Science.gov

Sample records for access exchange establishment

  1. 7 CFR 54.13 - Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments. 54.13 Section 54.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued...) Regulations Service § 54.13 Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments. (a)...

  2. 7 CFR 54.13 - Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments. 54.13 Section 54.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued...) Regulations Service § 54.13 Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments. (a)...

  3. Tag Content Access Control with Identity-based Key Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Rong, Chunming

    2010-09-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology that used to identify objects and users has been applied to many applications such retail and supply chain recently. How to prevent tag content from unauthorized readout is a core problem of RFID privacy issues. Hash-lock access control protocol can make tag to release its content only to reader who knows the secret key shared between them. However, in order to get this shared secret key required by this protocol, reader needs to communicate with a back end database. In this paper, we propose to use identity-based secret key exchange approach to generate the secret key required for hash-lock access control protocol. With this approach, not only back end database connection is not needed anymore, but also tag cloning problem can be eliminated at the same time.

  4. Establishing Data-Exchange Networks Through Data Management & Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Evan C., III

    This paper describes several pilot systems of data management using telecommunications links, which have been tested by the Navy during an 8-year period in which emphasis has been on the development of relational database management systems, exchange protocols, and man-machine interface. An introduction discusses the background of the project,…

  5. Establishing a Secure Data Center with Remote Access: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Burton, E.; Murakami, E.

    2012-04-01

    Access to existing travel data is critical for many analysis efforts that lack the time or resources to support detailed data collection. High-resolution data sets provide particular value, but also present a challenge for preserving the anonymity of the original survey participants. To address this dilemma of providing data access while preserving privacy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Transportation have launched the Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC). TSDC data sets include those from regional travel surveys and studies that increasingly use global positioning system devices. Data provided by different collecting agencies varies with respect to formatting, elements included and level of processing conducted in support of the original purpose. The TSDC relies on a number of geospatial and other analysis tools to ensure data quality and to generate useful information outputs. TSDC users can access the processed data in two different ways. The first is by downloading summary results and second-by-second vehicle speed profiles (with latitude/longitude information removed) from a publicly-accessible website. The second method involves applying for a remote connection account to a controlled-access environment where spatial analysis can be conducted, but raw data cannot be removed.

  6. 9 CFR 306.2 - Program employees to have access to establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Program employees to have access to establishments. 306.2 Section 306.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... have access to establishments....

  7. 9 CFR 306.2 - Program employees to have access to establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Program employees to have access to establishments. 306.2 Section 306.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... have access to establishments....

  8. 9 CFR 306.2 - Program employees to have access to establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program employees to have access to establishments. 306.2 Section 306.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... have access to establishments....

  9. 9 CFR 306.2 - Program employees to have access to establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Program employees to have access to establishments. 306.2 Section 306.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... have access to establishments....

  10. Improved Veteran Access to Care through the Veteran Health Information Exchange (VHIE) Retail Immunization Coordination Project

    PubMed Central

    Botts, Nathan; Pan, Eric; Olinger, Lois; Donahue, Margaret; Hsing, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Veteran Health Information Exchange (VHIE, formerly Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record, or VLER) Retail Immunization Coordination Project established a partnership between VA and Walgreens to empower Veterans to elect to receive their immunizations at a local Walgreens, which might be located closer to their home than their nearest VA facility. Analysis of Veterans immunized at Walgreens between September 2014 and January 2015 showed that 64% of study Veterans now traveled <5 miles to receive their immunization, 12% of study Veterans traveled between 5 to 10 miles, and 24% of study Veterans traveled more than 10 miles. In addition, we note that 93% of Veterans traveled less than 54 miles, the average distance rural Veterans traveled to the nearest VA facility. We conclude that the VHIE Retail Immunization Coordination Project improved Veteran access to healthcare and discuss future directions of this effort. PMID:28269827

  11. 9 CFR 300.6 - Access to establishments and other places of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Access to establishments and other places of business. 300.6 Section 300.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION AGENCY MISSION AND ORGANIZATION § 300.6 Access...

  12. 9 CFR 300.6 - Access to establishments and other places of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Access to establishments and other places of business. 300.6 Section 300.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION AGENCY MISSION AND ORGANIZATION § 300.6 Access...

  13. 7 CFR 54.1014 - Accessibility of equipment and utensils; access to establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Regulations Governing the Certification of Sanitary Design and Fabrication of Equipment Used in the Slaughter, Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1014 Accessibility of equipment and utensils...) Supervisors of USDA design review specialists responsible for maintaining uniformity and accuracy of...

  14. Kodak Picture Exchange--Online Access to Photographs and Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valauskas, Edward J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Kodak Picture Exchange that includes a database of over 200,000 photographic images collected from 28 stock photography companies in the United States that allows the user to search for images by topic. Highlights include installing the software, alternative search strategies, costs, manipulating images, and rules governing the use…

  15. 7 CFR 54.1014 - Accessibility of equipment and utensils; access to establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Regulations Governing the Certification of Sanitary Design and Fabrication of Equipment Used in the Slaughter... establishments. 54.1014 Section 54.1014 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  16. Self-establishing communities enable cooperative metabolite exchange in a eukaryote.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kate; Vowinckel, Jakob; Mülleder, Michael; Malmsheimer, Silke; Lawrence, Nicola; Calvani, Enrica; Miller-Fleming, Leonor; Alam, Mohammad T; Christen, Stefan; Keller, Markus A; Ralser, Markus

    2015-10-26

    Metabolite exchange among co-growing cells is frequent by nature, however, is not necessarily occurring at growth-relevant quantities indicative of non-cell-autonomous metabolic function. Complementary auxotrophs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae amino acid and nucleotide metabolism regularly fail to compensate for each other's deficiencies upon co-culturing, a situation which implied the absence of growth-relevant metabolite exchange interactions. Contrastingly, we find that yeast colonies maintain a rich exometabolome and that cells prefer the uptake of extracellular metabolites over self-synthesis, indicators of ongoing metabolite exchange. We conceived a system that circumvents co-culturing and begins with a self-supporting cell that grows autonomously into a heterogeneous community, only able to survive by exchanging histidine, leucine, uracil, and methionine. Compensating for the progressive loss of prototrophy, self-establishing communities successfully obtained an auxotrophic composition in a nutrition-dependent manner, maintaining a wild-type like exometabolome, growth parameters, and cell viability. Yeast, as a eukaryotic model, thus possesses extensive capacity for growth-relevant metabolite exchange and readily cooperates in metabolism within progressively establishing communities.

  17. Self-establishing communities enable cooperative metabolite exchange in a eukaryote

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Kate; Vowinckel, Jakob; Mülleder, Michael; Malmsheimer, Silke; Lawrence, Nicola; Calvani, Enrica; Miller-Fleming, Leonor; Alam, Mohammad T; Christen, Stefan; Keller, Markus A; Ralser, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Metabolite exchange among co-growing cells is frequent by nature, however, is not necessarily occurring at growth-relevant quantities indicative of non-cell-autonomous metabolic function. Complementary auxotrophs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae amino acid and nucleotide metabolism regularly fail to compensate for each other's deficiencies upon co-culturing, a situation which implied the absence of growth-relevant metabolite exchange interactions. Contrastingly, we find that yeast colonies maintain a rich exometabolome and that cells prefer the uptake of extracellular metabolites over self-synthesis, indicators of ongoing metabolite exchange. We conceived a system that circumvents co-culturing and begins with a self-supporting cell that grows autonomously into a heterogeneous community, only able to survive by exchanging histidine, leucine, uracil, and methionine. Compensating for the progressive loss of prototrophy, self-establishing communities successfully obtained an auxotrophic composition in a nutrition-dependent manner, maintaining a wild-type like exometabolome, growth parameters, and cell viability. Yeast, as a eukaryotic model, thus possesses extensive capacity for growth-relevant metabolite exchange and readily cooperates in metabolism within progressively establishing communities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09943.001 PMID:26499891

  18. 47 CFR 63.66 - Closure of or reduction of hours of service at telephone exchanges at military establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of service at telephone exchanges at military establishments. Where a carrier desires to close or reduce hours of service at a telephone exchange located at a military establishment because of the... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closure of or reduction of hours of service...

  19. 47 CFR 63.66 - Closure of or reduction of hours of service at telephone exchanges at military establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... telephone exchanges at military establishments. 63.66 Section 63.66 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS..., REDUCTION, OUTAGE AND IMPAIRMENT OF SERVICE BY COMMON CARRIERS; AND GRANTS OF RECOGNIZED PRIVATE OPERATING... of service at telephone exchanges at military establishments. Where a carrier desires to close...

  20. 9 CFR 300.6 - Access to establishments and other places of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to establishments and other places of business. 300.6 Section 300.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  1. 9 CFR 306.2 - Program employees to have access to establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program employees to have access to establishments. 306.2 Section 306.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  2. 9 CFR 300.6 - Access to establishments and other places of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Access to establishments and other places of business. 300.6 Section 300.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  3. 9 CFR 300.6 - Access to establishments and other places of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Access to establishments and other places of business. 300.6 Section 300.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  4. Sociotechnical challenges to developing technologies for patient access to health information exchange data

    PubMed Central

    Ancker, Jessica S; Miller, Melissa C; Patel, Vaishali; Kaushal, Rainu

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing patients with access to their medical data is widely expected to help educate and empower them to manage their own health. Health information exchange (HIE) infrastructures could potentially help patients access records across multiple healthcare providers. We studied three HIE organizations as they developed portals to give consumers access to HIE data previously exchanged only among healthcare organizations. Objective To follow the development of new consumer portal technologies, and to identify barriers and facilitators to patient access to HIE data. Methods Semistructured interviews of 15 key informants over a 2-year period spanning the development and early implementation of three new projects, coded according to a sociotechnical framework. Results As the organizations tried to develop functionality that fully served the needs of both providers and patients, plans were altered by technical barriers (primarily related to data standardization) and cultural and legal issues surrounding data access. Organizational changes also played an important role in altering project plans. In all three cases, patient access to data was significantly scaled back from initial plans. Conclusions This prospective study revealed how sociotechnical factors previously identified as important in health information technology success and failure helped to shape the evolution of three novel consumer informatics projects. Barriers to providing patients with seamless access to their HIE data were multifactorial. Remedies will have to address technical, organizational, cultural, and other factors. PMID:24064443

  5. 77 FR 57504 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... the issues that the Special Access NPRM raised. In July 2010, the Commission's Wireline Competition... of competitive special access facilities to assist the Commission in evaluating the issues that the... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition...

  6. An establishment of vascular access through superior vena cava for a patient with multiple central venous stenosis or occlusion.

    PubMed

    Diao, Yong Shu; Feng, Yan Huan; Liu, Chun Cheng; Cui, Tian Lei; Fu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The patency of vascular access is of vital importance to dialysis patients. Access dysfunction is largely caused by vessel stenosis and thrombosis. Nephrologists usually find themselves helpless when all treatments fail and the vascular access seems to have exhausted. Here we report a successful establishment of vascular access through superior vena cava for a critical patient with multiple central venous stenosis or occlusion. To our knowledge, it is the first case ever reported on the successful establishment of vascular access through superior vena cava under such a complicated condition of vascular exhaustion.

  7. Analysis of venous access for therapeutic plasma exchange in patients with neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Grishaber, J E; Cunningham, M C; Rohret, P A; Strauss, R G

    1992-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed our 2-year experience with venous access for 363 therapeutic plasma exchanges in 46 patients with neurological disease, including acute Guillain-Barré syndrome (N = 20), myasthenia gravis (N = 17), and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (N = 9). Twenty-three patients (50%) completed the planned course of therapy using only peripheral venous access, and 28 central venous catheters were placed in the remaining 23 patients. Patients utilizing central venous access did not undergo a greater number of procedures, but they were more likely to have acute Guillain-Barré syndrome (P < 0.02) or to be hospitalized in a medical intensive care unit (P < 0.01). Three types of central catheters were used, and although our experience was predominantly with 1 type, differences were noted. Only 3% of procedures (3 of 96) done with a Quinton-Mahurkar catheter were associated with a catheter failure, compared to 27% (4 of 15, P < 0.01) with a Hickman catheter and 67% (2 of 3) with a triple-lumen catheter. Life-threatening complications occurred with 3 of 28 (11%) central catheters. To optimize the success of therapeutic plasma exchange using central access, it is critical that hemapheresis personnel advise each patient's primary physician regarding the type of central venous catheter required. Currently, we recommend use of a Quinton-Mahurkar or other dual-lumen hemodialysis catheter.

  8. 77 FR 18309 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ...This final rule will implement the new Affordable Insurance Exchanges (``Exchanges''), consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. The Exchanges will provide competitive marketplaces for individuals and small employers to directly......

  9. 76 FR 41865 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ...This proposed rule would implement the new Affordable Insurance Exchanges (``Exchanges''), consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-148) as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-152), referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. The Exchanges will provide competitive marketplaces for......

  10. 78 FR 24683 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 69 Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To Reform Regulation of Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier Rates for Interstate Special...

  11. Establishing and Enriching School-Community Ties in Small Schools. Small Schools Network Information Exchange Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast & Islands, Andover, MA.

    This information packet contains 14 articles reprinted from various books and journals. Establishing and enriching school-community ties in small schools is the theme for this "Information Exchange Packet," the sixth in a series developed for Small Schools Network members. The articles and their authors are: "Skills in Building Support for…

  12. BARTER: Behavior Profile Exchange for Behavior-Based Admission and Access Control in MANETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frias-Martinez, Vanessa; Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Keromytis, Angelos D.

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are very dynamic networks with devices continuously entering and leaving the group. The highly dynamic nature of MANETs renders the manual creation and update of policies associated with the initial incorporation of devices to the MANET (admission control) as well as with anomaly detection during communications among members (access control) a very difficult task. In this paper, we present BARTER, a mechanism that automatically creates and updates admission and access control policies for MANETs based on behavior profiles. BARTER is an adaptation for fully distributed environments of our previously introduced BB-NAC mechanism for NAC technologies. Rather than relying on a centralized NAC enforcer, MANET members initially exchange their behavior profiles and compute individual local definitions of normal network behavior. During admission or access control, each member issues an individual decision based on its definition of normalcy. Individual decisions are then aggregated via a threshold cryptographic infrastructure that requires an agreement among a fixed amount of MANET members to change the status of the network. We present experimental results using content and volumetric behavior profiles computed from the ENRON dataset. In particular, we show that the mechanism achieves true rejection rates of 95% with false rejection rates of 9%.

  13. 7 CFR 37.9 - Access to establishments or records; record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PROGRAM TO ASSESS ORGANIC CERTIFYING AGENCIES § 37.9 Access to... which service is requested, to be made easily accessible for examination. Supervisors and...

  14. Geographic approaches to quantifying the risk environment: drug-related law enforcement and access to syringe exchange programmes.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah L F; Bossak, Brian; Tempalski, Barbara; Des Jarlais, Don C; Friedman, Samuel R

    2009-05-01

    The concept of the "risk environment"--defined as the "space ... [where] factors exogenous to the individual interact to increase the chances of HIV transmission"--draws together the disciplines of public health and geography. Researchers have increasingly turned to geographic methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment that are both structural and spatial (e.g., local poverty rates). The scientific power of the intersection between public health and geography, however, has yet to be fully mined. In particular, research on the risk environment has rarely applied geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of syringe exchange programmes (SEPs) or of drug-related law enforcement activities, despite the fact that these interventions are widely conceptualized as structural and spatial in nature and are two of the most well-established dimensions of the risk environment. To strengthen research on the risk environment, this paper presents a way of using geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of (1) access to SEP sites and (2) exposure to drug-related arrests, and then applies these methods to one setting (New York City [NYC]). NYC-based results identified substantial cross-neighbourhood variation in SEP site access and in exposure to drug-related arrest rates (even within the subset of neighbourhoods nominally experiencing the same drug-related police strategy). These geographic measures--grounded as they are in conceptualizations of SEPs and drug-related law enforcement strategies--can help develop new arenas of inquiry regarding the impact of these two dimensions of the risk environment on injectors' health, including exploring whether and how neighbourhood-level access to SEP sites and exposure to drug-related arrests shape a range of outcomes among local injectors.

  15. A mechanism for enhancing ionic accessibility into selective ion exchange resins

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandratos, S.D.; Shelley, C.A.; Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.

    1998-07-01

    A bifunctional monophosphonic/sulfonic acid ion exchange resin with high capacity has been synthesized. Metal ion studies have been carried out with europium, americium, and ferric nitrate in solutions of varying acidity, with and without sodium nitrate added. The bifunctional resin complexes far higher levels of Eu(III) from 0.5 and 1 N nitric acid than the monofunctional phosphonic acid resin. It is postulated that the sulfonic acid ligand provides an access mechanism for the metal ions into the polymer matrix by hydrating the matrix and preventing its collapse in high ionic strength solutions thus allowing for rapid ionic complexation by the selective phosphonic acid ligands. The bifunctional monophosphonic/sulfonic acid resin has both ligands bound to a polystyrene support. It complexes higher levels of metal ions than a comparable resin differing only by having the monophosphonic acid ligand directly bound to the C-C backbone. Results are compared to a diphosphonic/sulfonic acid resin.

  16. Establishing access to technology: an evaluation and intervention model to increase the participation of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Elizabeth; Morress, Claire

    2009-08-01

    Children with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy often have significant physical limitations that prevent exploration and full participation in the environment. Assistive technology systems can provide opportunities for children with physical limitations to interact with their world, enabling play, communication, and daily living skills. Efficient access to and control of the technology is critical for successful use; however, establishing consistent access is often difficult because of the nature of the movement patterns exhibited by children with cerebral palsy. This article describes a 3-phase model of evaluation and intervention developed and used by Assistive Technology Services at the Aaron W. Perlman Center, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, to establish successful access to technology systems in children with cerebral palsy.

  17. 7 CFR 37.9 - Access to establishments or records; record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PROGRAM TO ASSESS ORGANIC CERTIFYING AGENCIES § 37.9 Access to..., during normal business hours or during periods of production, for the purpose of evaluating systems...

  18. 78 FR 15553 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... 45 CFR Parts 155 and 156 RIN 0938-AR76 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of... of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act) related to the Small Business...

  19. Department of Defense Plan to Establish Public Access to the Results of Federally Funded Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    14 9.4 Preservation ...across the DoD.  Ensure effective access to and reliable preservation of DoD scholarly publications and digitally formatted scientific data for...research, development, and education.  Preserve and increase the use of research results to enhance scientific discovery. 2 Approved for public

  20. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... least one of the individuals designated under paragraph (a) of this section must verify that the DEA... authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second individual must be a DEA registrant... practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed. (3) The...

  1. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... least one of the individuals designated under paragraph (a) of this section must verify that the DEA... authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second individual must be a DEA registrant... practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed. (3) The...

  2. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... least one of the individuals designated under paragraph (a) of this section must verify that the DEA... authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second individual must be a DEA registrant... practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed. (3) The...

  3. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... least one of the individuals designated under paragraph (a) of this section must verify that the DEA... authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second individual must be a DEA registrant... practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed. (3) The...

  4. EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  5. Access to health insurance at small establishments: what can we learn from analyzing other fringe benefits?

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jean Marie; DeLeire, Thomas; Royalty, Anne Beeson

    2009-01-01

    Workers employed at small establishments are less likely to be offered health insurance than workers in larger establishments. They are also paid less and are less likely to be offered pensions, paid sick leave, and paid vacations. Using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we examine the relationship between health insurance and other components of workers' compensation. We also propose an approach for identifying and prioritizing the reasons why workers in small establishments are less likely to be offered employer health insurance by comparing the provision of health insurance and how it changes with establishment size to the provision of these other fringe benefits and how they change with establishment size. We find that workers in larger establishments are not only more likely to be offered health insurance by their employer, but also are more likely to be offered retirement and paid vacation benefits. The results of our benefits comparison analysis suggest an important role for administrative costs as an obstacle to offering health insurance.

  6. A Proposal for Establishing a Free Market Basis for Plant Genome Information Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Slezak, T.

    2001-09-26

    The current situation of genomics information exchange is reminiscent of some Third World cities, where residents despair they will ever get official utility service and therefore tap into power, phone, and gas sources with makeshift connections. Thus, each genomics grant spawns yet another idiosyncratic Web site, with makeshift links to whatever random Web sites the PI is most familiar with. There are few standards for semantics of data, and fewer standards for automating the interchange or integration of these autonomous Web sites. The US Plant Genome Initiative (PGI) has been enthusiastic contributor to this proliferation of chaotic Web sites, but to its credit it appears to be the first major program to attempt to find a solution. Some of us from the earliest days of the Human Genome Program have been acutely aware of the problems of genomic data integration, since long before the Web appeared and made the problem exponentially harder to resolve. We have seen large scale attempts, and subsequent failures or inadequacies, of many potential solution approaches (i.e., database federation, classical data warehousing, centralized data, etc.) and believe we know at least some of the reasons they still remain inadequate. It is our opinion that the only solution that has a chance of succeeding is one that considers the overall economics of genomics data production, sharing, and integration. We believe that attempting to create a kind of Free Market for data created under the Plant Genome Initiative will represent the most practical, powerful, and cost-effective approach to dealing with the broad range of plant genome information that has been unleashed.

  7. Monitoring of lateral hyporheic exchange fluxes and hyporheic travel times at the newly established Steinlach Test Site, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osenbrück, K.; Lemke, D.; Schwientek, M.; Callisto Alvarez, M. C.; Wöhling, Th.; Cirpka, O. A.

    2012-04-01

    Hyporheic exchange is believed to significantly contribute to the retention and degradation of pollutants during downstream transport in surface waters. A better understanding of the relevant hydraulic drivers of stream water infiltration into the hyporheic zone in conjunction with the associated biogeochemical processes is needed in order to quantify the self-cleaning potential of rivers and to predict water quality changes. Key parameters include the spatial and temporal variation of stream water infiltration (i.e. hyporheic exchange) and the distribution of hyporheic travel times. In this study we present the setup, performance and first results of a multi-disciplinary hyporheic monitoring program at the newly established Steinlach Test Site (STS) near Tübingen in Southern Germany. The STS covers an area of about 0.6 ha and consists of a river loop located within a sub-catchment of the Neckar river. The main objective is the quantification and interrelation of hyporheic processes including hyporheic exchange, travel-time distributions, microbial community dynamics and biochemical pollutant turnover at the groundwater-surface water interface. Here we will focus on the extent and time scale of hyporheic exchange fluxes at the STS derived from time series of temperature (T), specific electrical conductivity (EC), and δ18O of water. The STS is equipped with more than 30 piezometers, most of them containing automatic water level, T and EC probes. Additional water samples for major ions, stable isotopes and other water quality parameters were taken in the course of flood events in summer 2011. The sand and gravel aquifer in the subsurface of the STS is characterised by a complex geometry with heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity. Low residence times in the southern part are confirmed by a small to negligible response in EC and T at the respective piezometers compared to the large variation of EC in the stream water. Using deconvolution techniques, a mean travel time

  8. 47 CFR 61.26 - Tariffing of competitive interstate switched exchange access services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... does not fall within the definition of “incumbent local exchange carrier” in 47 U.S.C. 251(h). (2) Competing ILEC shall mean the incumbent local exchange carrier, as defined in 47 U.S.C. 251(h), that would... unaffiliated provider of interconnected VoIP service, as defined in 47 U.S.C. 153(25), or a...

  9. A reversibly sealed, easy access, modular (SEAM) microfluidic architecture to establish in vitro tissue interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Abhyankar, Vinay V.; Wu, Meiye; Koh, Chung -Yan; ...

    2016-05-26

    Microfluidic barrier tissue models have emerged as advanced in vitro tools to explore interactions with external stimuli such as drug candidates, pathogens, or toxins. However, the procedures required to establish and maintain these systems can be challenging to implement for end users, particularly those without significant in-house engineering expertise. Here we present a module-based approach that provides an easy-to-use workflow to establish, maintain, and analyze microscale tissue constructs. Our approach begins with a removable culture insert that is magnetically coupled, decoupled, and transferred between standalone, prefabricated microfluidic modules for simplified cell seeding, culture, and downstream analysis. The modular approach allowsmore » several options for perfusion including standard syringe pumps or integration with a self-contained gravity-fed module for simple cell maintenance. As proof of concept, we establish a culture of primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and report combined surface protein imaging and gene expression after controlled apical stimulation with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating hydrated biomaterial interfaces into the microfluidic architecture by integrating an ultra-thin (< 1 μm), self-assembled hyaluronic acid/peptide amphiphile culture membrane with brain-specific Young’s modulus (~ 1kPa). To highlight the importance of including biomimetic interfaces into microscale models we report multi-tiered readouts from primary rat cortical cells cultured on the self-assembled membrane and compare a panel of mRNA targets with primary brain tissue signatures. As a result, we anticipate that the modular approach and simplified operational workflows presented here will enable a wide range of research groups to incorporate microfluidic barrier tissue models into their work.« less

  10. A Reversibly Sealed, Easy Access, Modular (SEAM) Microfluidic Architecture to Establish In Vitro Tissue Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Abhyankar, Vinay V.; Wu, Meiye; Koh, Chung-Yan; Hatch, Anson V.

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic barrier tissue models have emerged as advanced in vitro tools to explore interactions with external stimuli such as drug candidates, pathogens, or toxins. However, the procedures required to establish and maintain these systems can be challenging to implement for end users, particularly those without significant in-house engineering expertise. Here we present a module-based approach that provides an easy-to-use workflow to establish, maintain, and analyze microscale tissue constructs. Our approach begins with a removable culture insert that is magnetically coupled, decoupled, and transferred between standalone, prefabricated microfluidic modules for simplified cell seeding, culture, and downstream analysis. The modular approach allows several options for perfusion including standard syringe pumps or integration with a self-contained gravity-fed module for simple cell maintenance. As proof of concept, we establish a culture of primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and report combined surface protein imaging and gene expression after controlled apical stimulation with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating hydrated biomaterial interfaces into the microfluidic architecture by integrating an ultra-thin (< 1 μm), self-assembled hyaluronic acid/peptide amphiphile culture membrane with brain-specific Young’s modulus (~ 1kPa). To highlight the importance of including biomimetic interfaces into microscale models we report multi-tiered readouts from primary rat cortical cells cultured on the self-assembled membrane and compare a panel of mRNA targets with primary brain tissue signatures. We anticipate that the modular approach and simplified operational workflows presented here will enable a wide range of research groups to incorporate microfluidic barrier tissue models into their work. PMID:27227828

  11. A Reversibly Sealed, Easy Access, Modular (SEAM) Microfluidic Architecture to Establish In Vitro Tissue Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Abhyankar, Vinay V; Wu, Meiye; Koh, Chung-Yan; Hatch, Anson V

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic barrier tissue models have emerged as advanced in vitro tools to explore interactions with external stimuli such as drug candidates, pathogens, or toxins. However, the procedures required to establish and maintain these systems can be challenging to implement for end users, particularly those without significant in-house engineering expertise. Here we present a module-based approach that provides an easy-to-use workflow to establish, maintain, and analyze microscale tissue constructs. Our approach begins with a removable culture insert that is magnetically coupled, decoupled, and transferred between standalone, prefabricated microfluidic modules for simplified cell seeding, culture, and downstream analysis. The modular approach allows several options for perfusion including standard syringe pumps or integration with a self-contained gravity-fed module for simple cell maintenance. As proof of concept, we establish a culture of primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and report combined surface protein imaging and gene expression after controlled apical stimulation with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating hydrated biomaterial interfaces into the microfluidic architecture by integrating an ultra-thin (< 1 μm), self-assembled hyaluronic acid/peptide amphiphile culture membrane with brain-specific Young's modulus (~ 1kPa). To highlight the importance of including biomimetic interfaces into microscale models we report multi-tiered readouts from primary rat cortical cells cultured on the self-assembled membrane and compare a panel of mRNA targets with primary brain tissue signatures. We anticipate that the modular approach and simplified operational workflows presented here will enable a wide range of research groups to incorporate microfluidic barrier tissue models into their work.

  12. Ten Steps to Establishing an e-Consultation Service to Improve Access to Specialist Care

    PubMed Central

    Maranger, Julie; Afkham, Amir; Keely, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract There is dissatisfaction among primary care physicians, specialists, and patients with respect to the consultation process. Excessive wait times for receiving specialist services and inefficient communication between practitioners result in decreased access to care and jeopardize patient safety. We created and implemented an electronic consultation (e-consultation) system in Eastern Ontario to address these problems and improve the consultation process. The e-consultation system has passed through the proof-of-concept and pilot study stages and has effectively reduced unnecessary referrals while receiving resoundingly positive feedback from physician-users. Using our experience, we have outlined the 10 steps to developing an e-consultation service. We detail the technical, administrative, and strategic considerations with respect to (1) identifying your partners, (2) choosing your platform, (3) starting as a pilot project, (4) designing your product, (5) ensuring patient privacy, (6) thinking through the process, (7) fostering relationships with your participants, (8) being prepared to provide physician payment, (9) providing feedback, and (10) planning the transition from pilot to permanency. In following these 10 steps, we believe that the e-consultation system and its associated improvements on the consultation process can be effectively implemented in other healthcare settings. PMID:24073898

  13. Sulphonic acid strong cation-exchange restricted access columns in sample cleanup for profiling of endogenous peptides in multidimensional liquid chromatography. Structure and function of strong cation-exchange restricted access materials.

    PubMed

    Machtejevas, E; Denoyel, R; Meneses, J M; Kudirkaite, V; Grimes, B A; Lubda, D; Unger, K K

    2006-08-04

    In this work, the pore structural parameters and size exclusion properties of LiChrospher strong cation-exchange and reverse phase restricted access materials (RAM) are analysed. The molecular weight size exclusion limit for polystyrenes was found to be about 17.7 kDa, while for standard proteins, the molecular weight size exclusion limit was higher, at approximately 25 kDa. The average pore diameter on a volume basis calculated from the pore network model changes from 8.5 nm (native LiChrospher) to 8.6 nm (diol derivative) to 8.2 nm (sulphonic acid derivative) to 6.9 nm (n-octadecyl derivative). Additional characterisations were performed on restricted access materials with nitrogen sorption at 77 K, water adsorption at 25 degrees C, intrusion-extrusion of water (in order to evaluate the hydrophobic properties of the pores of the hydrophobic RAM), and zeta potential measurements by microelectrophoresis. For peptide analysis out of the biofluids, the strong cation-exchange functionality seems to be particularly suitable mainly because of the high loadability of the strong cation-exchange restricted access material (SCX-RAM) and the fact that one can work under non-denaturing conditions to perform effective chromatographic separations. For bacitracin, the dynamic capacity of the SCX-RAM columns does not reach its maximum value in the analysed range. For lysozyme, the dynamic capacity reaches a value of 0.08 mg/ml of column volume before column is overloaded. Additionally, the proper column operating conditions that lead to the total effective working time of the RAM column to be equal to approximately 500 injections (depending on the type of sample), is comprehensively described. The SCX-RAM column was used in the same system analysing urine samples for the period of 1 month (approximately 150 injections) with run-to-run reproducibility below 5% RSD and below 10% RSD for the relative fractions.

  14. Accessibility and ion exchange stoichiometry of ionized carboxylic groups in the active layer of FT30 reverse osmosis membrane.

    PubMed

    Coronell, Orlando; Mariñas, Benito I; Cahill, David G

    2009-07-01

    We have experimentally determined the concentration of Ba2+ that associates with the accessible ionized R-COO- groups in the polyamide active layer of the FT30 reverse osmosis membrane in the pH range 3.42-10.30. Ba2+ concentrations in the active layer ([Ba2+]) were measured using the ion-probing/Rutherford backscattering spectrometry procedure reported in our previous work. We found that at all but the lowest experimental pH 3.42, [Ba2+] was lower than the corresponding total concentrations of R-COO- groups; their difference was consistent with steric and charge effects determining the accessibility and association, respectively, of Ba2+ to R-COO- groups. Accordingly, we propose two descriptors, the accessibility ratio (AR) and the neutralization number (NN), to account for the observed difference. AR, the fraction of R-COO- groups accessible to Ba2+ ions, and NN, the average number of R-COO- groups neutralized per Ba2+ ion, were determined experimentally performing Ag(+)-Ba2+ ion-exchange tests. The resulting AR = 0.40 indicated that on average only 40% of ionizable carboxylic groups were accessible to Ba2+. [Ba2+] values calculated using R-COO- concentrations and the AR and NN concepts were in agreement with experimental [Ba2+] results.

  15. Ferromagnetic resonance of an heterogeneous multilayer system with interlayer exchange coupling: an accessible model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A. F.; Landeros, P.

    2016-09-01

    We present a general model for the coupled magnetic resonances of an exchange interacting multilayer system, which can be implemented without complex analytical calculations or numerical simulations. The model allows one to study the spin wave modes of a multilayer structure with any number of layers, accounting for individual uniaxial and cubic anisotropies, and (static and dynamic) demagnetizing and external fields as well, assuming that only the interlayer exchange coupling mechanism is relevant between such magnetic layers. This scheme is applied to recent measurements of a NiFe/CoFe bilayer, and to studying the influence of the strength of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions and the applied field orientation on the spin wave modes and intensities of the ferromagnetic resonance response. We find that the acoustic oscillation mode tends to stabilize in frequency if the magnetizations of the layers are parallel to each other, while the optical mode stabilizes when the magnetizations are antiparallel. Furthermore, we find that each oscillation mode is governed by either the NiFe or the CoFe. The modes swap the governing layer as the perpendicular field increases, inducing a gap between their frequencies, which appears to be proportional to the exchange coupling. Finally, we find that the field linewidth of the bilayer due to Gilbert damping has a dependence on the frequency very similar to the linear dependence of the linewidth in single layers. The theoretical scheme presented here can be further used to explore magnetization dynamics in different multilayer architectures—such as exchange springs, structures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and complex compositions of layer stacks—and can be useful as a basis to study multilayers with chiral and dipolar interactions.

  16. Weak cation-exchange restricted-access material for on-line purification of basic drugs in plasma.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Eiichi; Takakuwa, Susumu; Kato, Takashi; Asakawa, Naoki

    2008-05-09

    A methylcellulose-immobilized weak cation-exchange (MC-WCX) silica-based restricted-access material (RAM) was developed. The MC-WCX consists of an MC outer surface and 2-carboxyethyl phase internal surface, allowing for direct analysis of basic drugs in plasma. The retention properties of the MC-WCX were evaluated for sulpiride, quinidine, ranitidine, and desipramine. The MC-WCX retained model drugs by cation-exchange, and retained drugs were eluted with the mobile phase containing small amount of acids or salts compared with the MC strong cation-exchanger (MC-SCX). These results indicated the ease of use of the MC-WCX solid-phase extraction (SPE) column when coupled to a reversed-phase analytical column in column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and various detection principals. Further direct analysis of model drugs in plasma using the MC-WCX SPE column in a column-switching HPLC system successfully performed with sufficient recovery. It is concluded that the MC-WCX is useful for the analysis of basic drugs in plasma.

  17. A Widely-Accessible Distributed MEMS Processing Environment. The MEMS Exchange Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-29

    development of an advanced DPG device that would not require a charge-dissipating coating ; this proposal is currently under review. The MEMS Exchange... Medical Applications Biomaterials Science: An Integrated Clinical and Engineering Approach, edited by Yitzhak Rosen and Noel Elman, CRC Press, Boca...Tailorable Titanium -Tungsten Alloy Material Thermally Matched to Semiconductor Substrates and Devices ”  “An Improved Method of Fabrication of MEMS, NEMS

  18. Accessibility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal laws, including Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, mandate that people with disabilities have access to the same information that someone without a disability would have. 508 standards cover electronic and information technology (EIT) products.

  19. Geographic approaches to quantifying the risk environment: a focus on syringe exchange program site access and drug-related law enforcement activities

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah LF; Bossak, Brian; Tempalski, Barbara; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the “risk environment” – defined as the “space … [where] factors exogenous to the individual interact to increase the chances of HIV transmission” – draws together the disciplines of public health and geography. Researchers have increasingly turned to geographic methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment that are both structural and spatial (e.g., local poverty rates). The scientific power of the intersection between public health and geography, however, has yet to be fully mined. In particular, research on the risk environment has rarely applied geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) or of drug-related law enforcement activities, despite the fact that these interventions are widely conceptualized as structural and spatial in nature and are two of the most well-established dimensions of the risk environment. To strengthen research on the risk environment, this paper presents a way of using geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of (1) access to SEP sites and (2) exposure to drug-related arrests, and then applies these methods to one setting (New York City). NYC-based results identified substantial cross-neighbourhood variation in SEP site access and in exposure to drug-related arrest rates (even within the subset of neighbourhoods nominally experiencing the same drug-related police strategy). These geographic measures – grounded as they are in conceptualizations of SEPs and drug-related law enforcement strategies – can help develop new arenas of inquiry regarding the impact of these two dimensions of the risk environment on injectors’ health, including exploring whether and how neighbourhood-level access to SEP sites and exposure to drug-related arrests shape a range of outcomes among local injectors. PMID:18963907

  20. Plug-and-Play Genetic Access to Drosophila Cell Types Using Exchangeable Exon Cassettes

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Fengqiu; Ironfield, Holly; Luan, Haojiang; Diao, Feici; Shropshire, William C.; Ewer, John; Marr, Elizabeth; Potter, Christopher J.; Landgraf, Matthias; White, Benjamin H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genetically encoded effectors are important tools for probing cellular function in living animals, but improved methods for directing their expression to specific cell types are required. Here we introduce a simple, versatile method for achieving cell type-specific expression of transgenes that leverages the untapped potential of “coding introns” (i.e. introns between coding exons). Our method couples the expression of a transgene to that of a native gene expressed in the cells of interest using intronically inserted “plug-and-play” cassettes (called “Trojan exons”) that carry a splice acceptor site followed by the coding sequences of T2A peptide and an effector transgene. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach in Drosophila using lines containing suitable MiMIC transposons and a palette of Trojan exons capable of expressing a range of commonly used transcription factors. We also introduce an exchangeable, MiMIC-like Trojan exon construct that can be targeted to coding introns using the Crispr/Cas system. PMID:25732830

  1. Role of tentacles and protein loading on pore accessibility and mass transfer in cation exchange materials for proteins.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Helen; Coquebert de Neuville, Bertrand; Storti, Giuseppe; Morbidelli, Massimo; Joehnck, Matthias; Schulte, Michael

    2013-04-12

    In protein chromatography, the size of the protein determines which fraction of pores it can access within a resin and at which rate of diffusion. Moreover, in the presence of grafted polymers like in advanced materials, adsorbed proteins and electrolytes complicate the interaction pore-protein. In this study, we evaluated in a comparative way the behavior of Fractogel EMD SO3 (M) and (S), "tentacle"-type, strong cation exchangers, as well as a reference material without tentacles, all of which are commonly used for protein purification. ISEC experiments were carried out with a set of Dextran tracers of largely different molecular size covering the typical range of protein sizes. Experimental values of porosity (internal and external to the particles) as well as of pore diffusion coefficients have been measured at different NaCl concentrations and under protein loading. These results provide useful insights into the complex interplay among mentioned factors: first, the presence of tentacles induces size exclusion selectivity in the materials; second, the salt induces conformational changes of the tentacles, leading to porosities larger than expected in tentacle materials; third, protein adsorption mainly leads to a reduction of porosity due to pore space occupied by the protein and to a decrease of pore diffusion coefficient.

  2. New cardiac surgery programs established from 1993 to 2004 led to little increased access, substantial duplication of services.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Frances Leslie; Siewers, Andrea; Goodman, David C; Wang, Dongmei; Wennberg, David E

    2011-08-01

    Despite decreasing demand for bypass surgery, 301 new cardiac surgery programs opened between 1993 and 2004. We used Medicare data to identify where the new programs opened and to assess their impact on access and efficiency. Forty-two percent of the new programs opened in communities that already had access to cardiac surgery, which suggests that their creation has led to a fight for shares of a shrinking market. New programs were much more likely to open in states that did not require them to show a certificate-of-need. Overall, travel time to the nearest cardiac surgery program changed little, which suggests that these programs have done little to improve geographic access. The duplication of services that resulted in many areas may have engendered competition based on quality, price, or both, but it may also have increased surgical rates, with unknown results. We observe that certificate-of-need requirements may help avoid unnecessary duplication of services by preventing new programs from opening in close proximity to existing ones.

  3. Promoting Access to Quality Child Care: Critical Steps in Conducting Market Rate Surveys and Establishing Rate Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoney, Louise

    This report is designed to help policymakers, child care providers, and advocates establish child care rate support policies that support high quality in the context of government-subsidized, privately-provided child care. It also provides advice on the development and interpretation of market rate surveys of local child care fees. Part 1…

  4. A reversibly sealed, easy access, modular (SEAM) microfluidic architecture to establish in vitro tissue interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Abhyankar, Vinay V.; Wu, Meiye; Koh, Chung -Yan; Hatch, Anson V.; Eddington, David T.

    2016-05-26

    Microfluidic barrier tissue models have emerged as advanced in vitro tools to explore interactions with external stimuli such as drug candidates, pathogens, or toxins. However, the procedures required to establish and maintain these systems can be challenging to implement for end users, particularly those without significant in-house engineering expertise. Here we present a module-based approach that provides an easy-to-use workflow to establish, maintain, and analyze microscale tissue constructs. Our approach begins with a removable culture insert that is magnetically coupled, decoupled, and transferred between standalone, prefabricated microfluidic modules for simplified cell seeding, culture, and downstream analysis. The modular approach allows several options for perfusion including standard syringe pumps or integration with a self-contained gravity-fed module for simple cell maintenance. As proof of concept, we establish a culture of primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and report combined surface protein imaging and gene expression after controlled apical stimulation with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating hydrated biomaterial interfaces into the microfluidic architecture by integrating an ultra-thin (< 1 μm), self-assembled hyaluronic acid/peptide amphiphile culture membrane with brain-specific Young’s modulus (~ 1kPa). To highlight the importance of including biomimetic interfaces into microscale models we report multi-tiered readouts from primary rat cortical cells cultured on the self-assembled membrane and compare a panel of mRNA targets with primary brain tissue signatures. As a result, we anticipate that the modular approach and simplified operational workflows presented here will enable a wide range of research groups to incorporate microfluidic barrier tissue models into their work.

  5. Study on the occurrence of spontaneously established perpendicular exchange bias in Co{sub 49}Pt{sub 51}/IrMn bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C. Y.; Lin, K. F.; Hsu, Jen-Hwa; Saravanan, P.

    2014-05-07

    In this study, perpendicular exchange bias (PEB) effect in the as-grown Co{sub 49}Pt{sub 51}/IrMn bilayers was demonstrated at room temperature using single-layered Co{sub 49}Pt{sub 51} alloy thin film as ferromagnetic (FM) layer. Several unusual features were observed in this system, viz.,: (i) the PEB was spontaneously established without any external magnetic field treatments, (ii) single-shifted loops were obtained rather than double-shifted ones, and (iii) the spontaneous PEB effect was accompanied by a reduction in perpendicular coercivity, H{sub c⊥} from 1024 to 632 Oe. The results of x–ray diffraction revealed the formation of IrMn (111) texture. Training effect studies indicate that the PEB effect is stable in this system with less than 5% variation in PEB value within 15 repetitive scans. Significant reduction in the PEB effect was found for the CoPt/IrMn films either grown or subjected to post-annealing under external magnetic field (H{sub ind}). The thickness dependence of PEB effect with respect to the FM and antiferromagnetic layers were also investigated and a largest PEB value of 533 Oe was obtained for the sample grown with 3-nm thick CoPt and 10-nm thick IrMn layers. The results of present study thus establish an opportunity to realize PEB effect in the absence of external field during fabrication.

  6. Adsorption of peptides and small proteins with control access polymer permeation to affinity binding sites. Part II: Polymer permeation-ion exchange separation adsorbents with polyethylene glycol and strong anion exchange groups.

    PubMed

    González-Ortega, Omar; Porath, Jerker; Guzmán, Roberto

    2012-03-02

    In chromatographic separations, the most general problem in small biomolecule isolation and purification is that such biomolecules are usually found in extremely low concentrations together with high concentrations of large molecular weight proteins. In the first part of this work, adsorption and size exclusion chromatography (AdSEC) controlled access media, using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a semi-permeable barrier on a polysaccharide Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography (IMAC) matrix was synthesized and used to develop chromatographic adsorbents that preferentially adsorb and separate low molecular weight biomolecules while rejecting large molecular weight proteins. In this second part, we expand the concept of controlled access polymer permeation adsorption (CAPPA) media by grafting polyethylene glycol (PEG) on a high capacity polysaccharide ion exchange (IEX) chromatographic resin where PEG acts as a semi-permeable barrier that preferentially allows the permeation of small molecules while rejecting large ones. The IEX resin bearing quaternary ammonium groups binds permeated biomolecules according to their ion exchange affinity while excluding large biomolecules by the PEG barrier and thus cannot compete for the binding sites. This new AdSEC media was used to study the retention of peptides and proteins covering a wide range of molecular weights from 1 to 150 kDa. The effect of protein molecular weight towards retention by ion exchange was performed using pure protein solutions. Recovery of insulin from insulin-spiked human serum and insulin-spiked human urine was evaluated under polymer controlled permeation conditions. The CAPPA media consisted of agarose beads modified with amino-PEG-methoxy and with trimethyl ammonium groups, having chloride capacities between 20 and 40 μeq/mL and were effective in rejecting high molecular weight proteins while allowing the preferential adsorption of small proteins and peptides.

  7. 78 FR 2600 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ...In this document, the Commission seeks comment on: A market analysis that the Commission intends to undertake in the coming months to assist in evaluating competition in the market for special access services; possible changes to the Commission's pricing flexibility rules after the Commission conducts its market analysis; and the reasonableness of terms and conditions offered by incumbent LECs......

  8. Knowledge Exchange and Discovery in the Age of Social Media: The Journey From Inception to Establishment of a Parent-Led Web-Based Research Advisory Community for Childhood Disability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Efforts to involve parents and families in all aspects of research, from initiating the question through to dissemination and knowledge exchange, are increasing. While social media as a method for health communication has shown numerous benefits, including increasing accessibility, interactions with others, and access to health care information, little work has been published on the use of social media to enhance research partnerships. Objective Our objective was to describe the development and evaluation of a Web-based research advisory community, hosted on Facebook and connecting a diverse group of parents of special needs children with researchers at CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research. The goal of this community is to work together and exchange knowledge in order to improve research and the lives of children and their families. Methods The Web-based Parents Participating in Research (PPR) advisory community was a secret Facebook group launched in June 2014 and run by 2 parent moderators who worked in consultation with CanChild. We evaluated its success using Facebook statistics of engagement and activity (eg, number of posts, number of comments) between June 2014 and April 2015, and a Web-based survey of members. Results The PPR community had 96 participants (2 parent moderators, 13 researchers, and 81 family members) as of April 1, 2015. Over 9 months, 432 original posts were made: 155 (35.9%) by moderators, 197 (45.6%) by parents, and 80 (18.5%) by researchers. Posts had a median of 3 likes (range 0-24) and 4 comments (range 0-113). Members, rather than moderators, generated 64% (277/432) of posts. The survey had a 51% response rate (49/96 members), with 40 (82%) being parent members and 9 (18%) being researchers. The initial purpose of the group was to be an advisory to CanChild, and 76% (28/37) of parents and all the researchers (9/9) identified having an impact on childhood disability research as their reason for participating. A

  9. Does Guidewire Exchange Influence Infection Rate Related to Catheters Used for Vascular Access in Children on Chronic Hemodialysis?

    PubMed

    Rus, Rina R; Battelino, Nina; Ponikvar, Rafael; Premru, Vladimir; Novljan, Gregor

    2017-02-01

    A central venous catheter (CVC) can either be inserted "de novo" or placed by guidewire exchange (GWE). From September 1998 to September 2015, 32 children (19 boys, 13 girls) were hemodialyzed in our unit by using a CVC. The mean age at CVC insertion was 12.6 ± 0.5 years. A total of 121 uncuffed catheters were placed, either "de novo" or by GWE in 64 (52.9%) and 57 (47.1%) cases, respectively. The most frequent cause for line revision was catheter dysfunction in 40/121 (33.1%) patients. The overall incidence of bacteremia was 1.5/1000 catheter-days. The incidence in newly inserted and GWE catheters was 1.4 and 1.7/1000 catheter-days, respectively. The difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.939). The infection rate correlated with patient age, and was higher in younger children (P = 0.006). GWE is an effective option of line revision, and did not influence the infection rate in our study.

  10. Minimally invasive endoscopic port-access intracardiac surgery with one lung ventilation: impact on gas exchange and anaesthesia resources.

    PubMed

    Kottenberg-Assenmacher, E; Kamler, M; Peters, J

    2007-03-01

    Minimally invasive endoscopic intracardiac surgery including one lung ventilation has been proposed to decrease surgical trauma but its impact on oxygenation and resource consumption has not been reported. We compared effects on gas exchange, induction, total anaesthesia time, staffing costs, and complications in 42 consecutive patients to a matched group undergoing similar surgery conventionally. Use of endoscopic compared to conventional surgery evoked a decrease in the P(a)o(2)/F(I)o(2) ratio (mean (SD) 24.1 (14.9) vs 48.9 (14) kPa, p < 0.05) following termination of bypass with one lung ventilation (10 patients showed a P(a)o(2)/F(i)o(2) below 13.3 kPa (100 mmHg)). There was also an increase of anaesthesia induction time (47 (13) vs 31 (9) min, p < 0.05), and an increase by 156 min of total anaesthesia time (474 (89) vs 321 (69) min, p < 0.05). Anaesthetist staffing costs increased by 300%. Thus, minimally invasive endoscopic intracardiac surgery consumes many more anaesthesia resources than conventional surgery and can result in hypoxaemia, but overall can be considered feasible provided that extensive continuous monitoring is employed.

  11. 77 FR 35623 - Connect America Fund; a National Broadband Plan for Our Future; Establishing Just and Reasonable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... Plan for Our Future; Establishing Just and Reasonable Rates for Local Exchange Carriers; High-Cost... competitive local exchange carriers, as part of transitioning regulation of interstate and intrastate switched access rates and reciprocal compensation rates to bill-and- keep under section 251(b)(5), to file...

  12. On Lunar Exospheric Column Densities and Solar Wind Access Beyond the Terminator from ROSAT Soft X-Ray Observations of Solar Wind Charge Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Snowden, S. L.; Sarantos, M.; Benna, M.; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, T. E.; Farrell, W. M.; Fatemi, S.; Hills, H. Kent; Hodges, R. R.; Holmstrom, M.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. Scott; Read, A.; Robertson, I. P.; Sembay, S. F.; Sibeck, D. G.; Stubbs, T. J.; Travnicek, P.; Walsh, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the Rontgen satellite (ROSAT) position sensitive proportional counter soft X-ray image of the Moon taken on 29 June 1990 by examining the radial profile of the surface brightness in three wedges: two 19 deg wedges (one north and one south) 13-32 deg off the terminator toward the dark side and one wedge 38 deg wide centered on the antisolar direction. The radial profiles of both the north and the south wedges show significant limb brightening that is absent in the 38 deg wide antisolar wedge. An analysis of the soft X-ray intensity increase associated with the limb brightening shows that its magnitude is consistent with that expected due to solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) with the tenuous lunar atmosphere based on lunar exospheric models and hybrid simulation results of solar wind access beyond the terminator. Soft X-ray imaging thus can independently infer the total lunar limb column density including all species, a property that before now has not been measured, and provide a large-scale picture of the solar wind-lunar interaction. Because the SWCX signal appears to be dominated by exospheric species arising from solar wind implantation, this technique can also determine how the exosphere varies with solar wind conditions. Now, along with Mars, Venus, and Earth, the Moon represents another solar system body at which SWCX has been observed.

  13. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Cancer.gov

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  14. Establishing the next generation at work: leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and leadership success.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Henning, Thomas; Frese, Michael

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the authors investigated leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and three criteria of leadership success (follower perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower satisfaction with leader, and follower extra effort). Data came from 128 university professors paired with one research assistant each. Results showed positive relationships between leader age and leader generativity, and negative relationships between leader age and follower perceptions of leader effectiveness and follower extra effort. Consistent with expectations based on leadership categorization theory, leader generativity moderated the relationships between leader age and all three criteria of leadership success, such that leaders high in generativity were better able to maintain high levels of leadership success at higher ages than leaders low in generativity. Finally, results of mediated moderation analyses showed that leader-member exchange quality mediated these moderating effects. The findings suggest that, in combination, leader age and the age-related construct of generativity importantly influence leadership processes and outcomes.

  15. 45 CFR 155.315 - Verification process related to eligibility for enrollment in a QHP through the Exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... enrollment in a QHP through the Exchange. 155.315 Section 155.315 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER... circumstances as to why the applicant does not have documentation. (h) Flexibility in information collection...

  16. 45 CFR 155.315 - Verification process related to eligibility for enrollment in a QHP through the Exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... enrollment in a QHP through the Exchange. 155.315 Section 155.315 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER... explanation of circumstances as to why the applicant does not have documentation. (h) Flexibility...

  17. 77 FR 72902 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... of Proposed Rule Change To Expand the Availability of Risk Management Tools November 30, 2012... effectiveness of proposed rule change to establish a Sponsored Access Risk Management Tool) (the ``BATS Exchange... ``BYX'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed rule change...

  18. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  19. Dynamic Information Management and Exchange for Command and Control Applications, Modelling and Enforcing Category-Based Access Control via Term Rewriting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0026 Dynamic Information Management and Exchange for Command and Control Applications Maribel...Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 24 August 2010 – 28 February 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamic Information Management and Exchange for...specified by individual members of the federation). 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, Information Management , Distributed

  20. Determination of melamine and cyromazine in milk by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with online solid-phase extraction using a novel cation-exchange restricted access material synthesized by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Lin, Shen; Jiang, Ping; Zhu, Xudong; Ling, Jing; Zhang, Wen; Dong, Xiangchao

    2014-04-11

    A novel strong-cation-exchange restricted access material has been synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). In the synthesis, poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate), [p(SPM/EDMA)] was grafted on the silica by surface-initiated ATRP first. The poly(glycerol mono-methacrylate) [pGMMA] was then immobilized on the external surface, which created a chemical diffusion barrier for protein exclusion. The resulting Sil-g-p(SPM/EDMA)-g-pGMMA has both functions of protein exclusion and cation exchange, exhibiting the property of cation-exchange restricted access material. The application of Sil-g-p(SPM/EDMA)-g-pGMMA has been studied by the determination of melamine and cyromazine in bovine milk using the online solid-phase extraction/HPLC method. In the process, the Sil-g-p(SPM/EDMA)-g-pGMMA was used for the sample pre-treatment and a HILIC column was employed as the analytical column. The method has shown good accuracy, precision and low limits of detections. The result demonstrated that the Sil-g-p(SPM/EDMA)-g-pGMMA can be used for the cation extraction from biological samples by direct HPLC injection.

  1. Program of operation for the National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.

    1977-01-01

    The National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX) has been established as a nationwide program directed at improving access to water and water-related data and disseminating information about the availability of these data throughout the entire water-resources community. NAWDEX is composed of a confederation of water-oriented organizations working together to facilitate the exchange of data and to improve the technology of data handling and transfer. This report is intended to provide guidelines to assure that all member organizations participate equally and that a climate of cooperation and open communication is established among participating members. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. [Establishment of background color to discriminate among tablets: sharper and more feasible with color-weak simulation as access to safe medication].

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Makiko; Maeda, Hatsuo; Okamoto, Ikuko

    2014-01-01

    Color-weak persons, who in Japan represent approximately 5% of male and 0.2% of female population, may not be able to discriminate among colors of tablets. Thus using color-weak simulation by Variantor™ we evaluated the effects of background colors (light, medium, and dark gray, purple, blue, and blue green) on discrimination among yellow, yellow red, red, and mixed group tablets by our established method. In addition, the influence of white 10-mm ruled squares on background sheets was examined, and the change in color of the tablets and background sheets through the simulation measured. Variance analysis of the data obtained from 42 volunteers demonstrated that with color-weak vision, the best discrimination among yellow, yellow red, or mixed group tablets was achieved on a dark gray background sheet, and a blue background sheet was useful to discriminate among each tablet group in all colors including red. These results were compared with those previously obtained with healthy and cataractous vision, suggesting that gap in color hue and chroma as well as value between background sheets and tablets affects discrimination with color-weak vision. The observed positive effects of white ruled squares, in contrast to those observed on healthy and cataractous vision, demonstrate that a background sheet arranged by two colors allows color-weak persons to discriminate among all sets of tablets in a sharp and feasible manner.

  3. Chromatography process development in the quality by design paradigm I: Establishing a high-throughput process development platform as a tool for estimating "characterization space" for an ion exchange chromatography step.

    PubMed

    Bhambure, R; Rathore, A S

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of a high-throughput process development (HTPD) platform for developing chromatography steps. An assessment of the platform as a tool for establishing the "characterization space" for an ion exchange chromatography step has been performed by using design of experiments. Case studies involving use of a biotech therapeutic, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor have been used to demonstrate the performance of the platform. We discuss the various challenges that arise when working at such small volumes along with the solutions that we propose to alleviate these challenges to make the HTPD data suitable for empirical modeling. Further, we have also validated the scalability of this platform by comparing the results from the HTPD platform (2 and 6 μL resin volumes) against those obtained at the traditional laboratory scale (resin volume, 0.5 mL). We find that after integration of the proposed correction factors, the HTPD platform is capable of performing the process optimization studies at 170-fold higher productivity. The platform is capable of providing semi-quantitative assessment of the effects of the various input parameters under consideration. We think that platform such as the one presented is an excellent tool for examining the "characterization space" and reducing the extensive experimentation at the traditional lab scale that is otherwise required for establishing the "design space." Thus, this platform will specifically aid in successful implementation of quality by design in biotech process development. This is especially significant in view of the constraints with respect to time and resources that the biopharma industry faces today.

  4. Technology Performance Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    To address the need for accessible, high-quality data, the Department of Energy has developed the Technology Performance Exchange (TPEx). TPEx enables technology suppliers, third-party testing laboratories, and other entities to share product performance data. These data are automatically transformed into a format that technology evaluators can easily use in their energy modeling assessments to inform procurement decisions.

  5. Apparent exchange rate for breast cancer characterization.

    PubMed

    Lasič, Samo; Oredsson, Stina; Partridge, Savannah C; Saal, Lao H; Topgaard, Daniel; Nilsson, Markus; Bryskhe, Karin

    2016-05-01

    Although diffusion MRI has shown promise for the characterization of breast cancer, it has low specificity to malignant subtypes. Higher specificity might be achieved if the effects of cell morphology and molecular exchange across cell membranes could be disentangled. The quantification of exchange might thus allow the differentiation of different types of breast cancer cells. Based on differences in diffusion rates between the intra- and extracellular compartments, filter exchange spectroscopy/imaging (FEXSY/FEXI) provides non-invasive quantification of the apparent exchange rate (AXR) of water between the two compartments. To test the feasibility of FEXSY for the differentiation of different breast cancer cells, we performed experiments on several breast epithelial cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, we performed the first in vivo FEXI measurement of water exchange in human breast. In cell suspensions, pulsed gradient spin-echo experiments with large b values and variable pulse duration allow the characterization of the intracellular compartment, whereas FEXSY provides a quantification of AXR. These experiments are very sensitive to the physiological state of cells and can be used to establish reliable protocols for the culture and harvesting of cells. Our results suggest that different breast cancer subtypes can be distinguished on the basis of their AXR values in cell suspensions. Time-resolved measurements allow the monitoring of the physiological state of cells in suspensions over the time-scale of hours, and reveal an abrupt disintegration of the intracellular compartment. In vivo, exchange can be detected in a tumor, whereas, in normal tissue, the exchange rate is outside the range experimentally accessible for FEXI. At present, low signal-to-noise ratio and limited scan time allows the quantification of AXR only in a region of interest of relatively large tumors.

  6. Exchange Rates and Old People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, James J.

    1980-01-01

    Extends earlier work on aging as a process of exchange by focusing on the issue of exchange rates and how they are negotiated. Access to power resources declines with age, placing the old person in the position of negotiating from weakness. (Author)

  7. 17 CFR 240.15c3-5 - Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Risk management controls for... Markets § 240.15c3-5 Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access. (a) For the... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  8. The Equal Access Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catron, J. Gregory

    1987-01-01

    Reviews past history of access of religious activities in public schools in relation to the establishment clause of the First Amendment and sets forth the prerequisites in the Equal Access Act of 1984 for creating a well-defined forum for student-initiated free speech including religious groups in public high schools. (MD)

  9. Establishing operations

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack

    1993-01-01

    The first two books on behavior analysis (Skinner, 1938; Keller & Schoenfeld, 1950) had chapter-length coverage of motivation. The next generation of texts also had chapters on the topic, but by the late 1960s it was no longer being given much treatment in the behavior-analytic literature. The present failure to deal with the topic leaves a gap in our understanding of operant functional relations. A partial solution is to reintroduce the concept of the establishing operation, defined as an environmental event, operation, or stimulus condition that affects an organism by momentarily altering (a) the reinforcing effectiveness of other events and (b) the frequency of occurrence of that part of the organism's repertoire relevant to those events as consequences. Discriminative and motivative variables can be distinguished as follows: The former are related to the differential availability of an effective form of reinforcement given a particular type of behavior; the latter are related to the differential reinforcing effectiveness of environmental events. An important distinction can also be made between unconditioned establishing operations (UEOs), such as food deprivation and painful stimulation, and conditioned establishing operations (CEOs) that depend on the learning history of the organism. One type of CEO is a stimulus that has simply been paired with a UEO and as a result may take on some of the motivative properties of that UEO. The warning stimulus in avoidance procedures is another important type of CEO referred to as reflexive because it establishes its own termination as a form of reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has accomplished such termination. Another CEO is closely related to the concept of conditional conditioned reinforcement and is referred to as a transitive CEO, because it establishes some other stimulus as a form of effective reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has produced that other stimulus. The multiple control of human

  10. Ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access for therapeutic apheresis procedures reduces need for central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Eric; Garcia, Salvador; Miguel, Robin; Segura, Francisco J; Ipe, Tina S; Leveque, Christopher

    2016-08-10

    Therapeutic and donor apheresis requires adequate vascular access to achieve inlet flow rates of ∼50-100 mL/min. While central dialysis-type venous catheters can usually provide such access, their use includes several associated risks. Some of these risks can be avoided or diminished if adequate peripheral venous access can be established. Some patients have adequate peripheral veins for apheresis that cannot be readily identified visually or by palpation. We hypothesized that ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access would benefit such patients and would lead to placement of fewer central venous catheters. The technique of ultrasound-guided peripheral access for apheresis has been in use at Houston Methodist Hospital since 2012. We performed a prospective review of patients undergoing inpatient and outpatient apheresis at Houston Methodist Hospital from July 1, 2015 to September 30, 2015, to assess its benefit. During this time, we performed 831 procedures on 186 patients, including 787 therapeutic plasma exchanges, three red blood cell exchanges, 41 peripheral stem cell collections. Ultrasound-guided vascular access was used for 68 procedures (8% of all procedures), including 62 therapeutic plasma exchanges, 4 peripheral stem cell collections, and 2 red blood cell changes. Use of ultrasound-guided peripheral access prevented the placement of central venous catheters in 37 (20%) patients, demonstrating its utility in a busy transfusion service.

  11. Server-Controlled Identity-Based Authenticated Key Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hua; Mu, Yi; Zhang, Xiyong; Li, Zhoujun

    We present a threshold identity-based authenticated key exchange protocol that can be applied to an authenticated server-controlled gateway-user key exchange. The objective is to allow a user and a gateway to establish a shared session key with the permission of the back-end servers, while the back-end servers cannot obtain any information about the established session key. Our protocol has potential applications in strong access control of confidential resources. In particular, our protocol possesses the semantic security and demonstrates several highly-desirable security properties such as key privacy and transparency. We prove the security of the protocol based on the Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption in the random oracle model.

  12. A Review of Established Guidelines and Standards for International Education Travel and Exchange Programs for Students. Report of the Department of Education to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virgina. House Document No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State General Assembly, Richmond. House.

    This study of existing guidelines and standards for international travel by students in local school divisions is the result of a Virginia Department of Education team effort over four months. The interdisciplinary team reviewed guidelines and standards for international travel and student exchange programs from major organizations and developed…

  13. 77 FR 50742 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... currently able to purchase access to the Exchange's Liquidity Center Network (``LCN''), a local area network... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... (``NYSE'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...

  14. News UK public libraries offer walk-in access to research Atoms for Peace? The Atomic Weapons Establishment and UK universities Students present their research to academics: CERN@school Science in a suitcase: Marvin and Milo visit Ethiopia Inspiring telescopes A day for everyone teaching physics 2014 Forthcoming Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-05-01

    UK public libraries offer walk-in access to research Atoms for Peace? The Atomic Weapons Establishment and UK universities Students present their research to academics: CERN@school Science in a suitcase: Marvin and Milo visit Ethiopia Inspiring telescopes A day for everyone teaching physics 2014 Forthcoming Events

  15. Educators Exchange: A Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, William B.

    The Educators Exchange Program (EEP) was established under a training and educational exchange agreement reached by California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In the program, the District provided a 4-week technological training program to faculty at Centros de Capacitacion Tecnologica Industrial…

  16. Mechanism of extracellular ion exchange and binding-site occlusion in a sodium/calcium exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Jun; Marinelli, Fabrizio; Lee, Changkeun; Huang, Yihe; Faraldo-Gomez, Jose D.; Jiang, Youxing

    2016-05-16

    Na+/Ca2+ exchangers utilize the Na+ electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane to extrude intracellular Ca2+, and play a central role in Ca2+ homeostasis. Here, we elucidate their mechanisms of extracellular ion recognition and exchange through a structural analysis of the exchanger from Methanococcus jannaschii (NCX_Mj) bound to Na+, Ca2+ or Sr2+ in various occupancies and in an apo state. This analysis defines the binding mode and relative affinity of these ions, establishes the structural basis for the anticipated 3:1Na+/Ca2+ exchange stoichiometry, and reveals the conformational changes at the onset of the alternating-access transport mechanism. An independent analysis of the dynamics and conformational free-energy landscape of NCX_Mj in different ion-occupancy states, based on enhanced-sampling molecular-dynamics simulations, demonstrates that the crystal structures reflect mechanistically relevant, interconverting conformations. Lastly, these calculations also reveal the mechanism by which the outward-to-inward transition is controlled by the ion-occupancy state, thereby explaining the emergence of strictly-coupled Na+/Ca2+ antiport.

  17. Mechanism of extracellular ion exchange and binding-site occlusion in the sodium-calcium exchanger

    PubMed Central

    Lee, ChangKeun; Huang, Yihe; Faraldo-Gómez, José D.; Jiang, Youxing

    2016-01-01

    Na+/Ca2+ exchangers utilize the Na+ electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane to extrude intracellular Ca2+, and play a central role in Ca2+ homeostasis. Here, we elucidate their mechanisms of extracellular ion recognition and exchange through a structural analysis of the exchanger from Methanococcus jannaschii (NCX_Mj) bound to Na+, Ca2+ or Sr2+ in various occupancies and in an apo state. This analysis defines the binding mode and relative affinity of these ions, establishes the structural basis for the anticipated 3Na+:1Ca2+ exchange stoichiometry, and reveals the conformational changes at the onset of the alternating-access transport mechanism. An independent analysis of the dynamics and conformational free-energy landscape of NCX_Mj in different ion-occupancy states, based on enhanced-sampling molecular-dynamics simulations, demonstrates that the crystal structures reflect mechanistically relevant, interconverting conformations. These calculations also reveal the mechanism by which the outward-to-inward transition is controlled by the ion-occupancy state, thereby explaining the emergence of strictly-coupled Na+/Ca2+ antiport. PMID:27183196

  18. Mechanism of extracellular ion exchange and binding-site occlusion in a sodium/calcium exchanger

    DOE PAGES

    Liao, Jun; Marinelli, Fabrizio; Lee, Changkeun; ...

    2016-05-16

    Na+/Ca2+ exchangers utilize the Na+ electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane to extrude intracellular Ca2+, and play a central role in Ca2+ homeostasis. Here, we elucidate their mechanisms of extracellular ion recognition and exchange through a structural analysis of the exchanger from Methanococcus jannaschii (NCX_Mj) bound to Na+, Ca2+ or Sr2+ in various occupancies and in an apo state. This analysis defines the binding mode and relative affinity of these ions, establishes the structural basis for the anticipated 3:1Na+/Ca2+ exchange stoichiometry, and reveals the conformational changes at the onset of the alternating-access transport mechanism. An independent analysis of the dynamicsmore » and conformational free-energy landscape of NCX_Mj in different ion-occupancy states, based on enhanced-sampling molecular-dynamics simulations, demonstrates that the crystal structures reflect mechanistically relevant, interconverting conformations. Lastly, these calculations also reveal the mechanism by which the outward-to-inward transition is controlled by the ion-occupancy state, thereby explaining the emergence of strictly-coupled Na+/Ca2+ antiport.« less

  19. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  20. Internetworking satellite and local exchange networks for personal communications applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Richard S.; Pinck, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    The demand for personal communications services has shown unprecedented growth, and the next decade and beyond promise an era in which the needs for ubiquitous, transparent and personalized access to information will continue to expand in both scale and scope. The exchange of personalized information is growing from two-way voice to include data communications, electronic messaging and information services, image transfer, video, and interactive multimedia. The emergence of new land-based and satellite-based wireless networks illustrates the expanding scale and trend toward globalization and the need to establish new local exchange and exchange access services to meet the communications needs of people on the move. An important issue is to identify the roles that satellite networking can play in meeting these new communications needs. The unique capabilities of satellites, in providing coverage to large geographic areas, reaching widely dispersed users, for position location determination, and in offering broadcast and multicast services, can complement and extend the capabilities of terrestrial networks. As an initial step in exploring the opportunities afforded by the merger of satellite-based and land-based networks, several experiments utilizing the NASA ACTS satellite and the public switched local exchange network were undertaken to demonstrate the use of satellites in the delivery of personal communications services.

  1. Arteriovenous Access

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Jennifer M.; Dipchand, Christine; Oliver, Matthew; Moist, Louise; Yilmaz, Serdar; Lok, Charmaine; Leung, Kelvin; Clark, Edward; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Complications of vascular access lead to morbidity and may reduce quality of life. In this module, we review both infectious and noninfectious arteriovenous access complications including neuropathy, aneurysm, and high-output access. For the challenging patients who have developed many complications and are now nearing their last vascular access, we highlight some potentially novel approaches. PMID:28270919

  2. Secure Dynamic access control scheme of PHR in cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Liu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chen, Chin-Sheng; Bau, Jian-Guo; Lin, Tzu-Ching

    2012-12-01

    With the development of information technology and medical technology, medical information has been developed from traditional paper records into electronic medical records, which have now been widely applied. The new-style medical information exchange system "personal health records (PHR)" is gradually developed. PHR is a kind of health records maintained and recorded by individuals. An ideal personal health record could integrate personal medical information from different sources and provide complete and correct personal health and medical summary through the Internet or portable media under the requirements of security and privacy. A lot of personal health records are being utilized. The patient-centered PHR information exchange system allows the public autonomously maintain and manage personal health records. Such management is convenient for storing, accessing, and sharing personal medical records. With the emergence of Cloud computing, PHR service has been transferred to storing data into Cloud servers that the resources could be flexibly utilized and the operation cost can be reduced. Nevertheless, patients would face privacy problem when storing PHR data into Cloud. Besides, it requires a secure protection scheme to encrypt the medical records of each patient for storing PHR into Cloud server. In the encryption process, it would be a challenge to achieve accurately accessing to medical records and corresponding to flexibility and efficiency. A new PHR access control scheme under Cloud computing environments is proposed in this study. With Lagrange interpolation polynomial to establish a secure and effective PHR information access scheme, it allows to accurately access to PHR with security and is suitable for enormous multi-users. Moreover, this scheme also dynamically supports multi-users in Cloud computing environments with personal privacy and offers legal authorities to access to PHR. From security and effectiveness analyses, the proposed PHR access

  3. Leveraging the cloud for electronic health record access.

    PubMed

    Coats, Brian; Acharya, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare providers are under increasing pressure to enable widespread access to their electronic health record (EHR) systems for the patients they serve; the meaningful use incentive programs are perhaps the most significant driver encouraging this access. Elsewhere, the cloud has become extremely efficient and successful at establishing digital identities for individuals and making them interoperable across heterogeneous systems. As the healthcare industry contemplates providing patients access to their EHRs, the solution should leverage existing cloud investment, not duplicate it. Through an analysis of industry standards and similar work being performed in other industries, a trust framework has been derived for exchanging identity information. This research lays out a comprehensive structure that healthcare providers can easily use to integrate their EHRs with the cloud for identity validation, while meeting compliance guidelines for security and privacy. Further, this research has been implemented at a large regional hospital, yielding immediate and tangible improvements.

  4. Leveraging the Cloud for Electronic Health Record Access

    PubMed Central

    Coats, Brian; Acharya, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare providers are under increasing pressure to enable widespread access to their electronic health record (EHR) systems for the patients they serve; the meaningful use incentive programs are perhaps the most significant driver encouraging this access. Elsewhere, the cloud has become extremely efficient and successful at establishing digital identities for individuals and making them interoperable across heterogeneous systems. As the healthcare industry contemplates providing patients access to their EHRs, the solution should leverage existing cloud investment, not duplicate it. Through an analysis of industry standards and similar work being performed in other industries, a trust framework has been derived for exchanging identity information. This research lays out a comprehensive structure that healthcare providers can easily use to integrate their EHRs with the cloud for identity validation, while meeting compliance guidelines for security and privacy. Further, this research has been implemented at a large regional hospital, yielding immediate and tangible improvements. PMID:24808814

  5. Establishing an institutional therapeutic apheresis registry.

    PubMed

    Mann, Steven A; McCleskey, Brandi; Marques, Marisa B; Adamski, Jill

    2016-12-01

    Apheresis was first performed as a therapeutic procedure in the 1950s. The first national therapeutic apheresis (TA) registry was established in Canada in 1981 and other national registries followed, including two attempts at establishing an international TA registry. There is no national registry in the United States. Our large, academic, tertiary hospital has a very active TA service. We created a TA database to track all procedures performed by the apheresis service by transferring data from paper appointment logs and the electronic medical records into a Microsoft Access database. Retrospective data from each TA procedure performed at UAB from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were entered, including the type of procedure, indication, date, and patient demographics. Microsoft Excel was used for data analysis. During the 10-year period, our TA service treated 1,060 patients and performed 11,718 procedures. Of these patients, 70% received therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), 21% received extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), 4.5% received red cell exchange (RCE), 4.2% received leukocytapheresis, and 0.6% underwent platelet depletion. Among the procedures, 54% were TPEs, 44% were ECPs, 1.3% were RCEs, 0.5% were leukocytaphereses, and 0.1% were platelet depletions. According to the current literature, national and international TA use is underreported. We believe that the UAB TA registry provides useful information about TA practices in our region and can serve as a model for other institutions. Furthermore, data from multiple institutional registries can be used for clinical research to increase the available evidence for the role of TA in various conditions. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:516-522, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 47 CFR 32.6540 - Access expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access expense. 32.6540 Section 32.6540... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6540 Access expense. (a) This... exchange carrier for the provision of carrier's carrier access. (b) Subsidiary record categories shall...

  7. 76 FR 54275 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate..., Chicago Mercantile Exchange Inc. (``CME'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission... membership; (vi) Globex System access documentation; (vii) Settlement bank account documents to permit...

  8. Exchange Network

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  9. Gas exchange

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... during exhalation. Gas exchange is the delivery of oxygen from the lungs to the bloodstream, and the ... share a membrane with the capillaries in which oxygen and carbon dioxide move freely between the respiratory ...

  10. HEAT EXCHANGER

    DOEpatents

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

    1962-10-23

    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  11. Open access

    PubMed Central

    Franck, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Scientific communication is a misnomer. The process of scientific publication is much less a forum where information is exchanged for information than a market where information is exchanged for attention. Nevertheless, the exchange of information for attention is a somewhat peculiar market, since it seems much more natural to sell the information one has produced laboriously for money. Why publish a discovery, why share it with other researchers when knowledge is power? PMID:23032307

  12. Assessment of the possibility of establishing material cycling in an experimental model of the bio-technical life support system with plant and human wastes included in mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Velichko, V. V.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2011-05-01

    A pilot model of a bio-technical life support system (BTLSS) including human and plant wastes has been developed at the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS (Krasnoyarsk, Russia). This paper describes the structure of the photosynthesizing unit of the system, which includes wheat, chufa and vegetables. The study substantiates the simultaneous use of neutral and biological substrates for cultivating plants. A novel physicochemical method for the involvement of human wastes in the cycling has been employed, which enables the use of recycled products as nutrients for plants. Inedible plant biomass was subjected to biological combustion in the soil-like substrate (SLS) and was thus involved in the system mass exchange; NaCl contained in native urine was returned to the human through the consumption of Salicornia europaea, an edible salt-concentrating plant. Mass transfer processes in the studied BLSS have been examined for different chemical components.

  13. New Trends in Magnetic Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougin, Alexandra; Mangin, Stéphane; Bobo, Jean-Francois; Loidl, Alois

    2005-05-01

    The study of layered magnetic structures is one of the hottest topics in magnetism due to the growing attraction of applications in magnetic sensors and magnetic storage media, such as random access memory. For almost half a century, new discoveries have driven researchers to re-investigate magnetism in thin film structures. Phenomena such as giant magnetoresistance, tunneling magnetoresistance, exchange bias and interlayer exchange coupling led to new ideas to construct devices, based not only on semiconductors but on a variety of magnetic materials Upon cooling fine cobalt particles in a magnetic field through the Néel temperature of their outer antiferromagnetic oxide layer, Meiklejohn and Bean discovered exchange bias in 1956. The exchange bias effect through which an antiferromagnetic AF layer can cause an adjacent ferromagnetic F layer to develop a preferred direction of magnetization, is widely used in magnetoelectronics technology to pin the magnetization of a device reference layer in a desired direction. However, the origin and effects due to exchange interaction across the interface between antiferromagneic and ferromagnetic layers are still debated after about fifty years of research, due to the extreme difficulty associated with the determination of the magnetic interfacial structure in F/AF bilayers. Indeed, in an AF/F bilayer system, the AF layer acts as “the invisible man” during conventional magnetic measurements and the presence of the exchange coupling is evidenced indirectly through the unusual behavior of the adjacent F layer. Basically, the coercive field of the F layer increases in contact with the AF and, in some cases, its hysteresis loop is shifted by an amount called exchange bias field. Thus, AF/F exchange coupling generates a new source of anisotropy in the F layer. This induced anisotropy strongly depends on basic features such as the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, crystallographic and spin structures, defects, domain patterns etc

  14. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  15. An approach for message exchange using archetypes.

    PubMed

    Moraes, João L C; Souza, Wanderley L; Cavalini, Luciana T; Pires, Luís F; Prado, Antonio F

    2013-01-01

    The application of ICT on the whole range of health sector activities, known as e-health, can simplify the access to health care services and will only be acceptable for realistic scenarios if it supports efficient information exchange amongst the caregivers and their patients. The aim of this paper is present an approach for message exchange to realistic scenarios.

  16. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  17. Establishing a Presence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCandless, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    The basis for this successful collaboration was face-to-face communication. Though it was sometimes stressful being on the road so much, I really learned the importance of being present to work together and ask questions in person. Another measure of success was that in the midst of this project and traveling, my wife and I managed to start a family. My oldest boy got a real kick out of visiting Space Center Houston when he was two to learn all about the "face futtle" which goes way up in the sky. When practical, collocation and face-to-face communication on a project eliminate misunderstandings, establish relationships, make information more easily accessible, and promote a team atmosphere. Compromise is key to balancing both family and career goals. Knowing when to prioritize each is important to success in both aspects.

  18. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  19. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  20. Optimizing exchanger design early

    SciTech Connect

    Lacunza, M.; Vaschetti, G.; Campana, H.

    1987-08-01

    It is not practical for process engineers and designers to make a rigorous economic evaluation for each component of a process due to the loss of time and money. But, it's very helpful and useful to have a method for a quick design evaluation of heat exchangers, considering their important contribution to the total fixed investment in a process plant. This article is devoted to this subject, and the authors present a method that has been proved in some design cases. Linking rigorous design procedures with a quick cost-estimation method provides a good technique for obtaining the right heat exchanger. The cost will be appropriate, sometimes not the lowest because of design restrictions, but a good approach to the optimum in an earlier process design stage. The authors intend to show the influence of the design variables in a shell and tube heat exchanger on capital investment, or conversely, taking into account the general limiting factors of the process such as thermodynamics, operability, corrosion, etc., and/or from the mechanical design of the calculated unit. The last is a special consideration for countries with no access to industrial technology or with difficulties in obtaining certain construction materials or equipment.

  1. Accessible Electronic and Information Technology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Policy establishes EPA's responsibilities and procedures for making its Electronic and Information Technology (EIT) products accessible to all people, including people with disabilities, in accordance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act.

  2. Health information exchange and healthcare utilization.

    PubMed

    Vest, Joshua R

    2009-06-01

    Health information exchange (HIE) makes previously inaccessible data available to clinicians, resulting in more complete information. This study tested the hypotheses that HIE information access reduced emergency room visits and inpatient hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions among medically indigent adults. HIE access was quantified by how frequently system users' accessed patients' data. Encounter counts were modeled using zero inflated binomial regression. HIE was not accessed for 43% of individuals. Patient factors associated with accessed data included: prior utilization, chronic conditions, and age. Higher levels of information access were significantly associated with increased counts of all encounter types. Results indicate system users were more likely to access HIE for patients for whom the information might be considered most beneficial. Ultimately, these results imply that HIE information access did not transform care in the ways many would expect. Expectations in utilization reductions, however logical, may have to be reevaluated or postponed.

  3. 17 CFR 49.27 - Access and fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Access and fees. 49.27 Section 49.27 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP DATA REPOSITORIES... provide a schedule of fees and charges that is accessible by all market participants on its Web site....

  4. 17 CFR 49.17 - Access to SDR data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Access to SDR data. 49.17 Section 49.17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP DATA REPOSITORIES § 49.17 Access to SDR data. (a) Purpose. This Section provides a procedure by which the...

  5. 17 CFR 49.17 - Access to SDR data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Access to SDR data. 49.17 Section 49.17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SWAP DATA REPOSITORIES § 49.17 Access to SDR data. (a) Purpose. This Section provides a procedure by...

  6. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  7. Brown coals as natural electron-ion-exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Kossov, I.I.; Aleksandrov, I.V.; Kamneva, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of electron-ion-exchange properties in brown coals has been established. The influence of the redox properties of the organic and mineral fractions of the coals on their capacity for electron exchange has been shown.

  8. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbury, Phillip J.

    1986-04-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  9. Vascular Access in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh Keller, Marc S.

    2011-02-15

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the 'expert procedural pyramid' is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  10. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Waffelaert, Pascale

    2007-09-01

    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This will not only reduce the quantity of

  11. RMB Exchange Rate Forecast Approach Based on BP Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Sun

    RMB exchange rate system has reformed since July, 2005. This article chose RMB exchange rate data during a period from July, 2005 to September 2010 to establish BP neural network model to forecast RMB exchange rate in the future by using MATLAB software. The result showed that BP neural network is effective to forecast RMB exchange rate and also indicated that RMB exchange rate will continue to appreciate in the future.

  12. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  13. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  14. Decontamination and dismantlement of the building 594 waste ion exchange facility at Argonne National Laboratory-East project final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, E. C.

    1998-11-23

    The Building 594 D&D Project was directed toward the following goals: Removal of any radioactive and hazardous materials associated with the Waste Ion Exchange Facility; Decontamination of the Waste Ion Exchange Facility to unrestricted use levels; Demolition of Building 594; and Documentation of all project activities affecting quality (i.e., waste packaging, instrument calibration, audit results, and personnel exposure) These goals had been set in order to eliminate the radiological and hazardous safety concerns inherent in the Waste Ion Exchange Facility and to allow, upon completion of the project, unescorted and unmonitored access to the area. The ion exchange system and the resin contained in the system were the primary areas of concern, while the condition of the building which housed the system was of secondary concern. ANL-E health physics technicians characterized the Building 594 Waste Ion Exchange Facility in September 1996. The characterization identified a total of three radionuclides present in the Waste Ion Exchange Facility with a total activity of less than 5 {micro}Ci (175 kBq). The radionuclides of concern were Co{sup 60}, Cs{sup 137}, and Am{sup 241}. The highest dose rates observed during the project were associated with the resin in the exchange vessels. DOE Order 5480.2A establishes the maximum whole body exposure for occupational workers at 5 rem (50 mSv)/yr; the administrative limit at ANL-E is 1 rem/yr (10 mSv/yr).

  15. Carbon exchange by establishing biofuel crops in Central Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial grass biofuels may contribute to long-term carbon sequestration in soils, thereby providing a broad range of environmental benefits at multiple scales. To quantify those benefits, the carbon balance was investigated over three perennial grass biofuel crops miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus)...

  16. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  17. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  18. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  19. 47 CFR 69.114 - Special access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special access. 69.114 Section 69.114 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.114 Special access. (a) Appropriate subelements shall be established for the...

  20. 75 FR 8769 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... access to the Exchange, non-member service bureaus that act as a conduit for orders entered by Exchange Members that are their customers, Sponsored Participants, and market data recipients. \\6\\ The Exchange... securities exchange be designed to promote just and equitable principles of trade, to remove impediments...

  1. 77 FR 48576 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... private line Ethernet connection to the Exchange's network within the data center). Multiple logical ports... Exchange has prepared summaries, set forth in sections A, B, and C below, of the most significant parts of... charging for certain physical ports used to access the Exchange at the Exchange's secondary data...

  2. 78 FR 45590 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... with using unaffiliated broker-dealers to access other exchanges for linkage executions and is... ``linkage'' executions. These costs incurred by the Exchange recently increased as a result of the Exchange... linkage handling. The Exchange also notes that the fees proposed herein are within the range of...

  3. Educator Exchange Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Cris; Rodriguez, Victor

    This resource guide was developed for teachers and administrators interested in participating in intercultural and international exchange programs or starting an exchange program. An analysis of an exchange program's critical elements discusses exchange activities; orientation sessions; duration of exchange; criteria for participation; travel,…

  4. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) Solutions for Interoperable Open Data Access Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. L.; Richard, S. M.; Patten, K.

    2014-12-01

    The geosciences are leading development of free, interoperable open access to data. US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) is a freely available data integration framework, jointly developed by the USGS and the Association of American State Geologists (AASG), in compliance with international standards and protocols to provide easy discovery, access, and interoperability for geoscience data. USGIN standards include the geologic exchange language 'GeoSciML' (v 3.2 which enables instant interoperability of geologic formation data) which is also the base standard used by the 117-nation OneGeology consortium. The USGIN deployment of NGDS serves as a continent-scale operational demonstration of the expanded OneGeology vision to provide access to all geoscience data worldwide. USGIN is developed to accommodate a variety of applications; for example, the International Renewable Energy Agency streams data live to the Global Atlas of Renewable Energy. Alternatively, users without robust data sharing systems can download and implement a free software packet, "GINstack" to easily deploy web services for exposing data online for discovery and access. The White House Open Data Access Initiative requires all federally funded research projects and federal agencies to make their data publicly accessible in an open source, interoperable format, with metadata. USGIN currently incorporates all aspects of the Initiative as it emphasizes interoperability. The system is successfully deployed as the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), officially launched at the White House Energy Datapalooza in May, 2014. The USGIN Foundation has been established to ensure this technology continues to be accessible and available.

  5. Cation exchange on the nanoscale: an emerging technique for new material synthesis, device fabrication, and chemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Rivest, Jessy B; Jain, Prashant K

    2013-01-07

    Cation exchange is an age-old technique for the chemical conversion of liquids or extended solids by place-exchanging the cations in an ionic material with a different set of cations. The technique is undergoing a major revival with the advent of high-quality nanocrystals: researchers are now able to overcome the limitations in bulk systems and fully exploit cation exchange for materials synthesis and discovery via rapid, low-temperature transformations in the solid state. In this tutorial review, we discuss cation exchange as a promising materials synthesis and discovery tool. Exchange on the nanoscale exhibits some unique attributes: rapid kinetics at room temperature (orders of magnitude faster than in the bulk) and the tuning of reactivity via control of nanocrystal size, shape, and surface faceting. These features make cation exchange a convenient tool for accessing nanocrystal compositions and morphologies for which conventional synthesis may not be established. A simple exchange reaction allows extension of nanochemistry to a larger part of the periodic table, beyond the typical gamut of II-VI, IV-VI, and III-V materials. Cation exchange transformations in nanocrystals can be topotactic and size- and shape-conserving, allowing nanocrystals synthesized by conventional methods to be used as templates for production of compositionally novel, multicomponent, or doped nanocrystals. Since phases and compositions resulting from an exchange reaction can be kinetically controlled, rather than governed by the phase diagram, nanocrystals of metastable and hitherto inaccessible compositions are attainable. Outside of materials synthesis, applications for cation exchange exist in water purification, chemical staining, and sensing. Since nanoscale cation exchange occurs rapidly at room temperature, it can be integrated with sensitive environments such as those in biological systems. Cation exchange is already allowing access to a variety of new materials and processes

  6. 76 FR 82332 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    .... Moreover, the competitive pressures from other exchanges in electronic orders and different business model... electronic business and compete with other exchanges for such business. The business models surrounding... example, Electronic Access Permit (``EAP'') TPH Firm XYZ, Inc. (``XYZ'') electronically executes...

  7. 76 FR 45626 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Processing Fees for fingerprinting, background checks and the provision of access badges by the Exchange.\\5\\ The Exchange no longer provides either fingerprinting or background checking services for current...

  8. 47 CFR 51.219 - Access to rights of way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to rights of way. 51.219 Section 51.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.219 Access to rights of way. The rules governing access...

  9. Entropy exchange for infinite-dimensional systems

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Zhoubo; Hou, Jinchuan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the entropy exchange for channels and states in infinite-dimensional systems are defined and studied. It is shown that, this entropy exchange depends only on the given channel and the state. An explicit expression of the entropy exchange in terms of the state and the channel is proposed. The generalized Klein’s inequality, the subadditivity and the triangle inequality about the entropy including infinite entropy for the infinite-dimensional systems are established, and then, applied to compare the entropy exchange with the entropy change. PMID:28164995

  10. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, Scott L.

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  11. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis ...

  12. Establishing Operational Access: Insights from the Past for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    technology such as the SA-2, SA-3, SA-7, and SA-6, as well as antiaircraft-artillery ( AAA ) such as the ZSU- 23/4. Although the IAF remained dominant...in air-to-air combat, SAMs and AAA began to exact a significant toll during the War of Attrition. Air Vice Marshal Tony Mason notes that by August...1970, the IAF claimed a kill ratio of 40:1 in the air, but only managed 2:1 against SAMs and AAA .3 By the fall of 1973, Egyptian air defenses along

  13. Establishing Grants for College Access and Completion Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Inslee, Jay [D-WA-1

    2009-07-20

    10/22/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Exchange frequency in replica exchange molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindhikara, Daniel; Meng, Yilin; Roitberg, Adrian E.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the exchange-attempt frequency on sampling efficiency is studied in replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD). We show that sampling efficiency increases with increasing exchange-attempt frequency. This conclusion is contrary to a commonly expressed view in REMD. Five peptides (1-21 residues long) are studied with a spectrum of exchange-attempt rates. Convergence rates are gauged by comparing ensemble properties between fixed length test REMD simulations and longer reference simulations. To show the fundamental correlation between exchange frequency and convergence time, a simple model is designed and studied, displaying the same basic behavior of much more complex systems.

  15. Exchange-biased magnetic vortices.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, A.; Sort, J.; Buchanan, K. S.; Nogues, J.; Inst. Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats; Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviews our work on the interplay between exchange bias due to the coupling of a ferromagnet to an antiferromagnet and the formation of magnetic vortices, which occur due to the patterning of a ferromagnet. Depending on the thermal and magnetic history, a variety of different effects can be observed. Thermal annealing in a saturating magnetic field establishes a spatially homogeneous exchange bias with a uniform unidirectional anisotropy. This results in an angular dependence of the magnetization reversal mode, which can be either via magnetization rotation or vortex nucleation and annihilation. In contrast, thermal annealing in a field smaller than the vortex annihilation field imprints the ferromagnetic vortex configuration in the antiferromagnet with high fidelity resulting in unusual asymmetric hysteresis loops. Furthermore, we discuss how the interfacial nature of the exchange bias can modify the vortex magnetization along the thickness of the ferromagnet.

  16. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Central Data Exchange

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Central Data Exchange collects personally identifiable information, including personal answers to security questions. Learn how this data will be collected in the system, how it will be used, access to the data, and the purpose of data collection.

  17. Woven heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Piscitella, Roger R.

    1987-05-05

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  18. Woven heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Piscitella, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  19. 76 FR 79232 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...-location services increases access to the Exchange's co-location facilities and that the co-location... Exchange Act and should increase access to the Exchange co-location facilities by allowing additional... Expanding the Scope of Potential ``Users'' of Its Co-Location Services To Include Any Market...

  20. Woven heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  1. Energy recovery heat exchanger installation

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, N.F.

    1983-08-16

    An installation is disclosed for energy recovery heat exchangers arranged to transfer heat into or out of air exhausted from an air handling system for paint spray booths. The system includes a collection chamber about which the intakes of a series of exhaust fans are arranged to draw exhaust air into an exhaust stack. Pairs of inclined wetted surface coil sets are mounted in the walls of the enclosures, each in communication with the intake of an exhaust fan so as to receive airflow of each exhaust fan. Each of the enclosures is provided with an access door to enable cleaning and other maintenance chores to be carried out on the coil sets and pivotally mounted blocking panels may be positioned to close off air flow across the coils and bypassing of the exhaust flow through the access doors in the event excessive overspray solids are present in the exhaust flow.

  2. Open Access and Institutional Policy: Time for Reexamination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Focuses on the changes caused in community colleges by open access policies and the resultant influx of underprepared students. Recommends that community colleges accept a decline in student enrollment in exchange for improvement in student achievement. (DMM)

  3. Positioning Your Library in an Open-Access Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Anjana H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the project that the author completed at Florida Gulf Coast University (FGCU) library for providing online access to 80 open access E-journals and digital collections. Although FGCU uses SerialsSolutions products to establish online access, any one can provide access to these collections as they are free for all. Paper…

  4. 75 FR 45584 - Planning and Establishment of State-Level Exchanges; Request for Comments Regarding Exchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ..., 2010. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) invites public comments in advance of future... the comment period. For information on viewing public comments, see the beginning of the SUPPLEMENTARY... ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Inspection of Public Comments. All comments received before the close of the...

  5. Establishing Statewide K-12 Telecomputing Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the development of computing networks for elementary and secondary schools in Virginia and Texas. Highlights include establishing a statewide infrastructure; Internet access; distributed computing; instructional resources; the changing role of State Departments of Education; teacher training and support; and policy issues, including…

  6. 78 FR 74200 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... able to purchase access to the Exchange's LCN, a local area network that is available in the data... 10 Gigabit Liquidity Center Network Connection in the Exchange's Data Center December 4, 2013...'') Liquidity Center Network (``LCN'') connection in the Exchange's data center. The Exchange proposes...

  7. 77 FR 62479 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board... and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) established an advisory committee to...

  8. Demonstrate provider accessibility with desktop and online services.

    PubMed

    2001-10-01

    It's available on personal computers with a CD or through Internet access. Assess instantly the accessibility of your provider network or the most promising areas to establish a health service with new GIS tools.

  9. 17 CFR 149.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program accessibility: Existing facilities. 149.150 Section 149.150 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... the extent compelled by the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157),...

  10. Success factors for open access.

    PubMed

    Till, James E

    2003-01-01

    Open access to the peer-reviewed primary research literature would greatly facilitate knowledge transfer between the creators and the users of the results of research and scholarship. Criteria are needed to assess the impact of recent initiatives, such as the Budapest Open Access Initiative. For example, how many open-access research journals exist within a given field, and what is the reputation of each one? And, how many openly-accessible institutional e-print archives have been created and how many are actually are being used by researchers and scholars? A simple approach to an assessment of the open-access portion of the medical literature is described, and some preliminary results are summarized. These preliminary results point to the need for incentives to foster the implementation of initiatives such as the Budapest Open Access Initiative. An example of an incentive model is proposed, where an agency or foundation that provides peer-reviewed grants-in-aid to researchers establishes an e-print archive. Only current grantees of the agency would be eligible to post reports about the results of research projects or programs that have been supported by the agency. Some advantages and implications of this particular model are outlined. It is suggested that incentive models of this kind are needed to increase the likelihood that open access to the primary medical research literature will soon reach a "tipping point" and move quickly toward wide acceptance.

  11. Status of the National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX); September 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.

    1976-01-01

    The National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX) has been established to assist users of water data in the identification, location, and acquisition of needed data. NAWDEX is not a depository of water data; its objectives are to provide the user with sufficient information to define what data are available, where these data may be obtained, and in what form they are available; also to describe some of their major characteristics. NAWDEX is comprised of water-oriented organizations in the Federal, State, and local governments, and in the academic and private sectors of the water-data community who work together to make their water data readily and conveniently available. Data search and referral services are currently provided through the Program Office established by the U.S. Geological Survey which has the lead-role responsibility for NAWDEX operations. During its first year of operation, a computerized Water Data Sources Directory was developed which identifies more than 300 organizations that collect water data, the types of data they collect, and the locations within these organizations from which the data may be obtained. NAWDEX is expanding its services and is establishing a nationwide network of Local Assistance Centers for local users ' access to these services. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. 75 FR 78694 - Proposed Residential Exchange Program Settlement Agreement Proceeding (REP-12); Public Hearing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Exchange rate. Application of the 7(b)(3) surcharge to the PF Exchange rate has the effect of increasing...: (1) ] Matters of procedure only (the status of the rate proceeding, for example); (2) exchanges of... establish the utilities' ASCs for the Exchange Period, which coincides with BPA's rate period. On June...

  13. NASA's experience in the international exchange of scientific and technical information in the aerospace field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibideau, Philip A.

    1989-01-01

    The early NASA international scientific and technical information (STI) exchange arrangements were usually detailed in correspondence with the librarians of the institutions involved. While this type of exchange, which involved only hardcopy (paper) products, grew to include some 220 organization in 43 countries, NASA's main focus shifted substantially to the STI relationship with the European Space Agency (ESA) which began in 1964. The NASA/ESA Tripartite Exchange Program, which now has more than 500 participants, provides more than 4,000 highly-relevant technical reports, fully processed, for the NASA produced 'Aerospace Database'. In turn, NASA provides an updated copy of this Database, known in Europe as the 'NASA File', for access, through ESA's Information Retrieval Service, by participating European organizations. Our experience in the evolving cooperation with ESA has established the 'model' for our more recent exchange agreements with Israel, Australia, Canada, and one under negotiation with Japan. The results of these agreements are made available to participating European organizations through the NASA File.

  14. The Protestant Establishment Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzell, E. Digby

    1976-01-01

    The author's book, "The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America", is highly critical of the WASP (White-Anglo-Saxon-Protestant) establishment and proposed the development and need for some sort of upper-class ruling-group. Here is a re-evaluation of his book, now thirteen years old, by the author. (Author/RK)

  15. Charge exchange system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  16. Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    The Commission on Preservation and Access was established to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary records in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps preservation and access…

  17. 10 CFR 2.1007 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Geologic Repository § 2.1007 Access. (a)(1) A system to provide electronic access to the Licensing Support... established in the vicinity of the likely candidate site for a geologic repository, beginning in the pre... of the records of NRC and DOE, as well as duplication fees, and fee waiver for those records,...

  18. Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    The Commission on Preservation and Access was established to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps preservation and access…

  19. Designed for Access in the School Washroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Many stakeholders in the public and private sectors have been involved in establishing minimum accessibility standards for people with disabilities in public buildings. One of the most important spaces in any building is the restroom. Unless a building has a restroom that is compliant with applicable accessibility standards such as the Americans…

  20. Establishing operations and reinforcement effects.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, T R; Iwata, B A

    1991-01-01

    Positive reinforcement procedures have had a major impact on educational programs for the developmentally disabled; nevertheless, variation in reinforcer effectiveness both within and across individuals is a common phenomenon. This study examined one class of variables--establishing operations--that might influence the effectiveness of reinforcers. Five developmentally disabled adult males participated. Responding on one of two motor tasks--switch closure or block placement--was assessed during baseline, satiation, and deprivation conditions with respect to three classes of consequences: small food items, music, and social praise. Deprivation and satiation conditions were constructed so as not to alter significantly the normal course of events in a subject's day. For example, food deprivation entailed scheduling sessions just prior to a subject's regular lunch, and social deprivation involved limiting a subject's access to social interaction for 15 minutes, during which time the subject had access to an assortment of other activities. Results showed that each stimulus class functioned as reinforcement with different degrees of effectiveness during satiation versus deprivation conditions. These results are discussed in light of previous research on enhancement of reinforcer efficacy as well as the assessment and identification of functional reinforcers, and implications are presented for future research and client habilitation.

  1. Institute for Rock Magnetism established

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subir K.

    There is a new focal point for cooperative research in advanced rock magnetism. The University of Minnesota in Minneapolis has established an Institute for Rock Magnetism (IRM) that will provide free access to modern equipment and encourage visiting fellows to focus on important topics in rock magnetism and related interdisciplinary research. Funding for the first three years has been secured from the National Science Foundation, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and the University of Minnesota.In the fall of 1986, the Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (GP) section of the AGU held a workshop at Asilomar, Calif., to pinpoint important and emerging research areas in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, and the means by which to achieve them. In a report of this workshop published by the AGU in September 1987, two urgent needs were set forth. The first was for interdisciplinary research involving rock magnetism, and mineralogy, petrology, sedimentology, and the like. The second need was to ease the access of rock magnetists and paleomagnetists around the country to the latest equipment in modern magnetics technology, such as magneto-optics or electronoptics. Three years after the publication of the report, we announced the opening of these facilities at the GP section of the AGU Fall 1990 Meeting. A classified advertisement inviting applications for visiting fellowships was published in the January 22, 1991, issue of Eos.

  2. 77 FR 2108 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... thus, will reduce infrastructure costs for both the Exchange and those who utilize the feed. Any Member..., the Exchange's infrastructure costs have continued to increase. In addition, the Exchange believes... that its fees for access services will enable it to better cover its infrastructure costs and...

  3. 78 FR 39386 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... Exchange's Internet Web site at www.directedge.com , at the Exchange's principal office, and at the Public... message traffic expected over the Logical Port as well as redundancy requirements, where an access gateway.... On an ongoing basis, the Exchange carefully monitors incoming and outgoing traffic on all...

  4. 7 CFR 54.13 - Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... will only be furnished for meat that a USDA grader determines is chilled so that grade factors are... the meat can be identified in conformance with the standards. [42 FR 53921, Oct. 4, 1977, as...

  5. 7 CFR 54.13 - Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... will only be furnished for meat that a USDA grader determines is chilled so that grade factors are... the meat can be identified in conformance with the standards. [42 FR 53921, Oct. 4, 1977, as...

  6. 7 CFR 54.13 - Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS... will only be furnished for meat that a USDA grader determines is chilled so that grade factors are... offered for grading. Meat that is presented in a frozen condition shall not be eligible for a...

  7. 47 CFR 54.807 - Interstate access universal service support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... supported service within the study area of a price cap local exchange carrier shall receive Interstate Access Universal Service Support for each line that it serves within that study area. (b) In any study... Service Support Per Line by dividing Study Area Access Universal Service Support by twelve times...

  8. Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert H.; And Others

    E-mail has swept the communications and information world, providing instantaneous global information and data exchange. However, an information elite still exists, made up of those with access to and knowledge about computers and e-mail. The diverging trends in access based on income and education are placing significant groups of current and…

  9. Neurological complications of vascular access.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Neurological problems are common in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Over 60% of patients will suffer from symptoms of underlying polyneuropathy due to uraemia or diabetes. Others will have subclinical disease demonstrable by nerve conduction studies. Nerve injury following haemodialysis access surgery is underreported. However, sensory nerve lesions are probably common after most vascular access procedures but are rarely debilitating. Nerve compression syndromes such as carpal tunnel and ulnar compression syndromes are common, especially in patients who have been on dialysis for some years and at least some of these are related to or exacerbated by the access. Recognition is essential as they are eminently treatable by decompression surgery. Tourniquet use appears to be safe for carpal tunnel or ulnar nerve decompression surgery. Ischaemic monomelic neuropathy (IMN) is rare but follows a period of ischaemia during or as a result of access surgery, most commonly to construct a brachial arteriovenous fistula or graft. It is characterised by intense pain, out of proportion to any ischaemia, involves all of the upper limb nerves and may progress to involve the motor nerves eventually resulting in a useless clawed hand. It requires prompt treatment of any residual ischaemia after access creation, if necessary by access ligation, as in the established syndrome, like the even rarer complication of reflex sympathetic dystrophy, it is very difficult to offer any useful treatment other than symptomatic relief and physiotherapy.

  10. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... returned to your body. Usually the access is put in your arm but it can also go ... A surgeon will put the access in. There are 3 types of access. Fistula: The surgeon joins an artery and vein under the ...

  11. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. ...

  12. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... use requirements for Critical Access Hospitals related to Electronic Health Records (EHRs)? Critical Access Hospital (CAH) are eligible for Electronic Health Record (EHR) incentive payments and can receive ...

  13. 17 CFR 10.114 - Acceleration of establishment of restitution procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acceleration of establishment of restitution procedure. 10.114 Section 10.114 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Restitution Orders § 10.114 Acceleration of establishment...

  14. 17 CFR 10.114 - Acceleration of establishment of restitution procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceleration of establishment of restitution procedure. 10.114 Section 10.114 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Restitution Orders § 10.114 Acceleration of establishment...

  15. 17 CFR 10.114 - Acceleration of establishment of restitution procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acceleration of establishment of restitution procedure. 10.114 Section 10.114 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Restitution Orders § 10.114 Acceleration of establishment...

  16. 17 CFR 10.114 - Acceleration of establishment of restitution procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acceleration of establishment of restitution procedure. 10.114 Section 10.114 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Restitution Orders § 10.114 Acceleration of establishment...

  17. 17 CFR 10.114 - Acceleration of establishment of restitution procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceleration of establishment of restitution procedure. 10.114 Section 10.114 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Restitution Orders § 10.114 Acceleration of establishment...

  18. Central Vein Preservation in Critical Venous Access.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J; Paul, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The lack of suitable veins in children with critical central venous access requirements is a major obstacle to optimal care and is potentially life-threatening. We present outcomes following the use of vein-preserving (VP) surgical techniques, notably the sheath exchange for tunneled lines (SETL). Materials and Methods A retrospective, single observer analysis of a prospectively maintained departmental logbook as well as the medical records of patients. Two broad groups of central line replacements were identified; those inserted following removal of a previous line and a traditional "plastic-free" (PF) period and those exchanged without such an interval. Results Overall, 19 lines were directly exchanged during the study period and compared with 34 inserted after a PF period. Similar catheter life spans and infection rates were demonstrated in each group; 125 (range, 78-173) days in VP exchanges versus 122 (range, 70-175) days in PF replacements (p = 0.41). Line Sepsis resulting in removal or change of line occurred at 103 (range, 60-147) days in VP group versus 104 (range, 45-164) days in PF (p = 0.73). Conclusion For children with critical venous access requirements, direct line exchange procedures are a robust and reproducible means of vein preservation. The outcomes compare favorably with those following the more traditional removal, a PF period and reinsertion.

  19. [Medical journals and open access].

    PubMed

    Sember, Marijan

    2008-01-01

    The open access (OA) or the idea of a free access to scholarly literature published in electronic form has been already well established in the field of medicine. Medline has already been free for a decade, PubMed Central has been growing steadily. The global crisis of the scientific publishing, becoming increasingly dominated by multinational companies and constant increase of journal prices have moved to action not only individuals and institutions but governments and research charities too. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the main open access initiatives and resources in biomedicine (PubMed, PubMed Central, BioMed Central, PLoS). The OA pros and cons are briefly discussed emphasizing the benefits of OA to medical research and practice.

  20. Nonsurvivable momentum exchange system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roder, Russell (Inventor); Ahronovich, Eliezer (Inventor); Davis, III, Milton C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A demiseable momentum exchange system includes a base and a flywheel rotatably supported on the base. The flywheel includes a web portion defining a plurality of web openings and a rim portion. The momentum exchange system further includes a motor for driving the flywheel and a cover for engaging the base to substantially enclose the flywheel. The system may also include components having a melting temperature below 1500 degrees Celsius. The momentum exchange system is configured to demise on reentry.

  1. Price of Fairness in Kidney Exchange

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    patients in need of a new kidney. Fielded exchanges typi- cally match under utilitarian or near- utilitarian rules; this approach marginalizes certain...empirically explore the tradeoff between matching more hard-to- match patients and the overall utility of a utilitarian matching, on real data from the UNOS...under utilitarian or near- utilitarian rules; this approach marginalizes certain classes of patients. In this paper, we focus on improving access to

  2. Forging Colloidal Nanostructures via Cation Exchange Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Among the various postsynthesis treatments of colloidal nanocrystals that have been developed to date, transformations by cation exchange have recently emerged as an extremely versatile tool that has given access to a wide variety of materials and nanostructures. One notable example in this direction is represented by partial cation exchange, by which preformed nanocrystals can be either transformed to alloy nanocrystals or to various types of nanoheterostructures possessing core/shell, segmented, or striped architectures. In this review, we provide an up to date overview of the complex colloidal nanostructures that could be prepared so far by cation exchange. At the same time, the review gives an account of the fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic parameters governing these types of reactions, as they are currently understood, and outlines the main open issues and possible future developments in the field. PMID:26891471

  3. Extension Learning Exchange: Lessons from Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Paul; Lachapelle, Paul; Howe, Rod

    2013-01-01

    There is a clear need to support global professional development, international education, and collaborative learning opportunities in Extension. The program described here established an international learning exchange in Nicaragua to lead to global professional development and future international collaboration. The primary lessons and outcomes…

  4. 12 CFR 614.4900 - Foreign exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... international financial activities. The bank's policies should include established guidelines for: (1) Net... Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4900 Foreign exchange. (a) Before a bank for cooperatives or an agricultural credit bank may engage in any financial...

  5. Text Exchange System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. V.; Hanson, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Text Exchange System (TES) exchanges and maintains organized textual information including source code, documentation, data, and listings. System consists of two computer programs and definition of format for information storage. Comprehensive program used to create, read, and maintain TES files. TES developed to meet three goals: First, easy and efficient exchange of programs and other textual data between similar and dissimilar computer systems via magnetic tape. Second, provide transportable management system for textual information. Third, provide common user interface, over wide variety of computing systems, for all activities associated with text exchange.

  6. 77 FR 35091 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... The Exchange proposes to amend the CBSX Fees Schedule with regards to connectivity fees. CBSX recently... month fee for access to a 10 Gbps Network Access Port ($2,000 for Sponsored Users), and to clarify on... Users) is for a 1 Gbps connection to a Network Access Port. CBSX market participants will be able...

  7. 77 FR 518 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... statements may be examined at the places specified in Item IV below. The Exchange has prepared summaries, set..., Section 1. \\4\\ See SR-CBOE-2011-121. Currently, CBSX assesses a monthly Network Access Port fee of $250 for regular access and $500 for Sponsored User access, as those are the amounts of the Network...

  8. A Conceptual Framework of Mapping Access to Health Care across EU Countries: The Patient Access Initiative.

    PubMed

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Hasardzhiev, Stanimir; Agapidaki, Eirini

    Research evidence suggests that access to health care is the key influential factor for improved population health outcomes and health care system sustainability. Although the importance of addressing barriers in access to health care across European countries is well documented, little has been done to improve the situation. This is due to different definitions, approaches and policies, and partly due to persisting disparities in access within and between European countries. To bridge this gap, the Patient Access Partnership (PACT) developed (a) the '5As' definition of access, which details the five critical elements (adequacy, accessibility, affordability, appropriateness, and availability) of access to health care, (b) a multi-stakeholders' approach for mapping access, and (c) a 13-item questionnaire based on the 5As definition in an effort to address these obstacles and to identify best practices. These tools are expected to contribute effectively to addressing access barriers in practice, by suggesting a common framework and facilitating the exchange of knowledge and expertise, in order to improve access to health care between and within European countries.

  9. Establishing Passing Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Joyce R.

    The problem of establishing appropriate passing scores is one of evaluation rather than estimation and not amenable to exact solution. It must therefore be approached by (1) identifying criteria for judging the acceptability of the passing score, (2) collecting the data appropriate to assessing each relevant criterion, and (3) judging how well the…

  10. Establishing a Continuous Repertoire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadowcroft, Pamela; Holland, James G.

    Investigators in this study looked for conditions that can rapidly establish continuous stimulus control of continuous response variations, or "response mapping." Unlike previous research in stimulus control, where a single stimulus comes to control a single response, 36 5-year-old children received errorless discrimination training at…

  11. Establishing a University Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemish, Donald L.

    A handbook on how to establish a university foundation is presented. It presupposes that a foundation will be used as the umbrella organization for receiving all private gifts, restricted and unrestricted, for the benefit of a public college or university; and hence it chiefly addresses readers from public colleges and universities. Information is…

  12. Vocational Home Economics Instructional Materials Exchange Network Plan. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    A project was undertaken to establish plans for a network through which postsecondary vocational home economics institutions in Texas could exchange instructional materials. After reviewing current literature on the idea of an instructional materials exchange, project staff mailed letters to the Board of Education in each of the 50 states…

  13. Social Representation of Intercultural Exchange in an International University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an interpretive investigation into the social representation of intercultural exchange at one of the newly established international universities in Japan. The author conducted quasi-structured interviews with 5 staff members and 22 students to gain insight into their perceptions of intercultural exchange and interactions. The…

  14. A Theory of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribot, Jesse C.; Peluso, Nancy Lee

    2003-01-01

    The term "access" is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as "the "ability" to derive benefits from things," broadening from property's classical definition as…

  15. Using a health information exchange system for imaging information: patterns and predictors.

    PubMed

    Vest, Joshua R; Grinspan, Zachary M; Kern, Lisa M; Campion, Thomas R; Kaushal, Rainu

    2013-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE) systems may address the challenges that prevent easy access to patients' existing radiological information at the point of care. However, little is known about the factors associated with usage of HIE for radiology reports, nor about how reports are shared with an exchange network. We analyzed the system log files from a regional health information organization in upstate New York matched with insurance claims files using network analysis and regression modeling. The exchange network was dominated by a few key information sources. Outpatient users overall accessed 17 times more radiology reports than inpatient and ED users combined. Additionally, as the number of exchange partners increased per organization, the average number of reports exchanged by that organization also increased. Radiology reports were most likely to be accessed by physicians and other clinical users. These findings have implications for those operating and fostering exchange activity.

  16. English Universities, Additional Fee Income and Access Agreements: Their Impact on Widening Participation and Fair Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaig, Colin; Adnett, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the introduction of access agreements following the establishment of the Office for Fair Access (OFFA) has consolidated how English higher education institutions (HEIs) position themselves in the marketplace in relation to widening participation. However, the absence of a national bursary scheme has led to obfuscation rather…

  17. The Other Technological Divide: K-12 Web Accessibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krach, S. Kathleen; Jelenic, Milan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined individual school home pages and their corresponding district-wide home pages for Web accessibility. As of 1999, the U.S. government established that all public and private school Web sites were to be made "Web accessible," meaning accessible to students with disabilities. Although higher education sites have been subjected to…

  18. 78 FR 74056 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1192 RIN 3014-AA42 Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee... (Access Board), established the Rail Vehicle Access Advisory Committee (Committee) to advise us on... for transportation vehicles that operate on fixed guideway systems (e.g., rapid rail, light...

  19. A Service Approach to Providing Off-Campus Internet Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Austin

    1997-01-01

    The University of California, Berkeley addressed the high demand for computer network access and the need for off-campus Internet access by developing and distributing a comprehensive software and service package for open access and by establishing a partnership with a commercial Internet service provider to gain pricing advantage and…

  20. Remote Telephone Access: The Critical Issue in Patient Privacy

    PubMed Central

    Brannigan, Vincent M.

    1984-01-01

    Dial access is the most important development in the technology of patient privacy since the original introduction of computer systems. Dial access requires dependence on informational security techniques which may be foreign to the medical establishment. Resolution of the problems of dial access requires consideration of the patient's legal rights, the scope of the provider's responsibility, and the development of appropriate technology.

  1. North Atlantic Nordic Seas exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Østerhus, S.

    2000-02-01

    The northeastern part of the North Atlantic is unique in the sense that it is much warmer in the surface than other ocean areas at similar latitudes. The main reason for this is the large northward transport of heat that extends to high latitudes and crosses the Greenland-Scotland Ridge to enter the Nordic Seas and the Arctic. There the warm Atlantic water is converted to colder water masses that return southwards over the ridge partly as surface outflows and partly as overflows through the deep passages across the ridge. In this paper, the state of knowledge on the exchanges especially across the eastern part of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge is reviewed based on results from the ICES NANSEN (North Atlantic-Norwegian Sea Exchanges) project, from the Nordic WOCE project and from other sources. The accumulated evidence allows us to describe the exchanges in fair detail; the origins of the waters, the patterns of their flow towards and over the ridge and their ultimate fate. There is also increasing information on temporal variations of the exchanges although dynamical changes are still not well understood. Quantitative estimates for the volume transport of most of the overflow branches seem reasonably well established, and transport measurements of the Atlantic inflows to the Nordic Seas are approaching acceptable levels of confidence which allows preliminary budgets to be presented. The deep overflows are driven by pressure gradients set up by the formation of deep and intermediate water. The dominance of deep overflows over surface outflows in the water budget argues that this thermohaline forcing also dominates over direct wind stress and estuarine forcing in driving the Atlantic water inflow across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge, while wind stress seems to influence the characteristics and distribution of the Atlantic water north of the ridge.

  2. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

  3. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  4. Higher Education Exchange, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The Higher Education Exchange is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the Higher Education Exchange publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  5. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.; Root, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  6. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  7. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  8. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  9. Higher Education Exchange, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  10. Building Relationships through Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primavera, Angi; Hall, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    From the moment of birth, children form and develop relationships with others in their world based on exchange. Children recognize that engaging in such encounters offers them the opportunity to enter into a relationship with another individual and to nurture that relationship through the exchange of messages and gifts, items and ideas. At Boulder…

  11. Handicapping Social Exchange Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishler, Barbara

    The economic theory of social exchange has some serious shortcomings when applied to minorities--especially the disabled. First, it assumes dyads comprise the basic unit where exchange occurs and that rewards and costs must occur at that level. Second, the model standardizes the experience of white, Western European and American males. The model…

  12. Exchange of astronomy teaching experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    The Working Group of the European Association for Astronomy Education responsible for Teacher Training organises an annual Summer School for teachers under expert guidance. For a week the teachers participating can exchange experiences, increase their knowledge and discuss different ideas and perspectives. In general, the instructors are professional astronomers, professors and teachers from different countries. The papers presented offer very practical activities, paying special attention to didactic aspects, and take the form of general lectures to all 40 participants and workshops to reduced groups of 20 participants. There are also day and night observations, without expensive equipment or complicated procedures, that are easy to set up and based on topics that it is possible to use in the classroom. The Summer Schools promote a scientific astronomical education at all levels of astronomy teaching, reinforce the link between professional astronomers and teachers with experience of teaching astronomy, allow debates among the participants on their pedagogical activities already carried out in their own classroom and help them to organise activities outside it. Astronomy teachers need special training, access to specific research, to new educational materials and methods and the opportunity to exchange experiences. All these things are provided by the Summer School.

  13. Publications related to the National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX); 1971-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, B. M.

    1982-01-01

    The National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), formally established in January 1976, is a national confederation of water-oriented organizations working together to improve access to water data. Its primary objective is to assist users of water data in the identification, location, and acquisition of needed water data or water-related data. NAWDEX is coordinated by a central Program Office, located within the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, which provides data-exchange policy and guidelines to all participants in the program. In addition to the Program Office, there is a network of Assistance Centers located in 45 States and Puerto Rico which provides direct access to NAWDEX. Membership in NAWDEX is voluntary and open to any water-oriented organization that wishes to participate. This publication contains an alphabetical listing, by author, of the reports that have been produced by the NAWDEX Program Office since 1975, as well as reports from other sources that relate to the development of the NAWDEX program.

  14. Publications related to the National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), 1971-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beverly M. Myers, (compiler)

    1979-01-01

    The National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), formally established in January 1976, is a national confederation of water-oriented organizations working to improve access to water data. Its primary objective is to assist users of water data in the identification, location, and acquistion of useful data. NAWDEX is coordinated by a central Program Office, located within the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, which provides data-exchange policy and guidelines to all participants in the program. In addition to the Program Office, there is a network of Assistance Centers located in 45 States and Puerto Rico which provides direct access to NAWDEX. Membership in NAWDEX is voluntary and open to any water-oriented organization that wishes to participate. This publication contains an alphabetical listing, by author, of the reports that have been produced by the NAWDEX Program Office since 1975, as well as reports from other sources that relate to the development of the NAWDEX program. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  16. 76 FR 55432 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... market data products through either the Exchange's Liquidity Center Network (``LCN''), a local area network available in the data center, or the Exchange's Secure Financial Transaction Infrastructure (``SFTI'') network, to which all co-location users have access. Access is available in either one or...

  17. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  18. 77 FR 39292 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Establish Related Fees June 26, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1\\ of the Securities Exchange Act of... York Stock Exchange LLC (``NYSE'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and...

  19. Assessment of human energy exchange: historical overview.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; Bourgeois, B; Thomas, D M

    2017-03-01

    Energy exchange is fundamental to life and is a cornerstone in the study of human physiology, metabolism and nutrition. A global effort is underway to further our understanding of human energy exchange and its components as a means of establishing the mechanistic underpinnings of the evolving obesity and chronic disease epidemics. The current report establishes a conceptual historical framework for examining the evolution of energy exchange concepts and measurement methods. We review developments taking place over more than 2000 years during which humans endeavored to establish the source of body heat, the 'fire of life'. Major conceptual and methodological advances over the past three centuries have incrementally advanced the field and created the energy exchange paradigm within which we now work. As in the past, innovative experimental ideas and measurement methods are now needed to answer important questions brought to light by the obesity and chronic disease epidemics. Nevertheless, older classical measurement methods based on calorimetry techniques still hold a strong position in the field as many diet and weight-related questions remain unanswered.

  20. Hadron Spectroscopy in Double Pomeron Exchange Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Albrow, Michael

    2016-11-15

    Central exclusive production in hadron-hadron collisions at high energies, for example p + p -> p + X + p, where the "+" represents a large rapidity gap, is a valuable process for spectroscopy of mesonic states X. At collider energies the gaps can be large enough to be dominated by pomeron exchange, and then the quantum numbers of the state X are restricted. Isoscalar JPC = 0++ and 2++ mesons are selected, and our understanding of these spectra is incomplete. In particular, soft pomeron exchanges favor gluon-dominated states such as glueballs, which are expected in QCD but not yet well established. I will review some published data.

  1. Establishing maintenance performance indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, B.

    1994-10-01

    Maintenance Performance Indicators (PI) specify where the maintenance department is and which direction it is going allowing for a quick and accurate assessment of the performance of the Maintenance Management Program (MMP). Establishing PI`s for the maintenance department will allow a measure of productivity and a means of feedback for methods improvement. Effective performance of the maintenance department directly effects plant profitability. Improvements in the quality and productivity of the maintenance work force will significantly reduce maintenance costs. The level of performance attained by the maintenance work force is usually guessed at. Guessing will not identify areas needing improvement or help to initiate a corrective action. Maintenance PI`s are required for maintenance departments whose goal is to control maintenance costs while increasing productivity. The application of basic statistical methods will allow a maintenance department to know where they are and which direction they are going. The data presented in this paper is a representation of indicators used in industry as well as developed indicators to establish a complete maintenance performance indicator program. The methodology used in developing this program can be used as a way to manage a cost effective maintenance management program.

  2. The Influence of Organizational Systems on Information Exchange in Long-Term Care Facilities: An Institutional Ethnography.

    PubMed

    Caspar, Sienna; Ratner, Pamela A; Phinney, Alison; MacKinnon, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Person-centered care is heavily dependent on effective information exchange among health care team members. We explored the organizational systems that influence resident care attendants' (RCAs) access to care information in long-term care (LTC) settings. We conducted an institutional ethnography in three LTC facilities. Investigative methods included naturalistic observations, in-depth interviews, and textual analysis. Practical access to texts containing individualized care-related information (e.g., care plans) was dependent on job classification. Regulated health care professionals accessed these texts daily. RCAs lacked practical access to these texts and primarily received and shared information orally. Microsystems of care, based on information exchange formats, emerged. Organizational systems mandated written exchange of information and did not formally support an oral exchange. Thus, oral information exchanges were largely dependent on the quality of workplace relationships. Formal systems are needed to support structured oral information exchange within and between the microsystems of care found in LTC.

  3. Anion exchange membrane

    DOEpatents

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  4. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  5. Cryptographic Securities Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    While transparency in financial markets should enhance liquidity, its exploitation by unethical and parasitic traders discourages others from fully embracing disclosure of their own information. Traders exploit both the private information in upstairs markets used to trade large orders outside traditional exchanges and the public information present in exchanges' quoted limit order books. Using homomorphic cryptographic protocols, market designers can create "partially transparent" markets in which every matched trade is provably correct and only beneficial information is revealed. In a cryptographic securities exchange, market operators can hide information to prevent its exploitation, and still prove facts about the hidden information such as bid/ask spread or market depth.

  6. Research on Heterogeneous Data Exchange based on XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huanqin; Liu, Jinfeng

    Integration of multiple data sources is becoming increasingly important for enterprises that cooperate closely with their partners for e-commerce. OLAP enables analysts and decision makers fast access to various materialized views from data warehouses. However, many corporations have internal business applications deployed on different platforms. This paper introduces a model for heterogeneous data exchange based on XML. The system can exchange and share the data among the different sources. The method used to realize the heterogeneous data exchange is given in this paper.

  7. Sharing Quality Resources for Teaching and Learning: A Peer Review Model for the ALTC Exchange in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefoe, Geraldine; Philip, Robyn; O'Reilly, Meg; Parrish, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    The ALTC Exchange (formerly the Carrick Exchange), is a national repository and networking service for Australian higher education. The Exchange was designed to provide access to a repository of shared learning and teaching resources, work spaces for team members engaged in collaborative projects, and communication and networking services. The…

  8. Security analysis and improvements of authentication and access control in the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Ndibanje, Bruce; Lee, Hoon-Jae; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2014-08-13

    Internet of Things is a ubiquitous concept where physical objects are connected over the internet and are provided with unique identifiers to enable their self-identification to other devices and the ability to continuously generate data and transmit it over a network. Hence, the security of the network, data and sensor devices is a paramount concern in the IoT network as it grows very fast in terms of exchanged data and interconnected sensor nodes. This paper analyses the authentication and access control method using in the Internet of Things presented by Jing et al. (Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things. In Proceedings of the 2012 32nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Macau, China, 18-21 June 2012, pp. 588-592). According to our analysis, Jing et al.'s protocol is costly in the message exchange and the security assessment is not strong enough for such a protocol. Therefore, we propose improvements to the protocol to fill the discovered weakness gaps. The protocol enhancements facilitate many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, and secure session key establishment. Finally, the performance and security analysis show that the improved protocol possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low communication cost.

  9. Security Analysis and Improvements of Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Ndibanje, Bruce; Lee, Hoon-Jae; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Things is a ubiquitous concept where physical objects are connected over the internet and are provided with unique identifiers to enable their self-identification to other devices and the ability to continuously generate data and transmit it over a network. Hence, the security of the network, data and sensor devices is a paramount concern in the IoT network as it grows very fast in terms of exchanged data and interconnected sensor nodes. This paper analyses the authentication and access control method using in the Internet of Things presented by Jing et al (Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things. In Proceedings of the 2012 32nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Macau, China, 18–21 June 2012, pp. 588–592). According to our analysis, Jing et al.'s protocol is costly in the message exchange and the security assessment is not strong enough for such a protocol. Therefore, we propose improvements to the protocol to fill the discovered weakness gaps. The protocol enhancements facilitate many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, and secure session key establishment. Finally, the performance and security analysis show that the improved protocol possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low communication cost. PMID:25123464

  10. Neopentane and solid acids: direct hydron exchange before cracking.

    PubMed

    Walspurger, Stéphane; Sun, Yinyong; Souna Sido, Abdelkarim Sani; Sommer, Jean

    2006-09-21

    The hydrogen/deuterium exchange reaction of 2,2-dimethylpropane (neopentane) over D(2)O-exchanged zeolites (MOR, FAU, BEA, MFI) using a batch recirculation reactor was studied by means of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. In the temperature range 473-573 K, H/D exchange proceeds without side reaction such as cracking at short contact times. Indeed the C-H bond has appeared favorably involved in the activation of neopentane compared to the less accessible C-C bond. The transition state allowing hydron exchange is most likely a carbonium species (pentacoordinated carbon) as in the case of the H/D exchange between methane and solid acid. The activation energies of the H/D exchange between neopentane and zeolites are the same for all zeolites indicating a common carbonium ion type transition state. On the basis of previous results in the case of the exchange between methane and liquid superacids, the deuterium exchange rates in neopentane were tentatively related to the acidity of the solids. However the order of activity MOR > MFI > BEA > FAU seems to be related to the size of the pores, which may suggest the involvement of a confinement effect in the zeolites cavities. Moreover we found that H/D exchange takes also place between neopentane and deuterated sulfated zirconia (SZ) emphasizing its strong acidity.

  11. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  12. On establishing reference values.

    PubMed Central

    Lumsden, J H; Mullen, K

    1978-01-01

    In order to establish a range of reference values for any characteristic one can use Gaussian or nonparametric techniques, whichever are most appropriate. One has the choice of calculating tolerance intervals or percentile intervals. A tolerance interval is said to contain, say 95% of the population with probability, say 0.90. A percentile interval simply simply calculates the values between which 95% of the observations fall. If the data can be said to have a Gaussian distribution, the same precision can be obtained with smaller sample sizes than using the nonparametric techniques. In some cases, data which are not Gaussian can be transformed into a Gaussian form and hence make use of the more efficient Gaussian techniques. In both cases, the data should be checked for outliers or rogue observations and these should be eliminated if the testing procedure fails to imply that they are an integral part of the data. PMID:688072

  13. Primary vascular access.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, C P

    2006-05-01

    Primary vascular access is usually achievable by a distal autogenous arterio-venous fistula (AVF). This article describes the approach to vascular access planning, the usual surgical options and the factors affecting patency.

  14. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  15. 17 CFR 9.11 - Form, contents and delivery of notice of disciplinary or access denial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... notice of disciplinary or access denial action. 9.11 Section 9.11 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... OTHER ADVERSE ACTIONS Notice and Effective Date of Disciplinary Action or Access Denial Action § 9.11... effective by the exchange except as provided in § 9.12. (b) Contents of notice. For purposes of this...

  16. 17 CFR 9.11 - Form, contents and delivery of notice of disciplinary or access denial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... notice of disciplinary or access denial action. 9.11 Section 9.11 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... OTHER ADVERSE ACTIONS Notice and Effective Date of Disciplinary Action or Access Denial Action § 9.11... effective by the exchange except as provided in § 9.12. (b) Contents of notice. For purposes of this...

  17. 17 CFR 9.11 - Form, contents and delivery of notice of disciplinary or access denial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... notice of disciplinary or access denial action. 9.11 Section 9.11 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... OTHER ADVERSE ACTIONS Notice and Effective Date of Disciplinary Action or Access Denial Action § 9.11... effective by the exchange except as provided in § 9.12. (b) Contents of notice. For purposes of this...

  18. 17 CFR 9.11 - Form, contents and delivery of notice of disciplinary or access denial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... notice of disciplinary or access denial action. 9.11 Section 9.11 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... OTHER ADVERSE ACTIONS Notice and Effective Date of Disciplinary Action or Access Denial Action § 9.11... effective by the exchange except as provided in § 9.12. (b) Contents of notice. For purposes of this...

  19. 17 CFR 9.11 - Form, contents and delivery of notice of disciplinary or access denial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... notice of disciplinary or access denial action. 9.11 Section 9.11 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... OTHER ADVERSE ACTIONS Notice and Effective Date of Disciplinary Action or Access Denial Action § 9.11... effective by the exchange except as provided in § 9.12. (b) Contents of notice. For purposes of this...

  20. BASIMO - Borehole Heat Exchanger Array Simulation and Optimization Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Daniel; Rühaak, Wolfram; Welsch, Bastian; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Borehole heat exchangers represent a well-established technology, which pushes for new fields of applications and novel modifications. Current simulation tools cannot - or only to some extent - describe features like inclined or partly insulated boreholes unless they run fully discretized models of the borehole heat exchangers. However, fully discretized models often come at a high computational cost, especially for large arrays of borehole heat exchangers. We present a tool, which uses one dimensional thermal resistance and capacity models for the borehole heat exchangers coupled with a numerical finite element model for the subsurface heat transport. An unstructured tetrahedral mesh bypasses the limitations of structured grids for borehole path geometries, while the thermal resistance and capacity model is improved to account for borehole heat exchanger properties changing with depth. The presented tool benefits from the fast analytical solution of the thermal interactions within the boreholes while still allowing for a detailed consideration of the borehole heat exchanger properties.

  1. 76 FR 67514 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Order..., 2011, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange Inc. (``CME'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.... 26, 2011). CME Clearing has deployed the SPAN margining system to establish performance bond...

  2. 78 FR 51242 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness... hereby given that on August 5, 2013, the Topaz Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``Topaz'') filed with... Terms of the Substance of the Proposed Rule Change Topaz is proposing to establish a Schedule of Fees...

  3. Electric field induced reversible 180° magnetization switching through tuning of interfacial exchange bias along magnetic easy-axis in multiferroic laminates

    DOE PAGES

    Xue, Xu; Zhou, Ziyao; Peng, Bin; ...

    2015-11-18

    E-field control of interfacial exchange coupling and deterministic switching of magnetization have been demonstrated in two sets of ferromagnetic(FM)/antiferromagnetic(AFM)/ferroelectric(FE) multiferroic heterostructures, including NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011) and NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011). We designed this experiment to achieve exchange bias tuning along the magnetic easy axis, which is critical for realizing reversible 180° magnetization deterministic switching at zero or small magnetic bias. Strong exchange coupling were established across AFM-FM interfaces, which plays an important role in voltage control of magnetization switching. Through the competition between the E-field induced uniaxial anisotropy in ferromagnetic layer and unidirectional anisotropy in antiferromagnetic layer, the exchange bias was significantly shiftedmore » by up to |ΔHex|/Hex=8% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011) and 13% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011). In addition, the square shape of the hysteresis loop, as well as a strong shape tunability of |ΔHex|/Hc=67.5~125% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT and 30~38% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT were achieved, which lead to a near 180° magnetization switching. Lastly, electrical tuning of interfacial exchange coupling in FM/AFM/FE systems paves a new way for realizing magnetoelectric random access memories and other memory technologies.« less

  4. Electric field induced reversible 180° magnetization switching through tuning of interfacial exchange bias along magnetic easy-axis in multiferroic laminates.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xu; Zhou, Ziyao; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Mingmin; Zhang, Yijun; Ren, Wei; Ren, Tao; Yang, Xi; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian X; Liu, Ming

    2015-11-18

    E-field control of interfacial exchange coupling and deterministic switching of magnetization have been demonstrated in two sets of ferromagnetic(FM)/antiferromagnetic(AFM)/ferroelectric(FE) multiferroic heterostructures, including NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011) and NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011). We designed this experiment to achieve exchange bias tuning along the magnetic easy axis, which is critical for realizing reversible 180° magnetization deterministic switching at zero or small magnetic bias. Strong exchange coupling were established across AFM-FM interfaces, which plays an important role in voltage control of magnetization switching. Through the competition between the E-field induced uniaxial anisotropy in ferromagnetic layer and unidirectional anisotropy in antiferromagnetic layer, the exchange bias was significantly shifted by up to |∆Hex|/Hex = 8% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011) and 13% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011). In addition, the square shape of the hysteresis loop, as well as a strong shape tunability of |∆Hex|/Hc = 67.5 ~ 125% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT and 30 ~ 38% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT were achieved, which lead to a near 180° magnetization switching. Electrical tuning of interfacial exchange coupling in FM/AFM/FE systems paves a new way for realizing magnetoelectric random access memories and other memory technologies.

  5. Electric field induced reversible 180° magnetization switching through tuning of interfacial exchange bias along magnetic easy-axis in multiferroic laminates

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xu; Zhou, Ziyao; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Mingmin; Zhang, Yijun; Ren, Wei; Ren, Tao; Yang, Xi; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian X.; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    E-field control of interfacial exchange coupling and deterministic switching of magnetization have been demonstrated in two sets of ferromagnetic(FM)/antiferromagnetic(AFM)/ferroelectric(FE) multiferroic heterostructures, including NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011) and NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011). We designed this experiment to achieve exchange bias tuning along the magnetic easy axis, which is critical for realizing reversible 180° magnetization deterministic switching at zero or small magnetic bias. Strong exchange coupling were established across AFM-FM interfaces, which plays an important role in voltage control of magnetization switching. Through the competition between the E-field induced uniaxial anisotropy in ferromagnetic layer and unidirectional anisotropy in antiferromagnetic layer, the exchange bias was significantly shifted by up to |∆Hex|/Hex = 8% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011) and 13% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011). In addition, the square shape of the hysteresis loop, as well as a strong shape tunability of |∆Hex|/Hc = 67.5 ~ 125% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT and 30 ~ 38% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT were achieved, which lead to a near 180° magnetization switching. Electrical tuning of interfacial exchange coupling in FM/AFM/FE systems paves a new way for realizing magnetoelectric random access memories and other memory technologies. PMID:26576658

  6. Compact, super heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortini, A.; Kazaroff, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Heat exchanger uses porous media to enhance heat transfer through walls of cooling channels, thereby lowering wall temperature. Porous media within cooling channel increases internal surface area from which heat can be transferred to coolant. Comparison data shows wall has lower temperature and coolant has higher temperature when porous medium is used within heat exchanger. Media can be sintered powedered metal, metal fibers, woven wire layers, or any porous metal having desired permeability and porosity.

  7. Hibernation and gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Milsom, William K; Jackson, Donald C

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation in endotherms and ectotherms is characterized by an energy-conserving metabolic depression due to low body temperatures and poorly understood temperature-independent mechanisms. Rates of gas exchange are correspondly reduced. In hibernating mammals, ventilation falls even more than metabolic rate leading to a relative respiratory acidosis that may contribute to metabolic depression. Breathing in some mammals becomes episodic and in some small mammals significant apneic gas exchange may occur by passive diffusion via airways or skin. In ectothermic vertebrates, extrapulmonary gas exchange predominates and in reptiles and amphibians hibernating underwater accounts for all gas exchange. In aerated water diffusive exchange permits amphibians and many species of turtles to remain fully aerobic, but hypoxic conditions can challenge many of these animals. Oxygen uptake into blood in both endotherms and ectotherms is enhanced by increased affinity of hemoglobin for O₂ at low temperature. Regulation of gas exchange in hibernating mammals is predominately linked to CO₂/pH, and in episodic breathers, control is principally directed at the duration of the apneic period. Control in submerged hibernating ectotherms is poorly understood, although skin-diffusing capacity may increase under hypoxic conditions. In aerated water blood pH of frogs and turtles either adheres to alphastat regulation (pH ∼8.0) or may even exhibit respiratory alkalosis. Arousal in hibernating mammals leads to restoration of euthermic temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange and occurs periodically even as ambient temperatures remain low, whereas body temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange of hibernating ectotherms are tightly linked to ambient temperature.

  8. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1992-07-09

    The purpose of this contract has been to explore the limits of miniaturization of heat exchangers with the goals of (1) improving the theoretical understanding of laminar heat exchangers, (2) evaluating various manufacturing difficulties, and (3) identifying major applications for the technology. A low-cost, ultra-compact heat exchanger could have an enormous impact on industry in the areas of cryocoolers and energy conversion. Compact cryocoolers based on the reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) would become practical with the availability of compact heat exchangers. Many experts believe that hardware advances in personal computer technology will rapidly slow down in four to six years unless lowcost, portable cryocoolers suitable for the desktop supercomputer can be developed. Compact refrigeration systems would permit dramatic advances in high-performance computer work stations with conventional'' microprocessors operating at 150 K, and especially with low-cost cryocoolers below 77 K. NASA has also expressed strong interest in our MTS exchanger for space-based RBC cryocoolers for sensor cooling. We have demonstrated feasibility of higher specific conductance by a factor of five than any other work in high-temperature gas-to-gas exchangers. These laminar-flow, microtube exchangers exhibit extremely low pressure drop compared to alternative compact designs under similar conditions because of their much shorter flow length and larger total flow area for lower flow velocities. The design appears to be amenable to mass production techniques, but considerable process development remains. The reduction in materials usage and the improved heat exchanger performance promise to be of enormous significance in advanced engine designs and in cryogenics.

  9. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  10. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  11. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  12. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  13. Vacuum powered heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffolo, R.F.

    1986-06-24

    In an internal combustion engine including an oil lubrication system, a liquid cooling system, and an improved air intake system is described. The improved air intake system comprises: a housing including a first opening in one end, which opening is open to the atmosphere and a second opening comprising an air outlet opening in the other end open to the air intake manifold of the engine, a heat exchanger positioned in the first opening. The heat exchanger consists of a series of coils positioned in the flow path of the atmospheric air as it enters the housing, the heat exchanger being fluidly connected to either the engine lubrication system or the cooling system to provide a warm heat source for the incoming air to the housing, acceleration means positioned in the housing downstream of the heat exchanger, the acceleration means comprising a honeycomb structure positioned across the air intake flow path. The honey-comb structure includes a multitude of honey combed mini-venturi cells through which the heated air flows in an accelerated mode, a removable air filter positioned between the heat exchanger and the acceleration means and a single opening provided in the housing through which the air filter can be passed and removed, and additional openings in the housing positioned downstream of the heat exchanger and upstream of the air filter, the additional openings including removable flaps for opening and closing the openings to control the temperature of the air flowing through the housing.

  14. An open source model for open access journal publication.

    PubMed

    Blesius, Carl R; Williams, Michael A; Holzbach, Ana; Huntley, Arthur C; Chueh, Henry

    2005-01-01

    We describe an electronic journal publication infrastructure that allows a flexible publication workflow, academic exchange around different forms of user submissions, and the exchange of articles between publishers and archives using a common XML based standard. This web-based application is implemented on a freely available open source software stack. This publication demonstrates the Dermatology Online Journal's use of the platform for non-biased independent open access publication.

  15. Effects of exchanged cation on the microporosity of montmorillonite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, D.W.; Chiou, C.T.; Eberl, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    The micropore volumes of 2 montmorillonites (SAz- 1 and SWy-1), each exchanged with Ca, Na, K, Cs and tetramethylammonium (TMA) ions, were calculated from the measured vapor adsorption data of N2 and neo-hexane by use of t- and ??s-plots. The corresponding surface areas of the exchanged clays were determined from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) plots of N2 adsorption data. Micropore volumes and surface areas of the samples increased with the size of exchanged cation: TMA > Cs > K> Ca > Na. The SAz-1 exchanged clays showed generally greater micropore volumes and surface areas than the corresponding SWy-1 clays. The vapor adsorption data and d(001) measurements for dry clay samples were used together to evaluate the likely locations and accessibility of clay micropores, especially the relative accessibility of their interlayer spacing. For both source clays exchanged with Na, Ca and K ions, the interlayer spacing appeared to be too small to admit nonpolar gases and the accessible micropores appeared to have dimensions greater than 5.0 A??, the limiting molecular dimension of neo -hexane. In these systems, there was a good consistency of micropore volumes detected by N2 and neo-hexane. When the clays were intercalated with relatively large cations (TMA and possibly Cs), the large layer expansion created additional microporosity, which was more readily accessible to small N2 than to relatively large neo-hexane. Hence, the micropore volume as detected by N2 was greater than that detected by neo-hexane. The micropore volumes with pore dimensions greater than 5 A?? determined for clays exchanged with Na, Ca and K likely resulted from the pores on particle edges and void created by overlap regions of layers. The increase in micropore volumes with pore dimensions less than 5 A?? determined for clays exchanged with TMA and possibly Cs could be caused by opening of the interlayer region by the intercalation of these large cations.

  16. Patient Matching within a Health Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Godlove, Tim; Ball, Adrian W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the patient matching problems resulting from the Nationwide Health Information Network's automated patient discovery specification and propose a more effective and secure approach for patient matching between health information organizations participating in a health information exchange. This proposed approach would allow the patient to match his or her identity between a health information organization's electronic health records (EHRs) at the same time the patient identifies which EHR data he or she consents to share between organizations. The patient's EHR username/password combination would be the credential used to establish and maintain health information exchange identity and consent data. The software developed to support this approach (e.g., an EHR health information exchange module) could also allow a patient to see what health information was shared when and with whom. PMID:26755901

  17. Patient Matching within a Health Information Exchange.

    PubMed

    Godlove, Tim; Ball, Adrian W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the patient matching problems resulting from the Nationwide Health Information Network's automated patient discovery specification and propose a more effective and secure approach for patient matching between health information organizations participating in a health information exchange. This proposed approach would allow the patient to match his or her identity between a health information organization's electronic health records (EHRs) at the same time the patient identifies which EHR data he or she consents to share between organizations. The patient's EHR username/password combination would be the credential used to establish and maintain health information exchange identity and consent data. The software developed to support this approach (e.g., an EHR health information exchange module) could also allow a patient to see what health information was shared when and with whom.

  18. Community Access to Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, P. B.; Tilmes, C. A.; Parris, F. E.; Martin, A. T.; Soika, V.; Bichali, L.; Higgins, P. H.

    2006-12-01

    measurements; members of the community who develop algorithms and software. Access to the information, data, and tools hosted on the site is managed based on the category of each visitor. The general public may view and download only information and data approved by NASA for public availability. Other visitors may establish a userid and select a category to gain access to components with restricted distribution.

  19. Establishing lunar resource viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Fisackerly, R.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential of lunar resources as an important element of space exploration but their viability has not been demonstrated. Establishing whether or not they can be considered in future plans is a multidisciplinary effort, requiring scientific expertise and delivering scientific results. To this end various space agencies and private entities are looking to lunar resources, extracted and processed in situ, as a potentially game changing element in future space architectures, with the potential to increase scale and reduce cost. However, before any decisions can be made on the inclusion of resources in exploration roadmaps or future scenarios some big questions need to be answered about the viability of different resource deposits and the processes for extraction and utilisation. The missions and measurements that will be required to answer these questions, and which are being prepared by agencies and others, can only be performed through the engagement and support of the science community. In answering questions about resources, data and knowledge will be generated that is of fundamental scientific importance. In supporting resource prospecting missions the science community will de facto generate new scientific knowledge. Science enables exploration and exploration enables science.

  20. 77 FR 72901 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... gateways provide for full redundancy and the same latency, these Members nevertheless desire their own... options provide full redundancy and the same latency. Thus, access to the Exchange would continue to...

  1. Fiscal Year 2017 National Environmental Information Exchange Network Grant Solicitation Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Exchange Network Grant Program provides funding for projects that develop the Network and enable timely, on-demand access to environmental data through innovative technologies, improved support systems, and expanded collaboration using shared tools and

  2. 78 FR 49586 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... Exchange's matching engines. The MEI Port includes access to MIAX's primary and secondary data centers and... submit written data, views, and arguments concerning the foregoing, including whether the proposed...

  3. 45 CFR 156.715 - Compliance reviews of QHP issuers in Federally-facilitated Exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...'s enrollees; (2) The QHP issuer's policies and procedures, protocols, standard operating procedures... REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING STANDARDS RELATED TO EXCHANGES Oversight and Financial Integrity Standards for Issuers...

  4. The current state of the international standard for exchange of optical data in electronic form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormell, Prudence M. J. H.

    2006-06-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is developing a standard for the exchange of optical data in electronic form between different design programs. In order that the data be completely unambiguous an on-line Properties Dictionary is also being established, when finished this should be available to subscribers to ISO and will enable optical designers and manufacturing industry to access information accurately and transfer this information without manual intervention, across many boundaries. The Neutral Optical Data Interchange Format (NODIF) will use this dictionary to define the optical data that can be passed between to any CAD programs that are STEP compliant. NODIF is of concern to software developers, the Properties Dictionary is of concern to manufacturers.

  5. Establishing therapeutic alliance across cultural barriers.

    PubMed

    Cravener, P

    1992-12-01

    1. The therapeutic alliance is a mutually defined helping relationship that encompasses mutual respect and acceptance of ethnocultural variance, predicated upon empathic rapport. 2. Sensitivity to two psycholinguistic phenomena may help establish a transcultural relationship: the detachment effect (limited expression of affect and reduced access to developmental events between languages) and code switching (a complete or partial change of language or dialect within a single utterance or conversation). 3. Issues related to differing sociocultural expectations of nurses and clients will be increasingly encountered as ease of travel combines with economic and political unrest to produce increasing numbers of displaced persons.

  6. Visualization of information with an established order

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Pak Chung; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, James J.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2007-02-13

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is a system including one or more processors operable to access data representative of a biopolymer sequence of monomer units. The one or more processors are further operable to establish a pattern corresponding to at least one fractal curve and generate one or more output signals corresponding to a number of image elements each representative of one of the monomer units. Also included is a display device responsive to the one or more output signals to visualize the biopolymer sequence by displaying the image elements in accordance with the pattern.

  7. Selection and costing of heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-12-01

    ESDU 92013 gives guidance on the selection of heat exchanger types for a given duty against various criteria; they include the general characteristics, together with such detailed aspects as the ranges of pressure and temperature appropriate, compatibility with the fluids involved, space and weight requirements, and cleaning accessibility and maintenance. That allows an initial choice to be made from 18 principal types of exchangers. The various types are all illustrated. A final choice can then be made between the feasible types on the basis of costs. Detailed costing data provided by manufacturers are tabulated as a function of heat load, operating pressure and the types of cold- and hot-side fluids for the following types of exchangers: shell-and-tube, double-pipe, printed-circuit, plate-fin, air-cooled and welded plate. Costing data are also tabulated as a function of heat load and the types of cold- and hot-side fluids for gasketed-plate exchangers. Seven worked examples of selection based on technical suitability and using the tabulated cost data illustrate fully the use of the information.

  8. Optimal Design of Multitype Groundwater Monitoring Networks Using Easily Accessible Tools.

    PubMed

    Wöhling, Thomas; Geiges, Andreas; Nowak, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring networks are expensive to establish and to maintain. In this paper, we extend an existing data-worth estimation method from the suite of PEST utilities with a global optimization method for optimal sensor placement (called optimal design) in groundwater monitoring networks. Design optimization can include multiple simultaneous sensor locations and multiple sensor types. Both location and sensor type are treated simultaneously as decision variables. Our method combines linear uncertainty quantification and a modified genetic algorithm for discrete multilocation, multitype search. The efficiency of the global optimization is enhanced by an archive of past samples and parallel computing. We demonstrate our methodology for a groundwater monitoring network at the Steinlach experimental site, south-western Germany, which has been established to monitor river-groundwater exchange processes. The target of optimization is the best possible exploration for minimum variance in predicting the mean travel time of the hyporheic exchange. Our results demonstrate that the information gain of monitoring network designs can be explored efficiently and with easily accessible tools prior to taking new field measurements or installing additional measurement points. The proposed methods proved to be efficient and can be applied for model-based optimal design of any type of monitoring network in approximately linear systems. Our key contributions are (1) the use of easy-to-implement tools for an otherwise complex task and (2) yet to consider data-worth interdependencies in simultaneous optimization of multiple sensor locations and sensor types.

  9. Exchange bias mediated by interfacial nanoparticles (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, A. E.; Sinha, S. K.; Fullerton, E. E.; Smith, D. J.

    2015-05-07

    The objective of this study on the iconic exchange-bias bilayer Permalloy/CoO has been to identify those elements of the interfacial microstructure and accompanying magnetic properties that are responsible for the exchange-bias and hysteretic properties of this bilayer. Both epitaxial and polycrystalline samples were examined. X-ray and neutron reflectometry established that there existed an interfacial region, of width ∼1 nm, whose magnetic properties differed from those of Py or CoO. A model was developed for the interfacial microstructure that predicts all the relevant properties of this system; namely; the temperature and Permalloy thickness dependence of the exchange-bias, H{sub EX}, and coercivity, H{sub C}; the much smaller measured values of H{sub EX} from what was nominally expected; the different behavior of H{sub EX} and H{sub C} in epitaxial and polycrystalline bilayers. A surprising result is that the exchange-bias does not involve direct exchange-coupling between Permalloy and CoO, but rather is mediated by CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the interfacial region.

  10. Professional Student Exchange Program (PSEP) Administrative Manual. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    WICHE (the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education) is a regional, nonprofit organization. WICHE and its 15 member states work to improve access to higher education and ensure student success. Its student exchange programs, regional initiatives, and its research and policy work allow it to assist constituents throughout the West and…

  11. Pascal's Wager: health insurance exchanges, Obamacare, and the Republican dilemma.

    PubMed

    Jones, David K; Bradley, Katharine W V; Oberlander, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) created a dilemma for Republican policy makers at the state level. States could maximize control over decision making and avoid federal intervention by establishing their own health insurance exchanges. Yet GOP leaders feared that creating exchanges would entrench a law they intensely opposed and undermine legal challenges to the ACA. Republicans' calculations were further complicated by uncertainty over the Supreme Court's ruling on the ACA's constitutionality and the outcome of the November 2012 elections. In the first year of operation, only seventeen states and the District of Columbia chose to design and implement their own exchanges; another six partnered with the federal government, and twenty-seven states ceded control to Washington. Out of thirty states with Republican governors in 2013, only four launched their own exchange. Why did many Republican-led states that initially appeared open to establishing exchanges ultimately reverse course? Drawing on interviews with state policy makers and secondary data, we trace the evolution of Republican responses to the exchange dilemma during 2010-13. We explore how exchanges became controversial and explain why so few Republican-led states opted for their own exchange, focusing on the intensifying resistance to Obamacare amid a rightward shift in state politics, partisan polarization, and uncertainty over the ACA's fate.

  12. Steric effects in peptide and protein exchange with activated disulfides.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jason; Schlosser, Jessica L; Griffin, Donald R; Wong, Darice Y; Kasko, Andrea M

    2013-08-12

    Disulfide exchange is an important bioconjugation tool, enabling chemical modification of peptides and proteins containing free cysteines. We previously reported the synthesis of a macromer bearing an activated disulfide and its incorporation into hydrogels. Despite their ability to diffuse freely into hydrogels, larger proteins were unable to undergo in-gel disulfide exchange. In order to understand this phenomenon, we synthesized four different activated disulfide-bearing model compounds (Mn = 300 Da to 10 kDa) and quantified their rate of disulfide exchange with a small peptide (glutathione), a moderate-sized protein (β-lactoglobulin), and a large protein (bovine serum albumin) in four different pH solutions (6.0, 7.0, 7.4, and 8.0) to mimic biological systems. Rate constants of exchange depend significantly on the size and accessibility of the thiolate. pH also significantly affects the rate of reaction, with the faster reactions occurring at higher pH. Surprisingly, little difference in exchange rates is seen between macromolecular disulfides of varying size (Mn = 2 kDa - 10 kDa), although all undergo exchange more slowly than their small molecule analogue (MW = 300 g/mol). The maximum exchange efficiencies (% disulfides exchanged after 24 h) are not siginificantly affected by thiol size or pH, but somewhat affected by disulfide size. Therefore, while all three factors investigated (pH, disulfide size, and thiolate size) can influence the exchange kinetics and extent of reaction, the size of the thiolate and its accessibility plays the most significant role.

  13. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  14. Ion exchange phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  15. 78 FR 25112 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... traded on the Hybrid 3.0 system. Occasionally, the Exchange receives questions regarding to which... September 30, 2012 for CMI and FIX Login IDs used to access the CFLEX system. As September 30, 2012 has... Transaction Fee Policies and Rebate Programs table that lists one fee, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange...

  16. 78 FR 40820 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Exchange Programs Alumni Web Site Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Exchange Programs Alumni Web Site Registration ACTION: Notice.... ADDRESSES: You may submit comments by any of the following methods: Web: Persons with access to the Internet... of Information Collection: Exchange Programs Alumni Web site Registration OMB Control Number:...

  17. 78 FR 39395 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...'s Internet Web site at www.directedge.com , at the Exchange's principal office, and at the Public... message traffic expected over the Logical Port as well as redundancy requirements, where an access gateway.... On an ongoing basis, the Exchange carefully monitors incoming and outgoing traffic on all...

  18. 76 FR 44078 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... of Amendment to EDGX Rule 11.9 July 18, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange... proposes to amend Rule 11.9 to make certain changes consistent with the upcoming implementation of the... compliance date for the Market Access Rule, the Exchange is proposing to amend EDGX Rule 11.9 to describe...

  19. 76 FR 44062 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... of Amendment to EDGA Rule 11.9 July 18, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange... proposes to amend Rule 11.9 to make certain changes consistent with the upcoming implementation of the... compliance date for the Market Access Rule, the Exchange is proposing to amend EDGA Rule 11.9 to describe...

  20. 77 FR 34441 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... The Exchange proposes to amend its Fees Schedule with regards to connectivity fees. C2 recently moved... month fee for access to a 10 Gbps Network Access Port ($2,000 for Sponsored Users), and to clarify on... Sponsored Users) is for a 1 Gbps connection to a Network Access Port. C2 market participants will be able...

  1. Establishment of a network-based intra-hospital virtual cancer biobank.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianhai; Wu, Xiaojiang; Hu, Ying; Wang, Xiaohong; He, Zhonghu; Xie, Yuntao; Pan, Kaifeng; Wang, Ning; Dong, Zhihua; Zhang, Lei; Ji, Jiafu

    2015-02-01

    There is a growing interest in integrating biomaterial repositories into larger infrastructures in order to meet research demands. However, even for a single hospital or institute, where both population-based and multiple disease-based biobanks have existed for a long time, the integration of existing separate biobanks into a virtual cancer biobank is still challenging. The guidelines and procedures for biobanking are varied and not universally enforced or followed in separate biobanks. Within the last 2 years, we initiated a project to establish a centralized biobank facility in a common storage environment. Analyzing the challenges and interests of stakeholders for the biobanks, a working group comprised of representatives from the central and separate banks, ethic committees, and research administration offices reached an agreement to implement a central facility by following the ISBER best practices for biobanking, and including regular project reviews by the ethical and scientific boards. Furthermore, by implementing a modified minimum information system with biobank data sharing, a network based intra-hospital virtual cancer bank was established to facilitate sharing information of samples held by separate banks. Meanwhile, this virtual biobank network, which has integrated patient information from hospital health care systems, will gradually integrate follow-up information from the cancer registry office and data from epidemiology studies, providing controlled access for sample providers and resource users. In the future, this infrastructure designed for a single hospital may be helpful for building a broader virtual network for data and specimen exchanges.

  2. Establishment of an international database for genetic variants in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Vihinen, Mauno

    2016-10-01

    The establishment of a database has been suggested in order to collect, organize, and distribute genetic information about esophageal cancer. The World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus and the Human Variome Project will be in charge of a central database of information about esophageal cancer-related variations from publications, databases, and laboratories; in addition to genetic details, clinical parameters will also be included. The aim will be to get all the central players in research, clinical, and commercial laboratories to contribute. The database will follow established recommendations and guidelines. The database will require a team of dedicated curators with different backgrounds. Numerous layers of systematics will be applied to facilitate computational analyses. The data items will be extensively integrated with other information sources. The database will be distributed as open access to ensure exchange of the data with other databases. Variations will be reported in relation to reference sequences on three levels--DNA, RNA, and protein-whenever applicable. In the first phase, the database will concentrate on genetic variations including both somatic and germline variations for susceptibility genes. Additional types of information can be integrated at a later stage.

  3. Heat exchanger panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

  4. Alert Exchange Process Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America (NASA), and the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), acknowledging that NASA, ESA and JAXA have a mutual interest in exchanging Alerts and Alert Status Lists to enhance the information base for each system participant while fortifying the general level of cooperation between the policy agreement subscribers, and each Party will exchange Alert listings on regular basis and detailed Alert information on a need to know basis to the extent permitted by law.

  5. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  6. Channel Access in Erlang

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  7. AccessAbility @ Cleveland Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mates, Barbara T.

    2003-01-01

    Describes several programs that were developed by staff at the Cleveland (Ohio) Public Library to be accessible to users with disabilities. Highlights include a Braille reading program; sensory garden; poetry club; book club based on talking books; wheelchair athletics; touching museum artifacts; and a mobile library for users who could not visit…

  8. Currency Exchange Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siler, Carl R.

    This curriculum unit of the Muncie (Indiana) Southside High School is to simulate the dynamics of foreign currency exchange rates from the perspectives of: (1) a major U.S. corporation, ABB Power T & D Company, Inc., of Muncie, Indiana, a manufacturer of large power transformers for the domestic and foreign markets; and (2) individual…

  9. Chimney heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, I.C.

    1981-09-01

    A heat exchanger for installation on the top of a chimney of a building includes a housing having a lower end receiving the top of the chimney and an upper end with openings permitting the escape of effluent from the chimney and a heat exchanger assembly disposed in the housing including a central chamber and a spirally arranged duct network defining an effluent spiral path between the top of the chimney and the central chamber and a fresh air spiral path between an inlet disposed at the lower end of the housing and the central chamber, the effluent and fresh air spiral paths being in heat exchange relationship such that air passing through the fresh air spiral path is heated by hot effluent gases passing upward through the chimney and the effluent spiral path for use in heating the building. A pollution trap can be disposed in the central chamber of the heat exchanger assembly for removing pollutants from the effluent, the pollution trap including a rotating cage carrying pumice stones for absorbing pollutants from the effluent with the surface of the pumice gradually ground off to reveal fresh stone as the cage rotates.

  10. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working…

  11. Nature's Heat Exchangers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, George

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

  12. Research Exchange, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Exchange, 2002

    2002-01-01

    These three issues of the "Research Exchange" focus on how better to conduct disability research and disseminate research results. The first issue examines the topic of human subject/human research participant protection, with a focus on research funded through the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR). It…

  13. Visiting Scholar Exchange Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Kyna, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides reports of four United States scholars who visited China as part of the Visiting Scholar Exchange Program. The titles of the reports are (1) "China Journey: A Political Scientist's Look at Yan'an," (2) "The Social Consequences of Land Reclamation in Chinese Coastal Ecosystems," (3) "Anthropology Lectures in South…

  14. Higher Education Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge…

  15. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doty, F. D.

    1991-04-01

    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchangers. The team has begun a heat exchanger stress analysis; however, they have been concentrating the bulk of their analytical energies on a computational fluid dynmaics (CFD) model to determine the location and magnitude of shell-side flow maldistribution which decreases heat exchanger effectiveness. DSI received 120 fineblanked tubestrips from Southern Fineblanking (SFB) for manufacturing process development. Both SFB and NIST provided inspection reports of the tubestrips. DSI completed the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips on the array. Pressing the tubestrips on tube arrays showed design deficiencies both in the tubestrip design and the tooling design. DSI has a number of revisions in process to correct these deficiencies. The research effort has identified a more economical fusible alloy for encapsulating the tube array, and determined the parameters required to successfully encapsulate the tube array with the new alloy. A more compact MTS heat exchanger bank was designed.

  16. Higher Education Exchange 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge,…

  17. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  18. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan; Jersey Inst Ansari, New; Jersey Inst, New

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  19. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  20. Affordable access to care for the undocumented.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Dennis

    2014-09-01

    How do you tell a sick kid that nobody cares if he gets better? That's an exaggeration, of course, but it is the fundamental message our society sends when we tell him that, because he and his family are undocumented immigrants, we are unwilling to extend them access to affordable and reliable health insurance. One major shortcoming of the Affordable Care Act is its specific exclusion of the almost twelve million undocumented immigrants-including millions of children-in this country from access to the state and federal insurance exchanges where coverage can be purchased. It is true that providing undocumented immigrants access to the exchanges and subsidies mandated by the ACA would require additional funding. However, a recent analysis in California has found that the costs of expanding state-supported care to include undocumented immigrants would largely be offset by the increased state sales tax revenue paid by managed care organizations and by reduced spending at the county level on emergency-room and hospital care of the uninsured.

  1. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Jonscher, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A problem exists in reducing the total heating power required to extract oxygen from lunar regolith. All such processes require heating a great deal of soil, and the heat energy is wasted if it cannot be recycled from processed material back into new material. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-hand - ed auger, and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite direction by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement, a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith, and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two. The unique feature of this system is that it allows for counterflow heat exchange to occur between solids, instead of liquids or gases, as is commonly done. In addition, in variants of this concept, the hydrogen reduction can be made to occur within the counterflow heat exchanger itself, enabling a simplified lunar ISRU (in situ resource utilization) system with excellent energy economy and continuous nonbatch mode operation.

  2. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; exchange and insurance market standards for 2015 and beyond. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-05-27

    This final rule addresses various requirements applicable to health insurance issuers, Affordable Insurance Exchanges (``Exchanges''), Navigators, non-Navigator assistance personnel, and other entities under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act). Specifically, the rule establishes standards related to product discontinuation and renewal, quality reporting, non-discrimination standards, minimum certification standards and responsibilities of qualified health plan (QHP) issuers, the Small Business Health Options Program, and enforcement remedies in Federally-facilitated Exchanges. It also finalizes: A modification of HHS's allocation of reinsurance collections if those collections do not meet our projections; certain changes to allowable administrative expenses in the risk corridors calculation; modifications to the way we calculate the annual limit on cost sharing so that we round this parameter down to the nearest $50 increment; an approach to index the required contribution used to determine eligibility for an exemption from the shared responsibility payment under section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code; grounds for imposing civil money penalties on persons who provide false or fraudulent information to the Exchange and on persons who improperly use or disclose information; updated standards for the consumer assistance programs; standards related to the opt-out provisions for self-funded, non-Federal governmental plans and related to the individual market provisions under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 including excepted benefits; standards regarding how enrollees may request access to non-formulary drugs under exigent circumstances; amendments to Exchange appeals standards and coverage enrollment and termination standards; and time-limited adjustments to the standards relating to the medical loss ratio

  3. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Access to bird population data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, E.; Peterjohn, B.G.; Koneff, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    Access to bird population data is critical for effective conservation planning and implementation. Although a tremendous volume of baseline data exists, it is often diffusely distributed and inaccessible to the resource manager and decision maker. A mechanism that facilitates assembly, documentation and delivery of avian data in a user-friendly manner is needed in order to integrate bird-related information resources across agencies and organizations. To address this fundamental need, the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), in partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey's Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, is developing a web-based interactive system that will focus on access to bird population and habitat data used in bird management and conservation. This system, known as the NBII Bird Conservation Node, will support planning and evaluation of bird conservation activities within the context of the North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI), a framework for collaboration among organizations interested in bird conservation across North America. Initial development of the NBII Bird Conservation Node will focus on creating a prototype mapping application that will provide interactive access to data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, the Colonial Waterbird Survey, the Breeding Waterfowl Population and Habitat Survey, and the Atlantic Flyway Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey. This prototype mapping application, to be available on-line at http://www.nbii.gov by Sep 2001, will lay the foundation for establishment of a Migratory Bird Data Center at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, and will provide an opportunity for linking to and establishing partnerships with other sources of bird population and habitat data available over the Internet.

  5. Access Services: Organization and Management. SPEC Kit #179.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Virginia, Comp.

    This Systems and Exchange Center (SPEC) kit begins with a summary by Virginia Steel of the findings of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries that was conducted in 1991 to determine the prevalence of the organizational model of access services--i.e., a department or division responsible for the services and operations…

  6. Evolution of Nursing Science: Is Open Access the Answer?

    PubMed

    Clarke, Pamela N; Garcia, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    The open access movement where journal content is made freely available over the Internet is purported to increase scientific exchange, yet has pros and cons. There are issues related to quality that need to be examined in relation to evolution of nursing science.

  7. 78 FR 23969 - Ewan 1, INC. n/k/a AccessKey IP, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Ewan 1, INC. n/k/a AccessKey IP, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading April 19, 2013. It appears... concerning the securities of Ewan 1, Inc. n/k/a AccessKey IP, Inc. (``AccessKey'') because it has not filed...

  8. 47 CFR 61.39 - Optional supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for Access Tariff...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with letters of transmittal for Access Tariff filings effective on or after April 1, 1989, by local... after April 1, 1989, by local exchange carriers serving 50,000 or fewer access lines in a given study..., which elects to issue its own Access Tariff for a period commencing on or after April 1, 1989, and...

  9. 47 CFR 51.321 - Methods of obtaining interconnection and access to unbundled elements under section 251 of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers § 51.321 Methods of obtaining interconnection and access to... or access to unbundled network elements at a particular point upon a request by a telecommunications carrier. (b) Technically feasible methods of obtaining interconnection or access to unbundled...

  10. 17 CFR 149.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 149.151 Section 149.151 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... usable by handicapped persons. The definitions, requirements, and standards of the Architectural...

  11. 17 CFR 149.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 149.151 Section 149.151 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... usable by handicapped persons. The definitions, requirements, and standards of the Architectural...

  12. 17 CFR 200.651 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 200.651 Section 200.651 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap in Programs or Activities Conducted by the Securities and...

  13. 17 CFR 200.651 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 200.651 Section 200.651 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap in Programs or Activities Conducted by the Securities and...

  14. 17 CFR 200.651 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 200.651 Section 200.651 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap in Programs or Activities Conducted by the Securities and...

  15. Establishing Tools for Computing Hybrids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    amorphous/#research. Link working as of August 14, 2006 3. Birge, Robert . 1997. Protein-Based Branched-Photocycle Three-Dimensional Optical...Memories. Final Report RL-TR-96-274, April, DTIC Accession Number ADA327063. 4. Birge, Robert . 1997. Branched-Photocycle Three-Dimensional Memory...Final Report RL-TR-97-194, October, DTIC Accession Number ADA339787. 5. Birge, Robert , 2003. Prototype Protein-Based Three-Dimensional Memory. Final

  16. Standards and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Tom

    1993-01-01

    Argues that easy claims about the relationship between language mastery and academic or economic access (made by both conservative commentators on education and mainstream writing teachers) are false and obscure real social and political boundaries, such as racism, sexism, elitism, and homophobia, that really do prevent access. (SR)

  17. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  18. Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia; De Oliver, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This case study researches the degree to which the location and services offered by a multicampus university, geographically situated consistent with the commercial principles of a large mass-market enterprise, facilitate access for educationally underserved groups. First, the necessity of democratizing educational access to an underprivileged…

  19. Granting Each Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Linda Lucas

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes federal legislation regarding equal access for students with disabilities and discusses environmental barriers to accessibility in the library media center. Solutions to these design problems are suggested in the following areas: material formats and space requirements; the physical setting, including furniture, floor coverings,…

  20. MedlinePlus: Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools Español You Are Here: Home → MedlinePlus Accessibility URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/accessibility.html ... or (301) 594-5983 and provide the address (URL) of the page on which you need assistance, ...

  1. Design for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, David R.; McCallum, Barry

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the facets of building design which affect the accessibility of libraries for the physically disabled and presents some basic guidelines for designing accessible libraries. Types of disabilities, questions relating to site design, and specific architectural and physical features of libraries (entranceways, lighting, stairways, and…

  2. 78 FR 70615 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Exchange's matching engines. The MEI Port includes access to MIAX's primary and secondary data centers and... Port includes access to MIAX's primary and secondary data centers and its disaster recovery center. \\6.... Solicitation of Comments Interested persons are invited to submit written data, views, and arguments...

  3. Gas exchange measurements in natural systems

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes /sup 14/C, /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO/sub 2/ exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The /sup 222/Rn to /sup 226/Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess /sup 3/He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with /sup 226/Ra and /sup 3/H in order to allow the use of the /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO/sub 2/ exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Metabolic regulation of the squid nerve Na(+)/Ca (2+) exchanger: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Beaugé, Luis; Dipolo, Reinaldo; Bollo, Mariana; Cousido, Alexandra; Berberián, Graciela; Podjarny, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In squid nerves, MgATP modulation of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger requires the presence of a cytosolic protein which becomes phosphorylated during the process. This factor has been recently identified. Mass spectroscopy and Western blot analysis established that it is a member of the lipocalin superfamily of lipid-binding proteins (LBP or FABP) of 132 amino acids. We called it regulatory protein of squid nerve sodium/calcium exchanger (ReP1-NCXSQ, access to GenBank EU981897).ReP1-NCXSQ was cloned, expressed, and purified. Circular dichroism, far-UV, and infrared spectroscopy suggest a secondary structure, predominantly of beta-sheets. The tertiary structure prediction provides ten beta-sheets and two alpha-helices, characteristic of most of LPB. Functional experiments showed that, to be active, ReP1-NCXSQ must be phosphorylated by MgATP, through the action of a kinase present in the plasma membrane. Moreover, PO4-ReP1-NCXSQ can stimulate the exchanger in the absence of ATP. An additional crucial observation was that, in proteoliposomes containing only the purified Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, PO4-ReP1-NCXSQ promotes activation; therefore, this upregulation has no other requirement than a lipid membrane and the incorporated exchanger protein.Recently, we solved the crystal structure of ReP1-NCXSQ which was as predicted: a "barrel" consisting of ten beta-sheets and two alpha-helices. Inside the barrel is the fatty acid coordinated by hydrogen bonds with Arg126 and Tyr128. Point mutations showed that neither Tyr20Ala, Arg58Val, Ser99Ala, nor Arg126Val is necessary for protein phosphorylation or activity. On the other hand, Tyr128 is essential for activity but not for phosphorylation. We can conclude that (1) for the first time, a role of an LBP is demonstrated in the metabolic regulation of an ion exchanger; (2) phosphorylation of this LBP can be separated from the activation capacity; and (3) Tyr128, a candidate to coordinate lipid binding inside the barrel, is essential

  5. Verifier-based three-party authentication schemes using extended chaotic maps for data exchange in telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tian-Fu

    2014-12-01

    Telecare medicine information systems provide a communicating platform for accessing remote medical resources through public networks, and help health care workers and medical personnel to rapidly making correct clinical decisions and treatments. An authentication scheme for data exchange in telecare medicine information systems enables legal users in hospitals and medical institutes to establish a secure channel and exchange electronic medical records or electronic health records securely and efficiently. This investigation develops an efficient and secure verified-based three-party authentication scheme by using extended chaotic maps for data exchange in telecare medicine information systems. The proposed scheme does not require server's public keys and avoids time-consuming modular exponential computations and scalar multiplications on elliptic curve used in previous related approaches. Additionally, the proposed scheme is proven secure in the random oracle model, and realizes the lower bounds of messages and rounds in communications. Compared to related verified-based approaches, the proposed scheme not only possesses higher security, but also has lower computational cost and fewer transmissions.

  6. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  7. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  8. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-03-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  9. A Tale of Two Regimes: Instrumentality and Commons Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toly, Noah J.

    2005-01-01

    Technical developments have profound social and environmental impacts. Both are observed in the implications of regimes of instrumentality for commons access regimes. Establishing social, material, ecological, intellectual, and moral infrastructures, technologies are partly constitutive of commons access and may militate against governance…

  10. The Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter. 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The Commission on Preservation and Access was established in 1986 to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps the preservation and…

  11. 78 FR 10581 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1192 RIN 3014-AA42 Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee... Disabilities Act for transportation vehicles that operate on fixed guideway systems (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, and intercity rail). We are establishing a Rail Vehicles Access Advisory...

  12. Exchange of Standardized Flight Dynamics Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Berry, David; Flores-Amaya, Felipe; Folliard, J.; Kiehling, R.; Ogawa, M.; Pallaschke, S.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft operations require the knowledge of the vehicle trajectory and attitude and also that of other spacecraft or natural bodies. This knowledge is normally provided by the Flight Dynamics teams of the different space organizations and, as very often spacecraft operations involve more than one organization, this information needs to be exchanged between Agencies. This is why the Navigation Working Group within the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems), has been instituted with the task of establishing standards for the exchange of Flight Dynamics data. This exchange encompasses trajectory data, attitude data, and tracking data. The Navigation Working Group includes regular members and observers representing the participating Space Agencies. Currently the group includes representatives from CNES, DLR, ESA, NASA and JAXA. This Working Group meets twice per year in order to devise standardized language, methods, and formats for the description and exchange of Navigation data. Early versions of some of these standards have been used to support mutual tracking of ESA and NASA interplanetary spacecraft, especially during the arrival of the 2003 missions to Mars. This paper provides a summary of the activities carried out by the group, briefly outlines the current and envisioned standards, describes the tests and operational activities that have been performed using the standards, and lists and discusses the lessons learned from these activities.

  13. 78 FR 18415 - Council on Underserved Communities, Re-Establishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... operating businesses in urban and rural underserved communities; challenges regarding access to capital... re-established to help the agency identify and address needs of small businesses in underserved urban and rural communities. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Questions about the Council on...

  14. Temperature-dependent exchange interaction in molecular magnets Cu(hfac)2L(R) studied by EPR: methodology and interpretations.

    PubMed

    Veber, Sergey L; Fedin, Matvey V; Maryunina, Ksenia Yu; Potapov, Alexey; Goldfarb, Daniella; Reijerse, Edward; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Sagdeev, Renad Z; Ovcharenko, Victor I; Bagryanskaya, Elena G

    2011-10-17

    Exchange-coupled spin triads nitroxide-copper(II)-nitroxide are the key building blocks of molecular magnets Cu(hfac)(2)L(R). These compounds exhibit thermally induced structural rearrangements and spin transitions, where the exchange interaction between spins of copper(II) ion and nitroxide radicals changes typically by 1 order of magnitude. We have shown previously that electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is sensitive to the observed magnetic anomalies and provides information on both inter- and intracluster exchange interactions. The value of intracluster exchange interaction is temperature-dependent (J(T)), that can be accessed by monitoring the effective g-factor of the spin triad as a function of temperature (g(eff)(T)). This paper describes approaches for studying the g(eff)(T) and J(T) dependences and establishes correlations between them. The experimentally obtained g(eff)(T) dependences are interpreted using three different models for the mechanism of structural rearrangements on the molecular level leading to different meanings of the J(T) function. The contributions from these mechanisms and their manifestations in X-ray, magnetic susceptibility and EPR data are discussed.

  15. Exchange rate rebounds after foreign exchange market interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the rebounds in the exchange rate after foreign exchange intervention. When intervention is strongly effective, the exchange rate rebounds at next day. The effect of intervention is reduced slightly by the rebound after the intervention. The exchange rate might have been 67.12-77.47 yen to a US dollar without yen-selling/dollar-purchasing intervention of 74,691,100 million yen implemented by the Japanese government since 1991, in comparison to the actual exchange rate was 103.19 yen to the US dollar at the end of March 2014.

  16. Intergranular exchange coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, M. W.; Indeck, R. S.

    1994-02-01

    We evaluate the exchange interaction between neighboring grains of a polycrystalline magnetic material with uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, based on the energy of the domain wall formed at the portion of the interface in atomic contact. The analysis suggests that previous work [J.-G. Zhu and H. N. Bertram, in Solid State Physics Vol. 46, edited by H. Ehrenreich and T. Turnbull (Academic, San Diego, 1992)] may underestimate the interaction, and it predicts a different dependence on grain size.

  17. Heat exchange apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2003-08-12

    A heat exchange apparatus comprising a coolant conduit or heat sink having attached to its surface a first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles and a second radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles thermally coupled to a body to be cooled and meshed with, but not contacting the first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles.

  18. Heat exchanger tube mounts

    DOEpatents

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.; Dawson, B.E.

    1974-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which tubes are secured to a tube sheet by internal bore welding is described. The tubes may be moved into place in preparation for welding with comparatively little trouble. A number of segmented tube support plates are provided which allow a considerable portion of each of the tubes to be moved laterally after the end thereof has been positioned in preparation for internal bore welding to the tube sheet. (auth)

  19. Scraped surface heat exchangers.

    PubMed

    Rao, Chetan S; Hartel, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHEs) are commonly used in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries for heat transfer, crystallization, and other continuous processes. They are ideally suited for products that are viscous, sticky, that contain particulate matter, or that need some degree of crystallization. Since these characteristics describe a vast majority of processed foods, SSHEs are especially suited for pumpable food products. During operation, the product is brought in contact with a heat transfer surface that is rapidly and continuously scraped, thereby exposing the surface to the passage of untreated product. In addition to maintaining high and uniform heat exchange, the scraper blades also provide simultaneous mixing and agitation. Heat exchange for sticky and viscous foods such as heavy salad dressings, margarine, chocolate, peanut butter, fondant, ice cream, and shortenings is possible only by using SSHEs. High heat transfer coefficients are achieved because the boundary layer is continuously replaced by fresh material. Moreover, the product is in contact with the heating surface for only a few seconds and high temperature gradients can be used without the danger of causing undesirable reactions. SSHEs are versatile in the use of heat transfer medium and the various unit operations that can be carried out simultaneously. This article critically reviews the current understanding of the operations and applications of SSHEs.

  20. Exchange-driven growth.

    PubMed

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2003-09-01

    We study a class of growth processes in which clusters evolve via exchange of particles. We show that depending on the rate of exchange there are three possibilities: (I) Growth-clusters grow indefinitely, (II) gelation-all mass is transformed into an infinite gel in a finite time, and (III) instant gelation. In regimes I and II, the cluster size distribution attains a self-similar form. The large size tail of the scaling distribution is Phi(x) approximately exp(-x(2-nu)), where nu is a homogeneity degree of the rate of exchange. At the borderline case nu=2, the distribution exhibits a generic algebraic tail, Phi(x) approximately x(-5). In regime III, the gel nucleates immediately and consumes the entire system. For finite systems, the gelation time vanishes logarithmically, T approximately [lnN](-(nu-2)), in the large system size limit N--> infinity. The theory is applied to coarsening in the infinite range Ising-Kawasaki model and in electrostatically driven granular layers.

  1. NASA Access Mechanism (NAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Judy

    1993-01-01

    A 1991 user survey indicated that NASA users want (1) access to diverse sources of information; (2) an intuitive approach to system use; (3) avoidance of system query languages; (4) access to peers and other informal sources of information; and (5) simplified and enhanced presentation of search results. Based on these requirements and the use of an intelligent gateway processor, the NASA Access Mechanism (NAM) is being developed to provide the users with the semblance of a one stop shopping environment for information management.

  2. Wireless health data exchange for home healthcare monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Malrey; Gatton, Thomas M

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitous home healthcare systems have been playing an increasingly significant role in the treatment and management of chronic diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension, but progress has been hampered by the lack of standardization in the exchange of medical health care information. In an effort to establish standardization, this paper proposes a home healthcare monitoring system data exchange scheme between the HL7 standard and the IEEE1451 standard. IEEE1451 is a standard for special sensor networks, such as industrial control and smart homes, and defines a suite of interfaces that communicate among heterogeneous networks. HL7 is the standard for medical information exchange among medical organizations and medical personnel. While it provides a flexible data exchange in health care domains, it does not provide for data exchange with sensors. Thus, it is necessary to develop a data exchange schema to convert data between the HL7 and the IEEE1451 standard. This paper proposes a schema that can exchange data between HL7 devices and the monitoring device, and conforms to the IEEE 1451 standard. The experimental results and conclusions of this approach are presented and show the feasibility of the proposed exchange schema.

  3. The legal strategies used in operating syringe exchange programs in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Burris, S; Finucane, D; Gallagher, H; Grace, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study sought to identify the strategies used by syringe exchange programs to establish their legality. METHODS. Statutes, court decisions, published studies of exchange programs, and news stories were reviewed, and telephone interviews were conducted with syringe exchange personnel. RESULTS. Twenty-seven exchanges have been authorized by amendments to or judicial interpretations of state drug laws or by administrative action under such laws, or operate in a state that has no laws regulating needles. At least 13 programs operate under claims of legality based on local interpretations of state law, principally public health law. The remaining syringe exchanges operate without a claim of legality. CONCLUSIONS. The deployment of syringe exchanges has been hindered by concerns about their legal status. This study shows that the applicability of drug laws to syringe exchange is open to dispute, and that local public health authorities may under some circumstances rely on their own legal authority to fund or operate syringe exchange programs. PMID:8712281

  4. Global microbial commons: institutional challenges for the global exchange and distribution of microorganisms in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Dedeurwaerdere, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Exchanges of microorganisms between culture collections, laboratories and researchers worldwide have historically occurred in an informal way. These informal exchanges have facilitated research activities, and, as a consequence, our knowledge and exploitation of microbial resources have advanced rapidly. During the last decades of the twentieth century, the increasing economic importance of biotechnology and the introduction of new legislation concerning the use of and access to biological resources has subjected exchanges of genetic resources to greater controls. Their access and distribution are more strictly regulated and, therefore, exchanges are becoming more and more formalized. This paper analyzes one of the main drivers of the movement toward more formal worldwide exchange regimes, which is increasing global interdependency of access to genetic resources. Its main finding is that formalization of exchange practices as such is not necessarily leading to more restrictive licensing conditions. The goal of further formalization and harmonization of institutional frameworks should therefore be to provide the broadest possible access to essential research materials (within the constraints set by biosecurity and quality management requirements), while maximizing the reciprocity benefits of access and exchange (which motivate the exchange practices to start with).

  5. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks

    Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology

    Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

    Background

    With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the

  6. Medical instrument data exchange.

    PubMed

    Gumudavelli, Suman; McKneely, Paul K; Thongpithoonrat, Pongnarin; Gurkan, D; Chapman, Frank M

    2008-01-01

    Advances in medical devices and health care has been phenomenal during the recent years. Although medical device manufacturers have been improving their instruments, network connection of these instruments still rely on proprietary technologies. Even if the interface has been provided by the manufacturer (e.g., RS-232, USB, or Ethernet coupled with a proprietary API), there is no widely-accepted uniform data model to access data of various bedside instruments. There is a need for a common standard which allows for internetworking with the medical devices from different manufacturers. ISO/IEEE 11073 (X73) is a standard attempting to unify the interfaces of all medical devices. X73 defines a client access mechanism that would be implemented into the communication controllers (residing between an instrument and the network) in order to access/network patient data. On the other hand, MediCAN technology suite has been demonstrated with various medical instruments to achieve interfacing and networking with a similar goal in its open standardization approach. However, it provides a more generic definition for medical data to achieve flexibility for networking and client access mechanisms. In this paper, a comparison between the data model of X73 and MediCAN will be presented to encourage interoperability demonstrations of medical instruments.

  7. Taking the Plunge: Open Access at the "Canadian Journal of Sociology." Case Studies in Open Access Publishing. Number Five

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggerty, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Presents a personal account of the transfer to open access of the leading Canadian journal of sociology. Background: The Canadian Journal of Sociology had established a strong position, internationally, among sociology journals. However, subscriptions were falling as readers increasingly accessed the resource through libraries and a…

  8. A Demand Access Protocol for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Jay L.; Leang, Dee

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a demand access protocol for space communications, which is a messaging procedure that facilitates the exchange of resource requests and grants between users and service providers. A minimal set of operational and environmental needs and constraints are assumed since the intent is to keep the protocol flexible and efficient for a wide-range of envisioned NASA robotic and human exploration missions. The protocol described in this document defines the message format and procedures used to ensure proper and correct functioning of a demand access communications system, which must operate under customized resource management policies applied by the users and service providers. This protocol also assumes a minimal set of capabilities from the underlying communications system so that no unique requirements are imposed on the communications sub-systems.

  9. 47 CFR 69.604 - Billing and collection of access charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Billing and collection of access charges. 69.604 Section 69.604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Exchange Carrier Association § 69.604 Billing and collection of...

  10. 47 CFR 69.604 - Billing and collection of access charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing and collection of access charges. 69.604 Section 69.604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Exchange Carrier Association § 69.604 Billing and collection of...

  11. HRP Data Accessibility 2009

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Clarence Sams spoke at the 2009 Human Research Program's Investigators Workshop on the current status of Data Accessibility. In this presentation he discusses the content of the Human Life Scie...

  12. Accessibility and assistive products

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Porrero, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Accessibility and assistive products and technologies are needed to ensure the rights of persons with disabilities and older persons. Many developments have been implemented in laws, standards, markets and from the consumers perspective, at international, European and national levels. The real issue is that not all the potential users benefit from the use of assistive products or accessible measures. Discussion Innovative methods are needed to allow all potential users to have real advantage of assistive technologies and accessible and design for all facilities. Best practices will be presented and existing gaps and recommendations will be discussed. Cost-benefits aspects will also be presented. Conclusion In order to get advantages from opportunities of globalization, hard work and responsibilities of all stakeholders are needed, so that assistive products and accessibility reach a whole range of situations and environments and contribute to ensure quality of life in a society for all.

  13. Access denied; invalid password.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-11-01

    Progress addressing access to oral health is difficult to evaluate because it is unclear what access means. Ozar's proposal that access should be defined by dentists as true dental need is criticized. It is proposed that four different types of treatment are currently identifiable in dentistry: 1) traditional oral health care, 2) oral care that has minimal or no health component, 3) episodic care, and 4) oral health outcomes not resulting from dentist interventions such as fluoridation. Each of these models has a different definition of care and of access. The profession is becoming segmented--including growing disparities among dentists in earning potential--to the point where a single model may no longer be able to cover all needs for oral health.

  14. EPA Accessibility Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is committed to making its websites and other electronic and information technology (EIT) accessible to the widest possible audience, including people with disabilities, in accordance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act.

  15. Equal Access to All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schettler, Joel

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the Section 508 amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that directs the use of technology. Describes guidelines for online training accessibility with which vendors hoping for government business must fully comply. (JOW)

  16. Access to Investigational Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... access to investigational drugs being developed by pharmaceutical companies? Are there specific criteria used to determine whether ... laboratory. If the results are promising, the drug company or sponsor must apply for FDA approval to ...

  17. Problems of Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servedio, William; McLeod, William

    1980-01-01

    Increased participation in recreational programing by persons with handicapping conditions is a right that calls for significant changes in accessibility of facilities. Both interior and exterior building modifications must be made. (CJ)

  18. First Accessible Boat Launch

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a story about how the Northwest Indiana urban waters partnership location supported the process to create and open the first handicap accessible canoe and kayak launch in the state of Indiana.

  19. Lightweight Long Life Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    A shuttle orbiter flight configuration aluminum heat exchanger was designed, fabricated, and tested. The heat exchanger utilized aluminum clad titanium composite parting sheets for protection against parting sheet pin hole corrosion. The heat exchanger, which is fully interchangeable with the shuttle condensing heat exchanger, includes slurpers (a means for removing condensed water from the downstream face of the heat exchanger), and both the core air passes and slurpers were hydrophilic coated to enhance wettability. The test program included performance tests which demonstrated the adequacy of the design and confirmed the predicted weight savings.

  20. OPEN DATA EXCHANGE IN SUPPORT OF CTBT RESEARCH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemann, R. J.; Simpson, D. W.; Suarez, G.; Ahern, T. K.

    2009-12-01

    Openly exchanged seismological data contribute to research and monitoring related to the CTBT and complement the more formally structured and restricted data procedures of the International Monitoring System (IMS). In addition to providing an increasingly rich source of data for fundamental research programs and monitoring, the open exchange of data encourages international and multi-disciplinary collaboration and leads to improvements in data quality and network practices. The IRIS Consortium and its Members commit to its mission to “promote exchange of geophysical data and knowledge, through use of standards for network operations, data formats, and exchange protocols, and through pursuing policies of free and unrestricted data access”. Data collected through IRIS programs as supported by the US National Science Foundation are archived at the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) from which they are freely and openly available to researchers and the public. Continuous data from the IRIS/USGS Global Seismographic Network and the EarthScope Transportable Array are available in real-time. Investigators using portable PASSCAL and the EarthScope Flexible Array equipment can request a two-year proprietary period, following which all data must be archived at the DMC and made openly available. In addition to data from IRIS programs, the DMC archives and distributes data from many networks affiliated with the International Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks (FDSN), other national networks, and regional networks in the U.S.A. Networked data services provide access to the archives of additional data centers worldwide. Data exchange with the USGS National Earthquake Information Center, regional networks in the U.S. and international mission agencies contributes to global and national earthquake monitoring. All of the data in the DMC can be accessed with a common set of tools, providing easy access to waveforms from thousands of sensors in hundreds of networks

  1. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  2. Implantable ventricular assist device exchange with focused intravascular deairing techniques.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph; Acker, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    As ventricular assist devices are increasingly adopted and widely implemented as a highly effective therapy for end-stage heart disease, extended utilization periods for destination therapy or bridge-to-transplantation have created the possibility of device failure, infection, or thrombosis, requiring challenging implant exchanges. A major problem in these operations is the risk of air embolization, particularly in a nonsternotomy approach that precludes access to the outflow aortic graft and to the ascending aorta. We report a minimally invasive, nonsternotomy HeartMate II implantable left ventricular assist device (LVAD) exchange, using peripheral cardiopulmonary support and a novel approach to continuous intravascular ascending aortic air removal.

  3. 75 FR 28842 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Proposed Rule Change by Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Proposed Rule Change by Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Establish a Trading Halt for Individual Stocks Contained in the... Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc. (``CHX'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and...

  4. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  5. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  6. Development of a Ground Water Data Portal for Interoperable Data Exchange within the U.S. National Ground Water Monitoring Network and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, N. L.; Brodaric, B.; Lucido, J. M.; Kuo, I.; Boisvert, E.; Cunningham, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    The need for a national groundwater monitoring network within the United States is profound and has been recognized by organizations outside government as a major data gap for managing ground-water resources. Our country's communities, industries, agriculture, energy production and critical ecosystems rely on water being available in adequate quantity and suitable quality. To meet this need the Subcommittee on Ground Water, established by the Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information, created a National Ground Water Monitoring Network (NGWMN) envisioned as a voluntary, integrated system of data collection, management and reporting that will provide the data needed to address present and future ground-water management questions raised by Congress, Federal, State and Tribal agencies and the public. The NGWMN Data Portal is the means by which policy makers, academics and the public will be able to access ground water data through one seamless web-based application from disparate data sources. Data systems in the United States exist at many organizational and geographic levels and differing vocabulary and data structures have prevented data sharing and reuse. The data portal will facilitate the retrieval of and access to groundwater data on an as-needed basis from multiple, dispersed data repositories allowing the data to continue to be housed and managed by the data provider while being accessible for the purposes of the national monitoring network. This work leverages Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) data exchange standards and information models. To advance these standards for supporting the exchange of ground water information, an OGC Interoperability Experiment was organized among international participants from government, academia and the private sector. The experiment focused on ground water data exchange across the U.S. / Canadian border. WaterML2.0, an evolving international standard for water observations, encodes ground water levels and is exchanged

  7. Iron Atom Exchange between Hematite and Aqueous Fe(II).

    PubMed

    Frierdich, Andrew J; Helgeson, Maria; Liu, Chengshuai; Wang, Chongmin; Rosso, Kevin M; Scherer, Michelle M

    2015-07-21

    Aqueous Fe(II) has been shown to exchange with structural Fe(III) in goethite without any significant phase transformation. It remains unclear, however, whether aqueous Fe(II) undergoes similar exchange reactions with structural Fe(III) in hematite, a ubiquitous iron oxide mineral. Here, we use an enriched (57)Fe tracer to show that aqueous Fe(II) exchanges with structural Fe(III) in hematite at room temperature, and that the amount of exchange is influenced by particle size, pH, and Fe(II) concentration. Reaction of 80 nm-hematite (27 m(2) g(-1)) with aqueous Fe(II) at pH 7.0 for 30 days results in ∼5% of its structural Fe(III) atoms exchanging with Fe(II) in solution, which equates to about one surface iron layer. Smaller, 50 nm-hematite particles (54 m(2) g(-1)) undergo about 25% exchange (∼3× surface iron) with aqueous Fe(II), demonstrating that structural Fe(III) in hematite is accessible to the fluid in the presence of Fe(II). The extent of exchange in hematite increases with pH up to 7.5 and then begins to decrease as the pH progresses to 8.0, likely due to surface site saturation by sorbed Fe(II). Similarly, when we vary the initial amount of added Fe(II), we observe decreasing amounts of exchange when aqueous Fe(II) is increased beyond surface saturation. This work shows that Fe(II) can catalyze iron atom exchange between bulk hematite and aqueous Fe(II), despite hematite being the most thermodynamically stable iron oxide.

  8. The Dynamics of Multilateral Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F.

    The article formulates a dynamic mathematical model where arbitrarily many players produce, consume, exchange, loan, and deposit arbitrarily many goods over time to maximize utility. Consuming goods constitutes a benefit, and producing, exporting, and loaning away goods constitute a cost. Utilities are benefits minus costs, which depend on the exchange ratios and bargaining functions. Three-way exchange occurs when one player acquires, through exchange, one good from another player with the sole purpose of using this good to exchange against the desired good from a third player. Such a triple handshake is not merely a set of double handshakes since the player assigns no interest to the first good in his benefit function. Cognitive and organization costs increase dramatically for higher order exchanges. An exchange theory accounting for media of exchange follows from simple generalization of two-way exchange. The examples of r-way exchange are the triangle trade between Africa, the USA, and England in the 17th and 18th centuries, the hypothetical hypercycle involving RNAs as players and enzymes as goods, and reaction-diffusion processes. The emergence of exchange, and the role of trading agents are discussed. We simulate an example where two-way exchange gives zero production and zero utility, while three-way exchange causes considerable production and positive utility. Maximum utility for each player is reached when exchanges of the same order as the number of players in society are allowed. The article merges micro theory and macro theory within the social, natural, and physical sciences.

  9. Agriculture: access to technology limited.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology.

  10. Heat exchanger with transpired, highly porous fins

    DOEpatents

    Kutscher, Charles F.; Gawlik, Keith

    2002-01-01

    The heat exchanger includes a fin and tube assembly with increased heat transfer surface area positioned within a hollow chamber of a housing to provide effective heat transfer between a gas flowing within the hollow chamber and a fluid flowing in the fin and tube assembly. A fan is included to force a gas, such as air, to flow through the hollow chamber and through the fin and tube assembly. The fin and tube assembly comprises fluid conduits to direct the fluid through the heat exchanger, to prevent mixing with the gas, and to provide a heat transfer surface or pathway between the fluid and the gas. A heat transfer element is provided in the fin and tube assembly to provide extended heat transfer surfaces for the fluid conduits. The heat transfer element is corrugated to form fins between alternating ridges and grooves that define flow channels for directing the gas flow. The fins are fabricated from a thin, heat conductive material containing numerous orifices or pores for transpiring the gas out of the flow channel. The grooves are closed or only partially open so that all or substantially all of the gas is transpired through the fins so that heat is exchanged on the front and back surfaces of the fins and also within the interior of the orifices, thereby significantly increasing the available the heat transfer surface of the heat exchanger. The transpired fins also increase heat transfer effectiveness of the heat exchanger by increasing the heat transfer coefficient by disrupting boundary layer development on the fins and by establishing other beneficial gas flow patterns, all at desirable pressure drops.

  11. Personalized Services Oriented towards Commercial Establishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin Díaz, David; Rico Zuluaga, Alejandro; Carrillo-Ramos, Angela

    This paper presents the platform PlaSerEs, whose main objective is to provide information about the products y/o services offered by commercial establishments to their clients in a personalized way. This platform is structured in four layers: i) the adaptation layer, composed of four modules: the one of the context, the one of the access device, the one of the user and the one of the wireless connection. The latter is one of the main contributions of this work. ii) The general services layer, iii) the personalized services layer and iv) the application layer. In order to validate and to evaluate how PlaSerEs works, we developed a functional prototype for a restaurant.

  12. High-Speed Access to RFID Data: Meeting Real-Time Requirements in Distributed Value Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziekow, Holger; Fabian, Benjamin; Müller, Cristian

    Using RFID data within operational processes requires fast data access. In distributed value chains, RFID data is not only captured locally, but also accessed from remote locations. However, retrieving data from remote RFID repositories may pose significant delays and slow down the operations. This paper analyses how companies can exchange RFID data in the presence of real-time requirements. We analyze results of performance experiments with globally distributed RFID repositories and propose novel architectures for speeding up data access.

  13. Design and Implementation of Uniform Data Access Platform based on JSON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chen-Lu; Wang, Fang-Xiao; Wang, Jun

    There are lots of heterogeneous data sources which reside in many information systems, it is very difficult to for users to access the data sources through the study of existing SOA technology. In this paper, the design and implementation of a unified implementation of structured, unstructured data access platform, through the use of JSON as the data exchange technology. The platform will realize efficient interaction between data and resource requestors to improve the data access service management and efficiency of customization.

  14. NASA Image eXchange (NIX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonOfenheim. William H. C.; Heimerl, N. Lynn; Binkley, Robert L.; Curry, Marty A.; Slater, Richard T.; Nolan, Gerald J.; Griswold, T. Britt; Kovach, Robert D.; Corbin, Barney H.; Hewitt, Raymond W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the technical aspects of and the project background for the NASA Image exchange (NIX). NIX, which provides a single entry point to search selected image databases at the NASA Centers, is a meta-search engine (i.e., a search engine that communicates with other search engines). It uses these distributed digital image databases to access photographs, animations, and their associated descriptive information (meta-data). NIX is available for use at the following URL: http://nix.nasa.gov./NIX, which was sponsored by NASAs Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program, currently serves images from seven NASA Centers. Plans are under way to link image databases from three additional NASA Centers. images and their associated meta-data, which are accessible by NIX, reside at the originating Centers, and NIX utilizes a virtual central site that communicates with each of these sites. Incorporated into the virtual central site are several protocols to support searches from a diverse collection of database engines. The searches are performed in parallel to ensure optimization of response times. To augment the search capability, browse functionality with pre-defined categories has been built into NIX, thereby ensuring dissemination of 'best-of-breed' imagery. As a final recourse, NIX offers access to a help desk via an on-line form to help locate images and information either within the scope of NIX or from available external sources.

  15. Interact - Access to the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, M.; Callaghan, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    INTERACT is currently a network of 50 terrestrial research stations from all Arctic countries, but is still growing. The network was inaugurated in January 2011 when it received an EU 7th Framework award. INTERACT's main objective is to build capacity for identifying, understanding, predicting and responding to diverse environmental changes throughout the wide environmental and land-use envelopes of the Arctic. Implicit in this objective is the task to build capacity for monitoring, research, education and outreach. INTERACT is increasing access to the Arctic: 20 INTERACT research stations in Europe and Russia are offering Transnational Access and so far, 5600 person-days of access have been granted from the total of 10,000 offered. An INTERACT Station Managers' Forum facilitates a dialogue among station managers on subjects such as best practice in station management and standardised monitoring. The Station Managers' Forum has produced a unique 'one-stop-shop' for information from 45 research stations in an informative and attractive Station Catalogue that is available in hard copy and on the INTERACT web site (www.eu-interact.org). INTERACT also includes three joint research activities that are improving monitoring in remote, harsh environments and are making data capture and dissemination more efficient. Already, new equipment for measuring feedbacks from the land surface to the climate system has been installed at several locations, while best practices for sensor networking have been established. INTERACT networks with most of the high-level Arctic organisations: it includes AMAP and WWF as partners, is endorsed by IASC and CBMP, has signed MoUs with ISAC and the University of the Arctic, is a task within SAON, and contributes to the Cold Region community within GEO/GEOSS. INTERACT welcomes other interactions.

  16. 78 FR 42573 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... submit a ``Correction Action Statement'' and ``Mitigation Statement'' with an executed acceptance, waiver... the prohibition or limitation by the Exchange of any person with respect to access to services...

  17. Long-Term Nutrition: A Clinician's Guide to Successful Long-Term Enteral Access in Adults.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Matthew L; Mir, Fazia A; Boumitri, Christine; Palmer, Lena B; Evans, David C; Kiraly, Laszlo N; Nguyen, Douglas L

    2016-09-22

    Long-term nutrition support requires long-term enteral access. To ensure the success of long-term enteral access, many factors need to be taken into consideration. This article represents a guide to placing and maintaining access in patients requiring long-term nutrition and addresses many of the common questions regarding long-term enteral access, such as indications, types of access, feeding after access placed, and recognition and treatment of potential complications. This guide will help the clinician establish and maintain access to maximize nutrition in patients requiring long-term nutrition.

  18. Building a national electronic medical record exchange system - experiences in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Chuan Jack; Yen, Ju-Chuan; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Jian, Wen-Shan; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Hsu, Min-Huei

    2015-08-01

    There are currently 501 hospitals and about 20,000 clinics in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance (NHI) system, which is operated by the NHI Administration, uses a single-payer system and covers 99.9% of the nation's total population of 23,000,000. Taiwan's NHI provides people with a high degree of freedom in choosing their medical care options. However, there is the potential concern that the available medical resources will be overused. The number of doctor consultations per person per year is about 15. Duplication of laboratory tests and prescriptions are not rare either. Building an electronic medical record exchange system is a good method of solving these problems and of improving continuity in health care. In November 2009, Taiwan's Executive Yuan passed the 'Plan for accelerating the implementation of electronic medical record systems in medical institutions' (2010-2012; a 3-year plan). According to this plan, a patient can, at any hospital in Taiwan, by using his/her health insurance IC card and physician's medical professional IC card, upon signing a written agreement, retrieve all important medical records for the past 6 months from other participating hospitals. The focus of this plan is to establish the National Electronic Medical Record Exchange Centre (EEC). A hospital's information system will be connected to the EEC through an electronic medical record (EMR) gateway. The hospital will convert the medical records for the past 6 months in its EMR system into standardized files and save them on the EMR gateway. The most important functions of the EEC are to generate an index of all the XML files on the EMR gateways of all hospitals, and to provide search and retrieval services for hospitals and clinics. The EEC provides four standard inter-institution EMR retrieval services covering medical imaging reports, laboratory test reports, discharge summaries, and outpatient records. In this system, we adopted the Health Level 7 (HL7) Clinical Document

  19. Gas Exchange of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, Elizabeth C. B.; Lynch, Victoria H.

    1967-01-01

    The oxygen production of a photosynthetic gas exchanger containing Chlorella pyrenoidosa (1% packed cell volume) was measured when various concentrations of carbon dioxide were present within the culture unit. The internal carbon dioxide concentrations were obtained by manipulating the entrance gas concentration and the flow rate. Carbon dioxide percentages were monitored by means of electrodes placed directly in the nutrient medium. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the nutrient medium which produced maximal photosynthesis was in the range of 1.5 to 2.5% by volume. Results were unaffected by either the level of carbon dioxide in the entrance gas or the rate of gas flow. Entrance gases containing 2% carbon dioxide flowing at 320 ml/min, 3% carbon dioxide at 135 ml/min, and 4% carbon dioxide at 55 ml/min yielded optimal carbon dioxide concentrations in the particular unit studied. By using carbon dioxide electrodes implanted directly in the gas exchanger to optimize the carbon dioxide concentration throughout the culture medium, it should be possible to design more efficient large-scale units. PMID:4382391

  20. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  1. Theorization on ion-exchange equilibria: activity of species in 2-D phases.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hiroki

    2004-11-01

    Ion-exchange reactions are naturally occurring at soil and sediment/water interphases, determining soil fertility and water quality. These ion-exchange reactions with inorganic and organic exchangers are applied to chemical analysis, recovery of useful ions from low-grade ores (potentially from sea water), water purification including the preparation of "ultrapure" water, production of foods and medicines, therapy, and other uses. It is important to theorize about or to model ion-exchange reactions for quantitative explanations of ion-exchange phenomena and for efficient operation of ion-exchange processes. This paper describes the modeling of ion-exchange equilibria for hydroxyl sites on metal oxides and carboxyl sites in resins with monovalent cations (alkali metal ions), a monovalent anion (nitrate ion), and divalent heavy metal ions. The procedure of modeling is as follows: the stoichiometry and material balance equations of the respective ion-exchange reactions were established based on findings here and by others. The equilibrium conditions were given by the Frumkin equation, where the mass-action relation is modified with lateral interactions between species at the interphase. The model equations were fitted to the measured data and model parameter values were determined by nonlinear regression analysis. The formation of bonds between ions and exchanger sites was evaluated by the equilibrium constant and the suppression of bond formation by electrostatic, geometric, and other lateral interactions was evaluated by the interaction constant. It was established that the properties of ions are determined by the valence, size, and hydration state of the ions. Monovalent ions (anions and cations) react with oxide surface hydroxyl and resin carboxyl sites as hydrated ions and form loose ion-site pairs by a weak electrostatic bond (nonspecific adsorption). However, the lateral interactions are large because of a large polarization of the ion-site pairs. When the

  2. 32 CFR 2001.49 - Special access programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... enhanced for information in special access programs (SAP), established under the provisions of section 4.3 of the Order by the agency head responsible for creating the SAP. Agency heads shall ensure that the... Agreement/Understanding is established for each SAP that has significant interagency support...

  3. 32 CFR 2001.49 - Special access programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... enhanced for information in special access programs (SAP), established under the provisions of section 4.3 of the Order by the agency head responsible for creating the SAP. Agency heads shall ensure that the... Agreement/Understanding is established for each SAP that has significant interagency support...

  4. 32 CFR 2001.49 - Special access programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... enhanced for information in special access programs (SAP), established under the provisions of section 4.3 of the Order by the agency head responsible for creating the SAP. Agency heads shall ensure that the... Agreement/Understanding is established for each SAP that has significant interagency support...

  5. 32 CFR 2001.49 - Special access programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... enhanced for information in special access programs (SAP), established under the provisions of section 4.3 of the Order by the agency head responsible for creating the SAP. Agency heads shall ensure that the... Agreement/Understanding is established for each SAP that has significant interagency support...

  6. 32 CFR 2001.49 - Special access programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... enhanced for information in special access programs (SAP), established under the provisions of section 4.3 of the Order by the agency head responsible for creating the SAP. Agency heads shall ensure that the... Agreement/Understanding is established for each SAP that has significant interagency support...

  7. National Library of Medicine Disaster Information Management Research Center: Establishment and growth, 2008–2010 1

    PubMed Central

    Love, Cynthia B.; Arnesen, Stacey J.; Phillips, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) established the Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC). Prior to 2008, NLM had a long history of involvement in providing health information for disaster management. Aware of this legacy and moved by the catastrophic aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the NLM long range plan (Charting a Course for the 21st Century: NLM’s Long Range Plan 2006–2016) called for creation of a center to show “a strong commitment to disaster remediation and to provide a platform for demonstrating how libraries and librarians can be part of the solution to this national problem”. NLM was urged to “ensure continuous access to health information and effective use of libraries and librarians when disasters occur”. In response to this charge, NLM has undertaken substantial efforts to ensure that medical libraries have plans for the continuity of their operations, librarians are trained to understand their roles in preparedness and response, online disaster health information resources are available for many audiences and in multiple formats, and research is conducted on tools to enhance the exchange of critical information during and following disasters. This paper documents the history, goals, initiatives, accomplishments and future plans of the Center. PMID:25324584

  8. Key technology of ship product data exchange based on STEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dong-Yan; Yang, Jing-Tong; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Xue, Kai

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, in order to implement the share and exchange of the ship product data, a new kind of global function model is established. By researching on the development and trend of the application of ship STEP (standard for the exchange of product model data) standards, the AIM (application interpreted model) of AP216 is developed and improved as an example, aiming at the characteristics and practical engineering of ship industry in our country. The data exchange interfaces are formed based on STEP in the CAD/CAM for the ship by all function modules and shared databases under the global function model. The share and exchange of all information and data are solved in the design, manufacture and all life-cycle of ship products among different computer application systems. The research work makes foundation for the ship industry informatization.

  9. Computing in mammalian cells with nucleic acid strand exchange

    PubMed Central

    Pochekailov, Sergii; Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Santangelo, Philip J.; Seelig, Georg

    2015-01-01

    DNA strand displacement has been widely used for the design of molecular circuits, motors, and sensors in cell-free settings. Recently, it has been shown that this technology can also operate in biological environments, but capabilities remain limited. Here, we look to adapt strand displacement and exchange reactions to mammalian cells and report DNA circuitry that can directly interact with a native mRNA. We began by optimizing the cellular performance of fluorescent reporters based on four-way strand exchange reactions and identified robust design principles by systematically varying the molecular structure, chemistry and delivery method. Next, we developed and tested AND and OR logic gates based on four-way strand exchange, demonstrating the feasibility of multi-input logic. Finally, we established that functional siRNA could be activated through strand exchange, and used native mRNA as programmable scaffolds for co-localizing gates and visualizing their operation with subcellular resolution. PMID:26689378

  10. Computing in mammalian cells with nucleic acid strand exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, Benjamin; Chen, Yuan-Jyue; Zurla, Chiara; Pochekailov, Sergii; Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Santangelo, Philip J.; Seelig, Georg

    2016-03-01

    DNA strand displacement has been widely used for the design of molecular circuits, motors, and sensors in cell-free settings. Recently, it has been shown that this technology can also operate in biological environments, but capabilities remain limited. Here, we look to adapt strand displacement and exchange reactions to mammalian cells and report DNA circuitry that can directly interact with a native mRNA. We began by optimizing the cellular performance of fluorescent reporters based on four-way strand exchange reactions and identified robust design principles by systematically varying the molecular structure, chemistry and delivery method. Next, we developed and tested AND and OR logic gates based on four-way strand exchange, demonstrating the feasibility of multi-input logic. Finally, we established that functional siRNA could be activated through strand exchange, and used native mRNA as programmable scaffolds for co-localizing gates and visualizing their operation with subcellular resolution.

  11. How to run a successful needle exchange program.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    Two recent case studies for successful needle exchange programs in Massachusetts and Washington underscore the need for widespread community support for similar programs. The studies were conducted by the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In Massachusetts, the law designates two dollars in substance abuse treatment programs for every dollar spent on needle exchange. Washington established their programs through court cases. Needle exchanges are an important component in each State's prevention programs; however, the programs also incorporate substance abuse and HIV treatment, outreach, public education, and coordination with the law enforcement communities into their overall program. More than one-quarter of all AIDS cases and half of the AIDS cases in women are attributable to injection drug use. Needle exchange programs, while proven effective, remain politically sensitive. A major barrier to implementing them is the public perception of drug users. Information for ordering the full study is included.

  12. ISDC Data Access Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D.; Borkowski, J.; Contessi, T.; Lock, T.; Rohlfs, R.; Walter, R.

    The ISDC Data Access Layer (DAL) is an ANSI C and \\fortran 90 compatible library under development in support of the ESA INTEGRAL mission data analysis software. DALs primary purpose is to isolate the analysis software from the specifics of the data formats while at the same time providing new data abstraction and access capabilities. DAL supports the creation and manipulation of hierarchical data sets which may span multiple files and, in theory, multiple computer systems. A number of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are supported by DAL that allow software to view and access data at different levels of complexity. DAL also allows data sets to reside on disk, in conventional memory or in shared memory in a way that is transparent to the user/application.

  13. Vascular access for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, R; Ringoir, S

    1994-04-01

    Indwelling central venous catheters were consecutively used as access for acute and chronic hemodialysis, emergency treatment of pulmonary fluid overload, intoxication and electrolyte disturbances, plasmapheresis, and semiacute continuous dialysis strategies, such as continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH). Modification in catheter structure also made it possible to use this access for long-term treatment (e.g., surgically insertable catheters [Hickman], soft large-bore catheters for blind insertion). We discuss the remaining open questions in this field: Which is the insertion site of preference (i.e., subclavian, femoral, or deep jugular)? Should we prefer stiff or soft catheters? Should soft catheters be positioned surgically or is blind insertion by nonsurgeons as adequate? Is it necessary to couple catheter insertion to adjuvant techniques, such as echographic guidance, to reduce complications? Is the currently used polymer structure of the catheters acceptable? Should catheter dialysis be used with single or double vascular access?

  14. Restaurant wheelchair accessibility.

    PubMed

    McClain, L; Beringer, D; Kuhnert, H; Priest, J; Wilkes, E; Wilkinson, S; Wyrick, L

    1993-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the compliance of restaurants to the wheelchair accessibility standards set forth in the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards. The standards that were operationalized in this study are also found in Title III of the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990. The data were collected at 120 sites in three midwestern states. For one who uses a wheelchair, parking the car is often an obstacle to eating out. Only 53% of the restaurants surveyed provide handicapped parking. Entering the building may also be a problem. Of the restaurants that required a ramp, only 66% provided them. Inside the restaurant, the key problems were accessible rest-rooms and the height of tables. The study provided comparisons between restaurants in rural and urban settings, as well as comparisons between conventional restaurants and fast food restaurants. No notable differences emerged for these comparisons.

  15. Winning Their Hearts. Members Speak Out: In performances, How do You Establish Rapport between Your Choir and Young Audiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Matthew G.

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses techniques on how to establish rapport between the choir and young audiences. According to him, one of the choir's most important assets just might be something he calls access-ability. One of Webster's definitions of "access "is" permission, liberty, or ability to enter, approach, or communicate with." When it comes to…

  16. Effects of apolipoproteins on the kinetics of cholesterol exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Letizia, J.Y.; Phillips, M.C. )

    1991-01-22

    The effects of apolipoproteins on the kinetics of cholesterol exchange have been investigated by monitoring the transfer of ({sup 14}C)cholesterol from donor phospholipid/cholesterol complexes containing human apolipoproteins A, B, or C. Negatively charged discoidal and vesicular particles containing purified apolipoproteins complexed with lipid and a trace of ({sup 14}C)cholesterol were incubated with a 10-fold excess of neutral, acceptor, small unilamellar vesicles. The donor and acceptor particles were separated by chromatogrphy of DEAE-Sepharose, and the rate of movement of labeled cholesterol was analyzed as a first-order exchange process. The kinetics of exchange of cholesterol from both vesicular and discoidal complexes that contain apoproteins are consistent with an aqueous diffusion mechanism, as has been established previously for PC/cholesterol SUV. Apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, reduced and carboxymethylated A-11, and B-100 present in SUV at the same lipid/protein (w/w) ratio all enhance the rate of cholesterol exchange to about the same degree. Cholesterol molecules exchange more rapidly from discoidal complexes. Generally, as the diameter of apoprotein/phospholipid/cholesterol discs decreases, t{sub 1/2} for cholesterol exchange decreases. Since small bilayer discs have a relatively high ratio of boundary to face surface area, cholesterol molecules desorb more rapidly than from larger discs. The modulation of lipid packing by the apoprotein molecules present at the surface of lipoprotein particles affects the rate of cholesterol exchange from such particles.

  17. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

  18. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-12-31

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW`s. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

  19. Metagenomics: an inexhaustible access to nature's diversity.

    PubMed

    Langer, Martin; Gabor, Esther M; Liebeton, Klaus; Meurer, Guido; Niehaus, Frank; Schulze, Renate; Eck, Jürgen; Lorenz, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The chemical industry has an enormous need for innovation. To save resources, energy and time, currently more and more established chemical processes are being switched to biotechnological routes. This requires white biotechnology to discover and develop novel enzymes, biocatalysts and applications. Due to a limitation in the cultivability of microbes living in certain habitats, technologies have to be established which give access to the enormous resource of uncultivated microbial diversity. Metagenomics promises to provide new and diverse enzymes and biocatalysts as well as bioactive molecules and has the potential to make industrial biotechnology an economic, sustainable success.

  20. Central venous access.

    PubMed

    Ganeshan, Arul; Warakaulle, Dinuke R; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-01-01

    Central venous access plays an important role in the management of an ever-increasing population of patients ranging from those that are critically ill to patients with difficult clinical access. Interventional radiologists are key in delivering this service and should be familiar with the wide range of techniques and catheters now available to them. A comprehensive description of these catheters with regard to indications, technical aspects of catheterization, success rates, and associated early and late complications, as well as a review of various published guidelines on central venous catheter insertion are given in this article.

  1. Accessibility | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    60plus.smokefree.gov is committed to making its websites accessible to all individuals—disabled or not—who are seeking information. To provide this information, the Smokefree 60+ website has been designed to comply with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (as amended). Section 508 requires that all individuals with disabilities (whether they are federal government employees or members of the general public) have access to and use of information and data comparable to that provided to individuals without disabilities, unless an undue burden would be imposed.

  2. Disability access. Open season.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Brian

    2003-04-24

    A disability access audit carried out at a trust operating over 50 sites revealed that a 2.3m Pounds programme of work was needed. The audit took four months, with the team spending a day at each of the premises. The audit has been followed by a staff training programme in disability awareness. The trust's information systems now show if a patient did not attend an appointment because of difficulties with physical access. All letters to patients are produced in a minimum 12-point type.

  3. The SCAR Standing Committee on Antarctic Data Management - new directions in access to Antarctic research data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, T.

    2009-04-01

    The SCAR Standing Committee on Antarctic Data Management (SC-ADM) was established by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP), to assist in the fulfillment of the data management obligations imposed by the Antarctic Treaty (section III.1.c): "Scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available." SC-ADM comprises representatives of the National Antarctic Data Centres or national points of contact. Currently 31 nations around the world are represented in SC-ADM. So far, SC-ADM has been focussing on the coordination of the Antarctic Master Directory (AMD), the internationally accessible, web-based, searchable record of Antarctic and Southern Ocean data set descriptions. The AMD is directly integrated into the international Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) to help further merge Antarctic science into global science. The AMD is a resource for scientists to advertise the data they have collected and to search for data they may need. Currently, SC-ADM is in a transition phase, moving forward to provide data access. Existing systems and web services technology will be used as much as possible, to increase efficiency and prevent 're-inventing the wheel' This poster will give an overview of this process, the current status and the expected results.

  4. The Human Right to Access Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, Stephen

    2006-04-15

    Electricity access is already well established within the framework of human rights, either as an implicit attribute of a pre-existing right (such as non-discrimination or sustainable development) or explicitly in the context of eliminating discrimination against women. There is also broad acknowledgement by states of the desirability of eliminating energy poverty - for all, but particularly for the rural poor, and women. (author)

  5. Communications Technology Transforms the Marketplace: The Impact of the Telegraph, Telephone, and Ticker on the Cincinnati Merchants' Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharlott, Bradford W.

    During the mid-nineteenth century, merchants in Cincinnati (Ohio) gained access to the latest telegraphic news through the Merchants' Exchange, which became a vital link in a communications network that served as the nervous system of the nation's economy. The Cincinnati Merchants' Exchange was founded in 1843 by the Young Men's Mercantile Library…

  6. 78 FR 19340 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... interest in the Company. In addition, the Exchange, through its wholly-owned subsidiary NYSE Market, Inc... Trading is an affiliate of an affiliate of the Exchange,\\5\\ which would violate the prohibition in Rule 2B... controls reasonably designed to ensure that BIDS Holdings and its affiliates do not have access to...

  7. 78 FR 54704 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... are currently able to purchase access to the Exchange's LCN, a local area network that is available in... 40 Gigabit Liquidity Center Network Connection in the Exchange Data Center August 29, 2013. Pursuant... its Price List in order to provide for fees for a 40 gigabit (``Gb'') Liquidity Center Network...

  8. 78 FR 40241 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... market participants with the ability to access the Exchange's network through data center entry points at... Exchange's network and reducing the need for such connectivity for participants located in the same data... expand the multiple means of connectivity available, allowing customers to compare the benefits and...

  9. Empower: access to medicine - working towards early access.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jennifer Bryant; Turgoose, James; Hargrave, James

    2015-01-01

    Empower: Access to Medicine's contribution will document the founding of Empower: Access to Medicine and tactics used to create a lobbying campaign designed to facilitate the debate around barriers to medical innovation and patient access to medicines. The article will detail the evolution of the campaign's goals and the potential solutions to an expensive and slow system. Specifically the submission will look at the influence that Empower: Access to Medicine had on the Government's thinking and development of an early access scheme.

  10. Understanding and Working with "Failed Communication" in Telecollaborative Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dowd, Robert; Ritter, Markus

    2006-01-01

    It is by now well established that telecollaborative exchanges frequently end in "failed communication" and do not automatically bring about successful negotiation of meaning between the learners. Instead, the intended pedagogic and linguistic aims of online interaction are repeatedly missed, and projects may end in low levels of participation,…

  11. Community Music Knowledge Exchange Research in Scottish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Nikki; Loening, Gica

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the usefulness of Knowledge Exchange (KE) funding streams for higher education community music research projects, with a case study of one particular project that took place between February and April 2010. The project was funded via a KE stream, linking University researchers with a well-established community music charity…

  12. 20 CFR 619.3 - Data exchange standardization for SIDES.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... standardization for SIDES. (a) XML is the data exchange standard for SIDES. (b) This standard applies to any Federally-funded SIDES consortium, and any future agents of the Department providing vendor services for the... consortium involves a group of two or more States jointly establishing a project team to oversee the...

  13. Ion-exchange hollow fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Klein, Elias (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An ion-exchange hollow fiber is prepared by introducing into the wall of the fiber polymerizable liquid monomers, and polymerizing the monomers therein to form solid, insoluble, cross-linked, ion-exchange resin particles which embed in the wall of the fiber. Excess particles blocking the central passage or bore of the fiber are removed by forcing liquid through the fiber. The fibers have high ion-exchange capacity, a practical wall permeability and good mechanical strength even with very thin wall dimensions. Experimental investigation of bundles of ion-exchange hollow fibers attached to a header assembly have shown the fiber to be very efficient in removing counterions from solution.

  14. Ion-exchange hollow fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Klein, Elias (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An ion-exchange hollow fiber is prepared by introducing into the wall of the fiber polymerizable liquid monomers, and polymerizing the monomers therein to form solid, insoluble, cross-linked, ion-exchange resin particles which embed in the wall of the fiber. Excess particles blocking the central passage or bore of the fiber are removed by forcing liquid through the fiber. The fibers have high ion-exchange capacity, a practical wall permeability and good mechanical strength even with very thin wall dimensions. Experimental investigation of bundles of ion-exchange hollow fibers attached to a header assembly have shown the fiber to be very efficient in removing counterions from solution.

  15. Ion-exchange hollow fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Yen, S. P. S.; Klein, E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An ion-exchange hollow fiber is prepared by introducing into the wall of the fiber polymerizable liquid monomers, and polymerizing the monomers therein to form solid, insoluble, crosslinked, ion-exchange resin particles which embed in the wall of the fiber. Excess particles blocking the central passage or bore of the fiber are removed by forcing liquid through the fiber. The fibers have high ion-exchange capacity, a practical wall permeability and good mechanical strength even with very thin wall dimensions. Experimental investigation of bundles of ion-exchange hollow fibers attached to a header assembly have shown the fiber to be very efficient in removing counterions from solution.

  16. Applying public access programming techniques to astronomical image display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Eric

    1996-03-01

    The X Public Access (XPA) mechanism allows an Xt program to define named public access points through which data and commands can be exchanged with other programs. We will discuss our design goals for XPA, the technical challenges we faced--including extensions to the Xt selection implementation--and the user interface and application programming interface that we developed to meet these challenges. We also will describe our application of XPA to a new version of the popular SAOimage astronomical image display program. XPA makes possible external control of the program's main function, including image display, image zoom and pan, colormap manipulation, cursor/region definition, and frame selection. It also supports `public access' to internal algorithms such as image file access and scaling. Finally, we will describe how XPA is used to support user-configurable analysis of image data and bi- directional communication with other processes.

  17. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  18. Monogroove liquid heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard F. (Inventor); Edelstein, Fred (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A liquid supply control is disclosed for a heat transfer system which transports heat by liquid-vapor phase change of a working fluid. An assembly (10) of monogroove heat pipe legs (15) can be operated automatically as either heat acquisition devices or heat discharge sources. The liquid channels (27) of the heat pipe legs (15) are connected to a reservoir (35) which is filled and drained by respective filling and draining valves (30, 32). Information from liquid level sensors (50, 51) on the reservoir (35) is combined (60) with temperature information (55) from the liquid heat exchanger (12) and temperature information (56) from the assembly vapor conduit (42) to regulate filling and draining of the reservoir (35), so that the reservoir (35) in turn serves the liquid supply/drain needs of the heat pipe legs (15), on demand, by passive capillary action (20, 28).

  19. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  20. South Atlantic interbasin exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rintoul, Stephen Rich

    1991-01-01

    The exchange of mass and heat between the South Atlantic and the neighboring ocean basins was estimated using hydrographic data and inverse methods, in order to gain information on the links between the deep-water formation processes occurring within the Atlantic and the global thermohaline circulation. Results demonstrate that the global thermohaline cell associated with the formation and export of North Atlantic deep water (NADW) is closed primarily by a 'cold water path' in which deep water leaving the Atlantic ultimately returns as intermediate water entering the basin through Drake Passage. This conclusion conflicts with the suggestion by Gordon (1986) that the global thermohaline circulation associated with the formation of NADW is closed primarily by a 'warm water path', in which the export of NADW is compensated by an inflow of warm Indian Ocean thermocline water south of Africa.

  1. Cross-Shelf Exchange.

    PubMed

    Brink, K H

    2016-01-01

    Cross-shelf exchange dominates the pathways and rates by which nutrients, biota, and materials on the continental shelf are delivered and removed. This follows because cross-shelf gradients of most properties are usually far greater than those in the alongshore direction. The resulting transports are limited by Earth's rotation, which inhibits flow from crossing isobaths. Thus, cross-shelf flows are generally weak compared with alongshore flows, and this leads to interesting observational issues. Cross-shelf flows are enabled by turbulent mixing processes, nonlinear processes (such as momentum advection), and time dependence. Thus, there is a wide range of possible effects that can allow these critical transports, and different natural settings are often governed by different combinations of processes. This review discusses examples of representative transport mechanisms and explores possible observational and theoretical paths to future progress.

  2. International Cell Exchange, 1994.

    PubMed

    Lau, M; Terasaki, P I; Park, M S

    1994-01-01

    1. We summarize typings of 40 cells for Class I antigens and 20 cultured cell lines for Class II antigens through the International Cell Exchange in 1994. Serologic Class II typings were compared with DNA typings for the same 20 cells. Two hundred eighty-one laboratories participated in the monthly Class I Serum Exchange. One hundred nineteen serology laboratories and 74 DNA laboratories reported Class II specificities on a monthly basis. 2. The average detection levels, as well as the high detection levels, were determined for 16 A-locus and 27 B-locus antigens. Mean detection rates of 95% or greater average detection were obtained for 12 A-locus and 10 B-locus antigens. Lower than 80% agreement was calculated for one A-locus antigen (A74) and 7 B-locus (B46, B48, B61, B67, B73, B75, B77) antigens. 3. We compared discrepancy rates of 10 A-locus and 7 B-locus antigens typed 3 times or more. The false-negative discrepancy rates, i.e. how often the antigen was missed, were greater for more of the B-locus specificities than for the A-locus antigens. B62, having the highest false-positive rate, tended to be overassigned. The discrepancy rates, especially the false-negative rate, for B70 were shown to decrease over a 7-year period. 4. In 1994, 8 laboratories attained records of total no misses for all analyzed antigens. Twelve laboratories had final records of only one discrepancy, and 5 laboratories had impressive perfect records (zero false negatives and false positives) for their yearly antigen reports. 5. Retyping of 12 Class I and 8 Class II reference cells showed improved detection of antigens. Results of a donor typed 4 times over 11 years demonstrated marked improvement, nearly doubling for A33, B38, and B75. Two cells first typed in 1991, then retyped in 1994, showed improved detection for Class II splits by serology and DNA typing. 6. We updated the list of sequenced Class I Exchange cells. Seven new cells were added as well as confirmatory sequence data for A

  3. Longitudinal and perpendicular exchange bias in FeMn/(FeNi/FeMn)n multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Zhou, S. M.; Searson, P. C.; Chien, C. L.

    2003-05-01

    Exchange bias in ferromagnetic (FM)/antiferromagnetic (AF) bilayers is usually investigated in the longitudinal configuration with the exchange coupling established in the film plane. In this work, we report on the perpendicular exchange bias in FeMn(8 nm)/[FeNi(2 nm)/FeMn(8 nm)]n multilayers induced by perpendicular field cooling. The thin FeNi layers give rise to large values of the exchange field and coercivity, and n=15 allows a sufficiently large magnetization for the measurements. Even though the soft FeNi layers have an intrinsic in-plane anisotropy, perpendicular exchange bias has been observed after cooling in a perpendicular external field. The exchange field in the perpendicular configuration is about 0.85 that of the longitudinal case. In both the longitudinal and perpendicular configurations, the exchange field decreases quasilinearly with temperature. The squareness of perpendicular hysteresis loops decreases with increasing temperature.

  4. Managing Information Resources for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Services Administration, Washington, DC. Clearinghouse on Computer Accommodation.

    This handbook presents guidance for federal managers and other personnel who are unfamiliar with the policy and practice of information accessibility to accommodate users with disabilities and to provide for their effective access to information resources. It addresses federal requirements for accessibility, adopting accessibility as a sound…

  5. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  6. Improving Access to Foundational Energy Performance Data

    SciTech Connect

    Studer, D.; Livingood, W.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    Access to foundational energy performance data is key to improving the efficiency of the built environment. However, stakeholders often lack access to what they perceive as credible energy performance data. Therefore, even if a stakeholder determines that a product would increase efficiency, they often have difficulty convincing their management to move forward. Even when credible data do exist, such data are not always sufficient to support detailed energy performance analyses, or the development of robust business cases. One reason for this is that the data parameters that are provided are generally based on the respective industry norms. Thus, for mature industries with extensive testing standards, the data made available are often quite detailed. But for emerging technologies, or for industries with less well-developed testing standards, available data are generally insufficient to support robust analysis. However, even for mature technologies, there is no guarantee that the data being supplied are the same data needed to accurately evaluate a product?s energy performance. To address these challenges, the U.S. Department of Energy funded development of a free, publically accessible Web-based portal, the Technology Performance Exchange(TM), to facilitate the transparent identification, storage, and sharing of foundational energy performance data. The Technology Performance Exchange identifies the intrinsic, technology-specific parameters necessary for a user to perform a credible energy analysis and includes a robust database to store these data. End users can leverage stored data to evaluate the site-specific performance of various technologies, support financial analyses with greater confidence, and make better informed procurement decisions.

  7. NOAA Enterprise Archive Access Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rank, R. H.; McCormick, S.; Cremidis, C.

    2010-12-01

    A challenge for any consumer of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) environmental data archives is that the disparate nature of these archives makes it difficult for consumers to access data in a unified manner. If it were possible for consumers to have seamless access to these archives, they would be able to better utilize the data and thus maximize the return on investment for NOAA’s archival program. When unified data access is coupled with sophisticated data querying and discovery techniques, it will be possible to provide consumers with access to richer data sets and services that extend the use of key NOAA data. Theoretically, there are two ways that unified archive access may be achieved. The first approach is to develop a single archive or archiving standard that would replace the current NOAA archives. However, the development of such an archive would pose significant technical and administrative challenges. The second approach is to develop a middleware application that would provide seamless access to all existing archives, in effect allowing each archive to exist “as is” but providing a translation service for the consumer. This approach is deemed more feasible from an administrative and technical standpoint; however, it still presents unique technical challenges due to the disparate architectures that exist across NOAA archives. NOAA has begun developing the NEAAT. The purpose of NEAAT is to provide a middleware and a simple standardized API between NOAA archives and data consumers. It is important to note that NEAAT serves two main purposes: 1) To provide a single application programming interface (API) that enables designated consumers to write their own custom applications capable of searching and acquiring data seamlessly from multiple NOAA archives. 2) To allow archive managers to expose their data to consumers in conjunction with other NOAA resources without modifying their archiving systems or way of presenting data

  8. NESDIS OSPO Data Access Policy and CRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seybold, M. G.; Donoho, N. A.; McNamara, D.; Paquette, J.; Renkevens, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Office of Satellite and Product Operations (OSPO) is the NESDIS office responsible for satellite operations, product generation, and product distribution. Access to and distribution of OSPO data was formally established in a Data Access Policy dated February, 2011. An extension of the data access policy is the OSPO Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Database, which has been in development since 2008 and is reaching a critical level of maturity. This presentation will provide a summary of the data access policy and standard operating procedure (SOP) for handling data access requests. The tangential CRM database will be highlighted including the incident tracking system, reporting and notification capabilities, and the first comprehensive portfolio of NESDIS satellites, instruments, servers, applications, products, user organizations, and user contacts. Select examples of CRM data exploitation will show how OSPO is utilizing the CRM database to more closely satisfy the user community's satellite data needs with new product promotions, as well as new data and imagery distribution methods in OSPO's Environmental Satellite Processing Center (ESPC). In addition, user services and outreach initiatives from the Satellite Products and Services Division will be highlighted.

  9. Access to Space Interactive Design Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, John; Cutlip, William; Hametz, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The Access To Space (ATS) Group at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) supports the science and technology community at GSFC by facilitating frequent and affordable opportunities for access to space. Through partnerships established with access mode suppliers, the ATS Group has developed an interactive Mission Design web site. The ATS web site provides both the information and the tools necessary to assist mission planners in selecting and planning their ride to space. This includes the evaluation of single payloads vs. ride-sharing opportunities to reduce the cost of access to space. Features of this site include the following: (1) Mission Database. Our mission database contains a listing of missions ranging from proposed missions to manifested. Missions can be entered by our user community through data input tools. Data is then accessed by users through various search engines: orbit parameters, ride-share opportunities, spacecraft parameters, other mission notes, launch vehicle, and contact information. (2) Launch Vehicle Toolboxes. The launch vehicle toolboxes provide the user a full range of information on vehicle classes and individual configurations. Topics include: general information, environments, performance, payload interface, available volume, and launch sites.

  10. Serving up Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    When low-income students returned to Chicago public schools this fall, many had better access to technology, thanks to a public-private partnership. Chicago families with children enrolled in the National School Lunch Program are eligible for subsidized computers and Internet connections through an agreement between the city and telecom giant…

  11. ACCESS Project: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, Heiko

    2015-04-01

    The ACCESS project addressed the development, testing, and demonstration of the proposed advanced technologies and the associated emission and fuel economy improvement at an engine dynamometer and on a full-scale vehicle. Improve fuel economy by 25% with minimum performance penalties Achieve SULEV level emissions with gasoline Demonstrate multi-mode combustion engine management system

  12. ACCENT ON ACCESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHATELAIN, LEON, JR.; AND OTHERS

    EMPHASIS IS GIVEN ON ACCESSIBILITY TO PUBLIC BUILDINGS BY THE HANDICAPPED. ATTENTION IS DIRECTED TO THIS SUBJECT INASMUCH AS ARCHITECTS GENERALLY HAVE OVERLOOKED THE PROBLEM. HENCE, PUBLIC BUILDINGS ARE NOT TRULY AVAILABLE TO THE TOTAL PUBLIC. IN RECENT YEARS, HOWEVER, LEGISLATION HAS BECOME INCREASINGLY MORE COMMON TO CORRECT THE SITUATION. THE…

  13. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  14. College Access Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  15. Unique Access to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  16. Improved Access to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra; Simkins, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes efforts by principal of the Willow Elementary School in the Charter Oak Unified School District (California) to provide students with technology-enhanced access to information and learning resources to improve reading and mathematics skills. Includes list of the Web addresses for the skills software used at the school. (PKP)

  17. Internet 2 Access Grid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

  18. Accessible Theatre Arts Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    Intended to help administrators and theatre teachers provide a theatre arts program accessible to disabled actors, technicians, and audiences, the guide focuses on ways to alleviate limitations in the theatre. The following topics are addressed (sample subtopics in parentheses): awareness (use of improvisations and simulations); acclimatization…

  19. Access to Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how modern library systems can protect collections while not impeding disabled persons' access to facilities. Describes the problem with swinging gates and offers some security alternatives, such as high-tech gateless security, video detection, and voice alarms, that do not impede disabled persons' movements. (RJM)

  20. CAS. Controlled Access Security

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Pomeroy, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Security Alarm System is a data acquisition and control system which collects data from intrusion sensors and displays the information in a real-time environment for operators. The Access Control System monitors and controls the movement of personnel with the use of card readers and biometrics hand readers.

  1. Accessing Electronic Theses: Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2000-01-01

    Describes various ways by which universities provide access to their electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs), discussing UMI (University Microfilms International), XML (eXtensible Markup Language), and other formats. Discusses key leaders--national and international--in the ETD effort. Outlines the two main methods for locating ETDs. Presents a…

  2. APS and Open Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    The movement toward Open Access continues to gain momentum. A brief review of APS efforts in this area will be presented by APS Editor in Chief, Gene Sprouse. Editors from Physical Review A, B, E, Focus, Letters, and X, Reviews of Modern Physics, and Physics will address your questions about publishing in this evolving environment.

  3. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  4. Computer Accessibility Technology Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This technology information packet includes information about the technical aspects of access to technology, legal obligations concerning technology and individuals with disabilities, and a list of resources for further information and assistance. A question and answer section addresses: barriers to educational technology for students with…

  5. 78 FR 18642 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Fee Schedule To Establish Fees for Mini Options on BOX...\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on March 15, 2013, BOX Options Exchange...

  6. 78 FR 22591 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Fee Schedule To Establish Fees for Mini Options on...

  7. 75 FR 77753 - Pilot Program for the Temporary Exchange of Information Technology Personnel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 241 Pilot Program for the Temporary Exchange of Information Technology... to establish a Pilot Program for the Temporary Exchange of Information Technology (IT) Personnel... Information Technology Personnel,'' to implement the Pilot authorized by Section 1110. This Pilot will...

  8. 76 FR 2158 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change to Establish a $5 Strike Price Program January 6, 2011...'') the proposed rule change as described in Items I and II below, which Items have been prepared by the Exchange. The Exchange filed the proposal as a ``non- controversial'' proposed rule change pursuant...

  9. 77 FR 1775 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Establish Certain Fee Programs in Connection With Its OTC Interest Rate Swap Clearing Offering January...

  10. The Rebirth of Educational Exchange: Anglo-German University Level Youth Exchange Programmes after the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naumann, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    In the early years of the Second World War the British had already begun post-war planning for education in Germany. They expressed a need to re-educate Germans and re-establish personal contacts with German people. One tool conceived to achieve these policy objectives was educational exchange. This paper will examine British educational exchange…

  11. Ion-exchange chromatographic protein refolding.

    PubMed

    Freydell, Esteban J; van der Wielen, Luuk; Eppink, Michel; Ottens, Marcel

    2010-11-12

    The application of ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography to protein refolding (IExR) has been successfully proven, as supported by various studies using different model proteins, ion-exchange media and flow configurations. Ion-exchange refolding offers a relatively high degree of process intensification, represented by the possibility of performing protein refolding, product purification and product concentration, in one unit operation. Besides its high degree of process intensification, IExR offers an additional set of key advantages including: spatial isolation of the bound protein molecules and the controllable change in chemical composition using gradients. Despite of the acknowledgement of the former advantages, the lack of mechanistic understanding on how they influence the process performance of the ion-exchange refolding reactor, limits the ability to exploit them in order to optimize the performance of the unit. This paper presents a quantitative analysis that assesses the effect that the spatial isolation and the urea gradient, have on the IExR performance, judged on the basis of the refolding yield (Y(N)) and the fractional mass recovery (f(Prot,Rec)). Additionally, this work discusses the effect of the protein load, the protein loading state (i.e., native, denatured, denatured and reduced (D&R)) and the adsorbent type on f(Prot,Rec). The presented work shows: (1) that the protein load has a direct effect on f(Prot,Rec), and the magnitude of this effect depends on the loading state of the protein solution and the adsorbent type; (2) that irrespectively of the type of adsorbent used, the saturation capacity of a denatured protein is less than the native protein and that this difference can be linked to differences in accessible binding surface area; (3) that there is a clear correlation between fractional surface coverage (θ) and f(Prot,Rec), indicating that the former could serve as a good descriptor to assess spatial isolation, and (4) that the urea

  12. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  13. Report: Improved Management Practices Needed to Increase Use of Exchange Network

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2007-P-00030, August 20, 2007. EPA established a partnership with the Exchange Network’s governance bodies to assist them with accomplishing Network initiatives, more improvements are needed to ensure Network partners fully utilize the Network.

  14. GEC Plasma Data Exchange Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitchford, L. C.

    2013-08-01

    In 2010 the Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC), a major international conference for the low temperature plasma science (LTPS) community, initiated the Plasma Data Exchange Project (PDEP). The PDEP is an informal, community-based project that aims to address, at least in part, the well-recognized needs for the community to organize the means of collecting, evaluating and sharing data both for modelling and for interpretation of experiments. The emphasis to date in the PDEP has been on data related to the electron and ion components of these plasmas rather than on the plasma chemistry. At the heart of the PDEP is the open-access website, LXCat [1], developed by researchers at LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie, Toulouse, France). LXCat is a platform for archiving and manipulating collections of data related to electron scattering and transport in cold, neutral gases, organized in databases set-up by individual members or institutions of the LTPS community. At present, 15 databases of electron scattering data, contributed by groups around the world, can be accessed on LXCat. These databases include complete sets of electron cross sections, over an energy range from thermal to nominally 1 keV, for almost 40 ground-state neutral species and partial sets of data for about 30 other neutral, excited and ionized species. 'Complete' implies that all the major electron momentum and energy loss processes are well described in the dataset. Such 'complete' datasets can be used as input to a Boltzmann calculation of the electron energy distribution function (generally non-Maxwellian), and electron transport and rate coefficients can be obtained in pure gases or mixtures by averaging over the distribution function. Online tools enable importing and exporting data, plotting and comparing different sets of data. An online version of the Boltzmann equation solver BOLSIG+ [2] is also available on the LXCat site. Other members of the community have contributed their

  15. Access control and confidentiality in radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumeir, Rita; Chafik, Adil

    2005-04-01

    A medical record contains a large amount of data about the patient such as height, weight and blood pressure. It also contains sensitive information such as fertility, abortion, psychiatric data, sexually transmitted diseases and diagnostic results. Access to this information must be carefully controlled. Information technology has greatly improved patient care. The recent extensive deployment of digital medical images made diagnostic images promptly available to healthcare decision makers, regardless of their geographic location. Medical images are digitally archived, transferred on telecommunication networks, and visualized on computer screens. However, with the widespread use of computing and communication technologies in healthcare, the issue of data security has become increasingly important. Most of the work until now has focused on the security of data communication to ensure its integrity, authentication, confidentiality and user accountability. The mechanisms that have been proposed to achieve the security of data communication are not specific to healthcare. Data integrity can be achieved with data signature. Data authentication can be achieved with certificate exchange. Data confidentiality can be achieved with encryption. User accountability can be achieved with audits. Although these mechanisms are essential to ensure data security during its transfer on the network, access control is needed in order to ensure data confidentiality and privacy within the information system application. In this paper, we present and discuss an access control mechanism that takes into account the notion of a care process. Radiology information is categorized and a model to enforce data privacy is proposed.

  16. Structural Insight into the Ion-Exchange Mechanism of the Sodium/Calcium Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Jun; Li, Hua; Zeng, Weizhong; Sauer, David B.; Belmares, Ricardo; Jiang, Youxing

    2012-06-19

    Sodium/calcium (Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+}) exchangers (NCX) are membrane transporters that play an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis of cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} for cell signaling. We demonstrated the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+}-exchange function of an NCX from Methanococcus jannaschii (NCX{_}Mj) and report its 1.9 angstrom crystal structure in an outward-facing conformation. Containing 10 transmembrane helices, the two halves of NCX{_}Mj share a similar structure with opposite orientation. Four ion-binding sites cluster at the center of the protein: one specific for Ca{sup 2+} and three that likely bind Na{sup +}. Two passageways allow for Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} access to the central ion-binding sites from the extracellular side. Based on the symmetry of NCX{_}Mj and its ability to catalyze bidirectional ion-exchange reactions, we propose a structure model for the inward-facing NCX{_}Mj.

  17. Medical Internet exchange project in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, H; Uchiyama, E; Akiyama, M; Yamamoto, R; Tatsumi, H

    1998-01-01

    The Internet has been widely used by medical institutes and hospitals around the world, however; its use for telemedicine is still low. The main reason for this is the availability of bandwidth and poor security through the net. Meanwhile, we have established and have been operating 'Cancer Information Network' among 11 Cancer Centers in Japan, mainly for Multipoint TV Conference using HDTV image. There are also similar projects among 9 cardiovascular centers in Japan. By March, all 240 national hospitals will have been connected by an IP network using an ATM backbone. The above network projects are operated independently, and have an 'Intranet' characteristics within them. There are also many hospitals and clinics connected to the Internet by commercial internet providers. To make a secure and efficient network between these medical networks and medical sites, we started the Medical Internet eXchange project (MDX project) constructing a Medical Network Operation Center to create a link between them. To provide the administrative policy of this project, we established the Medical Internet eXchange Association. We are planning to expand this project to Asian-Pacific countries using the Asian-Pacific Advanced Network (APAN), and also expand it to worldwide connections in the future. For this purpose, we are currently asking other countries to form a structure similar to MDX-Japan. The concept, hardware system, software system, firewall configuration, and routing policy will be also discussed.

  18. Establishing an antimicrobial stewardship program.

    PubMed

    Morris, Andrew M; Stewart, Thomas E; Shandling, Maureen; McIntaggart, Scott; Liles, W Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Hospitals are faced with increasing challenges of antibiotic-resistant organisms and rising antimicrobial costs despite widespread attention to infection prevention and control measures. Government, professional organizations and accreditation bodies are all signalling an urgent need for the establishment of programs in hospitals to address antibiotic misuse. Although variations of such "antimicrobial stewardship programs" have been functioning in Canada for some time, a formal approach using change management and quality improvement principles has largely been lacking. We describe how we have established such a program in a teaching hospital, modelled on John Kotter's eight steps of leading change.

  19. Establishing operations and the mand.

    PubMed

    Michael, J

    1988-01-01

    In Verbal Behavior Skinner identifies a small number of elementary verbal relations, one of which is the mand. Because its introduction is at first in terms of unlearned motivative variables, and because the mand's relation to prior controlling events is quite complex, its general significance has probably been underestimated. An extensive treatment of establishing operations, including the warning and the blocked-response conditioned establishing operations is provided, followed by a description of the mand in terms of such operations. The importance of the mand for language training programs is suggested, as well as the reasons why it is typically neglected in such programs.

  20. The NESACS Exchange with Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Morton Z.; Tanner, Ruth; Strem, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Northeastern Section of the American Chemical Society (NESACS) is going to host visit to the representatives of the German Chemical Society (GDCh) at their annual exchange program this year. The delegation is expected to spotlight the ACS international effects, in addition to the advantages of the exchange between the two organizations.

  1. Macroreticular chelating ion-exchangers.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, R F; E Gancher, R; Russo, F R

    1970-06-01

    Two macroreticular chelating ion-exchangers have been prepared and characterized. One contains the iminodiacetate group and the second contains the arsonate group as the ion-exchanging site. The macroreticular resins show selectivities among metal ions similar to those of the commercially available naicroreticular chelating resins. Chromatographie separations on the new resins are rapid and sharp.

  2. EXCHANGE. Volume 9-92

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  3. Technology Performance Exchange (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    This fact sheet, 'The Technology Performance Exchange' will be presented at the ET Summit, held at the Pasadena Convention Center on October 15-17, 2012. The Technology Performance Exchange will be a centralized, Web-based portal for finding and sharing energy performance data for commercial building technologies.

  4. The Transatlantic Orientation Exchange Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gisevius, Annette; Weber, Robin A.

    2009-01-01

    The Transatlantic Orientation Exchange/Multiplikatorenschulung im transatlan-tischen Austausch is a collaboration between volunteers and staff in both the US and German AFS organizations. The goal of the project is to increase the level of intercultural learning of German and US secondary education exchange participants and their host families.…

  5. Electric field induced reversible 180° magnetization switching through tuning of interfacial exchange bias along magnetic easy-axis in multiferroic laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Xu; Zhou, Ziyao; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Mingmin; Zhang, Yijun; Ren, Wei; Ren, Tao; Yang, Xi; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian X.; Liu, Ming

    2015-11-18

    E-field control of interfacial exchange coupling and deterministic switching of magnetization have been demonstrated in two sets of ferromagnetic(FM)/antiferromagnetic(AFM)/ferroelectric(FE) multiferroic heterostructures, including NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011) and NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011). We designed this experiment to achieve exchange bias tuning along the magnetic easy axis, which is critical for realizing reversible 180° magnetization deterministic switching at zero or small magnetic bias. Strong exchange coupling were established across AFM-FM interfaces, which plays an important role in voltage control of magnetization switching. Through the competition between the E-field induced uniaxial anisotropy in ferromagnetic layer and unidirectional anisotropy in antiferromagnetic layer, the exchange bias was significantly shifted by up to |ΔHex|/Hex=8% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT (011) and 13% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT (011). In addition, the square shape of the hysteresis loop, as well as a strong shape tunability of |ΔHex|/Hc=67.5~125% in NiFe/FeMn/glass/PZN-PT and 30~38% in NiFe/NiCoO/glass/PZN-PT were achieved, which lead to a near 180° magnetization switching. Lastly, electrical tuning of interfacial exchange coupling in FM/AFM/FE systems paves a new way for realizing magnetoelectric random access memories and other memory technologies.

  6. Impact of genetic drift on access and benefit sharing under the Nagoya protocol: The case of the Meishan pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Convention on Biological Diversity developed the Nagoya Protocol (NP) on access and benefit sharing (ABS) for international exchange of genetic resources. Concerns are NP will impose new costs for exchanging livestock genetic resources and interfere with commonly used private treaty contracts. N...

  7. 77 FR 26987 - Connect America Fund; A National Broadband Plan for Our Future; Establishing Just and Reasonable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... Universal Service Support AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; announcement of...; Establishing Just and Reasonable Rates for Local Exchange Carriers; High-Cost Universal Service Support, Report... submit confidential information to the Commission. We note that the Universal Service...

  8. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  9. History of peritoneal access development.

    PubMed

    Twardowski, Zbylut J

    2006-01-01

    The first peritoneal accesses were devices that had been used in other fields (general surgery, urology, or gynecology): trocars, rubber catheters, and sump drains. In the period after World War II, numerous papers were published with various modifications of peritoneal dialysis. The majority of cases were treated with the continuous flow technique; rubber catheters for inflow and sump drains for outflow were commonly used. At the end of the 1940s, intermittent peritoneal dialysis started to be more frequently used. Severe complications of peritoneal accesses created incentive to design accesses specifically for peritoneal dialysis. The initial three, in the late 1940s, were modified sump drains; however, Ferris and Odel for the first time designed a soft, polyvinyl intraperitoneal tube with metal weights to keep the catheter tip in the pelvic gutter where the conditions for drain are the best. In the 1950s, intermittent peritoneal dialysis was established as the preferred technique; polyethylene and nylon catheters became commercially available and peritoneal dialysis was established as a valuable method for treatment of acute renal failure. The major breakthrough came in the 1960s. First of all, it was discovered that the silicone rubber was less irritating to the peritoneal membrane than other plastics. Then, it was found that polyester velour allowed an excellent tissue ingrowth creating a firm bond with the tissue. When a polyester cuff was glued to the catheter, it restricted catheter movement and created a closed tunnel between the integument and the peritoneal cavity. In 1968, Tenckhoff and Schechter combined these two features and designed a silicone rubber catheter with a polyester cuff for treatment of acute renal failure and two cuffs for treatment of chronic renal failure. This was the most important development in peritoneal access. Technological evolution never ends. Multiple attempts have been made to eliminate remaining complications of the

  10. 75 FR 59310 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... that co-located Users have the option of obtaining access to the Exchange's Liquidity Center Network (``LCN''), a local area network available in the data center.\\6\\ Co-located Users have the option of..., to which all Users have access. Because it operates as a local area network within the data...

  11. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  12. Establishing Time for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Finding time for job-embedded professional learning is one of the most frequently cited challenges with implementing the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). With "Establishing Time for Professional Learning," practitioners and education leaders use tools to identify current allocations of time for professional learning, analyze how that…

  13. Establishing a Suicide Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, John A.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines important considerations for establishing suicide prevention programs in high schools. Teenage suicide rate has doubled since 1970. To deal with this crisis schools must develop procedures for detecting potential victims and for helping students and staff cope after a suicide. Schools must not be afraid to talk about suicide; avoiding the…

  14. Methods for improving PGPR establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are often touted as a useful means to improve crop productivity and sustainability. However, field studies with PGPR inoculants often result in limited PGPR establishment and colonization, highlighting the need to better understand the factors involved in...

  15. On Establishing Underlying Tonal Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Phonological field work is largely about establishing contrast in comparable environments. The notion of phonological contrast, however, can be confusing, particularly in its application to tone analysis. Does it mean phonemic contrast in the structuralist sense, or does it mean underlying contrast in the generative sense? Many linguists, in…

  16. Establishing Time for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Time for collaborative learning is an essential resource for educators working to implement college- and career-ready standards. The pages in this article include tools from the workbook "Establishing Time for Professional Learning." The tools support a complete process to help educators effectively find and use time. The following…

  17. Internet access to ionosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, I. A.; Kitrosser, D. F.; Kecic, Z.; Reinisch, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    Connecting ionosondes to the Internet gives easy access to real-time information on ionospheric conditions. Some of the ionosonde sites provide just the ionogram displays, others give in addition the scaled ionospheric characteristics directly usable for frequency management and HF channel assessment. Some sounders also store days or months of station data, which makes it possible remotely to evaluate the time history of geophysical events. The Internet link is also a convenient means for remote system maintenance and control. The paper addresses various aspects of the Internet ionosonde scenario, including data base support, WWW publishing, user interface, security, and data format. A list of Internet accessible ionosonde stations is provided with a brief description.

  18. Modular heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Giardina, A.R.

    1981-03-03

    A shell and tube heat exchanger is described having a plurality of individually removable tube bundle modules. A lattice of structural steel forming rectangular openings therein is placed at each end of a cylindrical shell. Longitudinal structural members are placed in the shell between corners of the rectangular openings situated on opposite ends of the shell. Intermediate support members interconnect the longitudinal supports so as to increase the longitudinal supports rigidity. Rectangular parallelepiped tube bundle modules occupy the space defined by the longitudinal supports and end supports and each include a rectangular tube sheet situated on each end of a plurality of tubes extending there through, a plurality of rectangular tube supports located between the tube sheets, and a tube bundle module stiffening structure disposed about the bundle's periphery and being attached to the tube sheets and tube supports. The corners of each tube bundle module have longitudinal framework members which are mateable with and supported by the longitudinal support members. Intermediate support members constitute several lattices, each of which is situated in a plane between the end support members. The intermediate support members constituting the several lattices extend horizontally and vertically between longitudinal supports of adjacent tube module voids. An alternative embodiment for intermediate support members constitute a series of structural plates situated at the corners of the module voids and having recesses therein for receiving the respective longitudinal support members adjacent thereto, protrusions separating the recesses, and a plurality of struts situated between protrusions of adjacent structural plates. 12 figs.

  19. Energy-Exchange Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine what energy savings can be achieved by coordinating the resources and requirements of two facilities, the 26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) and a housing development named Starrett City with its own total energy system. It was determined that three energy exchange options were economically and technically feasible. These include: the transfer of digester gas produced at the 26th Ward to the boilers at the Starrett City's total energy plant (TEP); the transfer of hot water heated at the TEP to the 26th Ward for space and process heating; and the transfer of coal effluent waste water from the 26th Ward to the condenser cooling systems at the TEP. Technical information is presented to support the findings. The report addresses those tasks of the statement of work dedicated to data acquisition, analysis, and energy conservation strategies internal to the Starrett City TEP and the community it supplies as well as to the 26th Ward WPCP. (MCW)

  20. Aluminum heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Koisuka, M.; Aoki, H.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes a heat exchanger comprising a flat metal tube for conducting fluid having opposite first and second ends, of metal fins fixed onto outer surfaces of the flat metal tube, first and second header pipes fixedly mounted on the opposite ends of the flat metal tube, respectively, so that the flat metal tube communicates with the interior of the header pipes. Each of the header pipes has a first end that is open and a second end that is closed. An inlet tube is connected to the first end of the first header pipe, and an outlet tube is connected to the first end of the second header pipe. The improvement described here comprises one of the inlet and outlet tubes having an end portion inserted into the first end of the corresponding interconnected header pipe. The end portion has a cut-away portion in the form of a first axial slit extending axially inwardly from an open end at the adjacent end of the one tube. The first axial slit has an axial intermediate portion slightly smaller than the thickness of the flat metal tube, and a tapered portion diverging towards the open end of the first axial slit, and the first end of the flat metal tube extends into the corresponding interconnected header pipe and is closely fitted into the first axial slit.