older patients (that is, those aged > 75 years) and women, independently, were significantly less likely to undergo exercise tolerance testing (exercise ECG) and cardiac catheterisation. The similar trends for age and access to CABG did not achieve significance. While clinical priority scores also independently predicted access to cardiac catheterisation and CABG, considerable numbers of patients in high clinical priority groups were not referred for either procedure.
CONCLUSIONS—The management and treatment of older patients and women with cardiac disease may be different from that of younger patients and men. Given the similarity of the indications for treatment and the lack of significant contraindications or comorbidities as a cause for these differences, one possible explanation is that these patients are being discriminated against principally because of their age and sex. Although clinical priority scores independently predicted access to catheterisation and CABG, large proportions of patients in high priority groups were not referred. This implies that the New Zealand priority scoring system may be more equitable than UK practice. The cost

  17. Hepatitis C, mental health and equity of access to antiviral therapy: a systematic narrative review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Access to hepatitis C (hereafter HCV) antiviral therapy has commonly excluded populations with mental health and substance use disorders because they were considered as having contraindications to treatment, particularly due to the neuropsychiatric effects of interferon that can occur in some patients. In this review we examined access to HCV interferon antiviral therapy by populations with mental health and substance use problems to identify the evidence and reasons for exclusion. Methods We searched the following major electronic databases for relevant articles: PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Google Scholar. The inclusion criteria comprised studies of adults aged 18 years and older, peer-reviewed articles, date range of (2002–2012) to include articles since the introduction of pegylated interferon with ribarvirin, and English language. The exclusion criteria included articles about HCV populations with medical co-morbidities, such as hepatitis B (hereafter HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (hereafter HIV), because the clinical treatment, pathways and psychosocial morbidity differ from populations with only HCV. We identified 182 articles, and of these 13 met the eligibility criteria. Using an approach of systematic narrative review we identified major themes in the literature. Results Three main themes were identified including: (1) pre-treatment and preparation for antiviral therapy, (2) adherence and treatment completion, and (3) clinical outcomes. Each of these themes was critically discussed in terms of access by patients with mental health and substance use co-morbidities demonstrating that current research evidence clearly demonstrates that people with HCV, mental health and substance use co-morbidities have similar clinical outcomes to those without these co-morbidities. Conclusions While research evidence is largely supportive of increased access to interferon by people with HCV, mental health and substance use co

  18. Access to antibiotics: a safety and equity challenge for the next decade

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is increasing worldwide in healthcare settings and in the community. Some microbial pathogens have become resistant to multiple antibiotics, if not all presently available, thus severely compromising treatment success and contributing to enhanced morbidity, mortality, and resource use. The major driver of resistance is misuse of antibiotics in both human and non-human medicine. Both enhanced access and restricted use in many parts of the world is mandatory. There is an urgent need for an international, integrated, multi-level action to preserve antibiotics in the armamentarium of the 21st century and address the global issue of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23305311

  19. The Impact Factor: Implications of Open Access on Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grozanick, Sara E.

    2010-01-01

    There has been debate about the extent to which open access affects the quality of scholarly work. At the same time, researchers have begun to look for ways to evaluate the quality of open access publications. Dating back to the growth of citation indexes during the 1960s and 1970s, citation analysis--examining citation statistics--has since been…

  20. QUALICOPC, a multi-country study evaluating quality, costs and equity in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The QUALICOPC (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe) study aims to evaluate the performance of primary care systems in Europe in terms of quality, equity and costs. The study will provide an answer to the question what strong primary care systems entail and which effects primary care systems have on the performance of health care systems. QUALICOPC is funded by the European Commission under the "Seventh Framework Programme". In this article the background and design of the QUALICOPC study is described. Methods/design QUALICOPC started in 2010 and will run until 2013. Data will be collected in 31 European countries (27 EU countries, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey) and in Australia, Israel and New Zealand. This study uses a three level approach of data collection: the system, practice and patient. Surveys will be held among general practitioners (GPs) and their patients, providing evidence at the process and outcome level of primary care. These surveys aim to gain insight in the professional behaviour of GPs and the expectations and actions of their patients. An important aspect of this study is that each patient's questionnaire can be linked to their own GP's questionnaire. To gather data at the structure or national level, the study will use existing data sources such as the System of Health Accounts and the Primary Health Care Activity Monitor Europe (PHAMEU) database. Analyses of the data will be performed using multilevel models. Discussion By its design, in which different data sources are combined for comprehensive analyses, QUALICOPC will advance the state of the art in primary care research and contribute to the discussion on the merit of strengthening primary care systems and to evidence based health policy development. PMID:22014310

  1. Gender Equity Expert Panel: Exemplary & Promising Gender Equity Programs, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Department of Education developed the Gender Equity Expert Panel to identify promising and exemplary programs that promote gender equity in and through education. This panel of experts reviewed self-nominated programs to determine whether they met four criteria: evidence of success/effectiveness in promoting gender equity; quality of the…

  2. Social equity and access to the World Wide Web and E-mail: implications for design and implementation of medical applications.

    PubMed Central

    Mandl, K. D.; Katz, S. B.; Kohane, I. S.

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The distribution and types of Internet connectivity will determine the equity of access by patient populations to emerging health technologies. We sought to measure the rates, types, and predictors of access in a patient population targeted for Web-based medical services. METHODS: Design. Cross sectional in-person interview. Setting. Emergency department of a large urban pediatric teaching hospital. Subjects. Primary caretakers of patients or patients at least 16 years old. Procedure and measures. Subjects were asked about access to e-mail and the Internet as well as about willingness to use and concerns about Web-based services. Views of equity and access and sociodemographic data were also elicited. RESULTS: 132 subjects were enrolled in the study. Of respondents, 67.2% use a computer and 36.4% can access the Internet or e-mail from home. Including Internet connections and/or e-mail accounts at work, school and public libraries, 50.7% of the sample has access. Forty percent of families have e-mail accounts. The rate at which families have connectivity is primarily correlated with income (r = 0.6, p < 0.01). At all income levels, rates of access to the World Wide Web are higher than to e-mail. White patients are much more likely to have e-mail (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.4-10.8) and Web access (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.5). CONCLUSIONS: Connectivity is directly correlated with income and distributed unevenly across racial and ethnic groups. World Wide Web access is more prevalent than e-mail accounts, and both are often obtained outside the home. Design of health applications should account for these attributes of patient access. PMID:9929213

  3. Health care and equity in India.

    PubMed

    Balarajan, Y; Selvaraj, S; Subramanian, S V

    2011-02-01

    In India, despite improvements in access to health care, inequalities are related to socioeconomic status, geography, and gender, and are compounded by high out-of-pocket expenditures, with more than three-quarters of the increasing financial burden of health care being met by households. Health-care expenditures exacerbate poverty, with about 39 million additional people falling into poverty every year as a result of such expenditures. We identify key challenges for the achievement of equity in service provision, and equity in financing and financial risk protection in India. These challenges include an imbalance in resource allocation, inadequate physical access to high-quality health services and human resources for health, high out-of-pocket health expenditures, inflation in health spending, and behavioural factors that affect the demand for appropriate health care. Use of equity metrics in monitoring, assessment, and strategic planning; investment in development of a rigorous knowledge base of health-systems research; development of a refined equity-focused process of deliberative decision making in health reform; and redefinition of the specific responsibilities and accountabilities of key actors are needed to try to achieve equity in health care in India. The implementation of these principles with strengthened public health and primary-care services will help to ensure a more equitable health care for India's population.

  4. Using shared goal setting to improve access and equity: a mixed methods study of the Good Goals intervention in children’s occupational therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Access and equity in children’s therapy services may be improved by directing clinicians’ use of resources toward specific goals that are important to patients. A practice-change intervention (titled ‘Good Goals’) was designed to achieve this. This study investigated uptake, adoption, and possible effects of that intervention in children’s occupational therapy services. Methods Mixed methods case studies (n = 3 services, including 46 therapists and 558 children) were conducted. The intervention was delivered over 25 weeks through face-to-face training, team workbooks, and ‘tools for change’. Data were collected before, during, and after the intervention on a range of factors using interviews, a focus group, case note analysis, routine data, document analysis, and researchers’ observations. Results Factors related to uptake and adoptions were: mode of intervention delivery, competing demands on therapists’ time, and leadership by service manager. Service managers and therapists reported that the intervention: helped therapists establish a shared rationale for clinical decisions; increased clarity in service provision; and improved interactions with families and schools. During the study period, therapists’ behaviours changed: identifying goals, odds ratio 2.4 (95% CI 1.5 to 3.8); agreeing goals, 3.5 (2.4 to 5.1); evaluating progress, 2.0 (1.1 to 3.5). Children’s LoT decreased by two months [95% CI −8 to +4 months] across the services. Cost per therapist trained ranged from £1,003 to £1,277, depending upon service size and therapists’ salary bands. Conclusions Good Goals is a promising quality improvement intervention that can be delivered and adopted in practice and may have benefits. Further research is required to evaluate its: (i) impact on patient outcomes, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and (ii) transferability to other clinical contexts. PMID:22898191

  5. Inequality in Preschool Quality? Community-Level Disparities in Access to High-Quality Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Daphna; Galdo, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, unequal access to high-quality preschool has emerged as a growing public policy concern. Because of data limitations, it is notoriously difficult to measure disparities in access to early learning opportunities across communities and particularly challenging to quantify gaps in access to "high-quality" programs. Research…

  6. Distance Education: Access, Quality, Cautions, and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Paul Jay

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the impact of widely distributed learning opportunities now accessible through distance education must take into account the re-imposition of values and motives long associated with traditional education. The expectations of new higher education consumers should be tempered by institutional acknowledgement of pre-existing value…

  7. Quality Improvement Strategies and Best Practices in Critical Access Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Michelle M.; Moscovice, Ira

    2004-01-01

    Critical access hospitals (CAHs) face many challenges in implementing quality improvement (QI) initiatives, which include limited resources, low volume of patients, small staffs, and inadequate information technology. A primary goal of the Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Program is to improve the quality of care provided by CAHs. This article…

  8. The Practice of Equity. Access to, Treatment in, and Outcomes of Vocational Education in the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plihal, Jane; And Others

    A study examined the issue of educational equity in vocational education in 14 classrooms at 8 public secondary schools in Minnesota. The study used a naturalistic inquiry approach based on classroom observations and interviews with students, teachers, administrators, and counselors. Each of the members of the research team prepared a different…

  9. School Choice and Segregation: "Tracking" Racial Equity in Magnet Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tomeka M.

    2014-01-01

    Three arguments regarding racial equity have arisen in the school choice debate. Choice advocates charge that choice will improve access to quality schools for disadvantaged minority students (Chubb & Moe 1990; Coons & Sugarman, 1978; Godwin & Kemerer, 2002; Viteritti, 1999). Critics argue that choice is unlikely to benefit minority…

  10. The Equity Challenge in China's Higher Education Finance Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Fengshou; Barrientos, Armando

    2009-01-01

    Sustaining China's rapid economic growth in the future will come to depend in large part on the quantity and quality of the human resources it can mobilize. The paper considers the prospects for higher education financing, and highlights the importance of improving equity in access to higher education as a precondition for a sustainable expansion…

  11. Accessing Quality Online Health Information: What Is the Solution?

    PubMed

    Boyer, Célia

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the adult population in both Europe and North America have access to the internet. Over 70% state that they have used the internet to look for health information and the majority started their search at a search engine. Given that search engines list sites according to popularity and not quality, it is imperative that users have a means of discerning trustworthy and honest information from non-reliable health information. The HONcode, a set of eight quality guidelines, ensures access to standardized trustworthy health information which can be used as a tool to guide consumers. PMID:27332317

  12. Regulatory framework for access to safe, effective quality medicines.

    PubMed

    Rägo, Lembit; Sillo, Hiiti; 't Hoen, Ellen; Zweygarth, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Medicines of uncertain quality, safety and efficacy can be worse than no treatment at all. It is the responsibility of national medicines regulatory authorities to protect patients from harm. Yet, there are great disparities in regulatory capacity globally, preventing large populations from accessing the benefits of advances in the pharmaceutical field. This article describes the main regulatory functions and how they are applied to assure the quality, safety and efficacy of different types of medicines in different environments. It gives examples of initiatives that have increased access to good quality medicines worldwide and - more importantly - are laying the groundwork for collaborative approaches aiming to ensure that pharmaceutical products meet the same, stringent quality standards in all parts of the world. PMID:25310085

  13. Education and the Consolidation of Democracy in Latin America: Innovations To Provide Quality Basic Education with Equity. Advocacy Series Education and Development 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Fernando

    Three case studies show innovative education programs that provide quality basic education with equity. After explaining the significance of educational innovation of democracy in Latin America and the constraints to educational development, the investigation of the three programs follows. The program of Fe y Alegria (Faith and Joy) in 12…

  14. Faculty Work and the Cost/Quality/Access Collision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingle, James R.

    This report examines the issue of faculty workload within the context of rising educational costs and educational demand and its impact on quality and access. Research on the questions of how hard faculty work, what they do with that working time, and especially how much time is spent in the classroom is discussed. Faculty workload studies are…

  15. Increasing equity of access to point-of-use water treatment products through social marketing and entrepreneurship: a case study in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Matthew C; Quick, Robert E; Abbott, Daniel P; Ogutu, Paul; Rheingans, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Point-of-use water chlorination reduces diarrhoea risk by 25-85%. Social marketing has expanded access to inexpensive sodium hypochlorite for water treatment, at a cost of less than US$0.01 per day, in Kenya. To increase product access, women's groups in western Kenya were trained to educate neighbours and sell health products to generate income. We evaluated this programme's impact on equity of access to water treatment products in a cross-sectional survey. We surveyed 487 randomly selected households in eight communities served by the women's groups. Overall, 20% (range 5-39%) of households in eight communities purchased and used chlorine, as confirmed by residual chlorine observed in stored water. Multivariate models using illiteracy and the poorest socioeconomic status as a referent showed that persons with at least some primary education (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.8, 3.5) or secondary education (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.6, 17.5) and persons in the four wealthiest quintiles (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.0, 6.0) were more likely to chlorinate stored water. While this implementation model was associated with good product penetration and use, barriers to access to inexpensive water treatment remained among the very poor and less educated. PMID:19491503

  16. Increasing equity of access to point-of-use water treatment products through social marketing and entrepreneurship: a case study in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Matthew C; Quick, Robert E; Abbott, Daniel P; Ogutu, Paul; Rheingans, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Point-of-use water chlorination reduces diarrhoea risk by 25-85%. Social marketing has expanded access to inexpensive sodium hypochlorite for water treatment, at a cost of less than US$0.01 per day, in Kenya. To increase product access, women's groups in western Kenya were trained to educate neighbours and sell health products to generate income. We evaluated this programme's impact on equity of access to water treatment products in a cross-sectional survey. We surveyed 487 randomly selected households in eight communities served by the women's groups. Overall, 20% (range 5-39%) of households in eight communities purchased and used chlorine, as confirmed by residual chlorine observed in stored water. Multivariate models using illiteracy and the poorest socioeconomic status as a referent showed that persons with at least some primary education (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.8, 3.5) or secondary education (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.6, 17.5) and persons in the four wealthiest quintiles (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.0, 6.0) were more likely to chlorinate stored water. While this implementation model was associated with good product penetration and use, barriers to access to inexpensive water treatment remained among the very poor and less educated.

  17. Computer Equity @ School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity Coalition for Race, Gender, and National Origin, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This edition of "Equity Coalition" is designed to be a resource to assist those who have responsibility for technology in the schools. The authors of these articles discuss a variety of issues related to computer uses in education and equal access to educational technology. The issue contains the following articles: (1) "Technology--A New Kind of…

  18. Exemplary & Promising Gender Equity Programs, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This report identifies promising and exemplary programs that promote gender equity in and through education during the 1996-99 Gender Equity Expert Panel review cycle. These programs need to meet four criteria: evidence of success/effectiveness in promoting gender equity, quality of program, educational significance, and usefulness to others or…

  19. Equity and Excellence: African-American Children's Access to Quality Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Steve; Carolan, Megan; Johns, David

    2013-01-01

    The White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African-Americans (WHIEEAA) has a mandate on behalf of African-American students to close the achievement gap. This goal requires attention to the full education continuum, from the early childhood years through adulthood. Learning begins at birth and the preparation for learning starts well…

  20. International Education for the Millennium: Toward Access, Equity, and Quality. Harvard Educational Review Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Benjamin, Ed.; Dryden-Peterson, Sarah, Ed.; Kim, Young-Suk, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This volume sheds light on contemporary theoretical work and research, on a range of national and international polices, and on education reform in developing countries. International Education has become an increasingly prominent and urgent matter in recent decades. Since the 1990 and 2000 Education for All conferences in Thailand, and Senegal,…

  1. Education Quality in Post-Apartheid South African Policy: Balancing Equity, Diversity, Rights and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Yusuf; Ahmed, Rashid

    2011-01-01

    In spite of numerous definitions of quality, consensus on what constitutes quality is less clear and contested. Using South Africa as a case study, this paper explores the current conceptual thinking and debates about education quality. Specifically the paper reviews selected South African policy texts to identify how some of the global dimensions…

  2. Foreign Language Instructed Programs in Public Universities in Egypt: Implications for Resource Diversification, Quality and Equity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabry, Manar A.

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to assess the impact of tuition fees of the Foreign language Instructed Programs (FLIP) at Cairo University on increasing other-than-governmental resources for these programs as well as for the university, increasing student satisfaction with the quality of education, and maintaining equitable access. The study uses a theoretical…

  3. What's Love Got to Do with It? Equality, Equity, Commitment and Women's Marital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, W. Bradford; Nock, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    The companionate theory of marriage suggests that egalitarianism in practice and belief leads to higher marital quality for wives and higher levels of positive emotion work on the part of husbands. Our analysis of women's marital quality and men's marital emotion work provides little evidence in support of this theory. Rather, in examining women's…

  4. Rates of Beginning Teachers: Examining One Indicator of School Quality in an Equity Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Douglas J.; Mattingly, Marybeth J.

    2015-01-01

    The authors use national data to examine variation in the proportion of beginning teachers in school districts across the United States by poverty, race, and urbanicity. In addition to being a proxy for teacher quality, the proportion of beginning teachers in a district also speaks to teacher turnover and therefore broader school quality issues.…

  5. [Treatment adherence, access and AIDS assistance quality in Brazil. ].

    PubMed

    Nemes, Maria Inês Batistella; Castanheira, Elen Rose Lodeiro; Helena, Ernani Tiaraju de Santa; Melchior, Regina; Caraciolo, Joselita Magalhães; Basso, Cáritas Relva; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E; Alencar, Tatianna Meireles Dantas de; Ferraz, Dulce Aurélia de Souza

    2009-01-01

    The patient adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a crucial matter to AIDS treatment effectiveness and its' impact. This article aims to discuss the association between adherence and quality of health service providing care to people living with AIDS (PLWA), highlighting quality of the services as a central point to adherence and access. It is based on results of our previous studies about the health care to PLWA in Brazil. Our studies point out that the groups of patients who are followed-up in health services providing care for less than 100 patients presented greater estimated risk of non-adherence than services following more than 500 patients. Also, smaller health services showed greater estimated risk to be ranged in the worst quality of services groups. This is related to the low complexity of smaller health care services, such as: lack of minimum human resources and material structures, poor organization on work process, medical-centered care and poor technical management. New studies in adherence and quality of services are needed. Nevertheless, the existent findings have already pointed out the need to review the current distribution of AIDS care services as well as to make the quality of services more homogenous thorough the country. These are high priorities in order to keep acceptable levels of adherence to HAART in Brazil.

  6. Linking research to global health equity: the contribution of product development partnerships to access to medicines and research capacity building.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2013-11-01

    Certain product development partnerships (PDPs) recognize that to promote the reduction of global health disparities they must create access to their products and strengthen research capacity in developing countries. We evaluated the contribution of 3 PDPs--Medicines for Malaria Venture, Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative, and Institute for One World Health--according to Frost and Reich's access framework. We also evaluated PDPs' capacity building in low- and middle-income countries at the individual, institutional, and system levels. We found that these PDPs advance public health by ensuring their products' registration, distribution, and adoption into national treatment policies in disease-endemic countries. Nonetheless, ensuring broad, equitable access for these populations--high distribution coverage; affordability, particularly for the poor; and adoption at provider and end-user levels--remains a challenge.

  7. Linking Research to Global Health Equity: The Contribution of Product Development Partnerships to Access to Medicines and Research Capacity Building

    PubMed Central

    Loff, Bebe

    2013-01-01

    Certain product development partnerships (PDPs) recognize that to promote the reduction of global health disparities they must create access to their products and strengthen research capacity in developing countries. We evaluated the contribution of 3 PDPs—Medicines for Malaria Venture, Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative, and Institute for One World Health—according to Frost and Reich’s access framework. We also evaluated PDPs’ capacity building in low- and middle-income countries at the individual, institutional, and system levels. We found that these PDPs advance public health by ensuring their products’ registration, distribution, and adoption into national treatment policies in disease-endemic countries. Nonetheless, ensuring broad, equitable access for these populations—high distribution coverage; affordability, particularly for the poor; and adoption at provider and end-user levels—remains a challenge. PMID:24028246

  8. 38 CFR 17.508 - Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to quality...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Confidentiality of Healthcare Quality Assurance Review Records § 17.508 Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency. (a) Access...

  9. 38 CFR 17.508 - Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Access to quality...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Confidentiality of Healthcare Quality Assurance Review Records § 17.508 Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency. (a) Access...

  10. 38 CFR 17.508 - Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access to quality...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Confidentiality of Healthcare Quality Assurance Review Records § 17.508 Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency. (a) Access...

  11. 38 CFR 17.508 - Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Access to quality...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Confidentiality of Healthcare Quality Assurance Review Records § 17.508 Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency. (a) Access...

  12. 38 CFR 17.508 - Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Access to quality...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Confidentiality of Healthcare Quality Assurance Review Records § 17.508 Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency. (a) Access...

  13. Financial Aid, Access & Equity, and State Policy: An Interview with Richard Freeland, Commissioner of Higher Education for Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many states are looking at effective ways to use financial incentives to encourage students to complete a postsecondary credential. JFF's new report, "Statewide Aid Policies to Improve College Access and Success", originally commissioned by the Massachusetts Department of Higher Education's Vision Project, has provided valuable background for that…

  14. Failing Our Children: No Child Left behind Undermines Quality and Equity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guisbond, Lisa; Neill, Monty

    2004-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), the title of the federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act, describes a worthy goal for the nation. Tragically, the reality is that NCLB is aggravating, not solving, the problems that cause many children to be left behind. For the federal government to truly contribute to enhancing the quality of education…

  15. The Growth of Private Higher Education in Brazil: Implications for Equity and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2004-01-01

    There has been a dramatic growth in private higher education in Brazil in recent years. The World Bank has promoted this expansion on the basis of the private providers' ability to ensure a rapid increase in enrolment, to improve quality through competition between institutions and to bring benefits for society at little public cost. However, the…

  16. Newton in the Big Apple: Issues of equity in physics access and enrollment in New York City public high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Angela Marian

    High school physics is a gateway course for post-secondary study in science, medicine, and engineering, as well as an essential component in the formation of students' scientific literacy. However, physics is widely considered appropriate only for an academic elite. The existence of policies that restrict science opportunities for secondary students results in diminished outcomes in terms of scientific proficiency. Although the national trend in physics enrollment has shown an increase in recent years, the rate of participation is much lower for students in urban schools. This study examines the availability of physics in New York City, and whether access is related to organizational and school-level variables. The statistical distribution of physics students throughout the city is compiled and analyzed. High schools that successfully offer physics are compared with those that do not. Other factors are explored to determine their relationship to physics access, such as the presence of science magnet schools, the availability of Advanced Placement Physics and Non-Regents Physics, the science curricular sequence, and teacher certification. The results show that physics is not widely available to students in New York City, with 55% of high schools simply not offering the subject. Only 27% of schools with fewer than 600 students offer physics. The science magnet schools enroll a significant proportion of physics students when compared with larger, economically depressed neighborhood schools. The causes of these disparities are complex, and the implications serious for those students who do not have equal access to physics. The implications of these findings are important. By highlighting descriptive variables, as well as statistical evidence of systemic discrimination and inequities, urban districts may formulate effective models for the promotion of physics study. School policies and structures need to target better rates of physics participation among all students

  17. Global access to infertility care in developing countries: a case of human rights, equity and social justice

    PubMed Central

    Ombelet, W.

    2011-01-01

    According to WHO data more than 180 million couples in developing countries suffer from primary or secondary infertility. The social stigma of childlessness still leads to isolation and abandonment in many developing countries. Differences between the developed and developing world are emerging because of the different availability in infertility care and different socio-cultural value surrounding procreation and childlessness. Although reproductive health education and prevention of infertility are number one priorities, the need for accessible diagnostic procedures and new reproductive technologies (ART) is very high. The success and sustainability of ART in resource-poor settings will depend to a large extend on our ability to optimise these techniques in terms of availability, affordability and effectiveness. Accessible infertility treatment can only be successfully introduced in developing countries if socio-cultural and economic prerequisites are fulfilled and governments can be persuaded to support their introduction. We have to liaise with the relevant authorities to discuss the strengthening of infertility services, at the core of which lies the integration of infertility, contraceptive and maternal health services within public health care structures. After a fascinating period of more than 30 years of IVF, only a small part of the world population benefits from these new technologies. Time has come to give equitable access to effective and safe infertility care in resource-poor countries as well. PMID:24753875

  18. Global access to infertility care in developing countries: a case of human rights, equity and social justice.

    PubMed

    Ombelet, W

    2011-01-01

    According to WHO data more than 180 million couples in developing countries suffer from primary or secondary infertility. The social stigma of childlessness still leads to isolation and abandonment in many developing countries. Differences between the developed and developing world are emerging because of the different availability in infertility care and different socio-cultural value surrounding procreation and childlessness. Although reproductive health education and prevention of infertility are number one priorities, the need for accessible diagnostic procedures and new reproductive technologies (ART) is very high. The success and sustainability of ART in resource-poor settings will depend to a large extend on our ability to optimise these techniques in terms of availability, affordability and effectiveness. Accessible infertility treatment can only be successfully introduced in developing countries if socio-cultural and economic prerequisites are fulfilled and governments can be persuaded to support their introduction. We have to liaise with the relevant authorities to discuss the strengthening of infertility services, at the core of which lies the integration of infertility, contraceptive and maternal health services within public health care structures. After a fascinating period of more than 30 years of IVF, only a small part of the world population benefits from these new technologies. Time has come to give equitable access to effective and safe infertility care in resource-poor countries as well.

  19. Considering Equity in Basic Education Reform in Japan from the Perspective of Private Costs of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimura, Mikiko

    2006-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the private costs of education occupy a substantial part of the overall education cost and thus they have implications for quality and equity in education. The case of Japan demonstrates that access to basic education at junior high school level is unequal and inequitable when considering private costs of education…

  20. Committing to Equity and Inclusive Excellence: A Campus Guide for Self-Study and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges and Universities, 2015

    2015-01-01

    To serve students and society well, higher education needs to make a pervasive commitment to equity and inclusive excellence--both preparing students for and providing them with access to high-quality learning opportunities, and ensuring that students of color and low-income students participate in the most empowering forms of college learning.…

  1. Equity in Education in Chile: The Tensions between Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matear, Ann

    2007-01-01

    The article examines education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Since then, policies have aimed for continuity, coherence and complementarity with the aim of furthering national development, promoting social mobility, and equitable access to quality education at all levels. However, Chile faces the…

  2. Equity in Science at South African Schools: A Pious Platitude or an Achievable Goal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain

    2011-01-01

    The apartheid policies in South Africa had a marked influence on the accessibility and quality of school science experienced by the different race groups. African learners in particular were seriously disadvantaged in this regard. The issues of equity and redress were foremost in transformation of the education system, and the accompanying…

  3. Recent Advances in Point-of-Access Water Quality Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Velusamy, V.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Clean water is one of our most valuable natural resources. In addition to providing safe drinking water it assures functional ecosystems that support fisheries and recreation. Human population growth and its associated increased demands on water pose risks to maintaining acceptable water quality. It is vital to assess source waters and the aquatic systems that receive inputs from industrial waste and sewage treatment plants, storm water systems, and runoff from urban and agricultural lands. Rapid and confident assessments of aquatic resources form the basis for sound environmental management. Current methods engaged in tracing the presence of various bacteria in water employ bulky laboratory equipment and are time consuming. Thus, real-time water quality monitoring is essential for National and International Health and Safety. Environmental water monitoring includes measurements of physical characteristics (e.g. pH, temperature, conductivity), chemical parameters (e.g. oxygen, alkalinity, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds), and abundance of certain biological taxa. Monitoring could also include assays of biological activity such as alkaline phosphatase, tests for toxins such as microcystins and direct measurements of pollutants such as heavy metals or hydrocarbons. Real time detection can significantly reduce the level of damage and also the cost to remedy the problem. This paper presents overview of state-of-the-art methods and devices used for point-of-access water quality monitoring and suggest further developments in this area.

  4. Polio supplementary immunization activities and equity in access to vaccination: evidence from the demographic and health surveys.

    PubMed

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Abdelwahab, Jalaa; Vandenent, Maya

    2014-11-01

    Every year, large numbers of children are vaccinated against polio during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Such SIAs have contributed to the >99% decline in the incidence of poliovirus cases since the beginning of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. It is not clear, however, how much they have also contributed to reducing poverty-related inequalities in access to oral polio vaccine (OPV). We investigated whether the gap in coverage with 3 doses of OPV between children in the poorest and wealthiest households was reduced by SIA participation. To do so, we used data from 25 demographic and health surveys (DHS) conducted in 20 countries since 2002. We found that, in several countries as well as in pooled analyses, poverty-related inequalities in 3-dose OPV coverage were significantly lower among children who had participated in SIAs over the 2 years before a DHS than among other children. SIAs are an important approach to ensuring equitable access to immunization services and possibly other health services.

  5. ARM User Survey Report: Data Access, Quality, and Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, JH; Roeder, LR; Sivaraman, C

    2012-06-28

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to determine how users of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Data Archive interact with the more than 2000 available types of datastreams. The survey also gathered information about data discovery and data quality. The Market and Competitive Analysis group at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory worked with web administrators to develop a landing page from which users could access the survey. A survey invitation was sent by ARM via email to about 6100 users on February 22, 2012. The invitation was also posted on the ARM website and Facebook page. Reminders were sent via e-mail and posted on Facebook while the survey was open, February 22-March 23, 2012.

  6. How To Promote Data Quality And Access? Publish It!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. J.; Pfeiffenberger, H.

    2011-12-01

    Started during IPY 2007-2008, the Earth System Science Data journal (Copernicus) has now 'tested the waters' of earth system data publishing for approximately 2 years with some success. The journal has published more than 30 data sets, of remarkable breadth and variety, all under a Creative Commons Attribution license. Users can now find well-described, quality-controlled and freely accessible data on soils, permafrost, sediment transport, ice sheets, surface radiation, ocean-atmosphere fluxes, ocean chemistry, gravity fields, and combined radar and web cam observations of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption plume. Several of the data sets derive specifically from IPY or from polar regions, but a large portion, including a substantial special issue on ocean carbon, cover broad temporal and geographic domains; the contributors themselves come from leading science institutions around the world. ESSD has attracted the particular interest of international research teams, particularly those who, as in the case of ocean carbon data, have spent many years gathering, collating and calibrating global data sets under long-term named programs, but who lack within those programs the mechanisms to distribute those data sets widely outside their specialist teams and to ensure proper citation credit for those remarkable collaborative data processing efforts. An in-progress special issue on global ocean plankton function types, again representing years of international data collaboration, provides a further example of ESSD utility to large research programs. We anticipate an interesting test case of parallel special issues with companion science journals - data sets in ESSD to accompany science publications in a prominent research journal. We see the ESSD practices and products as useful steps to increase quality of and access to important data sets.

  7. Increasing access to quality health care for the poor: Community perceptions on quality care in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kiguli, Julie; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Okui, Olico; Mutebi, Aloysius; Macgregor, Hayley; Pariyo, George William

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the community's perspectives and perceptions on quality of health care delivery in two Uganda districts. The paper addresses community concerns on service quality. It focuses on the poor because they are a vulnerable group and often bear a huge burden of disease. Community views were solicited and obtained using eight focus group discussions, six in-depth and 12 key informant interviews. User perceptions and definitions of the quality of health services depended on a number of variables related to technical competence, accessibility to services, interpersonal relations and presence of adequate drugs, supplies, staff, and facility amenities. Results indicate that service delivery to the poor in the general population is perceived to be of low quality. The factors that were mentioned as affecting the quality of services delivered were inadequate trained health workers, shortage of essential drugs, poor attitude of the health workers, and long distances to health facilities. This paper argues that there should be an improvement in the quality of health services with particular attention being paid to the poor. Despite wide focus on improvement of the existing infrastructure and donor funding, there is still low satisfaction with health services and poor perceived accessibility. PMID:19936148

  8. Learning Equity in a University Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Westhuizen, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1994, education policy documents in South Africa have prioritised the goal of equity in education, understood as increased access to programmes, more equitable staff and student profiles, and curricula that are more responsive to the needs of all students. The challenge of effecting the goal of equity at levels of teaching and learning in…

  9. Aspects of Student Equity and Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, J.

    2008-01-01

    Badat (2004, 4) refers to the triple challenge facing higher education: to promote equity and growth within a democratic framework and to consolidate a fledgling democracy. In higher education there is inherent tension between growth (access to education) and equity. The article argues that the vagueness in which the term "equity" is generally…

  10. Gender Equity and Mass Communication's Female Student Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombisky, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of the history and politics of gender equity to make problematic the phrase "gender equity," to introduce the gender equity in education literature, and to outline some issues relevant to mass communication. Suggests that equal access represents a sex-blind approach dependent on a male standard. (SG)

  11. Equity in community care.

    PubMed Central

    Challis, L.; Henwood, M.

    1994-01-01

    The implementation of the NHS and Community Care Act 1990 made local authority social services departments responsible for the organisation and funding of support and care in the community. This development took effect at the same time as a blurring of the boundaries between health and social care. One consequence is that the relevance of equity (a guiding principle of the 1946 National Health Service Act, but relatively lacking from the 1948 National Assistance Act, the foundation of many social services) has come to be more keenly appreciated within personal social services. Equity questions arise in community care over the distribution of public resources between different client groups, income groups, generations, and localities. Moreover, no mechanisms exist to monitor the trends that emerge from different ways that people get access to care. Yet there is a risk that substantial divisive consequences may occur, particularly between generations. PMID:8019286

  12. Open-access colonoscopy in Ontario: Associated factors and quality

    PubMed Central

    Hadlock, Shane; Rabeneck, Linda; Paszat, Lawrence F; Sutradhar, Rinku; Wilton, Andrew S; Tinmouth, Jill

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Open-access (OA) colonoscopy may increase efficiency and decrease wait times; however, because the patient is seen for the first time at the endoscopy appointment, previous processes, such as information about the procedure, preparation and appropriate triage, may be suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with OA colonoscopy and to determine the relationship between OA colonoscopy and an important quality measure, incomplete colonoscopy. METHODS: A population-based analysis of all adult outpatients undergoing a first-time colonoscopy between 1997 and 2007 in Ontario was performed. Colonoscopy was considered to be OA if there were no visits in the preceding five years with the physician performing the colonoscopy. Using logistic regression, patient, physician and institution factors associated with OA colonoscopy were identified. Using propensity score matching, the relationship between OA colonoscopy and incomplete colonoscopy in 2006 was examined. RESULTS: A total of 1,079,259 colonoscopies were performed. Of these, 14% were OA in 1997 compared with 26% in 2007. Patients 50 to 69 years of age, those from higher-income neighbourhoods and those with less comorbidity were more likely to undergo OA colonoscopy. The odds of receiving OA colonoscopy were six times greater in a nonhospital clinic compared with a community hospital. Colonoscopy was more likely to be complete if the procedure was OA (OR 1.3 [95% CI 1.2 to 1.4]; P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of OA colonoscopy have increased substantially since 1997. Institution type was most strongly associated with OA colonoscopy. Colonoscopy completeness, a recognized quality indicator, does not appear to be compromised by OA colonoscopy. PMID:23781517

  13. Digital Equity and Intercultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resta, Paul; Laferrière, Thérèse

    2015-01-01

    Digital equity and intercultural education continue to be areas of concern in the emerging knowledge-based society. The digital divide is present across the globe as the result of a complex of factors such as the inequality in: access to hardware and connectivity; autonomy of use; digital and literacy skills; availability of technical and social…

  14. Equity in health and economic globalisation.

    PubMed

    Schuftan, C

    1999-11-01

    This article proposes that equity in health is inseparable from social equity in its broadest sense. An equitable system allows the lowest income sectors to have access to an acceptable level of basic goods and services. Equity in health thus entails decreasing the differences in access to, and use of all health services. Globalization, on the other hand, means the process by which economic power is expanding and increasingly concentrated in the hands of corporations that are progressively entering national economies worldwide through the international free-market ideology. Explored in this article were some ways in which globalization leads to inequities.

  15. The Political Meaning of Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingle, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Quality as a political goal for public higher education is discussed, and its fuller acceptance at the state over the federal level is noted. Federal policy is driven by values associated with access, need, and equity. State leaders are using a rhetoric of quality and excellence, incentives for high achievement, rigor, and merit. One reason the…

  16. Promoting household water treatment through women's self help groups in Rural India: assessing impact on drinking water quality and equity.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Matthew C; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent

  17. Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent

  18. Shifting to the Right: The Evolution of Equity in the South African Government's Developmental and Education Policies, 1990-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Everard

    2002-01-01

    South African development and education policy documents were analyzed to examine postapartheid government goals concerning educational equality and social justice. Documents concerning equity of educational access, quality, outcomes, and governance reveal a shift from a populist social-democratic orientation to a conservative neoliberal position,…

  19. Equity, Access and Institutional Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Antonio; Amaral, Alberto; Tavares, Orlanda

    2009-01-01

    In 1974, when a successful revolution had overthrown a dictatorial regime, Portugal had an elite higher education system with low participation rates. In the decades following the revolution, the state developed policies aimed at increasing student participation to European levels. However, higher education policies have been through frequent…

  20. Managing Both Quality and Access at Higher Educational Institutions in Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julien Sealey, Beverley

    2011-01-01

    This paper will focus on the island of Tobago and indicate what practical solutions are best suited for administrators to manage quality and access at higher educational institutions on the island. The key areas to managing quality identified are the inclusiveness of a quality plan, administrators desire to see quality as an institutional culture…

  1. Private-Sector Social Franchising to Accelerate Family Planning Access, Choice, and Quality: Results From Marie Stopes International

    PubMed Central

    Munroe, Erik; Hayes, Brendan; Taft, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background: To achieve the global Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) goal of reaching 120 million more women with voluntary family planning services, rapid scale-up of services is needed. Clinical social franchising, a service delivery approach used by Marie Stopes International (MSI) in which small, independent health care businesses are organized into quality-assured networks, provides an opportunity to engage the private sector in improving access to family planning and other health services. Methods: We analyzed MSI’s social franchising program against the 4 intended outputs of access, efficiency, quality, and equity. The analysis used routine service data from social franchising programs in 17 African and Asian countries (2008–2014) to estimate number of clients reached, couple-years of protection (CYPs) provided, and efficiency of services; clinical quality audits of 636 social franchisees from a subset of the 17 countries (2011–2014); and exit interviews with 4,844 clients in 14 countries (2013) to examine client satisfaction, demographics (age and poverty), and prior contraceptive use. The MSI “Impact 2” model was used to estimate population-level outcomes by converting service data into estimated health outcomes. Results: Between 2008 and 2014, an estimated 3,753,065 women cumulatively received voluntary family planning services via 17 national social franchise programs, with a sizable 68% choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). While the number of social franchisee outlets increased over time, efficiency also significantly improved over time, with each outlet delivering, on average, 178 CYPs in 2008 compared with 941 CYPs in 2014 (P = .02). Clinical quality audit scores also significantly improved; 39.8% of social franchisee outlets scored over 80% in 2011 compared with 84.1% in 2014. In 2013, 40.7% of the clients reported they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit (95% CI = 37.4, 44

  2. The Water Quality Portal: a single point of access for water quality data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreft, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) overseen by the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC). It was launched in April of 2012 as a single point of access for discrete water quality samples stored in the USGS NWIS and EPA STORET systems. Since launch thousands of users have visited the Water Quality Portal to download billions of results that are pertinent to their interests. Numerous tools have also been developed that use WQP web services as a source of data for further analysis. Since the launch of the Portal, the WQP development team at the USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics has worked with USGS and EPA stakeholders as well as the wider user community to add significant new features to the WQP. WQP users can now directly plot sites of interest on a web map based on any of the 164 WQP query parameters, and then download data of interest directly from that map. In addition, the WQP has expanded beyond just serving out NWIS and STORET data, and provides data from the US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service STEWARDS system, the USGS BioData system and is working with others to bring in additional data. Finally, the WQP is linked to another NWQMC-supported project, the National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), so WQP users can easily find the method behind the data that they are using. Future work is focused on incorporating additional biological data from the USGS BioData system, broadening the scope of discrete water quality sample types from STORET, and developing approaches to make the data in the WQP more visible and usable. The WQP team is also exploring ways to further integrate with other systems, such as those operated the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and other federal agencies to facilitate the overarching goal of improving access to water quality data for all users.

  3. Balancing Considerations of Equity, Content Quality, and Technical Excellence in Designing, Validating and Implementing Performance Assessments in the Context of Mathematics Instructional Reform: The Experience of the QUASAR Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Edward A.; Lane, Suzanne

    Issues of educational equity and quality are explored in the context of the Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning (QUASAR) project, a national educational reform project aimed at fostering and studying the development and implementation of enhanced mathematics instructional programs for students attending middle…

  4. Dilemma of Access and Provision of Quality Basic Education in Central Region, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amakyi, Michael; Ampah-Mensah, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    A survey research was conducted to find out if reported improvements in access to education in Ghana are reflected in comparable improvements in delivery of quality education. The study examined theoretical constructs on adequacy and quality assurance in education to ascertain the state of quality provision in education, and whether there is a…

  5. Quality Matters[TM] Accessibility Survey: Institutional Practices and Policies for Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Barbara A.; King, Denise K.

    2011-01-01

    Quality Matters (QM) is a professional organization that offers a faculty-centered, peer review process to certify the quality of online and blended courses. The purpose of this white paper is to share the results of a Quality Matters accessibility benchmarking study administered to 84 subscriber institutions. The primary goal of the survey was to…

  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs CDC Works for You 24-7 Health Literacy: Accurate, Accessible and Actionable Health Information for All ... Equity HHS Toolkit! Minority Health Ethics Forum 2016 Media Gallery Ethics Forum Speakers Events Health Equity Matters ...

  7. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647

  8. Contraceptive Equity

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The Equity in Prescription Insurance and Contraceptive Coverage Act, introduced in Congress in 1997 and still unpassed, seeks to redress health insurers’ failure to pay for birth control as they pay for other prescription drugs, most paradoxically Viagra. In 1936 the International Workers Order (IWO), a fraternal society, became the first insurer to include contraception in its benefits package. A forerunner in the movement for prepaid medical care, the IWO offered its members primary care and contraceptive services for annual flat fees. Founded at a time when the legal status of contraception was in flux, the IWO’s Birth Control Center was the only such clinic to operate on an insurance system. Recent state laws and judicial actions have revived the IWO’s groundbreaking view of contraception as a basic preventive service deserving of insurance coverage. PMID:17761562

  9. Transportation Accessibility and Quality of Life for the Urban Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belnap, Judith A.

    The barriers to physical mobility of the elderly are explained in this study which concentrated on spatial-temporal accessibility, and the use of mass transit to urban services and resources. The first area of concern dealt with the amount and extent of free time available to the elderly who are perceived as having large blocks of descretionary…

  10. Matching Students to Opportunity: Expanding College Choice, Access, and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P., Ed.; Howell, Jessica S., Ed.; Sattin-Bajaj, Carolyn, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    "Matching Students to Opportunity" expands on the discussion of a critical issue in college access and success: the match between prospective students and the colleges in which they enroll. Research indicates that ensuring a good match significantly increases a student's chance of graduating. The contributors to this volume argue that…

  11. Canadian experiences in telehealth: equalizing access to quality care.

    PubMed

    Jennett, P A; Person, V L; Watson, M; Watanabe, M

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Conference "TExpo'98: Interactive Health" focused on four telehealth themes: community needs, Canadian experiences, industry perspectives, and access/security/interoperability issues. Health and socioeconomic needs have been the driving force behind telehealth initiatives; telelearning is one of the major Canadian initiatives. To encourage Canadian telehealth initiatives, the federal government is building a national health infrastructure. One element in this framework is concerned with empowering the public, strengthening health care services, and ensuring accountability. Technological advancements and innovative partnerships among health communities, government, users, professional bodies, and industry are critical to continued growth. Key issues including access, evaluation, implementation, privacy, confidentiality, security, and interoperability are of universal concern to participants. Research that examines the benefits and costs of telehealth is needed.

  12. A Quality of Context-Aware Approach to Access Control in Pervasive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toninelli, Alessandra; Corradi, Antonio; Montanari, Rebecca

    The widespread diffusion of wireless-enabled portable devices creates novel opportunities for users to share resources anywhere and anytime, but makes access control a crucial issue. User/device mobility and heterogeneity, together with network topology and conditions variability, complicate access control and call for novel solutions to dynamically adapt access decisions to the different operating conditions. Several research efforts have emerged in recent years that propose to exploit context-awareness to control access to resources based on context visibility and changes. Context-based access control requires, however, to take into account the quality of context information used to drive access decisions (QoC). Quality of context has in fact a profound impact on the correct behavior of any context-aware access control framework. Using context information with insufficient quality might increase the risk of incorrect access control decisions, thus leading to dangerous security breaches in resource sharing. In this paper we propose a QoC-aware approach to access control for anywhere, anytime resource sharing. The paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of the Proteus policy framework, which combines two design guidelines to enable dynamic adaptation of policies depending on context changes: context-awareness with QoC guarantees and semantic technologies to allow high-level description of context/policy specification and reasoning about context/policies.

  13. [Health policy and practice towards equity].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Renilson Rehem

    2007-12-01

    The article discusses the concepts of equality and equity in the health area in Brazilian scenario, which means under the Unified Health System (UHS). The author shows the principles of UHS, emphasizing the principles of Universality and Integrality. Also reviews briefly the history of UHS and its construction process. It shows singularity of present issues such as technological advances and its consequences to the quality of health attention, both reflecting to the costs of the health care. It analyses some advances that were possible in Brazilian health attention and especially in São Paulo State. In conclusion, he explains a brief analyze about UHS news challenges: the increasing of accessibility to the health services, increasing of needs and the limited resources. PMID:20608374

  14. Variation in cooking and eating quality traits in Japanese rice germplasm accessions.

    PubMed

    Hori, Kiyosumi; Suzuki, Keitaro; Iijima, Ken; Ebana, Kaworu

    2016-03-01

    The eating quality of cooked rice is important and determines its market price and consumer acceptance. To comprehensively describe the variation of eating quality in 183 rice germplasm accessions, we evaluated 33 eating-quality traits including amylose and protein contents, pasting properties of rice flour, and texture of cooked rice grains. All eating-quality traits varied widely in the germplasm accessions. Principal-components analysis (PCA) revealed that allelic differences in the Wx gene explained the largest proportion of phenotypic variation of the eating-quality traits. In 146 accessions of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice, PCA revealed that protein content and surface texture of the cooked rice grains significantly explained phenotypic variations of the eating-quality traits. An allelic difference based on simple sequence repeats, which was located near a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3, was associated with differences in the eating quality of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice. These results suggest that eating quality is controlled by genetic factors, including the Wx gene and the QTL on chromosome 3, in Japanese rice accessions. These genetic factors have been consciously selected for eating quality during rice breeding programs in Japan. PMID:27162502

  15. Variation in cooking and eating quality traits in Japanese rice germplasm accessions

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Kiyosumi; Suzuki, Keitaro; Iijima, Ken; Ebana, Kaworu

    2016-01-01

    The eating quality of cooked rice is important and determines its market price and consumer acceptance. To comprehensively describe the variation of eating quality in 183 rice germplasm accessions, we evaluated 33 eating-quality traits including amylose and protein contents, pasting properties of rice flour, and texture of cooked rice grains. All eating-quality traits varied widely in the germplasm accessions. Principal-components analysis (PCA) revealed that allelic differences in the Wx gene explained the largest proportion of phenotypic variation of the eating-quality traits. In 146 accessions of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice, PCA revealed that protein content and surface texture of the cooked rice grains significantly explained phenotypic variations of the eating-quality traits. An allelic difference based on simple sequence repeats, which was located near a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3, was associated with differences in the eating quality of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice. These results suggest that eating quality is controlled by genetic factors, including the Wx gene and the QTL on chromosome 3, in Japanese rice accessions. These genetic factors have been consciously selected for eating quality during rice breeding programs in Japan. PMID:27162502

  16. Progress towards Good-Quality Education for All in Turkey: A Qualified Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köseleci, Nihan

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from a range of secondary data sources, this paper succinctly overviews patterns of access to good-quality education in Turkey over the last 15 years. It also maps the policy context within which issues of access, quality and equity are examined. As a result of effective supply and demand side strategies, enrolment ratios beyond the…

  17. Hearing Parents' and Carers' Voices: Experiences of Accessing Quality Long Day Care in Northern Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Nonie; Tinning, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores parents' and carers' experiences of accessing quality long day care in northern regional Australia. The data was gathered in 2009, after the collapse of ABC Developmental Learning Centres (herein referred to as ABC Learning) and before the implementation of the "National Quality Framework," and provides a snapshot of…

  18. Ready, Set, Grow: Illinois Preschool. A Framework for Universal Access to Quality Preschool in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Margie

    The Illinois Governor's Task Force on Universal Access to Preschool is part of a broad-based effort to increase the quality of life for all children in Illinois. This report presents the action plan developed by this task force and calls for the creation of Illinois Preschool, a program giving all Illinois families quality preschool options for 3-…

  19. Does Accelerating Access to Higher Education Lower Its Quality? The Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitman, Tim; Koshy, Paul; Phillimore, John

    2015-01-01

    In the pursuit of mass higher education, fears are often expressed that the quality of higher education suffers as access is increased. This quantitative study considers three proxies of educational quality: (1) prior academic achievement of the student, (2) attrition and retention rates and (3) progression rates, to establish whether educational…

  20. Access to orphan drugs despite poor quality of clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Alain G; Van Wilder, Philippe B

    2011-01-01

    AIM We analysed the Belgian reimbursement decisions of orphan drugs as compared with those of innovative drugs for more common but equally severe diseases, with special emphasis on the quality of clinical evidence. METHODS Using the National Health Insurance Agency administrative database, we evaluated all submitted orphan drug files between 2002 and 2007. A quality analysis of the clinical evidence in the orphan reimbursement files was performed. The evaluation reports of the French ‘Haute Autorité de Santé’, including the five-point scale parameter ‘Service Médical Rendu (SMR), were examined to compare disease severity. Chi-squared tests (at P < 0.05 significance level) were used to compare the outcome of the reimbursement decisions between orphan and non-orphan innovative medicines. RESULTS Twenty-five files of orphan drugs and 117 files of non-orphan drugs were evaluated. Twenty-two of 25 (88%) submissions of orphan drugs were granted reimbursement as opposed to 74 of the 117 (63%) non-orphan innovative medicines (P = 0.02). Only 52% of the 25 orphan drug files included a randomized controlled trial as opposed to 84% in a random control sample of 25 non-orphan innovative submissions (P < 0.01). The duration of drug exposure was in most cases far too short in relation to the natural history of the disease. CONCLUSIONS Orphan drug designation predicts reimbursement despite poor quality of clinical evidence. The evidence gap at market authorization should be reduced by post-marketing programmes, in which the centralized regulatory and the local reimbursement authorities collaborate in an efficient way across the European Union member states. PMID:21395641

  1. Science Education and Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This double issue of "Equity Coalition" deals with issues related to the need for inclusive science training and encouraging the interest of women and minorities groups in science. The following articles are included: (1) "Say Yes to Science" (Percy Bates); (2) "Science and Equity: Why This Issue Is Important" (Eleanor Linn); (3) "Race Equity and…

  2. Equity Assessment Study. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadale, LaVerna M.; Zhao, Peisheng

    This assessment study is a culminating activity of an eight-year initiative to facilitate gender equity and more equitable campus environments - Mentoring Institutional Equity in New York State Two-Year Colleges. Eighteen two-year colleges participated in the application and implementation of an educational equity model designed to enhance gender…

  3. Potential access to primary health care: what does the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement data show?

    PubMed Central

    Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Fronteira, Inês Santos Estevinho; Coêlho, Ardigleusa Alves; Martiniano, Claudia Santos; Brandão, Isabel Cristina Araújo; Yamamura, Mellina; Maroto, Renata Melo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the influence of contextual indicators on the performance of municipalities regarding potential access to primary health care in Brazil and to discuss the contribution from nurses working on this access. Method: a multicenter descriptive study based on secondary data from External Evaluation of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, with the participation of 17,202 primary care teams. The chi-square test of proportions was used to verify differences between the municipalities stratified based on size of the coverage area, supply, coordination, and integration; when necessary, the chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher's exact test were employed. For the population variable, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. Results: the majority of participants were nurses (n=15.876; 92,3%). Statistically significant differences were observed between the municipalities in terms of territory (p=0.0000), availability (p=0.0000), coordination of care (p=0.0000), integration (p=0.0000) and supply (p=0.0000), verifying that the municipalities that make up area 6 tend to have better performance in these dimensions. Conclusion: areas 4,5 and 6 performed better in every analyzed dimension, and the nurse had a leading role in the potential to access primary health care in Brazil. PMID:26959332

  4. Private equity investment in health care services.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Catherine J; Rudsenske, Todd; Vaughan, James S

    2008-01-01

    Sophisticated private equity investors in health services provide venture capital for early-stage companies, growth capital for mid-stage companies, and equity capital for buyouts of mid-stage and mature companies. They pursue opportunities in provider sectors that are large and have a stable reimbursement environment, such as acute care services; sectors with room to execute consolidation strategies, such as labs; alternative-site sectors, such as "storefront" medicine; and clinical services, such as behavioral health, that are subject to profitably increasing quality and lowering costs. The innovations created through private equity investments could challenge established health services organizations.

  5. Why do we observe a limited impact of primary care access measures on clinical quality indicators?

    PubMed

    Chung, Sukyung; Panattoni, Laura; Hung, Dorothy; Johns, Nicole; Trujillo, Laurel; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the effects of enhanced primary care access and continuity on clinical quality in a large, multipayer, multispecialty ambulatory care organization with fee-for-service provider incentives. The difference-in-differences estimates indicate that access to own primary care physician is a statistically significant predictor of improved clinical quality, although the effect size is small such that clinical significance may be negligible. Reduced time for own primary care physician appointment and increased enrollment in electronic personal health record are positive predictors of chronic disease management processes and preventive screening but are inconsistently associated with clinical outcomes. Challenges in identifying relationships between access and quality outcomes in a real-world setting are also discussed. PMID:24594563

  6. Improving the evidence base for promoting quality and equity of surgical care using population-based linkage of administrative health records.

    PubMed

    Hall, Sonĵa E; Holman, C D'Arcy J; Finn, Judith; Semmens, James B

    2005-10-01

    This paper highlights the uses of population-based linkage of administrative health records to improve the quality, safety, and equity of surgical care. The primary focus of the paper is on the transfer of this type of research into policy and practice. In the modern era of evidence-based medicine, it is essential that not only is new evidence incorporated into clinical practice, but that the implementation and associated costs are monitored; this requires the setting of appropriate benchmarking criteria. Furthermore, it is imperative that all members of the population receive optimal health care and people are not discriminated against because of socio-economic, locational, or racial factors. The use of data linkage can assist with examining these aspects of health care and this paper provides real-life examples such as costs and adverse events from laparoscopic cholecystectomy, event monitoring for post-operative venous thrombosis, and inequalities in cancer care. The influence of these studies on clinical practice and policy is also discussed. Furthermore, this paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of data linkage research and how to avoid pitfalls. Health researchers, clinicians, and policy-makers will find the discussion of these issues useful in their everyday practice.

  7. Colleges and Universities and Their Stewardship of Place: A Guide for Developing Performance Measures for the Equity of Access and Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patrick J.; Ewell, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    NCHEMS (National Center for Higher Education Management Systems) has worked with the National Association of Systems heads (NASH)--with support from the Lumina Foundation for Education--to develop (1) empirically-based access regions for postsecondary institutions based on student enrollment patterns and (2) access, transition, and completion…

  8. Recommendations for mass spectrometry data quality metrics for open access data (corollary to the Amsterdam Principles).

    PubMed

    Kinsinger, Christopher R; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H; Bradshaw, Ralph; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L; Omenn, Gilbert S; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L; Simpson, Richard J; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D; Stein, Stephen E; Tabb, David L; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R; Rodriguez, Henry

    2011-12-01

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the United States National Cancer Institute convened the "International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics" in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the research community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed up on two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: 1) an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and 2) standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in the Journal of Proteome Research, Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, Proteomics, and Proteomics Clinical Applications as a public service to the research community. The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals.

  9. Recommendations for mass spectrometry data quality metrics for open access data (corollary to the Amsterdam Principles).

    PubMed

    Kinsinger, Christopher R; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H; Bradshaw, Ralph; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L; Omenn, Gilbert S; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L; Simpson, Richard J; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D; Stein, Stephen E; Tabb, David L; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R; Rodriguez, Henry

    2012-02-01

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened the "International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics" in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the research community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed up on two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: (1) an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and (2) standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in the Journal of Proteome Research, Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, Proteomics, and Proteomics Clinical Applications as a public service to the research community. The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals.

  10. Recommendations for mass spectrometry data quality metrics for open access data (corollary to the Amsterdam principles).

    PubMed

    Kinsinger, Christopher R; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H; Bradshaw, Ralph; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L; Omenn, Gilbert S; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L; Simpson, Richard J; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D; Stein, Stephen E; Tabb, David L; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R; Rodriguez, Henry

    2011-12-01

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened the "International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics" in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the research community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed up on two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: (i) an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and (ii) standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in Proteomics, Proteomics Clinical Applications, Journal of Proteome Research, and Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, as a public service to the research community. The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals.

  11. Recommendations for mass spectrometry data quality metrics for open access data (corollary to the Amsterdam principles).

    PubMed

    Kinsinger, Christopher R; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H; Bradshaw, Ralph; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L; Omenn, Gilbert S; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L; Simpson, Richard J; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D; Stein, Stephen E; Tabb, David L; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R; Rodriguez, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened the "International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics" in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the research community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed upon two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: (i) an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and (ii) standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in Proteomics, Proteomics Clinical Applications, Journal of Proteome Research, and Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, as a public service to the research community. The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals.

  12. Pakistan's Primary Education Quality Improvement Program: Local Partners Work with Rural Communities to Support High Quality Education for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afridi, Zahid A.

    2006-01-01

    This document describes the contributions made by the Primary Education Quality Improvement Program (1996-1999) to the broad goals of improved access, equity, and quality in girls' primary education in Pakistan. In Balochistan, the largest but least developed province of Pakistan, an innovative approach to educational development was successfully…

  13. Gender and Equity Issues in Computer-Based Science Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Dennis W.; Agruso, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that computer and related technologies as tools for teaching, learning, and assessment are neither gender neutral nor benign in effect. Examines computers, equity, and access issues, computers as a technology, and the implications for computer-based assessment. (LZ)

  14. Educational Access Is Educational Quality: Indigenous Parents' Perceptions of Schooling in Rural Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishihara-Brito, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings and implications of a qualitative study conducted in Guatemala, which focused on rural, indigenous parents' perceptions of their children's schooling and educational quality. For these parents, the simple fact that their children had improved access to school signifies a satisfactory educational…

  15. Information-Seeking in Family Day Care: Access, Quality and Personal Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corr, L.; Davis, E.; Cook, K.; Mackinnon, A.; Sims, M.; Herrman, H.

    2014-01-01

    Family day-care (FDC) educators work autonomously to provide care and education for children of mixed ages, backgrounds and abilities. To meet the demands and opportunities of their work and regulatory requirements, educators need access to context-relevant and high quality information. No previous research has examined how and where these workers…

  16. A Correlational Analysis: Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Quality of Care in Critical Access Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Arshia A.

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the compulsion to improve the evident paucity in quality of care, especially in critical access hospitals in the United States, policy makers, healthcare providers, and administrators have taken the advise of researchers suggesting the integration of technology in healthcare. The Electronic Health Record (EHR) System composed of multiple…

  17. Improving Access to Needed Health Care Improves Low-Income Children's Quality of Life: Research Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seid, Michael. Varni, James W.; Cummings, Leslie; Schonlau, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    This research brief describes an examination of the effect of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) on children's access to needed health services and on their quality of life. The analysis focused on a sample of California families who had recently enrolled in that state's SCHIP. The study found that, after enrollment, children…

  18. Ensuring Access with Quality to California's Community Colleges. National Center Report #04-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Gerald C.; Jones, Dennis P.; McGuinness, Aims C., Jr.; Timar, Allene

    2004-01-01

    This report finds that enrollment growth pressures, fee increases, and recent budget cuts in the California Community Colleges are having significant detrimental effects on student access and program quality. The report also provides recommendations for creating improvements that build from the state policy context and from existing promising…

  19. The Role of Boards in College Access Programs: Creating and Maintaining Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis, University of Southern California, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Access programs are facing increased scrutiny. Not all programs are equally effective. In an environment in which resources are short, funders increasingly require criteria that enable them to make informed decisions about program quality. As elaborated in this report , one role of a high performance board is to help develop benchmarks of…

  20. Access, Participation, and Supports: The Defining Features of High-Quality Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buysse, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes current knowledge about early childhood inclusion, summarizing research and the DEC/NAEYC joint position statement on inclusion. The article also describes effective or promising educational practices that promote access, participation, and supports--the defining features of high-quality inclusion. Future efforts to improve…

  1. DELIVERING TIMELY WATER QUALITY INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY. THE LAKE ACCESS-MINNEAPOLIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a summary of the near-real-time water quality-monitoring project conducted by a consortium of interested parties in the greater Minneapolis area. It was funded by an EPA program known as EMPACT (Environmental Monitoring, Public Access, and Community Tracking). In 1...

  2. Girls' Access to Education in China: Actors, Cultures and the Windmill of Development Management. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaojun Grace

    2010-01-01

    The world has a mixed record towards achieving EFA [Education for All] and the MDGs [Millennium Development Goals] in relation to the targets on gender equity in basic education. For researchers and practitioners, this raises the question of which factors influence the processes leading to the improvement of access and quality of girls' education…

  3. Complex Instruction: Equity in Cooperative Learning Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elizabeth G.; Lotan, Rachel A.; Scarloss, Beth A.; Arellano, Adele R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses two dimensions of equity within small-group learning--access and equitable relations--describing complex instruction (CI) as an approach that lets educators address these issues. CI teachers use cooperative learning to teach at high academic levels in diverse classrooms. The paper describes CI in action, achievement results in CI…

  4. Trends in Educational Equity of Girls & Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Yupin; Choy, Susan; Geddes, Claire; Sable, Jennifer; Snyder, Thomas

    This statistical report responds to a request by Congress for a report on educational equity for girls and women. The report assembles a series of indicators that examine the extent to which males and females have access to the same educational opportunities, avail themselves of these opportunities, perform at the same level, succeed at the same…

  5. How the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement could undermine PHARMAC and threaten access to affordable medicines and health equity in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Deborah; Lopert, Ruth; Reid, Papaarangi

    2013-10-01

    New Zealand's Pharmaceutical Management Agency (PHARMAC) has been highly successful in facilitating affordable access to medicines through a combination of aggressive price negotiations, innovative procurement mechanisms, and careful evaluation of value for money. Recently the US government, through the establishment of a series of bilateral and plurilateral "free" trade agreements, has attempted to constrain the pharmaceutical access programs of other countries in order to promote the interests of the pharmaceutical industry. The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) represents the latest example; through the TPPA the US is seeking to eliminate therapeutic reference pricing, introduce appeals processes for pharmaceutical companies to challenge formulary listing and pricing decisions, and introduce onerous disclosure and "transparency" provisions that facilitate industry involvement in decision-making around coverage and pricing of medicines (and medical devices). This paper argues that the US agenda, if successfully prosecuted, would be likely to increase costs and reduce access to affordable medicines for New Zealanders. This would in turn be likely to exacerbate known inequities in access to medicines and thus disproportionately affect disadvantaged population groups, including Māori and Pacific peoples. PMID:23992756

  6. Equality or Equity, Player or Guardian? The Dutch Government and Its Role in Providing Access Opportunities for Government Sponsored International Secondary Education, 1979-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickarts, Boris

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the Dutch government's International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme (DP) Pilot, allowing Dutch pre-university students to take part in the IB DP. Is it likely to create "equal", or rather "equitable", access opportunities for government-sponsored Dutch international secondary schools? The article advances the position…

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities in the access to and quality of health care services

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Thumé, Elaine; Tomasi, Elaine; Duro, Suele Manjourany Silva; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the inequalities in access, utilization, and quality of health care services according to the socioeconomic status. METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study evaluated 2,927 individuals aged ≥ 20 years living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and the following outcomes were evaluated: lack of access to health services, utilization of services, waiting period (in days) for assistance, and waiting time (in hours) in lines. We used Poisson regression for the crude and adjusted analyses. RESULTS The lack of access to health services was reported by 6.5% of the individuals who sought health care. The prevalence of use of health care services in the 30 days prior to the interview was 29.3%. Of these, 26.4% waited five days or more to receive care and 32.1% waited at least an hour in lines. Approximately 50.0% of the health care services were funded through the Unified Health System. The use of health care services was similar across socioeconomic groups. The lack of access to health care services and waiting time in lines were higher among individuals of lower economic status, even after adjusting for health care needs. The waiting period to receive care was higher among those with higher socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS Although no differences were observed in the use of health care services across socioeconomic groups, inequalities were evident in the access to and quality of these services. PMID:26039400

  8. Environmental equity and the role of public policy: experiences in the Rijnmond region.

    PubMed

    Kruize, Hanneke; Driessen, Peter P J; Glasbergen, Pieter; van Egmond, Klaas N D

    2007-10-01

    This study of environmental equity uses secondary quantitative data to analyze socioeconomic disparities in environmental conditions in the Rijnmond region of the Netherlands. The disparities of selected environmental indicators--exposure to traffic noise (road, rail, and air), NO(2), external safety risks, and the availability of public green space--are analyzed both separately and in combination. Not only exposures to environmental burdens ("bads") were investigated, but also access to environmental benefits ("goods"). Additionally, we held interviews and reviewed documents to grasp the mechanisms underlying the environmental equity situation, with an emphasis on the role of public policy. Environmental equity is not a priority in public policy for the greater Rotterdam region known as the Rijnmond region, yet environmental standards have been established to provide a minimum environmental quality to all local residents. In general, environmental quality has improved in this region, and the accumulation of negative environmental outcomes ("bads") has been limited. However, environmental standards for road traffic noise and NO(2) are being exceeded, probably because of the pressure on space and the traffic intensity. We found an association of environmental "bads" with income for rail traffic noise and availability of public green space. In the absence of regulation, positive environmental outcomes ("goods") are mainly left up to market forces. Consequently, higher-income groups generally have more access to environmental "goods" than lower-income groups.

  9. Environmental Equity and the Role of Public Policy: Experiences in the Rijnmond Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruize, Hanneke; Driessen, Peter P. J.; Glasbergen, Pieter; van Egmond, Klaas (N. D.)

    2007-10-01

    This Φ Ψ study of environmental equity uses secondary quantitative data to analyze socioeconomic disparities in environmental conditions in the Rijnmond region of the Netherlands. The disparities of selected environmental indicators—exposure to traffic noise (road, rail, and air), NO2, external safety risks, and the availability of public green space—are analyzed both separately and in combination. Not only exposures to environmental burdens (“bads”) were investigated, but also access to environmental benefits (“goods”). Additionally, we held interviews and reviewed documents to grasp the mechanisms underlying the environmental equity situation, with an emphasis on the role of public policy. Environmental equity is not a priority in public policy for the greater Rotterdam region known as the Rijnmond region, yet environmental standards have been established to provide a minimum environmental quality to all local residents. In general, environmental quality has improved in this region, and the accumulation of negative environmental outcomes (“bads”) has been limited. However, environmental standards for road traffic noise and NO2 are being exceeded, probably because of the pressure on space and the traffic intensity. We found an association of environmental “bads” with income for rail traffic noise and availability of public green space. In the absence of regulation, positive environmental outcomes (“goods”) are mainly left up to market forces. Consequently, higher-income groups generally have more access to environmental “goods” than lower-income groups.

  10. The Equity of Public Education Funding in Georgia, 1988-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Ross; Doering, Dwight; Gess, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Employs school funding formulas enacted under Georgia's Quality Basic Education Act to explore changes in interdistrict equity over time. Regarding overall distribution of per-pupil resources across districts (horizontal equity) and for special- needs students (vertical equity), dispersion measures approach Odden and Picus' suggested equity…

  11. Strategic purchasing reform in Estonia: Reducing inequalities in access while improving care concentration and quality.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Triin; Habicht, Jarno; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2015-08-01

    As of 2014, the Estonian Health Insurance Fund has adopted new purchasing procedures and criteria, which it now has started to implement in specialist care. Main changes include (1) redefined access criteria based on population need rather than historical supply, which aim to achieve more equal access of providers and specialties; (2) stricter definition and use of optimal workload criteria to increase the concentration of specialist care (3) better consideration of patient movement; and (4) an increased emphasis on quality to foster quality improvement. The new criteria were first used in the contract cycle that started in 2014 and resulted in fewer contracted providers for a similar volume of care compared to the previous contract cycle. This implies that provision of specialized care has become concentrated at fewer providers. It is too early to draw firm conclusions on the impact on care quality or on actors, but the process has sparked debate on the role of selective contracting and the role of public and private providers in Estonian health care. Lastly, the Estonian experience may hold important lessons for other countries looking to overcome inequalities in access while concentrating care and improving care quality.

  12. Strategic purchasing reform in Estonia: Reducing inequalities in access while improving care concentration and quality.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Triin; Habicht, Jarno; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2015-08-01

    As of 2014, the Estonian Health Insurance Fund has adopted new purchasing procedures and criteria, which it now has started to implement in specialist care. Main changes include (1) redefined access criteria based on population need rather than historical supply, which aim to achieve more equal access of providers and specialties; (2) stricter definition and use of optimal workload criteria to increase the concentration of specialist care (3) better consideration of patient movement; and (4) an increased emphasis on quality to foster quality improvement. The new criteria were first used in the contract cycle that started in 2014 and resulted in fewer contracted providers for a similar volume of care compared to the previous contract cycle. This implies that provision of specialized care has become concentrated at fewer providers. It is too early to draw firm conclusions on the impact on care quality or on actors, but the process has sparked debate on the role of selective contracting and the role of public and private providers in Estonian health care. Lastly, the Estonian experience may hold important lessons for other countries looking to overcome inequalities in access while concentrating care and improving care quality. PMID:26149322

  13. From Access to Success: An Integrated Approach to Quality Higher Education Informed by Social Inclusion Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidley, Jennifer M.; Hampson, Gary P.; Wheeler, Leone; Bereded-Samuel, Elleni

    2010-01-01

    Equitable access, success and quality in higher education are examined from a variety of ideological perspectives. "Quality" is positioned as a complex generic concept while "access" and "success" are identified as key concepts in the social inclusion domain, supplemented by the concept of "participation." The topic is approached through an…

  14. The Quality and Accessibility of Primary School Music Education: Provision, Perceptions and Hopes in Six Non-Metropolitan Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardcastle, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The National Review of School Music Education has systematically documented the variations in quality and accessibility of school music education in Australia. Rural and remote schools were found to be particularly vulnerable to relatively poorer quality and accessibility. These findings were not new; they echoed similar observations made by…

  15. Access to Knowledge: The Continuing Agenda for Our Nation's Schools. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlad, John I., Ed.; Keating, Pamela, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays by education researchers and practitioners about issues of educational equity and excellence. The authors examine the problem of failure in schools and describe the various curricular and structural factors that block access to an equal and quality education for all students. Chapters are entitled: (1)…

  16. Melding Excellence and Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David A.

    1983-01-01

    This document examines the issues of educational excellence and equity. The Milwaukee Public School System, Wisconsin, is cited as an example of a desegregation program that both exceeded court requirements of equity and also made a substantial contribution to the goals of excellence in education. The school effectiveness movement, like…

  17. Gender Equity. IDRA Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles on issues of gender equity for Chicanas and other women. "Recognizing Chicana Contributions: Cultural History & Gender Equity on the Line" (Mikki Symonds) discusses the invisibility of Mexican Americans in general and of Chicanas in particular in U.S. history books, school curricula, and pop culture, and…

  18. Men, Women, and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Rhona; Rapoport, Robert N.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of equity is proposed as having advantages over that of equality. By equity, we mean a fair allocation both of opportunity and of constraints. It is put forward as a concept which goes beyond that of equality; it acknowledges differences between men and women and the need to think in terms of variations of patterns. Paper presented at…

  19. Comparing private sector family planning services to government and NGO services in Ethiopia and Pakistan: how do social franchises compare across quality, equity and cost?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nirali M; Wang, Wenjuan; Bishai, David M

    2011-01-01

    Policy makers in developing countries need to assess how public health programmes function across both public and private sectors. We propose an evaluation framework to assist in simultaneously tracking performance on efficiency, quality and access by the poor in family planning services. We apply this framework to field data from family planning programmes in Ethiopia and Pakistan, comparing (1) independent private sector providers; (2) social franchises of private providers; (3) non-government organization (NGO) providers; and (4) government providers on these three factors. Franchised private clinics have higher quality than non-franchised private clinics in both countries. In Pakistan, the costs per client and the proportion of poorest clients showed no differences between franchised and non-franchised private clinics, whereas in Ethiopia, franchised clinics had higher costs and fewer clients from the poorest quintile. Our results highlight that there are trade-offs between access, cost and quality of care that must be balanced as competing priorities. The relative programme performance of various service arrangements on each metric will be context specific. PMID:21729919

  20. Comparing private sector family planning services to government and NGO services in Ethiopia and Pakistan: how do social franchises compare across quality, equity and cost?

    PubMed

    Shah, Nirali M; Wang, Wenjuan; Bishai, David M

    2011-07-01

    Policy makers in developing countries need to assess how public health programmes function across both public and private sectors. We propose an evaluation framework to assist in simultaneously tracking performance on efficiency, quality and access by the poor in family planning services. We apply this framework to field data from family planning programmes in Ethiopia and Pakistan, comparing (1) independent private sector providers; (2) social franchises of private providers; (3) non-government organization (NGO) providers; and (4) government providers on these three factors. Franchised private clinics have higher quality than non-franchised private clinics in both countries. In Pakistan, the costs per client and the proportion of poorest clients showed no differences between franchised and non-franchised private clinics, whereas in Ethiopia, franchised clinics had higher costs and fewer clients from the poorest quintile. Our results highlight that there are trade-offs between access, cost and quality of care that must be balanced as competing priorities. The relative programme performance of various service arrangements on each metric will be context specific.

  1. Parents' experience of support in Sweden: its availability, accessibility, and quality.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Herawati I; Broberg, Malin; Starke, Mikaela

    2013-06-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six parents of children with intellectual disabilities, in the Western region of Sweden. The aim of the study was to explore and to gain a deeper understanding of parents' experiences of received support for them and their children with intellectual disabilities. We focused particularly on their experiences of the availability, accessibility, and the quality of services. Parents in this study were unsure about what the diagnosis meant specifically for their child as well as for their whole family. Moreover, the parents experienced great difficulty in obtaining information about available services, which resulted in feelings of helplessness to some. Parents also reported that although services are available, they were not easily accessible. Lastly, parents felt that the quality of care and support were to some extent inadequate, as no attention was paid by professionals to their actual needs or wishes. PMID:23644952

  2. Traditional and emerging forms of dental practice. Cost, accessibility, and quality factors.

    PubMed Central

    Rovin, S; Nash, J

    1982-01-01

    The traditional and predominant manner of delivering dental care is through a fee-for-service, private practice system. A number of alternative dental care delivery systems have emerged and are being tested, and others are just emerging. These systems include department store practices, hospital dental services, health maintenance organizations, the independent practice of dental hygiene, and denturism. Although it is too soon to draw final conclusions about the efficacy and effectiveness of these systems, we examine them for their potential to compete with and change the way dental care is currently delivered. Using the parameters of cost, accessibility, and quality, we compare these systems to traditional dental practice. Some of these emerging forms clearly have the potential to complete favorably with traditional practice. Other seem less likely to alter the existing system substantially. The system which can best control costs, increase accessibility, and enhance quality will gain the competitive edge. PMID:7091453

  3. Effects of physician joint ventures on health care costs, access, and quality: exploring some issues.

    PubMed

    Ahern, M; Scott, E

    1992-01-01

    Increasingly, physicians are joint-venturing with health care businesses such as physical therapy centers, diagnostic imaging centers, ambulatory surgical centers, and other services. Simultaneously, outpatient costs have been rising. Theoretical and empirical evidence, including results of an exploratory survey of experts, indicate that these two events are linked. Specifically, joint ventures between referring physicians and health care businesses often appear to increase costs, increase utilization, reduce quality of care, and reduce access.

  4. Medical pluralism: global perspectives on equity issues.

    PubMed

    Marian, Florica

    2007-12-01

    Over the last decades, awareness has increased about the phenomenon of medical pluralism and the importance to integrate biomedicine and other forms of health care. The broad variety of healing cultures existing alongside biomedicine is called complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) in industrialized countries and traditional medicine (TM) in developing countries. Considerable debate has arisen about ethical problems related to the growing use of CAM in industrialized countries. This article focuses on equity issues and aims to consider them from a global perspective of medical pluralism. Several dimensions of equity are explored and their interrelatedness discussed: access to care, research (paradigm and founding) and recognition. This so-called 'equity circle' is then related to Iris Marion Young's justice theory and particularly to the concepts of cultural imperialism, powerlessness and marginalisation.

  5. Quality of Early Childhood Development Programs in Global Contexts: Rationale for Investment, Conceptual Framework and Implications for Equity. Social Policy Report. Volume 25, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Boller, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Across nations, Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs are of great interest to policymakers, service providers, and families. ECD programs are cross-cutting, often involving the health, education, child welfare, and other sectors, and their emphases shift over the early childhood years. In this paper, the authors propose equity as the…

  6. The Genome Sequence DataBase (GSDB): improving data quality and data access.

    PubMed Central

    Harger, C; Skupski, M; Bingham, J; Farmer, A; Hoisie, S; Hraber, P; Kiphart, D; Krakowski, L; McLeod, M; Schwertfeger, J; Seluja, G; Siepel, A; Singh, G; Stamper, D; Steadman, P; Thayer, N; Thompson, R; Wargo, P; Waugh, M; Zhuang, J J; Schad, P A

    1998-01-01

    In 1997 the primary focus of the Genome Sequence DataBase (GSDB; www. ncgr.org/gsdb ) located at the National Center for Genome Resources was to improve data quality and accessibility. Efforts to increase the quality of data within the database included two major projects; one to identify and remove all vector contamination from sequences in the database and one to create premier sequence sets (including both alignments and discontiguous sequences). Data accessibility was improved during the course of the last year in several ways. First, a graphical database sequence viewer was made available to researchers. Second, an update process was implemented for the web-based query tool, Maestro. Third, a web-based tool, Excerpt, was developed to retrieve selected regions of any sequence in the database. And lastly, a GSDB flatfile that contains annotation unique to GSDB (e.g., sequence analysis and alignment data) was developed. Additionally, the GSDB web site provides a tool for the detection of matrix attachment regions (MARs), which can be used to identify regions of high coding potential. The ultimate goal of this work is to make GSDB a more useful resource for genomic comparison studies and gene level studies by improving data quality and by providing data access capabilities that are consistent with the needs of both types of studies. PMID:9399793

  7. Equity and Excellence: Compatible Goals. An Assessment of Programs That Facilitate Increased Access and Achievement of Females and Minorities in K-12 Mathematics and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Shirley M; And Others

    Precollege programs for alleviating the severe underrepresentation of American Indians, Blacks, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, the disabled, and/or women in scientific and engineering professions are evaluated in this document. Both the quantity and quality of programs are assessed, and criteria for exemplary programs articulated. The results…

  8. A Forward Glance in a Mirror: Diversity Challenged--Access, Equity, and Success in Higher Education. 2005 DeWitt Wallace-"Reader's Digest" Distinguished Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter R.

    2005-01-01

    Affirmative action addresses disparities in higher education. Recent trends threaten gains, resegregation is underway nationally. California outlawed affirmative action, the quality of K-12 education is declining, and prison construction is soaring. African American and Latino participation in higher education has declined; both groups are…

  9. Improving application of data quality information in accessing and using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, E. M.; Huang, T.; Xing, Z.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Chin, T. M.; Alarcon, C.

    2014-12-01

    A recurring demand in working with satellite-based earth science data records is the need to apply data quality information. Such quality information is often contained within the data files as an array of "flags", but can also be represented by more complex quality descriptions such as combinations of bit flags, or even other ancillary variables indicating thresholds to be applied to the geophysical variable of interest. For example, with Level 2 granules from the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) project up to 6 independent variables can be used to screen the sea surface temperature measurements on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Quality screening of Level 3 data from the upcoming Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) instrument can be become even more complex, involving 26 unique bit states or conditions a user can screen for. The application of quality information is often a laborious process until the user understands the implications of all the flags and bit conditions, and requires iterative approaches using custom software. In addition, most visualization packages do not understand how to apply quality information. The Virtual Quality Screening Service, a recently funded 2013 NASA ACCESS project, aims to address these issues and concerns. The project will develop an infrastructure to expose, apply, and extract quality screening information, building off known and proven NASA components for data extraction and subset-by-value, implementations of Map Reduce workflows, data discovery, ontologies and exposure to the user of granule-based quality information. Further sharing of results through well defined URLs and visualization capabilities will also be described. The presentation will focus on overall description of the technologies and informatics principals employed by the project, and recent results and infrastructure status. Examples of implementations of the end-to-end web service for quality screening with GHRSST and SMAP granules will be

  10. Information Communication Technology for Educational Quality: Challenges, Prospects in Ethiopian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Dureti; Tasisa, Wakgari; Panigraphi, Manas Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    The major purpose of this project was to assess and review the principal role of ICT in supplementing the General Quality Improvement program (GEQIP) in Western Harerghe, Ethiopia. The project also further analyzed the contribution of Information Communication Technology (ICT) to the indicators of GEQIP like quality, equity, access and internal…

  11. [Accession to the PIC/S and pharmaceutical quality system in Japan].

    PubMed

    Katori, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    In March, 2012, Japan made the application for membership of the Pharmaceutical Inspection convention and Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation scheme (PIC/S) which is an international body of a GMP inspection. The globalization of pharmaceutical manufacturing and sales has been a driving force behind the decision to become a PIC/S member. For the application for membership, Japan's GMP inspectorate needs to fulfill PIC/S requirements, for example, the inspection organization has to have a quality system as a global standard. One of the other requirements is that the GMP inspectorate can access Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCL) having high analytical skills and also have a quality system based on ISO 17025. I would like to describe the process to make up a quality system in the National Institute of Health Sciences and also the circumstances around the PIC/S application in Japan.

  12. [Accession to the PIC/S and pharmaceutical quality system in Japan].

    PubMed

    Katori, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    In March, 2012, Japan made the application for membership of the Pharmaceutical Inspection convention and Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation scheme (PIC/S) which is an international body of a GMP inspection. The globalization of pharmaceutical manufacturing and sales has been a driving force behind the decision to become a PIC/S member. For the application for membership, Japan's GMP inspectorate needs to fulfill PIC/S requirements, for example, the inspection organization has to have a quality system as a global standard. One of the other requirements is that the GMP inspectorate can access Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCL) having high analytical skills and also have a quality system based on ISO 17025. I would like to describe the process to make up a quality system in the National Institute of Health Sciences and also the circumstances around the PIC/S application in Japan. PMID:25707200

  13. Quality of Recovery Evaluation of the Protection Schemes for Fiber-Wireless Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Minglei; Chai, Zhicheng; Le, Zichun

    2016-03-01

    With the rapid development of fiber-wireless (FiWi) access network, the protection schemes have got more and more attention due to the risk of huge data loss when failures occur. However, there are few studies on the performance evaluation of the FiWi protection schemes by the unified evaluation criterion. In this paper, quality of recovery (QoR) method was adopted to evaluate the performance of three typical protection schemes (MPMC scheme, OBOF scheme and RPMF scheme) against the segment-level failure in FiWi access network. The QoR models of the three schemes were derived in terms of availability, quality of backup path, recovery time and redundancy. To compare the performance of the three protection schemes comprehensively, five different classes of network services such as emergency service, prioritized elastic service, conversational service, etc. were utilized by means of assigning different QoR weights. Simulation results showed that, for the most service cases, RPMF scheme was proved to be the best solution to enhance the survivability when planning the FiWi access network.

  14. Are migrants health policies aimed at improving access to quality healthcare? An analysis of Spanish policies.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, María Luisa; Terraza-Núñez, Rebeca; S-Hernández, Silvia; Vargas, Ingrid; Bosch, Lola; González, Andrea; Pequeño, Sandra; Cantos, Raquel; Martínez, Juan Ignacio; López, Luís Andrés

    2013-12-01

    Although until April 2012, all Spanish citizens regardless of their origin, residence status and work situation were entitled to health care, available evidence suggested inadequate access for immigrants. Following the Aday and Andersen model, we conducted an analysis of policy elements that affect immigrants' access to health care in Spain, based on documentary analysis of national policies and selected regional policies related to migrant health care. Selected documents were (a) laws and plans in force at the time containing migrant health policies and (b) evaluations. The analysis included policy principles, objectives, strategies and evaluations. Results show that the national and regional policies analyzed are based on the principle that health care is a right granted to immigrants by law. These policies include strategies to facilitate access to health care, reducing barriers for entry to the system, for example simplifying requirements and raising awareness, but mostly they address the necessary qualities for services to be able to attend to a more diverse population, such as the adaptation of resources and programs, or improved communication and training. However, limited planning was identified in terms of their implementation, necessary resources and evaluation. In conclusion, the policies address relevant barriers of access for migrants and signal improvements in the health system's responsiveness, but reinforcement is required in order for them to be effectively implemented. PMID:23850165

  15. Accessibility: global gateway to health literacy.

    PubMed

    Perlow, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Health literacy, cited as essential to achieving Healthy People 2010's goals to "increase quality and years of healthy life" and to "eliminate health disparities," is defined by Healthy People as "the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions." Accessibility, by definition, the aforementioned "capacity to obtain," thus is health literacy's primary prerequisite. Accessibility's designation as the global gateway to health literacy is predicated also on life's realities: global aging and climate change, war and terrorism, and life-extending medical and technological advances. People with diverse access needs are health professionals' raison d'être. However, accessibility, consummately cross-cultural and universal, is virtually absent as a topic of health promotion and practice research and scholarly discussion of health literacy and equity. A call to action to place accessibility in its rightful premier position on the profession's agenda is issued.

  16. Achieving sustainability, quality and access: lessons from the world's largest revolving drug fund in Khartoum.

    PubMed

    Witter, S

    2007-01-01

    Ensuring a reliable and affordable supply of essential drugs to health facilities is one of the main challenges facing developing countries. This paper describes the revolving drug fund in Khartoum, which was set up in 1989 to improve access to high quality drugs across the State. An evaluation in 2004 showed that the fund has successfully managed a number of threats to its financial sustainability and has expanded its network of facilities, its range of products and its financial assets. It now supplies essential drugs to 3 million out of the 5 million population of Khartoum each year, at prices between 40% and 100% less than alternative sources. However, results illustrated the tension between achieving an efficient cost-recovery system and access for the poorest.

  17. What does equity in health mean?

    PubMed

    Mooney, G

    1987-01-01

    The author posits some ethical concerns and theories of distribution in order to gain some insight into the meaning of equity in health, as referred to in WHO documents. It is pointed out that the lack of clarity in the WHO positions is evidenced by examining 1) the European strategy document, which focuses on giving equal health to all and equity access to health care, and 2) the Global Strategy for Health, which talks about reducing inequality and health as a human right. The question raised in document 1 is whether more equal sharing of health might mean less health for the available quantity of resources. The question raised in document 2 is whether there is a right to health per se. The question is how does one measure health policy effects. Health effects are different for an 8-year-old girl and an octogenarian. How does one measure the fairness of access to health care in remote mountain villages versus an urban area? Is equal utilization which is more easily measured comparable to equal need as a measure? How does one distribute doctors equitably? The author espouses the determinant of health as Aday's illness and health promotion, which is not biased by class and controversy. The Aday definition embraces both demand and need, although his definition is still open to question. Concepts of health with distinction between need and demand are made. Theories of Veatch which relate to distributive justice and equity in health care are provided as entitlement theory (market forces determine allocation of resources), utilitarianism (greatest good for the greatest number regardless of redistribution issues), maximum theory (maximize the minimum position or giver priority to the least well off), and equality (fairness in distribution). Different organizational and financing structures will influence the approach to equity. The conclusion is that equity is a value laden concept which has no uniquely correct definition. 5 theories of equity in distribution of health

  18. What does equity in health mean?

    PubMed

    Mooney, G

    1987-01-01

    The author posits some ethical concerns and theories of distribution in order to gain some insight into the meaning of equity in health, as referred to in WHO documents. It is pointed out that the lack of clarity in the WHO positions is evidenced by examining 1) the European strategy document, which focuses on giving equal health to all and equity access to health care, and 2) the Global Strategy for Health, which talks about reducing inequality and health as a human right. The question raised in document 1 is whether more equal sharing of health might mean less health for the available quantity of resources. The question raised in document 2 is whether there is a right to health per se. The question is how does one measure health policy effects. Health effects are different for an 8-year-old girl and an octogenarian. How does one measure the fairness of access to health care in remote mountain villages versus an urban area? Is equal utilization which is more easily measured comparable to equal need as a measure? How does one distribute doctors equitably? The author espouses the determinant of health as Aday's illness and health promotion, which is not biased by class and controversy. The Aday definition embraces both demand and need, although his definition is still open to question. Concepts of health with distinction between need and demand are made. Theories of Veatch which relate to distributive justice and equity in health care are provided as entitlement theory (market forces determine allocation of resources), utilitarianism (greatest good for the greatest number regardless of redistribution issues), maximum theory (maximize the minimum position or giver priority to the least well off), and equality (fairness in distribution). Different organizational and financing structures will influence the approach to equity. The conclusion is that equity is a value laden concept which has no uniquely correct definition. 5 theories of equity in distribution of health

  19. Higher Educational Cost-Sharing, Dual-Track Tuition Fees, and Higher Educational Access: The East African Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcucci, Pamela; Johnstone, D. Bruce; Ngolovoi, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Three universal demands characterize higher education globally: the demand for higher quality, for increased access, and for greater equity. In East Africa, where resources are highly constrained, no nation has been able to meet these demands on the basis of public expenditures alone. Instead countries have had to increase resources from nonpublic…

  20. Air Quality uFIND: User-oriented Tool Set for Air Quality Data Discovery and Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoijarvi, K.; Robinson, E. M.; Husar, R. B.; Falke, S. R.; Schultz, M. G.; Keating, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    Historically, there have been major impediments to seamless and effective data usage encountered by both data providers and users. Over the last five years, the international Air Quality (AQ) Community has worked through forums such as the Group on Earth Observations AQ Community of Practice, the ESIP AQ Working Group, and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution to converge on data format standards (e.g., netCDF), data access standards (e.g., Open Geospatial Consortium Web Coverage Services), metadata standards (e.g., ISO 19115), as well as other conventions (e.g., CF Naming Convention) in order to build an Air Quality Data Network. The centerpiece of the AQ Data Network is the web service-based tool set: user-oriented Filtering and Identification of Networked Data. The purpose of uFIND is to provide rich and powerful facilities for the user to: a) discover and choose a desired dataset by navigation through the multi-dimensional metadata space using faceted search, b) seamlessly access and browse datasets, and c) use uFINDs facilities as a web service for mashups with other AQ applications and portals. In a user-centric information system such as uFIND, the user experience is improved by metadata that includes the general fields for discovery as well as community-specific metadata to narrow the search beyond space, time and generic keyword searches. However, even with the community-specific additions, the ISO 19115 records were formed in compliance with the standard, so that other standards-based search interface could leverage this additional information. To identify the fields necessary for metadata discovery we started with the ISO 19115 Core Metadata fields and fields that were needed for a Catalog Service for the Web (CSW) Record. This fulfilled two goals - one to create valid ISO 19115 records and the other to be able to retrieve the records through a Catalog Service for the Web query. Beyond the required set of fields, the AQ Community added

  1. Access to and quality of health and social care for rare diseases: patients' and caregivers' experiences.

    PubMed

    Kodra, Y; Morosini, P R; Petrigliano, R; Agazio, E; Salerno, P; Taruscio, D

    2007-01-01

    People suffering from rare diseases, independently of the condition, often experience the same problems in receiving adequate health and social care. It is not clear how these problems differ in severity among different diseases and in different countries and how they change in time. In the framework of the NEPHIRD (Network of Public Health Institutions on Rare Diseases), a European project, funded by DG-SANCO (EU Commission), an effort was made to develop a simple but comprehensive tool to show patients' and/or caregivers' opinions about the quality and accessibility of health and social services. The self-filled questionnaire asks how often patients or caregivers had both negative and positive experiences about the quality and accessibility of health and social services and their opinion on their improvement, on 5-level scales. A pilot survey was carried out in several European Countries among members of Myasthenia Gravis, Neurofibromatosis, Prader Willi and Rett Syndrome volunteers' associations. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed using Stata and Epi Info 2000. In total, 302 questionnaires were completed in France, Italy, Romania, Spain, Turkey and United Kingdom during 2004-05. In general, respondents thought that health care accessibility was worse than quality, and that social care and legal provisions were worse than health care, with some differences among countries. For all diseases, and for both patients and caregivers, the most frequent reported positive experiences were health professionals' kindness and readiness to help (all medians ranged from 3 to 5). As for the efforts for improvement made by public services in the last three years, the opinions were generally favourable. This study has several limitations. However the assessment tool that has been developed has some innovative and interesting features and may be considered a useful attempt to compare patients' and caregivers' experiences for a range of different diseases

  2. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended. PMID:25307764

  3. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  4. 42 CFR 457.495 - State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... appropriateness of care provided under the plan, including how the State will assure: (a) Access to well-baby care... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care. 457.495 Section 457.495 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  5. 42 CFR 457.495 - State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... appropriateness of care provided under the plan, including how the State will assure: (a) Access to well-baby care... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care. 457.495 Section 457.495 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  6. 42 CFR 457.495 - State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... appropriateness of care provided under the plan, including how the State will assure: (a) Access to well-baby care... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care. 457.495 Section 457.495 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  7. 42 CFR 457.495 - State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... appropriateness of care provided under the plan, including how the State will assure: (a) Access to well-baby care... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care. 457.495 Section 457.495 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  8. 42 CFR 457.495 - State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriateness of care provided under the plan, including how the State will assure: (a) Access to well-baby care... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care. 457.495 Section 457.495 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  9. Image size invariant visual cryptography for general access structures subject to display quality constraints.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kai-Hui; Chiu, Pei-Ling

    2013-10-01

    Conventional visual cryptography (VC) suffers from a pixel-expansion problem, or an uncontrollable display quality problem for recovered images, and lacks a general approach to construct visual secret sharing schemes for general access structures. We propose a general and systematic approach to address these issues without sophisticated codebook design. This approach can be used for binary secret images in non-computer-aided decryption environments. To avoid pixel expansion, we design a set of column vectors to encrypt secret pixels rather than using the conventional VC-based approach. We begin by formulating a mathematic model for the VC construction problem to find the column vectors for the optimal VC construction, after which we develop a simulated-annealing-based algorithm to solve the problem. The experimental results show that the display quality of the recovered image is superior to that of previous papers.

  10. [The law and equity in health].

    PubMed

    Bolis, Mónica

    2002-01-01

    What role does the law play in reducing inequalities in health that are unnecessary, avoidable, and unfair? The question is addressed in this paper, whose purpose is to examine how the legal system, as a regulatory agency of the State, contributes to achieving greater equity in access to and use of health-related goods and services. From the legal viewpoint, health is a public commodity that is critical to human well-being and survival. But in prioritizing health as a human right, the legal system is challenged with finding ways to make health equally accessible to all, while bearing in mind the particular needs of different groups. There are currently important gaps in health legislation in the Region that must be addressed if greater equity in health is to be achieved. Such gaps, along with potential ways to correct them, are discussed throughout the paper.

  11. [From library to clinical decision support systems: access of general practitioner to quality information].

    PubMed

    Fauquert, B

    2012-09-01

    Since 2003, the following tools have been implemented in Belgium for improving the access of general practioners to the EBM literature: the Digital Library for Health and the evidence-linker of the CEBAM, the portal EBMPracticeNet.be and the multidimensional electronic clinical decision support EBMeDS. The aim of this article is to show the progress achieved in the information dissemination toward the belgian general practioners, particularly the access from the electronic health record. From the literature published these last years, the opportunities cited by the users are for using EBM and the strong willingness for using these literature access in the future; the limits are the medical data coding, the irrelevance of the search results, the alerts fatigue induced by EBMeDS. The achievements done and planned for the new EBMPracticeNet guidelines portal and the EBMeDS system are explained in the aim of informing belgian healthcare professionals. These projects are claiming for lauching a participatory process in the production and dissemination of EBM information. The discussion is focused on the belgian healthcare system advantages, the solutions for a reasonable implementation of these projects and for increasing the place of an evidence-based information in the healthcare decision process. Finally the input of these projects to the continuing medical education and to the healthcare quality are discussed, in a context of multifactorial interaction healthcare design (complexity design).

  12. Access and Barriers to Immunization in West Bengal, India: Quality Matters

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arijita

    2013-01-01

    While many studies attempted to evaluate performance of immunization programmes in developing countries by full coverage, there is a growing awareness about the limitations of such evaluation, irrespective of the overall quality of performance. Availability of human resources, equipment, supporting drugs, and training of personnel are considered to be crucial indicators of the quality of immunization programme. Also, maintenance of time schedule has been considered crucial in the context of the quality of immunization. In addition to overall coverage of vaccination, the coverage of immunization given at right time (month-specific) is to be considered with utmost importance. In this paper, District Level Household and Facility Survey-3 (DLHS-3) 2007-2008 data have been used in exploring the quality of immunization in terms of month-specific vaccine coverage and barriers to access inWest Bengal, India. In West Bengal, the month-specific coverage stands badly below 20% but the simple non-month-specific coverage is as high as 75%. Among the demand-side factors, birthplace of the child and religion of the household heads came out as significant predictors while, from the supply-side, availability of male health workers and equipment at the subcentres, were the important determinants for month-specific vaccine coverage. Hence, there should be a vigorous attempt to make more focused planning, keeping in mind the nature of the barriers, for improvement of the month-specific coverage in West Bengal. PMID:24592593

  13. Technical requirements of spirometers in the strategy for guaranteeing the access to quality spirometry.

    PubMed

    Salas, Tomàs; Rubies, Carles; Gallego, Carlos; Muñoz, Pilar; Burgos, Felip; Escarrabill, Joan

    2011-09-01

    Access to quality spirometry is an essential objective in order to be able to minimize the underdiagnosis of respiratory diseases, especially in those that are most frequent, such as COPD and asthma. This objective can be reached in the short term, but it requires the simultaneous integration of different strategies: training of the health-care professionals who perform spirometry, definition of standards for the transmission of the information, technical requirements for acquiring apparatuses and the correct interpretation of the results. This present study shows the use of standards for the electronic exchange of clinical information. In order to normalize the treatment of the data related with spirometry and to enable the exchange of information, we have used the standard CDA R2 (Clinical Document Architecture, Release 2) of HL7 (Health Level Seven), version 3. HL7 is a product by HL7 International, a non-profit organization that deals in the production of standards in the health-care setting in order to facilitate interoperability. Furthermore, defining these standards is essential for ensuring that they are adopted by spirometer manufacturers. Be means of this process, the base is set for facilitating access to spirometry at the health-care level, while at the same time it is a fundamental technical element for designing quality control programs of the explorations.

  14. Technical requirements of spirometers in the strategy for guaranteeing the access to quality spirometry.

    PubMed

    Salas, Tomàs; Rubies, Carles; Gallego, Carlos; Muñoz, Pilar; Burgos, Felip; Escarrabill, Joan

    2011-09-01

    Access to quality spirometry is an essential objective in order to be able to minimize the underdiagnosis of respiratory diseases, especially in those that are most frequent, such as COPD and asthma. This objective can be reached in the short term, but it requires the simultaneous integration of different strategies: training of the health-care professionals who perform spirometry, definition of standards for the transmission of the information, technical requirements for acquiring apparatuses and the correct interpretation of the results. This present study shows the use of standards for the electronic exchange of clinical information. In order to normalize the treatment of the data related with spirometry and to enable the exchange of information, we have used the standard CDA R2 (Clinical Document Architecture, Release 2) of HL7 (Health Level Seven), version 3. HL7 is a product by HL7 International, a non-profit organization that deals in the production of standards in the health-care setting in order to facilitate interoperability. Furthermore, defining these standards is essential for ensuring that they are adopted by spirometer manufacturers. Be means of this process, the base is set for facilitating access to spirometry at the health-care level, while at the same time it is a fundamental technical element for designing quality control programs of the explorations. PMID:21821333

  15. The Impact of Medicaid Expansion on Oral Health Equity for Older Adults: A Systems Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Sara S.; Birenz, Shirley S.; Kunzel, Carol; Wang, Hua; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Marshall, Stephen E.; Northridge, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a collaborative, interdisciplinary systems science inquiry to explore implications of Medicaid expansion on achieving oral health equity for older adults. Through an iterative modeling process oriented toward the experiences of both patients and oral health care providers, complex feedback mechanisms for promoting oral health equity are articulated that acknowledge the potential for stigma as well as disparities in oral health care accessibility. Multiple factors mediate the impact of Medicaid expansion on oral health equity. PMID:26457047

  16. The Impact of Medicaid Expansion on Oral Health Equity for Older Adults: A Systems Perspective.

    PubMed

    Northridge, Mary E; Metcalf, Sara S; Birenz, Shirley S; Kunzel, Carol; Wang, Hua; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Marshall, Stephen E

    2015-07-01

    This paper uses a collaborative, interdisciplinary systems science inquiry to explore implications of Medicaid expansion on achieving oral health equity for older adults. Through an iterative modeling process oriented toward the experiences of both patients and oral health care providers, complex feedback mechanisms for promoting oral health equity are articulated that acknowledge the potential for stigma as well as disparities in oral health care accessibility. Multiple factors mediate the impact of Medicaid expansion on oral health equity. PMID:26457047

  17. The Impact of Medicaid Expansion on Oral Health Equity for Older Adults: A Systems Perspective.

    PubMed

    Northridge, Mary E; Metcalf, Sara S; Birenz, Shirley S; Kunzel, Carol; Wang, Hua; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Marshall, Stephen E

    2015-07-01

    This paper uses a collaborative, interdisciplinary systems science inquiry to explore implications of Medicaid expansion on achieving oral health equity for older adults. Through an iterative modeling process oriented toward the experiences of both patients and oral health care providers, complex feedback mechanisms for promoting oral health equity are articulated that acknowledge the potential for stigma as well as disparities in oral health care accessibility. Multiple factors mediate the impact of Medicaid expansion on oral health equity.

  18. Association of Initial Hemodialysis Vascular Access with Patient-Reported Health Status and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Wasse, Haimanot; Kutner, Nancy; Zhang, Rebecca; Huang, Yijian

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the recommended form of vascular access for patients with ESRD, its impact on patient perception of health status, quality of life (QOL), or satisfaction is unknown. Design, setting, participants, and measurements This study compared patient-reported health status and QOL scores and vascular access type among a national random sample of 1563 patients at dialysis initiation and day 60 of ESRD during 1996 to 1997. Patients were stratified into five categories: AVF at first dialysis and day 60 of ESRD, arteriovenous graft (AVG) at first dialysis and day 60, central venous catheter (CVC) at first dialysis and AVF at day 60, CVC at first dialysis and AVG at day 60, and CVC at first dialysis and day 60. Results Ten percent (n = 154) of patients had an AVF, 21% (n = 326) had an AVG, and 69% (n = 1083) had a CVC at dialysis initiation; those who were most likely to use an AVF were white and male. After statistical adjustment, patients with persistent AVF use reported greater physical activity and energy, better emotional and social well-being, fewer symptoms, less effect of dialysis and burden of kidney disease, and better sleep compared with patients with persistent CVC use, whereas measures such as cognitive and sexual function did not differ by access type. Conclusions Compared with persistent CVC use, early persistent AVF use is associated with the perception of improved health status and QOL among patients with ESRD. Future longitudinal studies may help to clarify further the association between QOL and vascular access. PMID:17699486

  19. Equity and extramarital sexuality.

    PubMed

    Walster, E; Traupmann, J; Walster, G W

    1978-03-01

    Equity theory has recently been found to be a useful framework for understanding the effects of imbalances in intimate "contractual" relationships such as marriage. Equitable couples seem to be happier, more satisfied with their relationship, and more confident that it will last than are their more mismatched, i.e., inequitable, counterparts. Furthermore, inequitable couples predictably act to "set things right" in their marriage. They either restore actual equity to the relationship or psychologically set their relationship in balance. If neither works, they may "leave the field." Extramarital sex may be viewed as an equity restoration mechanism in that (1) it may be used by the deprived partner to achieve actual equity, (2) it may indicate a partner's readiness to leave the relationship because he feels he can "do better," or (3) it may represent a desire to achieve equity in an alternative relationship(s) when inequity pervades the primary one. The hypothesis that the inequitable/underbenefited group should be more likely than the equitable group or the inequitable/overbenefited group to have engaged in extramarital sex was tested using data from a large-scale Psychology Today questionnaire. The results indicated that men and women in inequitable/underbenefited relationships had more extramarital affairs and began their extramarital activities earlier than did men and women in equitable and inequitable/overbenefited relationships. Alternative explanations of this finding, sex-role demands and length of the relationship, are explored and discarded as untenable.

  20. Individual Differences in Equity Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmans, Joeri

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we (1) study whether people differ in the equity models they use, and (2) test whether individual differences in equity models relate to individual differences in equity sensitivity. To achieve this goal, an Information Integration experiment was performed in which participants were given information on the performance of two…

  1. Gene Wiki Reviews-Raising the quality and accessibility of information about the human genome.

    PubMed

    Tsueng, Ginger; Good, Benjamin M; Ping, Peipei; Golemis, Erica; Hanukoglu, Israel; van Wijnen, Andre J; Su, Andrew I

    2016-11-01

    Wikipedia and other openly available resources are increasingly becoming commonly used sources of information not just among the lay public but even in academic circles including undergraduate students and postgraduate trainees. To enhance the quality of the Wikipedia articles, in 2013, we initiated the Gene Wiki Reviews on genes and proteins as a series of invited reviews that stipulated editing the corresponding Wikipedia article(s) that would be also subject to peer-review. Thus, while the review article serves as an authoritative snapshot of the field, the "living article" can continue to evolve with the crowdsourcing model of Wikipedia. After publication of over 50 articles, we surveyed the authors to assess the impact of the project. The author survey results revealed that the Gene Wiki project is achieving its major objectives to increase the involvement of scientists in authoring Wikipedia articles and to enhance the quantity and quality of the information about genes and their protein products. Thus, the dual publication model introduced in the Gene Wiki Reviews series represents a valuable innovation in scientific publishing and biomedical knowledge management. We invite experts on specific genes to contact the editors to take part in this project to enhance the quality and accessibility of information about the human genome. PMID:27150585

  2. Gene Wiki Reviews-Raising the quality and accessibility of information about the human genome.

    PubMed

    Tsueng, Ginger; Good, Benjamin M; Ping, Peipei; Golemis, Erica; Hanukoglu, Israel; van Wijnen, Andre J; Su, Andrew I

    2016-11-01

    Wikipedia and other openly available resources are increasingly becoming commonly used sources of information not just among the lay public but even in academic circles including undergraduate students and postgraduate trainees. To enhance the quality of the Wikipedia articles, in 2013, we initiated the Gene Wiki Reviews on genes and proteins as a series of invited reviews that stipulated editing the corresponding Wikipedia article(s) that would be also subject to peer-review. Thus, while the review article serves as an authoritative snapshot of the field, the "living article" can continue to evolve with the crowdsourcing model of Wikipedia. After publication of over 50 articles, we surveyed the authors to assess the impact of the project. The author survey results revealed that the Gene Wiki project is achieving its major objectives to increase the involvement of scientists in authoring Wikipedia articles and to enhance the quantity and quality of the information about genes and their protein products. Thus, the dual publication model introduced in the Gene Wiki Reviews series represents a valuable innovation in scientific publishing and biomedical knowledge management. We invite experts on specific genes to contact the editors to take part in this project to enhance the quality and accessibility of information about the human genome.

  3. Equity, by what measure?

    PubMed

    Houston, Shane

    2006-12-01

    Equity has in many instances been framed around the notion of fairness. But the metric used to determine what is fair leaves some people at a disadvantage because the things that they value are not always taken properly into account. If I value mangoes and you value oranges is a measure of fairness based on how many oranges I seek appropriate? If I am expected to give up my love of mangoes in order to get ahead is that fair? The debate about judging equity - about measuring fairness - needs to find the conceptual and methodological space to allow the voices and claims of the other to be heard. PMID:17176236

  4. Toward Achieving Health Equity: Emerging Evidence and Program Practice.

    PubMed

    Dicent Taillepierre, Julio C; Liburd, Leandris; OʼConnor, Ann; Valentine, Jo; Bouye, Karen; McCree, Donna Hubbard; Chapel, Thomas; Hahn, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Health equity, in the context of public health in the United States, can be characterized as action to ensure all population groups living within a targeted jurisdiction have access to the resources that promote and protect health. There appear to be several elements in program design that enhance health equity. These design elements include consideration of sociodemographic characteristics, understanding the evidence base for reducing health disparities, leveraging multisectoral collaboration, using clustered interventions, engaging communities, and conducting rigorous planning and evaluation. This article describes selected examples of public health programs the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has supported related to these design elements. In addition, it describes an initiative to ensure that CDC extramural grant programs incorporate program strategies to advance health equity, and examples of national reports published by the CDC related to health disparities, health equity, and social determinants of health. PMID:26599028

  5. Equity v. Equity: Why "Education Week" and the "Education Trust" Don't Agree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Each January since 1997, "Education Week," the K-12 industry's newspaper of record, has issued its "Quality Counts" report, ranking states by, among other things, the "equity" of their school finances. On the other hand, every fall since 2001, the "Education Trust," a national organization devoted to closing the achievement gap in public schools,…

  6. Quality Assessment of Studies Published in Open Access and Subscription Journals: Results of a Systematic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pastorino, Roberta; Milovanovic, Sonja; Stojanovic, Jovana; Efremov, Ljupcho; Amore, Rosarita; Boccia, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Along with the proliferation of Open Access (OA) publishing, the interest for comparing the scientific quality of studies published in OA journals versus subscription journals has also increased. With our study we aimed to compare the methodological quality and the quality of reporting of primary epidemiological studies and systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in OA and non-OA journals. Methods In order to identify the studies to appraise, we listed all OA and non-OA journals which published in 2013 at least one primary epidemiologic study (case-control or cohort study design), and at least one systematic review or meta-analysis in the field of oncology. For the appraisal, we picked up the first studies published in 2013 with case-control or cohort study design from OA journals (Group A; n = 12), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group B; n = 26); the first systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in 2013 from OA journals (Group C; n = 15), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group D; n = 32). We evaluated the methodological quality of studies by assessing the compliance of case-control and cohort studies to Newcastle and Ottawa Scale (NOS) scale, and the compliance of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scale. The quality of reporting was assessed considering the adherence of case-control and cohort studies to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist, and the adherence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) checklist. Results Among case-control and cohort studies published in OA and non-OA journals, we did not observe significant differences in the median value of NOS score (Group A: 7 (IQR 7–8) versus Group B: 8 (7–9); p = 0.5) and in the adherence to STROBE checklist (Group A, 75% versus Group B, 80%; p = 0.1). The

  7. What is quality primary dental care?

    PubMed

    Campbell, S; Tickle, M

    2013-08-01

    In the first paper of a series exploring quality in primary dental care a definition for quality in dentistry is sought. There is a little agreement in academic literature as to what quality really means in primary dental care and without a true understanding it is difficult to measure and improve quality in a systematic way. 'Quality' of healthcare in dentistry will mean different things to practitioners, policy makers and patients but a framework could be modelled on other definitions within different healthcare sectors, with focus on access, equity and overall healthcare experience.

  8. Standardized quality assurance forms for organ transplantations with multilingual support, open access and UMLS coding.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Julian; Sünninghausen, Sarah Schulze; Dugas, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) is a key factor to evaluate success of organ transplantations. In Germany QA documentation is progressively developed and enforced by law. Our objective is to share QA models from Germany in a standardized format within a form repository for world-wide reuse and exchange. Original QA forms were converted into standardized study forms according to the Operational Data Model (ODM) and shared for open access in an international forms repository. Form elements were translated into English and semantically enriched with Concept Unique Identifiers from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) based on medical expert decision. All forms are available on the web as multilingual ODM documents. UMLS concept coverage analysis indicates 92% coverage with few but critically important definition gaps. New content and infrastructure for harmonized documentation forms is provided in the domain of organ transplantations enabling world-wide reuse and exchange. PMID:26063252

  9. Financing American Indian health care: impacts and options for improving access and quality.

    PubMed

    Langwell, Kathryn; Anagnopoulos, Cheryl; Ryan, Frank; Melson, Jacob; Iron Rope, Sandor

    2009-10-01

    (1) Indian Health Service (HIS) per patient funding is less than half of national per capita health spending, and declined further between 2003 and 2006. (2) Under-funding of the IHS system has led to explicit rationing of services to American Indian and Alaska Native patients, with many specialized services provided only for "life or limb threatening" conditions. (3) IHS patients report experiencing access barriers and rate the quality of care process substantially lower than do Medicaid beneficiaries, but most indicate they prefer to use IHS for their health care. (4) Options to increase the funding for American Indian and Alaska Native health care exist, but would impose higher costs on federal and state budgets and are unlikely to be feasible in the current economic environment. However, IHS might be able to make certain organizational changes that would increase efficiency and its ability to extend existing funding to cover more services. PMID:19847975

  10. SIAST Education Equity Program Annual Monitoring Report Summary, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Inst. of Applied Science and Technology, Saskatoon.

    This annual report for 1999-2000 monitors the Education Equity Program for the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST). The program assures potential students access to adult and postsecondary educational opportunities such that the proportions of targeted equity groups to the total student body are the same as in the…

  11. Changes in perceptions of quality of, and access to, services among clients of a fractional franchise network in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Agha, Sohail; Gage, Anastasia; Balal, Asma

    2007-05-01

    With declining levels of international donor funding for financing reproductive health programmes, developing country governments and international donors are looking towards private sector strategies to expand the supply of quality reproductive health services. One of the challenges of a health franchise is to improve the quality of services provided by independent private practitioners. Private providers are more likely to abide by the quality standards set by a franchiser if they see a financial benefit resulting from franchise participation. This study was conducted to measure whether (a) there were improvements in perceived quality of care and perceived access to health facilities once these facilities became part of a franchise and (b) improvements in perceived quality and perceived access were associated with increased client loyalty to franchised clinics. Franchisees were given basic reproductive health training for seven days and services marketing training for two days. Exit interviews were conducted with male and female clients at health facilities. A pre-test measurement was taken in April 2001, prior to the start of project activities. A post-test measurement was taken in February/March 2002, about 9 months after the pre-test. Multilevel regression analysis, which takes the hierarchical structure of the data into account, was used for the analysis. After taking provider-level variation into account and controlling for client characteristics, the analyses showed significant improvements in perceived quality of care and perceived access to services. Private provider participation in a franchise network helps improve client perceptions of quality of, and access to, services. Improvements in client perceptions of quality and access contribute to increased client loyalty to franchised clinics. Once increased client loyalty translates into higher client volumes, providers are likely to see the benefits of franchise participation. In turn, this should lead to

  12. Patient choice and equity in the British National Health Service: towards developing an alternative framework.

    PubMed

    Fotaki, Marianna

    2010-09-01

    Choice and competition have been phased into many public health systems with the aim of achieving various and potentially exclusive goals such as improving efficiency, quality and responsiveness to users' needs. Yet their use to promote equity of access as evidenced recently in the British National Health Service (the NHS) is unprecedented. Giving users the power of exit over unresponsive providers is meant to address the failures of previous policies. This paper shows that there is a potential conflict between choice and equity, in terms of both the values and the outcomes each policy is likely to produce. Using a multidisciplinary and multidimensional framework, drawn from Bourdieusian sociology, feminist theory and economics, the study highlights the implications of the simplistic and one-sided conception of individual patient choice in relation to equity. It also uses the existing evidence on the impact of market competition and choice, in the UK and elsewhere, to emphasise the importance of socio-economic and psycho-social factors, which are left out of current policy considerations.

  13. Teacher Communities for Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Teachers working together in learning communities is a popular aspect of school reform projects in countries around the world. However, teacher communities vary greatly from one another. This article describes two communities whose purpose is to help teachers work for equity by focusing on questions that emerge from practice and from genuine…

  14. Student Equity Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Gus

    Following a decrease in minority student enrollment within the California Community Colleges (CCC), the Board of Governors (BOG) convened a special statewide symposium to examine issues of minority student enrollment, retention, and transfer, and established a standing Board Committee on Equity and Diversity. Over the past 2 years, a system policy…

  15. Equity Literacy for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorski, Paul C.; Swalwell, Katy

    2015-01-01

    If the authors have learned anything working with schools across the United States, they've learned this: When it comes to educational equity, the trouble is not a lack of multicultural programs or diversity initiatives in schools. Nor is it a lack of educators who appreciate and even champion diversity. The trouble lies in how so many diversity…

  16. Sex Equity Coordinator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Dorothy; Sillman, Donna

    This guidebook was designed to assist sex equity coordinators in the Los Angeles Community College District in promoting the recruitment, retention, and placement of students in vocational programs that are non-traditional for their sex. The guidebook's first ten chapters present: (1) outlines of relevant legislation and legal guidelines for…

  17. Equity. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on equity in children's literature, public funding for private schools, women in educational fields, female dropouts, and the relationship between school violence and family and community violence. "Violence in Our Schools" (Bradley Scott) explores reasons for school violence (media violence, isolation from family, racial…

  18. Global Equity Gauge Alliance.

    PubMed

    Ntuli, Antoinette

    2007-01-01

    The lack of attention to equity in health, health care and determinants of health is a burden to the attainment of good health in many countries. With this underlying problem as a basis, a series of meetings took place between 1999 and 2000, culminating in the creation the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA). G EGA is an international network of groups in developing countries, mainly Asia, Africa and Latin America, which develop projects designed to confront and mitigate inequities in health, know as Equity Gauges. Equity Gauges aim to contribute towards the sustained decline in inequities in both the broad sociopolitical determinants of health, as well as inequities in the health system. Their approach is based on three broad spheres of action, known as "pillars": 1) measurement and monitoring, 2) advocacy, and 3) community empowerment. Through a series of examples from local or national level gauges, this paper showcases their work promoting the interaction between research and evidence-based policy formulation and implementation, and the interaction between the community and policy makers. PMID:17665716

  19. Gender Equity. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles on gender equity and related issues in education, with particular reference to the education of Hispanic girls. "IDRA's MIJA Program Expands" (Aurora Yanez-Perez) describes a program for sixth-grade Hispanic girls that promotes awareness of science- and math-related careers, provides training in science and…

  20. Redressing School Finance Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crampton, Faith E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines trends in school finance litigation. Examines definitions of fiscal equity, reviews 20 years of litigation, and analyzes recent legal activity. Recent litigation has challenged some states' school finance systems. Court decisions have split evenly regarding permissible disparities in per-pupil operating expenditures, a measure of…

  1. The IEO Data Center Management System: Tools for quality control, analysis and access marine data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Antonia; Garcia, Maria Jesus; Nikouline, Andrei

    2010-05-01

    Since 1994 the Data Centre of the Spanish Oceanographic Institute develops system for archiving and quality control of oceanographic data. The work started in the frame of the European Marine Science & Technology Programme (MAST) when a consortium of several Mediterranean Data Centres began to work on the MEDATLAS project. Along the years, old software modules for MS DOS were rewritten, improved and migrated to Windows environment. Oceanographic data quality control includes now not only vertical profiles (mainly CTD and bottles observations) but also time series of currents and sea level observations. New powerful routines for analysis and for graphic visualization were added. Data presented originally in ASCII format were organized recently in an open source MySQL database. Nowadays, the IEO, as part of SeaDataNet Infrastructure, has designed and developed a new information system, consistent with the ISO 19115 and SeaDataNet standards, in order to manage the large and diverse marine data and information originated in Spain by different sources, and to interoperate with SeaDataNet. The system works with data stored in ASCII files (MEDATLAS, ODV) as well as data stored within the relational database. The components of the system are: 1.MEDATLAS Format and Quality Control - QCDAMAR: Quality Control of Marine Data. Main set of tools for working with data presented as text files. Includes extended quality control (searching for duplicated cruises and profiles, checking date, position, ship velocity, constant profiles, spikes, density inversion, sounding, acceptable data, impossible regional values,...) and input/output filters. - QCMareas: A set of procedures for the quality control of tide gauge data according to standard international Sea Level Observing System. These procedures include checking for unexpected anomalies in the time series, interpolation, filtering, computation of basic statistics and residuals. 2. DAMAR: A relational data base (MySql) designed to

  2. Urban farmers' markets: accessibility, offerings, and produce variety, quality, and price compared to nearby stores.

    PubMed

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar; Frias, Rafael; Schechter, Clyde B

    2015-07-01

    Most food-environment research has focused narrowly on select stores and restaurants. There has been comparatively less attention to non-storefront food sources like farmers' markets (FMs), particularly in urban communities. The objective of the present study was to assess FMs' potential contribution to an urban food environment in terms of specific foods offered, and compare FM accessibility as well as produce variety, quality, and price to that of nearby stores. Investigators conducted a detailed cross-sectional assessment of all FMs in Bronx County, NY, and of the nearest store(s) selling produce within a half-mile walking distance (up to two stores per FM). The study included 26 FMs and 44 stores. Investigators assessed accessibility (locations of FMs and stores relative to each other, and hours of operation for each), variety (the number and type of all food items offered at FMs and all fresh produce items offered at stores), quality (where produce items were grown and if they were organic), and price (including any sales prices or promotional discounts). Analyses included frequencies, proportions, and variable distributions, as well as mixed-effect regressions, paired t-tests, and signed rank tests to compare FMs to stores. Geographic information systems (GIS) allowed for mapping of FM and store locations and determining street-network distances between them. The mean distance between FMs and the nearest store selling fresh produce was 0.15 miles (range 0.02-0.36 miles). FMs were open substantially fewer months, days, and hours than stores. FMs offered 26.4 fewer fresh produce items on average than stores (p values <0.02). FM produce items were more frequently local and organic, but often tended toward less-common/more-exotic and heirloom varieties. FMs were more expensive on average (p values <0.001 for pairwise comparisons to stores) - even for more-commonplace and "conventional" produce - especially when discounts or sales prices were considered. Fully, 32

  3. Urban Farmers' Markets: accessibility, offerings, and produce variety, quality, and price compared to nearby stores

    PubMed Central

    Maroko, Andrew; Sanon, Omar; Frias, Rafael; Schechter, Clyde B.

    2015-01-01

    Most food-environment research has focused narrowly on select stores and restaurants. There has been comparatively less attention to non-storefront food sources like farmers' markets (FMs), particularly in urban communities. The objective of the present study was to assess FMs' potential contribution to an urban food environment in terms of specific foods offered, and compare FM accessibility as well as produce variety, quality, and price to that of nearby stores. Investigators conducted a detailed cross-sectional assessment of all FMs in Bronx County, NY, and of the nearest store(s) selling produce within a half-mile walking distance (up to two stores per FM). The study included 26 FMs and 44 stores. Investigators assessed accessibility (locations of FMs and stores relative to each other, and hours of operation for each), variety (the number and type of all food items offered at FMs and all fresh produce items offered at stores), quality (where produce items were grown and if they were organic), and price (including any sales prices or promotional discounts). Analyses included frequencies, proportions, and variable distributions, as well as mixed-effect regressions, paired t-tests, and signed rank tests to compare FMs to stores. Geographic information systems (GIS) allowed for mapping of FM and store locations and determining street-network distances between them. The mean distance between FMs and the nearest store selling fresh produce was 0.15 miles (range 0.02-0.36 miles). FMs were open substantially fewer months, days, and hours than stores. FMs offered 26.4 fewer fresh produce items on average than stores (p values <0.02). FM produce items were more frequently local and organic, but often tended towards less-common/more-exotic and heirloom varieties. FMs were more expensive on average (p values <0.001 for pairwise comparisons to stores)—even for more-commonplace and “conventional” produce—especially when discounts or sales prices were considered

  4. Urban farmers' markets: accessibility, offerings, and produce variety, quality, and price compared to nearby stores.

    PubMed

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar; Frias, Rafael; Schechter, Clyde B

    2015-07-01

    Most food-environment research has focused narrowly on select stores and restaurants. There has been comparatively less attention to non-storefront food sources like farmers' markets (FMs), particularly in urban communities. The objective of the present study was to assess FMs' potential contribution to an urban food environment in terms of specific foods offered, and compare FM accessibility as well as produce variety, quality, and price to that of nearby stores. Investigators conducted a detailed cross-sectional assessment of all FMs in Bronx County, NY, and of the nearest store(s) selling produce within a half-mile walking distance (up to two stores per FM). The study included 26 FMs and 44 stores. Investigators assessed accessibility (locations of FMs and stores relative to each other, and hours of operation for each), variety (the number and type of all food items offered at FMs and all fresh produce items offered at stores), quality (where produce items were grown and if they were organic), and price (including any sales prices or promotional discounts). Analyses included frequencies, proportions, and variable distributions, as well as mixed-effect regressions, paired t-tests, and signed rank tests to compare FMs to stores. Geographic information systems (GIS) allowed for mapping of FM and store locations and determining street-network distances between them. The mean distance between FMs and the nearest store selling fresh produce was 0.15 miles (range 0.02-0.36 miles). FMs were open substantially fewer months, days, and hours than stores. FMs offered 26.4 fewer fresh produce items on average than stores (p values <0.02). FM produce items were more frequently local and organic, but often tended toward less-common/more-exotic and heirloom varieties. FMs were more expensive on average (p values <0.001 for pairwise comparisons to stores) - even for more-commonplace and "conventional" produce - especially when discounts or sales prices were considered. Fully, 32

  5. Cyberinfrastructure for Online Access to High-Quality Data: Advances and Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, C.

    2010-12-01

    Advanced cyberinfrastructure capabilities are enabling end-to-end management of data flows in observing system networks and online access to very large data archives. We provide an overview of several projects in earth and environmental sciences that have developed and deployed cyberinfrastructure for collecting and organizing field observations and remote sensing data, to make them available to a community of users. The data cyberinfrastructure framework should cover the range from data acquisition, quality control, data archiving, discovery, access, integration, and modeling. Using examples from different earth and environmental science cyberinfrastructure efforts, we will describe the state of the art in data cyberinfrastructure and future directions and challenges. The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network (http://teamnetwork.org), which is a network of forested sites—currently consisting of 15 sites, and growing—distributed across Central America, South America, Africa, and Asia. Each site implements a standardized set of data collection protocols, all under the control of a common cyberinfrastructure. The data are available via a portal from a central site, but with appropriate access controls. The TEAM Network is run by Conservation International, in partnership with the Wildlife Conservation Society, Smithsonian Institute, and the Missouri Botanical Gardens, and is funded by the Moore Foundation. The EarthScope Data Portal (portal.earthscope.org) implements a virtual metadata catalog and a data cart to provides a means for simultaneously exploring EarthScope's various instrument networks, as well as seamlessly downloading data from multiple stations and instrument types. The prototype of the US Geoinformatics Information Network (US GIN) project is implementing a federated catalog, using the Catalog Services for Web (CSW) standard. The NSF-funded Opentopography.org—a spinoff of the GEON project, www.geongrid.org—provides online

  6. A Spectrum Access Based on Quality of Service (QoS) in Cognitive Radio Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Linbo; Wang, Hua; Gao, Chuangen

    2016-01-01

    The quality of service (QoS) is important issue for cognitive radio networks. In the cognitive radio system, the licensed users, also called primary users (PUs), are authorized to utilize the wireless spectrum, while unlicensed users, also called secondary users (SUs), are not authorized to use the wireless spectrum. SUs access the wireless spectrum opportunistically when the spectrum is idle. While SUs use an idle channel, the instance that PUs come back makes SUs terminate their communications and leave the current channel. Therefore, quality of service (QoS) is difficult to be ensured for SUs. In this paper, we first propose an analysis model to obtain QoS for cognitive radio networks such as blocking probability, completed traffic and termination probability of SUs. When the primary users use the channels frequently, QoS of SUs is difficult to be ensured, especially the termination probability. Then, we propose a channel reservation scheme to improve QoS of SUs. The scheme makes the terminated SUs move to the reserved channels and keep on communications. Simulation results show that our scheme can improve QoS of SUs especially the termination probability with a little cost of blocking probability in dynamic environment. PMID:27171196

  7. A Spectrum Access Based on Quality of Service (QoS) in Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Linbo; Wang, Hua; Gao, Chuangen

    2016-01-01

    The quality of service (QoS) is important issue for cognitive radio networks. In the cognitive radio system, the licensed users, also called primary users (PUs), are authorized to utilize the wireless spectrum, while unlicensed users, also called secondary users (SUs), are not authorized to use the wireless spectrum. SUs access the wireless spectrum opportunistically when the spectrum is idle. While SUs use an idle channel, the instance that PUs come back makes SUs terminate their communications and leave the current channel. Therefore, quality of service (QoS) is difficult to be ensured for SUs. In this paper, we first propose an analysis model to obtain QoS for cognitive radio networks such as blocking probability, completed traffic and termination probability of SUs. When the primary users use the channels frequently, QoS of SUs is difficult to be ensured, especially the termination probability. Then, we propose a channel reservation scheme to improve QoS of SUs. The scheme makes the terminated SUs move to the reserved channels and keep on communications. Simulation results show that our scheme can improve QoS of SUs especially the termination probability with a little cost of blocking probability in dynamic environment. PMID:27171196

  8. Drinking water insecurity: water quality and access in coastal south-western Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Benneyworth, Laura; Gilligan, Jonathan; Ayers, John C; Goodbred, Steven; George, Gregory; Carrico, Amanda; Karim, Md Rezaul; Akter, Farjana; Fry, David; Donato, Katherine; Piya, Bhumika

    2016-01-01

    National drinking water assessments for Bangladesh do not reflect local variability, or temporal differences. This paper reports on the findings of an interdisciplinary investigation of drinking water insecurity in a rural coastal south-western Bangladesh. Drinking water quality is assessed by comparison of locally measured concentrations to national levels and water quality criteria; resident's access to potable water and their perceptions are based on local social surveys. Residents in the study area use groundwater far less than the national average; salinity and local rainwater scarcity necessitates the use of multiple water sources throughout the year. Groundwater concentrations of arsenic and specific conductivity (SpC) were greater than surface water (pond) concentrations; there was no statistically significant seasonal difference in mean concentrations in groundwater, but there was for ponds, with arsenic higher in the dry season. Average arsenic concentrations in local water drinking were 2-4 times times the national average. All of the local groundwater samples exceeded the Bangladesh guidance for SpC, although the majority of residents surveyed did not perceive their water as having a 'bad' or 'salty' taste. PMID:27277537

  9. Public library computer training for older adults to access high-quality Internet health information.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Bugg, Julie M

    2009-09-01

    An innovative experiment to develop and evaluate a public library computer training program to teach older adults to access and use high-quality Internet health information involved a productive collaboration among public libraries, the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and a Library and Information Science (LIS) academic program at a state university. One hundred and thirty-one older adults aged 54-89 participated in the study between September 2007 and July 2008. Key findings include: a) participants had overwhelmingly positive perceptions of the training program; b) after learning about two NIH websites (http://nihseniorhealth.gov and http://medlineplus.gov) from the training, many participants started using these online resources to find high quality health and medical information and, further, to guide their decision-making regarding a health- or medically-related matter; and c) computer anxiety significantly decreased (p < .001) while computer interest and efficacy significantly increased (p = .001 and p < .001, respectively) from pre- to post-training, suggesting statistically significant improvements in computer attitudes between pre- and post-training. The findings have implications for public libraries, LIS academic programs, and other organizations interested in providing similar programs in their communities.

  10. Drinking water insecurity: water quality and access in coastal south-western Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Benneyworth, Laura; Gilligan, Jonathan; Ayers, John C; Goodbred, Steven; George, Gregory; Carrico, Amanda; Karim, Md Rezaul; Akter, Farjana; Fry, David; Donato, Katherine; Piya, Bhumika

    2016-01-01

    National drinking water assessments for Bangladesh do not reflect local variability, or temporal differences. This paper reports on the findings of an interdisciplinary investigation of drinking water insecurity in a rural coastal south-western Bangladesh. Drinking water quality is assessed by comparison of locally measured concentrations to national levels and water quality criteria; resident's access to potable water and their perceptions are based on local social surveys. Residents in the study area use groundwater far less than the national average; salinity and local rainwater scarcity necessitates the use of multiple water sources throughout the year. Groundwater concentrations of arsenic and specific conductivity (SpC) were greater than surface water (pond) concentrations; there was no statistically significant seasonal difference in mean concentrations in groundwater, but there was for ponds, with arsenic higher in the dry season. Average arsenic concentrations in local water drinking were 2-4 times times the national average. All of the local groundwater samples exceeded the Bangladesh guidance for SpC, although the majority of residents surveyed did not perceive their water as having a 'bad' or 'salty' taste.

  11. Health care quality, access, cost, workforce, and surgical education: the ultimate perfect storm.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Marshall Z

    2012-01-01

    The discussions on health care reform over the past two years have focused on cost containment while trying to maintain quality of care. Focusing on just cost and quality unfortunately does not address other very important factors that impact on our health care delivery system. Availability of a well-trained workforce, maintaining the sophisticated medical/surgical education system, and ultimately access to quality care by the public are critical to maintaining and enhancing our health care delivery system. Unfortunately, all five of these components are under at risk. Thus, we have evolving the ultimate perfect storm affecting our health care delivery system. Although not ideal and given the uniqueness of our population and their expectations, our current delivery system is excellent compared to other countries. However, the cost of our current system is rising at an alarming rate. Currently, health care consumes 17% of our gross domestic product. If our system is not revised this will continue to rise and by 2025 it will consume 48%. The dilemma, given the current state of our overall economy and rising debt, is how to address this major problem. Unfortunately, the Affordable Care Act, which is now law, does not address most of the issues and the cost was initially grossly under estimated. Furthermore, the law does not address the issues of workforce, maintaining our medical education system or ultimately, access. A major revision of our system will be necessary to truly create a system that protects and enhances all five of the components of our health care delivery system. To effectively accomplish this will require addressing those issues that lead to wasteful spending and diversion of our health care dollars to profit instead of care. Improved and efficient delivery systems that reduce complications, reduction of duplication of tertiary and quaternary programs or services within the same markets (i.e. regionalization of care), health insurance reform, and

  12. [Equity, gender, and health: challenges for action].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Elsa Gómez

    2002-01-01

    The Governing Bodies of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) have mandated that the Organization apply a gender perspective in all aspects of the Organization's activities and its technical cooperation in the area of health with the PAHO Member States. This article points out the need to eradicate unjust gender differences that affect the right and access to health care that is appropriate for women. The piece explains the differences between equity and equality and between gender and sex, and how gender equity should come about in the state of health, in health care, and in all people's efforts to engender health. It is hoped the piece will contribute to a better understanding of the situation, thus helping to eliminate inequities that are due to sex, socioeconomic factors, and the distribution of power.

  13. Can rural health insurance improve equity in health care utilization? a comparison between China and Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Health care financing reforms in both China and Vietnam have resulted in greater financial difficulties in accessing health care, especially for the rural poor. Both countries have been developing rural health insurance for decades. This study aims to evaluate and compare equity in access to health care in rural health insurance system in the two countries. Methods Household survey and qualitative study were conducted in 6 counties in China and 4 districts in Vietnam. Health insurance policy and its impact on utilization of outpatient and inpatient service were analyzed and compared to measure equity in access to health care. Results In China, Health insurance membership had no significant impact on outpatient service utilization, while was associated with higher utilization of inpatient services, especially for the higher income group. Health insurance members in Vietnam had higher utilization rates of both outpatient and inpatient services than the non-members, with higher use among the lower than higher income groups. Qualitative results show that bureaucratic obstacles, low reimbursement rates, and poor service quality were the main barriers for members to use health insurance. Conclusions China has achieved high population coverage rate over a short time period, starting with a limited benefit package. However, poor people have less benefit from NCMS in terms of health service utilization. Compared to China, Vietnam health insurance system is doing better in equity in health service utilization within the health insurance members. However with low population coverage, a large proportion of population cannot enjoy the health insurance benefit. Mutual learning would help China and Vietnam address these challenges, and improve their policy design to promote equitable and sustainable health insurance. PMID:22376290

  14. Recommendations for mass spectrometry data quality metrics for open access data(corollary to the Amsterdam principles)

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsinger, Christopher R.; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark S.; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H.; Bradshaw, Ralph A.; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W.; Deutsch, Eric W.; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William S.; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L.; Simpson, Richard J.; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D.; Stein, Stephen E.; Tabb, David L.; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R.; Rodriguez, Henry

    2011-12-01

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened the 'International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics' in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the search community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed upon two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: (i)an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and (ii)standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in Proteomics, Proteomics Clinical Applications, Journal of Proteome Research, and Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, as a public service to the research community.The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals.

  15. Informal economic activities of public health workers in Uganda: implications for quality and accessibility of care.

    PubMed

    McPake, B; Asiimwe, D; Mwesigye, F; Ofumbi, M; Ortenblad, L; Streefland, P; Turinde, A

    1999-10-01

    This paper reports the results of a study in Uganda of the 'informal' economic activities of health workers, defined as those which earn incomes but fall outside official duties and earnings. The study was carried out in 10 sub-hospital health facilities of varying size and intended role and used a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods. The paper focuses on those activities which are carried out inside public health facilities and which directly affect quality and accessibility of care. The main strategies in this category were the leakage of drug supply, the informal charging of patients and the mismanagement of revenues raised from the formal charging of patients. Few of the drugs supplied to health units were prescribed and issued in those sites. Most health workers who have the opportunity to do so, levy informal charges. Where formal charges are collected, high levels of leakage occur both at the point of collection and at higher levels of the system. The implications of this situation for the quality and accessibility of services in public health facilities were assessed. Utilisation levels are less than those expected of the smallest rural units and this workload is managed by a handful of the expected staff complement who are available for a fraction of the working week. Even given these few patients, drugs available after leakage were sufficient to cover less than half of those attending in most facilities. Evidence on staff motivation was mixed and better motivation was associated with better performance only in a minority of units. Informal charging was associated with better performance regarding hours worked by health workers and utilisation rates. Drug leakage was associated with worse performance with respect to both of these and unsurprisingly, with drug availability. Short term strategies to effect marginal performance improvements may focus on the substitution of strategies based inside health units (such as informal charging) for those

  16. Promoting equity in health.

    PubMed

    Yach, D; Skov Jensen, M; Norris, A; Evans, T

    1998-06-01

    There is evidence that widening income gaps are a global phenomenon; that in many advanced industrialised countries unemployment rates are rising; that globalisation of the world economy has led to several countries becoming marginalised with a concomitant increase in poverty; and that the absolute number of poor has steadily increased over the last decade. All of these phenomena emphasise the need to focus on equity as a global concern. PMID:9672961

  17. Promoting equity in health.

    PubMed

    Yach, D; Skov Jensen, M; Norris, A; Evans, T

    1998-06-01

    There is evidence that widening income gaps are a global phenomenon; that in many advanced industrialised countries unemployment rates are rising; that globalisation of the world economy has led to several countries becoming marginalised with a concomitant increase in poverty; and that the absolute number of poor has steadily increased over the last decade. All of these phenomena emphasise the need to focus on equity as a global concern.

  18. Developing Agency for Equity-Minded Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Eric R.; Bensimon, Estela Mara; Hanson, Debbie; Gray, James; Klingsmith, Libby

    2015-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of the Equity Scorecard with the Community College of Aurora. The Equity Scorecard is a theory-based strategy that assists community colleges in embedding equity into their institutional norms, practices, and policies.

  19. Interprofessional collaborative model for medication therapy management (MTM) services to improve health care access and quality for underserved populations.

    PubMed

    Truong, Hoai-An; Groves, C Nicole; Congdon, Heather Brennan; Botchway, Rosemary; Dang, Diem-Thanh Tanya; Clark, Nancy Ripp; Zarfeshan, Faramarz

    2012-08-01

    As part of the Health Resources and Services Administration Patient Safety and Clinical Pharmacy Services Collaborative (PSPC), an interprofessional model with medication therapy management documentation and outcomes tracking tools (MTM-DOTT) is established to improve health care access and quality for underserved populations. Despite limitations, there have been positive outcomes and national recognitions.

  20. How Do Members of Different Stakeholder Groups Balance Concerns for Increasing Access with Improving Quality in the Tanzania Education System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telli, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how education stakeholders in Tanzania express and balance their priorities, perspectives, and concerns regarding the expansion of education access on the one hand, and improving quality of education on the other, as a means to enhance educational achievement. The study also explores how each group of…

  1. FACILITATING ADVANCED URBAN METEOROLOGY AND AIR QUALITY MODELING CAPABILITIES WITH HIGH RESOLUTION URBAN DATABASE AND ACCESS PORTAL TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information of urban morphological features at high resolution is needed to properly model and characterize the meteorological and air quality fields in urban areas. We describe a new project called National Urban Database with Access Portal Tool, (NUDAPT) that addresses this nee...

  2. Designing to Promote Access, Quality, and Student Support in an Advanced Certificate Programme for Rural Teachers in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresen, Jill W.; Hendrikz, Johan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the re-design of the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE) programme, which is offered by the University of Pretoria through distance education (DE) to teachers in rural South Africa. In 2007, a team re-designed the programme with the goal of promoting access, quality, and student support. The team included an independent…

  3. Girls, Educational Equity and Mother Tongue-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Mother tongue-based education perpetuates equity in education, especially among girls who are often regarded as disadvantaged in access to education. The Asia and Pacific region is characterized by its rich ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity. Such diversity is found missing in many school systems in the region which often leads to gaps in…

  4. Gender Equity and the Year 2000. WEEA Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    During the past 17 years, the Women's Educational Equity Act (WEEA) program has accomplished the following: funded programs to open math, science, and technology courses and careers to women and girls; helped females gain access to nontraditional vocational education; funded projects to eliminate bias against females in school and the workplace;…

  5. The Computer Explosion: Implications for Educational Equity. Resource Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denbo, Sheryl, Comp.

    This notebook was prepared to provide resources for educators interested in using computers to increase opportunities for all students. The notebook contains specially prepared materials and selected newspaper and journal articles. The first section reviews the issues related to computer equity (equal access, tracking through different…

  6. Linguistic acculturation and perceptions of quality, access, and discrimination in health care among Latinos in the United States.

    PubMed

    Becerra, David; Androff, David; Messing, Jill T; Castillo, Jason; Cimino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between acculturation and Latinos' perceptions of health care treatment quality, discrimination, and access to health information. The results of this study indicated that participants who had lower levels of acculturation perceived: 1) greater discrimination in health care treatment; 2) a lower quality of health care treatment; 3) less confidence filling out health related forms; and 4) greater challenges understanding written information about their medical conditions. Participants who identified as immigrants also perceived that their poor quality of medical care was due to their inability to pay and to their race/ethnicity.

  7. Payment mechanisms and the composition of physician practices: balancing cost-containment, access, and quality of care.

    PubMed

    Barham, Victoria; Milliken, Olga

    2015-07-01

    We take explicit account of the way in which the supply of physicians and patients in the economy affects the design of physician remuneration schemes, highlighting the three-way trade-off between quality of care, access, and cost. Both physicians and patients are heterogeneous. Physicians choose both the number of patients and the quality of care to provide to their patients. When determining physician payment rates, the principal must ensure access to care for all patients. When physicians can adjust the number of patients seen, there is no incentive to over-treat. In contrast, altruistic physicians always quality stint: they prefer to add an additional patient, rather than to increase the quality of service provided. A mixed payment mechanism does not increase the quality of service provided with respect to capitation. Offering a menu of compensation schemes may constitute a cost-effective strategy for inducing physicians to choose a given overall caseload but may also generate difficulties with access to care for frail patients. PMID:24990110

  8. Fighting for Quality and Equality, Too: How State Policymakers Can Ensure the Drive to Improve Teacher Quality Doesn't Just Trickle down to Poor and Minority Children. K-12 Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerald, Craig D.; Haycock, Kati; Wilkins, Amy

    2009-01-01

    If state leaders invest resources and energy wisely, they don't have to choose between excellence and equity. They can improve overall teacher quality and remedy the shameful inequities in access to the single most valuable resource in education--effective teachers. This paper outlines ten steps state policymakers and school district leaders can…

  9. California hospital networks are narrower in Marketplace than in commercial plans, but access and quality are similar.

    PubMed

    Haeder, Simon F; Weimer, David L; Mukamel, Dana B

    2015-05-01

    Do insurance plans offered through the Marketplace implemented by the State of California under the Affordable Care Act restrict consumers' access to hospitals relative to plans offered on the commercial market? And are the hospitals included in Marketplace networks of lower quality compared to those included in the commercial plans? To answer these questions, we analyzed differences in hospital networks across similar plan types offered both in the Marketplace and commercially, by region and insurer. We found that the common belief that Marketplace plans have narrower networks than their commercial counterparts appears empirically valid. However, there does not appear to be a substantive difference in geographic access as measured by the percentage of people residing in at least one hospital market area. More surprisingly, depending on the measure of hospital quality employed, the Marketplace plans have networks with comparable or even higher average quality than the networks of their commercial counterparts.

  10. Operationalizing Equity: The Complexities of Equity in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreasson, Ingela; Ohlsson, Lisbeth; Assarson, Inger

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to offer some reflections on the relationship between meanings of equity at the national level and those working with these questions in local schools. We argue that meanings of equity at the national level are in strong contrast to the range complexity identified in local schools. The article draws from case study…

  11. Health equity in Lebanon: a microeconomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The health sector in Lebanon suffers from high levels of spending and is acknowledged to be a source of fiscal waste. Lebanon initiated a series of health sector reforms which aim at containing the fiscal waste caused by high and inefficient public health expenditures. Yet these reforms do not address the issues of health equity in use and coverage of healthcare services, which appear to be acute. This paper takes a closer look at the micro-level inequities in the use of healthcare, in access, in ability to pay, and in some health outcomes. Methods We use data from the 2004/2005 Multi Purpose Survey of Households in Lebanon to conduct health equity analysis, including equity in need, access and outcomes. We briefly describe the data and explain some of its limitations. We examine, in turn, and using standardization techniques, the equity in health care utilization, the impact of catastrophic health payments on household wellbeing, the effect of health payment on household impoverishment, the equity implications of existing health financing methods, and health characteristics by geographical region. Results We find that the incidence of disability decreases steadily across expenditure quintiles, whereas the incidence of chronic disease shows the opposite pattern, which may be an indication of better diagnostics for higher quintiles. The presence of any health-related expenditure is regressive while the magnitude of out-of-pocket expenditures on health is progressive. Spending on health is found to be "normal" and income-elastic. Catastrophic health payments are likelier among disadvantaged groups (in terms of income, geography and gender). However, the cash amounts of catastrophic payments are progressive. Poverty is associated with lower insurance coverage for both private and public insurance. While the insured seem to spend an average of almost LL93,000 ($62) on health a year in excess of the uninsured, they devote a smaller proportion of their

  12. Access and Quality of HIV-Related Point-of-Care Diagnostic Testing in Global Health Programs.

    PubMed

    Fonjungo, Peter N; Boeras, Debrah I; Zeh, Clement; Alexander, Heather; Parekh, Bharat S; Nkengasong, John N

    2016-02-01

    Access to point-of-care testing (POCT) improves patient care, especially in resource-limited settings where laboratory infrastructure is poor and the bulk of the population lives in rural settings. However, because of challenges in rolling out the technology and weak quality assurance measures, the promise of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related POCT in resource-limited settings has not been fully exploited to improve patient care and impact public health. Because of these challenges, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), in partnership with other organizations, recently launched the Diagnostics Access Initiative. Expanding HIV programs, including the "test and treat" strategies and the newly established UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, will require increased access to reliable and accurate POCT results. In this review, we examine various components that could improve access and uptake of quality-assured POC tests to ensure coverage and public health impact. These components include evaluation, policy, regulation, and innovative approaches to strengthen the quality of POCT. PMID:26423384

  13. Creating the Business Case for Achieving Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Chin, Marshall H

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations have increasingly acknowledged the presence of health care disparities across race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, but significantly fewer have made health equity for diverse patients a true priority. Lack of financial incentives is a major barrier to achieving health equity. To create a business case for equity, governmental and private payors can: 1) Require health care organizations to report clinical performance data stratified by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. 2) Incentivize preventive care and primary care. Implement more aggressive shared savings plans, update physician relative value unit fee schedules, and encourage partnerships across clinical and non-clinical sectors. 3) Incentivize the reduction of health disparities with equity accountability measures in payment programs. 4) Align equity accountability measures across public and private payors. 5) Assist safety-net organizations. Provide adequate Medicaid reimbursement, risk-adjust clinical performance scores for sociodemographic characteristics of patients, provide support for quality improvement efforts, and calibrate cuts to Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments to the pace of health insurance expansion. 6) Conduct demonstration projects to test payment and delivery system reform interventions to reduce disparities. Commitment to social justice is essential to achieve health equity, but insufficient without a strong business case that makes interventions financially feasible.

  14. Creating the Business Case for Achieving Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Chin, Marshall H

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations have increasingly acknowledged the presence of health care disparities across race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, but significantly fewer have made health equity for diverse patients a true priority. Lack of financial incentives is a major barrier to achieving health equity. To create a business case for equity, governmental and private payors can: 1) Require health care organizations to report clinical performance data stratified by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. 2) Incentivize preventive care and primary care. Implement more aggressive shared savings plans, update physician relative value unit fee schedules, and encourage partnerships across clinical and non-clinical sectors. 3) Incentivize the reduction of health disparities with equity accountability measures in payment programs. 4) Align equity accountability measures across public and private payors. 5) Assist safety-net organizations. Provide adequate Medicaid reimbursement, risk-adjust clinical performance scores for sociodemographic characteristics of patients, provide support for quality improvement efforts, and calibrate cuts to Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments to the pace of health insurance expansion. 6) Conduct demonstration projects to test payment and delivery system reform interventions to reduce disparities. Commitment to social justice is essential to achieve health equity, but insufficient without a strong business case that makes interventions financially feasible. PMID:26883523

  15. Reducing the distance: equity issues in distance learning in public education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Patricia B.; Storo, Jennifer

    1996-12-01

    Distance learning and educational equity both began with an emphasis on access, on providing underserved students with an increased access to education. Today definitions of equity have gone beyond simple access to include equal or equivalent treatment and outcomes while definitions of underserved students have expanded to include girls, children of color, children with limited English proficiency and children with disabilities. At the same time the definition of distance learning has expanded to include new technologies, new audiences and new roles. Based on these new definitions and roles, the article raises a number of equity challenges for distance learning educators centering around who is taught, what is taught and how the teaching is done. To answer these challenges, a series of recommendations are suggested that educators can implement to make distance learning a leader in increasing educational equity for all students. The time to act is now.

  16. Technology and Equity. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Delia

    This examination of the relationship that exists between technology and students warns that, although technology is routinely touted as a potentially powerful agent of educational reform, technology and equity are not inevitable partners. A review of the literature on computer equity reveals that many students--not only minority, disadvantaged,…

  17. Leadership, Equity, and School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, H. Prentice, Jr., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of essays focuses on the intersection between equity and excellence in educational leadership and urges a reconceptualization that gives appropriate consideration to women and ethnic and racial minorities. The book begins with an introductory chapter, entitled "Equity and Excellence in Educational Leadership: A Necessary Nexus," by…

  18. Screening Educational Equity: A Filmography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Susan Morris, Comp.

    The more than 300 films and videos listed in this annotated filmography for use by educators and their students are presented in 14 categories: (1) Biases in Early Childhood Education; (2) Career and Vocational Opportunities; (3) Curriculum Equity; (4) Discrimination in Employment; (5) Equity in Sports; (6) A Legal Context; (7) Male Sex Role…

  19. Sex Equity: Is It Feasible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shocklee, Georgia

    This guide presents a model and plan to expedite implementation of sex equity in vocational education through the elimination of sex stereotyping and sex bias. Aimed at vocational education administrators, the guide is organized into the four steps of the plan. Step 1 provides a rationale for the decision to implement a model sex equity program,…

  20. Improving the Quality of and Access to HIV Rapid Testing in the Caribbean Region: Program Implementation, Outcomes, and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Alemnji, George; Guevara, Giselle; Parris, Keith; Kalou, Mireille; Behel, Stephanie; Parekh, Bharat; Nkengasong, John; Albalak, Rachel

    2016-09-01

    In 2008, HIV rapid testing (HIV RT) was only minimally used in the Caribbean region. Collaboration with countries and international partners since then has resulted in greater availability and use of HIV RT services. Surveys were conducted in 2012 and 2014 among 11 selected Caribbean countries to inform stakeholders of progress made since 2008 and to identify strategies to further improve access and uptake of high-quality HIV RT in community- and facility-based settings in support of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. Key accomplishments during this period include (1) presence of in-country national HIV RT algorithms, (2) use of the dried tube specimen (DTS) as an external quality assessment (EQA) program, (3) use of standardized logbooks for data collection and monitoring, and (4) use of oral fluid for HIV RT, particularly for key population surveys. Although progress has been made since 2008 to increase access and improve the quality of HIV RT among countries in the Caribbean, some work remains to be done. This includes the development of new policies and implementation of existing ones, task shifting, quality and access to testing, testing strategies, and integration of HIV RT into HIV Testing Services.

  1. Water Quality vs. Sanitation Accessibility: What is the most effective intervention point for preventing cholera in Dhaka, Bangladesh?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, M. S.; Gute, D.; Faruque, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Every year, 3 to 5 million individuals contract cholera, an acute diarrheal infection that is caused by the ingestion of food or water containing the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. Because cholera is a waterborne disease, it can be transmitted quickly in environments with inadequate water and sanitation systems where infected waste can easily pollute drinking water. Today, Bangladesh continues to struggle with endemic cholera. Donor organizations address water and sanitation via localized initiatives, including the installation of community water collection sites (i.e. tubewells; water-boiling points; etc.). At this small-scale level, water quality and sanitation accessibility can be improved independently of one another, and when resources are limited, donors must invest in the most effective disease prevention options. This study used laboratory-confirmed cholera incidence data (2000-2009) collected by the International Centre of Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh at their on-site hospital to compare the efficacy of interventions addressing water quality versus sanitation accessibility in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data regarding use of sanitary latrines and boiling of drinking water were extracted from sequential patient interviews conducted at the Dhaka facility and used as surrogate variables for sanitation accessibility and water quality respectively. Our analysis indicates that boiling water is 10 times more effective at preventing cholera than the use of a sanitary latrine. This finding suggests that regulating water quality is perhaps more critical to cholera prevention than increasing sanitation accessibility in an urban environment like that of Dhaka. At present, WaterAid - one of Bangladesh's most significant water and sanitation donor organizations - invests the majority of its budget on improving sanitation accessibility. The World Health Organization and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals also prioritize sanitation accessibility. However, in

  2. Access, Cost and Quality: Tensions in the Development of Primary Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerset, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Throughout Kenya's history, tensions between two goals have characterised the educational policy debate: first, the expansion of access; second, the containment of costs. During the colonial period, cost-containment predominated, leading to severe restrictions on access and massive unmet social demand. Then, during post-Independence years,…

  3. Accessibility versus quality of care plus retention: the formula for service delivery in Australian opioid replacement therapy?

    PubMed

    Harlow, Warren; Roman, Marian W; Happell, Brenda; Browne, Graeme

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how Australian Opioid Replacement Therapy (ORT) policy influences access to ORT treatment, including the resources required for implementation. In doing so, we also compare the accessibility of ORT treatment in Australia (AU) with ORT in the United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US). A review of government data and policy that influence service delivery was undertaken. When comparing across AU, the UK, and the US, we found several differences. To improve access to treatment in Australia more general practitioners need to provide ORT. Additionally, criteria for quality care, a centralised intake system, a national ORT treatment outcome measure, and a shift towards a recovery focus are recommended.

  4. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  5. The Political Is Personal: Measurement and Application of Nation-Level Indicators of Gender Equity in Psychological Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Grabe, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with the dictum, "the personal is political," feminist scholars have maintained that gender equity in security, access to education, economic opportunity, and property ownership are central to women's well-being. Empirical research evaluating this thesis can include nation-level indicators of gender equity, such as the United Nation…

  6. 24 CFR 4001.118 - Equity sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equity sharing. 4001.118 Section... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 4001.118 Equity sharing. (a) Initial Equity. For purposes of section 257(k)(1) of the Act, the initial equity created as a direct result of the origination of a...

  7. 24 CFR 4001.118 - Equity sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equity sharing. 4001.118 Section... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 4001.118 Equity sharing. (a) Initial Equity. For purposes of section 257(k)(1) of the Act, the initial equity created as a direct result of the origination of a...

  8. Rethinking Equity--There Are Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Lawrence O.

    1998-01-01

    Defines "equity" in terms of three concepts (horizontal equity, vertical equity, and fiscal neutrality), summarizes school finance litigation history, and presents alternative distribution formats to improve student achievement. Enhancing equity and efficiency requires reallocation of existing resources, incentives for improved performance, a more…

  9. 75 FR 48661 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. ACTION: Notice of Establishment of the Equity and Excellence Commission. SUMMARY: The U.S. Secretary of Education (Secretary) announces the establishment of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Equity Commission...

  10. 75 FR 48662 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION: Request for Nominations to Serve on the Equity and Excellence Commission. SUMMARY: The Secretary of... Equity and Excellence Commission. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Equity and Excellence Commission...

  11. Interactive effects of carbon footprint information and its accessibility on value and subjective qualities of food products.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Kamada, Akiko; Masuda, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Masako; Goto, Sho-ichi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Cai, Dongsheng; Oka, Takashi; Dan, Ippeita

    2010-10-01

    We aimed to explore the interactive effects of the accessibility of information and the degree of carbon footprint score on consumers' value judgments of food products. Participants (n=151, undergraduate students in Japan) rated their maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for four food products varying in information accessibility (active-search or read-only conditions) and in carbon footprint values (low, middle, high, or non-display) provided. We also assessed further effects of information accessibly and carbon footprint value on other product attributes utilizing the subjective estimation of taste, quality, healthiness, and environmental friendliness. Results of the experiment demonstrated an interactive effect of information accessibility and the degree of carbon emission on consumer valuation of carbon footprint-labeled food. The carbon footprint value had a stronger impact on participants' WTP in the active-search condition than in the read-only condition. Similar to WTP, the results of the subjective ratings for product qualities also exhibited an interactive effect of the two factors on the rating of environmental friendliness for products. These results imply that the perceived environmental friendliness inferable from a carbon footprint label contributes to creating value for a food product.

  12. An Assessment of Female Prisoners’ Perception of the Accessibility of Quality Healthcare: A Survey in the Kumasi Central Prisons, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Sarpong, AA; Otupiri, E; Yeboah-Awudzi, K; Osei-Yeboah, J; Berchie, GO; Ephraim, RKD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accessibility of quality healthcare across the globe has generated a lot of attention among public health practitioners. Aim: This study explored the background characteristics of female prisoners and how it influences their assessment of the quality of accessible healthcare in the Kumasi Female Prison. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Female section of the Kumasi Central Prisons from June to December 2011. We used pretested questionnaires to obtain quantitative data from all 39 inmates of the female Prisons. An in-depth interview was used to obtain qualitative data from the prison healthcare giver. Data were analyzed with Epi Info Version 3.5.1, (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), Excel, and Graph Pad Prism version 5.00 for Windows (Graph Pad software, San Diego California USA, www.graphpad.com). Results: Using a 12-point scale inventory questionnaire, inmates with no formal education gave the highest mean health provision assessment score (6.0) whereas those with tertiary education gave the lowest (4.5). Females serving prison sentences gave the highest mean health assessment score whereas remand prisoners gave the lowest. Single females’ mean health assessment score was 5.7 whereas that of married inmates was 4.9. Unemployed inmates scored 5.8, informal 5.4 while civil servants scored 5.0. Conclusion: Access to quality healthcare was poor and demographic characteristics, marital status, educational background, and occupation influenced inmates’ perceptions of accessibility to quality healthcare. Inmates should be encouraged to be proactive in seeking healthcare irrespective of their background characteristics. PMID:26097759

  13. Gender equity in health: debates and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Doyal, L

    2000-09-01

    Gender equity is increasingly cited as a goal of health policy but there is considerable confusion about what this could mean either in theory or in practice. If policies for the promotion of gender equity are to be realisable their goal must be the equitable distribution of health related resources. This requires careful identification of the similarities and differences in the health needs of men and women. It also necessitates an analysis of the gendered obstacles that currently prevent men and women from realising their potential for health. This article explores the impact of gender divisions on the health and the health care of both women and men and draws out some of the policy implications of this analysis. It outlines a three point agenda for change. This includes policies to ensure universal access to reproductive health care, to reduce gender inequalities in access to resources and to relax the constraints of rigidly defined gender roles. The article concludes with a brief overview of the practical and political dilemmas that the implementation of such policies would impose.

  14. Health equity and social justice.

    PubMed

    Peter, F

    2001-01-01

    There is consistent and strong empirical evidence for social inequalities in health, as a vast and growing literature shows. In recent years, these findings have helped to move health equity high on international research and policy agendas. This paper examines how the empirical identification of social inequalities in health relates to a normative judgment about health inequities and puts forward an approach which embeds the pursuit of health equity within the general pursuit of social justice. It defends an indirect approach to health equity, which views social inequalities in health as unjust in so far as they are the result of an unjust basic structure of society in Rawls' sense.

  15. Equity, efficiency, and sulfur emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Pechman, C.

    1985-05-16

    The author describes how historic legislation and regulations have led to the current sulfur emission patterns. He evaluates possible sulfur emission policy options from the perspective of equity and efficiency, the latter in terms of its allocative and productive aspects, and concludes that relying upon direct controls of emissions to meet air quality objectives is an inefficient use of resources. Regulations to protect public health create an incentive to disperse rather than reduce sulfur emissions. Reliance on market forces, including emission taxes or auctions, is efficient at a minimum cost. 23 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Assessing Impacts on Unplanned Hospitalisations of Care Quality and Access Using a Structural Equation Method: With a Case Study of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Congdon, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enhanced quality of care and improved access are central to effective primary care management of long term conditions. However, research evidence is inconclusive in establishing a link between quality of primary care, or access, and adverse outcomes, such as unplanned hospitalisation. Methods: This paper proposes a structural equation model for quality and access as latent variables affecting adverse outcomes, such as unplanned hospitalisations. In a case study application, quality of care (QOC) is defined in relation to diabetes, and the aim is to assess impacts of care quality and access on unplanned hospital admissions for diabetes, while allowing also for socio-economic deprivation, diabetes morbidity, and supply effects. The study involves 90 general practitioner (GP) practices in two London Clinical Commissioning Groups, using clinical quality of care indicators, and patient survey data on perceived access. Results: As a single predictor, quality of care has a significant negative impact on emergency admissions, and this significant effect remains when socio-economic deprivation and morbidity are allowed. In a full structural equation model including access, the probability that QOC negatively impacts on unplanned admissions exceeds 0.9. Furthermore, poor access is linked to deprivation, diminished QOC, and larger list sizes. Conclusions: Using a Bayesian inference methodology, the evidence from the analysis is weighted towards negative impacts of higher primary care quality and improved access on unplanned admissions. The methodology of the paper is potentially applicable to other long term conditions, and relevant when care quality and access cannot be measured directly and are better regarded as latent variables. PMID:27598184

  17. Creating Teacher Incentives for School Excellence and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Barnett; Eckert, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring that all students in America's public schools are taught by good teachers is an educational and moral imperative. Teacher incentive proposals are rarely grounded on what high-quality research indicates are the kinds of teacher incentives that lead to school excellence and equity. Few of the current approaches to creating teacher…

  18. Peer Review Quality and Transparency of the Peer-Review Process in Open Access and Subscription Journals

    PubMed Central

    Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent controversies highlighting substandard peer review in Open Access (OA) and traditional (subscription) journals have increased the need for authors, funders, publishers, and institutions to assure quality of peer-review in academic journals. I propose that transparency of the peer-review process may be seen as an indicator of the quality of peer-review, and develop and validate a tool enabling different stakeholders to assess transparency of the peer-review process. Methods and Findings Based on editorial guidelines and best practices, I developed a 14-item tool to rate transparency of the peer-review process on the basis of journals’ websites. In Study 1, a random sample of 231 authors of papers in 92 subscription journals in different fields rated transparency of the journals that published their work. Authors’ ratings of the transparency were positively associated with quality of the peer-review process but unrelated to journal’s impact factors. In Study 2, 20 experts on OA publishing assessed the transparency of established (non-OA) journals, OA journals categorized as being published by potential predatory publishers, and journals from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). Results show high reliability across items (α = .91) and sufficient reliability across raters. Ratings differentiated the three types of journals well. In Study 3, academic librarians rated a random sample of 140 DOAJ journals and another 54 journals that had received a hoax paper written by Bohannon to test peer-review quality. Journals with higher transparency ratings were less likely to accept the flawed paper and showed higher impact as measured by the h5 index from Google Scholar. Conclusions The tool to assess transparency of the peer-review process at academic journals shows promising reliability and validity. The transparency of the peer-review process can be seen as an indicator of peer-review quality allowing the tool to be used to predict academic

  19. The impact of cattle access on ecological water quality in streams: Examples from agricultural catchments within Ireland.

    PubMed

    Conroy, E; Turner, J N; Rymszewicz, A; O'Sullivan, J J; Bruen, M; Lawler, D; Lally, H; Kelly-Quinn, M

    2016-03-15

    Unrestricted cattle access to rivers and streams represent a potentially significant localised pressure on freshwater systems. However there is no consensus in the literature on the occurrence and extent of impact and limited research has examined the effects on aquatic biota in the humid temperate environment examined in the present study. Furthermore, this is one of the first times that research consider the potential for cattle access impacts in streams of varying water quality in Northern Europe. We investigated the effects of cattle access on macroinvertebrate communities and deposited fine sediment levels, in four rivers of high/good and four rivers of moderate water quality status which drain, low gradient, calcareous grassland catchments in Ireland. We assessed the temporal variability in macroinvertebrates communities across two seasons, spring and autumn. Site specific impacts were evident which appeared to be influenced by water quality status and season. All four high/good water status rivers revealed significant downstream changes in community structure and at least two univariate metrics (total richness and EPT richness together with taxon, E and EPT abundance). Two of the four moderate water status rivers showed significant changes in community structure, abundance and richness metrics and functional feeding groups driven in the main by downstream increases in collectors/gatherers, shredders and burrowing taxa. These two moderate water status rivers had high or prolonged livestock activity. In view of these findings, the potential for some of these sites to achieve at least high/good water quality status, as set out in the EU Water Framework Directive, may be compromised. The results presented highlight the need for additional research to further define the site specific factors and livestock management practices, under different discharge conditions, that increase the risk of impact on aquatic ecology due to these cattle-river interactions.

  20. The impact of cattle access on ecological water quality in streams: Examples from agricultural catchments within Ireland.

    PubMed

    Conroy, E; Turner, J N; Rymszewicz, A; O'Sullivan, J J; Bruen, M; Lawler, D; Lally, H; Kelly-Quinn, M

    2016-03-15

    Unrestricted cattle access to rivers and streams represent a potentially significant localised pressure on freshwater systems. However there is no consensus in the literature on the occurrence and extent of impact and limited research has examined the effects on aquatic biota in the humid temperate environment examined in the present study. Furthermore, this is one of the first times that research consider the potential for cattle access impacts in streams of varying water quality in Northern Europe. We investigated the effects of cattle access on macroinvertebrate communities and deposited fine sediment levels, in four rivers of high/good and four rivers of moderate water quality status which drain, low gradient, calcareous grassland catchments in Ireland. We assessed the temporal variability in macroinvertebrates communities across two seasons, spring and autumn. Site specific impacts were evident which appeared to be influenced by water quality status and season. All four high/good water status rivers revealed significant downstream changes in community structure and at least two univariate metrics (total richness and EPT richness together with taxon, E and EPT abundance). Two of the four moderate water status rivers showed significant changes in community structure, abundance and richness metrics and functional feeding groups driven in the main by downstream increases in collectors/gatherers, shredders and burrowing taxa. These two moderate water status rivers had high or prolonged livestock activity. In view of these findings, the potential for some of these sites to achieve at least high/good water quality status, as set out in the EU Water Framework Directive, may be compromised. The results presented highlight the need for additional research to further define the site specific factors and livestock management practices, under different discharge conditions, that increase the risk of impact on aquatic ecology due to these cattle-river interactions. PMID

  1. Free open access medical education can help rural clinicians deliver 'quality care, out there'.

    PubMed

    Leeuwenburg, Tim J; Parker, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Rural clinicians require expertise across a broad range of specialties, presenting difficulty in maintaining currency of knowledge and application of best practice. Free open access medical education is a new paradigm in continuing professional education. Use of the internet and social media allows a globally accessible crowd-sourced adjunct, providing inline (contextual) and offline (asynchronous) content to augment traditional educational principles and the availability of relevant resources for life-long learning. This markedly reduces knowledge translation (the delay from inception of a new idea to bedside implementation) and allows rural clinicians to further expertise by engaging in discussion of cutting edge concepts with peers worldwide. PMID:26278340

  2. Data Resource Profile: Pathways to Health and Social Equity for Children (PATHS Equity for Children)

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Nathan C; Chateau, Dan G; Martens, Patricia J; Brownell, Marni D; Katz, Alan; Burland, Elaine MJ; Walld, Randy; Hu, Mingming; Taylor, Carole R; Sarkar, Joykrishna; Goh, Chun Yan

    2014-01-01

    The PATHS Data Resource is a unique database comprising data that follow individuals from the prenatal period to adulthood. The PATHS Resource was developed for conducting longitudinal epidemiological research into child health and health equity. It contains individual-level data on health, socioeconomic status, social services and education. Individuals’ data are linkable across these domains, allowing researchers to follow children through childhood and across a variety of sectors. PATHS includes nearly all individuals that were born between 1984 and 2012 and registered with Manitoba’s universal health insurance programme at some point during childhood. All PATHS data are anonymized. Key concepts, definitions and algorithms necessary to work with the PATHS Resource are freely accessible online and an interactive forum is available to new researchers working with these data. The PATHS Resource is one of the richest and most complete databases assembled for conducting longitudinal epidemiological research, incorporating many variables that address the social determinants of health and health equity. Interested researchers are encouraged to contact [mchp_access@cpe.umanitoba.ca] to obtain access to PATHS to use in their own programmes of research. PMID:25212478

  3. Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were…

  4. Access, Quality, and Opportunity: A Case Study of Zambia Open Community Schools (ZOCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwalimu, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Community schools and other approaches to Alternative Primary Education or APE have increased access to primary education for underserved populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America as a major goal of the Education for All (EFA) movement. In Zambia, a country where an estimated 20 percent of the basic education enrollment now attends community…

  5. Enhancing Access to and Quality of Basic Education through Head Teachers' Leadership Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oni, J. O.; Jegede, A. A.; Osisami, R. A.; Illo, C. O.; Lawal, R. O.; Fabinu, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Basic education is the fundamental requirement for idiosyncratic and societal development. The individual child needs to have access to it and acquire it qualitatively. The sum total of all the knowledge attitude, skills and competences that the Nigerian child today acquires have been declared to be on the decline. Every stakeholder: teacher,…

  6. Child Care for Low-Income Children with Disabilities: Access, Quality, and Parental Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Shavaun; Kisker, Ellen E.; Peterson, Carla A.; Carta, Judith J.; Jeon, Hyun-Joo

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, this study analyzed the similarities and differences of variables associated with child care services for low-income families with young children with disabilities and low-income families with typically developing children. Four major variables were analyzed: access to child…

  7. Improving Access To, Quality, and the Effectiveness of Digital Tutoring in K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Patricia; Good, Annalee; Heinrich, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable variation in how providers of digital education describe what they do, their services, how students access services, and what is delivered, complicating efforts to accurately assess its impact. We examine program characteristics of digital tutoring providers using rich, longitudinal observational and interview data and then…

  8. Structuring Opportunity after Entry: Who Has Access to High Quality Instruction during College?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roksa, Josipa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: When inequality of opportunity is discussed in higher education, it typically pertains to access to college. Ample research has examined sociodemographic inequalities in transition to higher education and enrollment in particular types of institutions. Although providing valuable insights, social stratification research does…

  9. The Quality of Urban Environments: Mapping Variation in Access to Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, Karen; Exeter, Daniel; Field, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between community infrastructure and health through the development of the Community Resource Accessibility Index (CRAI) research tool.This area-based index of community services, facilities, and amenities enables comparisons between opportunity structures in the local environment and residents' health and wellbeing. It…

  10. Gender Equity Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorius, Kathleen King

    2010-01-01

    Despite remarkable progress along many indicators of equitable access, participation, and outcomes of schooling, there are still persistent, pervasive issues that must be addresses, including continued disparities in access to athletics and academic programs, sexual harassment, hate crimes, and discriminatory treatment of girls and women. This…

  11. Community Engaged Leadership to Advance Health Equity and Build Healthier Communities

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Kisha; Akintobi, Tabia; Hopkins, Jammie; Belton, Allyson; McGregor, Brian; Blanks, Starla; Wrenn, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    Health is a human right. Equity in health implies that ideally everyone should have a fair opportunity to attain their full health potential and, more pragmatically, that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential. Addressing the multi-faceted health needs of ethnically and culturally diverse individuals in the United States is a complex issue that requires inventive strategies to reduce risk factors and buttress protective factors to promote greater well-being among individuals, families, and communities. With growing diversity concerning various ethnicities and nationalities; and with significant changes in the constellation of multiple of risk factors that can influence health outcomes, it is imperative that we delineate strategic efforts that encourage better access to primary care, focused community-based programs, multi-disciplinary clinical and translational research methodologies, and health policy advocacy initiatives that may improve individuals’ longevity and quality of life. PMID:27713839

  12. Toward scientific equity for the prevention of depression and depressive symptoms in vulnerable youth.

    PubMed

    Perrino, Tatiana; Beardslee, William; Bernal, Guillermo; Brincks, Ahnalee; Cruden, Gracelyn; Howe, George; Murry, Velma; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo; Sandler, Irwin; Brown, C Hendricks

    2015-07-01

    Certain subgroups of youth are at high risk for depression and elevated depressive symptoms, and experience limited access to quality mental health care. Examples are socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and sexual minority youth. Research shows that there are efficacious interventions to prevent youth depression and depressive symptoms. These preventive interventions have the potential to play a key role in addressing these mental health disparities by reducing youth risk factors and enhancing protective factors. However, there are comparatively few preventive interventions directed specifically to these vulnerable subgroups, and sample sizes of diverse subgroups in general prevention trials are often too low to assess whether preventive interventions work equally well for vulnerable youth compared to other youth. In this paper, we describe the importance and need for "scientific equity," or equality and fairness in the amount of scientific knowledge produced to understand the potential solutions to such health disparities. We highlight possible strategies for promoting scientific equity, including the following: increasing the number of prevention research participants from vulnerable subgroups, conducting more data synthesis analyses and implementation science research, disseminating preventive interventions that are efficacious for vulnerable youth, and increasing the diversity of the prevention science research workforce. These strategies can increase the availability of research evidence to determine the degree to which preventive interventions can help address mental health disparities. Although this paper utilizes the prevention of youth depression as an illustrative case example, the concepts are applicable to other health outcomes for which there are disparities, such as substance use and obesity.

  13. Equity in Science at South African Schools: A pious platitude or an achievable goal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewnarain Ramnarain, Umesh

    2011-07-01

    The apartheid policies in South Africa had a marked influence on the accessibility and quality of school science experienced by the different race groups. African learners in particular were seriously disadvantaged in this regard. The issues of equity and redress were foremost in transformation of the education system, and the accompanying curriculum reform. This paper reports on equity in terms of equality of outputs and equality of inputs in South African school science, with a particular focus on the implementation of practical science investigations. This was a qualitative case study of two teachers on their implementation of science investigations at two schools, one a township school, previously designated for black children, and the other a former Model C school, previously reserved for white children. My study was guided by the curriculum implementation framework by Rogan and Grayson in trying to understand the practice of these teachers at schools located in contextually diverse communities. The framework helped profile the implementation of science investigations and also enabled me to explore the factors which are able to support or hinder this implementation.

  14. Fostering health equity: clinical and research training strategies from nursing education.

    PubMed

    Deatrick, Janet A; Lipman, Terri H; Gennaro, Susan; Sommers, Marilyn; de Leon Siantz, Mary Lou; Mooney-Doyle, Kim; Hollis, Genevieve; Jemmott, Loretta S

    2009-09-01

    Racism, ethnocentrism, segregation, stereotyping, and classism are tightly linked to health equity and social determinants of health. They lead to lack of power, money, resources, and education which may result in poor health care access and outcomes. Health profession faculties must address the complex relationships that exist between individual, interpersonal, institutional, social and political factors that influence health outcomes in both clinical and research training. Thus, the purposes of this paper are to provide examples of training strategies from nursing education that foster cultural sensitivity. First, assumptions about health equity, culture, ethnicity and race are explored. Second, clinical training within an undergraduate and graduate context are explored, including an undergraduate cancer case study and in a graduate pediatric nursing program are described to demonstrate how cultural models can be used to integrate the biomedical and psychosocial content in a course. Third, research training for summer scholars and doctoral and post doctoral fellows (short and long term) is described to demonstrate how to increase the number and quality of scholars prepared to conduct research with vulnerable populations. Research training strategies include a summer research institute, policy fellowship, and a scholars "pipeline" program. A unique perspective is presented through collaboration between a nursing school and a center for health disparities research.

  15. 42 CFR 417.106 - Quality assurance program; Availability, accessibility, and continuity of basic and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations: Services § 417.106 Quality assurance program... the following conditions: (1) Stresses health outcomes to the extent consistent with the state of...

  16. 42 CFR 417.106 - Quality assurance program; Availability, accessibility, and continuity of basic and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations: Services § 417.106 Quality assurance program... the following conditions: (1) Stresses health outcomes to the extent consistent with the state of...

  17. 42 CFR 417.106 - Quality assurance program; Availability, accessibility, and continuity of basic and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations: Services § 417.106 Quality assurance program... the following conditions: (1) Stresses health outcomes to the extent consistent with the state of...

  18. Efficient, quality-assured data capture in operational research through innovative use of open-access technology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A M V; Naik, B; Guddemane, D K; Bhat, P; Wilson, N; Sreenivas, A N; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2013-03-21

    Ensuring quality of data during electronic data capture has been one of the most neglected components of operational research. Multicentre studies are also challenged with issues about logistics of travel, training, supervision, monitoring and troubleshooting support. Allocating resources to these issues can pose a significant bottleneck for operational research in resource-limited settings. In this article, we describe an innovative and efficient way of coordinating data capture in multicentre operational research using a combination of three open access technologies-EpiData for data capture, Dropbox for sharing files and TeamViewer for providing remote support.

  19. Contribution of Neighborhood Income and Access to Quality Physical Activity Resources to Physical Activity in Ethnic Minority Women Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Soltero, Erica G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To create and test an index to indicate both availability and quality of physical activity (PA) resources (PARs), to examine associations between access to quality PARs and changes in PA, and to determine whether this association differed in lower- and higher-income neighborhoods. Design Longitudinal, 6-month intervention. Setting. Houston and Austin, Texas. Subjects African-American and Hispanic or Latina women. Measures Women (N = 410) completed a questionnaire and accelerometry to measure PA. Neighborhoods (N = 163) were classified as lower- or higher-income by median household income at the census-tract level. PARs were audited using the PARA (physical activity resource assessment). Access to quality PARs was determined by a composite index (QPAR) of features, amenities, and incivilities. Analysis Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine changes in PA by (1) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and QPAR (lower/higher) groups, and (2) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and number of PARs (lower/higher) groups, adjusting for ethnicity, household income, and body mass index. Results Women in neighborhoods with lower QPAR scores had small increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 327.8 metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-min/wk) and decreases in accelerometer PA (M = −3.4 min/d), compared to those with higher QPAR scores who had larger increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 709.8 MET-min/wk) and increased accelerometer PA (M = 3.9 min/d). There was a significant interaction between changes in leisure-time PA, QPAR score, and number of PARs (p =.049). Women with both more PARs and higher QPAR scores reported greater increases in leisure-time PA than women with fewer PARs and lower QPAR scores. Conclusion Access to higher-quality PARs can help increase or maintain PA over time regardless of neighborhood income. PAR quality is a separate and distinct, important determinant of PA in ethnic minority women. PMID:24524382

  20. Mobile Access to ClinicalConnect: A User Feedback Survey on Usability, Productivity, and Quality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background ClinicalConnect, a federated clinical viewer for South West Ontario, Canada, launched a mobile interface in June 2012. Objective The aim of the study was to assess usability of the mobile interface and the perceived impact on productivity of health care providers and quality of healthcare delivery. Methods A survey was conducted using the System Usability Scale (SUS) and questionnaires designed to measure productivity and quality based on Canada Health Infoway's Benefits Evaluation framework. Results The mean SUS score was 67 based on 77 responses. The mean scores for productivity and quality were 3.37 (N=74) and 3.62 (N=71), respectively, on a 5-point Likert scale where 3 was neutral. Conclusions Users perceived the mobile interface of ClinicalConnect as useful but were neutral about the ease of use. PMID:25877226

  1. Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were consistently tied to HDI; the availability of formal and informal learning materials little less so. Gross domestic product (GDP) tended to show a stronger independent relation with housing quality and material resources than life expectancy and education. Formal learning resources were independently related to the GDP and education indices, and informal learning resources were not independently related to any constituent indices of the overall HDI. PMID:22277008

  2. Making GRADE accessible: a proposal for graphic display of evidence quality assessments.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid S; Borowiack, Ewa; Roos, Carolien; Kowalska, Monika; Zapalska, Anna; Mol, Ben W; Mignini, Luciano; Meads, Catherine; Walczak, Jacek

    2011-06-01

    When generating guidelines, quality of evidence is frequently reported in tabulated form capturing several domains, for example, study design, risk of bias and heterogeneity. Increasingly, this is done using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. As assimilating large amount of tabulated data across several comparisons and outcomes spread over many pages (sometimes hundreds) is not easy, there is a need to present evidence summaries in a more effective way. A graphic display plotting the several domains used in evidence grading on equiangular spokes starting from the same point, the data length of each spoke proportional to the magnitude of the quality, succinctly captures tabulated information. These plots allow easy identification of deficiencies, outliers and similarities in evidence quality for individual and multiple comparisons and outcomes, paving the way for their routine use alongside tabulated information.

  3. Equity and the Sun Quality Health Private Provider Social Franchise: comparative analysis of patient survey data and a nationally representative TB prevalence survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Since 2004, the Sun Quality Health (SQH) franchise network has provided TB care in Myanmar through a network of established private medical clinics. This study compares the wealth distribution of the TB patients to non-TB patients to determine if TB is most common among the poor, and compares the wealth of all TB patients to SQH TB patients to assess whether the franchise achieves its goal of serving the poor. Methods The study uses data from two sources: 1) Myanmar’s first nationally representative TB prevalence study conducted in 2009, and 2) client exit interviews from TB patients from SQH clinics. In total, 1,114 TB-positive individuals were included in the study, including 739 from the national sample and 375 from the SQH sample. Results TB patients at SQH clinics were poorer than TB-positive individuals in the overall population, though not at a statistically significant level (p > 0.05). After stratification we found that in urban areas, TB patients at SQH clinics were more likely to be in the poorest quartile compared to general TB positive population (16.8% vs. 8.6%, respectively; p < 0.05). In rural areas, there was no statistically significant difference between the wealth distribution of SQH clinic patients and general TB positive individuals (p > 0.05). Conclusion Franchised clinics in Myanmar are reaching poor populations of TB patients in urban areas; more efforts are needed in order to reach the most vulnerable in rural areas. PMID:23305063

  4. Bridging Literacy and Equity: The Essential Guide to Social Equity Teaching. Language & Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazar, Althier M.; Edwards, Patricia A.; McMillon, Gwendolyn Thompson

    2012-01-01

    "Bridging Literacy and Equity" synthesizes the essential research and practice of social equity literacy teaching in one succinct, user-friendly volume. Extraordinary K-12 teachers show us what social equity literacy teaching looks like and how it advances children's achievement. Chapters identify six key dimensions of social equity teaching that…

  5. 7 CFR 1980.391 - Equity sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... assistance granted on the account. (b) Miscellaneous provisions—(1) Changes in terms. Shared equity will not... section. (c) Affordable housing proposals. Shared equity under an affordable housing innovation (such...

  6. Expanding Access and Quality in Uganda: The Challenges of Building a Plane while Flying It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutright, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Uganda is among many nations in sub-Saharan Africa that are trying simultaneously to expand higher education opportunities and to enhance the quality of higher-education offerings. These are particularly challenging goals in resource-rich environments and are even more difficulty in environments of more limited resources to include funding,…

  7. Does Access to High Quality Early Education Vary by State Policy Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Maia C.; Morris, Pamela A.; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that attending high quality, formal early childhood education (ECE) is associated with stronger cognitive and social-emotional skills, especially for low-income children. Yet at current funding levels, federally-funded programs like Head Start cannot serve all eligible children. Thus, state-level policies governing the…

  8. Strategic Priorities for Improving Access to Quality Education in the Kurdistan Region--Iraq. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernez, Georges; Culbertson, Shelly; Constant, Louay

    2014-01-01

    The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) began an ambitious reform of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI's) kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) education system beginning in 2007 in an effort to modernize the curriculum, upgrade school facilities, and raise the quality of instruction. In 2010, RAND was asked to conduct a one-year study to assess…

  9. 42 CFR 417.106 - Quality assurance program; Availability, accessibility, and continuity of basic and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations: Services § 417.106 Quality assurance program; Availability... following conditions: (1) Stresses health outcomes to the extent consistent with the state of the art....

  10. Tackling Student Literacy and Numeracy Underpreparedness in Ontario Colleges: Access, Quality and Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziwak, Kasia

    2014-01-01

    As more students enter postsecondary education without the numeracy and literacy skills necessary for success, Ontario colleges are facing a challenge. While enrolment-based funding drives the colleges to seek growth to ensure financial stability, the quality assurance mechanism leads them to divert millions of dollars from their operating budgets…

  11. Better access, quality, and cost for clinically complex veterans with home-based primary care.

    PubMed

    Edes, Thomas; Kinosian, Bruce; Vuckovic, Nancy H; Nichols, Linda Olivia; Becker, Margaret Mary; Hossain, Monir

    2014-10-01

    In successfully reducing healthcare expenditures, patient goals must be met and savings differentiated from cost shifting. Although the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Home Based Primary Care (HBPC) program for chronically ill individuals has resulted in cost reduction for the VA, it is unknown whether cost reduction results from restricting services or shifting costs to Medicare and whether HBPC meets patient goals. Cost projection using a hierarchical condition category (HCC) model adapted to the VA was used to determine VA plus Medicare projected costs for 9,425 newly enrolled HBPC recipients. Projected annual costs were compared with observed annualized costs before and during HBPC. To assess patient perspectives of care, 31 veterans and caregivers were interviewed from three representative programs. During HBPC, Medicare costs were 10.8% lower than projected, VA plus Medicare costs were 11.7% lower than projected, and combined hospitalizations were 25.5% lower than during the period without HBPC. Patients reported high satisfaction with HBPC team access, education, and continuity of care, which they felt contributed to fewer exacerbations, emergency visits, and hospitalizations. HBPC improves access while reducing hospitalizations and total cost. Medicare is currently testing the HBPC approach through the Independence at Home demonstration. PMID:25333529

  12. Process quality of diabetes care under favorable access to healthcare: a 2-year longitudinal study using claims data in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Tomio, Jun; Sugiyama, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the process quality of diabetes care provided to patients under universal health insurance coverage. Research design and methods Using claim data for 570 363 beneficiaries aged 20–69 years who were covered by Health Insurance Societies between April 2010 and March 2012, we identified patients with type 2 diabetes who made follow-up visits at least every 3 months in the first year (subject-identification year). We assessed patient adherence to follow-up visits in the second year (quality-reporting year), calculated the proportion of patients that completed routine examinations for glycemic control and complications, and evaluated associations between characteristics of patients and quality indicators using multivariable logistic regression models. Results We identified 12 909 patients with diabetes; in the subject-identification year, 1415 (11.0%) had prescriptions for insulin injections, 6049 (46.9%) had prescriptions for oral antihyperglycemic agents, and 5445 (42.2%) had no diabetes-related prescriptions. Among patients using medication, 474 (6.4%) dropped out in the quality-reporting year. The adjusted percentages of quality indicators among patients using oral antihyperglycemic agents were 95.8% for glycated hemoglobin, 35.6% for eye examinations, 15.4% for urine microalbumin excretion, and 90.6% for serum lipids; the percentages among patients taking insulin were the same or higher. Annual testing for glycated hemoglobin was less frequent in patients aged 40–49 years than in patients aged 60–69 years (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.91). Fewer men than women (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.64), and fewer patients aged 40–49 years than those aged 60–69 years (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.50 to 0.63) tended to complete routine eye examinations. Conclusions Screening for retinopathy and nephropathy was less frequent than required despite favorable conditions for access to healthcare in Japan. Suboptimal quality of care appeared to

  13. Process quality of diabetes care under favorable access to healthcare: a 2-year longitudinal study using claims data in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Tomio, Jun; Sugiyama, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the process quality of diabetes care provided to patients under universal health insurance coverage. Research design and methods Using claim data for 570 363 beneficiaries aged 20–69 years who were covered by Health Insurance Societies between April 2010 and March 2012, we identified patients with type 2 diabetes who made follow-up visits at least every 3 months in the first year (subject-identification year). We assessed patient adherence to follow-up visits in the second year (quality-reporting year), calculated the proportion of patients that completed routine examinations for glycemic control and complications, and evaluated associations between characteristics of patients and quality indicators using multivariable logistic regression models. Results We identified 12 909 patients with diabetes; in the subject-identification year, 1415 (11.0%) had prescriptions for insulin injections, 6049 (46.9%) had prescriptions for oral antihyperglycemic agents, and 5445 (42.2%) had no diabetes-related prescriptions. Among patients using medication, 474 (6.4%) dropped out in the quality-reporting year. The adjusted percentages of quality indicators among patients using oral antihyperglycemic agents were 95.8% for glycated hemoglobin, 35.6% for eye examinations, 15.4% for urine microalbumin excretion, and 90.6% for serum lipids; the percentages among patients taking insulin were the same or higher. Annual testing for glycated hemoglobin was less frequent in patients aged 40–49 years than in patients aged 60–69 years (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.91). Fewer men than women (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.64), and fewer patients aged 40–49 years than those aged 60–69 years (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.50 to 0.63) tended to complete routine eye examinations. Conclusions Screening for retinopathy and nephropathy was less frequent than required despite favorable conditions for access to healthcare in Japan. Suboptimal quality of care appeared to

  14. Interstellar Sweat Equity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. H.; Becker, R. E.; O'Donnell, D. J.; Brody, A. R.

    So, you have just launched aboard the Starship, headed to an exoplanet light years from Earth. You will spend the rest of your natural life on this journey in the expectation and hope that your grandchildren will arrive safely, land, and build a new settlement. You will need to govern the community onboard the Starship. This system of governance must meet unique requirements for participation, representation, and decision-making. On a spaceship that can fly and operate by itself, what will the crewmembers do for their generations in transit? Certainly, they will train and train again to practice the skills they will need upon arrival at a new world. However, this vicarious practice neither suffices to prepare the future pioneers for their destiny at a new star nor will it provide them with the satisfaction in their own work. To hone the crewmembers' inventive and technical skills, to challenge and prepare them for pioneering, the crew would build and expand the interstellar ship in transit. This transstellar ``sweat equity'' gives a stake in the enterprise to all the people, providing meaningful and useful activity to the new generations of crewmembers. They build all the new segments of the vessel from raw materials - including atmosphere - stored on board. Construction of new pressure shell modules would be one option, but they also reconstruct or fill-in existing pressurized volumes. The crew makes new life support system components and develops new agricultural modules in anticipation of their future needs. Upon arrival at the new star or planet, the crew shall apply these robustly developed skills and self-sufficient spirit to their new home.

  15. 7 CFR 930.60 - Equity holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equity holders. 930.60 Section 930.60 Agriculture... Regulations § 930.60 Equity holders. (a) Inventory reserve ownership. The inventory reserve shall be the sole responsibility of the handlers who place products into the inventory reserve. A handler's equity in the...

  16. 7 CFR 1980.391 - Equity sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equity sharing. 1980.391 Section 1980.391 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.391 Equity sharing. The policy of RHS is to collect... described in paragraph (a) of this section occur, if any equity exists in the security. (a) Determining...

  17. Understanding Equity Strategies of Training Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, John; Volkoff, Veronica; Egg, Mez; Solomon, Nicky

    2004-01-01

    Limited research has been undertaken to identify and examine systemic issues associated with the provision of vocational education and training (VET) to equity groups. This report focuses on the institutional relationships and policies that determine equity provision, and proposes three principles for framing equity practices. The principles are:…

  18. Framework for Evaluation of Equity Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexley, Emmaline; Harris, Kerri-Lee; James, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Framework for Evaluation of Equity Initiatives has been prepared to support the Go8 Equity Strategy. Its purpose is to assist Group of Eight (Go8) universities to evaluate the effectiveness of their equity initiatives and interventions in the context of federal policies and the distinctive missions and responsibilities of the individual Go8…

  19. 77 FR 31605 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION...- ] coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the..., Equity and Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW., Washington,...

  20. 76 FR 41233 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. ACTION... meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the functions of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen Chen, Designated Federal Official, Equity and Excellence Commission,...

  1. 76 FR 55059 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION...-coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the... Auditorium. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Eichner, Designated Federal Official, Equity and...

  2. 77 FR 484 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION...-coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the..., Equity and Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW, Washington,...

  3. 76 FR 6774 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice... meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the functions of... Chen, Designated Federal Official, Equity and Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education,...

  4. 76 FR 27034 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION... upcoming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the... Auditorium. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen Chen, Designated Federal Official, Equity and...

  5. Accessibility and Quality of Online Cancer-Related Clinical Trial Information for Naïve Searchers.

    PubMed

    Abel, Gregory A; Cronin, Angel M; Earles, Kristofer; Gray, Stacy W

    2015-10-01

    Although the Internet may help to increase cancer patients' awareness of clinical trials, little is known about the accessibility and quality of online clinical trial information. We simulated the experience of a naïve cancer patient without clinical trial knowledge by searching three popular search engines for treatment information for breast, lung, and prostate cancer, and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Two coders independently evaluated website content for accessibility and quality. We screened 120 websites and identified 40 unique sites for analysis. Overall, 85% [95% confidence interval (CI), 70%-94%] of sites mentioned clinical trials on the landing page and 68% (51%-81%) included links to specific trials. Overall readability was poor. Approximately half of websites (36%-68%) included information on the potential benefits and risks of clinical trials and 40% provided information about when the site had been updated (25%-57%). Among sites with links to specific clinical trials, only 44% (25%-65%) provided an interactive interface that would allow patients to customize search results; breast (100%) and prostate (50%) sites were more interactive than lung (25%) and MDS (14%; P = 0.007). Although cancer clinical trial information is widely available on the Internet, its quality is highly variable. Given the fact that many emerging cancer therapeutics are personalized based on disease or genomic characteristics, interactive web-based interfaces could serve as powerful vehicles to help patients locate appropriate clinical trials. Without enhanced efforts to ensure greater interactivity of cancer treatment websites, patient awareness of relevant clinical trials may remain low. PMID:26265204

  6. Retrieval practice enhances the accessibility but not the quality of memory.

    PubMed

    Sutterer, David W; Awh, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that retrieval from long-term memory (LTM) can enhance subsequent memory performance, a phenomenon labeled the retrieval practice effect. However, the almost exclusive reliance on categorical stimuli in this literature leaves open a basic question about the nature of this improvement in memory performance. It has not yet been determined whether retrieval practice improves the probability of successful memory retrieval or the quality of the retrieved representation. To answer this question, we conducted three experiments using a mixture modeling approach (Zhang & Luck, 2008) that provides a measure of both the probability of recall and the quality of the recalled memories. Subjects attempted to memorize the color of 400 unique shapes. After every 10 images were presented, subjects either recalled the last 10 colors (the retrieval practice condition) by clicking on a color wheel with each shape as a retrieval cue or they participated in a control condition that involved no further presentations (Experiment 1) or restudy of the 10 shape/color associations (Experiments 2 and 3). Performance in a subsequent delayed recall test revealed a robust retrieval practice effect. Subjects recalled a significantly higher proportion of items that they had previously retrieved relative to items that were untested or that they had restudied. Interestingly, retrieval practice did not elicit any improvement in the precision of the retrieved memories. The same empirical pattern also was observed following delays of greater than 24 hours. Thus, retrieval practice increases the probability of successful memory retrieval but does not improve memory quality.

  7. The digital divide in public e-health: barriers to accessibility and privacy in state health department websites.

    PubMed

    West, Darrell M; Miller, Edward Alan

    2006-08-01

    State health departments have placed a tremendous amount of information, data, and services online in recent years. With the significant increase in online resources at official health sites, though, have come questions concerning equity of access and the confidentiality of electronic medical materials. This paper reports on an examination of public health department websites maintained by the 50 state governments. Using a content analysis of health department sites undertaken each year from 2000 to 2005, we investigate several dimensions of accessibility and privacy: readability levels, disability access, non-English accessibility, and the presence of privacy and security statements. We argue that although progress has been made at improving the accessibility and confidentiality of health department electronic resources, there remains much work to be done to ensure quality access for all Americans in the area of public e-health.

  8. Equity in development and access to health services in the Wild Coast of South Africa: the community view through four linked cross-sectional studies between 1997 and 2007

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background After election in 1994, the South African government implemented national and regional programmes, such as the Wild Coast Spatial Development Initiative (SDI), to provoke economic growth and to decrease inequities. CIET measured development in the Wild Coast region across four linked cross-sectional surveys (1997-2007). The 2007 survey was an opportunity to look at inequities since the original 1997 baseline, and how such inequities affect access to health care. Methods The 2000, 2004 and 2007 follow-up surveys revisited the communities of the 1997 baseline. Household-level multivariate analysis looked at development indicators and access to health in the context of inequities such as household crowding, access to protected sources of water, house roof construction, main food item purchased, and perception of community empowerment. Individual multivariate models accounted for age, sex, education and income earning opportunities. Results Overall access to protected sources of water increased since the baseline (from 20% in 1997 to 50% in 2007), yet households made of mud and grass, and households who bought basics as their main food item were still less likely to have protected sources of water. The most vulnerable, such as those with less education and less water and food security, were also less likely to have worked for wages leaving them with little chance of improving their standard of living (less education OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.37-0.94; less water security OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93; less food security OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.29-0.64). People with less income were more likely to visit government services (among men OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.13-0.59; among women OR 0.33, 95%CI 0.20-0.54), reporting decision factors of cost and distance; users of private clinics sought out better service and medication. Lower food security and poorer house construction was also associated with women visiting government rather than private health services. Women with some formal education

  9. Perceptions of Equity, Balance of Support Exchange, and Mother-Adult Child Relations.

    PubMed

    Sechrist, Jori; Suitor, J Jill; Howard, Abigail R; Pillemer, Karl

    2014-04-01

    Equity theory suggests that relationships are more harmonious when both members of a dyad believe that their exchanges are fair. However, the level and frequency of exchange, rather than perceptions of equity, have been the focus of most research on support and the quality of intergenerational relations. Using data from 1,426 mother-child dyads nested within 413 families collected as part of the Within-Family Differences Study, the authors explored whether mothers' perceptions of equity are better predictors of closeness and tension than are mothers' reports of balanced exchanges of support. Mixed-model analyses revealed that mothers' perceptions of equity were more consistent predictors of relationship quality than were the balanced exchanges of support, though the results varied somewhat by gender of adult child. These findings contribute to a growing body of research demonstrating that the psychological processes that shape intergenerational relationships mirror those of other ties. PMID:24683270

  10. Perceptions of Equity, Balance of Support Exchange, and Mother-Adult Child Relations.

    PubMed

    Sechrist, Jori; Suitor, J Jill; Howard, Abigail R; Pillemer, Karl

    2014-04-01

    Equity theory suggests that relationships are more harmonious when both members of a dyad believe that their exchanges are fair. However, the level and frequency of exchange, rather than perceptions of equity, have been the focus of most research on support and the quality of intergenerational relations. Using data from 1,426 mother-child dyads nested within 413 families collected as part of the Within-Family Differences Study, the authors explored whether mothers' perceptions of equity are better predictors of closeness and tension than are mothers' reports of balanced exchanges of support. Mixed-model analyses revealed that mothers' perceptions of equity were more consistent predictors of relationship quality than were the balanced exchanges of support, though the results varied somewhat by gender of adult child. These findings contribute to a growing body of research demonstrating that the psychological processes that shape intergenerational relationships mirror those of other ties.

  11. Perceptions of Equity, Balance of Support Exchange, and Mother–Adult Child Relations

    PubMed Central

    Sechrist, Jori; Suitor, J. Jill; Howard, Abigail R.; Pillemer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Equity theory suggests that relationships are more harmonious when both members of a dyad believe that their exchanges are fair. However, the level and frequency of exchange, rather than perceptions of equity, have been the focus of most research on support and the quality of intergenerational relations. Using data from 1,426 mother–child dyads nested within 413 families collected as part of the Within-Family Differences Study, the authors explored whether mothers’ perceptions of equity are better predictors of closeness and tension than are mothers’ reports of balanced exchanges of support. Mixed-model analyses revealed that mothers’ perceptions of equity were more consistent predictors of relationship quality than were the balanced exchanges of support, though the results varied somewhat by gender of adult child. These findings contribute to a growing body of research demonstrating that the psychological processes that shape intergenerational relationships mirror those of other ties. PMID:24683270

  12. Making Way for Equity: Elementary Principals' Interpretations of Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Treating education as a socially transformative and morally conscious enterprise calls for educators to expose and improve social conditions related to oppression. These beliefs herald a different kind of practice for teachers and administrators in public schools, a practice that deals directly with dilemmas of equity and pluralism. Limited…

  13. Shareowners' Equity at Campbell Soup: How Can Equity Be Negative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrman, Mary Beth; Stuerke, Pamela S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an instructional case based on the 2001 annual report of the Campbell Soup Company (CPB). During that year, CPB's shareowners' equity went from a surplus of USD137 million to a deficit of USD247 million. The analysis will allow students to determine that the change resulted from borrowing to purchase treasury stock. Students…

  14. Strategic operating indicators point to equity growth.

    PubMed

    Cleverley, W O

    1988-07-01

    As healthcare managers become more business-like in their behavior, they are becoming increasingly concerned with the equity growth rate of their organizations. Strong equity growth means a financially healthy organization. Equity growth can be expressed as a product of five financial ratios--the most important ratio being the operating margin. Improvements in operating margins will lead to improvements in equity growth. Thirty indicators, called strategic operating indicators, have been developed to monitor operating margins. These indicators, when compared with values from other peer groups, can help point to strategies for improvement of operating margins, and hence equity growth.

  15. Pricing foreign equity option with stochastic volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi; Xu, Weidong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we propose a general foreign equity option pricing framework that unifies the vast foreign equity option pricing literature and incorporates the stochastic volatility into foreign equity option pricing. Under our framework, the time-changed Lévy processes are used to model the underlying assets price of foreign equity option and the closed form pricing formula is obtained through the use of characteristic function methodology. Numerical tests indicate that stochastic volatility has a dramatic effect on the foreign equity option prices.

  16. Quality and Equity in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2012-01-01

    Schools everywhere vary little with regard to the subjects they teach, the classrooms where students learn, and the students' opinions about school. They do differ significantly in one area, however: the way they address the inequalities and diversity their students bring to school. For the small, agrarian, and relatively poor nation of Finland,…

  17. Improving efficiency or impairing access? Health care consolidation and quality of care: Evidence from emergency hospital closures in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Avdic, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Recent health care consolidation trends raise the important policy question whether improved emergency medical services and enhanced productivity can offset adverse quality effects from decreased access. This paper empirically analyzes how geographical distance from an emergency hospital affects the probability of surviving an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), accounting for health-based spatial sorting and data limitations on out-of-hospital mortality. Exploiting policy-induced variation in hospital distance derived from emergency hospital closures and detailed Swedish mortality data over two decades, results show a drastically decreasing probability of surviving an AMI as residential distance from a hospital increases one year after a closure occurred. The effect disappears in subsequent years, however, suggesting that involved agents quickly adapted to the new environment. PMID:27060525

  18. The effect of a Lean quality improvement implementation program on surgical pathology specimen accessioning and gross preparation error frequency.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maxwell L; Wilkerson, Trent; Grzybicki, Dana M; Raab, Stephen S

    2012-09-01

    Few reports have documented the effectiveness of Lean quality improvement in changing anatomic pathology patient safety. We used Lean methods of education; hoshin kanri goal setting and culture change; kaizen events; observation of work activities, hand-offs, and pathways; A3-problem solving, metric development, and measurement; and frontline work redesign in the accessioning and gross examination areas of an anatomic pathology laboratory. We compared the pre- and post-Lean implementation proportion of near-miss events and changes made in specific work processes. In the implementation phase, we documented 29 individual A3-root cause analyses. The pre- and postimplementation proportions of process- and operator-dependent near-miss events were 5.5 and 1.8 (P < .002) and 0.6 and 0.6, respectively. We conclude that through culture change and implementation of specific work process changes, Lean implementation may improve pathology patient safety.

  19. Global Access to Safe Water: Accounting for Water Quality and the Resulting Impact on MDG Progress

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Kyle; LoBuglio, Joe; Bartram, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) drinking water target relies on classification of water sources as “improved” or “unimproved” as an indicator for water safety. We adjust the current Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) estimate by accounting for microbial water quality and sanitary risk using the only-nationally representative water quality data currently available, that from the WHO and UNICEF “Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality”. A principal components analysis (PCA) of national environmental and development indicators was used to create models that predicted, for most countries, the proportions of piped and of other-improved water supplies that are faecally contaminated; and of these sources, the proportions that lack basic sanitary protection against contamination. We estimate that 1.8 billion people (28% of the global population) used unsafe water in 2010. The 2010 JMP estimate is that 783 million people (11%) use unimproved sources. Our estimates revise the 1990 baseline from 23% to 37%, and the target from 12% to 18%, resulting in a shortfall of 10% of the global population towards the MDG target in 2010. In contrast, using the indicator “use of an improved source” suggests that the MDG target for drinking-water has already been achieved. We estimate that an additional 1.2 billion (18%) use water from sources or systems with significant sanitary risks. While our estimate is imprecise, the magnitude of the estimate and the health and development implications suggest that greater attention is needed to better understand and manage drinking water safety. PMID:22690170

  20. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, J

    2001-01-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  1. Cuesta College Student Equity Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Frank S.; Hayner, Claudia

    Presenting the Student Equity Plan developed at Cuesta College, in California, this document provides background to the development of the plan, reviews plan components, and discusses implementation and evaluation. Introductory materials indicate that the plan was intended to create a campus environment that assures that enrollment, retention, and…

  2. Designing Exhibits for Gender Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancu, Toni Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Gender equity has been a national and global aim for over half a century (Ceci & Williams, 2007; National Center for Education Statistics, 2003; National Science Board, 2008). While gains have been made, one area where inequity remains is spatial reasoning ability, where a large gender gap in favor of males has persisted over the years…

  3. Using Data to Promote Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shum, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Data plays a starring role in promoting educational equity, and data-driven decision making begins with good state policies. With the recent passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) and a proposed federal rule to address racial disproportionality in special education, states will shoulder increased responsibility for eliminating…

  4. Lessons on Leading for Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Rob; Barton, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    Leading for equity is hard, yet inspiring, work. It requires thoughtful and bold conversations about race and poverty; close examination of policies and practices; and astute attention paid to a variety of data and evidence of student achievement, progress, and success. Above all, it requires a willingness to look deeply at one's beliefs and…

  5. Mathematics Equity. A Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyree, Eddy; And Others

    Provided in this document is a brief summary of current research on equity in mathematics, readings on the topic, and lists of selected programs and resource materials. Readings presented include: "Teaching Mathematics in a Multicultural Setting: Some Considerations when Teachers and Students are of Differing Cultural Backgrounds" (Willis N.…

  6. Towards ensuring gender equity.

    PubMed

    Basu, A

    1996-01-01

    All people should participate in the development process. Many, however, remain excluded from the benefits of development. For example, women are privy to only a small share of developmental opportunities. The goals of equality, development, and peace were stated during the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in September 1995. The author considers whether women truly have equitable access to literacy, education, food, nutrition, health, employment, and the political and economic decision making process. She stresses that the goals pronounced at the Fourth World Conference on Women must be backed up with the necessary resources, including institutions established at the local, state, and national levels to ensure that the objectives are implemented and the implementation is monitored. The author further argues that in order for women to achieve equality with men, all girls must have access to primary and secondary schools; basic literacy is inadequate. Moreover, gender stereotyping must be avoided and gender sensitization ensured at all levels.

  7. Environmental equity as a criterion for water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, M.; Galvão, C.; Miranda, L.; Rufino, I.

    2014-09-01

    Environmental equity is a concept derived from the (un)equal exposure to environmental degradation by different social groups, usually minorities and low-income people exposed to major environmental risks, also known as environmental justice. It is assumed that no group of people, independent of race, ethnicity or socio-economic class, should support, either in concentrated or unevenly distributed form, the negative environmental impacts resulting from industrial, agricultural, commercial and infrastructure activities or government programs and policies. In this paper the concept of environmental equity is explored as a criterion for water management through the analysis of a typical coupled human-natural system: the Epitácio Pessoa Reservoir, located in the semi-arid region of Brazil. Inefficient water resource management has caused unequal access to water by the population, particularly during drought periods. However, census data indicate that population have practically the same access to water, which actually is not able to reflect the actual picture. This study argues that environmental equity can be an additional criterion to improve water management.

  8. Secular trends in physiological capital: implications for equity in health care.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Over the past three centuries, there has been a rapid accumulation of physiological capital in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Enhanced physiological capital is tied to long-term reduction in environmental hazards and to the conquest of chronic malnutrition, since both nutritional status and the quality of the external and intrauterine environments appear to be linked to the quality of organ development and to the onset of chronic diseases later in life. Data on heights and birth weights suggest that physiological capital has become more equally distributed, thereby reducing socioeconomic disparities in the burden of disease. These developments have a number of health care policy implications: (1) enhanced physiological capital has done more to reduce inequities in health status than has wider access to health care; (2) the main contribution of more advanced medical treatment so far has been to retard depreciation in individuals' physiological capital; (3) prenatal and early childhood care and environmental issues are key for interventions aimed at enhancing physiological capital and at affecting its rate of depreciation; (4) lifestyle change is the most important issue affecting health equity in rich countries; and (5) greater access to clinical care should be promoted through aggressive outreach, since expanded insurance coverage by itself is inadequate.

  9. Making equity a value in value-based health care.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Philip M; Bonham, Ann C; Kirch, Darrell G

    2013-11-01

    Equity in health and health care in America continues to be a goal unmet. Certain demographic groups in the United States-including racial and ethnic minorities and individuals with lower socioeconomic status-have poorer health outcomes across a wide array of diseases, and have higher all-cause mortality. Yet despite growing understanding of how social-, structural-, and individual-level factors maintain and create inequities, solutions to reduce or eliminate them have been elusive. In this article, the authors envision how disparities-related provisions in the Affordable Care Act and other recent legislation could be linked with new value-based health care requirements and payment models to create incentives for narrowing health care disparities and move the nation toward equity.Specifically, the authors explore how recent legislative actions regarding payment reform, health information technology, community health needs assessments, and expanding health equity research could be woven together to build an evidence base for solutions to health care inequities. Although policy interventions at the clinical and payer levels alone will not eliminate disparities, given the significant role the social determinants of health play in the etiology and maintenance of inequity, such policies can allow the health care system to better identify and leverage community assets; provide high-quality, more equitable care; and demonstrate that equity is a value in health. PMID:24072123

  10. Nursing's response to the crisis of access, costs, and quality in health care.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, C

    1993-09-01

    Changes now taking place in the structure of health care delivery in the United States from regulatory models controlled by physicians to competitive models driven by traditional market forces of cost and quality are beginning to open opportunities for innovative nursing practice models. This article reports on the cost-effectiveness of a community nursing center for persons living with HIV/AIDS. The potential cost impact of the nursing center is significant because of the nurses' ability to forestall hospital admissions and readmissions, decrease prolonged lengths of stay, provide medically supportive outpatient treatments, care for clients at a low cost per client per year, attract professional and nonprofessional volunteer services and donations, and increase job satisfaction, thus reducing costly nurse turnover. The 1991 to 1992 costs of HIV/AIDS health care in the United States were used to estimate conservatively that the center has saved more than $700,000 in 1991 and over $1 million in 1992 in hospital charges for HIV/AIDS care. A rationale for the cost savings estimates is supplied by results of quantitative and qualitative evaluation research projects conducted at the center. Finally, implications of this analysis for future directions in nursing practice and education are discussed.

  11. Water quality laboratories in Colombia: a GIS-based study of urban and rural accessibility.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jim; Liu, Jing; Bain, Robert; Perez, Andrea; Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie; Gundry, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify sample transportation times associated with mandated microbiological monitoring of drinking-water in Colombia. World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality recommend that samples spend no more than 6h between collection and analysis in a laboratory. Census data were used to estimate the minimum number of operational and surveillance samples required from piped water supplies under national regulations. Drive-times were then computed from each supply system to the nearest accredited laboratory and translated into sample holding times based on likely daily monitoring patterns. Of 62,502 surveillance samples required annually, 5694 (9.1%) were found to be more than 6 h from the nearest of 278 accredited laboratories. 612 samples (1.0%) were more than 24 hours' drive from the nearest accredited laboratory, the maximum sample holding time recommended by the World Health Organization. An estimated 30% of required rural samples would have to be stored for more than 6 h before reaching a laboratory. The analysis demonstrates the difficulty of undertaking microbiological monitoring in rural areas and small towns from a fixed laboratory network. Our GIS-based approach could be adapted to optimise monitoring strategies and support planning of testing and transportation infra-structure development. It could also be used to estimate sample transport and holding times in other countries.

  12. Water quality laboratories in Colombia: a GIS-based study of urban and rural accessibility.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jim; Liu, Jing; Bain, Robert; Perez, Andrea; Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie; Gundry, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify sample transportation times associated with mandated microbiological monitoring of drinking-water in Colombia. World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality recommend that samples spend no more than 6h between collection and analysis in a laboratory. Census data were used to estimate the minimum number of operational and surveillance samples required from piped water supplies under national regulations. Drive-times were then computed from each supply system to the nearest accredited laboratory and translated into sample holding times based on likely daily monitoring patterns. Of 62,502 surveillance samples required annually, 5694 (9.1%) were found to be more than 6 h from the nearest of 278 accredited laboratories. 612 samples (1.0%) were more than 24 hours' drive from the nearest accredited laboratory, the maximum sample holding time recommended by the World Health Organization. An estimated 30% of required rural samples would have to be stored for more than 6 h before reaching a laboratory. The analysis demonstrates the difficulty of undertaking microbiological monitoring in rural areas and small towns from a fixed laboratory network. Our GIS-based approach could be adapted to optimise monitoring strategies and support planning of testing and transportation infra-structure development. It could also be used to estimate sample transport and holding times in other countries. PMID:24747256

  13. Equity Index in the School Systems of Selected OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmusul, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analysis the equity in the school systems of selected OECD countries. For this purpose, the international data for selected OECD countries was analyzed in terms of four dimensions of equity as learning equity, school resource equity, participating in education, and digital equity. When analyzing data, the equity…

  14. Cost-equity considerations in salinity control in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, J.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Salinity in the Colorado River Basin has been a serious concern for the past few decades and therefore, efforts have been underway to predict salinity generation and develop appropriate mitigation strategies. In addition to the physical processes, establishing the allocation of salinity control responsibilities among watersheds to meet the salinity control targets is important. For salinity control in the Upper Colorado River Basin, there are established water quality standards (given as TDS concentration) at three monitoring stations. Accordingly, total TDS load to be reduced in the basin has been set to meet the standards. In this paper, a practical framework to allocate salinity control responsibilities is developed considering cost-effectiveness, equity, and their trade-offs. Different allocation scenarios of salinity control responsibilities are estimated to meet salinity standards in irrigated lands of the Upper Colorado River Basin. The scenarios consist of simple ratio based on irrigated land area, minimizing total control cost, and maximizing equity among watersheds. Salinity control cost, possible maximum salt reduction of each watershed, irrigated land area, and net agricultural income are used to define equity measures. Simple ratio based on irrigated land area has relatively high total control cost, and even bad equity scores. Cost minimization scenario has definitely the lowest control cost, and relatively good equity. Among the four equity measures, optimization for equity of control costs results in similar allocation to cost minimization. Because the cost function is quadratic, cost minimization and optimization for equity of control costs tend to distribute the allocation of salt reduction equally. On the other hand, other scenarios tend to put high responsibilities into the high yield watersheds. The proposed framework allow decision-makers to allocate salinity control responsibilities based on the allocation method and trade-offs between equity

  15. Prioritizing action on health inequities in cities: An evaluation of Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) in 15 cities from Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Amit; Kano, Megumi; Dagg, Kendra Ann-Masako; Mori, Hanako; Senkoro, Hawa Hamisi; Ardakani, Mohammad Assai; Elfeky, Samar; Good, Suvajee; Engelhardt, Katrin; Ross, Alex; Armada, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Following the recommendations of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2008), the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (HEART) to support local stakeholders in identifying and planning action on health inequities. The objective of this report is to analyze the experiences of cities in implementing Urban HEART in order to inform how the future development of the tool could support local stakeholders better in addressing health inequities. The study method is documentary analysis from independent evaluations and city implementation reports submitted to WHO. Independent evaluations were conducted in 2011-12 on Urban HEART piloting in 15 cities from seven countries in Asia and Africa: Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Mongolia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Local or national health departments led Urban HEART piloting in 12 of the 15 cities. Other stakeholders commonly engaged included the city council, budget and planning departments, education sector, urban planning department, and the Mayor's office. Ten of the 12 core indicators recommended in Urban HEART were collected by at least 10 of the 15 cities. Improving access to safe water and sanitation was a priority equity-oriented intervention in 12 of the 15 cities, while unemployment was addressed in seven cities. Cities who piloted Urban HEART displayed confidence in its potential by sustaining or scaling up its use within their countries. Engagement of a wider group of stakeholders was more likely to lead to actions for improving health equity. Indicators that were collected were more likely to be acted upon. Quality of data for neighbourhoods within cities was one of the major issues. As local governments and stakeholders around the world gain greater control of decisions regarding their health, Urban HEART could prove to be a valuable tool in helping them pursue the goal of health equity. PMID:26456133

  16. Prioritizing action on health inequities in cities: An evaluation of Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) in 15 cities from Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Amit; Kano, Megumi; Dagg, Kendra Ann-Masako; Mori, Hanako; Senkoro, Hawa Hamisi; Ardakani, Mohammad Assai; Elfeky, Samar; Good, Suvajee; Engelhardt, Katrin; Ross, Alex; Armada, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Following the recommendations of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2008), the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (HEART) to support local stakeholders in identifying and planning action on health inequities. The objective of this report is to analyze the experiences of cities in implementing Urban HEART in order to inform how the future development of the tool could support local stakeholders better in addressing health inequities. The study method is documentary analysis from independent evaluations and city implementation reports submitted to WHO. Independent evaluations were conducted in 2011-12 on Urban HEART piloting in 15 cities from seven countries in Asia and Africa: Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Mongolia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Local or national health departments led Urban HEART piloting in 12 of the 15 cities. Other stakeholders commonly engaged included the city council, budget and planning departments, education sector, urban planning department, and the Mayor's office. Ten of the 12 core indicators recommended in Urban HEART were collected by at least 10 of the 15 cities. Improving access to safe water and sanitation was a priority equity-oriented intervention in 12 of the 15 cities, while unemployment was addressed in seven cities. Cities who piloted Urban HEART displayed confidence in its potential by sustaining or scaling up its use within their countries. Engagement of a wider group of stakeholders was more likely to lead to actions for improving health equity. Indicators that were collected were more likely to be acted upon. Quality of data for neighbourhoods within cities was one of the major issues. As local governments and stakeholders around the world gain greater control of decisions regarding their health, Urban HEART could prove to be a valuable tool in helping them pursue the goal of health equity.

  17. Modelling the redistribution of hospital supply to achieve equity taking account of patient's behaviour.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Mónica Duarte; Bevan, Gwyn

    2006-02-01

    Policies that seek to achieve geographic equity in countries with a National Health Services (NHS) require information on how to change the distribution of supply to achieve greater equity in access and utilisation. Previous methods for analysing the impact of hospital changes have relied on crude assumptions on patients' behaviour in using hospitals. The approach developed in this study is a multi-modelling one based on two mathematical programming location-allocation models to redistribute hospital supply using different objective functions and assumptions about the utilisation behaviour of patients. These models show how different policy objectives seeking equity of geographic access or utilisation produce different results and imply trade-offs in terms of reduction in total utilisation.

  18. Measuring equity in disability and healthcare utilization in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Barbou-des-Courieres, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses equity in health and healthcare utilization in Afghanistan based on a representative national household survey. Equitable access is a cornerstone of the Afghan health policy. We measured socioeconomic-related equity in access to public health care, using disability--because people with disabilities are poorer and more likely to use health care--and a concentration index (CI) and its decomposition. The socioeconomic-related equity in healthcare utilization was measured using a probit model and compared with an OLS model providing the horizontal inequity index (HI). We found a low rate of healthcare facilities utilization (25%). Disabled persons are using more healthcare facilities and have higher medical expenses. Disability is more frequently associated with older age, unemployed heads of household and lower education. The Cl of disability is 0.0221 indicating a pro-rich distribution of health. This pro-rich effect is higher in small households (CI decreases with size of the household, -0.0048) and safe (0.0059) areas. The CI of healthcare utilization is -0.0159 indicating a slightly pro-poor distribution of healthcare utilization but, overall, there is no difference in healthcare utilization by wealth status. Our study does not show major socioeconomic related inequity in disability and healthcare utilization in Afghanistan. This is due to the extreme and pervasive poverty found in Afghanistan. The absence of inequity in health access is explained by the uniform poverty of the population and the difficulty of accessing BPHS facilities (a basic package of health services), despite alarming health indicators.

  19. Equity in dental care among Canadian households

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Changes in third party financing, whether public or private, are linked to a household's ability to access dental care. By removing costs at point of purchase, changes in financing influence the need to reach into one's pocket, thus facilitating or limiting access. This study asks: How have historical changes in dental care financing influenced household out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care in Canada? Methods This is a mixed methods study, comprised of an historical review of Canada's dental care market and an econometric analysis of household out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care. Results We demonstrate that changes in financing have important implications for out-of-pocket expenditures: with more financing come drops in the amount a household has to spend, and with less financing come increases. Low- and middle-income households appear to be most sensitive to changes in financing. Conclusions Alleviating the price barrier to care is a fundamental part of improving equity in dental care in Canada. How people have historically spent money on dental care highlights important gaps in Canadian dental care policy. PMID:21496297

  20. Medical tourism in the Caribbean region: a call to consider environmental health equity.

    PubMed

    Johnston, R; Crooks, V A

    2013-03-01

    Medical tourism, which is the intentional travel by private-paying patients across international borders for medical treatment, is a sector that has been targeted for growth in many Caribbean countries. The international development of this industry has raised a core set of proposed health equity benefits and drawbacks for host countries. These benefits centre on the potential investment in health infrastructure and opportunities for health labour force development while drawbacks focus on the potential for reduced access to healthcare for locals and inefficient use of limited public resources to support the growth of the medical tourism industry. The development of the medical tourism sector in Caribbean countries raises additional health equity questions that have received little attention in existing international debates, specifically in regard to environmental health equity. In this viewpoint, we introduce questions of environmental health equity that clearly emerge in relation to the developing Caribbean medical tourism sector These questions acknowledge that the growth of this sector will have impacts on the social and physical environments, resources, and waste management infrastructure in countries. We contend that in addition to addressing the wider health equity concerns that have been consistently raised in existing debates surrounding the growth of medical tourism, planning for growth in this sector in the Caribbean must take environmental health equity into account in order to ensure that local populations, environments, and ecosystems are not harmed by facilities catering to international patients.

  1. Medical tourism in the Caribbean region: a call to consider environmental health equity.

    PubMed

    Johnston, R; Crooks, V A

    2013-03-01

    Medical tourism, which is the intentional travel by private-paying patients across international borders for medical treatment, is a sector that has been targeted for growth in many Caribbean countries. The international development of this industry has raised a core set of proposed health equity benefits and drawbacks for host countries. These benefits centre on the potential investment in health infrastructure and opportunities for health labour force development while drawbacks focus on the potential for reduced access to healthcare for locals and inefficient use of limited public resources to support the growth of the medical tourism industry. The development of the medical tourism sector in Caribbean countries raises additional health equity questions that have received little attention in existing international debates, specifically in regard to environmental health equity. In this viewpoint, we introduce questions of environmental health equity that clearly emerge in relation to the developing Caribbean medical tourism sector These questions acknowledge that the growth of this sector will have impacts on the social and physical environments, resources, and waste management infrastructure in countries. We contend that in addition to addressing the wider health equity concerns that have been consistently raised in existing debates surrounding the growth of medical tourism, planning for growth in this sector in the Caribbean must take environmental health equity into account in order to ensure that local populations, environments, and ecosystems are not harmed by facilities catering to international patients. PMID:24564048

  2. Racial equity or racial equality.

    PubMed

    Daymont, T N

    1980-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between racial equity in labor market processes and racial equality in future labor market rewards. In particular, a regression standardization procedure is used to project the degree of racial inequality in earnings that would exist among men at various future points in time based on three different sets of assumptions about attainment processes in labor market and educational institutions. The most important results suggest that even if racial discrimination were eliminated immediately in labor market and educational institutions, it would take almost 50 years for the black-white earnings ratio to reach .95. This incompatibility between equity and equality needs to be considered more explicitly both by those who advocate a color-blind labor market and those who advocate preferential treatment for blacks.

  3. Voices of Equity: Beginning Teachers Are Crucial Partners and Emerging Leaders of Equity Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West-Burns, Nicole; Murray, Karen; Watt, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an equity education program established in 2009 by Ontario's (Canada) Ministry of Education to improve outcomes for students at risk and create the conditions needed for student success. Beginning teachers were crucial partners and emerging leaders of equity education. Some of the equity concerns these teachers faced…

  4. A Study of Equity in Mathematics Education: Lessons from Japan for U.S. Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuto, Linda H. L.

    2015-01-01

    This study comes at an opportune moment for Japanese and U.S. educators, policymakers, and researchers given the trends of global policy and equity-based reform. Discussions of academic achievement in both societies allow us to examine accessibility in mathematics education in order to best prepare teachers to serve the needs of students.…

  5. Equity: The Critical Link in Southern Economic Development. Cross-Cutting Issue Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Growth Policies Board, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    This report presents a general overview of equity issues in the modern South. It discusses access to such needs as jobs and job opportunities, health, housing, education, government benefits, political power, resources, and protection. Six at-risk groups receive special focus: the poor; Blacks; Hispanics; women; older Southerners; and the…

  6. Cultural Maintenance, Ownership, and Multiple Perspectives: Features of Web-Based Delivery To Promote Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of educational resources for rural and remote communities focuses on the design processes involved in the development of a Web-based unit for Indigenous Australian learners preparing to enter a university. Highlights learning tasks and styles of communication to promote equity and access, including ownership of learning, cultural…

  7. Equity and Excellence: The Emergence, Consolidation and Internalization of Education Development at the University of Natal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odendaal, Marie; Deacon, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Education development in South Africa emerged during the transition from apartheid to democracy, in a context especially marked by political and financial pressures. This case study of the University of Natal (now the University of KwaZulu-Natal) demonstrates how a strategy combining equity with excellence aimed to facilitate increased access to…

  8. Access to Services, Quality of Care, and Family Impact for Children with Autism, Other Developmental Disabilities, and Other Mental Health Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; St Peter, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined perceived access to services, quality of care, and family impact reported by caregivers of children aged 3-17 years with autism spectrum disorders, as compared to caregivers of children with other developmental disabilities and other mental health conditions. The 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with…

  9. Things aren't getting better. Experts at federal hearing say healthcare costs, quality and access haven't improved much, if at all, since managed care.

    PubMed

    Fong, Tony

    2003-03-01

    Nearly a decade after managed care was supposed to revolutionize the healthcare industry, Americans have enjoyed little to no improvement in healthcare costs, quality or access, experts testified at a federal hearing last week. The hearing, arranged by the U.S. Justice Department and the Federal Trade Commission, was the first in a series of meetings.

  10. Access and Quality in Education in Resettlement Schools: The Case Study of Zvivingwi Secondary School in Gutu District, Masvingo Province in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenjekwa, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    In Zimbabwe, the discourse on access and quality in education has been a raging one since the colonial days of bottlenecks and outright discrimination against black Zimbabweans in education. The doors to education were declared open to all at independence in 1980 with the new Zimbabwe government's enunciated policy of education for all. It is an…

  11. The Chinese pharmaceutical market at the crossroads: pro-competition solutions to improve access, quality and affordability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese pharmaceutical market is large in absolute size (the second largest in Asia), but it faces similar problems to those that plague other developing countries, such as a lack of adequate patent protection, low pharmaceutical spending per capita, but high pharmaceutical expenditure as a proportion of total medical spending, and a lack of health insurance coverage. In this article, the pros and cons of two pro-competition policy proposals for China are explored. The first proposal is to follow the E5 guideline of the International Conference on Harmonisation and waive unnecessary local clinical trials for global new drugs that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration or the European Medicines Agency (except for drugs for which there is a real possibility of there being ethnic differences in patient responses). The second proposal is to tighten the standards for generic drugs and approve only bioequivalent ones. While the first proposal encourages price competition between similar compounds in the same therapeutic class, the second proposal enhances generic competition for off-patent drugs. Working together, these two proposals would improve access to and the quality and affordability of pharmaceuticals in China.

  12. Achieving Equity in an Evolving Healthcare System: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joni Strom; Walker, Rebekah J; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-01-01

    For decades, disparities in health have been well documented in the United States and regrettably, remain prevalent despite evidence and appeals for their elimination. Compared with the majority, racial and ethnic minorities continue to have poorer health status and health outcomes for most chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cancer and end-stage renal disease. Many factors, such as affordability, access and diversity in the healthcare system, influence care and outcomes, creating challenges that make the task of eliminating health disparities and achieving health equity daunting and elusive. Novel strategies are needed to bring about much needed change in the complex and evolving United States healthcare system. Although not exhaustive, opportunities such as (1) developing standardized race measurements across health systems, (2) implementing effective interventions, (3) improving workforce diversity, (4) using technological advances and (5) adopting practices such as personalized medicine may serve as appropriate starting points for moving toward health equity. Over the past several decades, diversity in the U.S. population has increased significantly and is expected to increase exponentially in the near future. As the population becomes more diverse, it is important to recognize the possibilities of new and emerging disparities. It is imperative that steps are taken to eliminate the current gap in care and prevent new disparities from developing. Therefore, we present challenges and offer recommendations for facilitating the process of eliminating health disparities and achieving health equity across diverse populations.

  13. Equity and social determinants of health at a city level.

    PubMed

    Ritsatakis, Anna

    2009-11-01

    Equity in health has been the underlying value of the WHO Health for All policy for 30 years, distinguished from equality and difference in a commissioned series of theoretical reports in the early 1990s. This article examines how cities translated this principle into action. Using information designed to help evaluate Phase III (1998-2002) of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, plus documentation from city programmes and websites, an attempt is made to assess how far stakeholders in cities understood the concept of equity in health, had the political will to tackle the issue and the types of action undertaken. Results show that cities focused mainly on support for vulnerable groups, and a wide range of actions were being implemented, including lifestyle-oriented methods or those to improve access to care. Few cities made the necessary shift towards more upstream policies to tackle determinants of health such as poverty, unemployment and housing. There was little experience of evaluating the impact of interventions to reduce the gaps. This is partly explained by a frequent lack of local level data reflecting inequalities in health. The article concludes that although half the cities in the Network needed stronger action to make equity in health an integral part of long-term planning, innovative experience was available to be shared by its members in Phase IV (2003-2008) of the Network.

  14. Achieving Equity in an Evolving Healthcare System: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joni Strom; Walker, Rebekah J; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-01-01

    For decades, disparities in health have been well documented in the United States and regrettably, remain prevalent despite evidence and appeals for their elimination. Compared with the majority, racial and ethnic minorities continue to have poorer health status and health outcomes for most chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cancer and end-stage renal disease. Many factors, such as affordability, access and diversity in the healthcare system, influence care and outcomes, creating challenges that make the task of eliminating health disparities and achieving health equity daunting and elusive. Novel strategies are needed to bring about much needed change in the complex and evolving United States healthcare system. Although not exhaustive, opportunities such as (1) developing standardized race measurements across health systems, (2) implementing effective interventions, (3) improving workforce diversity, (4) using technological advances and (5) adopting practices such as personalized medicine may serve as appropriate starting points for moving toward health equity. Over the past several decades, diversity in the U.S. population has increased significantly and is expected to increase exponentially in the near future. As the population becomes more diverse, it is important to recognize the possibilities of new and emerging disparities. It is imperative that steps are taken to eliminate the current gap in care and prevent new disparities from developing. Therefore, we present challenges and offer recommendations for facilitating the process of eliminating health disparities and achieving health equity across diverse populations. PMID:26802756

  15. An Integrated Framework for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Westring, Alyssa; McDonald, Jennifer M; Carr, Phyllis; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2016-08-01

    In 2008, the National Institutes of Health funded 14 R01 grants to study causal factors that promote and support women's biomedical careers. The Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers, a multi-institutional collaboration of the investigators, is one product of this initiative.A comprehensive framework is needed to address change at many levels-department, institution, academic community, and beyond-and enable gender equity in the development of successful biomedical careers. The authors suggest four distinct but interrelated aspects of culture conducive to gender equity: equal access to resources and opportunities, minimizing unconscious gender bias, enhancing work-life balance, and leadership engagement. They review the collection of eight articles in this issue, which each address one or more of the four dimensions of culture. The articles suggest that improving mentor-mentee fit, coaching grant reviewers on unconscious bias, and providing equal compensation and adequate resources for career development will contribute positively to gender equity in academic medicine.Academic medicine must adopt an integrated perspective on culture for women and acknowledge the multiple facets essential to gender equity. To effect change, culture must be addressed both within and beyond academic health centers (AHCs). Leaders within AHCs must examine their institutions' processes, resources, and assessment for fairness and transparency; mobilize personnel and financial resources to implement evidence-based initiatives; and assign accountability for providing transparent progress assessments. Beyond AHCs, organizations must examine their operations and implement change to ensure parity of funding, research, and leadership opportunities as well as transparency of assessment and accreditation. PMID:27276008

  16. An Integrated Framework for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Westring, Alyssa; McDonald, Jennifer M; Carr, Phyllis; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2016-08-01

    In 2008, the National Institutes of Health funded 14 R01 grants to study causal factors that promote and support women's biomedical careers. The Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers, a multi-institutional collaboration of the investigators, is one product of this initiative.A comprehensive framework is needed to address change at many levels-department, institution, academic community, and beyond-and enable gender equity in the development of successful biomedical careers. The authors suggest four distinct but interrelated aspects of culture conducive to gender equity: equal access to resources and opportunities, minimizing unconscious gender bias, enhancing work-life balance, and leadership engagement. They review the collection of eight articles in this issue, which each address one or more of the four dimensions of culture. The articles suggest that improving mentor-mentee fit, coaching grant reviewers on unconscious bias, and providing equal compensation and adequate resources for career development will contribute positively to gender equity in academic medicine.Academic medicine must adopt an integrated perspective on culture for women and acknowledge the multiple facets essential to gender equity. To effect change, culture must be addressed both within and beyond academic health centers (AHCs). Leaders within AHCs must examine their institutions' processes, resources, and assessment for fairness and transparency; mobilize personnel and financial resources to implement evidence-based initiatives; and assign accountability for providing transparent progress assessments. Beyond AHCs, organizations must examine their operations and implement change to ensure parity of funding, research, and leadership opportunities as well as transparency of assessment and accreditation.

  17. Solvent and lipid accessibility prediction as a basis for model quality assessment in soluble and membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Phatak, Mukta; Adamczak, Rafał; Cao, Baoqiang; Wagner, Michael; Meller, Jarosław

    2011-09-01

    On-going efforts to improve protein structure prediction stimulate the development of scoring functions and methods for model quality assessment (MQA) that can be used to rank and select the best protein models for further refinement. In this work, sequence-based prediction of relative solvent accessibility (RSA) is employed as a basis for a simple MQA method for soluble proteins, and subsequently extended to the much less explored case of (alpha-helical) membrane proteins. In analogy to soluble proteins, the level of exposure to the lipid of amino acid residues in transmembrane (TM) domains is captured in terms of the relative lipid accessibility (RLA), which is predicted from sequence using low-complexity Support Vector Regression models. On an independent set of 23 TM proteins, the new SVR-based predictor yields correlation coefficient (CC) of 0.56 between the predicted and observed RLA profiles, as opposed to CC of 0.13 for a baseline predictor that utilizes TMLIP2H empirical lipophilicity scale (with standard deviations of about 0.15). A simple MQA approach is then defined by ranking models of membrane proteins in terms of consistency between predicted and observed RLA profiles, as a measure of similarity to the native structure. The new method does not require a set of decoy models to optimize parameters, circumventing current limitations in this regard. Several different sets of models, including those generated by fragment based folding simulations, and decoys obtained by swapping TM helices to mimic errors in template based assignment, are used to assess the new approach. Predicted RLA profiles can be used to successfully discriminate near native models from non-native decoys in most cases, significantly improving the separation of correct and incorrectly folded models compared to a simple baseline approach that utilizes TMLIP2H. As suggested by the robust performance of a simple MQA method for soluble proteins that utilizes more accurate RSA predictions

  18. "Chicks and Hunks:" Teenagers and Sex Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novogrodsky, Myra; Wells, Margaret

    1989-01-01

    Looks at issues of gender equity that are important to teenagers, showing how students' thoughts and feelings can be used as reference points in the social studies classroom. Suggests class discussions on work equity, gender communication, and intervention strategies. Reminds teachers that they must act as positive role models. (LS)

  19. 7 CFR 1735.18 - Additional equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional equity. 1735.18 Section 1735.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Basic Policies § 1735.18 Additional equity. If determined by the Administrator to be necessary for...

  20. 7 CFR 1735.18 - Additional equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional equity. 1735.18 Section 1735.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Basic Policies § 1735.18 Additional equity. If determined by the Administrator to be necessary for...

  1. 28 CFR 548.15 - Equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equity. 548.15 Section 548.15 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.15 Equity. No one may disparage the religious...

  2. Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Equity Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Christa

    2013-01-01

    Currently, mathematics instruction in U.S. classrooms is far from achieving equity for African American students. This qualitative study reports the results of eight successful elementary mathematics teachers' knowledge of equity pedagogy, specifically their knowledge of culturally relevant pedagogy, cultural competence, and critical…

  3. 28 CFR 548.15 - Equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equity. 548.15 Section 548.15 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.15 Equity. No one may disparage the religious...

  4. Orwell and the Politics of Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Richard G.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews three general themes--each related to contemporary situations affecting educational equity--in the works of George Orwell. These include (1) that it is difficult for the weak to preserve their "inner core"; (2) that revolutions for equality can fail; and (3) that all people, including those who work for educational equity, are attracted to…

  5. 7 CFR 930.60 - Equity holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equity holders. 930.60 Section 930.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulations § 930.60 Equity holders. (a) Inventory reserve ownership. The inventory reserve shall be the...

  6. Teacher Education and Gender Equity. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jo

    To ensure that future generations of girls as well as boys fulfill their potential without restriction, it is important that gender equity be taught in teacher education programs as a matter of course. Gender equity is defined as the set of behaviors and knowledge that permits educators to recognize inequality in educational opportunities, to…

  7. Examining Equity in Texas Public School Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Wayne; Jones, Timothy B.; Jackson, Sherion H.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the level of equity of the public school funding system in Texas that in September of 2004 was held to be unconstitutional by a state district judge. The study also introduces a mechanism, referred to as the Revenue-to-Population Index or RTP Index, which compares funding equity within the unconstitutional system among 1031…

  8. Educational Equity: Challenges for Educator Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Winslow, Emily

    2015-01-01

    With increasingly diverse student populations, educational equity is a bigger challenge than ever for public schools across the United States. While federal government, states, and school districts work to identify and address the root causes of equity gaps, efforts are often hampered by a limited body of research-based strategies and approaches…

  9. Multicriteria approaches for a private equity fund

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammer, Christiane; Tannert, Johannes

    2012-09-01

    We develop a new model for a Private Equity Fund based on stochastic differential equations. In order to find efficient strategies for the fund manager we formulate a multicriteria optimization problem for a Private Equity Fund. Using the e-constraint method we solve this multicriteria optimization problem. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm is applied in order to get an approximation of the efficient frontier.

  10. Implementation and Innovation: The Route to Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Carol; Milton, Penny

    2011-01-01

    "If we are really serious about equity in education, what will it take to achieve improvements?" This question became the focus of a project between the Canadian Education Association and the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education to foster dialogue about equity and educational improvement. Although the two countries have different…

  11. Leisure Today: Equity Issues in Leisure Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Daniel L., Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Seven articles on equity issues in leisure services focus on conservation for the future, resource allocation inequities in wildland recreation, leisure services for people of color and people with disabilities, serving all children in community recreation, women and leisure services, and equity in public sector resource allocations. (JD)

  12. Equity, Equal Opportunities, Gender and Organization Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Hilary; Baume, Elaine

    The issues of equity, equal opportunities, gender, and organization performance in the health care sector worldwide was examined. Information was gathered from the available literature and from individuals in 17 countries. The analysis highlighted the facts that employment equity debates and policies refer largely to high-income countries and…

  13. Gender Equity for Males. WEEA Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Craig, Ed.; Bates, Percy, Ed.; Potter, Julia, Ed.

    Traditionally, the term "gender equity" is associated with equalizing the playing field for girls. However, gender equity by definition applies to both genders. This digest states that, in the best possible scenario, gender equitable education provides equal opportunities and enables each student to reach his or her potential, reducing the gender…

  14. Toward a Pluralistic Perspective on Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Diane S.; Avery, Maria-Paz Beltran

    1992-01-01

    This digest deals with the challenges of living in a pluralistic society. Comprised of three articles, the first (by Diane S. Pollard) is a discussion of the problems resulting from the fragmented effort of the equity movement, as many different groups working for equity in gender, race, class, and other concerns, have sought independence from…

  15. Inclusive Education: Examining Equity on Five Continents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Waitoller, Federico R., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the impressive growth of inclusive education around the world, questions and considerations about equity have been neglected. This edited volume makes a major contribution to the field of inclusive education by analyzing equity concerns that have emerged from the implementation of inclusive education models in nine nations on five…

  16. Handbook for Achieving Sex Equity through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Susan S., Ed.

    This handbook of collected papers is intended to aid in the achievement of sex equity in education, and in society through education. It is divided into six parts, each with a separate editor (or editors) and contains the following chapters: (1) Examining the Achievement of Sex Equity in and through Education (S. S. Klein, and others); (2)…

  17. Implementing Sex Equity in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shocklee, Georgia

    This publication contains five teaching units for implementing sex equity into vocational education. The units, prepared for preservice or inservice teacher education courses, can be adapted to various teacher situations. Units cover sex equity legislation and definitions; facts and figures about women in the workforce; methods of recruiting male…

  18. 76 FR 62394 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION...-coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the... Excellence Commission, ] U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20202....

  19. 77 FR 29621 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. ACTION...-coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the... and Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW., Washington, DC...

  20. 77 FR 18798 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education. ACTION: Notice; Advisory Committee... of the Equity and Excellence Commission scheduled for March 29, 2012 and announced in the Federal... Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20202....

  1. 77 FR 2711 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Register (FR Doc. 2011-33800 Filed 1-4-12; 8:45 a.m.) a notice of open meeting on January 23, 2012 for the Equity and Excellence Commission. This notice amends the January 5, 2012 notice by providing notice of a... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, Education. ACTION: Notice of...

  2. 77 FR 49441 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION...-coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the... Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20202....

  3. Social equity and environmental risk

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R. )

    1993-12-01

    Social equity has become an important concern of the environmental movement over the past decade. The equity issue is analyzed here for practically all of the inactive hazardous waste disposal sites on the National Priorities List (NPL) regulated under the Comprehensive Response Compensation and Liability Act and its 1986 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA/SARA). Two dimensions of equity are emphasized, namely, site location relative to the location of minority population and the distribution of cleanup plans or Records of Decision (ROD) across communities with NPL sites that have different socioeconomic characteristics. With respect to site location, the percentage of Blacks and Hispanics aggregated at the Census Place or MCD level in communities with NPL sites was greater than is typical nationwide (largely attributable to the concentration of minority populations in a few large urban areas with NPL sites). The percentage of the population below the poverty line in communities with NPL sites largely matched that of the nation as a whole. With respect to site cleanup, communities with relatively higher percentages of racial minority population have fewer cleanup plans than other communities with NPL site. Whether a ROD exists is influenced by when the site was designated for the NPL: sites designated earlier are more likely to have RODs and less likely to have high proportions of racial minority populations than sites designated later. This implies that initially the designation process may have resulted in NPL sites being located disproportionately in minority areas, but this pattern seems to be reversing itself in more recently designated sites. Racial and ethnic disproportionalities with respect to inactive hazardous waste site location seem to be concentrated in a relatively few areas. 35 refs., 12 tabs.

  4. Access to Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery under Pay for Performance: Evidence from the Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Arnold M.; Joynt, Karen E.; Jha, Ashish K.; Orav, E. John

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Pay for Performance (P4P) has become common, many worry that P4P will lead providers to avoid offering surgical procedures to the sickest patients out of concern that poor outcomes will lead to financial penalties. Methods and Results We used Medicare data to compare change in rates of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) between 2002–03 and 2008–09 among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) admitted to 126 hospitals participating in Medicare’s Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration P4P program (HQID) with patients in 848 control hospitals participating in public reporting alone. We examined rates for all AMI patients and those in the top decile of predicted mortality based on demographics, medical comorbidities and AMI characteristics. We identified 91,393 patients admitted for AMI in Premier hospitals and 502,536 Medicare patients admitted for AMI in control hospitals. CABG rates for AMI patients in Premier decreased from 13.6% in 2002–03 to 10.4% in 2008–09; there was a comparable decrease in non-Premier hospitals (13.6% to 10.6%, p-value for comparison of changes between Premier and non-Premier of 0.67). CABG rates for high-risk patients in Premier decreased from 8.4% in FY 2002–3 to 8.2% in 2008–9. Patterns were similar in non-Premier hospitals (8.4% to 8.3%, p-value for comparison of changes between Premier and non-Premier, 0.82). Conclusions Our results show no evidence of a deleterious impact of P4P on access to CABG for high-risk patients with AMI. These results should be reassuring to those concerned about the potential negative impact of P4P on high-risk patients. PMID:25160840

  5. Equity - some theory and its policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Culyer, A.

    2001-01-01

    This essay seeks to characterise the essential features of an equitable health care system in terms of the classical Aristotelian concepts of horizontal and vertical equity, the common (but ill-defined) language of "need" and the economic notion of cost-effectiveness as a prelude to identifying some of the more important issues of value that policy-makers will have to decide for themselves; the characteristics of health (and what determines it) that can cause policy to be ineffective (or have undesired consequences); the information base that is required to support a policy directed at securing greater equity, and the kinds of research (theoretical and empirical) that are needed to underpin such a policy. Key Words: Health care systems • equity • horizontal equity • vertical equity • cost-effectiveness PMID:11479360

  6. Vertical equity: weighting outcomes? or establishing procedures?

    PubMed

    Mooney, G; Jan, S

    1997-01-01

    Considerations of equity in the health policy literature have in the main focussed on horizontal equity (the equal treatment of equals) and as a consequence have tended to overlook vertical equity (the unequal, but equitable, treatment of unequals). There is evidence from earlier, if preliminary, work carried out by the authors and a colleague that health care decision makers may well want to embrace concerns for vertical equity in the allocation of health service resources. This paper examines some possibilities for incorporating vertical equity into health care policy through distributive and/or procedural justice. While no firm solutions are offered, it is suggested that the idea of fitting John Broome's notion of 'claims' within a communitarian framework holds promise.

  7. Roadmap for Teacher Access to Student-Level Longitudinal Data: Key Focus Areas to Ensure Quality Implementation. Data for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Teachers have access to information about the students in their classrooms each year, but schools and districts often cannot provide teachers with longitudinal data (or data linked over time). Given resource constraints in schools and districts, states are best positioned to ensure that teachers have secure access to their students' longitudinal…

  8. Testing the Digital Divide: Does Access to High-Quality Use of Technology in Schools Affect Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talley, Gregory Keith

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between access, use of technology and student achievement in public middle schools in Maryland. The objective of this study was to determine whether a digital divide (differences in access and utilization of technology based on student characteristics of race, socioeconomic status, and gender) exists among…

  9. Moving the dial to advance population health equity in New York City Asian American populations.

    PubMed

    Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Park, Rebecca; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Islam, Nadia S

    2015-07-01

    The shift toward a health equity framework for eliminating the health disparities burden of racial/ethnic minority populations has moved away from a disease-focused model to a social determinants framework that aims to achieve the highest attainment of health for all. The New York University Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) has identified core themes and strategies for advancing population health equity for Asian American populations in New York City that are rooted in the following: social determinants of health; multisectoral, community-engaged approaches; leveraging community assets; improved disaggregated data collection and access to care; and building sustainability through community leadership and infrastructure-building activities. We describe the strategies CSAAH employed to move the dial on population health equity. PMID:25905858

  10. Moving the Dial to Advance Population Health Equity in New York City Asian American Populations

    PubMed Central

    Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C.; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Islam, Nadia S.

    2015-01-01

    The shift toward a health equity framework for eliminating the health disparities burden of racial/ethnic minority populations has moved away from a disease-focused model to a social determinants framework that aims to achieve the highest attainment of health for all. The New York University Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) has identified core themes and strategies for advancing population health equity for Asian American populations in New York City that are rooted in the following: social determinants of health; multisectoral, community-engaged approaches; leveraging community assets; improved disaggregated data collection and access to care; and building sustainability through community leadership and infrastructure-building activities. We describe the strategies CSAAH employed to move the dial on population health equity. PMID:25905858

  11. Moving the dial to advance population health equity in New York City Asian American populations.

    PubMed

    Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Park, Rebecca; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Islam, Nadia S

    2015-07-01

    The shift toward a health equity framework for eliminating the health disparities burden of racial/ethnic minority populations has moved away from a disease-focused model to a social determinants framework that aims to achieve the highest attainment of health for all. The New York University Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) has identified core themes and strategies for advancing population health equity for Asian American populations in New York City that are rooted in the following: social determinants of health; multisectoral, community-engaged approaches; leveraging community assets; improved disaggregated data collection and access to care; and building sustainability through community leadership and infrastructure-building activities. We describe the strategies CSAAH employed to move the dial on population health equity.

  12. A Matter of Equity: Preschool in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Each year, about 4 million children enter kindergarten in the United States. All parents hope their child will start school ready for success, and many parents turn that hope into action, seeking out supportive and high-quality early learning opportunities. Unfortunately, not every parent finds those opportunities, and access differs based on…

  13. 12 CFR 627.2730 - Preservation of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of equity. 627.2730 Section 627..., AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Receivers and Receiverships § 627.2730 Preservation of equity. (a) Except..., participation certificates, equity reserves, or other allocated equities of an institution in receivership...

  14. 12 CFR 627.2797 - Preservation of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of equity. 627.2797 Section 627..., AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Voluntary Liquidation § 627.2797 Preservation of equity. (a) Immediately... institution, the capital stock, participation certificates, equity reserves, and allocated equities of...

  15. 12 CFR 627.2730 - Preservation of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of equity. 627.2730 Section 627..., AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Receivers and Receiverships § 627.2730 Preservation of equity. (a) Except..., participation certificates, equity reserves, or other allocated equities of an institution in receivership...

  16. 12 CFR 627.2797 - Preservation of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of equity. 627.2797 Section 627..., AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Voluntary Liquidation § 627.2797 Preservation of equity. (a) Immediately... institution, the capital stock, participation certificates, equity reserves, and allocated equities of...

  17. 17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... equity. 190.07 Section 190.07 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a) Allowed claim. The allowed net equity claim of a customer shall be equal to the aggregate of the...

  18. 12 CFR 615.5270 - Retirement of other equities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retirement of other equities. 615.5270 Section..., LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Retirement of Equities and Payment of Dividends § 615.5270 Retirement of other equities. (a) Equities other than eligible borrower stock shall...

  19. Absence of socioeconomic inequalities in access to good-quality breast cancer treatment within a population-wide screening programme in Turin (Italy).

    PubMed

    Zengarini, Nicolás; Ponti, Antonio; Tomatis, Mariano; Casella, Denise; Giordano, Livia; Mano, Maria P; Segnan, Nereo; Whitehead, Margaret; Costa, Giuseppe; Spadea, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Several studies suggest that population-based breast cancer screening programmes might help reduce social inequalities in breast cancer survival both by increasing early diagnosis and by improving access to effective treatments. To start disentangling the two effects, we evaluated social inequalities in quality of treatment of screen-detected breast cancer in the city of Turin (Italy). Combining data from the Audit System on Quality of Breast Cancer Treatment and the Turin Longitudinal Study, we analysed 2700 cases in the screening target age class 50-69 diagnosed in the period 1995-2008. We selected 10 indicators of the pathway of care, relative to timeliness and appropriateness of diagnosis and treatment, and three indicators of socioeconomic position: education, occupational status and housing characteristics. For each indicator of care, relative risks of failure were estimated by robust Poisson regression models, controlling for calendar period of diagnosis, size of tumour and activity volume of the surgery units. The principal predictor of failure of the good care indicators was the calendar period of diagnosis, with a general improvement with time in the quality of diagnosis and treatment, followed by size of the tumour and volume of activity. Socioeconomic indicators show only a marginal independent effect on timeliness indicators. The observed associations of quality indicators with socioeconomic characteristics are lower than expected, suggesting a possible role of the screening programme in reducing disparities in the access to good-quality treatments thanks to its capability to enter screen-detected women into a protected pathway of care.

  20. Equity of Access. New Approaches to Minority Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Rebecca Saady

    1978-01-01

    One new approach to the admission of minorities to medical schools is that of the Simulated Minority Admission Exercises (SMAE). It sensitizes admission committee members to the different backgrounds of minority applicants and teaches them to evaluate them more effectively. (Author/AM)

  1. Affirmative Action Plan. Access, Equity, Opportunity. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The Affirmative Action Plan of the New York State Education Department is described in this document. First, a policy statement is provided by the New York State Education Department, committing the Department to the development of: (1) programmatic approaches to the elimination of all unjust exclusionary employment practices, policies, and…

  2. Access, Equity, and Opportunity. Women in Machining: A Model Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Heather

    The Women in Machining (WIM) program is a Machine Action Project (MAP) initiative that was developed in response to a local skilled metalworking labor shortage, despite a virtual absence of women and people of color from area shops. The project identified post-war stereotypes and other barriers that must be addressed if women are to have an equal…

  3. The AP Lever for Boosting Access, Success, and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roegman, Rachel; Hatch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Four New Jersey school districts worked together to increase student achievement by applying a number of strategies focused on getting traditionally underrepresented students to take more AP courses. The districts are members of the New Jersey Network of Superintendents (NJNS), comprising 15 superintendents who work together to develop systemwide…

  4. An open-access database of grape harvest dates for climate research: data description and quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daux, V.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Yiou, P.; Chuine, I.; Garnier, E.; Ladurie, E. Le Roy; Mestre, O.; Tardaguila, J.

    2012-09-01

    We present an open-access dataset of grape harvest dates (GHD) series that has been compiled from international, French and Spanish literature and from unpublished documentary sources from public organizations and from wine-growers. As of June 2011, this GHD dataset comprises 380 series mainly from France (93% of the data) as well as series from Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Luxemburg. The series have variable length (from 1 to 479 data, mean length of 45 data) and contain gaps of variable sizes (mean ratio of observations/series length of 0.74). The longest and most complete ones are from Burgundy, Switzerland, Southern Rhône valley, Jura and Ile-de-France. The most ancient harvest date of the dataset is in 1354 in Burgundy. The GHD series were grouped into 27 regions according to their location, to geomorphological and geological criteria, and to past and present grape varieties. The GHD regional composite series (GHD-RCS) were calculated and compared pairwise to assess their reliability assuming that series close to one another are highly correlated. Most of the pairwise correlations are significant (p-value < 0.001) and strong (mean pairwise correlation coefficient of 0.58). As expected, the correlations tend to be higher when the vineyards are closer. The highest correlation (R = 0.91) is obtained between the High Loire Valley and the Ile-de-France GHD-RCS. The strong dependence of the vine cycle on temperature and, therefore, the strong link between the harvest dates and the temperature of the growing season was also used to test the quality of the GHD series. The strongest correlations are obtained between the GHD-RCS and the temperature series of the nearest weather stations. Moreover, the GHD-RCS/temperature correlation maps show spatial patterns similar to temperature correlation maps. The stability of the correlations over time is explored. The most striking feature is their generalised deterioration at the late 19th-early 20th century. The possible

  5. Did Equity of Reproductive and Maternal Health Service Coverage Increase during the MDG Era? An Analysis of Trends and Determinants across 74 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suneeta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite widespread gains toward the 5th Millennium Development Goal (MDG), pro-rich inequalities in reproductive health (RH) and maternal health (MH) are pervasive throughout the world. As countries enter the post-MDG era and strive toward UHC, it will be important to monitor the extent to which countries are achieving equity of RH and MH service coverage. This study explores how equity of service coverage differs across countries, and explores what policy factors are associated with a country’s progress, or lack thereof, toward more equitable RH and MH service coverage. Methods We used RH and MH service coverage data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for 74 countries to examine trends in equity between countries and over time from 1990 to 2014. We examined trends in both relative and absolute equity, and measured relative equity using a concentration index of coverage data grouped by wealth quintile. Through multivariate analysis we examined the relative importance of policy factors, such as political commitment to health, governance, and the level of prepayment, in determining countries’ progress toward greater equity in RH and MH service coverage. Results Relative equity for the coverage of RH and MH services has continually increased across all countries over the past quarter century; however, inequities in coverage persist, in some countries more than others. Multivariate analysis shows that higher education and greater political commitment (measured as the share of government spending allocated to health) were significantly associated with higher equity of service coverage. Neither country income, i.e., GDP per capita, nor better governance were significantly associated with equity. Conclusion Equity in RH and MH service coverage has improved but varies considerably across countries and over time. Even among the subset of countries that are close to achieving the MDGs, progress made on equity varies considerably across countries

  6. Equity trees and graphs via information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harré, M.; Bossomaier, T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the similarities and differences between two measures of the relationship between equities traded in financial markets. Our measures are the correlation coefficients and the mutual information. In the context of financial markets correlation coefficients are well established whereas mutual information has not previously been as well studied despite its theoretically appealing properties. We show that asset trees which are derived from either the correlation coefficients or the mutual information have a mixture of both similarities and differences at the individual equity level and at the macroscopic level. We then extend our consideration from trees to graphs using the "genus 0" condition recently introduced in order to study the networks of equities.

  7. Education For All, The Quality Imperative and the Problem of Pedagogy. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This monograph critically examines the emerging discourse on quality associated with Education for All (EFA). It contends that EFA discourse has moved from a welcome and vital commitment to quality to its measurement without adequate consideration of what "quality" entails, particularly in the vital domain of pedagogy. Meanwhile, the demand for…

  8. Access & Equity... Diversity in Higher Education. South Carolina Access & Equity Statewide Program, Fiscal Year 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    From 1981 to 1986 South Carolina implemented a federally mandated desegregation plan designed to: (1) enhance the State's public historically black colleges; (2) desegregate student enrollment at the State's baccalaureate degree granting public colleges and universities; and (3) desegregate faculties, staffs, and governing bodies of all public…

  9. Inseparable Imperatives: Equity in Education and the Future of the American Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBaun, Bill

    2012-01-01

    For most of the last sixty years, the United States has labored to provide a quality education to "all" children, regardless of their skin color or socioeconomic status. This struggle for equity in education has seldom been linked to America's position as the world's economic powerhouse and leading producer of college-educated individuals.…

  10. Beyond Equity: The New Politics of State Fiscal Constraints. State of the States: Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Carolyn D.; Trimble, Susan

    Public school funding in Florida differs from other states in a number of important ways. First, Florida has a highly equalized resource-distribution formula resulting in a high degree of interdistrict equity. Second, concerns for quality, while constant, have had to compete with the state's phenomenal growth. Third, the state exercises a much…

  11. Understanding the Significance of Context: A Framework to Examine Equity and Reform in Secondary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Celia K.; Powell, Angiline

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to outline a framework that can be used to examine issues of equity and mathematics reform. Adapted from an opportunity-to-learn framework proposed by Tate (2004), this model includes factors related to time, quality, and design. This framework is applied to the cases of two secondary mathematics teachers to…

  12. Race, Equity, and Public Schools in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Equal Opportunity for All Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines dynamic changes in educational quality and equity differences between Black and other population groups in post-Apartheid South African public schools, using the ratio of learners to educators in each school, available from the School Register of Needs, 1996 and 2000. The analysis incorporates school or community-level…

  13. Infrastructure Supporting Teachers in the Country: Questions of Equity Arising from Downsizing and Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Australia has long been of interest for its attention to educational equity by the relative quality of its state based provision of schooling in a country with a similar landmass to the 48 mainland states of the USA but a population of only 18 million. The six states and two territories had organised centralised systems of schooling which managed…

  14. Equity of Care Is a Part of Everything You Do--and Should Do.

    PubMed

    Raju, Ram

    2016-04-01

    For hospitals, ending disparities in health care should be both a business imperative and a critical means for improving quality. One powerful tool is the #123forEquity Pledge to Act. Here's why--and how you can sign up. PMID:27220162

  15. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes. PMID:27594846

  16. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  17. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  18. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes. PMID:27594846

  19. Equity weights in the allocation of health care: the rank-dependent QALY model.

    PubMed

    Bleichrodt, Han; Diecidue, Enrico; Quiggin, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the rank-dependent quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) model, a new method to aggregate QALYs in economic evaluations of health care. The rank-dependent QALY model permits the formalization of influential concepts of equity in the allocation of health care, such as the fair innings approach, and it includes as special cases many of the social welfare functions that have been proposed in the literature. An important advantage of the rank-dependent QALY model is that it offers a straightforward procedure to estimate equity weights for QALYs. We characterize the rank-dependent QALY model and argue that its central condition has normative appeal.

  20. The Challenge of Increasing Access and Improving Quality: An Analysis of Universal Primary Education Interventions in Kenya and Tanzania since the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifuna, Daniel N.

    2007-11-01

    This article shows how interventions to provide Universal Primary Education (UPE) from the 1970s into the twenty-first century affected efforts to improve the quality of primary education in Kenya and Tanzania. While the interventions have made significant differences in the lives of many communities by increasing access to education of children who would have been denied schooling, quality indicators (including attrition and completion rates and examination scores) have stagnated at best or declined. Efforts to ensure and maintain quality in primary education in the two countries are reported to face serious challenges, including mainly inadequate funding to ensure the provision of essential teaching and learning materials, appropriate infrastructure as well as a sufficient number of competent teachers.