Science.gov

Sample records for access extended wind

  1. Light curves from supernova shock breakout through an extended wind

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Balberg, Shmuel

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that some supernovae may be the result of an explosion into an optically thick circumstellar material, the product of pre-explosion mass loss (wind) by the progenitor star. This scenario has been studied previously both analytically and numerically. However, many previous studies base their analysis on the diffusion approximation for radiation transfer, which is inappropriate in the optically thin outer layers of the wind. Here we study the deviations from diffusion and calculate light curves more accurately using a Monte Carlo approach to photon transfer. We distinguish between 'compact' winds, for which the diffusion approximation is appropriate, and 'extended' winds, which require a more delicate treatment of the radiation. We show that this effect is more significant than that of the light-travel time difference to a distant observer, which has a secondary influence on the light curves of extended-wind systems. We also comment on the applicability of the widely used flux-limited diffusion approximation in this context: we find that it generally does not reproduce the Monte Carlo results. The flux-limited diffusion approximation leads to results that are not only quantitatively but also qualitatively wrong in the extended-wind regime.

  2. Extended MHD Turbulence and Its Applications to the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhamid, Hamdi M.; Lingam, Manasvi; Mahajan, Swadesh M.

    2016-10-01

    Extended MHD is a one-fluid model that incorporates two-fluid effects such as electron inertia and the Hall drift. This model is used to construct fully nonlinear Alfvénic wave solutions, and thereby derive the kinetic and magnetic spectra by resorting to a Kolmogorov-like hypothesis based on the constant cascading rates of the energy and generalized helicities of this model. The magnetic and kinetic spectra are derived in the ideal (k\\lt 1/{λ }i), Hall (1/{λ }i\\lt k\\lt 1/{λ }e), and electron inertia (k\\gt 1/{λ }e) regimes; k is the wavenumber and {λ }s=c/{ω }{ps} is the skin depth of species “s.” In the Hall regime, it is shown that the emergent results are fully consistent with previous numerical and analytical studies, especially in the context of the solar wind. The focus is primarily on the electron inertia regime, where magnetic energy spectra with power-law indexes of -11/3 and -13/3 are always recovered. The latter, in particular, is quite close to recent observational evidence from the solar wind with a potential slope of approximately -4 in this regime. It is thus plausible that these spectra may constitute a part of the (extended) inertial range, as opposed to the standard “dissipation” range paradigm.

  3. Accessing Wind Tunnels From NASA's Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Jeff; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Ames wind tunnel customers are one of the first users of the Information Power Grid (IPG) storage system at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division. We wanted to be able to store their data on the IPG so that it could be accessed remotely in a secure but timely fashion. In addition, incorporation into the IPG allows future use of grid computational resources, e.g., for post-processing of data, or to do side-by-side CFD validation. In this paper, we describe the integration of grid data access mechanisms with the existing DARWIN web-based system that is used to access wind tunnel test data. We also show that the combined system has reasonable performance: wind tunnel data may be retrieved at 50Mbits/s over a 100 base T network connected to the IPG storage server.

  4. Open Access Wind Tunnel Measurements of a Downwind Free Yawing Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verelst, David; Larsen, Torben; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2016-09-01

    A series of free yawing wind tunnel experiments was held in the Open Jet Facility (OJF) of the TU Delft. The ≈ 300 W turbine has three blades in a downwind configuration and is optionally free to yaw. Different 1.6m diameter rotor configurations are tested such as blade flexibility and sweep. This paper gives a brief overview of the measurement setup and challenges, and continues with presenting some key results. This wind tunnel campaign has shown that a three bladed downwind wind turbine can operate in a stable fashion under a minimal yaw error. Finally, a description of how to obtain this open access dataset, including the post-processing scripts and procedures, is made available via a publicly accessible website.

  5. Access of solar wind electrons into the Martian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, E. M.; Fraenz, M.; Woch, J.; Roussos, E.; Winningham, J. D.; Frahm, R. A.; Coates, A.; Leblanc, F.; Lundin, R.; Barabash, S.

    2008-11-01

    Electrons with energy of ~40 80 eV measured by the instrument ASPERA-3 on Mars Express and MAG-ER onboard Mars Global Surveyor are used to trace an access of solar wind electrons into the Martian magnetosphere. Crustal magnetic fields create an additional protection from solar wind plasma on the dayside of the Southern Hemisphere by shifting the boundary of the induced magnetosphere (this boundary is often refereed as the magnetic pileup boundary) above strong crustal sources to ~400 km as compared to the Northern Hemisphere. Localized intrusions through cusps are also observed. On the nightside an access into the magnetosphere depends on the IMF orientation. Negative values of the ByIMF component assist the access to the regions with strong crustal magnetizations although electron fluxes are strongly weakened below ~600 km. A precipitation pattern at lower altitudes is formed by intermittent regions with reduced and enhanced electron fluxes. The precipitation sites are longitudinally stretched narrow bands in the regions with a strong vertical component of the crustal field. Fluxes ≥109 cm-2 s-1 of suprathermal electrons necessary to explain the observed aurora emissions are maintained only for the periods with enhanced precipitation. The appearance of another class of electron distributions inverted V structures, characterized by peaks on energy spectra, is controlled by the IMF. They are clustered in the hemisphere pointed by the interplanetary electric field that implies a constraint on their origin.

  6. EXTENDED HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE VELA PULSAR WIND NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Mattana, F.; Terrier, R.; Zurita Heras, J. A.; Goetz, D.; Caballero, I.; Soldi, S.; Schanne, S.; Ponti, G.; Falanga, M.; Renaud, M.

    2011-12-10

    The nebula powered by the Vela pulsar is one of the best examples of an evolved pulsar wind nebula, allowing access to the particle injection history and the interaction with the supernova ejecta. We report on the INTEGRAL discovery of extended emission above 18 keV from the Vela nebula. The northern side has no known counterparts and it appears larger and more significant than the southern one, which is in turn partially coincident with the cocoon, the soft X-ray, and TeV filament toward the center of the remnant. We also present the spectrum of the Vela nebula in the 18-400 keV energy range as measured by IBIS/ISGRI and SPI on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The apparent discrepancy between IBIS/ISGRI, SPI, and previous measurements is understood in terms of the point-spread function, supporting the hypothesis of a nebula more diffuse than previously thought. A break at {approx}25 keV is found in the spectrum within 6' from the pulsar after including the Suzaku XIS data. Interpreted as a cooling break, this points out that the inner nebula is composed of electrons injected in the last {approx}2000 years. Broadband modeling also implies a magnetic field higher than 10 {mu}G in this region. Finally, we discuss the nature of the northern emission, which might be due to fresh particles injected after the passage of the reverse shock.

  7. Ensuring Access and Inclusion for Marginalised Children in Extended Services: Identifying the Barriers and Promoting Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Nick; Elmer, Sue; Best, Lesly; Mills, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This article by Nick Frost of Leeds Metropolitan University, Sue Elmer of Leeds Trinity University, and Lesly Best and Sue Mills, who are both Independent Researchers, looks at the experience of marginalised children in extended services. The authors conducted research into access to, and inclusion in, extended services based within schools and…

  8. Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine Planetary Gears Using an Extended Harmonic Balance Approach: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Parker, R. G.

    2012-06-01

    The dynamics of wind turbine planetary gears with gravity effects are investigated using an extended harmonic balance method that extends established harmonic balance formulations to include simultaneous internal and external excitations. The extended harmonic balance method with arc-length continuation and Floquet theory is applied to a lumped-parameter planetary gear model including gravity, fluctuating mesh stiffness, bearing clearance, and nonlinear tooth contact to obtain the planetary gear dynamic response. The calculated responses compare well with time domain integrated mathematical models and experimental results. Gravity is a fundamental vibration source in wind turbine planetary gears and plays an important role in system dynamics, causing hardening effects induced by tooth wedging and bearing-raceway contacts. Bearing clearance significantly reduces the lowest resonant frequencies of translational modes. Gravity and bearing clearance together lowers the speed at which tooth wedging occurs lower than the resonant frequency.

  9. Resolved images of a protostellar outflow driven by an extended disk wind.

    PubMed

    Bjerkeli, Per; van der Wiel, Matthijs H D; Harsono, Daniel; Ramsey, Jon P; Jørgensen, Jes K

    2016-12-14

    Young stars are associated with prominent outflows of molecular gas. The ejection of gas is believed to remove angular momentum from the protostellar system, permitting young stars to grow by the accretion of material from the protostellar disk. The underlying mechanism for outflow ejection is not yet understood, but is believed to be closely linked to the protostellar disk. Various models have been proposed to explain the outflows, differing mainly in the region where acceleration of material takes place: close to the protostar itself ('X-wind', or stellar wind), in a larger region throughout the protostellar disk (disk wind), or at the interface between the two. Outflow launching regions have so far been probed only by indirect extrapolation because of observational limits. Here we report resolved images of carbon monoxide towards the outflow associated with the TMC1A protostellar system. These data show that gas is ejected from a region extending up to a radial distance of 25 astronomical units from the central protostar, and that angular momentum is removed from an extended region of the disk. This demonstrates that the outflowing gas is launched by an extended disk wind from a Keplerian disk.

  10. Mapping and Modeling the Extended Winds of the Massive Interacting Binary, Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Ted

    2010-01-01

    The combination HST/STIS high spatial and moderate spectral resolutions have revealed the massive interacting wind structure of Eta Carinae by forbidden lines of singly and doubly ionized elements. Throughout the 5.54-year period, lines of Fe++, Ne++, Ar++, S++ and N+ reveal the interacting wind structures, near critical electron densities of 10(exp 5) to 3 x 10(exp 7)cu cm, photoionized by the hot secondary, Eta Car B, Lines of Fe+ and Ni+ trace the denser (>10(exp 7)cu cm. less-ionized (< 8 eV) primary wind of Eta Car A as it wraps around the interacting binary stars. For 5 years of the 5.54 year period, the FUV radiation from Eta Car B escapes the orbital region, ionizing the boundaries of the expanding wind structures. But for three to six months, Eta Car B plunges into the primary wind approaching to within 1 to 2 AU, leading to cutoff of FUV and X-ray fluxes. The interacting wind structure, resolved out to 0.8", drops io ionization and then rebuilds as Eta Car B emerges from the primary wind envelope. Solid Particle Hydrodynamical(SPH) models have been developed extending out to 2000 AU and adapted to include FUV radiation effects of the winds. In turn, synthetic spectroimages of selected forbidden lines have been constructed and compared to the spectroimages recorded by the HST/STIS throughout 1998.0 to 2004.3, extending across the 1998 and 2003.5 minima. By this method, we show that the orbital axis of the binary system must bc within 15 degrees of the Homunculus axis of symmetry and that periastron occurs with Eta Car B passing on the far side of Eta Car B. This result ties the current binary orbit with the bipolar ejection with intervening skirt and leads to implications that the binary system influenced the mass ejection of the l840s and the lesser ejection of the 1890s.

  11. An extended structure-function model and its application to the analysis of solar wind intermittency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, C.-Y.; Marsch, E.; Rosenbauer, H.

    1995-01-01

    An extended structure-function model is developed by including the new effect in the p-model of Meneveau and Sreenivasan (1987a), i.e., that the averaged energy cascade rate changes with scale, a situation which has been found to prevail in non-fully-developed turbulence in the inner solar wind. This model is useful for the small-scale fluctuations in the inner heliosphere, where the turbulence is not fully developed and cannot be explained quantitatively by any of the previous intermittency turbulence models. With two model parameters, the intrinsic index of the energy spectrum, alpha and the fragmentation fraction p, the model can fit, for the first time, all the observed scaling exponents of the structure functions, which are calculated for time lags ranging from 81 seconds to 0.7 hours from the Helios solar wind data. From the cases we studied we can establish for p neither a clear radial evolution trend, nor a solar-wind-speed, or stream-structure dependence, or a systematic anisotropy for both the flow velocity and magnetic field component fluctuations. Generally, p has values between 0. 7 and 0.8. However, in some cases in low-speed wind p has somewhat higher values for the magnetic components, especially for the radial component. In high-speed wind, the inferred intrinsic spectral indices (alpha) of the velocity and magnetic field components are about equal, while the experimental spectral indices derived from the observed power spectra differ. The magnetic index is somewhat larger than the index of the velocity spectrum. For magnetic fluctuations in both high- and low-speed winds, the intrinsic exponent alpha has values which are near 1.5, while the observed spectral exponent has much higher values.

  12. Extended red objects and stellar-wind bow shocks in the Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, Remington O.; Povich, Matthew S.; Smith, Nathan; Babler, Brian L.; Meade, Marilyn R.; Rudolph, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of infrared photometry on 39 extended red objects (EROs) in the Carina Nebula, observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Most EROs are identified by bright, extended 8.0 μm emission, which ranges from 10 arcsec to 40 arcsec in size, but our sample also includes four EROs identified by extended 24 μm emission. Of particular interest are nine EROs associated with late O- or early B-type stars and characterized by arc-shaped morphology, suggesting dusty, stellar-wind bow shocks. These objects are preferentially oriented towards the central regions of the Carina Nebula, suggesting that these bow shocks are generally produced by the interactions of OB winds with the bulk expansion of the H II region rather than high proper motion. We identify preferred regions of mid-infrared colour space occupied by our bow shock candidates, which also contain bow shock candidates in M17 and RCW 49 but are well separated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission or circumstellar discs. Colour cuts identify an additional 12 marginally resolved bow shock candidates, 10 of which are also associated with known late O or early B stars. H II region expansion velocities derived from bow shock candidate standoff distances are ˜10 km s-1, assuming typical H II region gas densities, comparable to expansion velocities derived from bow shocks in M17 and RCW 49. One candidate bow shock provides direct evidence of physical interaction between the massive stellar winds originating in the Trumpler 15 and Trumpler 14 clusters, supporting the conclusion that both clusters are at similar heliocentric distances.

  13. Advanced Modeling System for Optimization of Wind Farm Layout and Wind Turbine Sizing Using a Multi-Level Extended Pattern Search Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    DuPont, Bryony; Cagan, Jonathan; Moriarty, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a system of modeling advances that can be applied in the computational optimization of wind plants. These modeling advances include accurate cost and power modeling, partial wake interaction, and the effects of varying atmospheric stability. To validate the use of this advanced modeling system, it is employed within an Extended Pattern Search (EPS)-Multi-Agent System (MAS) optimization approach for multiple wind scenarios. The wind farm layout optimization problem involves optimizing the position and size of wind turbines such that the aerodynamic effects of upstream turbines are reduced, which increases the effective wind speed and resultant power at each turbine. The EPS-MAS optimization algorithm employs a profit objective, and an overarching search determines individual turbine positions, with a concurrent EPS-MAS determining the optimal hub height and rotor diameter for each turbine. Two wind cases are considered: (1) constant, unidirectional wind, and (2) three discrete wind speeds and varying wind directions, each of which have a probability of occurrence. Results show the advantages of applying the series of advanced models compared to previous application of an EPS with less advanced models to wind farm layout optimization, and imply best practices for computational optimization of wind farms with improved accuracy.

  14. Extending Digital Repository Architectures to Support Disk Image Preservation and Access

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Extending Digital Repository Architectures to Support Disk Image Preservation and Access Kam Woods School of Information and Library Science University...of North Carolina 216 Lenoir Drive, CB #3360 1-(919)-966-3598 kamwoods@email.unc.edu Christopher A. Lee School of Information and Library ... Science University of North Carolina 216 Lenoir Drive, CB #3360 1-(919)-962-7204 callee@ils.unc.edu Simson Garfinkel Graduate School of

  15. Preliminary Model for the Solar Wind Interaction with Pluto's Extended Plasma Tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillanpää, I.; Ebert, R.; Elliott, H.; Kallio, E.

    2012-04-01

    We are developing a hybrid model of the Pluto plasma environment (HYB-Pluto) to study the solar wind interaction with Pluto's plasma tail to distances of 1000 Pluto radii (RP) while still resolving the shock and/or wave features upstream of Pluto with good resolution. The HYB-Pluto model features an extended domain and adaptable grid structure along with important processes such as ion-neutral interactions. We present results from our first simulations with the HYB-Pluto model that used realistic values for the solar wind bulk properties and included He++ ions. The results show the formation of a bow shock upstream of Pluto as well as asymmetries of ion density and bow shock in the direction of the convection electric field. This model, along with other current models [1], will provide tools to interpret and understand the plasma observations obtained during expected encounter of the New Horizons spacecraft with the Pluto system in July 2015. [1] P.A. Delamere, Hybrid Code Simulations of the Solar Wind Interaction with Pluto, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A03220, doi:10.1029/2008JA013756, 2009.

  16. Observational Test for the Solar Wind Sputtering Origin of the Moon's Extended Sodium Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, Michael; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Wilson, Jody

    1999-01-01

    We present observations of the lunar sodium atmosphere during four lunar eclipses between 1993 and 1997. With the Moon inside the magnetosphere, and therefore shielded from solar wind impact, we find its Na atmosphere to be comparable in abundance to cases near first and third quarter, implying that solar wind ion sputtering is not a significant source of the atmosphere. The atmosphere is azimuthally symmetric, and it extends beyond the field of view of our observations (∼12 Lunar radii). The average sodium atmospheric profile is best characterized by anr-1.4radial power law, close to that for an entirely escaping atmosphere. The average extrapolated near-surface brightness of 1145 rayleighs is in agreement with the near-surface polar brightness seen at quarter Moon. This corresponds to a line-of-sight neutral column content of 1.4×109Na atoms cm-2above the limb and a density of ∼3 atoms cm-3above the surface, decreasing asr-2.4. We suggest that a blend of sources (15% micrometeor impact uniform over the surface and 85% photon-induced desorption dependent on solar-zenith angle over the sunlit hemisphere) could account for the observed extended sodium atmospheres.

  17. Extended heroin access increases heroin choices over a potent nondrug alternative.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Magalie; Cantin, Lauriane; Vanhille, Nathalie; Serre, Fuschia; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological research shows that the proportion of drug users who become addicted to heroin is higher than to cocaine. Here we tested whether this difference could be due to a difference in the addiction liability between the two drugs. Addiction liability was assessed under a discrete-trials choice procedure by measuring the proportion of rats that prefer the drug over a potent alternative reward (ie, water sweetened with saccharin). Previous research on choice between self-administration of i.v. cocaine or sweet water showed that the proportion of cocaine-preferring rats remains relatively low and invariable (ie, 15%), even after extended drug access and regardless of past drug consumption (ie, total drug use before choice testing). By contrast, the present study shows that under similar choice conditions, the proportion of heroin-preferring rats considerably increases with extended heroin access (6-9 h per day for several weeks) and with past heroin consumption, from 11 to 51% at the highest past drug consumption level. At this level, the proportion of drug-preferring rats was about three times higher with heroin than with cocaine (51% vs 15%). This increase in the rate of heroin preference after extended heroin access persisted even after recovery from acute heroin withdrawal. Overall, these findings show that choice procedures are uniquely sensitive to different drugs and suggest that heroin is more addictive than cocaine. This higher addiction liability may contribute to explain why more drug users become addicted to heroin than to cocaine in epidemiological studies.

  18. Spectroscopic diagnostics of extended corona and solar wind with UVCS/Spartan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strachan, L.; Gardner, L. D.; Kohl, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of the Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer on Spartan 201 (UVCS/Spartan) is to make spectroscopic diagnostic measurements that can be used to derive plasma parameters in the extended solar corona where it is believed that significant heating of the corona and acceleration of the solar wind take place. Direct and indirect measurements of particle velocity distribution, thermal and non-thermal temperatures, and bulk outflow velocities are crucial to aid in the identification of physical processes that may be responsible for coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. UVCS/Spartan has made two flights in April 1993 and September 1994, the latter coinciding with the South Polar Passage of the Ulysses spacecraft. Observations were made of the large-scale structures and sub-structures of coronal holes and streamers at heliocentric heights between 1.5 solar radii and 3.5 solar radii. Measurements were made of H I Lyman-alpha intensities and profiles, and line intensities of minor ions like O(5+) and Fe(11+). We will present results from the flights and discuss how these measurements are used to constrain values for the proton thermal and non-thermal kinetic temperatures, proton bulk outflow velocities, and minor ion temperatures and bulk outflow velocities. Plans for the upcoming flight in July 1995 will also be discussed.

  19. Unified Models of Turbulence and Nonlinear Wave Evolution in the Extended Solar Corona and Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.; Wagner, William (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The PI (Cranmer) and Co-I (A. van Ballegooijen) made substantial progress toward the goal of producing a unified model of the basic physical processes responsible for solar wind acceleration. The approach outlined in the original proposal comprised two complementary pieces: (1) to further investigate individual physical processes under realistic coronal and solar wind conditions, and (2) to extract the dominant physical effects from simulations and apply them to a 1D model of plasma heating and acceleration. The accomplishments in Year 2 are divided into these two categories: 1a. Focused Study of Kinetic Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Turbulence. lb. Focused Study of Non - WKB Alfven Wave Rejection. and 2. The Unified Model Code. We have continued the development of the computational model of a time-study open flux tube in the extended corona. The proton-electron Monte Carlo model is being tested, and collisionless wave-particle interactions are being included. In order to better understand how to easily incorporate various kinds of wave-particle processes into the code, the PI performed a detailed study of the so-called "Ito Calculus", i.e., the mathematical theory of how to update the positions of particles in a probabilistic manner when their motions are governed by diffusion in velocity space.

  20. Availability of cord blood extends allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant access to racial and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Barker, Juliet N; Byam, Courtney E; Kernan, Nancy A; Lee, Sinda S; Hawke, Rebecca M; Doshi, Kathleen A; Wells, Deborah S; Heller, Glenn; Papadopoulos, Esperanza B; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Young, James W; van den Brink, Marcel R M

    2010-11-01

    Allogeneic transplant access can be severely limited for patients of racial and ethnic minorities without suitable sibling donors. Whether cord blood (CB) transplantation can extend transplant access because of the reduced stringency of required HLA-match is not proven. We prospectively evaluated availability of unrelated donors (URD) and CB according to patient ancestry in 553 patients without suitable sibling donors. URDs had priority if adequate donors were available. Otherwise ≥4/6 HLA-matched CB grafts were chosen utilizing double units to augment graft dose. Patients had highly diverse ancestries including 35% non-Europeans. In 525 patients undergoing combined searches, 10/10 HLA-matched URDs were identified in 53% of those with European ancestry, but only 21% of patients with non-European origins (P < .001). However, the majority of both groups had 5-6/6 CB units. The 269 URD transplant recipients were predominantly European, with non-European patients accounting for only 23%. By contrast, 56% of CB transplant recipients had non-European ancestries (P < .001). Of 26 patients without any suitable stem cell source, 73% had non-European ancestries (P < .001). Their median weight was significantly higher than CB transplant recipients (P <.001), partially accounting for their lack of a CB graft. Availability of CB significantly extends allo-transplant access, especially in non-European patients, and has the greatest potential to provide a suitable stem cell source regardless of race or ethnicity. Minority patients in need of allografts, but without suitable matched sibling donors, should be referred for combined URD and CB searches to optimize transplant access.

  1. Use Cases for Server Operators Extending the Open-Source Data-Access Protocol (DAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, J. H. R.; Fulker, D. W.; Blanton, B.; Businger, S.; Cornillon, P.

    2014-12-01

    On the premise that EarthCube must incorporate data-access (Web) services that are effective even in big-data contexts, we articulate three use cases where a common form of data reduction, namely array-subset selection, falls short. These cases—addressing climate-model downscaling for native-Hawaiian use, real-time storm-surge prediction for U.S. coastal areas, and analysis of sea-surface-temperature (SST) fronts using satellite imagery—share three traits: a) each requires access to vast and remote volumes of source data, though the end-user applications need much less (by orders of magnitude); b) the volume reduction cannot be realized solely via subsetting, especially if limited to subarray-specification via index constraints; c) each data-reduction need can be met by extending a well-used data-access protocol (DAP) to embrace new data-proximate (I.e., pre-retrieval) server functions; and d) the required new functions will be useful across many geoscience (EarthCube) domains. Reflecting OpenDAP progress on designing this extension—dubbed ODSIP for Open Data-Services Protocol, to be prototyped under an NSF/EarthCube award—this talk sketches the near-source operations needed for the three use-cases, highlighting potential for abstraction and thus broad applicability.

  2. Resolving the extended atmosphere and the inner wind of Mira (o Ceti) with long ALMA baselines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K. T.; Kamiński, T.; Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.

    2016-05-01

    enhanced brightness. Our modelling shows that SiO gas starts to deplete beyond 4 R⋆ and at a kinetic temperature of ≲ 600 K. The inner dust shells are probably composed of grain types other than pure silicates. During this ALMA observation, Mira's atmosphere generally exhibited infall motion with a shock front of velocity ≲ 12 km s-1 outside the radio photosphere. Despite the chaotic nature of Mira's atmosphere, the structures predicted by the hydrodynamical model, codex, can reproduce the observed spectra in astonishing detail, while some other models fail when confronted with the new data. Conclusions: For the first time, millimetre-wavelength molecular absorption against the stellar continuum has been clearly imaged. Combined with radiative transfer modelling, the ALMA data successfully demonstrates the ability to reveal the physical conditions of the extended atmospheres and inner winds of AGB stars in unprecedented detail. Long-term monitoring of oxygen-rich evolved stars will be the key to understanding the unsolved problem of dust condensation and the wind-driving mechanism.

  3. Unified Models of Turbulence and Nonlinear Wave Evolution in the Extended Solar Corona and Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.; Wagner, William (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The PI (Cranmer) and Co-I (A. van Ballegooijen) made significant progress toward the goal of building a "unified model" of the dominant physical processes responsible for the acceleration of the solar wind. The approach outlined in the original proposal comprised two complementary pieces: (1) to further investigate individual physical processes under realistic coronal and solar wind conditions, and (2) to extract the dominant physical effects from simulations and apply them to a one-dimensional and time-independent model of plasma heating and acceleration. The accomplishments in the report period are thus divided into these two categories: 1a. Focused Study of Kinetic MHD Turbulence. We have developed a model of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the extended solar corona that contains the effects of collisionless dissipation and anisotropic particle heating. A turbulent cascade is one possible way of generating small-scale fluctuations (easy to dissipate/heat) from a pre-existing population of low-frequency Alfven waves (difficult to dissipate/heat). We modeled the cascade as a combination of advection and diffusion in wavenumber space. The dominant spectral transfer occurs in the direction perpendicular to the background magnetic field. As expected from earlier models, this leads to a highly anisotropic fluctuation spectrum with a rapidly decaying tail in the parallel wavenumber direction. The wave power that decays to high enough frequencies to become ion cyclotron resonant depends on the relative strengths of advection and diffusion in the cascade. For the most realistic values of these parameters, though, there is insufficient power to heat protons and heavy ions. The dominant oblique waves undergo Landau damping, which implies strong parallel electron heating. We thus investigated the nonlinear evolution of the electron velocity distributions (VDFs) into parallel beams and discrete phase-space holes (similar to those seen in the terrestrial magnetosphere

  4. The alpha1 adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin reduces heroin self-administration in rats with extended access to heroin administration.

    PubMed

    Greenwell, Thomas N; Walker, Brendan M; Cottone, Pietro; Zorrilla, Eric P; Koob, George F

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that noradrenergic antagonists alleviate some of the symptoms of opiate withdrawal and dependence. Clinical studies also have shown that modification of the noradrenergic system may help protect patients from relapse. The present study tested the hypothesis that a dysregulated noradrenergic system has motivational significance in heroin self-administration of dependent rats. Prazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic antagonist (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg, i.p.), was administered to adult male Wistar rats with a history of limited (1 h/day; short access) or extended (12 h/day; long access) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. Prazosin dose-dependently reduced heroin self-administration in long-access rats but not short-access rats, with 2 mg/kg of systemic prazosin significantly decreasing 1 h and 2 h heroin intake. Prazosin also reversed some changes in meal pattern associated with extended heroin access, including the taking of smaller and briefer meals (at 3 h), while also increasing total food intake and slowing the eating rate within meals (both 3 h and 12 h). Thus, prazosin appears to stimulate food intake in extended access rats by restoring meals to the normal size and duration. The data suggest that the alpha1 adrenergic system may contribute to mechanisms that promote dependence in rats with extended access.

  5. Associations between Extending Access to Primary Care and Emergency Department Visits: A Difference-In-Differences Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, William; Anselmi, Laura; Lau, Yiu-Shing; Bower, Peter; Checkland, Katherine; Elvey, Rebecca; Stokes, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background Health services across the world increasingly face pressures on the use of expensive hospital services. Better organisation and delivery of primary care has the potential to manage demand and reduce costs for hospital services, but routine primary care services are not open during evenings and weekends. Extended access (evening and weekend opening) is hypothesized to reduce pressure on hospital services from emergency department visits. However, the existing evidence-base is weak, largely focused on emergency out-of-hours services, and analysed using a before-and after-methodology without effective comparators. Methods and Findings Throughout 2014, 56 primary care practices (346,024 patients) in Greater Manchester, England, offered 7-day extended access, compared with 469 primary care practices (2,596,330 patients) providing routine access. Extended access included evening and weekend opening and served both urgent and routine appointments. To assess the effects of extended primary care access on hospital services, we apply a difference-in-differences analysis using hospital administrative data from 2011 to 2014. Propensity score matching techniques were used to match practices without extended access to practices with extended access. Differences in the change in “minor” patient-initiated emergency department visits per 1,000 population were compared between practices with and without extended access. Populations registered to primary care practices with extended access demonstrated a 26.4% relative reduction (compared to practices without extended access) in patient-initiated emergency department visits for “minor” problems (95% CI -38.6% to -14.2%, absolute difference: -10,933 per year, 95% CI -15,995 to -5,866), and a 26.6% (95% CI -39.2% to -14.1%) relative reduction in costs of patient-initiated visits to emergency departments for minor problems (absolute difference: -£767,976, -£1,130,767 to -£405,184). There was an insignificant

  6. Factors Affecting Acceptance & Use of ReWIND: Validating the Extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Pradeep Kumar; Ali, Faizan; Leong, Lim Chee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explain the factors affecting students' acceptance and usage of a lecture capture system (LCS)--ReWIND--in a Malaysian university based on the extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) model. Technological advances have become an important feature of universities' plans to improve the…

  7. Extended-access, but not limited-access, methamphetamine self-administration induces behavioral and nucleus accumbens dopamine response changes in rats.

    PubMed

    Le Cozannet, Romain; Markou, Athina; Kuczenski, Ronald

    2013-11-01

    To better understand the neurobiology of methamphetamine (METH) dependence and the cognitive impairments induced by METH use, we compared the effects of extended (12 h) and limited (1 h) access to METH self-administration on locomotor activity and object place recognition, and on extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen. Rats were trained to self-administer intravenous METH (0.05 mg/kg). One group had progressively extended access up to 12-h sessions. The other group had limited-access 1-h sessions. Microdialysis experiments were conducted during a 12-h and 1-h session, in which the effects of a single METH injection (self-administered, 0.05 mg/kg, i.v.) on extracellular dopamine levels were assessed in the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen compared with a drug-naive group. The day after the last 12-h session and the following day experimental groups were assessed for their locomotor activities and in a place recognition procedure, respectively. The microdialysis results revealed tolerance to the METH-induced increases in extracellular dopamine only in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the caudate-putamen in the extended-access group compared with the control and limited-access groups. These effects may be associated with the increased lever-pressing and drug-seeking observed during the first hour of drug exposure in the extended-access group. This increase in drug-seeking leads to higher METH intake and may result in more severe consequences in other structures responsible for the behavioral deficits (memory and locomotor activity) observed in the extended-access group, but not in the limited-access group.

  8. Compulsive-like responding for opioid analgesics in rats with extended access.

    PubMed

    Wade, Carrie L; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Hernandez, Daniel O; Koob, George F

    2015-01-01

    The abuse of prescription opioids that are used for the treatment of chronic pain is a major public health concern, costing ∼$53.4 billion annually in lost wages, health-care costs, and criminal costs. Although opioids remain a first-line therapy for the treatment of severe chronic pain, practitioners remain cautious because of the potential for abuse and addiction. Opioids such as heroin are considered very rewarding and reinforcing, but direct and systematic comparisons of compulsive intake between commonly prescribed opioids and heroin in animal models have not yet been performed. In the present study, we evaluated the potential for compulsive-like drug seeking and taking, using intravenous self-administration of oxycodone, fentanyl, and buprenorphine in rats allowed long access sessions (12 h). We measured compulsive-like intake using an established escalation model and responding on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. We compared the potential for compulsive-like self-administration of these prescription opioids and heroin, which has been previously established to induce increasing intake that models the transition to addiction in humans. We found that animals that self-administered oxycodone, fentanyl, or heroin, but not buprenorphine had similar profiles of escalation and increases in breakpoints. The use of extended access models of prescription opioid intake will help better understand the biological factors that underlie opioid dependence.

  9. Estimating spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale: an extended commuting-based interaction potential model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the study of the relationships between individual health-related behaviours (e.g. food intake and physical activity) and measurements of spatial accessibility to the associated facilities (e.g. food outlets and sport facilities). The aim of this study is to propose measurements of spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale, using aggregated data. We first used a potential accessibility model that partly makes it possible to overcome the limitations of the most frequently used indices such as the count of opportunities within a given neighbourhood. We then propose an extended model in order to take into account both home and work-based accessibility for a commuting population. Results Potential accessibility estimation provides a very different picture of the accessibility levels experienced by the population than the more classical "number of opportunities per census tract" index. The extended model for commuters increases the overall accessibility levels but this increase differs according to the urbanisation level. Strongest increases are observed in some rural municipalities with initial low accessibility levels. Distance to major urban poles seems to play an essential role. Conclusions Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that should integrate some aspects of travel behaviour. Our work supports the evidence that the choice of appropriate accessibility indices including both residential and non-residential environmental features is necessary. Such models have potential implications for providing relevant information to policy-makers in the field of public health. PMID:21219597

  10. Extended access to methamphetamine self-administration up-regulates dopamine transporter levels 72 hours after withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, Christina; Luevano, Joe E; Miranda-Arango, Manuel; Pipkin, Joseph A; Jackson, Jonathan A; Castañeda, Eddie; Gosselink, Kristin L; O'Dell, Laura E

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that there are persistent changes in dopamine systems following withdrawal from methamphetamine (METH). This study examined changes in striatal dopamine transporter (DAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine receptor 2 (D2) 72 h after withdrawal from METH intravenous self- administration (IVSA). Rats were given limited (1h) or extended (6h) access to METH IVSA (0.05 mg/kg/0.1 ml infusion) for 22 days. Controls did not receive METH IVSA. The rats given extended access to IVSA displayed higher METH intake during the first hour of drug access compared to rats given limited access. Extended access to METH also produced a concomitant increase in striatal DAT levels relative to drug-naïve controls. There were no changes in TH or D2 levels across groups. Previous studies have reported a decrease in striatal DAT levels during protracted periods (>7 days) of withdrawal from METH IVSA. This study extends previous work by showing an increase in striatal DAT protein expression during an earlier time point of withdrawal from this drug. These results are an important step toward understanding the dynamic changes in dopamine systems that occur during different time points of withdrawal from METH IVSA.

  11. Extended Onshore Control of a Floating Wind Turbine with Wave Disturbance Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, S.; Knudsen, T.; Bak, T.

    2014-12-01

    Reaching for higher wind resources beyond the water depth limitations of monopile wind turbines, there has arisen the alternative of using floating wind turbines. But the response of wave induced loads significantly increases for floating wind turbines. Applying conventional onshore control strategies to floating wind turbines has been shown to impose negative damped oscillations in fore-aft due to the low natural frequency of the floating structure. Thus, we suggest a control loop extension of the onshore controller which stabilizes the system and reduces the wave disturbance. The results shows that when adding the suggested control loop with disturbance reduction to the system, improved performance is observed in power fluctuations, blade pitch activity, and platform oscillations.

  12. Extending wind turbine operational conditions; a comparison of set point adaptation and LQG individual pitch control for highly turbulent wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, W. P.; Subhani, S.; Zafar, H.; Savenije, F.

    2014-06-01

    Extreme wind conditions can cause excessive loading on the turbine. This not only results in higher design loads, but when these conditions occur in practice, will also result in higher maintenance cost. Although there are already effective methods of dealing with gusts, other extreme conditions should also be examined. More specifically, extreme turbulence conditions (e.g. those specified by design load case 1.3 in IEC61400-1 ed. 3) require special attention as they can lead to design-driving extreme loads on blades, tower and other wind turbine components. This paper examines two methods to deal with extreme loads in a case of extreme turbulent wind. One method is derating the turbine, the other method is an individual pitch control (IPC) algorithm. Derating of the turbine can be achieved in two ways, one is changing the rated torque, the other is changing the rated rotor speed. The effect of these methods on fatigue loads and extreme loads is examined. Non-linear aero-elastic simulations using Phatas, show that reducing the rated rotor speed is far more effective at reducing the loads than reducing torque. Then, the IPC algorithm is proposed. This algorithm is a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller based on a time invariant model, defined in the fixed reference frame that includes the first tower and blade modes. Because this method takes the dynamics of the system into account more than conventional IPC control, it is expected that these loads dealt with more effectively, when they are particularly relevant. It is expected that in extreme turbulent the blade and tower dynamics are indeed more relevant. The effect of this algorithm on fatigue loads and pitch effort is examined and compared with the fatigue loads and pitch effort of reference IPC. Finally, the methods are compared in non-linear aero-elastic simulations with extreme turbulent wind.

  13. Making working memory work: the effects of extended practice on focus capacity and the processes of updating, forward access, and random access.

    PubMed

    Price, John M; Colflesh, Gregory J H; Cerella, John; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the effects of 10h of practice on variations of the N-Back task to investigate the processes underlying possible expansion of the focus of attention within working memory. Using subtractive logic, we showed that random access (i.e., Sternberg-like search) yielded a modest effect (a 50% increase in speed) whereas the processes of forward access (i.e., retrieval in order, as in a standard N-Back task) and updating (i.e., changing the contents of working memory) were executed about 5 times faster after extended practice. We additionally found that extended practice increased working memory capacity as measured by the size of the focus of attention for the forward-access task, but not for variations where probing was in random order. This suggests that working memory capacity may depend on the type of search process engaged, and that certain working-memory-related cognitive processes are more amenable to practice than others.

  14. Extending OPeNDAP's Data-Access Protocol to Include Enhanced Pre-Retrieval Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulker, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    We describe plans to extend OPeNDAP's Web-services protocol as a Building Block for NSF's EarthCube initiative. Though some data-access services have offered forms of subset-selection for decades, other pre-retrieval operations have been unavailable, in part because their benefits (over equivalent post-retrieval actions) are only now becoming fully evident. This is due in part to rapid growth in the volumes of data that are pertinent to the geosciences, exacerbated by limitations such as Internet speeds and latencies as well as pressures toward data usage on ever-smaller devices. In this context, as recipients of a "Building Blocks" award from the most recent round of EarthCube funding, we are launching the specification and prototype implementation of a new Open Data Services Invocation Protocol (ODSIP), by which clients may invoke a newly rich set of data-acquisition services, ranging from statistical summarization and criteria-driven subsetting to re-gridding/resampling. ODSIP will be an extension to DAP4, the latest version of OPeNDAP's widely used data access protocol, which underpins a number of open-source, multilingual, client-server systems (offering data access as a Web service), including THREDDS, PyDAP, GrADS, ERDAP and FERRET, as well as OPeNDAP's own Hyrax servers. We are motivated by the idea that key parts of EarthCube can be built effectively around clients and servers that employ a common and conceptually rich protocol for data acquisition. This concept extends 'data provision' to include pre-retrieval operations that, even when invoked by remote clients, exhibit efficiencies of data-proximate computation. Our aim for ODSIP is to embed a largely domain-neutral algebra of server functions that, despite being deliberately compact, can fulfill a broad range of user needs for pre-retrieval operations. To that end, our approach builds upon languages and tools that have proven effective in multi-domain contexts, and we will employ a user-centered design

  15. Direct Solar Wind Proton Access into Permanently Shadowed Lunar Polar Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent analyses of Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (LPNS) data have suggested that high abundances of hydrogen exist within cold traps at the lunar poles, and it has often been assumed that hydrogen-bearing volatiles sequestered in permanent shadow are topographically shielded from sputtering by solar wind protons. However, recent simulation results are presented showing that solar wind protons clearly access the floor of an idealized, shadowed lunar crater through a combination of thermal and ambipolar processes, in effect creating a plasma "miniwake". These simulations are the first to model the mini-wake environment in two spatial dimensions with a self-consistent lunar surface-plasma interaction. Progress is reported on constraining the nonzero particle fluxes and energies incident on kilometer-scale shadowed topography, such as a small crater embedded within a larger one. The importance of direct solar wind proton bombardment is discussed within the context of understanding the stability and inventory of hydrogen-bearing volatiles in shadow at the lunar poles. The support of the National Lunar Science institute, the DREAM institute, LPROPS, and the NASA Postdoctoral Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center administered by ORAU are gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Signature of open magnetic field lines in the extended solar corona and of solar wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonucci, E.; Giordano, S.; Benna, C.; Kohl, J. L.; Noci, G.; Michels, J.; Fineschi, S.

    1997-01-01

    The observations carried out with the ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) are discussed. The purpose of the observations was to determine the line of sight and radial velocity fields in coronal regions with different magnetic topology. The results showed that the regions where the high speed solar wind flows along open field lines are characterized by O VI 1032 and HI Lyman alpha 1216 lines. The global coronal maps of the line of sight velocity were reconstructed. The corona height, where the solar wind reaches 100 km/s, was determined.

  17. OVATION Prime -2013: Solar Wind Driven Precipitation Model Extended to Higher Geomagnetic Activity Levels (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, P. T.; Liou, K.; Zhang, Y.; Paxton, L.; Sotirelis, T.; Mitchell, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    OVATION Prime is an auroral precipitation model parameterized by solar wind driving. Distinguishing features of the model include an optimized solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function (dΦMP/dt) which predicts auroral power far better than Kp or other traditional parameters, the separation of aurora into categories (diffuse aurora, monoenergetic, broadband, and ion), the inclusion of seasonal variations, and separate parameter fits for each MLATxMLT bin, thus permitting each type of aurora and each location to have differing responses to season and solar wind input (as indeed they do). We here introduce OVATION Prime-2013, an upgrade to the 2008 version currently widely available. The most notable advantage of OP-2013 is that it uses UV images from the GUVI instrument on the satellite TIMED for high disturbance levels (dΦMP/dt > 12,000 (nT2/3 (km/s)4/3 which roughly corresponds to Kp = 5+ or 6-). The range of validity is thought to be about 0 < dΦMP/dt = 30000 (say Kp = 8 or 8+). Other upgrades include a reduced susceptibility to salt and pepper noise, and smoother interpolation across the postmidnight data gap. We will also provide a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of other current precipitation models, especially OVATION-SuperMAG, which produces particularly good estimates for total auroral power, at the expense of working best on an historical basis. OVATION Prime-2013, for high solar wind driving, as TIMED GUVI data takes over from DMSP

  18. Solar-wind proton access deep into the near-Moon wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, M. N.; Fujimoto, M.; Maezawa, K.; Saito, Y.; Yokota, S.; Asamura, K.; Tanaka, T.; Tsunakawa, H.; Matsushima, M.; Takahashi, F.; Terasawa, T.; Shibuya, H.; Shimizu, H.

    2009-08-01

    We study solar wind (SW) entry deep into the near-Moon wake using SELENE (KAGUYA) data. It has been known that SW protons flowing around the Moon access the central region of the distant lunar wake, while their intrusion deep into the near-Moon wake has never been expected. We show that SW protons sneak into the deepest lunar wake (anti-subsolar region at ˜100 km altitude), and that the entry yields strong asymmetry of the near-Moon wake environment. Particle trajectory calculations demonstrate that these SW protons are once scattered at the lunar dayside surface, picked-up by the SW motional electric field, and finally sneak into the deepest wake. Our results mean that the SW protons scattered at the lunar dayside surface and coming into the night side region are crucial for plasma environment in the wake, suggesting absorption of ambient SW electrons into the wake to maintain quasi-neutrality.

  19. Making working memory work: The effects of extended practice on focus capacity and the processes of updating, forward access, and random access

    PubMed Central

    Price, John M.; Colflesh, Gregory J. H.; Cerella, John; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of 10 hours of practice on variations of the N-Back task to investigate the processes underlying possible expansion of the focus of attention within working memory. Using subtractive logic, we showed that random access (i.e., Sternberg-like search) yielded a modest effect (a 50% increase in speed) whereas the processes of forward access (i.e., retrieval in order, as in a standard N-Back task) and updating (i.e., changing the contents of working memory) were executed about 5 times faster after extended practice. We additionally found that extended practice increased working memory capacity as measured by the size of the focus of attention for the forward-access task, but not for variations where probing was in random order. This suggests that working memory capacity may depend on the type of search process engaged, and that certain working-memory-related cognitive processes are more amenable to practice than others. PMID:24486803

  20. Extending Our Vision: Access to Inclusive Dance Education for People with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seham, Jenny; Yeo, Anna J.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental, organizational and attitudinal obstacles continue to prevent people with vision loss from meaningfully engaging in dance education and performance. This article addresses the societal disabilities that handicap access to dance education for the blind. Although much of traditional dance instruction relies upon visual cuing and…

  1. Increasing Access to College: Extending Possibilities for All Students. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G., Ed.; Hagedorn, Linda Serra, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines pre-college enrichment programs that offer a specific remedy to the problem of low income and underrepresented students' access to higher education. The 10 papers are: (1) "Pre-College Outreach Programs: A National Perspective" (Watson Scott Swail and Laura W. Perna); (2) "The Relationship between…

  2. Line-blanketed spherically extended model atmospheres of hot luminous stars with and without winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenberg, Jason Paul

    2000-08-01

    Spherical, hydrostatic, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) metal line-blanketed model atmospheres have been employed to reproduce the spectral energy distributions of the bright B-type giant stars Beta and Epsilon Canis Majoris, including the extreme ultraviolet where previous models have failed. The combination of spherical geometry and line-blanketing produces significantly different model temperature structures and synthetic extreme ultraviolet spectra relative to otherwise similar plane-parallel geometry models. The synthetic spectra are compared to the observed spectral energy distributions of these B stars in absolute units, a rarity in stellar atmosphere analyses. A full grid of O- and early B-type model stellar atmospheres has been constructed and comparisons with hydrostatic, plane-parallel, LTE line-blanketing models show that these models predict consistently higher ionizing fluxes, particularly at lower effective temperatures. Models for hot, luminous stars and their winds have been developed which unify the inner hydrostatic layers with the outer dynamic layers of the atmosphere into a single structure. These models include the effects of full non- LTE metal line-blanketing in both the computation of the model atmosphere plus wind and the synthetic spectrum. Models of this type have been developed for comparison with the spectral energy distribution and detailed spectrum of the A-type supergiant Alpha Cygni. A synthetic spectrum has been computed which is able to match the observed spectral energy distribution in absolute units from 120 nm to 3.6 cm reasonably well. These models predict that Alpha Cyg's expanding envelope is only partially ionized, which leads to a steeper spectral slope than predicted in the fully ionized case commonly applied to hotter O- and B-type stars. Non-LTE model structures and line formation in the ultraviolet suggest mass-loss rates 50 times larger than in the LTE studies. Using recently available observational

  3. Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Multiple Merger, Extended Massive Star Formation, Galactic Wind, and Nuclear Inflow in NGC 3256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lípari, S.; Díaz, R.; Taniguchi, Y.; Terlevich, R.; Dottori, H.; Carranza, G.

    2000-08-01

    We report detailed evidence for multiple merger, extended massive star formation, galactic wind, and circular/noncircular motions in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 3256, based on observations of high-resolution imaging (Hubble Space Telescope, ESO NTT), and extensive spectroscopic data (more than 1000 spectra, collected at Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre, Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito, Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory, and IUE observatories). We find in a detailed morphological study (resolution ~15 pc) that the extended massive star formation process detected previously in NGC 3256 shows extended triple asymmetrical spiral arms (r~5 kpc), emanating from three different nuclei. The main optical nucleus shows a small spiral disk (r~500 pc), which is a continuation of the external one and reaches the very nucleus. The core shows blue elongated structure (50 pc×25 pc) and harbors a blue stellar cluster candidate (r~8 pc). We discuss this complex morphology in the framework of an extended massive star formation driven by a multiple merger process (models of Hernquist et al. and Taniguchi et al.). We study the kinematics of this system and present a detailed Hα velocity field for the central region (40''×40'' rmax~30''~5 kpc), with a spatial resolution of 1" and errors of +/-15 km s-1. The color and isovelocity maps show mainly (1) a kinematic center of circular motion with ``spider'' shape, located between the main optical nucleus and the close (5") mid-IR nucleus and (2) noncircular motions in the external parts. We obtained three ``sinusoidal rotation curves'' (from the Hα velocity field) around position angle (P.A.) ~55°, ~90°, and ~130°. In the main optical nucleus we found a clear ``outflow component'' associated with galactic winds plus an ``inflow radial motion.'' The outflow component was also detected in the central and external regions (r<=5-6 kpc). The main axis of the inflow region (P.A.~80deg) is practically perpendicular to the

  4. On Lunar Exospheric Column Densities and Solar Wind Access Beyond the Terminator from ROSAT Soft X-Ray Observations of Solar Wind Charge Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Snowden, S. L.; Sarantos, M.; Benna, M.; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, T. E.; Farrell, W. M.; Fatemi, S.; Hills, H. Kent; Hodges, R. R.; Holmstrom, M.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. Scott; Read, A.; Robertson, I. P.; Sembay, S. F.; Sibeck, D. G.; Stubbs, T. J.; Travnicek, P.; Walsh, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the Rontgen satellite (ROSAT) position sensitive proportional counter soft X-ray image of the Moon taken on 29 June 1990 by examining the radial profile of the surface brightness in three wedges: two 19 deg wedges (one north and one south) 13-32 deg off the terminator toward the dark side and one wedge 38 deg wide centered on the antisolar direction. The radial profiles of both the north and the south wedges show significant limb brightening that is absent in the 38 deg wide antisolar wedge. An analysis of the soft X-ray intensity increase associated with the limb brightening shows that its magnitude is consistent with that expected due to solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) with the tenuous lunar atmosphere based on lunar exospheric models and hybrid simulation results of solar wind access beyond the terminator. Soft X-ray imaging thus can independently infer the total lunar limb column density including all species, a property that before now has not been measured, and provide a large-scale picture of the solar wind-lunar interaction. Because the SWCX signal appears to be dominated by exospheric species arising from solar wind implantation, this technique can also determine how the exosphere varies with solar wind conditions. Now, along with Mars, Venus, and Earth, the Moon represents another solar system body at which SWCX has been observed.

  5. Aerosol chemistry above an extended archipelago of the eastern Mediterranean basin during strong northern winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasopoulou, E.; Protonotariou, A. P.; Bossioli, E.; Dandou, A.; Tombrou, M.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kalogiros, J.; Bacak, A.; Sciare, J.; Biskos, G.

    2015-07-01

    Detailed aerosol chemical predictions by a comprehensive model system (i.e. PMCAMx, WRF, GEOS-CHEM), along with airborne and ground-based observations, are presented and analysed over a wide domain covering the Aegean Archipelago. The studied period is 10 successive days in 2011, characterized by strong northern winds, which is the most frequently prevailing synoptic pattern during summer. The submicron aerosol load in the lower troposphere above the archipelago is homogenously enriched in sulfate (average modelled and measured submicron sulfate of 5.5 and 5.8 μg m-3, respectively), followed by organics (2.3 and 4.4 μg m-3) and ammonium (1.5 and 1.7 μg m-3). Aerosol concentrations smoothly decline aloft, reaching lower values (< 1 μg m-3) above 4.2 km altitude. The evaluation criteria rate the model results for sulfate, ammonium, chloride, elemental carbon, organic carbon and total PM10 mass concentrations as "good", indicating a satisfactory representation of the aerosol chemistry and precursors. Higher model discrepancies are confined to the highest (e.g. peak sulfate values) and lowest ends (e.g. nitrate) of the airborne aerosol mass size distribution, as well as in airborne organic aerosol concentrations (model underestimation ca. 50 %). The latter is most likely related to the intense fire activity at the eastern Balkan area and the Black Sea coastline, which is not represented in the current model application. The investigation of the effect of local variables on model performance revealed that the best agreement between predictions and observations occurs during high winds from the northeast, as well as for the area confined above the archipelago and up to 2.2 km altitude. The atmospheric ageing of biogenic particles is suggested to be activated in the aerosol chemistry module, when treating organics in a sufficient nitrogen and sulfate-rich environment, such as that over the Aegean basin. More than 70 % of the predicted aerosol mass over the Aegean

  6. ELECTROMAGNETIC PROTON/PROTON INSTABILITY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR ION HEATING IN THE EXTENDED FAST SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Shan, Lican; Wang, Shui; Li, Xing

    2013-02-10

    Two-dimensional hybrid simulations are performed in this paper to investigate the proton/proton instability in low beta plasma. The obliquely propagating Alfven waves are found to be unstable to the proton/proton instability. At first, the Alfven waves have a nearly linear polarization, and both the ambient protons and minor ions O{sup 6+} can be resonantly heated. The heating is primarily in the direction perpendicular to the background magnetic field. With the evolution of the instability, the obliquely propagating Alfven waves gradually become left-hand polarized, and then cannot resonantly heat the ambient protons or minor ions O{sup 6+}. The effects of the plasma beta and temperature anisotropy of the ambient protons on the evolution of the instability are also studied in this paper. Finally, the implications of our simulation results for ion heating in the extended fast solar wind are discussed.

  7. Drug specificity in extended access cocaine and heroin self-administration.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Magalie; Guillem, Karyn; Koob, George F; Ahmed, Serge H

    2012-11-01

    Increased drug availability can precipitate a rapid escalation of drug consumption in both vulnerable humans and laboratory animals. Drug intake escalation is observed across a broad spectrum of drugs of abuse, including stimulants, opiates, ethanol and phencyclidine. Whether and to what extent the processes underlying escalated levels of drug intake vary across different substances is poorly understood. The present study sought to address this question in rats self-administering both cocaine and heroin-two addictive drugs with both common and different neurobiological effects. In experiment 1, we determined how cocaine intake is initially related to heroin intake in non-escalated rats with a limited access to both drugs. In experiment 2, two groups of rats were initially allowed to self-administer either cocaine or heroin for 1 hour per day and then after behavioral stabilization, for 6 hours per day to precipitate drug intake escalation. In each group, dose-injection functions for cocaine and heroin self-administration were generated. In experiment 1, regardless of the dose, rats with a high intake of one drug did not necessarily have a high intake of the alternate drug. In experiment 2, escalated levels of heroin or cocaine self-administration did not generalize to the other drug. This outcome was confirmed in a third drug substitution experiment following different access lengths to cocaine self-administration (i.e. 1, 4 and 8 hours). The processes underlying spontaneous and escalated drug overconsumption appear thus to vary across different drugs of abuse. More research should be devoted in the future to these differences.

  8. Unified Models of Turbulence and Nonlinear Wave Evolution in the Extended Solar Corona and Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, William (Technical Monitor); Cranmer, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the following: 1. No-cost Extension. The no-cost extension is required to complete the work on the unified model codes (both hydrodynamic and kinetic Monte Carlo) as described in the initial proposal and previous annual reports. 2. Scientific Accomplishments during the Report Period. We completed a comprehensive model of Alfvtn wave reflection that spans the full distance from the photosphere to the distant heliosphere. 3. Comparison of Accomplishments with Proposed Goals. The proposal contained two specific objectives for Year 3: (1) to complete the unified model code, and (2) to apply it to various kinds of coronal holes (and polar plumes within coronal holes). Although the anticipated route toward these two final goals has changed (see accomplishments 2a and 2b above), they remain the major milestones for the extended period of performance. Accomplishments la and IC were necessary prerequisites for the derivation of "physically relevant transport and mode-coupling terms" for the unified model codes (as stated in the proposal Year 3 goals). We have fulfilled the proposed "core work" to study 4 general types of physical processes; in previous years we studied turbulence, mode coupling (Le., non-WKB reflection), and kinetic wave damping, and accomplishment lb provides the fourth topic: nonlinear steepening.

  9. Super-linear modulator with extended bandwidth capability for broadband access applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescod, Andru; Dingel, Benjamin B.; Madamopoulos, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-linear modulators are critical components for broadband access applications in analog fiber-optic communication links, such as Radio-over-Fiber (RoF), Radio-over-Free Space (RoFS) and ultra-dense (cable television) CATV. In our previous work, it was shown that an ultra-linear optical modulator - composed of a phase modulator and ring resonator in a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) configuration, exhibited SFDR values > 130 dB. In this paper, we introduce a new configuration based on a lumped electrode design, in which the phase modulator (PM) is on one arm of the MZ and the ring resonator (RR) is located on the other arm. We also carefully control and monitor the power split ratio of an RF input to both the PM and the RR, in addition to the RF phase bias between the RR and PM. We report its unique and superior features such as superior linearity (SFDR ~ 133 dB), modulation bandwidth extension (as much as 70%) over the ring resonator-assisted Mach Zehnder design and high link gain. Lastly, we discuss the merits of the design flexibility, practicality and ease of use of the new modulator.

  10. Assessment of individual differences in the rat nucleus accumbens transcriptome following taste-heroin extended access.

    PubMed

    Imperio, Caesar G; McFalls, Ashley J; Colechio, Elizabeth M; Masser, Dustin R; Vrana, Kent E; Grigson, Patricia S; Freeman, Willard M

    2016-05-01

    Heroin addiction is a disease of chronic relapse that harms the individual through devaluation of personal responsibilities in favor of finding and using drugs. Only some recreational heroin users devolve into addiction but the basis of these individual differences is not known. We have shown in rats that avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue reliably identifies individual animals with greater addiction-like behavior for heroin. Here rats received 5min access to a 0.15% saccharin solution followed by the opportunity to self-administer either saline or heroin for 6h. Large Suppressors of the heroin-paired taste cue displayed increased drug escalation, motivation for drug, and drug loading behavior compared with Small Suppressors. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these individual differences in addiction-like behavior. We examined the individual differences in mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats that were behaviorally stratified by addiction-like behavior using next-generation sequencing. We hypothesized that based on the avoidance of the drug-paired cue there will be a unique mRNA profile in the NAc. Analysis of strand-specific whole genome RNA-Seq data revealed a number of genes differentially regulated in NAc based on the suppression of the natural saccharine reward. Large Suppressors exhibited a unique mRNA prolife compared to Saline controls and Small Suppressors. Genes related to immunity, neuronal activity, and behavior were differentially expressed among the 3 groups. In total, individual differences in avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue are associated with addiction-like behavior along with differential NAc gene expression.

  11. CHANGES IN LEVELS OF D1, D2, OR NMDA RECEPTORS DURING WITHDRAWAL FROM BRIEF OR EXTENDED DAILY ACCESS TO IV COCAINE

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shahar, Osnat; Keeley, Patrick; Cook, Mariana; Brake, Wayne; Joyce, Megan; Nyffeler, Myriel; Heston, Rebecca; Ettenberg, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that brief (1 hr), but not extended (6 hrs), daily access to cocaine results in a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine and in elevated c-Fos immunoreactivity and DAT binding in the nucleus accumbens (N.Acc) core. In order to better our understanding of the neural adaptations mediating the transition from controlled drug-use to addiction, the current experiments were set to further explore the neural adaptations resulting from these two access conditions. Rats received either brief daily access to saline or cocaine, or brief daily access followed by extended daily access, to cocaine. Subjects were then sacrificed either 20 minutes, or 14 or 60 days, after the last self-administration session. Samples of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), N.Acc core and shell, dorsal striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were taken for analysis of D1 ([3H]SCH-23390), D2 ([3H]Spiperone), and NMDA ([3H]MK-801) receptor binding (using the method of receptor autoradiography). At 20 minutes into withdrawal D2 receptors were elevated and NMDA receptors were reduced in the mPFC of the brief access animals while D1 receptors were elevated in the N.Acc shell of the extended access animals, compared to saline controls. D2 receptors were reduced in the N.Acc shell of the brief access animals compared to saline controls after 14 days, and compared to extended access animals after 60 days of withdrawal. In summary, extended access to cocaine resulted in only transient changes in D1 receptors binding. These results suggest that the development of compulsive drug use is largely unrelated to changes in total binding of D2 or NMDA receptors. PMID:17161392

  12. Effects of the kappa opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) on cocaine versus food choice and extended-access cocaine intake in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hutsell, Blake A; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Negus, Sidney Stevens; Banks, Matthew L

    2016-03-01

    The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system has been implicated as one potential neurobiological modulator of the abuse-related effects of cocaine and as a potential target for medications development. This study determined effects of the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) on cocaine self-administration under a novel procedure that featured two daily components: (1) a 2-hour 'choice' component (9:00-11:00 am) when monkeys could choose between food pellets and cocaine injections (0-0.1 mg/kg per injection, intravenous) and (2) a 20-hour 'extended-access' component (noon to 8:00 am) when cocaine (0.1 mg/kg per injection) was available under a fixed-ratio schedule to promote high daily cocaine intakes. Rhesus monkeys (n = 4) were given 14 days of exposure to the choice + extended-access procedure then treated with nor-BNI (3.2 or 10.0 mg/kg, intramuscular), and cocaine choice and extended-access cocaine intake were evaluated for an additional 14 days. Consistent with previous studies, cocaine maintained both a dose-dependent increase in cocaine choice during choice components and a high level of cocaine intake during extended-access components. Neither 3.2 nor 10 mg/kg nor-BNI significantly altered cocaine choice or extended-access cocaine intake. In two additional monkeys, nor-BNI also had no effect on cocaine choice or extended-access cocaine intake when it was administered at the beginning of exposure to the extended-access components. Overall, these results do not support a major role for the dynorphin/KOR system in modulating cocaine self-administration under these conditions in non-human primates nor do they support the clinical utility of KOR antagonists as a pharmacotherapeutic strategy for cocaine addiction.

  13. Persistent palatable food preference in rats with a history of limited and extended access to methamphetamine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Daniele; Zeric, Tamara; Thorndike, Eric B; Venniro, Marco

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that when given a mutually exclusive choice between cocaine and palatable foods, most rats prefer the non-drug rewards over cocaine. Here, we used a discrete choice procedure to assess whether palatable food preference generalizes to rats with a history of limited (3 hours/day) or extended (6 or 9 hours/day) access to methamphetamine self-administration. On different daily sessions, we trained rats to lever-press for either methamphetamine (0.1-0.2 mg/kg/infusion) or palatable food (five pellets per reward delivery) for several weeks; regular food was freely available. We then assessed food-methamphetamine preference either during training, after priming methamphetamine injections (0.5-1.0 mg/kg), following a satiety manipulation (palatable food exposure in the home cage) or after 21 days of withdrawal from methamphetamine. We also assessed progressive ratio responding for palatable food and methamphetamine. We found that independent of the daily drug access conditions and the withdrawal period, the rats strongly preferred the palatable food over methamphetamine, even when they were given free access to the palatable food in the home cage. Intake of methamphetamine and progressive ratio responding for the drug, both of which increased or escalated over time, did not predict preference in the discrete choice test. Results demonstrate that most rats strongly prefer palatable food pellets over intravenous methamphetamine, confirming previous studies using discrete choice procedures with intravenous cocaine. Results also demonstrate that escalation of drug self-administration, a popular model of compulsive drug use, is not associated with a cardinal feature of human addiction of reduced behavioral responding for non-drug rewards.

  14. Persistent palatable food preference in rats with a history of limited and extended access to methamphetamine self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, Daniele; Zeric, Tamara; Thorndike, Eric B; Venniro, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that when given a mutually exclusive choice between cocaine and palatable foods most rats prefer the non-drug rewards over cocaine. Here, we used a discrete choice procedure to assess whether palatable food preference generalizes to rats with a history of limited (3 hr/day) or extended (6 or 9 hr/day) access to methamphetamine self-administration. On different daily sessions, we trained rats to lever-press for either methamphetamine (0.1–0.2 mg/kg/infusion) or palatable food (5 pellets per reward delivery) for several weeks; regular food was freely available. We then assessed food-methamphetamine preference either during training, after priming methamphetamine injections (0.5–1.0 mg/kg), following a satiety manipulation (palatable food exposure in the home cage), or after 21 days of withdrawal from methamphetamine. We also assessed progressive ratio responding for palatable food and methamphetamine. We found that independent of the daily drug access conditions and the withdrawal period, the rats strongly preferred the palatable food over methamphetamine, even when they were given free access to the palatable food in the home cage. Intake of methamphetamine and progressive ratio responding for the drug, both of which increased or escalated over time, did not predict preference in the discrete choice test. Results demonstrate that most rats strongly prefer palatable food pellets over intravenous methamphetamine, confirming previous studies using discrete choice procedures with intravenous cocaine. Results also demonstrate that escalation of drug self-administration, a popular model of compulsive drug use, is not associated with a cardinal feature of human addiction of reduced behavioral responding for non-drug rewards. PMID:25582886

  15. Effects of phendimetrazine treatment on cocaine vs food choice and extended-access cocaine consumption in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E; Fennell, Timothy R; Snyder, Rodney W; Negus, S Stevens

    2013-12-01

    There is currently no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction. Monoamine releasers such as d-amphetamine constitute one class of candidate medications, but clinical use and acceptance are hindered by their own high-abuse liability. Phendimetrazine (PDM) is a schedule III anorectic agent that functions as both a low-potency monoamine-uptake inhibitor and as a prodrug for the monoamine-releaser phenmetrazine (PM), and it may serve as a clinically available, effective, and safer alternative to d-amphetamine. This study determined efficacy of chronic PDM to reduce cocaine self-administration by rhesus monkeys (N=4) using a novel procedure that featured both daily assessments of cocaine vs food choice (to assess medication efficacy to reallocate behavior away from cocaine choice and toward choice of an alternative reinforcer) and 20 h/day cocaine access (to allow high-cocaine intake). Continuous 21-day treatment with ramping PDM doses (days 1-7: 0.32 mg/kg/h; days 8-21: 1.0 mg/kg/h) reduced cocaine choices, increased food choices, and nearly eliminated extended-access cocaine self-administration without affecting body weight. There was a trend for plasma PDM and PM levels to correlate with efficacy to decrease cocaine choice such that the monkey with the highest plasma PDM and PM levels also demonstrated the greatest reductions in cocaine choice. These results support further consideration of PDM as a candidate anti-cocaine addiction pharmacotherapy. Moreover, PDM may represent a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach for cocaine addiction because it may simultaneously function as both a monoamine-uptake inhibitor (via the parent drug PDM) and as a monoamine releaser (via the active metabolite PM).

  16. UV spectroscopy as main diagnostic access to hot-star winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Oskinova, Lidia

    Winds from hot stars are best explored with spectroscopy in the UV, where the resonance lines from abundant ions may show up with P Cygni profiles. Massive stars possess strong winds during their whole lifetime from the main sequence to supernova explosion. Low mass stars become sufficiently hot only in the late stage of their evolution, and can develop strong winds during the phase of central stars of planetary nebulae. The fundamental stellar and wind parameters can be determined from careful spectroscopic analysis, with help of sophisticated atmosphere models, such as our Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) code for expanding atmosphere in non-LTE. The inferred chemical abundances of evolved stars allow to test stellar evolutionary models. A current question concerns the effect of wind inhomogeneities, the so-called micro- and macro-clumping, on the empirical mass-loss rate diagnostics. The true mass-loss rates are an important input for modeling the stellar evolution, feedback, and the understanding of the chemical galactic evolution. This whole field of research crucially depends on the availability of UV instruments. With the foreseeable end of HST, a new mission is urgently needed.

  17. Extended Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Speed Analyses at the Shuttle Landing Facility: Phase II Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred C.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the AMU's Short-Range Statistical Forecasting task for peak winds at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). The peak wind speeds are an important forecast element for the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle programs. The 45th Weather Squadron and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group indicate that peak winds are challenging to forecast. The Applied Meteorology Unit was tasked to develop tools that aid in short-range forecasts of peak winds at tower sites of operational interest. A seven year record of wind tower data was used in the analysis. Hourly and directional climatologies by tower and month were developed to determine the seasonal behavior of the average and peak winds. Probability density functions (PDF) of peak wind speed were calculated to determine the distribution of peak speed with average speed. These provide forecasters with a means of determining the probability of meeting or exceeding a certain peak wind given an observed or forecast average speed. A PC-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) tool was created to display the data quickly.

  18. Effects of cocaine self-administration history under limited and extended access conditions on in vivo striatal dopamine neurochemistry and acoustic startle in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Porche’ Kirkland; Davis, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Rationale The transition from infrequent and controlled cocaine use to dependence may involve enduring changes in neurobiology as a consequence of persistent drug use. Objective The present study utilized an intravenous drug self-administration protocol of increasing cocaine access to evaluate potential changes in dopamine function in vivo, including changes in sensitivity to psychostimulants. Materials and methods Drug-naïve rhesus monkeys were provided limited access (1 h) to cocaine self-administration for 60 days followed by 60 days under an extended access condition (4 h). Basal levels of striatal extracellular dopamine and its metabolites, as well as the effectiveness of cocaine and amphetamine to elevate dopamine, were determined with in vivo microdialysis before the initiation of cocaine self-administration and during limited and extended access. The effect of cocaine and amphetamine on the acoustic startle response was also examined to assess complementary behavioral changes as a function of drug history. Results Extended access to cocaine self-administration lead to increased daily intake compared to limited access conditions but did not result in escalated intake over time. However, cocaine- and amphetamine-induced increases in striatal dopamine were diminished as a function of cocaine self-administration history. Surprisingly, there was no effect of drug-taking history on sensitivity to psychostimulant-induced enhancement of startle amplitude. Conclusions The present experiments provide evidence of a hypofunctional dopamine system that is not associated with an escalation in drug intake or reflected in measures of acoustic startle. PMID:19365621

  19. Extended-access methamphetamine self-administration elicits neuroinflammatory response along with blood-brain barrier breakdown.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Joana; Leitão, Ricardo A; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Assis, María Amparo; Coria, Santiago M; Fontes-Ribeiro, Carlos; Ambrosio, Emilio; Silva, Ana Paula

    2017-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug that can lead to neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. Several studies have explored the central impact of METH use, but the mechanism(s) underlying blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and associated neuroinflammatory processes after chronic METH consumption are still unclear. Important findings in the field are mainly based on in vitro approaches and animal studies using an acute METH paradigm, and not much is known about the neurovascular alterations under a chronic drug use. Thus, the present study aimed to fill this crucial gap by exploring the effect of METH-self administration on BBB function and neuroinflammatory responses. Herein, we observed an increase of BBB permeability characterized by Evans blue and albumin extravasation in the rat hippocampus and striatum triggered by extended-access METH self-administration followed by forced abstinence. Also, there was a clear structural alteration of blood vessels showed by the down-regulation of collagen IV staining, which is an important protein of the endothelial basement membrane, together with a decrease of intercellular junction protein levels, namely claudin-5, occludin and vascular endothelial-cadherin. Additionally, we observed an up-regulation of vascular cell and intercellular adhesion molecule, concomitant with the presence of T cell antigen CD4 and tissue macrophage marker CD169 in the brain parenchyma. Rats trained to self-administer METH also presented a neuroinflammatory profile characterized by microglial activation, astrogliosis and increased pro-inflammatory mediators, namely tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukine-1 beta, and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Overall, our data provide new insights into METH abuse consequences, with a special focus on neurovascular dysfunction and neuroinflammatory response, which may help to find novel approaches to prevent or diminish brain dysfunction triggered by this overwhelming illicit

  20. Response of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System to Memory Retrieval After Extended-Access Cocaine or Saline Self-Administration.

    PubMed

    Werner, Craig T; Milovanovic, Mike; Christian, Daniel T; Loweth, Jessica A; Wolf, Marina E

    2015-12-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been implicated in the retrieval-induced destabilization of cocaine- and fear-related memories in Pavlovian paradigms. However, nothing is known about its role in memory retrieval after self-administration of cocaine, an operant paradigm, or how the length of withdrawal from cocaine may influence retrieval mechanisms. Here, we examined UPS activity after an extended-access cocaine self-administration regimen that leads to withdrawal-dependent incubation of cue-induced cocaine craving. Controls self-administered saline. In initial experiments, memory retrieval was elicited via a cue-induced seeking/retrieval test on withdrawal day (WD) 50-60, when craving has incubated. We found that retrieval of cocaine- and saline-associated memories produced similar increases in polyubiquitinated proteins in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), compared with rats that did not undergo a seeking/retrieval test. Measures of proteasome catalytic activity confirmed similar activation of the UPS after retrieval of saline and cocaine memories. However, in a subsequent experiment in which testing was conducted on WD1, proteasome activity in the NAc was greater after retrieval of cocaine memory than saline memory. Analysis of other brain regions confirmed that effects of cocaine memory retrieval on proteasome activity, relative to saline memory retrieval, depend on withdrawal time. These results, combined with prior studies, suggest that the relationship between UPS activity and memory retrieval depends on training paradigm, brain region, and time elapsed between training and retrieval. The observation that mechanisms underlying cocaine memory retrieval change depending on the age of the memory has implications for development of memory destabilization therapies for cue-induced relapse in cocaine addicts.

  1. Accessibility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal laws, including Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, mandate that people with disabilities have access to the same information that someone without a disability would have. 508 standards cover electronic and information technology (EIT) products.

  2. Solar Wind Access to Lunar Polar Craters: Feedback Between Surface Charging and Plasma Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Jackson, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the plasma environment within permanently shadowed lunar craters is critical to understanding local processes such as surface charging, electrostatic dust transport, volatile sequestration, and space weathering. In order to investigate the nature of this plasma environment, the first two-dimensional kinetic simulations of solar wind expansion into a lunar crater with a self-consistent plasma-surface interaction have been undertaken. The present results reveal how the plasma expansion into a crater couples with the electrically-charged lunar surface to produce a quasi-steady wake structure. In particular, there is a negative feedback between surface charging and ambipolar wake potential that allows an equilibrium to be achieved, with secondary electron emission strongly moderating the process. A range of secondary electron yields is explored, and two distinct limits are highlighted in which either surface charging or ambipoiar expansion is responsible for determining the overall wake structure.

  3. Effects of the LBV Primary Star's Mass Loss Rate on Eta Carinae's Spatially-Extended, Time-Variable Massive Binary Colliding Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, Thomas; Gull, Theodore; Corcoran, Michael; Owocki, Stanley; Groh, Jose; Hillier, John; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Okazaki, Atsuo; Russell, Christopher; Clementel, Nicola

    2013-06-01

    At the heart of Eta Carinae's spectacular bipolar ``Homunculus" nebula lies an extremely luminous (5 × 10^6 Lo) colliding wind binary with a highly eccentric (e ~ 0.9), 5.54-year orbit and a total mass ≥ 110 Mo. Our closest (D ~ 2.3 kpc) and best example of a pre-hypernova or pre-gamma ray burst environment, Eta Carinae is an ideal astrophysical laboratory for studying massive binary interactions, stellar wind-wind collisions, and massive star evolution. Over the past fifteen years, the central source has brightened by one stellar magnitude in the optical. Changes in P Cygni wind profiles such as Hα have also been observed. Extended X-ray monitoring and spectroscopy further indicate that the hydrogen column density in line of sight dropped two-fold by the 2009 periastron event. A simple interpretation for the cause of these changes is a factor of two drop in the mass-loss rate of the LBV primary star over the last decade and a half. However, 1D CMFGEN radiative transfer models predict that such a large change in the primary mass-loss rate would lead to huge changes in the observed stellar spectrum. In an effort to further investigate the effects that a change in the mass-loss rate of the primary would have on the system, we performed large- (±1620 au) and small- (±162 au) scale full 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's binary colliding winds assuming three different mass-loss rates for the LBV primary. Results from these new 3D simulations (which include optically-thin radiative cooling and radiation-driven stellar winds) combined with various multi-dimensional radiative transfer codes indicate that a factor of two change in the mass-loss rate of the primary should lead to significant changes in various X-ray, UV, Optical, and near-IR diagnostics. We discuss what changes are expected and why, and offer some possible explanations for the recent changes observed in Eta Car. We also discuss the importance of constraining this likely

  4. Task-sharing or public finance for the expansion of surgical access in rural Ethiopia: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Shrime, Mark G; Verguet, Stéphane; Johansson, Kjell Arne; Desalegn, Dawit; Jamison, Dean T; Kruk, Margaret E

    2016-07-01

    Despite a high burden of surgical disease, access to surgical services in low- and middle-income countries is often limited. In line with the World Health Organization's current focus on universal health coverage and equitable access to care, we examined how policies to expand access to surgery in rural Ethiopia would impact health, impoverishment and equity. An extended cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. Deterministic and stochastic models of surgery in rural Ethiopia were constructed, utilizing pooled estimates of costs and probabilities from national surveys and published literature. Model calibration and validation were performed against published estimates, with sensitivity analyses on model assumptions to check for robustness. Outcomes of interest were the number of deaths averted, the number of cases of poverty averted and the number of cases of catastrophic expenditure averted for each policy, divided across wealth quintiles. Health benefits, financial risk protection and equity appear to be in tension in the expansion of access to surgical care in rural Ethiopia. Health benefits from each of the examined policies accrued primarily to the poor. However, without travel vouchers, many policies also induced impoverishment in the poor while providing financial risk protection to the rich, calling into question the equitable distribution of benefits by these policies. Adding travel vouchers removed the impoverishing effects of a policy but decreased the health benefit that could be bought per dollar spent. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses.

  5. The dopamine D3 receptor partial agonist CJB090 and antagonist PG01037 decrease progressive ratio responding for methamphetamine in rats with extended-access

    PubMed Central

    Orio, Laura; Wee, Sunmee; Newman, Amy H.; Pulvirenti, Luigi; Koob, George F.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work suggests a role for dopamine D3-like receptors in psychostimulant reinforcement. The development of new compounds acting selectively at dopamine D3 receptors has opened new possibilities to explore the role of these receptors in animal models of psychostimulant dependence. Here we investigated whether the dopamine D3 partial agonist CJB090 (1–10 mg/kg, i.v) and the D3 antagonist PG01037 (8–32 mg/kg, s.c.,) modified methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg/injection) intravenous self-administration under fixed- (FR) and progressive- (PR) ratio schedules in rats allowed limited (short access, ShA; 1h sessions 3 days/week) or extended access (long access, LgA; 6h sessions 6 days/week). Under a FR1 schedule, the highest dose of the D3 partial agonist CJB090 selectively reduced methamphetamine self-administration in LgA but not in ShA rats, whereas the full D3 antagonist PG01037 produced no effect in either group. Under a PR schedule of reinforcement, the D3 partial agonist CJB090 reduced the maximum number of responses performed (“breakpoint”) for methamphetamine in LgA rats at the doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg and also it produced a significant reduction in the ShA group at the highest dose. However, the D3 full antagonist PG01037 only reduced PR methamphetamine self-administration in LgA rats at the highest dose of 32 mg/kg with no effect in the ShA group. The results suggest that rats might be more sensitive to pharmacological modulation of dopamine D3 receptors following extended access to methamphetamine self-administration, opening the possibility that D3 receptors play a role in excessive methamphetamine intake. PMID:20456290

  6. Extended access to nicotine self-administration leads to dependence: Circadian measures, withdrawal measures, and extinction behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Laura E; Chen, Scott A; Smith, Ron T; Specio, Sheila E; Balster, Robert L; Paterson, Neil E; Markou, Athina; Zorrilla, Eric P; Koob, George F

    2007-01-01

    The present study characterized nicotine intake, circadian patterns of food and water intake, precipitated somatic signs of withdrawal, and extinction of nicotine-seeking behavior in rats with 23-h access to intravenous self-administration (IVSA). Separate groups of animals were allowed access to nicotine IVSA (0.015, n = 9; 0.03, n = 14; 0.06, n = 16; mg/kg/0.1 ml infusion/s; fixed ratio 1) and trained to nosepoke for food and water 23 h/day for 40 consecutive days. Somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal were examined following saline or mecamylamine administration (1.5 mg/kg i.p.), and extinction of nicotine-seeking behavior was assessed. A dose-dependent decrease in lever responding and an increase in nicotine intake were observed, with the highest nicotine dose producing the lowest amount of lever responding and the highest amount of nicotine intake. Nicotine acutely reduced diurnal and nocturnal food intake, producing smaller and fewer meals, and an increased rate of eating. Differences in rate of nicotine intake between the light and dark phase decreased significantly, especially in rats receiving higher unit nicotine doses (0.03 and 0.06 mg/kg), along with long-term decreases in the circadian profile and amplitude of feeding. Mecamylamine precipitated robust withdrawal signs, the magnitude of which was positively correlated with the total amount of self-administered nicotine. Extinction of nicotine-seeking behavior was observed and was facilitated by removal of nicotine-associated cues. The results demonstrate that rats will self-administer nicotine to the point of producing dependence, as measured by somatic signs, resistance to extinction, and measures of food intake.

  7. Investigation of a field-widened Mach-Zehnder receiver to extend Fe Doppler lidar wind measurements from the thermosphere to the ground.

    PubMed

    Smith, John A; Chu, Xinzhao

    2016-02-20

    A receiver employing a field-widened Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is investigated for extending the wind measurement range of a narrow-band Fe Doppler lidar operating at 372 nm from its existing measurement range in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) down to near the ground. This design uses the multiple transmitted frequencies available from the base Fe Doppler lidar in combination with a novel MZI receiver to make a measurement of the Doppler shift that rejects the influence of atmospheric parameters such as the aerosol backscatter ratio, temperature, and pressure of the lidar volume and receiver parameters such as the geometric overlap, the chopper function, and any other factor affecting the proportion of the signal in both channels of the MZI equally. A ratio is constructed from the three frequencies and two channels of the interferometer that exhibits a measurement performance of 1.75 times the Cramer-Rao lower bound, which is comparable to the dual MZI (DMZ) while preserving the insensitivity to backscatter spectrum of the quad MZI (QMZ). In addition, we show how the use of multiple transmitted frequencies can yield a wind measurement wherein the accuracy is insensitive to the optical imperfection and misalignment of the MZI or any other factor that affects the contrast, though the precision is still impacted by the fringe contrast. Simply adding a second surface mirror of a particular thickness to the basic tilted MZI can allow the field of the MZI to be widened sufficiently for most resonance Doppler lidar receivers in operation today. Provided that the detection sensitivity in each channel is known, the original resonance fluorescence and Rayleigh scattering signals can be recovered by simply scaling and adding the contributions from both channels. Consequently, the wind and temperature from the MLT region and the temperature from the Rayleigh region can be derived alongside the Rayleigh Doppler wind measurement without compromising the

  8. Social disparities in internet patient portal use in diabetes: evidence that the digital divide extends beyond access.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Urmimala; Karter, Andrew J; Liu, Jennifer Y; Adler, Nancy E; Nguyen, Robert; López, Andrea; Schillinger, Dean

    2011-05-01

    The authors investigated use of the internet-based patient portal, kp.org, among a well-characterized population of adults with diabetes in Northern California. Among 14,102 diverse patients, 5671 (40%) requested a password for the patient portal. Of these, 4311 (76%) activated their accounts, and 3922 (69%), logged on to the patient portal one or more times; 2990 (53%) participants viewed laboratory results, 2132 (38%) requested medication refills, 2093 (37%) sent email messages, and 835 (15%) made medical appointments. After adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, immigration status, educational attainment, and employment status, compared to non-Hispanic Caucasians, African-Americans and Latinos had higher odds of never logging on (OR 2.6 (2.3 to 2.9); OR 2.3 (1.9 to 2.6)), as did those without an educational degree (OR compared to college graduates, 2.3 (1.9 to 2.7)). Those most at risk for poor diabetes outcomes may fall further behind as health systems increasingly rely on the internet and limit current modes of access and communication.

  9. An extended aqueous solvation model based on atom-weighted solvent accessible surface areas: SAWSA v2.0 model.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tingjun; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Qin; Xu, Xiaojie

    2005-02-01

    A new method is proposed for calculating aqueous solvation free energy based on atom-weighted solvent accessible surface areas. The method, SAWSA v2.0, gives the aqueous solvation free energy by summing the contributions of component atoms and a correction factor. We applied two different sets of atom typing rules and fitting processes for small organic molecules and proteins, respectively. For small organic molecules, the model classified the atoms in organic molecules into 65 basic types and additionally. For small organic molecules we proposed a correction factor of "hydrophobic carbon" to account for the aggregation of hydrocarbons and compounds with long hydrophobic aliphatic chains. The contributions for each atom type and correction factor were derived by multivariate regression analysis of 379 neutral molecules and 39 ions with known experimental aqueous solvation free energies. Based on the new atom typing rules, the correlation coefficient (r) for fitting the whole neutral organic molecules is 0.984, and the absolute mean error is 0.40 kcal mol(-1), which is much better than those of the model proposed by Wang et al. and the SAWSA model previously proposed by us. Furthermore, the SAWSA v2.0 model was compared with the simple atom-additive model based on the number of atom types (NA). The calculated results show that for small organic molecules, the predictions from the SAWSA v2.0 model are slightly better than those from the atom-additive model based on NA. However, for macromolecules such as proteins, due to the connection between their molecular conformation and their molecular surface area, the atom-additive model based on the number of atom types has little predictive power. In order to investigate the predictive power of our model, a systematic comparison was performed on seven solvation models including SAWSA v2.0, GB/SA_1, GB/SA_2, PB/SA_1, PB/SA_2, AM1/SM5.2R and SM5.0R. The results showed that for organic molecules the SAWSA v2.0 model is better

  10. Exploration of Whole Atmosphere Lidar: Mach-zehnder Receiver to Extend Fe Doppler Lidar Wind Measurements from the Thermosphere to the Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, John A.; Chu, Xinzhao

    2016-06-01

    A receiver employing a field-widened Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is investigated for extending the wind measurement range of a narrowband Fe Doppler (372 nm) lidar from its existing measurement range in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) down to the ground. This design uses the multiple transmitted frequencies available from the base Fe Doppler lidar in combination with an MZI receiver to make a measurement of the Doppler shift from Rayleigh-Mie scattering that is independent of aerosol backscatter ratio, temperature and pressure of the lidar volume and also independent of geometric overlap, the chopper function and any other factor affecting the signal in both MZI channels equally. A ratio is constructed from the three frequencies and two channels of the interferometer that exhibits a measurement performance of 1.75 times the Cramer-Rao lower bound, which is comparable to the dual MZI (DMZ) while preserving the insensitivity to backscatter spectrum of the quad MZI (QMZ). Using actual data obtained recently from the Fe Doppler lidar, we show the expected measurement performance of this whole atmosphere lidar instrument concept.

  11. Estradiol as a mechanism for sex differences in the development of an addicted phenotype following extended access cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Ramôa, Carolina P; Doyle, Susan E; Naim, Diana W; Lynch, Wendy J

    2013-08-01

    Women progress more rapidly after initial cocaine use to addiction as compared with men. Similarly, female rats appear to require less cocaine exposure before developing an addicted phenotype with evidence implicating estradiol as a potential mechanism. The goals of this study were to determine whether there are sex differences in the magnitude of the addicted phenotype under optimized conditions that induce its development in both males and females and to determine the role of estradiol in this effect. Following acquisition, intact male and intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats with and without estradiol replacement were given access to cocaine (1.5 mg/kg per infusion) under either extended access (ExA; discrete trial procedure, 4 trials/h, 24 h/day, 10 days) or short access (ShA) conditions (20 infusions maximum/day, 3 days). Motivation to obtain cocaine (0.5 mg/kg/infusion), as assessed under a progressive-ratio schedule, was then examined following a 2-week abstinence period. Results showed that following ExA self-administration, both males and females developed an addicted phenotype, with 9 of 11 males and 8 of 10 females showing a greater than 15% increase in levels of motivation to obtain cocaine as compared with ShA controls. In contrast, within the OVX groups, responding was enhanced from control levels after ExA self-administration in estradiol-replaced rats only. These results suggest that while females may have an enhanced vulnerability to developing an addicted phenotype, they may be similar to males once addiction has developed. These results also suggest that estradiol is critically involved in the development of an addicted phenotype in females.

  12. Estradiol as a Mechanism for Sex Differences in the Development of an Addicted Phenotype following Extended Access Cocaine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Ramôa, Carolina P; Doyle, Susan E; Naim, Diana W; Lynch, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    Women progress more rapidly after initial cocaine use to addiction as compared with men. Similarly, female rats appear to require less cocaine exposure before developing an addicted phenotype with evidence implicating estradiol as a potential mechanism. The goals of this study were to determine whether there are sex differences in the magnitude of the addicted phenotype under optimized conditions that induce its development in both males and females and to determine the role of estradiol in this effect. Following acquisition, intact male and intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats with and without estradiol replacement were given access to cocaine (1.5 mg/kg per infusion) under either extended access (ExA; discrete trial procedure, 4 trials/h, 24 h/day, 10 days) or short access (ShA) conditions (20 infusions maximum/day, 3 days). Motivation to obtain cocaine (0.5 mg/kg/infusion), as assessed under a progressive-ratio schedule, was then examined following a 2-week abstinence period. Results showed that following ExA self-administration, both males and females developed an addicted phenotype, with 9 of 11 males and 8 of 10 females showing a greater than 15% increase in levels of motivation to obtain cocaine as compared with ShA controls. In contrast, within the OVX groups, responding was enhanced from control levels after ExA self-administration in estradiol-replaced rats only. These results suggest that while females may have an enhanced vulnerability to developing an addicted phenotype, they may be similar to males once addiction has developed. These results also suggest that estradiol is critically involved in the development of an addicted phenotype in females. PMID:23481437

  13. [Fire behavior of ground surface fuels in Pinus koraiensis and Quercus mongolica mixed forest under no wind and zero slope condition: a prediction with extended Rothermel model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Li; Liu, Bo-Fei; Chu, Teng-Fei; Di, Xue-Ying; Jin, Sen

    2012-06-01

    A laboratory burning experiment was conducted to measure the fire spread speed, residual time, reaction intensity, fireline intensity, and flame length of the ground surface fuels collected from a Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) mixed stand in Maoer Mountains of Northeast China under the conditions of no wind, zero slope, and different moisture content, load, and mixture ratio of the fuels. The results measured were compared with those predicted by the extended Rothermel model to test the performance of the model, especially for the effects of two different weighting methods on the fire behavior modeling of the mixed fuels. With the prediction of the model, the mean absolute errors of the fire spread speed and reaction intensity of the fuels were 0.04 m X min(-1) and 77 kW X m(-2), their mean relative errors were 16% and 22%, while the mean absolute errors of residual time, fireline intensity and flame length were 15.5 s, 17.3 kW X m(-1), and 9.7 cm, and their mean relative errors were 55.5%, 48.7%, and 24%, respectively, indicating that the predicted values of residual time, fireline intensity, and flame length were lower than the observed ones. These errors could be regarded as the lower limits for the application of the extended Rothermel model in predicting the fire behavior of similar fuel types, and provide valuable information for using the model to predict the fire behavior under the similar field conditions. As a whole, the two different weighting methods did not show significant difference in predicting the fire behavior of the mixed fuels by extended Rothermel model. When the proportion of Korean pine fuels was lower, the predicted values of spread speed and reaction intensity obtained by surface area weighting method and those of fireline intensity and flame length obtained by load weighting method were higher; when the proportion of Korean pine needles was higher, the contrary results were obtained.

  14. Extended Intraarterial Cisplatin Infusion for Treatment of Gynecologic Cancer After Alteration of Intrapelvic Blood Flow and Implantation of a Vascular Access Device

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Tetsuhisa; Ohsugi, Fumio; Irie, Takeo; Ishii, Chikako; Sadaoka, Shunichi; Tada, Shinpei

    1996-05-15

    Purpose: Twenty-two patients with advanced gynecologic cancer underwent extended intraarterial cisplatin infusion after alteration of the intrapelvic blood flow and implantation of a vascular access device (VAD). Methods: To maximize concentrations of cisplatin at the target lesion, the superior and inferior gluteal arteries were embolized with steel coils. The tip of the catheter was inserted into the internal iliac artery; the opposite end of the catheter was connected to the VAD. Results: Intensive radioisotope accumulation was demonstrated in the anterior division of the pelvis, seen by scintigraphy performed with technetium 99m macroaggregated albumin via the VAD. Local perfusion in the tumor was well seen by ultrasonographic angiography with CO{sub 2} microbubbles via the VAD. Continuous consecutive infusion of cisplatin at a rate of 12.5 mg/day via the VAD minimized the toxicity. The overall response rate was 73%. Radical surgery was possible in 16 of the 22 patients after this intraarterial infusion. Conclusion: This method was useful for treating advanced gynecologic cancer without significant toxicity.

  15. Wind power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, F.

    1980-08-26

    A wind power generator comprises element opposing the force of the wind pivotally mounted and extending radially from the pivot. A counterweight also mounts to the pivot and extends radially from the same. The wind opposing element also mounts to another pivot between a first and second portion thereof. A second weight aids the turning of the wind opposing element about the first pivot to create a rocking motion of the counterweight.

  16. Access Framework: Model Text (November 2011): An Act to Establish a Framework for Development of Offshore Wind Power

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Firestone; Dawn Kurtz Crompton

    2011-10-22

    The model offshore wind power legislation focused on two aspects: compensation for use of ocean space and environmental assessment. In particular, the model legislation recommends the adoption of a rent and royalty scheme that is premised on high rent and low royalties in order to stimulate qualified bids from developers who are motivated to begin production as early as possible and to discourage sham bidding. The model legislation also includes a provision that sets royalties at a lower rate in the early years of project operation, and that provides states with the discretion to waive or defer rent and/or royalties for a period of time to meet the goals and objectives of energy independence, job creation, reduced emissions of conventional pollutants and greenhouse gases and increased state requirements for electricity from renewable sources. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) is structured to provide a systematic and interdisciplinary evaluation of the potential positive and negative life-cycle effects of a proposed offshore wind project on the physical, biological, cultural and socio-economic attributes of the project.

  17. World Wind 3D Earth Viewing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Patrick; Maxwell, Christopher; Kim, Randolph; Gaskins, Tom

    2007-01-01

    World Wind allows users to zoom from satellite altitude down to any place on Earth, leveraging high-resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) elevation data to experience Earth in visually rich 3D. In addition to Earth, World Wind can also visualize other planets, and there are already comprehensive data sets for Mars and the Earth's moon, which are as easily accessible as those of Earth. There have been more than 20 million downloads to date, and the software is being used heavily by the Department of Defense due to the code s ability to be extended and the evolution of the code courtesy of NASA and the user community. Primary features include the dynamic access to public domain imagery and its ease of use. All one needs to control World Wind is a two-button mouse. Additional guides and features can be accessed through a simplified menu. A JAVA version will be available soon. Navigation is automated with single clicks of a mouse, or by typing in any location to automatically zoom in to see it. The World Wind install package contains the necessary requirements such as the .NET runtime and managed DirectX library. World Wind can display combinations of data from a variety of sources, including Blue Marble, LandSat 7, SRTM, NASA Scientific Visualization Studio, GLOBE, and much more. A thorough list of features, the user manual, a key chart, and screen shots are available at http://worldwind.arc.nasa.gov.

  18. Wind energy information guide

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  19. Wind turbine apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, J.

    1985-10-08

    Wind turbine apparatus includes a plurality of sail elements secured to a circular frame rotatable in response to wind reacting with the sail elements and a control system for the sail elements includes a weight having cables extending from the weight to the sail elements. Movement of the weight in response to wind velocity results in a change in the sail elements exposed to the wind.

  20. Wired and wireless convergent extended-reach optical access network using direct-detection of all-optical OFDM super-channel signal.

    PubMed

    Chow, C W; Yeh, C H; Sung, J Y; Hsu, C W

    2014-12-15

    We propose and demonstrate the feasibility of using all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (AO-OFDM) for the convergent optical wired and wireless access networks. AO-OFDM relies on all-optically generated orthogonal subcarriers; hence, high data rate (> 100 Gb/s) can be easily achieved without hitting the speed limit of electronic digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters (DAC/ADC). A proof-of-concept convergent access network using AO-OFDM super-channel (SC) is demonstrated supporting 40 - 100 Gb/s wired and gigabit/s 100 GHz millimeter-wave (MMW) ROF transmissions.

  1. An Icelandic wind atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Gudrun; Bjornsson, Halldór; Arason, Þórður; Jónasson, Kristján

    2013-04-01

    While Iceland has ample wind, its use for energy production has been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated from renewable hydro- and geothermal source and adding wind energy has not be considered practical or even necessary. However, adding wind into the energy mix is becoming a more viable options as opportunities for new hydro or geothermal power installation become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland a wind atlas has been developed as a part of the Nordic project "Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing" (IceWind). The atlas is based on mesoscale model runs produced with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and high-resolution regional analyses obtained through the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The wind atlas shows that the wind energy potential is considerable. The regions with the strongest average wind are nevertheless impractical for wind farms, due to distance from road infrastructure and power grid as well as harsh winter climate. However, even in easily accessible regions wind energy potential in Iceland, as measured by annual average power density, is among the highest in Western Europe. There is a strong seasonal cycle, with wintertime power densities throughout the island being at least a factor of two higher than during summer. Calculations show that a modest wind farm of ten medium size turbines would produce more energy throughout the year than a small hydro power plants making wind energy a viable additional option.

  2. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, Zayas; Michael, Derby; Patrick, Gilman; Ananthan, Shreyas; Lantz, Eric; Cotrell, Jason; Beck, Fredic; Tusing, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  3. Low speed wind tunnel investigation of flight spoilers as trailing-vortex-alleviation devices on an extended-range wide body tri-jet airplane model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croom, D. R.; Vogler, R. D.; Thelander, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine, by the trailing wing sensor technique, the effectiveness of various segments of the existing flight spoilers on an extended-range wide-body tri-jet transport airplane model when they were deflected as trailing-vortex-alleviation devices. On the transport model with the approach flap configuration, the four combinations of flight-spoiler segments investigated were effective in reducing the induced rolling moment on the trailing wing model by as much as 25 to 45 percent at downstream distances behind the transport model of 9.2 and 18.4 transport wing spans. On the transport airplane model with the landing flap configuration, the four combinations of flight-spoiler segments investigated were effective in reducing the induced rolling moment on the trailing wing model by as much as 35 to 60 percent at distances behind the transport model of from 3.7 to 18.4 transport wing spans, 18.4 spans being the downstream limit of distances used.

  4. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Boezaart, Arnold; Edmonson, James; Standridge, Charles; Pervez, Nahid; Desai, Neel; Williams, Bruce; Clark, Aaron; Zeitler, David; Kendall, Scott; Biddanda, Bopi; Steinman, Alan; Klatt, Brian; Gehring, J. L.; Walter, K.; Nordman, Erik E.

    2014-06-30

    project including to: 1) test and validate floating LIDAR technology; 2) collect and access offshore wind data; 3) detect and measure bird and bat activity over Lake Michigan; 4) conduct an over water sound propagation study; 5) prepare and offer a college course on offshore energy, and; 6) collect other environmental, bathometric, and atmospheric data. Desk-top research was performed to select anchorage sites and to secure permits to deploy the buoy. The project also collected and analyzed data essential to wind industry investment decision-making including: deploying highly mobile floating equipment to gather offshore wind data; correlating offshore wind data with conventional on-shore MET tower data; and performing studies that can contribute to the advancement and deployment of offshore wind technologies. Related activities included: • Siting, permitting, and deploying an offshore floating MET facility; • Validating the accuracy of floating LWS using near shoreline cup anemometer MET instruments; • Assessment of laser pulse technology (LIDAR) capability to establish hub height measurement of wind conditions at multiple locations on Lake Michigan; • Utilizing an extended-season (9-10 month) strategy to collect hub height wind data and weather conditions on Lake Michigan; • Investigation of technology best suited for wireless data transmission from distant offshore structures; • Conducting field-validated sound propagation study for a hypothetical offshore wind farm from shoreline locations; • Identifying the presence or absence of bird and bat species near wind assessment facilities; • Identifying the presence or absence of benthic and pelagic species near wind assessment facilities; All proposed project activities were completed with the following major findings: • Floating Laser Wind Sensors are capable of high quality measurement and recordings of wind resources. The WindSentinel presented no significant operational or statistical limitations in

  5. Use of the Wilkinson catalyst for the ortho-C-H heteroarylation of aromatic amines: facile access to highly extended π-conjugated heteroacenes for organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yumin; Wu, Di; Huang, Jingsheng; Guo, Qiang; Li, Juan; You, Jingsong

    2014-11-03

    An unprecedented catalytic system composed of the Wilkinson catalyst [Rh(PPh3)3Cl] and CF3COOH enabled the highly regioselective cross-coupling of aromatic amines with a variety of heteroarenes through dual C-H bond cleavage. This protocol provided a facile and rapid route from readily available substrates to (2-aminophenyl)heteroaryl compounds, which may be conveniently transformed into highly extended π-conjugated heteroacenes. The experimental studies and calculations showed that thianaphtheno[3,2-b]indoles have large HOMO-LUMO energy gaps and low-lying HOMO levels, and could therefore potentially be high-performance organic semiconductors. Herein we report the first use of a rhodium(I) catalyst for oxidative C-H/C-H coupling reactions. The current innovative catalyst system is much less expensive than [RhCp*Cl2]2/AgSbF6 and could open the door for the application of this approach to other types of C-H activation processes.

  6. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenbacher, Don

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  7. Wind Powering America Podcasts, Wind Powering America (WPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    Wind Powering America and the National Association of Farm Broadcasters produce a series of radio interviews featuring experts discussing wind energy topics. The interviews are aimed at a rural stakeholder audience and are available as podcasts. On the Wind Powering America website, you can access past interviews on topics such as: Keys to Local Wind Energy Development Success, What to Know about Installing a Wind Energy System on Your Farm, and Wind Energy Development Can Revitalize Rural America. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to this online resource for podcast episodes.

  8. Wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Traudt, R.F.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a wind turbine device having a main rotatable driven shaft, elongated blades operatively mounted on the main shaft for unitary rotation with the main shaft. The blade extends substantially radially away from the main shaft and is adapted to fold downwind under naturally occurring forces and simultaneously feather in direct response to the folding movement. A means associated with the blades is included for increasing the rate of fold relative to the rate of feather as the speed of rotation increases.

  9. Expertise effects in cutaneous wind perception.

    PubMed

    Pluijms, Joost P; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Mulder, Fabian A; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2015-08-01

    We examined whether expertise effects are present in cutaneous wind perception. To this end, we presented wind stimuli consisting of different wind directions and speeds in a wind simulator. The wind simulator generated wind stimuli from 16 directions and with three speeds by means of eight automotive wind fans. Participants were asked to judge cutaneously perceived wind directions and speeds without having access to any visual or auditory information. Expert sailors (n = 6), trained to make the most effective use of wind characteristics, were compared to less-skilled sailors (n = 6) and to a group of nonsailors (n = 6). The results indicated that expert sailors outperformed nonsailors in perceiving wind direction (i.e., smaller mean signed errors) when presented with low wind speeds. This suggests that expert sailors are more sensitive in picking up differences in wind direction, particularly when confronted with low wind speeds that demand higher sensitivity.

  10. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  11. NASA's RBSP-ECT Science Investigation of the Van Allen Probes Mission: Highlights of the Prime Mission Phase, Data Access Overview, and Opportunities to Collaborate in the Extended Mission Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. S.; Friedel, R. H.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    In this poster, we present a summary of access to the data products of the Radiation Belt Storm Probes - Energetic Particle Composition, and Thermal plasma (RBSP-ECT) suite of NASA's Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT science investigation (http://rbsp-ect.sr.unh.edu) measures comprehensively the near-Earth charged particle environment in order to understand the processes that control the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions. RBSP-ECT data products derive from the three instrument elements that comprise the suite, which collectively covers the broad energies that define the source and seed populations, the core radiation belts, and also their highest energy ultra-relativistic extensions. These RBSP-ECT instruments include, from lowest to highest energies: the Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) sensor, the Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), and the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT). We provide a brief overview of their principles of operation, as well as a description of the Level 2-3 data products that the HOPE, MagEIS, and REPT instruments produce, both separately and together. We provide a summary of how to access these RBSP-ECT data products at our Science Operation Center and Science Data Center (http://www.rbsp-ect.lanl.gov/rbsp_ect.php ) as well as caveats for their use. Finally, in the spirit of efficiently and effectively promoting and encouraging new collaborations, we present a summary of past publications, current studies, and opportunities for your future participation in RBSP-ECT extended mission phase science.

  12. Solar wind composition from the Moon;

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochsler, P.

    1994-06-01

    The lunar regolith contains the best accessible record of the solar wind composition of the past few billion years. Interpreting this record crucially depends on our understanding of the implantation mechanisms, potential alternative sources other than the solar wind, storage and degradation processes, and transport- and loss-mechanisms of trapped particles in the regolith. We therefore suggest that a future mission to the Moon should contain the following objectives: (1) A thorough in-situ investigation of the contemporary solar wind composition by means of long-duration exposure experiments with various techniques as baseline for investigation of the historic and ancient solar wind. (2) A multidisciplinary program, involving an experimental investigation of implantation-, storage- and loss-processes of solar particles at the conditions of the lunar environment. This program is complementary to an elaborated systematic sampling of all layers of the lunar regolith, based on the experience from the Apollo- and the Luna-missions. Difficulties with the interpretation of the lunar record are illuminated in the case of surface correlated nitrogen. (3) A complementary goal for the extensive sampling of the lunar surface is the documentation of the lunar regolith for future generations, prior to extended human activites which could have detrimental effects to the lunar environment.

  13. Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Airborne Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodrow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Google, through its Makani project, is developing a new type of wind energy conversion device called an energy kite. Using a tethered airfoil flying in vertical loops, energy kites access stronger, more consistent wind resources at altitudes between 100-500m AGL. By eliminating mass and cost of the tower, nacelle, and gearbox of a conventional wind turbine, and by increasing the capacity factor of energy generation, energy kites promise to significantly reduce the levelized cost of wind energy. The focus of this presentation will be on the approach Makani has taken to characterize the wind resource at 100-500m, where far less study has taken place compared to the atmosphere accessed by conventional wind turbines.

  14. Extended antipaternalism

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, S

    2005-01-01

    Extended antipaternalism means the use of antipaternalist arguments to defend activities that harm (consenting) others. As an example, a smoker's right to smoke is often invoked in defence of the activities of tobacco companies. It can, however, be shown that antipaternalism in the proper sense does not imply such extended antipaternalism. We may therefore approve of Mill's antipaternalist principle (namely, that the only reason to interfere with someone's behaviour is to protect others from harm) without accepting activities that harm (consenting) others. This has immediate consequences for the ethics of public health. An antipaternalist need not refrain from interfering with activities such as the marketing of tobacco or heroin, boxing promotion, driving with unbelted passengers, or buying sex from "voluntary" prostitutes. PMID:15681674

  15. The Elusive Access to Education for Muslim Women in Kenya from the Late Nineteenth Century to the "Winds of Change" in Africa (1890s to 1960s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshavjee, Rashida

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the denial of access to education to Ismaili Muslim women in colonial Kenya during the 1890s and the 1960s. The Ismailis were part of the "Asians" in Africa, a working class, religious, Muslim immigrant group from India, circumscribed by poverty and a traditional culture, the orthodox elements of which, with regard…

  16. Fuel extender

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, G.K.; Gilbert, H.A.

    1989-02-21

    An efficient and cost competitive fuel extender liquid is described for blending with lead-free gasoline as an additive thereto in a maximum amount of up to about 35% thereof with 65% by volume of the gasoline in a blended mixture wherein. The content of the extender in the resultant fuel as proportioned on the basis of its thus representative maximum content consists essentially of: naphtha X as represented by C/sub 4/, C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ hydrocarbons having a Reid vapor pressure of about 8.5 to 9.6 per ASTM, D323 test procedure and an initial distillation point of about 101/sup 0/F. and an end point of about 280/sup 0/F. within a range of about 10 to 25% by volume, about 3.8 to 6.0% by volume of anhydrous ethanol, a stabilizing amount of a water repellent of the class consisting of ethyl acetate and methyl isotubyl ketone; and about 4 to 10.5% by volume of aromatics benzene and toluene, of benzene and xylene or of benzene with toluene and xylene; the extender having a specific gravity substantially comparable with that of the lead-free gasoline to which it is to be added and having phase stability in the presence of water when mixed with the gasoline.

  17. Wind Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2008-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel that provides an hourly simulation of a wind energy system, which includes a calculation of wind turbine output as a power-curve fit of wind speed.

  18. Erosion: Wind

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion refers to the detachment, transport and deposition of sediment by wind. It is a dynamic, physical process where loose, dry, bare soils are transported by strong winds. Wind erosion is a soil degrading process that affects over 500 million ha of land worldwide and creates between 500 an...

  19. Meteorology (Wind)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    Wind speed at 50 m (m/s) The average and percent difference minimum and ... are given.   Percent of time for ranges of wind speed at 50 m (percent) Percentage [frequency] of time that wind ... be adjusted to heights from 10 to 300 meters using the Gipe power law. Wind speeds may be adjusted for different terrain by selecting from ...

  20. Extended core for motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2005-05-10

    An extended stator core in a motor/generator can be utilized to mitigate losses in end regions of the core and a frame of the motor/generator. To mitigate the losses, the stator core can be extended to a length substantially equivalent to or greater than a length of a magnetically active portion in the rotor. Alternatively, a conventional length stator core can be utilized with a shortened magnetically active portion to mitigate losses in the motor/generator. To mitigate the losses in the core caused by stator winding, the core can be extended to a length substantially equivalent or greater than a length of stator winding.

  1. Extended core for motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2006-08-22

    An extended stator core in a motor/generator can be utilized to mitigate losses in end regions of the core and a frame of the motor/generator. To mitigate the losses, the stator core can be extended to a length substantially equivalent to or greater than a length of a magnetically active portion in the rotor. Alternatively, a conventional length stator core can be utilized with a shortened magnetically active portion to mitigate losses in the motor/generator. To mitigate the losses in the core caused by stator winding, the core can be extended to a length substantially equivalent or greater than a length of stator winding.

  2. Database on wind characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Hojstrup, J.; Hansen, K.S.

    1996-12-31

    Wind data with high temporal resolution exist from a variety of sites, and is in demand by windturbine designers and wind engineers. Unfortunately it has always been a problem to gain access to a suitable amount of this data, because they are available from many different sources in different formats and with very different levels of documentation and quality control. We are now in the process of gaining access to a large amount of this type of data, checking the quality of the data and putting the data at the disposition of the windturbine designer community through easy Internet access. Online search will use summary statistics calculated for each series to help in the selection of data. The selected data can then be downloaded directly to the user. 3 figs.

  3. Wind shear measuring on board an airliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauspe, P.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement technique which continuously determines the wind vector on board an airliner during takeoff and landing is introduced. Its implementation is intended to deliver sufficient statistical background concerning low frequency wind changes in the atmospheric boundary layer and extended knowledge about deterministic wind shear modeling. The wind measurement scheme is described and the adaptation of apparatus onboard an A300 airbus is shown. Preliminary measurements made during level flight demonstrate the validity of the method.

  4. World Wind: NASA's Virtual Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.

    2007-12-01

    infrastructure. The open-source community plays a crucial role in advancing virtual globe technology. This world community identifies, tracks and resolves technical problems, suggests new features and source code modifications, and often provides high-resolution data sets and other types of user-generated content, all while extending the functionality of virtual globe technology. NASA World Wind is one example of open source virtual globe technology that provides the world with the ability to build any desired functionality and make any desired data accessible.

  5. Wind height distribution influence on offshore wind farm feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benassai, Guido; Della Morte, Renata; Matarazzo, Antonio; Cozzolino, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The economic feasibility of offshore wind power utilization depends on the favourable wind conditions offshore as compared to sites on land. The higher wind speeds have to compensate the additional cost of offshore developments. However, not only the mean wind speed is different, but the whole flow regime, as can be seen in the vertical wind speed profile. The commonly used models to describe this profile have been developed mainly for land sites, so they have to be verified on the basis of field data. Monin-Obukhov theory is often used for the description of the wind speed profile at a different height with respect to a measurement height. Starting from the former, , the profile is predicted using two parameters, Obukhov length and sea surface roughness. For situations with near-neutral and stable atmospheric stratification and long (>30km) fetch, the wind speed increase with height is larger than what is predicted from Monin-Obukhov theory. It is also found that this deviation occurs at wind speeds important for wind power utilization, mainly at 5-9 ms-1. In the present study the influence of these aspects on the potential site productivity of an offshore wind farm were investigated, namely the deviation from the theory of Monin-Obukhov due to atmospheric stability and the influence of the fetch length on the Charnock model. Both these physical effects were discussed and examined in view of a feasibility study of a site for offshore wind farm in Southern Italy. Available data consisted of time histories of wind speeds and directions collected by National Tidegauge Network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale) at the height of 10m a.s.l. in ports. The theory of Monin-Obukhov was used to extrapolate the data to the height of the wind blades, while the Charnock model was used to extend the wind speed on the sea surface from the friction velocity on the ground. The models described were used to perform calculations for a feasibility study of an offshore wind farm in Southern

  6. Floating wind turbine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  7. Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2010-11-15

    The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (∼50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (∼550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs.

  8. Extending quantum mechanics entails extending special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.

    2016-05-01

    The complementarity between signaling and randomness in any communicated resource that can simulate singlet statistics is generalized by relaxing the assumption of free will in the choice of measurement settings. We show how to construct an ontological extension for quantum mechanics (QMs) through the oblivious embedding of a sound simulation protocol in a Newtonian spacetime. Minkowski or other intermediate spacetimes are ruled out as the locus of the embedding by virtue of hidden influence inequalities. The complementarity transferred from a simulation to the extension unifies a number of results about quantum non-locality, and implies that special relativity has a different significance for the ontological model and for the operational theory it reproduces. Only the latter, being experimentally accessible, is required to be Lorentz covariant. There may be certain Lorentz non-covariant elements at the ontological level, but they will be inaccessible at the operational level in a valid extension. Certain arguments against the extendability of QM, due to Conway and Kochen (2009) and Colbeck and Renner (2012), are attributed to their assumption that the spacetime at the ontological level has Minkowski causal structure.

  9. Session: Wind industry project development

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Tom; Enfield, Sam

    2004-09-01

    This first session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a question and answer period. The session was intended to provide a general overview of wind energy product development, from the industry's perspective. Tom Gray of AWEA presented a paper titled ''State of the Wind Energy Industry in 2004'', highlighting improved performance and lower cost, efforts to address avian impacts, a status of wind energy in comparison to other energy-producing sources, and ending on expectations for the near future. Sam Enfield of Atlantic Renewable Energy Corporation presented a paper titled ''Key Factors for Consideration in Wind Plant Siting'', highlighting factors that wind facility developers must consider when choosing a site to build wind turbines and associated structures. Factors covered include wind resources available, ownership and land use patterns, access to transmission lines, accessibility and environmental impacts. The question and answer sum mary included topics related to risk taking, research and development, regulatory requirements, and dealing with utilities.

  10. INL Wind Farm Project Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Siefert

    2009-07-01

    The INL Wind Farm project proposes to install a 20 MW to 40 MW wind farm on government property, consisting of approximately ten to twenty full-sized (80-meter hub height) towers with 2 MW turbines, and access roads. This includes identifying the optimal turbine locations, building access roads, and pouring the tower foundations in preparation for turbine installation. The project successfully identified a location on INL lands with commercially viable wind resources (i.e., greater than 11 mph sustained winds) for a 20 to 40 MW wind farm. Additionally, the proposed Wind Farm was evaluated against other General Plant Projects, General Purpose Capital Equipment projects, and Line Item Construction Projects at the INL to show the relative importance of the proposed Wind Farm project.

  11. Dune formation under bimodal winds.

    PubMed

    Parteli, Eric J R; Durán, Orencio; Tsoar, Haim; Schwämmle, Veit; Herrmann, Hans J

    2009-12-29

    The study of dune morphology represents a valuable tool in the investigation of planetary wind systems--the primary factor controlling the dune shape is the wind directionality. However, our understanding of dune formation is still limited to the simplest situation of unidirectional winds: There is no model that solves the equations of sand transport under the most common situation of seasonally varying wind directions. Here we present the calculation of sand transport under bimodal winds using a dune model that is extended to account for more than one wind direction. Our calculations show that dunes align longitudinally to the resultant wind trend if the angle(w) between the wind directions is larger than 90 degrees. Under high sand availability, linear seif dunes are obtained, the intriguing meandering shape of which is found to be controlled by the dune height and by the time the wind lasts at each one of the two wind directions. Unusual dune shapes including the "wedge dunes" observed on Mars appear within a wide spectrum of bimodal dune morphologies under low sand availability.

  12. Dune formation under bimodal winds

    PubMed Central

    Parteli, Eric J. R.; Durán, Orencio; Tsoar, Haim; Schwämmle, Veit; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2009-01-01

    The study of dune morphology represents a valuable tool in the investigation of planetary wind systems—the primary factor controlling the dune shape is the wind directionality. However, our understanding of dune formation is still limited to the simplest situation of unidirectional winds: There is no model that solves the equations of sand transport under the most common situation of seasonally varying wind directions. Here we present the calculation of sand transport under bimodal winds using a dune model that is extended to account for more than one wind direction. Our calculations show that dunes align longitudinally to the resultant wind trend if the angle θw between the wind directions is larger than 90°. Under high sand availability, linear seif dunes are obtained, the intriguing meandering shape of which is found to be controlled by the dune height and by the time the wind lasts at each one of the two wind directions. Unusual dune shapes including the “wedge dunes” observed on Mars appear within a wide spectrum of bimodal dune morphologies under low sand availability. PMID:20018703

  13. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  14. Wind sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. B.; Laue, E. G. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus is described for sensing the temperature, velocity, and direction of the wind, including four temperature-dependent crystal oscillators spaced about an axis, a heater centered on the axis, and a screen through which the wind blows to pass over the crystals. In one method of operation, the frequency of the oscillators is taken when the heater is not energized, to obtain the temperature of the wind, and the frequencies of the oscillators are taken after the heater is energized to determine the direction and velocity of the wind. When the heater is energized, the wind causes the downwind crystals to achieve a higher temperature than the upwind crystals, and with the magnitude of the difference indicating the velocity of the wind.

  15. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  16. Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ganley, Jason; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-03-15

    Wind energy is a variable and uncertain renewable resource that has long been used to produce mechanical work, and has developed into a large producer of global electricity needs. As renewable sources of energy and feedstocks become more important globally to produce sustainable products, many different processes have started adopting wind power as an energy source. Many times this is through a conversion to hydrogen through electrolysis that allows for a more continuous process input. Other important pathways include methanol and ammonia. As the demand for sustainable products and production pathways increases, and wind power capital costs decrease, the role of wind power in chemical and energy production seems poised to increase significantly.

  17. Extensible Wind Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinagra, Marco; Tucciarelli, Tullio

    The diffusion of wind energy generators is restricted by their strong landscape impact. The PERIMA project is about the development of an extensible wind tower able to support a wind machine for several hundred kW at its optimal working height, up to more than 50 m. The wind tower has a telescopic structure, made by several tubes located inside each other with their axis in vertical direction. The lifting force is given by a jack-up system confined inside a shaft, drilled below the ground level. In the retracted tower configuration, at rest, tower tubes are hidden in the foundation of the telescopic structure, located below the ground surface, and the wind machine is the only emerging part of the system. The lifting system is based on a couple of oleodynamic cylinders that jack-up a central tube connected to the top of the tower by a spring, with a diameter smaller than the minimum tower diameter and with a length a bit greater than the length of the extended telescopic structure. The central tube works as plunger and lifts all telescopic elements. The constraint between the telescopic elements is ensured by special parts, which are kept in traction by the force of the spring and provide the resisting moment. The most evident benefit of the proposed system is attained with the use of a two-blade propeller, which can be kept horizontal in the retracted tower configuration.

  18. Arteriovenous Access

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Jennifer M.; Dipchand, Christine; Oliver, Matthew; Moist, Louise; Yilmaz, Serdar; Lok, Charmaine; Leung, Kelvin; Clark, Edward; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Complications of vascular access lead to morbidity and may reduce quality of life. In this module, we review both infectious and noninfectious arteriovenous access complications including neuropathy, aneurysm, and high-output access. For the challenging patients who have developed many complications and are now nearing their last vascular access, we highlight some potentially novel approaches. PMID:28270919

  19. Musical intonation of wind instruments and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zendri, G.; Valdan, M.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2015-05-01

    Wind musical instruments are affected in their intonation by temperature. We show how to account for these effects in a simple experiment, and provide results in languages accessible to both physics and music professionals.

  20. Musical Intonation of Wind Instruments and Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendri, G.; Valdan, M.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2015-01-01

    Wind musical instruments are affected in their intonation by temperature. We show how to account for these effects in a simple experiment, and provide results in languages accessible to both physics and music professionals.

  1. Wind energy.

    PubMed

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented.

  2. Wind power forecasting: IEA Wind Task 36 & future research issues

    SciTech Connect

    Giebel, G.; Cline, J.; Frank, H.; Shaw, W.; Pinson, P.; Hodge, B-M; Kariniotakis, G.; Madsen, J.; Möhrlen, C.

    2016-10-03

    Here, this paper presents the new International Energy Agency Wind Task 36 on Forecasting, and invites to collaborate within the group. Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national meteorological centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, MetOffice, met.no, DMI,...), operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions. As first results, an overview of current issues for research in short-term forecasting of wind power is presented.

  3. Wind power forecasting: IEA Wind Task 36 & future research issues

    DOE PAGES

    Giebel, G.; Cline, J.; Frank, H.; ...

    2016-10-03

    Here, this paper presents the new International Energy Agency Wind Task 36 on Forecasting, and invites to collaborate within the group. Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national meteorological centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, MetOffice, met.no, DMI,...), operational forecaster and forecast users. The Taskmore » is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions. As first results, an overview of current issues for research in short-term forecasting of wind power is presented.« less

  4. Wind power forecasting: IEA Wind Task 36 & future research issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, G.; Cline, J.; Frank, H.; Shaw, W.; Pinson, P.; Hodge, B.-M.; Kariniotakis, G.; Madsen, J.; Möhrlen, C.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the new International Energy Agency Wind Task 36 on Forecasting, and invites to collaborate within the group. Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national meteorological centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, MetOffice, met.no, DMI,...), operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions. As first results, an overview of current issues for research in short-term forecasting of wind power is presented.

  5. Extender for securing a closure

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, II, Patrick A.

    2012-10-02

    An apparatus for securing a closure such as door or a window that opens and closes by movement relative to a fixed structure such as a wall or a floor. Many embodiments provide a device for relocating a padlock from its normal location where it secures a fastener (such as a hasp) to a location for the padlock that is more accessible for locking and unlocking the padlock. Typically an extender is provided, where the extender has a hook at a first end that is disposed through the eye of the staple of the hasp, and at an opposing second end the extender has an annulus, such as a hole in the extender or a loop or ring affixed to the extender. The shackle of the padlock may be disposed through the annulus and may be disposed through the eye of a second staple to secure the door or window in a closed or open position. Some embodiments employ a rigid sheath to enclose at least a portion of the extender. Typically the rigid sheath has an open state where the hook is exposed outside the sheath and a closed state where the hook is disposed within the sheath.

  6. Operational Impacts of Large Deployments of Offshore Wind (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Heaney, M.

    2014-10-01

    The potential operational impact of deploying 54 GW of offshore wind in the United States was examined. The capacity was not evenly distributed; instead, it was concentrated in regions with better wind quality and close to load centers (Table 1). A statistical analysis of offshore wind power time series was used to assess the effect on the power system. The behavior of offshore wind resembled that of onshore wind, despite the former presenting higher capacity factors, more consistent power output across seasons, and higher variability levels. Thus, methods developed to manage onshore wind variability can be extended and applied to offshore wind.

  7. Diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Kenneth M.; Gilbert, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  8. Improved diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, K.M.; Gilbert, B.L.

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  9. Stellar Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, Stan

    A "stellar wind" is the continuous, supersonic outflow of matter from the surface layers of a star. Our sun has a solar wind, driven by the gas-pressure expansion of the hot (T > 106 K) solar corona. It can be studied through direct in situ measurement by interplanetary spacecraft; but analogous coronal winds in more distant solar-type stars are so tenuous and transparent that that they are difficult to detect directly. Many more luminous stars have winds that are dense enough to be opaque at certain wavelengths of the star's radiation, making it possible to study their wind outflows remotely through careful interpretation of the observed stellar spectra. Red giant stars show slow, dense winds that may be driven by the pressure from magnetohydrodyanmic waves. As stars with initial mass up to 8 M ⊙ evolve toward the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), a combination of stellar pulsations and radiative scattering off dust can culminate in "superwinds" that strip away the entire stellar envelope, leaving behind a hot white dwarf stellar core with less than the Chandrasekhar mass of ˜ ​​ 1. 4M ⊙. The winds of hot, luminous, massive stars are driven by line-scattering of stellar radiation, but such massive stars can also exhibit superwind episodes, either as Red Supergiants or Luminous Blue Variable stars. The combined wind and superwind mass loss can strip the star's hydrogen envelope, leaving behind a Wolf-Rayet star composed of the products of earlier nuclear burning via the CNO cycle. In addition to such direct effects on a star's own evolution, stellar winds can be a substantial source of mass, momentum, and energy to the interstellar medium, blowing open large cavities or "bubbles" in this ISM, seeding it with nuclear processed material, and even helping trigger the formation of new stars, and influencing their eventual fate as white dwarves or core-collapse supernovae. This chapter reviews the properties of such stellar winds, with an emphasis on the various

  10. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains Wind Power, LLC v. Xcel...

  11. National Wind Technology Center (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    This overview fact sheet is one in a series of information fact sheets for the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). Wind energy is one of the fastest growing electricity generation sources in the world. NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), the nation's premier wind energy technology research facility, fosters innovative wind energy technologies in land-based and offshore wind through its research and testing facilities and extends these capabilities to marine hydrokinetic water power. Research and testing conducted at the NWTC offers specialized facilities and personnel and provides technical support critical to the development of advanced wind energy systems. From the base of a system's tower to the tips of its blades, NREL researchers work side-by-side with wind industry partners to increase system reliability and reduce wind energy costs. The NWTC's centrally located research and test facilities at the foot of the Colorado Rockies experience diverse and robust wind patterns ideal for testing. The NWTC tests wind turbine components, complete wind energy systems and prototypes from 400 watts to multiple megawatts in power rating.

  12. Offshore winds using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Alfredo; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Courtney, Michael; Antoniou, Ioannis; Mikkelsen, Torben; Sørensen, Paul

    2007-07-01

    Ground-based remote sensing instruments can observe winds at different levels in the atmosphere where the wind characteristics change with height: the range of heights where modern turbine rotors are operating. A six-month wind assessment campaign has been made with a LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and a SoDAR (Sound Detection and Ranging) on the transformer/platform of the world's largest offshore wind farm located at the West coast of Denmark to evaluate their ability to observe offshore winds. The high homogeneity and low turbulence levels registered allow the comparison of LiDAR and SoDAR with measurements from cups on masts surrounding the wind farm showing good agreement for both the mean wind speed and the longitudinal component of turbulence. An extension of mean wind speed profiles from cup measurements on masts with LiDAR observations results in a good match for the free sectors at different wind speeds. The log-linear profile is fitted to the extended profiles (averaged over all stabilities and roughness lengths) and the deviations are small. Extended profiles of turbulence intensity are also shown for different wind speeds up to 161 m. Friction velocities and roughness lengths calculated from the fitted log-linear profile are compared with the Charnock model which seems to overestimate the sea roughness for the free sectors.

  13. A comparison of winds from the STRATAN data assimilation system to balanced wind estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, Lawrence; Rood, Richard B.; Newman, Paul A.

    1994-01-01

    Winds derived from a stratospheric and tropospheric data assimilation system (STRATAN) are compared with balance winds derived from National Meteorological Center/Climate Analysis Center (NMC/CAC) heights. At middle latitudes in the lower stratosphere, the results show that STRATAN winds are comparable to the balance winds. In addition STRATAN winds provide useful horizontal divergence analyses, and hence, vertical velocity fields. More generally, the STRATAN winds are useful in a more extended domain than the balanced winds. In particular, they are useful in the Tropics and the upper stratosphere where the balanced winds fail. The assimilation also captures the quasi-biennial oscillation, but does not do a good job of representing tropical waves.

  14. Wind lidar evaluation at the Danish wind test site in Høvsøre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David A.; Harris, Michael; Coffey, Adrian S.; Mikkelsen, Torben; Jørgensen, Hans E.; Mann, Jakob; Danielian, Régis

    2006-01-01

    Initial assessments of a wind lidar have shown the technology to have significant potential for wind field measurements in the wind energy industry. A more extended evaluation is now reported using a scanning lidar next to a meteorological mast with calibrated anemometers at the Risø wind test site in Høvsøre on the windy northwest coast of Denmark. Results are presented of wind speed comparisons at heights up to 100 m above ground level showing excellent correlation between the lidar and the cup anemometers. Copyright

  15. TMCC WIND RESOURCE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Turtle Mountain Community College

    2003-12-30

    North Dakota has an outstanding resource--providing more available wind for development than any other state. According to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) studies, North Dakota alone has enough energy from good wind areas, those of wind power Class 4 and higher, to supply 36% of the 1990 electricity consumption of the entire lower 48 states. At present, no more than a handful of wind turbines in the 60- to 100-kilowatt (kW) range are operating in the state. The first two utility-scale turbines were installed in North Dakota as part of a green pricing program, one in early 2002 and the second in July 2002. Both turbines are 900-kW wind turbines. Two more wind turbines are scheduled for installation by another utility later in 2002. Several reasons are evident for the lack of wind development. One primary reason is that North Dakota has more lignite coal than any other state. A number of relatively new minemouth power plants are operating in the state, resulting in an abundance of low-cost electricity. In 1998, North Dakota generated approximately 8.2 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity, largely from coal-fired plants. Sales to North Dakota consumers totaled only 4.5 million MWh. In addition, the average retail cost of electricity in North Dakota was 5.7 cents per kWh in 1998. As a result of this surplus and the relatively low retail cost of service, North Dakota is a net exporter of electricity, selling approximately 50% to 60% of the electricity produced in North Dakota to markets outside the state. Keeping in mind that new electrical generation will be considered an export commodity to be sold outside the state, the transmission grid that serves to export electricity from North Dakota is at or close to its ability to serve new capacity. The markets for these resources are outside the state, and transmission access to the markets is a necessary condition for any large project. At the present time, technical assessments of the transmission network indicate

  16. 3D Wind: Quantifying wind speed and turbulence intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.; Wang, H.; Crippa, P.

    2013-12-01

    Integrating measurements and modeling of wind characteristics for wind resource assessment and wind farm control is increasingly challenging as the scales of wind farms increases. Even offshore or in relatively homogeneous landscapes, there are significant gradients of both wind speed and turbulence intensity on scales that typify large wind farms. Our project is, therefore, focused on (i) improving methods to integrate remote sensing and in situ measurements with model simulations to produce a 3-dimensional view of the flow field on wind farm scales and (ii) investigating important controls on the spatiotemporal variability of flow fields within the coastal zone. The instrument suite deployed during the field experiments includes; 3-D sonic and cup anemometers deployed on meteorological masts and buoys, anemometers deployed on tethersondes and an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, multiple vertically-pointing continuous-wave lidars and scanning Doppler lidars. We also integrate data from satellite-borne instrumentation - specifically synthetic aperture radar and scatterometers and output from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Spatial wind fields and vertical profiles of wind speed from WRF and from the full in situ observational suite exhibit excellent agreement in a proof-of-principle experiment conducted in north Indiana particularly during convective conditions, but showed some discrepancies during the breakdown of the nocturnal stable layer. Our second experiment in May 2013 focused on triangulating a volume above an area of coastal water extending from the port in Cleveland out to an offshore water intake crib (about 5 km) and back to the coast, and includes extremely high resolution WRF simulations designed to characterize the coastal zone. Vertically pointing continuous-wave lidars were operated at each apex of the triangle, while the scanning Doppler lidar scanned out across the water over 90 degrees azimuth angle. Preliminary results pertaining to

  17. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development... 385.207, Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind...

  18. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  19. Modeling Sensitivities to the 20% Wind Scenario Report with the WinDS Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.; Hand, M.; Short, W.; Sullivan, P.

    2008-06-01

    In May 2008, DOE published '20% Wind Energy by 2030', a report which describes the costs and benefits of producing 20% of the nation's projected electricity demand in 2030 from wind technology. The total electricity system cost resulting from this scenario was modestly higher than a scenario in which no additional wind was installed after 2006. NREL's Wind Deployment System (WinDS) model was used to support this analysis. With its 358 regions, explicit treatment of transmission expansion, onshore siting considerations, shallow- and deep-water wind resources, 2030 outlook, explicit financing assumptions, endogenous learning, and stochastic treatment of wind resource variability, WinDS is unique in the level of detail it can bring to this analysis. For the 20% Wind Energy by 2030 analysis, the group chose various model structures (such as the ability to wheel power within an interconnect), and the wind industry agreed on a variety of model inputs (such as the cost of transmission or new wind turbines). For this paper, the analysis examined the sensitivity of the results to variations in those input values and model structure choices. These included wind cost and performance improvements over time, seasonal/diurnal wind resource variations, transmission access and costs, siting costs, conventional fuel cost trajectories, and conventional capital costs.

  20. Galactic Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    Galactic winds have become arguably one of the hottest topics in extragalactic astronomy. This enthusiasm for galactic winds is due in part to the detection of winds in many, if not most, high-redshift galaxies. Galactic winds have also been invoked by theorists to (1) suppress the number of visible dwarf galaxies and avoid the "cooling catastrophe" at high redshift that results in the overproduction of massive luminous galaxies, (2) remove material with low specific angular momentum early on and help enlarge gas disks in CDM + baryons simulations, (3) reduce the dark mass concentrations in galaxies, (4) explain the mass-metallicity relation of galaxies from selective loss of metal-enriched gas from smaller galaxies, (5) enrich and "preheat" the ICM, (6) enrich the IGM without disturbing the Lyαforest significantly, and (7) inhibit cooling flows in galaxy clusters with active cD galaxies. The present paper highlights a few key aspects of galactic winds taken from a recent ARAA review by Veilleux, Cecil, &Bland-Hawthorn (2005; herafter VCBH). Readers interested in a more detailed discussion of this topic are encouraged to refer to the original ARAA article.

  1. Wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  2. Wind Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  3. AWIPS II Extended - Data Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R.; Schotz, S.; Calkins, J.; Gockel, B.; Ortiz, C.; Peter, R.

    2012-12-01

    AWIPS II Technology Infusion is a multiphase program. The first phase is the migration of the Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and River Forecast Centers (RFCs) AWIPS I capabilities into a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), referred to as AWIPS II. AWIPS II is currently being deployed to Operational Test and Evaluation (OTE) and other select deployment sites. The subsequent phases of AWIPS Technology Infusion, known as AWIPS II Extended, include several projects that will improve technological capabilities of AWIPS II in order to enhance the NWS enterprise and improve services to partners. This paper summarizes AWIPS II Extended - Data Delivery project and reports on its status. Data Delivery enables AWIPS II users to discover, subscribe and access web-enabled data provider systems including the capability to subset datasets by space, time and parameter.

  4. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  5. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  6. Wavelet Analysis for Wind Fields Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Gladeston C.; Ushizima, Daniela M.; Medeiros, Fátima N. S.; de Lima, Gilson G.

    2010-01-01

    Wind field analysis from synthetic aperture radar images allows the estimation of wind direction and speed based on image descriptors. In this paper, we propose a framework to automate wind direction retrieval based on wavelet decomposition associated with spectral processing. We extend existing undecimated wavelet transform approaches, by including à trous with B3 spline scaling function, in addition to other wavelet bases as Gabor and Mexican-hat. The purpose is to extract more reliable directional information, when wind speed values range from 5 to 10 ms−1. Using C-band empirical models, associated with the estimated directional information, we calculate local wind speed values and compare our results with QuikSCAT scatterometer data. The proposed approach has potential application in the evaluation of oil spills and wind farms. PMID:22219699

  7. Wavelet analysis for wind fields estimation.

    PubMed

    Leite, Gladeston C; Ushizima, Daniela M; Medeiros, Fátima N S; de Lima, Gilson G

    2010-01-01

    Wind field analysis from synthetic aperture radar images allows the estimation of wind direction and speed based on image descriptors. In this paper, we propose a framework to automate wind direction retrieval based on wavelet decomposition associated with spectral processing. We extend existing undecimated wavelet transform approaches, by including à trous with B(3) spline scaling function, in addition to other wavelet bases as Gabor and Mexican-hat. The purpose is to extract more reliable directional information, when wind speed values range from 5 to 10 ms(-1). Using C-band empirical models, associated with the estimated directional information, we calculate local wind speed values and compare our results with QuikSCAT scatterometer data. The proposed approach has potential application in the evaluation of oil spills and wind farms.

  8. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  9. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  10. Uncovering wind turbine properties through two-dimensional stochastic modeling of wind dynamics.

    PubMed

    Raischel, Frank; Scholz, Teresa; Lopes, Vitor V; Lind, Pedro G

    2013-10-01

    Using a method for stochastic data analysis borrowed from statistical physics, we analyze synthetic data from a Markov chain model that reproduces measurements of wind speed and power production in a wind park in Portugal. We show that our analysis retrieves indeed the power performance curve, which yields the relationship between wind speed and power production, and we discuss how this procedure can be extended for extracting unknown functional relationships between pairs of physical variables in general. We also show how specific features, such as the rated speed of the wind turbine or the descriptive wind speed statistics, can be related to the equations describing the evolution of power production and wind speed at single wind turbines.

  11. Uncovering wind turbine properties through two-dimensional stochastic modeling of wind dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raischel, Frank; Scholz, Teresa; Lopes, Vitor V.; Lind, Pedro G.

    2013-10-01

    Using a method for stochastic data analysis borrowed from statistical physics, we analyze synthetic data from a Markov chain model that reproduces measurements of wind speed and power production in a wind park in Portugal. We show that our analysis retrieves indeed the power performance curve, which yields the relationship between wind speed and power production, and we discuss how this procedure can be extended for extracting unknown functional relationships between pairs of physical variables in general. We also show how specific features, such as the rated speed of the wind turbine or the descriptive wind speed statistics, can be related to the equations describing the evolution of power production and wind speed at single wind turbines.

  12. Wind turbine having a direct-drive drivetrain

    DOEpatents

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2011-02-22

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  13. Wind turbine/generator set and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2013-06-04

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  14. Coalescing Wind Turbine Wakes

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Sirnivas, S.; ...

    2015-06-18

    A team of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Statoil used large-eddy simulations to numerically investigate the merging wakes from upstream offshore wind turbines. Merging wakes are typical phenomena in wind farm flows in which neighboring turbine wakes consolidate to form complex flow patterns that are as yet not well understood. In the present study, three 6-MW turbines in a row were subjected to a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer flow. As a result, the wake from the farthest upstream turbine conjoined the downstream wake, which significantly altered the subsequent velocity deficit structures, turbulence intensity, and the globalmore » meandering behavior. The complexity increased even more when the combined wakes from the two upstream turbines mixed with the wake generated by the last turbine, thereby forming a "triplet" structure. Although the influence of the wake generated by the first turbine decayed with downstream distance, the mutated wakes from the second turbine continued to influence the downstream wake. Two mirror-image angles of wind directions that yielded partial wakes impinging on the downstream turbines yielded asymmetric wake profiles that could be attributed to the changing flow directions in the rotor plane induced by the Coriolis force. In conclusion, the turbine wakes persisted for extended distances in the present study, which is a result of low aerodynamic surface roughness typically found in offshore conditions« less

  15. Coalescing Wind Turbine Wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Sirnivas, S.; Moriarty, P.; Nielsen, F. G.; Skaare, B.; Byklum, E.

    2015-06-18

    A team of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Statoil used large-eddy simulations to numerically investigate the merging wakes from upstream offshore wind turbines. Merging wakes are typical phenomena in wind farm flows in which neighboring turbine wakes consolidate to form complex flow patterns that are as yet not well understood. In the present study, three 6-MW turbines in a row were subjected to a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer flow. As a result, the wake from the farthest upstream turbine conjoined the downstream wake, which significantly altered the subsequent velocity deficit structures, turbulence intensity, and the global meandering behavior. The complexity increased even more when the combined wakes from the two upstream turbines mixed with the wake generated by the last turbine, thereby forming a "triplet" structure. Although the influence of the wake generated by the first turbine decayed with downstream distance, the mutated wakes from the second turbine continued to influence the downstream wake. Two mirror-image angles of wind directions that yielded partial wakes impinging on the downstream turbines yielded asymmetric wake profiles that could be attributed to the changing flow directions in the rotor plane induced by the Coriolis force. In conclusion, the turbine wakes persisted for extended distances in the present study, which is a result of low aerodynamic surface roughness typically found in offshore conditions

  16. Analysis of Rhode Island Coastal Wind Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, K. I.; Merrill, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    Eleven wind profile data sets were collected at sites in Rhode Island between 2007 and the present, extending over periods from 6 to 20 months, with a mean of 14 months. The data was gathered from meteorological towers via anemometers and wind vanes at heights up to 60 m, or using SoDAR (Sonic Detection And Ranging) instruments at heights up to 200 m. Wind speeds are generally greater in the fall and winter, with minimum wind speeds occurring in the summer. Winds blow most frequently from the northwest in the winter and from the southwest in the summer. The power law describes wind speed with height in neutral static stability conditions; the fitted shear coefficient characterizes the distribution and is used in wind resource assessment. Marine sites exhibit higher wind speeds and lower shear than terrestrial sites, due to lower surface drag. In contrast, terrestrial sites experience more shear and greater temporal variability. The magnitude of diel and seasonal differences between marine and terrestrial locations will be discussed. The land-breeze sea-breeze cycle influences wind throughout the study area; the magnitude of this variation, along with azimuthal shear will be considered. In addition to the short-term profile data, we used several multi-decadal single height anemometer data sets. Wind estimates at hub height over an extended time period calculated using Measure Correlate Predict (MCP) algorithms will be discussed in the context of hypothesized temporal trends in the wind speeds. Utilization of such data for wind energy and other applications will be discussed.

  17. Final Report on the Creation of the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit and API: October 1, 2013 - September 30, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-04-08

    The primary objective of this work was to create a state-of-the-art national wind resource data set and to provide detailed wind plant output data for specific sites based on that data set. Corresponding retrospective wind forecasts were also included at all selected locations. The combined information from these activities was used to create the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND), and an extraction tool was developed to allow web-based data access.

  18. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Jónasson, Kristján; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2014-05-01

    infrastructure and the power grid, as well as due to the harsh winter climate. However, even in easily accessible regions, wind energy potential in Iceland, as measured by annual average power density, is among the highest in Western Europe. Based on these results, 14 test sites were selected for more detailed analyses using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). These calculations show that a modest wind farm of ten medium size turbines would produce more energy throughout the year than a small hydro power plant, making wind energy a viable additional option.

  19. Impact of Increasing Distributed Wind Power and Wind Turbine Siting on Rural Distribution Feeder Voltage Profiles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, A.; Zhang, Y. C.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-09-01

    Many favorable wind energy resources in North America are located in remote locations without direct access to the transmission grid. Building transmission lines to connect remotely-located wind power plants to large load centers has become a barrier to increasing wind power penetration in North America. By connecting utility-sized megawatt-scale wind turbines to the distribution system, wind power supplied to consumers could be increased greatly. However, the impact of including megawatt-scale wind turbines on distribution feeders needs to be studied. The work presented here examined the impact that siting and power output of megawatt-scale wind turbines have on distribution feeder voltage. This is the start of work to present a general guide to megawatt-scale wind turbine impact on the distribution feeder and finding the amount of wind power that can be added without adversely impacting the distribution feeder operation, reliability, and power quality.

  20. Airship-floated wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    A wind turbine, by use of a tethered airship for support, may be designed for the economical recovery of power at heights of 2,000 feet or more above ground, at which height power density in the wind is typically three times the power density available to a conventionally supported wind turbine. Means can be added to such an airship-floated wind turbine which will permit its generators to be used to meet load demand even during periods of little or no wind. Described to this end is a wind turbine system which combines, among other novel features: a novel tether line system which provides access for men and materials to the supporting airship while in active service, a novel system for providing additional buoyant lift at the nose of the turbine-supporting airship to offset the vertical component of tension induced in the tether line by the downwind force exerted by the turbine blades, a novel bearing assembly at the nose of the supporting airship which permits the airship to rotate as a unit with the turbine it supports without causing a similar rotation of the tether line, a novel turbine airship structure which handles concentrated loads from the turbine efficiently and also permits the safe use of hydrogen for buoyancy, a novel ''space frame'' structure which supports the turbine blades and greatly reduces blade weight, a novel system for controlling turbine blade angle of incidence and for varying blade incidene in synchrony with blade angular position abut the turbine axis to provide greater control over airship movement, a novel system for locating propellor-driven generators out at the wind turbine perimeter and for using lightweight, high-RPM generators to produce electrical energy at a power line frequency, which greatly reduces the weight required to convert turbine blade torque into useful power, and a novel system for incorporating compressed air storage and combustion turbine components into the wind turbine's generator drive systems.

  1. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  2. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  3. Jupiter Polar Winds Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Bands of eastward and westward winds on Jupiter appear as concentric rotating circles in this movie composed of Cassini spacecraft images that have been re-projected as if the viewer were looking down at Jupiter's north pole and the planet were flattened.

    The sequence covers 70 days, from October 1 to December 9, 2000. Cassini's narrow-angle camera captured the images of Jupiter's atmosphere in the near-infrared region of the spectrum.

    What is surprising in this view is the coherent nature of the high-latitude flows, despite the very chaotic, mottled and non-banded appearance of the planet's polar regions. This is the first extended movie sequence to show the coherence and longevity of winds near the pole and the features blown around the planet by them.

    There are thousands of spots, each an active storm similar to the size to the largest of storms on Earth. Large terrestrial storms usually last only a week before they dissolve and are replaced by other storms. But many of the Jovian storms seen here, while occasionally changing latitude or merging with each other, persist for the entire 70 days. Until now, the lifetime of the high-latitude features was unknown. Their longevity is a mystery of Jovian weather.

    Cassini collected images of Jupiter for months before and after it passed the planet on December 30, 2000. Six or more images of the planet in each of several spectral filters were taken at evenly spaced intervals over the course of Jupiter's 10-hour rotation period. The entire sequence was repeated generally every other Jupiter rotation, yielding views of every sector of the planet at least once every 20 hours.

    The images used for the movie shown here were taken every 20 hours through a filter centered at a wavelength of 756 nanometers, where there are almost no absorptions in the planet's atmosphere. The images covering each rotation were mosaiced together to form a cylindrical map extending from 75 degrees north to 75 degrees south in

  4. Simulation of the surface wind field and wind waves over the Oman Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzeloo, Sima; Hadi Moeini, Mohammad; Jandaghi Alaee, Majid

    2016-04-01

    Surface wind field is one of the most important factors in the generation of the marine hydrodynamic phenomena such as wind waves that highly affected by the surface winds. Therefore, accessibility to the correct wind field is of great importance for accurate prediction and simulation of the hydrodynamic variables. Nowadays numerical mesoscale weather prediction models are widely applied as powerful tools to simulate wind and other atmospheric variables with predefined temporal and spatial resolution in desired areas. Despite appropriate results of the numerical models in many regions, there are still some complications in the simulation of the surface wind field in areas with complex orography since the surface wind field is highly affected by the local topography, land-sea discontinuity, temperature gradient etc. Nowadays, with the development of high-speed processors the third generation spectral models are generally used for simulation of wind waves. Wind data are the main input parameters of the numerical spectral wave model. Therefore, the quality of the input wind data can be assessed by comparison of the wave model outputs with measured values. The main goal of the current study is to simulate surface wind field over the Oman Sea using WRF modeling system. To verify the model results, the simulated wind speeds were compared with synoptic and buoy measurements and satellite observations. Wind-wave parameters simulated by the spectral model were also compared with wave measurements to verify simulated surface wind field as the input of the wave model. The Comparison simulated wind speed and directions in coastal synoptic stations and QuikSCAT satellite shows sufficient results for both offshore and coastal areas.

  5. Multi-piece wind turbine rotor blades and wind turbines incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Moroz,; Mieczyslaw, Emilian [San Diego, CA

    2008-06-03

    A multisection blade for a wind turbine includes a hub extender having a pitch bearing at one end, a skirt or fairing having a hole therethrough and configured to mount over the hub extender, and an outboard section configured to couple to the pitch bearing.

  6. Multiwavelength Observations of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, Patrick

    The extended nebulae formed as pulsar winds expand into their surroundings provide information about the composition of the winds, the injection history from the host pulsar, and the material into which the nebulae are expanding. Observations from across the electromagnetic spectrum provide constraints on the evolution of the nebulae, the density and composition of the surrounding ejecta, the geometry of the central engines, and the long-term fate of the energetic particles produced in these systems. Such observations reveal the presence of jets and wind termination shocks, time-varying compact emission structures, shocked supernova ejecta, and newly formed dust. Here I provide a broad overview of the structure of pulsar wind nebulae, with specific examples from observations extending from the radio band to very-high-energy γ-rays that demonstrate our ability to constrain the history and ultimate fate of the energy released in the spin-down of young pulsars.

  7. Environmental effect of large wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Senior, T.B.A.; Sengupta, D.L.

    1981-08-01

    Because a wind turbine blade reflects electromagnetic radiation, it can produce ghost images and jitter on television. From simulation experiments using different strengths and time delays of the secondary signals relative to the primary signal at the receiver, a criterion has been established for interference that is unacceptable for extended periods of viewing. For a given TV transmission and given wind turbine, the interference zone can be computed by considering the propagation conditions. Small wind turbines of a few kilowatts capacity are found to produce interference with zones extending only a few tens of feet. The effect of a large wind turbine on other electromagnetic systems has been investigated, including aircraft navigational radars and Loran-C, which are relatively insensitive to interference. (LEW)

  8. 2015 Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Barbose, Galen; Darghouth, Naim; Hoen, Ben; Mills, Andrew; Rand, Joe; Millstein, Dev; Porter, Kevin; Widiss, Rebecca; Oteri, Frank; Tegen, Suzanne; Tian, Tian

    2016-08-03

    Annual wind power capacity additions in the United States surged in 2015 and are projected to continue at a rapid clip in the coming five years. Recent and projected near-term growth is supported by the industry’s primary federal incentive—the production tax credit (PTC)—having been extended for several years (though with a phase-down schedule, described further on pages 68-69), as well as a myriad of state-level policies. Wind additions are also being driven by improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technologies, yielding low power sales prices for utility, corporate, and other purchasers. At the same time, the prospects for growth beyond the current PTC cycle remain uncertain: growth could be blunted by declining federal tax support, expectations for low natural gas prices, and modest electricity demand growth. This annual report—now in its tenth year—provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2015. The report begins with an overview of key installation-related trends: trends in U.S. wind power capacity growth; how that growth compares to other countries and generation sources; the amount and percentage of wind energy in individual states; the status of offshore wind power development; and the quantity of proposed wind power capacity in various interconnection queues in the United States. Next, the report covers an array of wind power industry trends: developments in turbine manufacturer market share; manufacturing and supply-chain developments; wind turbine and component imports into and exports from the United States; project financing developments; and trends among wind power project owners and power purchasers. The report then turns to a summary of wind turbine technology trends: turbine size, hub height, rotor diameter, specific power, and IEC Class. After that, the report discusses wind power performance, cost, and pricing trends. In so doing, it describes

  9. Functional Extended Redundancy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Suk, Hye Won; Lee, Jang-Han; Moskowitz, D. S.; Lim, Jooseop

    2012-01-01

    We propose a functional version of extended redundancy analysis that examines directional relationships among several sets of multivariate variables. As in extended redundancy analysis, the proposed method posits that a weighed composite of each set of exogenous variables influences a set of endogenous variables. It further considers endogenous…

  10. Surface wind characteristics of some Aleutian Islands. [for selection of windpowered machine sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentink, T., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The wind power potential of Alaska is assessed in order to determine promising windpower sites for construction of wind machines and for shipment of wind derived energy. Analyses of near surface wind data from promising Aleutian sites accessible by ocean transport indicate probable velocity regimes and also present deficiencies in available data. It is shown that winds for some degree of power generation are available 77 percent of the time in the Aleutians with peak velocities depending on location.

  11. Wind Power: How Much, How Soon, and At What Cost?

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan H; Hand, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    The global wind power market has been growing at a phenomenal pace, driven by favorable policies towards renewable energy and the improving economics of wind projects. On a going forward basis, utility-scale wind power offers the potential for significant reductions in the carbon footprint of the electricity sector. Specifically, the global wind resource is vast and, though accessing this potential is not costless or lacking in barriers, wind power can be developed at scale in the near to medium term at what promises to be an acceptable cost.

  12. Extended family medicine training

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  13. Passively cooled direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2008-03-18

    A wind turbine is provided that passively cools an electrical generator. The wind turbine includes a plurality of fins arranged peripherally around a generator house. Each of the fins being oriented at an angle greater than zero degrees to allow parallel flow of air over the fin. The fin is further tapered to allow a constant portion of the fin to extend beyond the air stream boundary layer. Turbulence initiators on the nose cone further enhance heat transfer at the fins.

  14. The WindStar project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCandless, Samuel W.; Jones, W. Linwood; Huxtable, Barton D.; Jones, Lawrence P.

    1996-03-01

    The ``WindStar'' project is a cooperative, cost-sharing venture between NASA's Earth Observations Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP), directed by the Stennis Space Center (SSC), and User Systems, Incorporated (USI), a Virginia-based remote sensing technology development company. The project seeks to establish the commercial viability of using twice-a-day satellite scatterometer data to produce marine wind forecasts for commercial television weather broadcasts. The WindStar product will be an animated, two dimensional map of wind speed and direction that evolves in time from the observed ``nowcast'' every 12 hours to a projected ``forecast''. Commercial television stations in coastal areas will incorporate this video into the weather segment of their news broadcasts to advise viewers, with both commercial and recreational interests, of coastal and off-shore conditions. While contributing to improved near shore marine operations for both recreational and commercial boaters, the proposed product would also be of use to commercial fishermen, coastal shipping operations, search and rescue operations, state and local governments, the Coast Guard, and the Navy. Projected new business plans include establishing and maintaining a ``Global Wind History'' archive that can be accessed on Internet.

  15. Wind Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 6.9, Longitude 69.4 East (290.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon

  16. Careers in Wind Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  17. Prospecting for Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  18. Vector wind, horizontal divergence, wind stress and wind stress curl from SEASAT-SASS at one degree resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, W. J., Jr.; Sylvester, W. B.; Salfi, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Conventional data obtained in 1983 are contrasted with SEASAT-A scatterometer and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data to show how observations at a single station can be extended to an area of about 150,000 square km by means of remotely sensed data obtained in nine minutes. Superobservations at a one degree resolution for the vector winds were estimated along with their standard deviations. From these superobservations, the horizontal divergence, vector wind stress, and the curl of the wind stress can be found. Weather forecasting theory is discussed and meteorological charts of the North Pacific Ocean are presented. Synoptic meteorology as a technique is examined.

  19. Lidar-Enhanced Wind Turbine Control: Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Scholbrock, Andrew; Fleming, Paul; Schlipf, David; Wright, Alan; Johnson, Kathryn; Wang, Na

    2016-08-01

    The main challenges in harvesting energy from the wind arise from the unknown incoming turbulent wind field. Balancing the competing interests of reduction in structural loads and increasing energy production is the goal of a wind turbine controller to reduce the cost of producing wind energy. Conventional wind turbines use feedback methods to optimize these goals, reacting to wind disturbances after they have already impacted the wind turbine. Lidar sensors offer a means to provide additional inputs to a wind turbine controller, enabling new techniques to improve control methods, allowing a controller to actuate a wind turbine in anticipation of an incoming wind disturbance. This paper will look at the development of lidar-enhanced controls and how they have been used for various turbine load reductions with pitch actuation, as well as increased energy production with improved yaw control. Ongoing work will also be discussed to show that combining pitch and torque control using feedforward nonlinear model predictive control can lead to both reduced loads and increased energy production. Future work is also proposed on extending individual wind turbine controls to the wind plant level and determining how lidars can be used for control methods to further lower the cost of wind energy by minimizing wake impacts in a wind farm.

  20. Faith community nursing scope of practice: extending access to healthcare.

    PubMed

    Balint, Katherine A; George, Nancy M

    2015-01-01

    The role of the Faith Community Nurse (FCN) is a multifaceted wholistic practice focused on individuals, families, and the faith and broader communities. The FCN is skilled in professional nursing and spiritual care, supporting health through attention to spiritual, physical, mental, and social health. FCNs can help meet the growing need for healthcare, especially for the uninsured, poor, and homeless. The contribution of FCNs on, primary prevention, health maintenance, and management of chronic disease deserves attention to help broaden understanding of the scope of FCN practice.

  1. Clemson University Wind Turbine Drivetrain Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tuten, James Maner; Haque, Imtiaz; Rigas, Nikolaos

    2016-03-30

    In November of 2009, Clemson University was awarded a competitive grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to design, build and operate a facility for full-scale, highly accelerated mechanical testing of next-generation wind turbine drivetrain technologies. The primary goal of the project was to design, construct, commission, and operate a state-of-the-art sustainable facility that permits full-scale highly accelerated testing of advanced drivetrain systems for large wind turbines. The secondary goal was to meet the objectives of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, especially in job creation, and provide a positive impact on economically distressed areas in the United States, and preservation and economic recovery in an expeditious manner. The project was executed according to a managed cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy and was an extraordinary success. The resultant new facility is located in North Charleston, SC, providing easy transportation access by rail, road or ship and operates on an open access model such that it is available to the U.S. Wind Industry for research, analysis, and evaluation activities. The 72 m by 97 m facility features two mechanical dynamometer test bays for evaluating the torque and blade dynamic forces experienced by the rotors of wind turbine drivetrains. The dynamometers are rated at 7.5 MW and 15 MW of low speed shaft power and are configured as independent test areas capable of simultaneous operation. All six degrees of freedom, three linear and three rotational, for blade and rotor dynamics are replicated through the combination of a drive motor, speed reduction gearbox and a controllable hydraulic load application unit (LAU). This new LAU setup readily supports accelerated lifetime mechanical testing and load analysis for the entire drivetrain system of the nacelle and easily simulates a wide variety of realistic operating scenarios in a controlled laboratory environment. The development of these

  2. Cerberus Wind Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 May 2002) The Science Cerberus is a dark region on Mars that has shrunk down from a continuous length of about 1000 km to roughly three discontinuous spots a few 100 kms in length in less than 20 years. There are two competing processes at work in the Cerberus region that produce the bright and dark features seen in this THEMIS image. Bright dust settles out of the atmosphere, especially after global dust storms, depositing a layer just thick enough to brighten the dark surfaces. Deposition occurs preferentially in the low wind 'shadow zones' within craters and downwind of crater rims, producing the bright streaks. The direction of the streaks clearly indicates that the dominant winds come from the northeast. Dust deposition would completely blot out the dark areas if it were not for the action of wind-blown sand grains scouring the surface and lifting the dust back into the atmosphere. Again, the shadow zones are protected from the blowing sand, preserving the bright layer of dust. Also visible in this image are lava flow features extending from the flanks of the huge Elysium volcanoes to the northwest. Two shallow channels and a raised flow lobe are just barely discernable. The lava channel in the middle of the image crosses the boundary of the bright and dark surfaces without any obvious change in its morphology. This demonstrates that the bright dust layer is very thin in this location, perhaps as little as a few millimeters. The Story Mars is an ever-changing land of spectacular contrasts. This THEMIS image shows the Cerberus region of Mars, a dark area located near the Elysium volcanoes and fittingly named after the three-headed, dragon-tailed dog who guards the door of the underworld. Two opposing processes are at work here: a thin layer of dust falling from the atmosphere and/or dust storms creating brighter surface areas (e.g. the top left portion of this image) and dust being scoured away by the action of the Martian wind disturbing the sand

  3. Tropospheric Wind Measurements Obtained with the Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds (GLOW): Validation and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds (GLOW) is a mobile Doppler lidar system which uses direct detection Doppler lidar techniques to measure wind profiles from the surface into the lower stratosphere. GLOW is intended to be used as a field deployable system for studying atmospheric dynamics and transport and can also serve as a testbed to evaluate candidate technologies developed for use in future spaceborne systems. In September of 2000 GLOW participated in a three week intercomparison experiment at the GroundWinds facility in North Glen, NE. More than 50 hours of line-of-sight wind profile data was obtained in a wide variety of conditions including both day and night operation. Typical clear air lidar wind profiles extended to altitudes of 20 km with a 1 Ian vertical resolution and I minute averaging. A description of the mobile system is presented along with the examples of lidar wind profiles obtained with the Goddard system during the New Hampshire experiment.

  4. Tropospheric Wind Measurements Obtained with the Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds (GLOW): Validation and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Chen, Huai-Lin; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds (GLOW) is a mobile Doppler lidar system which uses direct detection Doppler lidar techniques to measure wind profiles from the surface into the lower stratosphere. GLOW is intended to be used as a field deployable system for studying atmospheric dynamics and transport and can also serve as a testbed to evaluate candidate technologies developed for use in future spaceborne systems. In September of 2000 GLOW participated in a three week intercomparison experiment at the GroundWinds facility in North Glen, NH. More than 50 hours of line-of-sight wind profile data were obtained in a wide variety of conditions including both day and night operation. Typical clear air lidar wind profiles extended to altitudes of 20 kin with a 1 km vertical resolution and 1 minute averaging. A description of the mobile system is presented along with the examples of lidar wind profiles obtained with the Goddard system during the New Hampshire experiment.

  5. Surface winds over West Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromwich, David

    1993-01-01

    Five winter months (April-August 1988) of thermal infrared satellite images were examined to investigate the occurrence of dark (warm) signatures across the Ross Ice Shelf in the Antarctic continent. These features are inferred to be generated by katabatic winds that descend from southern Marie Byrd Land and then blow horizontally across the ice shelf. Significant mass is added to this airstream by katabatic winds blowing from the major glaciers that flow through the Transantarctic Mountains from East Antarctica. These negatively buoyant katabatic winds can reach the northwestern edge of the shelf - a horizontal propagation distance of up to 1,000 km - 14 percent of the time. Where the airstream crosses from the ice shelf to the ice-covered Ross Sea, a prominent coastal polynya is formed. Because the downslope buoyancy force is near zero over the Ross Ice Shelf, the northwestward propagation of the katabatic air mass requires pressure gradient support. The study shows that the extended horizontal propagation of this atmospheric density current occurred in conjunction with the passage of synoptic cyclones over the southern Amundsen Sea. These cyclones can strengthen the pressure gradient in the interior of West Antarctica and make the pressure field favorable for northwestward movement of the katabatic winds from West Antarctica across the ice shelf in a geostrophic direction. The glacier winds from East Antarctica are further accelerated by the synoptic pressure gradient, usually undergo abrupt adjustment beyond the exit to the glacier valley, and merge into the mountain-parallel katabatic air mass.

  6. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC; Alta Wind VI, LLC; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 285.207 (2009), Alta Wind I, LLC, Alta Wind...

  7. Wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon II, E. H.

    1985-10-15

    A wind turbine, having at least one pair of sail means, each said sail means having upper and lower portions hingedly connected together to permit said portions to move away from and towards each other to thus open and close, respectively, said sail means being in the shape of an airfoil; a vertical shaft; a support; means mounting said vertical shaft in said support for rotation about the vertical axis of said shaft; and means mounting said sail means to said shaft, said sail means being disposed to move under the action of the wind in a plane about said vertical axis; said mounting means for said sail means including means for opening and closing one sail means of each pair of sail means while the other sail means of said pair is closed and opened, respectively, as said sail means moves about said vertical axis in said plane, said mounting means for said sail means being operable to dispose said plane at a predetermined angle to the horizontal and being adjustable to change said angle as desired.

  8. Wind motor

    SciTech Connect

    Biscomb, L. I.

    1985-07-09

    A spider-like carrier having at least three generally horizontal arms has a hub mounted to the vertical, rotary-axis input shaft of a load. Each arm has at least one horizontal cross-arm secured to it near its radially outer end, which is supported from the ground by a low-friction support device such as a wheel or set of wheels. Mounted on each arm at the cross-arm or cross-arms is at least one sail, vane, airfoil or similar working member which is erected or spread generally normally to the wind when the respective arm is located for the working member to be blown downwind and is feathered or headed to the wind when the respective arm is located for the working member to be driven upwind. Horizontal axis and vertical axis journalling options for the working members and various sail shapes are shown, including a concave/convex sail and motor-oriented airfoil shape which provides lift when being driven upwind are shown.

  9. Investigation of the stochastic properties of wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Papanicolaou, Panos

    2016-04-01

    Understanding atmospheric motion in the form of wind is essential to many fields in hydroclimatics. The wind is considered one of the most important processes in hydrometeorology since, along with temperature, it generates and drives climate dynamics. Currently, the interest has increased due to its involvement to renewable energy resources through wind power production and forecasting. However, there seems to be a puzzle about which stochastic model best describes the wind process. In this analysis, we attempt to explain the reason around this confusion regarding the stochastic properties of the wind process using statistical as well as hydrometeorological reasoning, starting from the microscale of turbulence and extending the analysis to the macroscale of climatic processes. Particularly, some models seem to exhibit good agreement with data mostly due to instrumental errors. Moreover, we show that extending the theory of turbulence to the atmospheric motion can reveal stochastic properties that are not only accompanied with physical interference but also exhibit excellent agreement with wind measurements. Finally, we apply the theoretical analysis to multiple stations around the globe and we derive conclusions on the variation of stochastic parameters of wind regarding dominant climatic conditions.

  10. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  11. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  12. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  13. Wind resources of Somalia

    SciTech Connect

    Pallabazzer, R. ); Gabow, A.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The results of wind energy research in Somalia are presented. The wind resource appears to be suitable for power production on 85% of the country, very intense on 10% and uniform on 70%, being regular throughout. Two areas of different wind regimes have been identified and characterized; the wind-distribution characteristics of 11 sites are presented and discussed, together with the territorial maps of the wind intensity and of the wind energy.

  14. The Wind ENergy Data and Information (WENDI) Gateway: New Information and Analysis Tools for Wind Energy Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, D.; Palanisamy, G.; Santhana Vannan, S.; Wei, Y.; Smith, T.; Starke, M.; Wibking, M.; Pan, Y.; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Wilson, B. E.; Wind Energy Data; Information (WENDI) Gateway Team

    2010-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office, DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has launched the Wind ENergy Data & Information (WENDI) Gateway. The WENDI Gateway is intended to serve a broad range of wind-energy stakeholders by providing easy access to a large amount of wind energy-related data and information through its two main interfaces: the Wind Energy Metadata Clearinghouse and the Wind Energy Geographic Information System (WindGIS). The Metadata Clearinghouse is a powerful, customized search tool for discovering, accessing, and sharing wind energy-related data and information. Its database of metadata records points users to a diverse array of wind energy-related resources: from technical and scientific journal articles to mass media news stories; from annual government and industry reports to downloadable datasets, and much more. Through the WindGIS, users can simultaneously visualize a wide spectrum of United States wind energy-related spatial data, including wind energy power plant locations; wind resource maps; state-level installed wind capacity, generation, and renewable portfolio standards; electric transmission lines; transportation infrastructure; interconnection standards; land ownership, designation, and usage; and various ecological data layers. In addition, WindGIS allows users to download much of the data behind the layers. References: [1] Devarakonda R., et al. Mercury: reusable metadata management, data discovery and access system. Earth Science Informatics (2010), 3(1): 87-94. [2] Wilson, Bruce E., et al. "Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata." (2010).

  15. Corona and solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withbroe, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Pinhole/Occulter Facility is a powerful tool for studying the physics of the extended corona and origins of the solar wind. Spectroscopic data acquired by the P/OF coronal instruments can greatly expand empirical information about temperatures, densities, flow velocities, magnetic fields, and chemical abundances in the corona out to r or approx. 10 solar radii. Such information is needed to provide tight empirical constraints on critical physical processes involved in the transport and dissipation of energy and momentum, the heating and acceleration of plasma, and the acceleration of energetic particles. Because of its high sensitivity, high spatial and temporal resolutions, and powerful capabilities for plasma diagnostics, P/OF can significantly increase our empirical knowledge about coronal streamers and transients and thereby advance the understanding of the physics of these phenomena. P/OF observations can be used to establish the role in solar wind generation, if any, of small-scale dynamical phenomena, such as spicules, macrospicules and coronal bullets, and the role of the fine-scale structures, such as polar plumes. Finally, simultaneous measurements by the P/OF coronal and hard X-ray instruments can provide critical empirical information concerning nonthermal energy releases and acceleration of energetic particles in the corona.

  16. Wind energy bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This bibliography is designed to help the reader search for information on wind energy. The bibliography is intended to help several audiences, including engineers and scientists who may be unfamiliar with a particular aspect of wind energy, university researchers who are interested in this field, manufacturers who want to learn more about specific wind topics, and librarians who provide information to their clients. Topics covered range from the history of wind energy use to advanced wind turbine design. References for wind energy economics, the wind energy resource, and environmental and institutional issues related to wind energy are also included.

  17. Wind for Schools (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2010-05-01

    As the United States dramatically expands wind energy deployment, the industry is challenged with developing a skilled workforce and addressing public resistance. Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools project addresses these issues by developing Wind Application Centers (WACs) at universities; WAC students assist in implementing school wind turbines and participate in wind courses, by installing small wind turbines at community "host" schools, by implementing teacher training with interactive curricula at each host school. This poster provides an overview of the first two years of the Wind for Schools project, primarily supporting activities in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, Montana, and Idaho.

  18. Topological Characterization of Extended Quantum Ising Models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Song, Z

    2015-10-23

    We show that a class of exactly solvable quantum Ising models, including the transverse-field Ising model and anisotropic XY model, can be characterized as the loops in a two-dimensional auxiliary space. The transverse-field Ising model corresponds to a circle and the XY model corresponds to an ellipse, while other models yield cardioid, limacon, hypocycloid, and Lissajous curves etc. It is shown that the variation of the ground state energy density, which is a function of the loop, experiences a nonanalytical point when the winding number of the corresponding loop changes. The winding number can serve as a topological quantum number of the quantum phases in the extended quantum Ising model, which sheds some light upon the relation between quantum phase transition and the geometrical order parameter characterizing the phase diagram.

  19. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-03-23

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced. 12 figs.

  20. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced.

  1. Experimental evaluation of pedestrian-level winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Sadek Wahba

    The presence of tall buildings has in many cases created uncomfortable and dangerous wind conditions at pedestrian level. Here a successful simple methodology was established to evaluate pedestrian level winds in a built-up urban terrain. Experiments were conducted using a 1:300 geometric scale model of the University of Minnesota hospital complex (UOMHC) and its surroundings, known for their unpleasant wind conditions. The UOMHC model was exposed to an accurately simulated atmospheric boundary layer in the SAFL wind tunnel. The modeling criteria for wind tunnel simulation of atmospheric flows and the applicability of the simulation to the experimental study are presented and discussed. The comparison between the available prototype data and the corresponding wind tunnel data showed in general good agreement for the two tested wind directions; west and northwest. Velocity measurements underneath Unit B indicated that the pedestrian access to the PWB and Unit B buildings is the worst location along the street for a door. A combination of sand scour tests, fog flow visualization, and tests using the oil film technique was applied to determine the wind environment in the UOMHC model. Sand scour tests supplied contour lines for the relative wind speeds. The scour technique can be used to estimate wind speed. The results using fine sand indicated that the scour contours most closely reflect the mean wind speeds measured by hot-film anemometers close to the ground. Fog flow visualization allowed good insight into the movement of the airstream. The average direction of the wind at ground level was shown clearly by the oil film technique. All the three visualization techniques indicated high pedestrian level winds under Unit B. The use of various combinations of wind barriers to alleviate the problems of pedestrian discomfort induced by wind effects at the UOMHC were proposed and investigated. The results of a barrier, installed as a canopy at Unit B, indicated its

  2. Wind and IMP 8 Solar Wind, Magnetosheath and Shock Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide the community access to magnetosheath data near Earth. We provided 27 years of IMP 8 magnetosheath proton velocities, densities, and temperatures with our best (usually 1-min.) time resolution. IMP 8 crosses the magnetosheath twice each 125 day orbit, and we provided magnetosheath data for the roughly 27 years of data for which magnetometer data are also available (which are needed to reliably pick boundaries). We provided this 27 years of IMP 8 magnetosheath data to the NSSDC; this data is now integrated with the IMP 8 solar wind data with flags indicating whether each data point is in the solar wind, magnetosheath, or at the boundary between the two regions. The plasma speed, density, and temperature are provided for each magnetosheath point. These data are also available on the MIT web site ftp://space .mit.edu/pub/plasma/imp/www/imp.html. We provide ASCII time-ordered rows of data giving the observation time, the spacecraft position in GSE, the velocity is GSE, the density and temperature for protons. We also have analyzed and archived on our web site the Wind magnetosheath plasma parameters. These consist of ascii files of the proton and alpha densities, speeds, and thermal speeds. These data are available at ftp://space.mit.edu/pub/plasma/wind/sheath These are the two products promised in the work statement and they have been completed in full.

  3. Extended spider cognition.

    PubMed

    Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-02-07

    There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.

  4. Wind/Wave Misalignment in the Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barj, L.; Stewart, S.; Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-02-01

    Wind resources far from the shore and in deeper seas have encouraged the offshore wind industry to look into floating platforms. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is developing a new technical specification for the design of floating offshore wind turbines that extends existing design standards for land-based and fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. The work summarized in this paper supports the development of best practices and simulation requirements in the loads analysis of floating offshore wind turbines by examining the impact of wind/wave misalignment on the system loads under normal operation. Simulations of the OC3-Hywind floating offshore wind turbine system under a wide range of wind speeds, significant wave heights, peak-spectral periods and wind/wave misalignments have been carried out with the aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool FAST [4]. The extreme and fatigue loads have been calculated for all the simulations. The extreme and fatigue loading as a function of wind/wave misalignment have been represented as load roses and a directional binning sensitivity study has been carried out. This study focused on identifying the number and type of wind/wave misalignment simulations needed to accurately capture the extreme and fatigue loads of the system in all possible metocean conditions considered, and for a down-selected set identified as the generic US East Coast site. For this axisymmetric platform, perpendicular wind and waves play an important role in the support structure and including these cases in the design loads analysis can improve the estimation of extreme and fatigue loads. However, most structural locations see their highest extreme and fatigue loads with aligned wind and waves. These results are specific to the spar type platform, but it is expected that the results presented here will be similar to other floating platforms.

  5. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis ...

  6. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, M.

    1991-05-28

    A pipe crawler is described having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by inchworm'-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward. 5 figures.

  7. Videometric applications in wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Radeztsky, Ron H.; Liu, Tianshu

    1997-07-01

    Videometric measurements in wind tunnels can be very challenging due to the limited optical access, model dynamics, optical path variability during testing, large range of temperature and pressure, hostile environment, and the requirements for high productivity and large amounts of data on a daily basis. Other complications for wind tunnel testing include the model support mechanism and stringent surface finish requirements for the models in order to maintain aerodynamic fidelity. For these reasons nontraditional photogrammetric techniques and procedures sometimes must be employed. In this paper several such applications are discussed for wind tunnels which include test conditions with Mach numbers from low speed to hypersonic, pressures from less than an atmosphere to nearly seven atmospheres, and temperatures from cryogenic to above room temperature. Several of the wind tunnel facilities are continuous flow while one is a short duration blow-down facility. Videometric techniques and calibration procedures developed to measure angle of attack, the change in wing twist and bending induced by aerodynamic load, and the effects of varying model injection rates are described. Some advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are given and comparisons are made with non-optical and more traditional video photogrammetric techniques.

  8. Videometric Applications in Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Radeztsky, R. H.; Liu, Tian-Shu

    1997-01-01

    Videometric measurements in wind tunnels can be very challenging due to the limited optical access, model dynamics, optical path variability during testing, large range of temperature and pressure, hostile environment, and the requirements for high productivity and large amounts of data on a daily basis. Other complications for wind tunnel testing include the model support mechanism and stringent surface finish requirements for the models in order to maintain aerodynamic fidelity. For these reasons nontraditional photogrammetric techniques and procedures sometimes must be employed. In this paper several such applications are discussed for wind tunnels which include test conditions with Mach number from low speed to hypersonic, pressures from less than an atmosphere to nearly seven atmospheres, and temperatures from cryogenic to above room temperature. Several of the wind tunnel facilities are continuous flow while one is a short duration blowdown facility. Videometric techniques and calibration procedures developed to measure angle of attack, the change in wing twist and bending induced by aerodynamic load, and the effects of varying model injection rates are described. Some advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are given and comparisons are made with non-optical and more traditional video photogrammetric techniques.

  9. Global Wind Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes a new global wind-power map that has quantified global wind power and may help planners place turbines in locations that can maximize power from the winds and provide widely available low-cost energy. The researchers report that their study can assist in locating wind farms in regions known for strong and consistent…

  10. Emergency wind erosion control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    February through May is the critical time for wind erosion in Kansas, but wind erosion can happen any time when high winds occur on smooth, wide fields with low vegetation and poor soil structure. The most effective wind erosion control is to ensure a protective cover of residue or growing crop thro...

  11. Regional Offshore Wind Farm Optimization Using Wind Climatology and the Weather Research and Forecasting Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, D. E.; Brodie, J. F.; Archer, C. L.; Veron, F.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of turbulent wakes on the power production of wind farms is a very active area of research as society continues to increase its commitment to renewable energy. The areas offshore of the mid-Atlantic and northeast states are highly favorable to the development of offshore wind farms, and determining the optimal layout for these wind farms is key to their success. We utilize the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to study the influence of wake effects from different wind farm array geometries on the power production of each farm. Using an idealized version of WRF, we are able to use the wind climatology from a NOAA observational buoy near the Delaware Wind Energy Area (WEA) to evaluate the potential wind farm performance during a climatological average year. We then extend these techniques on a regional scale, evaluating performance of farms located in different offshore WEAs. Finally, by using WRF to model the entire region, we evaluate the wind farms' interactions with one another under various meteorological scenarios in order to account for seasonal wind variability and load requirements.

  12. Verification of high-speed solar wind stream forecasts using operational solar wind models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Martin A.; Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid M.; Nikolic, Ljubomir; Vennerstrom, Susanne; Schöngassner, Florian; Hofmeister, Stefan J.

    2016-07-01

    High-speed solar wind streams emanating from coronal holes are frequently impinging on the Earth's magnetosphere causing recurrent, medium-level geomagnetic storm activity. Modeling high-speed solar wind streams is thus an essential element of successful space weather forecasting. Here we evaluate high-speed stream forecasts made by the empirical solar wind forecast (ESWF) and the semiempirical Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model based on the in situ plasma measurements from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft for the years 2011 to 2014. While the ESWF makes use of an empirical relation between the coronal hole area observed in Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) images and solar wind properties at the near-Earth environment, the WSA model establishes a link between properties of the open magnetic field lines extending from the photosphere to the corona and the background solar wind conditions. We found that both solar wind models are capable of predicting the large-scale features of the observed solar wind speed (root-mean-square error, RMSE ≈100 km/s) but tend to either overestimate (ESWF) or underestimate (WSA) the number of high-speed solar wind streams (threat score, TS ≈ 0.37). The predicted high-speed streams show typical uncertainties in the arrival time of about 1 day and uncertainties in the speed of about 100 km/s. General advantages and disadvantages of the investigated solar wind models are diagnosed and outlined.

  13. Variability of wind power near Oklahoma City and implications for siting of wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, E.; Eyster, R.

    1987-09-01

    Data from five sites near Oklahoma City were examined to assess wind power availability. Wind turbines of identical manufacture were operated at three of the sites, one of which was also equipped with anemometers on a 100-ft tower. Comprehensive anemometric data were available from the other two sites. The study indicates that the average wind speed varies substantially over Oklahoma's rolling plains, which have often been nominally regarded as flat for purposes of wind power generation. Average wind differences may be as much as 5 mph at 20 ft above ground level, and 7 mph at 100 ft above ground level for elevation differences of about 200 ft above mean sea level, even in the absence of substantial features of local terrain. Local altitude above mean sea level seems to be as influential as the shape of local terrain in determining the average wind speed. The wind turbine used at a meteorologically instrumented site in the study produced the power expected from it for the wind regime in which it was situated. The observed variations of local wind imply variations in annual kWh of as much as a factor of four between identical turbines located at similar heights above ground level in shallow valleys and on hilltops or elevated extended flat areas. 17 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Effects of Changing Atmospheric Conditions on Wind Turbine Performance (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, A.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-megawatt, utility-scale wind turbines operate in turbulent and dynamic winds that impact turbine performance in ways that are gradually becoming better understood. This poster presents a study made using a turbulent flow field simulator (TurbSim) and a Turbine aeroelastic simulator (FAST) of the response of a generic 1.5 MW wind turbine to changing inflow. The turbine power output is found to be most sensitive to wind speed and turbulence intensity, but the relationship depends on the wind speed with respect to the turbine's rated wind speed. Shear is found to be poorly correlated to power. A machine learning method called 'regression trees' is used to create a simple model of turbine performance that could be used as part of the wind resource assessment process. This study has used simple flow fields and should be extended to more complex flows, and validated with field observations.

  15. Towards Extended Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of Vantage Theory (VT), a model of (colour) categorization, to linguistic data largely depends on the modifications and adaptations of the model for the purpose. An attempt to do so proposed here, called Extended Vantage Theory (EVT), slightly reformulates the VT conception of vantage by capitalizing on some of the entailments of…

  16. Optimizing wind farm layout via LES-calibrated geometric models inclusive of wind direction and atmospheric stability effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Cristina; Ghaisas, Niranjan

    2015-04-01

    The energy generation at a wind farm is controlled primarily by the average wind speed at hub height. However, two other factors impact wind farm performance: 1) the layout of the wind turbines, in terms of spacing between turbines along and across the prevailing wind direction; staggering or aligning consecutive rows; angles between rows, columns, and prevailing wind direction); and 2) atmospheric stability, which is a measure of whether vertical motion is enhanced (unstable), suppressed (stable), or neither (neutral). Studying both factors and their complex interplay with Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is a valid approach because it produces high-resolution, 3D, turbulent fields, such as wind velocity, temperature, and momentum and heat fluxes, and it properly accounts for the interactions between wind turbine blades and the surrounding atmospheric and near-surface properties. However, LES are computationally expensive and simulating all the possible combinations of wind directions, atmospheric stabilities, and turbine layouts to identify the optimal wind farm configuration is practically unfeasible today. A new, geometry-based method is proposed that is computationally inexpensive and that combines simple geometric quantities with a minimal number of LES simulations to identify the optimal wind turbine layout, taking into account not only the actual frequency distribution of wind directions (i.e., wind rose) at the site of interest, but also atmospheric stability. The geometry-based method is calibrated with LES of the Lillgrund wind farm conducted with the Software for Offshore/onshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA), based on the open-access OpenFOAM libraries. The geometric quantities that offer the best correlations (>0.93) with the LES results are the blockage ratio, defined as the fraction of the swept area of a wind turbine that is blocked by an upstream turbine, and the blockage distance, the weighted distance from a given turbine to all upstream turbines

  17. Wind Power Outlook 2004

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2004-01-01

    The brochure, expected to be updated annually, provides the American Wind Energy Association's (AWAE's) up-to-date assessment of the wind industry. It provides a summary of the state of wind power in the U.S., including the challenges and opportunities facing the industry. It provides summary information on the growth of the industry, policy-related factors such as the federal wind energy production tax credit status, comparisons with natural gas, and public views on wind energy.

  18. Wind power. [electricity generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  19. Wind Resource Maps (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides high-resolution wind maps and estimates of the wind resource potential that would be possible from development of the available windy land areas after excluding areas unlikely to be developed. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to Wind Powering America's online wind energy resource maps.

  20. Solar wind acceleration in the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giordano, S.; Antonucci, E.; Benna, C.; Kohl, J. L.; Noci, G.; Michels, J.; Fineschi, S.

    1997-01-01

    The intensity ratio of the O VI doublet in the extended area is analyzed. The O VI intensity data were obtained with the ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer (UVCS) during the SOHO campaign 'whole sun month'. The long term observations above the north pole of the sun were used for the polar coronal data. Using these measurements, the solar wind outflow velocity in the extended corona was determined. The 100 km/s level is running along the streamer borders. The acceleration of the solar wind is found to be high in regions between streamers. In the central part of streamers, the outflow velocity of the coronal plasma remains below 100 km/s at least within 3.8 solar radii. The regions at the north and south poles, characterized by a more rapid acceleration of the solar wind, correspond to regions where the UVCS observes enhanced O VI line broadenings.

  1. Wind turbine sound power measurements.

    PubMed

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides experimental validation of the sound power level data obtained from manufacturers for the ten wind turbine models examined in Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study (CNHS). Within measurement uncertainty, the wind turbine sound power levels measured using IEC 61400-11 [(2002). (International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva)] were consistent with the sound power level data provided by manufacturers. Based on measurements, the sound power level data were also extended to 16 Hz for calculation of C-weighted levels. The C-weighted levels were 11.5 dB higher than the A-weighted levels (standard deviation 1.7 dB). The simple relationship between A- and C- weighted levels suggests that there is unlikely to be any statistically significant difference between analysis based on either C- or A-weighted data.

  2. Design Mining Interacting Wind Turbines.

    PubMed

    Preen, Richard J; Bull, Larry

    2016-01-01

    An initial study has recently been presented of surrogate-assisted evolutionary algorithms used to design vertical-axis wind turbines wherein candidate prototypes are evaluated under fan-generated wind conditions after being physically instantiated by a 3D printer. Unlike other approaches, such as computational fluid dynamics simulations, no mathematical formulations were used and no model assumptions were made. This paper extends that work by exploring alternative surrogate modelling and evolutionary techniques. The accuracy of various modelling algorithms used to estimate the fitness of evaluated individuals from the initial experiments is compared. The effect of temporally windowing surrogate model training samples is explored. A surrogate-assisted approach based on an enhanced local search is introduced; and alternative coevolution collaboration schemes are examined.

  3. Development of a Climatology of Vertically Complete Wind Profiles from Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre, Robert, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of space vehicle loads and trajectories during design requires a large sample of wind profiles at the altitudes where winds affect the vehicle. Traditionally, this altitude region extends from near 8-14 km to address maximum dynamic pressure upon ascent into space, but some applications require knowledge of measured wind profiles at lower altitudes. Such applications include crew capsule pad abort and plume damage analyses. Two Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) systems exist at the United States Air Force (USAF) Eastern Range and at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center. The 50-MHz DRWP provides wind profiles every 3-5 minutes from roughly 2.5-18.5 km, and five 915-MHz DRWPs provide wind profiles every 15 minutes from approximately 0.2-3.0 km. Archived wind profiles from all systems underwent rigorous quality control (QC) processes, and concurrent measurements from the QC'ed 50- and 915-MHz DRWP archives were spliced into individual profiles that extend from about 0.2-18.5 km. The archive contains combined profiles from April 2000 to December 2009, and thousands of profiles during each month are available for use by the launch vehicle community. This paper presents the details of the QC and splice methodology, as well as some attributes of the archive.

  4. GLOW: The Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Chen, Huailin; Li, Steven X.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    GLOW (Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds) is a mobile Doppler lidar system which uses direct detection Doppler lidar techniques to measure wind profiles from the surface into the lower stratosphere. The system is contained in a modified van to allow deployment in field operations. The lidar system uses a Nd:YAG laser transmitter to measure winds using either aerosol backscatter at 1064 nm or molecular backscatter at 355 nm. The receiver telescope is a 45 cm Dall-Kirkham which is fiber coupled to separate Doppler receivers, one optimized for the aerosol backscatter wind measurement and another optimized for the molecular backscatter wind measurement. The receivers are implementations of the 'double edge' technique and use high spectral resolution Fabry-Perot etalons to measure the Doppler shift. A 45 cm aperture azimuth-over-elevation scanner is mounted on the roof of the van to allow full sky access and a variety of scanning options. GLOW is intended to be used as a deployable field system for studying atmospheric dynamics and transport and can also serve as a testbed to evaluate candidate technologies developed for use in future spaceborne systems. In addition, it can be used for calibration/validation activities following launch of spaceborne wind lidar systems. A description of the mobile system is presented along with the examples of lidar wind profiles obtained with the system.

  5. GLOW- The Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Chen, Huailin; Li, Steven X.

    2000-01-01

    GLOW (Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds) is a mobile Doppler lidar system which uses direct detection Doppler lidar techniques to measure wind profiles from the surface into the lower stratosphere. The system is contained in a modified van to allow deployment in field operations. The lidar system uses a Nd:YAG laser transmitter to measure winds using either aerosol backscatter at 1064 nm or molecular backscatter at 355 nm. The receiver telescope is a 45 cm Dall-Kirkham which is fiber coupled to separate Doppler receivers, one optimized for the aerosol backscatter wind measurement and another optimized for the molecular backscatter wind measurement. The receivers are implementations of the 'double edge' technique and use high spectral resolution Fabry-Perot etalons to measure the Doppler shift. A 45 cm aperture azimuth-over-elevation scanner is mounted on the roof of the van to allow full sky access and a variety of scanning options. GLOW is intended to be used as a deployable field system for studying atmospheric dynamics and transport and can also serve as a testbed to evaluate candidate technologies developed for use in future spaceborne systems. In addition, it can be used for calibration/validation activities following launch of spaceborne wind lidar systems. A description of the mobile system is presented along with the examples of lidar wind profiles obtained with the system.

  6. An improved AVC strategy applied in distributed wind power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. N.; Liu, Q. H.; Song, S. Y.; Mao, W.

    2016-08-01

    Traditional AVC strategy is mainly used in wind farm and only concerns about grid connection point, which is not suitable for distributed wind power system. Therefore, this paper comes up with an improved AVC strategy applied in distributed wind power system. The strategy takes all nodes of distribution network into consideration and chooses the node having the most serious voltage deviation as control point to calculate the reactive power reference. In addition, distribution principles can be divided into two conditions: when wind generators access to network on single node, the reactive power reference is distributed according to reactive power capacity; when wind generators access to network on multi-node, the reference is distributed according to sensitivity. Simulation results show the correctness and reliability of the strategy. Compared with traditional control strategy, the strategy described in this paper can make full use of generators reactive power output ability according to the distribution network voltage condition and improve the distribution network voltage level effectively.

  7. Propelling Extended Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  8. Wind speed forecasting for wind energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong

    With more wind energy being integrated into our grid systems, forecasting wind energy has become a necessity for all market participants. Recognizing the market demands, a physical approach to site-specific hub-height wind speed forecasting system has been developed. This system is driven by the outputs from the Canadian Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model. A simple interpolation approach benchmarks the forecasting accuracy inherited from GEM. Local, site specific winds are affected on a local scale by a variety of factors including representation of the land surface and local boundary-layer process over heterogeneous terrain which have been a continuing challenge in NWP models like GEM with typical horizontal resolution of order 15-km. In order to resolve these small scale effects, a wind energy industry standard model, WAsP, is coupled with GEM to improve the forecast. Coupling the WAsP model with GEM improves the overall forecasts, but remains unsatisfactory for forecasting winds with abrupt surface condition changes. Subsequently in this study, a new coupler that uses a 2-D RANS model of boundary-layer flow over surface condition changes with improved physics has been developed to further improve the forecasts when winds coming from a water surface to land experience abrupt changes in surface conditions. It has been demonstrated that using vertically averaged wind speeds to represent geostrophic winds for input into the micro-scale models could reduce forecast errors. The hub-height wind speed forecasts could be further improved using a linear MOS approach. The forecasting system has been evaluated, using a wind energy standard evaluation matrix, against data from an 80-m mast located near the north shore of Lake Erie. Coupling with GEM-LAM and a power conversion model using a theoretical power curve have also been investigated. For hub-height wind speeds GEM appears to perform better with a 15-Ian grid than the high resolution GEM-2.5Ian version at the

  9. extendFromReads

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kelly P.

    2013-10-03

    This package assists in genome assembly. extendFromReads takes as input a set of Illumina (eg, MiSeq) DNA sequencing reads, a query seed sequence and a direction to extend the seed. The algorithm collects all seed--]matching reads (flipping reverse--]orientation hits), trims off the seed and additional sequence in the other direction, sorts the remaining sequences alphabetically, and prints them aligned without gaps from the point of seed trimming. This produces a visual display distinguishing the flanks of multi-]copy seeds. A companion script hitMates.pl collects the mates of seed--]hi]ng reads, whose alignment reveals longer extensions from the seed. The collect/trim/sort strategy was made iterative and scaled up in the script denovo.pl, for de novo contig assembly. An index is pre--]built using indexReads.pl that for each unique 21--]mer found in all the reads, records its gfateh of extension (whether extendable, blocked by low coverage, or blocked by branching after a duplicated sequence) and other characteristics. Importantly, denovo.pl records all branchings that follow a branching contig endpoint, providing contig-]extension information

  10. Wind power today

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This publication highlights initiatives of the US DOE`s Wind Energy Program. 1997 yearly activities are also very briefly summarized. The first article describes a 6-megawatt wind power plant installed in Vermont. Another article summarizes technical advances in wind turbine technology, and describes next-generation utility and small wind turbines in the planning stages. A village power project in Alaska using three 50-kilowatt turbines is described. Very brief summaries of the Federal Wind Energy Program and the National Wind Technology Center are also included in the publication.

  11. Wind Power Career Chat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    This document will teach students about careers in the wind energy industry. Wind energy, both land-based and offshore, is expected to provide thousands of new jobs in the next several decades. Wind energy companies are growing rapidly to meet America's demand for clean, renewable, and domestic energy. These companies need skilled professionals. Wind power careers will require educated people from a variety of areas. Trained and qualified workers manufacture, construct, operate, and manage wind energy facilities. The nation will also need skilled researchers, scientists, and engineers to plan and develop the next generation of wind energy technologies.

  12. Inequalities of extended beta and extended hypergeometric functions.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Saiful R

    2017-01-01

    We study the log-convexity of the extended beta functions. As a consequence, we establish Turán-type inequalities. The monotonicity, log-convexity, log-concavity of extended hypergeometric functions are deduced by using the inequalities on extended beta functions. The particular cases of those results also give the Turán-type inequalities for extended confluent and extended Gaussian hypergeometric functions. Some reverses of Turán-type inequalities are also derived.

  13. Anisotropy of solar wind fluctuations: fast wind vs slow wind.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasso, S.; Milano, L. J.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Smith, C. W.

    2004-12-01

    The fluctuations in the solar wind are often modeled in terms of two distinct populations: (a) a 'wave-like' population with quasi-parallel wavenumbers and (b) a quasi-two dimensional 'turbulent-like' fluctuations with perpendicular wavenumbers. Here the qualification "quasi-parallel" or "quasi-2D" means that nearby wavevectors are grouped together in an idealzed way, for simplicity. The relative abundance of these two populations is important in gaining insight on the dynamics of waves or turbulence in the solar wind, and also in understanding the transport of energetic particle populations, as turbulence geometry has a major impact on scattering. It has been established in the literature that turbulence is, generally speaking, more developed in the slow solar wind, with power spectra closer to the kolmogorov value at 1AU, while the fast solar wind is more "Alfvenic", typically with higher values of the cross helicity. It seems natural therefore to investigate the anisotropy structure of solar wind fluctuations as a function of wind speed. We present here our preliminary results in this regard, obtained from magnetic and plasma data from the ACE specraft, at 1AU, essentially in the ecliptic plane. We also discuss possible implications for the modeling the evolution of waves and turbulence in the solar wind.

  14. Prospects for future solar-wind missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bochsler, P.; Moebius, E.

    1993-01-01

    Possible activities and future goals for solar wind research in the post Soho era are discussed. Two major enterprises which will open up important fields in the future study of the Sun are addressed. The first deals with in situ study of the solar corona, a region that has not been accessible for direct study in the past. This exploratory work will include the coronal heating and the acceleration of the solar wind much closer to its origin and the determination of the charge states of a large number of ions as a diagnostic tool for fractionation processes in these regions. The second major goal will be the setting up of a baseline for the isotopic composition in the solar system by studying a sample from the Sun in detail. These studies will be complemented by a direct comparison with extra solar samples of interstellar pick up ions, which become accessible with the same instrumentation as is necessary for the detailed investigation of the solar wind's isotopic composition. In order to achieve these goals, advanced composition experiments are developed to investigate the solar wind with enhanced mass resolution, considerably increased geometrical factor, and improved time resolution. The placing of sophisticated mass/charge spectrometers, with the ability to investigate both charge and velocity distributions with enhanced time resolution, in the solar wind acceleration region, is also proposed.

  15. DSCOVR Retrospective Science Products and Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, W. F.; Codrescu, S. M.; Tilton, M.; Redmon, R. J.; Loto'aniu, P. T. M.; Cartwright, J.; Mccullough, H.; Denig, W. F.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) will provide essential next-generation solar wind measurements from L1 to space-weather forecasters, modelers, and the science community in general. Parameters available include bulk flow speed, velocities, number density, and vector magnetic field. The NCEI Solar Geophysics Branch is responsible for long-term archive and user-access of the products created by the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), as well as creation of and access to a set of additional products based on the archived data. We discuss the data available to retrospective users and some of the new capabilities that we have developed to allow improved search and access for our science community. Feedback concerning additional products or access features that would be of interest to the user base will also be solicited. The NCEI DSCOVR access page can be located at http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/dscovr/

  16. Wind Turbine Wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Maniaci, David Charles; Resor, Brian R.

    2015-10-01

    The total energy produced by a wind farm depends on the complex interaction of many wind turbines operating in proximity with the turbulent atmosphere. Sometimes, the unsteady forces associated with wind negatively influence power production, causing damage and increasing the cost of producing energy associated with wind power. Wakes and the motion of air generated by rotating blades need to be better understood. Predicting wakes and other wind forces could lead to more effective wind turbine designs and farm layouts, thereby reducing the cost of energy, allowing the United States to increase the installed capacity of wind energy. The Wind Energy Technologies Department at Sandia has collaborated with the University of Minnesota to simulate the interaction of multiple wind turbines. By combining the validated, large-eddy simulation code with Sandia’s HPC capability, this consortium has improved its ability to predict unsteady forces and the electrical power generated by an array of wind turbines. The array of wind turbines simulated were specifically those at the Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Testbed (SWiFT) site which aided the design of new wind turbine blades being manufactured as part of the National Rotor Testbed project with the Department of Energy.

  17. 2008 Wind Energy Projects, Wind Powering America (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-01-01

    The Wind Powering America program produces a poster at the end of every calendar year that depicts new U.S. wind energy projects. The 2008 poster includes the following projects: Stetson Wind Farm in Maine; Dutch Hill Wind Farm in New York; Grand Ridge Wind Energy Center in Illinois; Hooper Bay, Alaska; Forestburg, South Dakota; Elbow Creek Wind Project in Texas; Glacier Wind Farm in Montana; Wray, Colorado; Smoky Hills Wind Farm in Kansas; Forbes Park Wind Project in Massachusetts; Spanish Fork, Utah; Goodland Wind Farm in Indiana; and the Tatanka Wind Energy Project on the border of North Dakota and South Dakota.

  18. Extended cooperative control synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on research for extending the Cooperative Control Synthesis methodology to include a more accurate modeling of the pilot's controller dynamics. Cooperative Control Synthesis (CCS) is a methodology that addresses the problem of how to design control laws for piloted, high-order, multivariate systems and/or non-conventional dynamic configurations in the absence of flying qualities specifications. This is accomplished by emphasizing the parallel structure inherent in any pilot-controlled, augmented vehicle. The original CCS methodology is extended to include the Modified Optimal Control Model (MOCM), which is based upon the optimal control model of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison in 1970. This model provides a modeling of the pilot's compensation dynamics that is more accurate than the simplified pilot dynamic representation currently in the CCS methodology. Inclusion of the MOCM into the CCS also enables the modeling of pilot-observation perception thresholds and pilot-observation attention allocation affects. This Extended Cooperative Control Synthesis (ECCS) allows for the direct calculation of pilot and system open- and closed-loop transfer functions in pole/zero form and is readily implemented in current software capable of analysis and design for dynamic systems. Example results based upon synthesizing an augmentation control law for an acceleration command system in a compensatory tracking task using the ECCS are compared with a similar synthesis performed by using the original CCS methodology. The ECCS is shown to provide augmentation control laws that yield more favorable, predicted closed-loop flying qualities and tracking performance than those synthesized using the original CCS methodology.

  19. Extended Wordsearches in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, Simon

    1998-04-01

    Students can be encouraged to develop their factual knowledge by use of puzzles. One strategy described here is the extended wordsearch, where the wordsearch element generates a number of words or phrases from which the answers to a series of questions are selected. The wordsearch can be generated with the aid of computer programs, though in order to make them suitable for students with dyslexia or other learning difficulties, a simpler form is more appropriate. These problems can be employed in a variety of contexts, for example, as topic tests and classroom end-of-lesson fillers. An example is provided in the area of calcium chemistry. Sources of suitable software are listed.

  20. ALMA Extended Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameno, S.; Nakai, N.; Honma, M.

    2013-10-01

    We propose to append five 12-m antennas within 300-km from ALMA to realize high angular resolution of < 1 mas and sensitivity to detect Tb < 1000 K. This ALMA extended array offers a new parameter space of "Thermal universe with VLBI resolution". Proposed science case includes black-hole formation in sub-mm galaxies, mass accretion processes onto protostars, imaging stellar photospheres, distance measurements of stars, and so on. The array also functions as a part of sub-mm VLBI that targets black-hole imaging.

  1. Solar Wind Five

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Topics of discussion were: solar corona, MHD waves and turbulence, acceleration of the solar wind, stellar coronae and winds, long term variations, energetic particles, plasma distribution functions and waves, spatial dependences, and minor ions.

  2. WindWaveFloat

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Alla

    2011-11-01

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review includes in which principal investigator Alla Weinstein discusses project progress in development of a floating offshore wind structure - the WindFloat - and incorporation therin of a Spherical Wave Energy Device.

  3. Solar wind turbulence: Observations of MHD effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavassano, B.

    1995-01-01

    Since the first in-situ observations it was realized that the solar wind is permeated by large-amplitude variations on a very extended range of scales. In this paper an overview of our present state of knowledge for fluctuations in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) regime is given. These fluctuations are an important component of the solar wind variability and notably contribute to the overall energy and momentum flux. They generally have a turbulent character and their amplitude is large enough to suggest the presence of nonlinear effects. In recent years the use of high time-resolution data on an extended range of heliocentric distances has allowed major steps towards a satisfactory understanding of the solar wind MHD fluctuations. Their radial evolution in the expanding wind has been determined through detailed analyses of the variations in their spectral features. correlations. and anisotropics. The role of interplanetary sources has been carefully investigated. The influence of interactions with structures convected by the solar wind has been examined. Fluctuations have been studied in the light of theories developed to draw together the effects of both incompressibility and compressibility. Increasing attention has been devoted to the intermittent character of the turbulence. Finally, very recent observations by Ulysses at high heliographic latitudes have allowed the first in-situ analysis of turbulence features in polar regions of the heliosphere.

  4. Final report: Task 4a.2 20% wind scenario assessment of electric grid operational features

    SciTech Connect

    Toole, Gasper L.

    2009-01-01

    Wind integration modeling in electricity generation capacity expansion models is important in that these models are often used to inform political or managerial decisions. Poor representation of wind technology leads to under-estimation of wind's contribution to future energy scenarios which may hamper growth of the industry. The NREL's Wind Energy Deployment System (WinDS) model provides the most detailed representation of geographically disperse renewable resources and the optimization of transmission expansion to access these resources. Because WinDS was selected as the primary modeling tool for the 20% Wind Energy by 2030 study, it is the ideal tool for supplemental studies of the transmission expansion results. However, as the wind industry grows and knowledge related to the wind resource and integration of wind energy into the electric system develops, the WinDS model must be continually improved through additional data and innovative algorithms to capture the primary effects of variable wind generation. The detailed representation of wind technology in the WinDS model can be used to provide improvements to the simplified representation of wind technology in other capacity expansion models. This task did not employ the WinDS model, but builds from it and its results. Task 4a.2 provides an assessment of the electric grid operational features of the 20% Wind scenario and was conducted using power flow models accepted by the utility industry. Tasks 2 provides information regarding the physical flow of electricity on the electric grid which is a critical aspect of infrastructure expansion scenarios. Expanding transmission infrastructure to access remote wind resource in a physically realizable way is essential to achieving 20% wind energy by 2030.

  5. Effect of wind averaging time on wind erosivity estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) and Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) are widely used for estimating the wind-induced soil erosion at a field scale. Wind is the principal erosion driver in the two models. The wind erosivity, which describes the capacity of wind to cause soil erosion is ...

  6. Solar wind models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leer, Egil; Sandbaek, Ornulf

    1991-01-01

    The understanding of the solar wind is based upon Parker's (1958) description of a thermally driven subsonic - supersonic outflow from a fully ionized electron-proton corona. The basic physical processes of thermally driven solar wind models are discussed. Also studied are the effect of alpha particles in the corona on the solar wind proton flux. The acceleration of the solar wind by Alfven waves is discussed.

  7. Energy from the Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelka, David G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The large-scale generation of electrical power by wind turbine fields is discussed. It is shown that the maximum power that can be extracted by a wind turbine is 16/27 of the power available in the wind. (BB)

  8. The winds of change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind-based power generation has been growing steadily in the United States and around the world, and this growth will continue—and accelerate—in the future, as the following background statistics demonstrate. The U.S. wind industry installed 8,358 megawatts (MW) of new wind generating capacity in 20...

  9. Large wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Donovon, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The development associated with large wind turbine systems is briefly described. The scope of this activity includes the development of several large wind turbines ranging in size from 100 kW to several megawatt levels. A description of the wind turbine systems, their programmatic status and a summary of their potential costs is included.

  10. Wind Economic Development (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the economic development benefits of wind energy. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the economic development benefits section on the Wind Powering America website.

  11. Wind power soars

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs.

  12. Power from the Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy source in the world. Over the last 20 years, the wind industry has done a very good job of engineering machines, improving materials, and economies of production, and making this energy source a reality. Like all renewable energy forms, wind energy's successful application is site specific. Also,…

  13. Wind farm electrical system

    DOEpatents

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  14. Wind power outlook 2006

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2006-04-15

    This annual brochure provides the American Wind Energy Association's up-to-date assessment of the wind industry in the United States. This 2006 general assessment shows positive signs of growth, use and acceptance of wind energy as a vital component of the U.S. energy mix.

  15. Wind Power Now!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  16. Steady state asymmetric planetary electrical induction. [by solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horning, B. L.; Schubert, G.

    1974-01-01

    An analytic solution is presented for the steady state electric and magnetic fields induced by the motional electric field of the solar wind in the atmosphere or interior of a planet that is asymmetrically surrounded by solar wind plasma. The electrically conducting ionosphere or interior must be in direct electrical contact with the solar wind over the day side of the planet. The conducting region of the planet is modeled by a sphere or a spherical shell of arbitrarily stratified electrical conductivity. A monoconducting cylindrical cavity is assumed to extend downstream on the night side of the planet. The solar wind is assumed to be highly conducting so that the induced fields are confined to the planet and cavity. Induced currents close as sheet currents at the solar wind-cavity and solar wind-planet interfaces. Numerical evaluations of the analytic formulas are carried out for a uniformly conducting spherical model.

  17. Controlled wind motor

    SciTech Connect

    Boswell, F.A.

    1983-12-27

    A mechanical sail including a rotatable mast, the mast including a top vane mount and a bottom vane mount, the mounts being spaced from each other on the mast and rotatable therewith, a series of rotatable vanes spaced from and surrounding the mast and supported by and between the mounts, cam operaters extending between the mounts and connected to the vanes for controlling the rotation of the vanes, a first controller associated with the mast below the bottom vane mount for controlling the cam operators, the first controller being movable vertically with respect to the mast, a second controller for moving the first controller vertically with respect to the mast, the vanes being flexible and bowed outwardly, the bottom vane mount being movable with respect to the mast and connected to the second controller whereby when the second controller is operated, the bottom vane mount will move toward the top vane mount causing the vanes to bow outwardly at a desired arc and whereby when the first controller is moved, the vanes are caused to rotate to the desired angle of attack with respect to wind velocity and direction. When the sail is connected to a motor drive, the vessel may be driven forward or rearward depending on the angle of attack of the vanes through 180/sup 0/.

  18. Accessible solitons of fractional dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj; Zhang, Yiqi

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons. -- Highlights: •Analytic solutions of a fractional Schrödinger equation are obtained. •The solutions are produced by means of self-similar method applied to the fractional Schrödinger equation with parabolic potential. •The fractional accessible solitons form crescent, asymmetric single-layer and multilayer necklace profiles. •The model applies to the propagation of optical pulses in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media.

  19. Extended gravity: a primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Faraoni, Valerio

    Each chapter should be preceded by an abstract (10-15 lines long) that summarizes the content. The abstract will appear online at www.SpringerLink.com and be available with unrestricted access. This allows unregistered users to read the abstract as a teaser for the complete chapter. As a general rule the abstracts will not appear in the printed version of your book unless it is the style of your particular book or that of the series to which your book belongs. Please use the 'starred' version of the new Springer abstract command for typesetting the text of the online abstracts (cf. source file of this chapter template abstract) and include them with the source files of your manuscript. Use the plain abstract command if the abstract is also to appear in the printed version of the book.

  20. Winding number constrained contour detection.

    PubMed

    Ming, Yansheng; Li, Hongdong; He, Xuming

    2015-01-01

    Salient contour detection can benefit from the integration of both contour cues and region cues. However, this task is difficult due to different nature of region representations and contour representations. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an energy minimization framework based on winding number constraints. In this framework, both region cues, such as color/texture homogeneity, and contour cues, such as local contrast and continuity, are represented in a joint objective function, which has both region and contour labels. The key problem is how to design constraints that ensure the topological consistency of the two kinds of labels. Our technique is based on the topological concept of winding number. Using a fast method for winding number computation, a small number of linear constraints are derived to ensure label consistency. Our method is instantiated by ratio-based energy functions. By successfully integrating both region and contour cues, our method shows advantages over competitive methods. Our method is extended to incorporate user interaction, which leads to further improvements.

  1. Comet Borrelly Slows Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Over 1300 energy spectra taken on September 22, 2001 from the ion and electron instruments on NASA's Deep Space 1 span a region of 1,400,000 kilometers (870,000 miles) centered on the closest approach to the nucleus of comet Borrelly. A very strong interaction occurs between the solar wind (horizontal red bands to left and right in figure) and the comet's surrounding cloud of dust and gas, the coma. Near Deep Space 1's closest approach to the nucleus, the solar wind picked up charged water molecules from the coma (upper green band near the center), slowing the wind sharply and creating the V-shaped energy structure at the center.

    Deep Space 1 completed its primary mission testing ion propulsion and 11 other advanced, high-risk technologies in September 1999. NASA extended the mission, taking advantage of the ion propulsion and other systems to undertake this chancy but exciting, and ultimately successful, encounter with the comet. More information can be found on the Deep Space 1 home page at http://nmp.jpl.nasa.gov/ds1/ .

    Deep Space 1 was launched in October 1998 as part of NASA's New Millennium Program, which is managed by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The California Institute of Technology manages JPL for NASA.

  2. Extended Ewald summation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylänpää, Ilkka; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-09-01

    We present a technique to improve the accuracy and to reduce the computational labor in the calculation of long-range interactions in systems with periodic boundary conditions. We extend the well-known Ewald method by using a linear combination of screening Gaussian charge distributions instead of only one. This enables us to find faster converging real-space and reciprocal space summations. The combined simplicity and efficiency of our method is demonstrated, and the scheme is readily applicable to large-scale periodic simulations, classical as well as quantum. Moreover, apart from the required a priori optimization the method is straightforward to include in most routines based on the Ewald method within, e.g., density-functional, molecular dynamics, and quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

  3. Extending juvenility in grasses

    DOEpatents

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  4. Stars with Extended Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.

    2002-12-01

    This Workshop consisted of a full-day meeting of the Working Group "Sterren met Uitgebreide Atmosferen" (SUA, Working Group Stars with Extended Atmospheres), a discussion group founded in 1979 by Kees de Jager, Karel van der Hucht and Pik Sin The. This loose association of astronomers and astronomy students working in the Dutch-speaking part of the Low Countries (The Netherlands and Flanders) organised at regular intervals one-day meetings at the Universities of Utrecht, Leiden, Amsterdam and Brussels. These meetings consisted of the presentation of scientific results by junior as well as senior members of the group, and by discussions between the participants. As such, the SUA meetings became a forum for the exchange of ideas, and for asking questions and advice in an informal atmosphere. Kees de Jager has been chairman of the WG SUA from the beginning in 1979 till today, as the leading source of inspiration. At the occasion of Prof. Kees de Jager's 80th birthday, we decided to collect the presented talks in written form as a Festschrift in honour of this well-respected and much beloved scientist, teacher and friend. The first three papers deal with the personality of Kees de Jager, more specifically with his role as a supervisor and mentor of young researchers and as a catalyst in the research work of his colleagues. And also about his remarkable role in the establishment of astronomy education and research at the University of Brussels. The next presentation is a very detailed review of solar research, a field in which Cees was prominently active for many years. Then follow several papers dealing with stars about which Kees is a true expert: massive stars and extended atmospheres.

  5. Extending ESGF Data Publication at the NASA Center for Climate Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriere, L.; Shen, Y.; Nadeau, D.; Potter, G. L.; Cinquini, L.; Blodgett, D. L.; McInerney, M.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) manages an Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) node that distributes over 150 TB of climate model data in support multiple ESGF projects; IPCC AR5, NASA observational data for model-data comparisons (obs4MIPs), reanalysis data (ana4MIPS) and downscaled NEX climate data. The purpose of ESGF is to improve collaboration among climate modelers and to extend access to these climate data to other scientific communities. The NCCS has collaborated with the US Geological Survey (USGS), NASA's JPL, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), NOAA/NCEP and the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) in three distinct projects to facilitate extending this access. First, the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) data were made available to USGS's Geo Data Portal (GDP) by creating new unions and aggregations within the THREDDS catalog. Second, Reanalysis data from ECMWF and JMA were published in two ESGF Projects: obs4MIPS - zonal and meridional (u and v) winds at designated CMIP5 pressure levels for direct comparison to model output, and ana4MIPs - all the equivalent CMIP5 variables at their original pressure levels. Third, BioClim data (Biodiversity) in geotiff format were published, becoming the first geotiff image files to be successfully published in ESGF. Additionally, the BioClim geotiff images were published through a THREDDS server using the USGS-CIDA geotiff-iosp THREDDS overlay to allow the images to be presented and visualized as if they were netcdf files. This will allow any opendap client, such as uvcdat, grads, and matlab to analyze these images alongside climate model data. Future work includes incorporating the WMS feature when it is enabled in ESGF to visualize the BioClim geotiff files from within ESGF. Use Cases for each of these projects will be presented.

  6. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of the extended solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, John L.; Noci, Giancarlo; Cranmer, Steven R.; Raymond, John C.

    2006-04-01

    The first observations of ultraviolet spectral line profiles and intensities from the extended solar corona (i.e., more than 1.5 solar radii from Sun-center) were obtained on 13 April 1979 when a rocket-borne ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics made direct measurements of proton kinetic temperatures, and obtained upper limits on outflow velocities in a quiet coronal region and a polar coronal hole. Following those observations, ultraviolet coronagraphic spectroscopy has expanded to include observations of over 60 spectral lines in coronal holes, streamers, coronal jets, and solar flare/coronal mass ejection (CME) events. Spectroscopic diagnostic techniques have been developed to determine proton, electron and ion kinetic temperatures and velocity distributions, proton and ion bulk flow speeds and chemical abundances. The observations have been made during three sounding rocket flights, four Shuttle deployed and retrieved Spartan 201 flights, and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of the extended solar corona has led to fundamentally new views of the acceleration regions of the solar wind and CMEs. Observations with the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on SOHO revealed surprisingly large temperatures, outflow speeds, and velocity distribution anisotropies in coronal holes, especially for minor ions. Those measurements have guided theorists to discard some candidate physical processes of solar wind acceleration and to increase and expand investigations of ion cyclotron resonance and related processes. Analyses of UVCS observations of CME plasma properties and the evolution of CMEs have provided the following: temperatures, inflow velocities and derived values of resistivity and reconnection rates in CME current sheets, compression ratios and extremely high ion temperatures behind CME shocks, and three dimensional flow velocities and magnetic field chirality in

  7. Wind Turbine Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A workshop on wind turbine structural dynamics was held to review and document current United States work on the dynamic behavior of large wind turbines, primarily of the horizontal-axis type, and to identify and discuss other wind turbine configurations that may have lower cost and weight. Information was exchanged on the following topics: (1) Methods for calculating dynamic loads; (2) Aeroelasticity stability (3) Wind loads, both steady and transient; (4) Critical design conditions; (5) Drive train dynamics; and (6) Behavior of operating wind turbines.

  8. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  9. Utilization of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, J. D.

    1984-01-31

    A wind energy device comprising a first airfoil having a leading edge, a trailing edge and a tip, means supporting the airfoil above a surface, the airfoil being adapted, when traversed by a prevailing wind, to generate a vortex at its tip, an air deflector associated with the airfoil and arranged so as to deflect prevailing wind traversing the deflector into the vortex to augment the energy of the vortex, means to vary the orientation of the airfoil relative to the prevailing wind, and a rotary device located in the path of the vortex and adapted to be driven by the wind in the vortex.

  10. Wind energy applications guide

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2001-01-01

    The brochure is an introduction to various wind power applications for locations with underdeveloped transmission systems, from remote water pumping to village electrification. It includes an introductory section on wind energy, including wind power basics and system components and then provides examples of applications, including water pumping, stand-alone systems for home and business, systems for community centers, schools, and health clinics, and examples in the industrial area. There is also a page of contacts, plus two specific example applications for a wind-diesel system for a remote station in Antarctica and one on wind-diesel village electrification in Russia.

  11. Optimizing Extender Code for NCSX Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    M. Richman, S. Ethier, and N. Pomphrey

    2008-01-22

    Extender is a parallel C++ code for calculating the magnetic field in the vacuum region of a stellarator. The code was optimized for speed and augmented with tools to maintain a specialized NetCDF database. Two parallel algorithms were examined. An even-block work-distribution scheme was comparable in performance to a master-slave scheme. Large speedup factors were achieved by representing the plasma surface with a spline rather than Fourier series. The accuracy of this representation and the resulting calculations relied on the density of the spline mesh. The Fortran 90 module db access was written to make it easy to store Extender output in a manageable database. New or updated data can be added to existing databases. A generalized PBS job script handles the generation of a database from scratch

  12. Access to VIRTIS / Venus-Express post-operations data archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard, Stéphane; Drossart, Pierre; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Henry, Florence; Politi, Romolo

    2016-10-01

    All data acquired during the Venus-Express mission are publicly available on ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA). The PSA itself is being redesigned to provide more comprehensive access to its content and a new interface is expected to be ready in the coming months.However, an alternative access to the VIRTIS/VEx dataset is also provided in the PI institutes as part of the Europlanet-2020 European programme. The VESPA user interface (http://vespa.obspm.fr) provides a query mechanism based on observational conditions and instrument parameters to select data cubes of interest in the PSA and to connect them to standard plotting and analysis tools. VESPA queries will also identify related data in other datasets responsive to this mechanism, e. g., contextual images or dynamic simulations of the atmosphere, including outcomes of the EuroVenus programme funded by the EU. A specific on-line spectral cube viewer has been developed at Paris Observatory (http://voplus.obspm.fr/apericubes/js9/demo.php). Alternative ways to access the VIRTIS data are being considered, including python access to PDS3 data (https://github.com/VIRTIS-VEX/VIRTISpy) and distribution in NetCDF format on IAPS website (http://planetcdf.iaps.inaf.it). In the near future, an extended data service will provide direct access to individual spectra on the basis of viewing angles, time, and location.The next step will be to distribute products derived from data analysis, such as surface and wind maps, atmospheric profiles, movies of the polar vortices or O2 emission on the night side, etc. Such products will be accessed in a similar way, and will make VIRTIS results readily available for future Venus studies. Similar actions are taken in the frame of Europlanet concerning atmospheric data from the Mars-Express mission and Cassini observations of Titan.

  13. Piezoelectric wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, Ravi Anant; Priya, Shashank

    2013-03-01

    In past few years, there has been significant focus towards developing small scale renewable energy based power sources for powering wireless sensor nodes in remote locations such as highways and bridges to conduct continuous health monitoring. These prior efforts have led to the development of micro-scale solar modules, hydrogen fuel cells and various vibration based energy harvesters. However, the cost effectiveness, reliability, and practicality of these solutions remain a concern. Harvesting the wind energy using micro-to-small scale wind turbines can be an excellent solution in variety of outdoor scenarios provided they can operate at few miles per hour of wind speed. The conventional electromagnetic generator used in the wind mills always has some cogging torque which restricts their operation above certain cut-in wind speed. This study aims to develop a novel piezoelectric wind turbine that utilizes bimorph actuators for electro-mechanical energy conversion. This device utilizes a Savonius rotor that is connected to a disk having magnets at the periphery. The piezoelectric actuators arranged circumferentially around the disk also have magnets at the tip which interacts with the magnetic field of the rotating disk and produces cyclical deflection. The wind tunnel experiments were conducted between 2-12 mph of wind speeds to characterize and optimize the power output of the wind turbine. Further, testing was conducted in the open environment to quantify the response to random wind gusts. An attempt was made towards integration of the piezoelectric wind turbine with the wireless sensor node.

  14. Thermally driven winds

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1993-04-01

    This presentation will summarize the present state of knowledge on slope and valley wind systems, emphasizing physical concepts and recent gains in understanding from observational programs in various parts of the world. The presentation will begin with a discussion of terminology and a summary of the characteristics and relevant physics of slope and valley wind systems. The interrelationships between slope and valley wind systems will be covered as well as the cyclical development of the wind systems during the morning transition, daytime, evening transition, and nighttime periods. The discussion will focus on key physical factors including topography, temperature structure, surface energy budgets, atmospheric heat budgets, strength of overlying flows, etc. that produce variations in wind system behavior from one topographic and climatic setting to another. Deviant wind system behavior and winds associated with special topographic features will also be discussed.

  15. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  16. Wind energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  17. 78 FR 11672 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Alta East Wind Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... of Mojave and 11 miles east of the city of Tehachapi. The project would include wind turbines, access... East Wind Project, Kern County, CA, and Proposed Land Use Plan Amendment AGENCY: Bureau of Land... (CDCA) Plan Amendment/Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Alta East Wind Project...

  18. SAR Observation and Modeling of Gap Winds in the Prince William Sound of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haibo; Olsson, Peter Q; Volz, Karl

    2008-08-22

    Alaska's Prince William Sound (PWS) is a unique locale tending to have strong gap winds, especially in the winter season. To characterize and understand these strong surface winds, which have great impacts on the local marine and aviation activities, the surface wind retrieval from the Synthetic Aperture Radar data (SAR-wind) is combined with a numerical mesoscale model. Helped with the SAR-wind observations, the mesoscale model is used to study cases of strong winds and relatively weak winds to depict the nature of these winds, including the area of extent and possible causes of the wind regimes. The gap winds from the Wells Passage and the Valdez Arm are the most dominant gap winds in PWS. Though the Valdez Arm is north-south trending and Wells Passage is east-west oriented, gap winds often develop simultaneously in these two places when a low pressure system is present in the Northern Gulf of Alaska. These two gap winds often converge at the center of PWS and extend further out of the Sound through the Hinchinbrook Entrance. The pressure gradients imposed over these areas are the main driving forces for these gap winds. Additionally, the drainage from the upper stream glaciers and the blocking effect of the banks of the Valdez Arm probably play an important role in enhancing the gap wind.

  19. United States Offshore Wind Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-12-01

    The utilization of the offshore wind resource will be necessary if the United States is to meet the goal of having 20% of its electricity generated by wind power because many of the electrical load centers in the country are located along the coastlines. The United States Department of Energy, through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has supported an ongoing project to assess the wind resource for the offshore regions of the contiguous United States including the Great Lakes. Final offshore maps with a horizontal resolution of 200 meters (m) have been completed for Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, northern New England, and the Great Lakes. The ocean wind resource maps extend from the coastline to 50 nautical miles (nm) offshore. The Great Lake maps show the resource for all of the individual lakes. These maps depict the wind resource at 50 m above the water as classes of wind power density. Class 1 represents the lowest available wind resource, while Class 7 is the highest resource. Areas with Class 5 and higher wind resource can be economical for offshore project development. As offshore wind turbine technology improves, areas with Class 4 and higher resource should become economically viable. The wind resource maps are generated using output from a modified numerical weather prediction model combined with a wind flow model. The preliminary modeling is performed by AWS Truewind under subcontract to NREL. The preliminary model estimates are sent to NREL to be validated. NREL validates the preliminary estimates by comparing 50 m model data to available measurements that are extrapolated to 50 m. The validation results are used to modify the preliminary map and produce the final resource map. The sources of offshore wind measurement data include buoys, automated stations, lighthouses, and satellite- derived ocean wind speed data. The wind electric potential is represented as Megawatts (MW) of potential installed capacity and is based on the square

  20. Giotto Extended Mission (GEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, D. E. B.; Grensemann, M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Giotto Extended Mission (GEM), are to determine the composition and physical state of the Grigg Skjellerup Comet's nucleus; to determine the processes that govern the composition and distribution of neutral and ionized species in the cometary atmosphere. Giotto consists of a single European Space Agency (ESA) spacecraft that was launched in 1985 from Center Spatial Guyanis in French Guiana on an Ariane launch vehicle. After a successful launch into geostationary orbit and a heliocentric transfer trajectory, the spacecraft successfully encountered Halley's Comet in 1986. One month after encountering Halley's Comet, Mar. 1986, the spacecraft was placed in hibernation in a heliocentric orbit slightly less than 1 AU. Between Feb. and Jul. 1990 the spacecraft was successfully reactivated, checked out, and placed on a trajectory course to intercept comet Grigg Skjellerup. The spacecraft has been in hibernation since Jul. 1990. Information is presented in tabular form in the following areas: coverage goals, Deep Space Network Support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  1. An Extended Lagrangian Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    1995-01-01

    A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method,' is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. The present method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method have a similarity in spirit-eliminating the cross-streamline numerical diffusion. For this purpose, we suggest a simple grid constraint condition and utilize an accurate discretization procedure. This grid constraint is only applied to the transverse cell face parallel to the local stream velocity, and hence our method for the steady state problems naturally reduces to the streamline-curvature method, without explicitly solving the steady stream-coordinate equations formulated a priori. Unlike the Lagrangian method proposed by Loh and Hui which is valid only for steady supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows and supersonic flows as well as unsteady flows, simply by invoking in the same code an appropriate grid constraint suggested in this paper. The approach is found to be robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.

  2. Extended chameleon models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brax, Philippe; Tamanini, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    We extend the chameleon models by considering scalar-fluid theories where the coupling between matter and the scalar field can be represented by a quadratic effective potential with density-dependent minimum and mass. In this context, we study the effects of the scalar field on Solar System tests of gravity and show that models passing these stringent constraints can still induce large modifications of Newton's law on galactic scales. On these scales we analyze models which could lead to a percent deviation of Newton's law outside the virial radius. We then model the dark matter halo as a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and explicitly find that the fifth force can give large contributions around the galactic core in a particular model where the scalar field mass is constant and the minimum of its potential varies linearly with the matter density. At cosmological distances, we find that this model does not alter the growth of large scale structures and therefore would be best tested on galactic scales, where interesting signatures might arise in the galaxy rotation curves.

  3. National Wind Distance Learning Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. James B. Beddow

    2013-03-29

    student access through the use of tablet devices such as iPads. Early prototype Learning Management Systems (LMS) featuring more student-centric access and interfaces with emerging social media were developed and utilized during the testing applications. The project also produced soft results involving cross learning between and among the partners regarding subject matter expertise, online learning pedagogy, and eLearning technology-based platforms. The partners believe that the most significant, overarching accomplishment of the project was the development and implementation of goals, activities, and outcomes that significantly exceeded those proposed in the initial grant application submitted in 2009. Key specific accomplishments include: (1) development of a set of 8 online learning modules addressing electrical safety as it relates to the work of wind technicians; (3) development of a flexible, open-ended Learning Management System (LMS): (3) creation of a robust body of learning (knowledge, experience, skills, and relationships). Project leaders have concluded that there is substantial resource equity that could be leverage and recommend that it be carried forward to pursue a Next Stage Opportunity relating to development of an online core curriculum for institute and community college energy workforce development programs.

  4. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... returned to your body. Usually the access is put in your arm but it can also go ... A surgeon will put the access in. There are 3 types of access. Fistula: The surgeon joins an artery and vein under the ...

  5. Boosting Access to Government Rocket Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    September–October 2014 8 with MSFC, through an SAA signed in 2012, using Marshall’s expertise and resources to perform wind tunnel testing on various...Defense AT&L: September–October 2014 6 Boosting Access to Government Rocket Science John F. Rice Defense AT&L: September–October 2014 6 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Boosting Access to Government Rocket Science 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  6. On the fast magnetic rotator regime of stellar winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We study the acceleration of the stellar winds of rapidly rotating low mass stars and the transition between the slow magnetic rotator and fast magnetic rotator regimes. We aim to understand the properties of stellar winds in the fast magnetic rotator regime and the effects of magneto-centrifugal forces on wind speeds and mass loss rates. Methods: We extend a solar wind model to 1D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the winds of rotating stars. We test two assumptions for how to scale the wind temperature to other stars and assume the mass loss rate scales as dot{M_star ∝ R_star2 Ω_star1.33 M_star-3.36}, in the unsaturated regime, as estimated from observed rotational evolution. Results: For 1.0 M⊙ stars, the winds can be accelerated to several thousand km s-1, and the effects of magneto-centrifugal forces are much weaker for lower mass stars. We find that the different assumptions for how to scale the wind temperature to other stars lead to significantly different mass loss rates for the rapid rotators. If we assume a constant temperature, the mass loss rates of solar mass stars do not saturate at rapid rotation, which we show to be inconsistent with observed rotational evolution. If we assume the wind temperatures scale positively with rotation, the mass loss rates are only influenced significantly at rotation rates above 75 Ω⊙. We suggest that models with increasing wind speed for more rapid rotators are preferable to those that assume a constant wind speed. If this conclusion is confirmed by more sophisticated wind modelling. it might provide an interesting observational constraint on the properties of stellar winds. All of the codes and output data used in this paper can be downloaded from http://https://zenodo.org/record/160052#.V_y6drWkVC1 or obtained by contacting the author.

  7. The Structure and Evolution of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, Patrick O.

    2010-01-01

    The extended nebulae formed as pulsar winds expand into their surroundings provide information about the composition of the winds, the injection history from the host pulsar, and the material into which the nebulae are expanding. Observations from across the electromagnetic spectrum provide constraints on the evolution of the nebulae, the density and composition of the surrounding ejecta, the geometry of the central engines, and the long-term fate of the energetic particles produced in these systems. Such observations reveal the presence of jets and wind termination shocks, time-varying compact emission structures, shocked supernova ejecta, and newly formed dust. Here I provide a broad overview of the structure of pulsar wind nebulae, with specific examples from observations extending from the radio band to very high energy gamma-rays that demonstrate our ability to constrain the history and ultimate fate of the energy released in the spin-down of young pulsars.

  8. SERI Wind Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  9. Session: Offshore wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gaarde, Jette; Ram, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine projects in Denmark and lessons from other offshore wind developments in Europe. Wildlife impacts studies from the Danish sites focused on birds, fish, and mammals. The second presentation ''What has the U.S. Wind Industry Learned from the European Example'' by Bonnie Ram provided an update on current permit applications for offshore wind developments in the U.S. as well as lessons that may be drawn from the European experience.

  10. Multiwavelength Studies of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, Patrick O.

    2010-03-01

    The extended nebulae formed as pulsar winds expand into their surroundings provide information about the composition of the winds, the injection history from the host pulsar, and the material into which the nebulae are expanding. Observations from across the electromagnetic spectrum provide constraints on the evolution of the nebulae, the density and composition of the surrounding ejecta, the geometry of the central engines, and the long-term fate of the energetic particles produced in these systems. High-energy observations, in particular, reveal the presence of jets and wind termination shocks, time-varying compact emission structures, shocked supernova ejecta, and emission from late-phase nebulae that are extremely faint in other bands. Here I provide a broad overview of the structure of pulsar wind nebulae, with specific examples from observations extending from the radio band to very high energy gamma-rays that demonstrate our ability to constrain the history and ultimate fate of the energy released in the spin-down of young pulsars.

  11. Type IIb Supernovae with Compact and Extended Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Roger A.; Soderberg, Alicia M.

    2010-03-01

    The classic example of a Type IIb supernova is SN 1993J, which had a cool extended progenitor surrounded by a dense wind. There is evidence for another category of Type IIb supernova that has a more compact progenitor with a lower density, probably fast, wind. Distinguishing features of the compact category are weak optical emission from the shock heated envelope at early times, nonexistent or very weak H emission in the late nebular phase, rapidly evolving radio emission, rapid expansion of the radio shell, and expected nonthermal as opposed to thermal X-ray emission. Type IIb supernovae that have one or more of these features include SNe 1996cb, 2001ig, 2003bg, 2008ax, and 2008bo. All of these with sufficient radio data (the last four) show evidence for presupernova wind variability. We estimate a progenitor envelope radius ~1 × 1011 cm for SN 2008ax, a value consistent with a compact Wolf-Rayet progenitor. Supernovae in the SN 1993J extended category include SN 2001gd and probably the Cas A supernova. We suggest that the compact Type IIb events be designated Type cIIb and the extended ones Type eIIb. The H envelope mass dividing these categories is ~0.1 M sun.

  12. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. ...

  13. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... use requirements for Critical Access Hospitals related to Electronic Health Records (EHRs)? Critical Access Hospital (CAH) are eligible for Electronic Health Record (EHR) incentive payments and can receive ...

  14. Wind turbine having a direct-drive drivetrain

    DOEpatents

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2008-10-07

    A wind turbine (100) comprising an electrical generator (108) that includes a rotor assembly (112). A wind rotor (104) that includes a wind rotor hub (124) is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle (160) via a bearing assembly (180). The wind rotor hub includes an opening (244) having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity (380) inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret (140) supported by a tower (136). Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity (172, 176, 368) that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system (276) for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  15. Solar Wind Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

  16. Wind Energy: Offshore Permitting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Technological advancements and tax incentives have driven a global expansion in the development of renewable energy resources. Wind energy , in...particular, is now often cited as the fastest growing commercial energy source in the world. Currently, all U.S. wind energy facilities are based on land...authority to permit and regulate offshore wind energy development within the zones of the oceans under its jurisdiction. The federal government and coastal

  17. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Homicz, Greg

    2002-04-01

    Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). VAWT-SAL Vertical Axis Wind Turbine- Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads Ver 3.2 numerically simulates the stochastic (random0 aerodynamic loads of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) created by the atomspheric turbulence. The program takes into account the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties.

  18. Fighting wind shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A “coherent and sustained program” of improved radar detection of weather, pilot training, and better communication between pilots and air controllers can greatly reduce the risk of wind shear to airplanes landing or taking off, according to a National Research Council (NRC) committee.Wind shear, characterized by winds rapidly changing direction and speed, has caused several serious accidents in recent years; among the most notable is the July 8, 1982, crash of a Pan American World Airlines jetliner at the New Orleans International Airport, which killed 153 persons. Following the accident, Congress directed the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to contract with the NRC to study wind shear.

  19. Wind turbine means

    SciTech Connect

    Kennon, W.A.

    1980-12-02

    A turbine wheel is described which includes a housing for enclosing the electrical generating apparatus, and track structure which engages and rotatably drives the generator or the like, i.e., through suitable coupling structure. Shroud structure is disposed in an operable exterior proximity with the turbine wheel for varying the effectiveness of the wind as it is acting upon the turbine wheel, i.e., in infinite variable stages commensurate with changing velocity of the wind. The speed of the turbine wheel is automatically controlled so as to remain substantially constant throughout a wide variance of normal wind velocity and irrespective of the direction of the wind.

  20. Offshore Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Strach-Sonsalla, Mareike; Stammler, Matthias; Wenske, Jan; Jonkman, Jason; Vorpahl, Fabian

    2016-07-27

    In 1991, the Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm, the first offshore wind farm in the world, started feeding electricity to the grid off the coast of Lolland, Denmark. Since then, offshore wind energy has developed from this early experiment to a multibillion dollar market and an important pillar of worldwide renewable energy production. Unit sizes grew from 450 kW at Vindeby to the 7.5 MW-class offshore wind turbines (OWT ) that are currently (by October 2014) in the prototyping phase. This chapter gives an overview of the state of the art in offshore wind turbine (OWT) technology and introduces the principles of modeling and simulating an OWT. The OWT components -- including the rotor, nacelle, support structure, control system, and power electronics -- are introduced, and current technological challenges are presented. The OWT system dynamics and the environment (wind and ocean waves) are described from the perspective of OWT modelers and designers. Finally, an outlook on future technology is provided. The descriptions in this chapter are focused on a single OWT -- more precisely, a horizontal-axis wind turbine -- as a dynamic system. Offshore wind farms and wind farm effects are not described in detail in this chapter, but an introduction and further references are given.

  1. Wind turbine acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1990-01-01

    Available information on the physical characteristics of the noise generated by wind turbines is summarized, with example sound pressure time histories, narrow- and broadband frequency spectra, and noise radiation patterns. Reviewed are noise measurement standards, analysis technology, and a method of characterizing wind turbine noise. Prediction methods are given for both low-frequency rotational harmonics and broadband noise components. Also included are atmospheric propagation data showing the effects of distance and refraction by wind shear. Human perception thresholds, based on laboratory and field tests, are given. Building vibration analysis methods are summarized. The bibliography of this report lists technical publications on all aspects of wind turbine acoustics.

  2. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  3. Wind Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curto, Paul A. (Inventor); Brown, Gerald E. (Inventor); Zysko, Jan A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a two-part wind advisory system comprising a ground station at an airfield and an airborne unit placed inside an aircraft. The ground station monitors wind conditions (wind speed, wind direction, and wind gust) at the airfield and transmits the wind conditions and an airfield ID to the airborne unit. The airborne unit identifies the airfield by comparing the received airfield ID with airfield IDs stored in a database. The airborne unit also calculates the headwind and crosswind for each runway in both directions at the airfield using the received wind conditions and runway information stored in the database. The airborne unit then determines a recommended runway for takeoff and landing operations of the aircraft based on th runway having the greatest headwind value and displays the airfield ID, wind conditions, and recommended runway to the pilot. Another embodiment of the present invention includes a wireless internet based airborne unit in which the airborne unit can receive the wind conditions from the ground station over the internet.

  4. Wind power prediction models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.; Mcginness, H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations were performed to predict the power available from the wind at the Goldstone, California, antenna site complex. The background for power prediction was derived from a statistical evaluation of available wind speed data records at this location and at nearby locations similarly situated within the Mojave desert. In addition to a model for power prediction over relatively long periods of time, an interim simulation model that produces sample wind speeds is described. The interim model furnishes uncorrelated sample speeds at hourly intervals that reproduce the statistical wind distribution at Goldstone. A stochastic simulation model to provide speed samples representative of both the statistical speed distributions and correlations is also discussed.

  5. Wind/Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    Nobel laureate Richard Smalley cited energy and water as among humanity's top problems for the next 50 years as the world's population increases from 6.3 billion to 9 billion. The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Program has initiated an effort to explore wind energy's role as a technical solution to this critically important issue in the United States and the world. This four-page fact sheet outlines five areas in which wind energy can contribute: thermoelectric power plant/water processes, irrigation, municipal water supply, desalination, and wind/hydropower integration.

  6. Wind Measurements with High Energy 2 Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Bruce W.; Koch, Grady J.; Petros, Mulugeta; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Yu, Ji-Rong; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2004-01-01

    A coherent Doppler lidar based on an injection seeded Ho:Tm:YLF pulsed laser was developed for wind measurements. A transmitted pulse energy over 75 mJ at 5 Hz repetition rate has been demonstrated. Designs are presented on the laser, injection seeding, receiver, and signal processing subsystems. Sample data of atmospheric measurements are presented including a wind profile extending from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to the free troposphere.

  7. Innovative Offshore Wind Plant Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, William L.; Nordstrom, Charles J.; Morrison, Brent J.

    2013-12-18

    Technological advancements in the Glosten PelaStar floating wind turbine system have led to projected cost of energy (COE) reductions from today’s best-in-class offshore wind systems. The PelaStar system is projected to deliver a COE that is 35% lower than that delivered by the current offshore wind plants. Several technology developments have been achieved that directly target significant cost of energy reductions. These include: Application of state-of-the-art steel construction materials and methods, including fatigue-resistant welding techniques and technologies, to reduce hull steel weight; Advancements in synthetic fiber tendon design for the mooring system, which are made possible by laboratory analysis of full-scale sub-rope specimens; Investigations into selected anchor technologies to improve anchor installation methods; Refinement of the installation method, specifically through development of the PelaStar Support Barge design. Together, these technology developments drive down the capital cost and operating cost of offshore wind plants and enable access to superb wind resources in deep water locations. These technology developments also reduce the uncertainty of the PelaStar system costs, which increases confidence in the projected COE reductions.

  8. Variable-Speed Wind Power Plant Operating With Reserve Power Capability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Muljadi, E.; Ela, E.

    2013-10-01

    As the level of wind penetration increases, wind turbine technology must move from merely generating power from wind to taking a role in supporting the bulk power system. Wind turbines should have the capability to provide inertial response and primary frequency (governor) response. Wind turbine generators with this capability can support the frequency stability of the grid. To provide governorresponse, wind turbines should be able to generate less power than the available wind power and hold the rest in reserves, ready to be accessed as needed. In this paper, we explore several ways to control wind turbine output to enable reserve-holding capability. The focus of this paper is on doubly-fed induction generator (also known as Type 3) and full-converter (also known as Type 4) windturbines.

  9. 1. Southwest front, dock no. 491. Aircraft tail extends through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Southwest front, dock no. 491. Aircraft tail extends through gasket in center hangar doors. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. Video and Computer Technologies for Extended-Campus Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, Edgar L.; And Others

    This paper discusses video and computer technologies for extended-campus programming (courses and programs at off-campus sites). The first section provides an overview of the distance education program at the University of Kentucky (UK), and highlights the improved access to graduate and professional programs, advances in technology, funding,…

  11. [Extending the palliative approach across the French health system].

    PubMed

    Mino, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The care provision for people at the end of life requires a palliative care approach to be extended across the whole healthcare system. Access to palliative care for everyone requires training for professionals, support for specialised structures and teams as well as clear political will.

  12. Wind turbulence characterization for wind energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendell, L. L.; Gower, G. L.; Morris, V. R.; Tomich, S. D.

    1991-09-01

    As part of its support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Wind Energy Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has initiated an effort to work jointly with the wind energy community to characterize wind turbulence in a variety of complex terrains at existing or potential sites of wind turbine installation. Five turbulence characterization systems were assembled and installed at four sites in the Tehachapi Pass in California, and one in the Green Mountains near Manchester, Vermont. Data processing and analyses techniques were developed to allow observational analyses of the turbulent structure; this analysis complements the more traditional statistical and spectral analyses. Preliminary results of the observational analyses, in the rotating framework or a wind turbine blade, show that the turbulence at a site can have two major components: (1) engulfing eddies larger than the rotor, and (2) fluctuating shear due to eddies smaller than the rotor disk. Comparison of the time series depicting these quantities at two sites showed that the turbulence intensity (the commonly used descriptor of turbulence) did not adequately characterize the turbulence at these sites.

  13. Wind turbulence characterization for wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Wendell, L.L.; Gower, G.L.; Morris, V.R.; Tomich, S.D.

    1991-09-01

    As part of its support of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Wind Energy Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has initiated an effort to work jointly with the wind energy community to characterize wind turbulence in a variety of complex terrains at existing or potential sites of wind turbine installation. Five turbulence characterization systems were assembled and installed at four sites in the Tehachapi Pass in California, and one in the Green Mountains near Manchester, Vermont. Data processing and analyses techniques were developed to allow observational analyses of the turbulent structure; this analysis complements the more traditional statistical and spectral analyses. Preliminary results of the observational analyses, in the rotating framework or a wind turbine blade, show that the turbulence at a site can have two major components: (1) engulfing eddies larger than the rotor, and (2) fluctuating shear due to eddies smaller than the rotor disk. Comparison of the time series depicting these quantities at two sites showed that the turbulence intensity (the commonly used descriptor of turbulence) did not adequately characterize the turbulence at these sites. 9 refs., 10 figs.,

  14. A wind chart to characterize potential offshore wind energy sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Jesus, F.; Menéndez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I. J.

    2014-10-01

    Offshore wind industry needs to improve wind assessment in order to decrease the uncertainty associated to wind resource and its influence on financial requirements. Here, several features related to offshore wind resource assessment are discussed, such as input wind data, estimation of long-term and extreme wind statistics, the wind profile and climate variations. This work proposes an analytical method to characterize wind resource. Final product is a wind chart containing useful wind information that can be applied to any offshore sites. Using long-term time series of meteorological variables (e.g. wind speed and direction at different heights), the methodology is applied to five pilot sites in different countries along European Atlantic corridor and it is used to describe and compare offshore wind behavior.

  15. Multifractal Behavior of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasinghe, R. M.; Pannila, A. S.; Jayananda, M. K.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis of temporal variation of wind speed and wind direction recorded at 10 min intervals are presented. The measurements were carried out at Hambanthota, a site located in the southern coastal belt of Sri Lanka which has a high potential for wind power generation. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis was used to analyze the temporal scaling properties of wind speeds and wind directions. The analysis was carried out for seasonal variation of wind speed and wind direction. It was observed that the scaling behavior of wind speed in Hambanthota is similar to the scaling behavior observed in previous studies which were carried out in other parts of the world. The seasonal wind and wind direction change exhibits different scaling behavior. No difference in scaling behavior was observed with heights. The degree of multifractality is high for wind direction when compared with wind speed for each season.

  16. Regional Wind Energy Assessment Program. Appendix: Wind statistics summaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, R. W.; Wade, J. E.; Wittrup, R. J.

    1985-02-01

    The wind statistics given include summarized spectrum analyzer data, speed frequency distributions, and occurrences of winds of 50 mph or greater. Also mapped is the wind power prospecting flight path, with site locations numbered.

  17. Ancient solar wind in lunar microbreccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiemens, M. H.; Clayton, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    Possible components of the ancient solar wind, particularly the N-15/N-14 ratio, are investigated on the basis of lunar microbreccia studies. Nitrogen contents and isotope ratios were determined for Apollo 11 and 15 microbreccia samples by means of vacuum pyrolysis techniques. The Apollo 11 soil breccias, which had been closed to the addition of recent solar wind due to their compaction, are found to contain the lowest N-15/N-14 ratios yet reported for the solar wind, extending the range of variation of the ratio to between a delta N-15 of -190% in the past to +120% at present. Nitrogen isotope analysis of the Apollo 15 drill core, which had undergone two episodes of solar wind exposure, also support the secular variation in the N-15 content of the solar wind, which is attributed to spallation reactions in the sun. The formation of the breccias at the Apollo 11 and 15 sites is discussed on the basis of the observed nitrogen systematics, and differences between N-15 and Ne-21 cosmic ray exposure ages implied are attributed to the diffusive loss of neon from lunar soils.

  18. Optimization of monopiles for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Kallehave, Dan; Byrne, Byron W; LeBlanc Thilsted, Christian; Mikkelsen, Kristian Kousgaard

    2015-02-28

    The offshore wind industry currently relies on subsidy schemes to be competitive with fossil-fuel-based energy sources. For the wind industry to survive, it is vital that costs are significantly reduced for future projects. This can be partly achieved by introducing new technologies and partly through optimization of existing technologies and design methods. One of the areas where costs can be reduced is in the support structure, where better designs, cheaper fabrication and quicker installation might all be possible. The prevailing support structure design is the monopile structure, where the simple design is well suited to mass-fabrication, and the installation approach, based on conventional impact driving, is relatively low-risk and robust for most soil conditions. The range of application of the monopile for future wind farms can be extended by using more accurate engineering design methods, specifically tailored to offshore wind industry design. This paper describes how state-of-the-art optimization approaches are applied to the design of current wind farms and monopile support structures and identifies the main drivers where more accurate engineering methods could impact on a next generation of highly optimized monopiles.

  19. Estimation of rotor effective wind speeds using autoregressive models on Lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giyanani, A.; Bierbooms, W. A. A. M.; van Bussel, G. J. W.

    2016-09-01

    Lidars have become increasingly useful for providing accurate wind speed measurements in front of the wind turbine. The wind field measured at distant meteorological masts changes its structure or was too distorted before it reaches the turbine. Thus, one cannot simply apply Taylor's frozen turbulence for representing this distant flow field at the rotor. Wind turbine controllers can optimize the energy output and reduce the loads significantly, if the wind speed estimates were known in advance with high accuracy and low uncertainty. The current method to derive wind speed estimations from aerodynamic torque, pitch angle and tip speed ratio after the wind field flows past the turbine and have their limitations, e.g. in predicting gusts. Therefore, an estimation model coupled with the measuring capability of nacelle based Lidars was necessary for detecting extreme events and for estimating accurate wind speeds at the rotor disc. Nacelle-mounted Lidars measure the oncoming wind field from utpo 400m(5D) in front of the turbine and appropriate models could be used for deriving the rotor effective wind speed from these measurements. This article proposes an auto-regressive model combined with a method to include the blockage factor in order to estimate the wind speeds accurately using Lidar measurements. An Armax model was used to determine the transfer function that models the physical evolution of wind towards the wind turbine, incorporating the effect of surface roughness, wind shear and wind variability at the site. The model could incorporate local as well as global effects and was able to predict the rotor effective wind speeds with adequate accuracy for wind turbine control actions. A high correlation of 0.86 was achieved as the Armax modelled signal was compared to a reference signal. The model could also be extended to estimate the damage potential during high wind speeds, gusts or abrupt change in wind directions, allowing the controller to act appropriately

  20. Wind power project siting workshop: emerging issues and technologies

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2004-12-01

    With wind power development extending more broadly across the various regions of the United States, and with new participants entering the wind development business, AWEA developed a workshop on the various ways in which wind power projects affect--and don't affect--elements of the human and natural environment. Over 180 people gathered in Portland, OR on October 13-14, 2004 to participate in a day and a half of presentations by 20 leading industry specialists. Their presentations covered emerging issues of project siting, such as bat interactions and wildlife survey techniques, and methods of generating local support for wind projects. Workshop topics included: Avian and Bat Research Updates; Wildlife Survey Technologies & Techniques; Technical Issues such as Noise, Aesthetics, and Lighting; National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Scenarios and Federal Land Policies; Tribal & Community Relations; Federal & State Permitting Process; and Bureau of Land Management Wind Power Developments.

  1. A VERSATILE FAMILY OF GALACTIC WIND MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, Chad; Zweibel, Ellen G.; D’Onghia, Elena

    2016-03-01

    We present a versatile family of model galactic outflows including non-uniform mass and energy source distributions, a gravitational potential from an extended mass source, and radiative losses. The model easily produces steady-state wind solutions for a range of mass-loading factors, energy-loading factors, galaxy mass, and galaxy radius. We find that, with radiative losses included, highly mass-loaded winds must be driven at high central temperatures, whereas low mass-loaded winds can be driven at low temperatures just above the peak of the cooling curve, meaning radiative losses can drastically affect the wind solution even for low mass-loading factors. By including radiative losses, we are able to show that subsonic flows can be ignored as a possible mechanism for expelling mass and energy from a galaxy compared to the more efficient transonic solutions. Specifically, the transonic solutions with low mass loading and high energy loading are the most efficient. Our model also produces low-temperature, high-velocity winds that could explain the prevalence of low-temperature material in observed outflows. Finally, we show that our model, unlike the well-known Chevalier and Clegg model, can reproduce the observed linear relationship between wind X-ray luminosity and star formation rate (SFR) over a large range of SFR from 1–1000 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} assuming the wind mass-loading factor is higher for low-mass, and hence, low-SFR galaxies. We also constrain the allowed mass-loading factors that can fit the observed X-ray luminosity versus SFR trend, further suggesting an inverse relationship between mass loading and SFR as explored in advanced numerical simulations.

  2. Effective wind speed estimation: Comparison between Kalman Filter and Takagi-Sugeno observer techniques.

    PubMed

    Gauterin, Eckhard; Kammerer, Philipp; Kühn, Martin; Schulte, Horst

    2016-05-01

    Advanced model-based control of wind turbines requires knowledge of the states and the wind speed. This paper benchmarks a nonlinear Takagi-Sugeno observer for wind speed estimation with enhanced Kalman Filter techniques: The performance and robustness towards model-structure uncertainties of the Takagi-Sugeno observer, a Linear, Extended and Unscented Kalman Filter are assessed. Hence the Takagi-Sugeno observer and enhanced Kalman Filter techniques are compared based on reduced-order models of a reference wind turbine with different modelling details. The objective is the systematic comparison with different design assumptions and requirements and the numerical evaluation of the reconstruction quality of the wind speed. Exemplified by a feedforward loop employing the reconstructed wind speed, the benefit of wind speed estimation within wind turbine control is illustrated.

  3. Wind Turbine Wake-Redirection Control at the Fishermen's Atlantic City Windfarm: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Churchfield, M.; Fleming, P.; Bulder, B.; White, S.

    2015-05-06

    In this paper, we will present our work towards designing a control strategy to mitigate wind turbine wake effects by redirecting the wakes, specifically applied to the Fishermen’s Atlantic City Windfarm (FACW), proposed for deployment off the shore of Atlantic City, New Jersey. As wind turbines extract energy from the air, they create low-speed wakes that extend behind them. Full wake recovery Full wake recovery to the undisturbed wind speed takes a significant distance. In a wind energy plant the wakes of upstream turbines may travel downstream to the next row of turbines, effectively subjecting them to lower wind speeds, meaning these waked turbines will produce less power.

  4. WIND BRAKING OF MAGNETARS

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, H.; Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.; Song, L. M.

    2013-05-10

    We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L{sub x}<- E-dot{sub rot} may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

  5. MEASUREMENTS OF RAPID DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Malaspina, D. M.; Ergun, R. E.; Kellogg, P. J.; Bale, S. D.

    2010-03-01

    The power spectrum of density fluctuations in the solar wind is inferred by tracking small timescale changes in the electron plasma frequency during periods of strong Langmuir wave activity. STEREO electric field waveform data are used to produce time profiles of plasma density from which the density power spectrum is derived. The power spectra obtained by this method extend the observed frequency range by an order of magnitude while remaining consistent with previous results near a few Hertz. Density power spectral indices are found to be organized by the angle between the local magnetic field and the solar wind direction, indicating significant anisotropy in solar wind high-frequency density turbulence.

  6. Theory of Hot Coronae in T Tauri Stellar Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuin, N. P. M.

    Using IUE data of RU Lupi, it is shown that the energy transport into the transition region is most likely by Alfvén waves. It is argued that the chromospheric activity is proportional to the magnetic field strength. A relation between X-ray activity and age is predicted. It is argued that a magnetic field declining with age will cause a transition from a cool, to a warm, to a hot coronal wind. A calculation extending the cool to warm wind model of Hartmann et al. (1981) to a hot coronal wind model is given. The coronal emission measure is computed.

  7. A Theory of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribot, Jesse C.; Peluso, Nancy Lee

    2003-01-01

    The term "access" is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as "the "ability" to derive benefits from things," broadening from property's classical definition as…

  8. Continuing the Search for Natural Solar Wind States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D. A.; Sipes, T.; Karimabadi, H.

    2015-12-01

    The need to classify solar wind states is partially the practical one of knowing what winds will strongly affect the Earth, but it is also to help in understanding the origin of the winds. In terms of the latter classification, of interest here, there is general agreement that "ejecta" represent a separate class from ordinary winds, although the details of which parcels qualify as ejecta are still subject to considerable disagreement. It has become clear that the distinction between "slow" and "fast" wind is at best misleading, and slow wind sometimes displays temperature anisotropies, fluctuation spectra, and the like that are characteristic of the typical fast wind. Recent work has focused on distinguishing "coronal hole wind" from "streamer belt" and "strahl confusion zone" (heliospheric current sheet) winds. The hope is to discern which wind comes from coronal holes versus the boundaries of holes versus near active regions or other sources. The present work extends a simple method of clustering in the parameter space of a selected set of variables to see if "natural" states of wind arise. This method (primarily "K-means" but we are also trying others) has proven capable of distinguishing states very similar to those in recent categorizations, especially when the variables of cross-helicity and residual energy are added to the parameter list, but we also find new, persistent, categories. The present work will look in more detail at the derived states and at different times in the solar cycle. One suggestion in the research so far is that shock-like structures are fundamental in the mix; these have largely been ignored in recent work in solar wind heating.

  9. Accessing the VO with Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, R.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Graham, M.; Tody, D.; Young, W.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce two products for accessing the VO from Python: PyVO and VOClient. PyVO is built on the widely-used Astropy package and is well suited for integrating automated access to astronomical data into highly customizable scripts and applications for data analysis in Python. VOClient is built on a collection of C-libraries and is well suited for integrating with multi-language analysis packages. It also provides a framework for integrating legacy software into the Python environment. In this demo, we will run through several examples demonstrate basic data discovery and retrieval of data. This includes finding archives containing data of interest (VO registry), retrieving datasets (SIA, SSA), and exploring (Cone Search, SLAP). VOClient features some extended capabilities including the ability to communicate to other desktop applications from a script using the SAMP protocol.

  10. Anywhere the Wind Blows does Really Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, Nicola; Oren, Ram

    2014-05-01

    The variation of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) has been explained at coarse scales with variation of forcing variables among climate regions and associated biomes, at the intermediate, mesoscale, with differences among dominating vegetation types and conditions, and at the misoscale with heterogeneity of the eddy covariance footprint properties. Wind is rarely considered in analysis of surface fluxes for its effects on periodic budgets of water and carbon. In many regions conditions change frequently between maritime and continental depending on wind velocity (VW) and direction. In these regions, water and carbon fluxes may respond to mesoscale weather patterns extending maritime influences far inland. Using eddy-covariance data from Sardinia, we show that daytime net carbon exchange (NEE) of a mixed pasture-woodland (grass-wild olive) ecosystem (Detto et al., 2006; Montaldo et al., 2008) increased with VW, especially during summer-dry conditions. As VW increased, the air, humidified over sea, remains relatively moist and cool to a greater distance inland, reaching only ~50 km during slow Saharan Sirocco wind but >160 km during mostly Mistral wind (4 m/s) from Continental Europe. A 30% lower vapor pressure deficit (D) associated with high VW (average 2 kPa at 4 m/s), allowed a 50% higher canopy stomatal conductance (gc) and, thus, photosynthesis. However, because gc and D have opposite effects on evapotranspiration (Ee), Ee was unaffected by VW. Thus, higher NEE during summertime Mistral reflects increased ecosystem water-use efficiency (We) and a departure from a costly carbon-water tradeoff. Yet many regions often experience high velocity winds, attention is typically focused on the capacity of strong winds to fan regional fires, threatening human habitation and natural habitats, and reducing Carbon storage (C), NEE and latent heat flux. However, depending on their origin, high velocity winds can bring continental air to the coast (e.g., Santa Ana winds

  11. Fort Carson Wind Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.

    2012-10-01

    This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and economic potential of a wind turbine project on a ridge in the southeastern portion of the Fort Carson Army base.

  12. Fixture for winding transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, M. T.

    1980-01-01

    Bench-mounted fixture assists operator in winding toroid-shaped transformer cores. Toroid is rigidly held in place as wires are looped around. Arrangement frees both hands for rapid winding and untangling of wires that occurs when core is hand held.

  13. Oregon's first wind park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The bringing on-line of the 1.25 MW wind park at Whiskey Run, Oregon, is reported. The park features twenty-five 50 KW wind turbine generators and is expected to produce about three million kilowatt-hours per year for the Pacific Power and Light system.

  14. Written on the Wind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Steve

    1990-01-01

    The study of aerodynamics using a wind tunnel helps students develop an understanding of the basic scientific concepts of lift, drag, and stability and their applications. Directions for building a wind tunnel in the classroom and activities for using the tunnel are provided. (KR)

  15. Small Wind Information (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative maintains a website section devoted to information about small wind turbines for homeowners, ranchers, and small businesses. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to this online resource.

  16. Wind Program Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Wind Program

    2012-05-24

    This fact sheet describes some of the accomplishments of DOE's Wind Program through its investments in technology development and market barrier reduction, and how those accomplishments are supporting the advancement of renewable energy generated using the United States' abundant wind resources.

  17. Wind Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  18. Wind driven air pump

    SciTech Connect

    Beisel, V.A.

    1983-05-31

    An improved pump for lifting water from an underground source utilizes a wind motor for driving an oil-less air compressor eliminating oil contamination of ground water which is forced to the surface. The wind motor is movable to face the wind by means of a novel swivel assembly which also eliminates the formation and freezing of condensate within the airline from the compressor. The propeller blades of the wind motor and the tail section are formed from a pair of opposed convex air foil shaped surfaces which provide the propeller blades and the tail section with fast sensitivity to slight changes in wind direction and speed. A novel well tower for supporting the wind motor and compressor and for lifting the water from the underground source is an optional modification which requires no welding and eliminates the problem of condensate freezing in the airline going to the well. The wind driven air pump disclosed is lightweight, can be easily installed, is relatively inexpensive to produce and is virtually maintenance-free and capable of operating in winds exceeding 100 miles per hour.

  19. Carbon smackdown: wind warriors

    SciTech Connect

    Glen Dahlbacka of the Accelerator & Fusion Research Division and Ryan Wiser of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division are the speakers.

    2010-07-21

    July 16. 2010 carbon smackdown summer lecture: learn how Berkeley Lab scientists are developing wind turbines to be used in an urban setting, as well as analyzing what it will take to increase the adoption of wind energy in the U.S.

  20. Wind at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Describes a project in which students create wind machines to harness the wind's power and do mechanical work. Demonstrates kinetic and potential energy conversions and makes work and power calculations meaningful. Students conduct hands-on investigations with their machines. (DDR)

  1. Carbon smackdown: wind warriors

    ScienceCinema

    Glen Dahlbacka of the Accelerator & Fusion Research Division and Ryan Wiser of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division are the speakers.

    2016-07-12

    July 16. 2010 carbon smackdown summer lecture: learn how Berkeley Lab scientists are developing wind turbines to be used in an urban setting, as well as analyzing what it will take to increase the adoption of wind energy in the U.S.

  2. Alcoa wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ai, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of Alcoa's wind energy program is given with emphasis on the the development of a low cost, reliable Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine System. The design layouts and drawings for fabrication are now complete, while fabrication and installation to utilize the design are expected to begin shortly.

  3. Extended Library Hours. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Patricia Ann, Comp.; Walters, Carolyn, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to provide a description of how they are responding to demands for greater hours of access and service. Survey responses indicate what hours of access and service libraries are providing and…

  4. Syllabic Effects in Italian Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagliapietra, Lara; Fanari, R.; Collina, S.; Tabossi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Two cross-modal priming experiments tested whether lexical access is constrained by syllabic structure in Italian. Results extend the available Italian data on the processing of stressed syllables showing that syllabic information restricts the set of candidates to those structurally consistent with the intended word (Experiment 1). Lexical…

  5. Insuring wind energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Petroni, Filippo; Prattico, Flavio

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an insurance contract that the supplier of wind energy may subscribe in order to immunize the production of electricity against the volatility of the wind speed process. The other party of the contract may be any dispatchable energy producer, like gas turbine or hydroelectric generator, which can supply the required energy in case of little or no wind. The adoption of a stochastic wind speed model allows the computation of the fair premium that the wind power supplier has to pay in order to hedge the risk of inadequate output of electricity at any time. Recursive type equations are obtained for the prospective mathematical reserves of the insurance contract and for their higher order moments. The model and the validity of the results are illustrated through a numerical example.

  6. Illinois Wind Workers Group

    SciTech Connect

    David G. Loomis

    2012-05-28

    The Illinois Wind Working Group (IWWG) was founded in 2006 with about 15 members. It has grown to over 200 members today representing all aspects of the wind industry across the State of Illinois. In 2008, the IWWG developed a strategic plan to give direction to the group and its activities. The strategic plan identifies ways to address critical market barriers to the further penetration of wind. The key to addressing these market barriers is public education and outreach. Since Illinois has a restructured electricity market, utilities no longer have a strong control over the addition of new capacity within the state. Instead, market acceptance depends on willing landowners to lease land and willing county officials to site wind farms. Many times these groups are uninformed about the benefits of wind energy and unfamiliar with the process. Therefore, many of the project objectives focus on conferences, forum, databases and research that will allow these stakeholders to make well-educated decisions.

  7. Quiet Supersonic Wind Tunnel Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Lyndell S.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The ability to control the extent of laminar flow on swept wings at supersonic speeds may be a critical element in developing the enabling technology for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Laminar boundary layers are less resistive to forward flight than their turbulent counterparts, thus the farther downstream that transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the wing boundary layer is extended can be of significant economic impact. Due to the complex processes involved experimental studies of boundary layer stability and transition are needed, and these are performed in "quiet" wind tunnels capable of simulating the low-disturbance environment of free flight. At Ames, a wind tunnel has been built to operate at flow conditions which match those of the HSCT laminar flow flight demonstration 'aircraft, the F-16XL, i.e. at a Mach number of 1.6 and a Reynolds number range of 1 to 3 million per foot. This will allow detailed studies of the attachment line and crossflow on the leading edge area of the highly swept wing. Also, use of suction as a means of control of transition due to crossflow and attachment line instabilities can be studied. Topics covered include: test operating conditions required; design requirements to efficiently make use of the existing infrastructure; development of an injector drive system using a small pilot facility; plenum chamber design; use of computational tools for tunnel and model design; and early operational results.

  8. Extension of chromatin accessibility by nuclear matrix attachment regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenuwein, Thomas; Forrester, William C.; Fernández-Herrero, Luis A.; Laible, Götz; Dull, Maude; Grosschedl, Rudolf

    1997-01-01

    Transcription of the variable region of the rearranged immunoglobulin μ gene is dependent on an enhancer sequence situated within one of the introns of the gene. Experiments with transgenic mice have shown that activation of the promoter controlling this transcription also requires the matrix-attachment regions (MARs) that flank the intronic enhancer1. As this μ gene enhancer can establish local areas of accessible chromatin2, we investigated whether the MARs can extend accessibility to more distal positions. We eliminated interactions between enhancer- and promoter-bound factors by linking μ enhancer/MAR fragments to the binding sites for bacteriophage RNA polymerases that were either close to or one kilobase distal to the enhancer. The μ enhancer alone mediated chromatin accessibility at the proximal site but required a flanking MAR to confer accessibility upon the distal promoter. This long-range accessibilty correlates with extended demethylation of the geμ enhancer to generate an extended domain of accessible chromatin.

  9. The Maintenance and Operation of a Small Wind Generator in the Marine Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    undergoing tests as a source of energy for remote lighthouses. The wind machine, according to preliminary design (Reference 1), would function as one of...system employing a wind generator. Requirements of the WTG were defined by priority to : (1) have the ability to operate reliably and unattended for at...requirements, and not least of all, the ease of maintenance accessibility to the wind machine. Towers come in several materials and designs. Two generic types

  10. Wind Fins: Novel Lower-Cost Wind Power System

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Morris; Dr. Will D. Swearingen

    2007-10-08

    This project evaluated the technical feasibility of converting energy from the wind with a novel “wind fin” approach. This patent-pending technology has three major components: (1) a mast, (2) a vertical, hinged wind structure or fin, and (3) a power takeoff system. The wing structure responds to the wind with an oscillating motion, generating power. The overall project goal was to determine the basic technical feasibility of the wind fin technology. Specific objectives were the following: (1) to determine the wind energy-conversion performance of the wind fin and the degree to which its performance could be enhanced through basic design improvements; (2) to determine how best to design the wind fin system to survive extreme winds; (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of the best wind fin designs compared to state-of-the-art wind turbines; and (4) to develop conclusions about the overall technical feasibility of the wind fin system. Project work involved extensive computer modeling, wind-tunnel testing with small models, and testing of bench-scale models in a wind tunnel and outdoors in the wind. This project determined that the wind fin approach is technically feasible and likely to be commercially viable. Project results suggest that this new technology has the potential to harvest wind energy at approximately half the system cost of wind turbines in the 10kW range. Overall, the project demonstrated that the wind fin technology has the potential to increase the economic viability of small wind-power generation. In addition, it has the potential to eliminate lethality to birds and bats, overcome public objections to the aesthetics of wind-power machines, and significantly expand wind-power’s contribution to the national energy supply.

  11. Extended active disturbance rejection controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  12. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  13. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  14. TAP Helps States and Local Governments Reach Their Wind Power Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    Technical Assistance Project: Wind and Hydropower Program provides information to state and local officials regarding the U.S. Department of Energy's Technical Assistance Project (TAP). The TAP program provides access to wind energy experts at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, including the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  15. Modeled Interaction of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with the Solar Wind Inside 2 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, M.; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, K. C.; Ip, W.-H.; Kartalev, M. D.; Koenders, C.; Tóth, G.

    2015-12-01

    Periodic comets move around the Sun on elliptical orbits. As such comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P) spends a portion of time in the inner solar system where it is exposed to increased solar insolation. Therefore given the change in heliocentric distance, in case of 67P from aphelion at 5.68 AU to perihelion at ~1.24 AU, the comet's activity—the production of neutral gas and dust—undergoes significant variations. As a consequence, during the inbound portion, the mass loading of the solar wind increases and extends to larger spatial scales. This paper investigates how this interaction changes the character of the plasma environment of the comet by means of multifluid MHD simulations. The multifluid MHD model is capable of separating the dynamics of the solar wind ions and the pick-up ions created through photoionization and electron impact ionization in the coma of the comet. We show how two of the major boundaries, the bow shock and the diamagnetic cavity, form and develop as the comet moves through the inner solar system. Likewise for 67P, although most likely shifted back in time with respect to perihelion passage, this process is reversed on the outbound portion of the orbit. The presented model herein is able to reproduce some of the key features previously only accessible to particle-based models that take full account of the ions' gyration. The results shown herein are in decent agreement to these hybrid-type kinetic simulations.

  16. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  17. Wind turbine/generator set having a stator cooling system located between stator frame and active coils

    DOEpatents

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2012-11-13

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  18. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  19. 78 FR 78342 - Extension of Autism Services Demonstration Project for TRICARE Beneficiaries Under the Extended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... of the Secretary Extension of Autism Services Demonstration Project for TRICARE Beneficiaries Under... Access to Autism Services Demonstration Project (Autism Demonstration) under the Extended Care Health Option (ECHO) for beneficiaries diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Under the...

  20. Remote sensing for wind power potential: a prospector's handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, J.E.; Maule, P.A.; Bodvarsson, G.; Rosenfeld, C.L.; Woolley, S.G.; McClenahan, M.R.

    1983-02-01

    Remote sensing can aid in identifying and locating indicators of wind power potential from the terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric environments (i.e.: wind-deformed trees, white caps, and areas of thermal flux). It is not considered as a tool for determining wind power potential. A wide variety of remotely sensed evidence is described in terms of the scale at which evidence of wind power can be identified, and the appropriate remote sensors for finding such evidence. Remote sensing can be used for regional area prospecting using small-scale imagery. The information from such small-scale imagery is most often qualitative, and if it is transitory, examination of a number of images to verify presistence of the feature may be required. However, this evidence will allow rapid screening of a large area. Medium-scale imagery provides a better picture of the evidence obtained from small-scale imagery. At this level it is best to use existing imagery. Criteria relating to land use, accessibility, and proximity of candidate sites to nearby transmission lines can also be effectively evaluated from medium-scale imagery. Large-scale imagery provides the most quantitative evidence of the strength of wind. Wind-deformed trees can be identified at a large number of sites using only a few hours in locally chartered aircraft. A handheld 35mm camera can adequately document any evidence of wind. Three case studies that employ remote sensing prospecting techniques are described. Based on remotely sensed evidence, the wind power potential in three geographically and climatically diverse areas of the United States is estimated, and the estimates are compared to actual wind data in those regions. In addition, the cost of each survey is discussed. The results indicate that remote sensing for wind power potential is a quick, cost effective, and fairly reliable method for screening large areas for wind power potential.

  1. Wind Energy at NREL's National Wind Technology Center

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    It is a pure, plentiful natural resource. Right now wind is in high demand and it holds the potential to transform the way we power our homes and businesses. NREL is at the forefront of wind energy research and development. NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is a world-class facility dedicated to accelerating and deploying wind technology.

  2. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Powering America program (based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) sponsors the Wind for Schools Project to raise awareness in rural America about the benefits of wind energy while simultaneously educating college seniors regarding wind energy applications. The three primary project goals of…

  3. Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind LIDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y. (Inventor); Koch, Grady J. (Inventor); Kavaya, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the present invention enable airborne Doppler Wind LIDAR system measurements and INS/GPS measurements to be combined to estimate wind parameters and compensate for instrument misalignment. In a further embodiment, the wind speed and wind direction may be computed based on two orthogonal line-of-sight LIDAR returns.

  4. Ground winds and winds aloft Edwards AFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Brown, S. C.

    1977-01-01

    Ground level runway wind statistics cover crosswind, tailwind, and headwind reversal percentage frequencies with respect to month and hour for the two major runways. Also presented are bivariate normal wind statistics for a 90 degree flight azimuth for altitudes 0 through 27 km. Wind probability distributions, synthetic vector wind profiles, and statistics for any rotation of axes are computed from five given parameters.

  5. Wind Energy Program: Top 10 Program Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Brochure on the top accomplishments of the Wind Energy Program, including the development of large wind machines, small machines for the residential market, wind tunnel testing, computer codes for modeling wind systems, high definition wind maps, and successful collaborations.

  6. Wind Erosion in Tithonium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    30 April 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows wind-eroded sedimentary rocks in Tithonium Chasma, one of the troughs of the Valles Marineris system. The winds responsible for the majority of the erosion blew from the northeast (upper right), creating yardangs (wind erosion ridges) with their tapered ends pointing downwind.

    Location near: 4.6oS, 88.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  7. The solar wind interaction with Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthmann, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    obstacle is a dipole magnetic field, but there are two important distinctions. In the wake of the Venus obstacle one finds an induced magnetic tail composed of varying interplanetary fields rather than the constant fields of intrinsic origin. This magnetotail is further seen to be populated by Heavy (0+) ions that are evidently escaping from the planet at significant (approximately 10(exp -25) s(exp -1)) rates. These heavy ions are also observed in the dayside magnetosheath. The interpretation is that ions are produced by both photoionization and solar wind electron impact ionization of the upper neutral atmosphere that extends into the magnetosheath.

  8. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-01

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of “musicking” grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of “musical affordances” and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances – via soliciting different forms of entrainment – enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea. PMID:24432008

  9. Landmark Report Analyzes Current State of U.S. Offshore Wind Industry (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    New report assesses offshore wind industry, offshore wind resource, technology challenges, economics, permitting procedures, and potential risks and benefits. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently published a new report that analyzes the current state of the offshore wind energy industry, Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States. It provides a broad understanding of the offshore wind resource, and details the associated technology challenges, economics, permitting procedures, and potential risks and benefits of developing this clean, domestic, renewable resource. The United States possesses large and accessible offshore wind energy resources. The availability of these strong offshore winds close to major U.S. coastal cities significantly reduces power transmission issues. The report estimates that U.S. offshore winds have a gross potential generating capacity four times greater than the nation's present electric capacity. According to the report, developing the offshore wind resource along U.S. coastlines and in the Great Lakes would help the nation: (1) Achieve 20% of its electricity from wind by 2030 - Offshore wind could supply 54 gigawatts of wind capacity to the nation's electrical grid, increasing energy security, reducing air and water pollution, and stimulating the domestic economy. (2) Provide clean power to its coastal demand centers - Wind power emits no carbon dioxide (CO2) and there are plentiful winds off the coasts of 26 states. (3) Revitalize its manufacturing sector - Building 54 GW of offshore wind energy facilities would generate an estimated $200 billion in new economic activity, and create more than 43,000 permanent, well-paid technical jobs in manufacturing, construction, engineering, operations and maintenance. NREL's report concludes that the development of the nation's offshore wind resources can provide many potential benefits, and with effective research, policies, and commitment, offshore wind energy can

  10. NASA World Wind: A New Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.; Gaskins, T.; Bailey, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual Globes are well into their first generation, providing increasingly rich and beautiful visualization of more types and quantities of information. However, they are still mostly single and proprietary programs, akin to a web browser whose content and functionality are controlled and constrained largely by the browser's manufacturer. Today Google and Microsoft determine what we can and cannot see and do in these programs. NASA World Wind started out in nearly the same mode, a single program with limited functionality and information content. But as the possibilities of virtual globes became more apparent, we found that while enabling a new class of information visualization, we were also getting in the way. Many users want to provide World Wind functionality and information in their programs, not ours. They want it in their web pages. They want to include their own features. They told us that only with this kind of flexibility, could their objectives and the potential of the technology be truly realized. World Wind therefore changed its mission: from providing a single information browser to enabling a whole class of 3D geographic applications. Instead of creating one program, we create components to be used in any number of programs. World Wind is NASA open source software. With the source code being fully visible, anyone can readily use it and freely extend it to serve any use. Imagery and other information provided by the World Wind servers is also free and unencumbered, including the server technology to deliver geospatial data. World Wind developers can therefore provide exclusive and custom solutions based on user needs.

  11. Cosmological dynamics of extended chameleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamanini, Nicola; Wright, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the cosmological dynamics of the recently proposed extended chameleon models at both background and linear perturbation levels. Dynamical systems techniques are employed to fully characterize the evolution of the universe at the largest distances, while structure formation is analysed at sub-horizon scales within the quasi-static approximation. The late time dynamical transition from dark matter to dark energy domination can be well described by almost all extended chameleon models considered, with no deviations from ΛCDM results at both background and perturbation levels. The results obtained in this work confirm the cosmological viability of extended chameleons as alternative dark energy models.

  12. Extended scaling in high dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berche, B.; Chatelain, C.; Dhall, C.; Kenna, R.; Low, R.; Walter, J.-C.

    2008-11-01

    We apply and test the recently proposed 'extended scaling' scheme in an analysis of the magnetic susceptibility of Ising systems above the upper critical dimension. The data are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations using both the conventional Wolff cluster algorithm and the Prokof'ev-Svistunov worm algorithm. As already observed for other models, extended scaling is shown to extend the high-temperature critical scaling regime over a range of temperatures much wider than that achieved conventionally. It allows for an accurate determination of leading and sub-leading scaling indices, critical temperatures and amplitudes of the confluent corrections.

  13. Extreme-Wind Observation Capability for a Next Generation Satellite Wind Scatterometer Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffelen, Ad; van Zadelhoff, Gerd Jan; Belmonte, Maria; Chang, Paul; Vachon, Paris; Lin, Chung-Chi; Accadia, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    The ocean surface vector wind information, derived from satellite-based wind scatterometer observations, is one of the essential inputs for operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) services. The local wind speed and direction are retrieved from accurate measurements of the ocean surface backscatter, performed from at least three largely-spaced satellite positions during an over-flight. As a result, each of the wind resolution cells is characterised by a set of radar backscatter coefficients which are associated with their respective observation angles in azimuth and elevation with respect to the cell. The azimuth anisotropy of the backscatter coefficient with respect to the wind direction and its magnitude as a function of the wind speed, as captured in a so-called geophysical model function (GMF), are exploited in order to retrieve a unique vector wind. The current generation of scatterometer instruments operate at C-band with a single vertical polarisation (i.e. VV), or at Ku-band with VV for the first beam and HH for the second beam. The co-polarised radar backscatter, i.e., VV and to a lesser extend HH, saturate above a wind speed of about 25 to 30 m/s, which imposes a serious limitation on the capability of the existing observation systems. Such a limitation leads, e.g., to misestimation of extreme winds, errors in storm predictions and limitations in weather prediction warnings. Recently, observations of storm events along the North American coasts by Radarsat-2 and comparisons with in-situ buoy data revealed a high sensitivity of C-band cross-polarised backscatter signal intensity (i.e. VH or HV) with high wind speeds. This prompted the ocean vector wind community to further explore the limit of the cross-polar response. Establishing a new GMF requires accurate in-situ information of the vector wind field together with collocated scatterometer observation data, but these are extremely rare at extreme winds. A more successful collocation approach

  14. Modeling wind energy potential in a data-poor region: A geographic information systems model for Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayyat, Abdulkareem Hawta Abdullah Kak Ahmed

    Scope and Method of Study: Most developing countries, including Iraq, have very poor wind data. Existing wind speed measurements of poor quality may therefore be a poor guide to where to look for the best wind resources. The main focus of this study is to examine how effectively a GIS spatial model estimates wind power potential in regions where high-quality wind data are very scarce, such as Iraq. The research used a mixture of monthly and hourly wind data from 39 meteorological stations. The study applied spatial analysis statistics and GIS techniques in modeling wind power potential. The model weighted important human, environmental and geographic factors that impact wind turbine siting, such as roughness length, land use⪉nd cover type, airport locations, road access, transmission lines, slope and aspect. Findings and Conclusions: The GIS model provided estimations for wind speed and wind power density and identified suitable areas for wind power projects. Using a high resolution (30*30m) digital elevation model DEM improved the GIS wind suitability model. The model identified areas suitable for wind farm development on different scales. The model showed that there are many locations available for large-scale wind turbines in the southern part of Iraq. Additionally, there are many places in central and northern parts (Kurdistan Region) for smaller scale wind turbine placement.

  15. NASA World Wind Near Real Time Data for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.

    2013-12-01

    Innovation requires open standards for data exchange, not to mention ^access to data^ so that value-added, the information intelligence, can be continually created and advanced by the larger community. Likewise, innovation by academia and entrepreneurial enterprise alike, are greatly benefited by an open platform that provides the basic technology for access and visualization of that data. NASA World Wind Java, and now NASA World Wind iOS for the iPhone and iPad, provides that technology. Whether the interest is weather science or climate science, emergency response or supply chain, seeing spatial data in its native context of Earth accelerates understanding and improves decision-making. NASA World Wind open source technology provides the basic elements for 4D visualization, using Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) protocols, while allowing for customized access to any data, big or small, including support for NetCDF. NASA World Wind includes access to a suite of US Government WMS servers with near real time data. The larger community can readily capitalize on this technology, building their own value-added applications, either open or proprietary. Night lights heat map Glacier National Park

  16. Fixed-Speed and Variable-Slip Wind Turbines Providing Spinning Reserves to the Grid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2012-11-01

    As the level of wind penetration increases, wind turbine technology must move from merely generating power from wind to taking a role in supporting the bulk power system. Wind turbines should have the capability to provide inertial response and primary frequency (governor) response so they can support the frequency stability of the grid. To provide governor response, wind turbines should be able to generate less power than the available wind power and hold the rest in reserve, ready to be accessed as needed. This paper explores several ways to control wind turbine output to enable reserve-holding capability. This paper focuses on fixed-speed (also known as Type 1) and variable-slip (also known as Type 2) turbines.

  17. Primary vascular access.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, C P

    2006-05-01

    Primary vascular access is usually achievable by a distal autogenous arterio-venous fistula (AVF). This article describes the approach to vascular access planning, the usual surgical options and the factors affecting patency.

  18. Three Dimensional Dynamic Model Based Wind Field Reconstruction from Lidar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-06-01

    Using the inflowing horizontal and vertical wind shears for individual pitch controller is a promising method if blade bending measurements are not available. Due to the limited information provided by a lidar system the reconstruction of shears in real-time is a challenging task especially for the horizontal shear in the presence of changing wind direction. The internal model principle has shown to be a promising approach to estimate the shears and directions in 10 minutes averages with real measurement data. The static model based wind vector field reconstruction is extended in this work taking into account a dynamic reconstruction model based on Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis. The presented method provides time series over several seconds of the wind speed, shears and direction, which can be directly used in advanced optimal preview control. Therefore, this work is an important step towards the application of preview individual blade pitch control under realistic wind conditions. The method is tested using a turbulent wind field and a detailed lidar simulator. For the simulation, the turbulent wind field structure is flowing towards the lidar system and is continuously misaligned with respect to the horizontal axis of the wind turbine. Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis is taken into account to model the wind evolution. For the reconstruction, the structure is discretized into several stages where each stage is reduced to an effective wind speed, superposed with a linear horizontal and vertical wind shear. Previous lidar measurements are shifted using again Taylor's Hypothesis. The wind field reconstruction problem is then formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem, which minimizes the residual between the assumed wind model and the lidar measurements to obtain the misalignment angle and the effective wind speed and the wind shears for each stage. This method shows good results in reconstructing the wind characteristics of a three dimensional

  19. 2010 Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of trends in the U.S. wind power market in 2010. The report analyzes trends in wind power capacity, industry, manufacturing, turbines, installed project costs, project performance, and wind power prices. It also describes trends among wind power developers, project owners, and power purchasers, and discusses financing issues.

  20. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  1. Basics of the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Vernet, Nicole

    2012-09-01

    Preface; 1. The wind from the sun: an introduction; 2. Toolkit for space plasma physics; 3. Anatomy of the sun; 4. The outer solar atmosphere; 5. How does the solar wind blow?; 6. Structure and perturbations; 7. Bodies in the wind: dust, asteroids, planets and comets; 8. The solar wind in the universe; Index.

  2. Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Saur, G.; Ramsden, T.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes a hydrogen production cost analysis of a collection of optimized central wind based water electrolysis production facilities. The basic modeled wind electrolysis facility includes a number of low temperature electrolyzers and a co-located wind farm encompassing a number of 3MW wind turbines that provide electricity for the electrolyzer units.

  3. Wind Plant Ramping Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kemper, J.

    2009-12-01

    With the increasing wind penetrations, utilities and operators (ISOs) are quickly trying to understand the impacts on system operations and planning. This report focuses on ramping imapcts within the Xcel service region.

  4. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Takle, Gene

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  5. Distributed Wind Market Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, T.; Baring-Gould, I.

    2007-11-01

    Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve pressure on the power grid while providing jobs and contributing to energy security for homes, farms, schools, factories, private and public facilities, distribution utilities, and remote locations. America pioneered small wind technology in the 1920s, and it is the only renewable energy industry segment that the United States still dominates in technology, manufacturing, and world market share. The series of analyses covered by this report were conducted to assess some of the most likely ways that advanced wind turbines could be utilized apart from large, central station power systems. Each chapter represents a final report on specific market segments written by leading experts in this field. As such, this document does not speak with one voice but rather a compendium of different perspectives, which are documented from a variety of people in the U.S. distributed wind field.

  6. Amplified wind turbine apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An invention related to the utilization of wind energy and increasing the effects thereof for power generation is described. Amplified wind turbine apparatus is disclosed wherein ambient inlet air is prerotated in a first air rotation chamber having a high pressure profile increasing the turbulence and Reynolds number thereof. A second rotation chamber adjacent and downstream of the turbine has a low pressure core profile whereby flow across the turbine is accelerated and thereafter exits the turbine apparatus through a draft anti-interference device. Interference with ambient winds at the outlet of the turbine apparatus is thus eliminated. Pivotable vanes controlled in response to prevailing wind direction admit air to the chambers and aid in imparting rotation. A central core may be utilized for creating the desired pressure profile in the chamber.

  7. Winds over saltcedar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hylckama, T. E. A.

    1970-01-01

    An analysis of hourly wind speeds above and within a stand of saltcedar near Buckeye, Arizona, reveals that in 90% of all observed cases, the wind profiles above the stand can be represented by the simple logarithmic equation: uz = u* k 1n ( z z0) where uz is the velocity at height z. The roughness length (z0), (disregarding zero displacement), varies with a stability ratio similar to Richardson's number. The friction velocity, u*, depends on the wind speeds above the vegetation. Von Karman's constant, k, equals 0.41. Within the thickets there is considerable turbulence, and irregular wind inversions occur during daylight hours. The results are important for estimating water losses by evapotranspiration by either the energy-budget or the mass-transfer formulae. ?? 1970.

  8. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  9. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    ScienceCinema

    Takle, Gene

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  10. EDITORIAL: Wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Jakob; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Morthorst, Poul-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Wind energy is rapidly growing. In 2006 the installed generating capacity in the world increased by 25%, a growth rate which has more or less been sustained during the last decade. And there is no reason to believe that this growth will slow significantly in the coming years. For example, the United Kingdom's goal for installed wind turbines by 2020 is 33 GW up from 2 GW in 2006, an average annual growth rate of 22% over that period. More than half of all turbines are installed in Europe, but United States, India and lately China are also rapidly growing markets. The cradle of modern wind energy was set by innovative blacksmiths in rural Denmark. Now the wind provides more than 20% of the electrical power in Denmark, the industry has professionalized and has close ties with public research at universities. This focus issue is concerned with research in wind energy. The main purposes of research in wind energy are to: decrease the cost of power generated by the wind; increase the reliability and predictability of the energy source; investigate and reduce the adverse environmental impact of massive deployment of wind turbines; build research based educations for wind energy engineers. This focus issue contains contributions from several fields of research. Decreased costs cover a very wide range of activities from aerodynamics of the wind turbine blades, optimal site selection for the turbines, optimization of the electrical grid and power market for a fluctuating source, more efficient electrical generators and gears, and new materials and production techniques for turbine manufacturing. The United Kingdom recently started the construction of the London Array, a 1 GW off-shore wind farm east of London consisting of several hundred turbines. To design such a farm optimally it is necessary to understand the chaotic and very turbulent flow downwind from a turbine, which decreases the power production and increases the mechanical loads on other nearby turbines. Also

  11. Cognitive Transformations and Extended Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menary, Richard; Kirchhoff, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Expertise is extended by becoming immersed in cultural practices. We look at an example of mathematical expertise in which immersion in cognitive practices results in the transformation of expert performance.

  12. Summertime wind climate in Yerevan: valley wind systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorgyan, Artur

    2017-03-01

    1992-2014 wind climatology analysis in Yerevan is presented with particular focus given to the summertime thermally induced valley wind systems. Persistence high winds are observed in Yerevan during July-August months when the study region is strongly affected by a heat-driven plain-plateau circulation. The local valley winds arrive in Yerevan in the evening hours, generally, from 1500 to 1800 UTC, leading to rapid enhancement of wind speeds and dramatic changes in wind direction. Valley-winds significantly impact the local climate of Yerevan, which is a densely populated city. These winds moderate evening temperatures after hot and dry weather conditions observed during summertime afternoons. On the other hand, valley winds result in significantly higher nocturnal temperatures and more frequent occurrence of warm nights (tn90p) in Yerevan due to stronger turbulent mixing of boundary layer preventing strong surface cooling and temperature drop in nighttime and morning hours. The applied WRF-ARW limited area model is able to simulate the key features of the observed spatial pattern of surface winds in Armenia associated with significant terrain channeling, wind curls, etc. By contrast, ECMWF EPS global model fails to capture mesoscale and local wind systems over Armenia. However, the results of statistical verification of surface winds in Yerevan showed that substantial biases are present in WRF 18-h wind forecasts, as well as, the temporal variability of observed surface winds is not reproduced adequately in WRF-ARW model.

  13. Topological defects in extended inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Kolb, Edward W.; Liddle, Andrew R.

    1990-01-01

    The production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended inflation models was considered. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large scale structure via cosmic strings.

  14. World's Largest Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    NASA's National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex, which houses two of the world's largest wind tunnels and has been used for testing experimental aircraft since 1944, is presented. This video highlights the structure and instrumentation of the 40 x 80 foot and 80 x 120 foot wind tunnels and documents their use in testing full scale aircraft, NASA's Space Shuttle and the XV-15 Tiltrotor aircraft.

  15. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein; Madden, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  16. Flank solar wind interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Stewart L.; Greenstadt, Eugene W.; Coroniti, Ferdinand V.

    1994-01-01

    In this report we will summarize the results of the work performed under the 'Flank Solar Wind Interaction' investigation in support of NASA's Space Physics Guest Investigator Program. While this investigation was focused on the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind as observed by instruments on the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) 3 spacecraft, it also represents the culmination of decades of research performed by scientists at TRW on the rich phenomenology of collisionless shocks in space.

  17. Wind Energy Teachers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-01-01

    This guide, created by the American Wind Association, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, is a learning tool about wind energy targeted toward grades K-12. The guide provides teacher information, ideas for sparking children's and students' interest, suggestions for activities to undertake in and outside the classroom, and research tools for both teachers and students. Also included is an additional resources section.

  18. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Reuder, Joachim; La Cour-Harbo, Anders; Thomsen, Carsten; Bange, Jens; Buschmann, Marco

    2010-05-01

    This poster describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. During a week of flying a lighter-than-air vehicle, two small electrically powered aeroplanes and a larger helicopter at the Risø test station at Høvsøre, we will compare wind speed measurements with fixed mast and LIDAR measurements, investigate optimal flight patterns for each measurement task, and measure other interesting meteorological features like the air-sea boundary in the vicinity of the wind farm. In order to prepare the measurement campaign, a workshop is held, soliciting input from various communities. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. While the wake structure behind single wind turbines onshore is fairly well understood, there are different problems offshore, thought to be due mainly to the low turbulence. Good measurements of the wake and wake structure are not easy to come by, as the use of a met mast is static and expensive, while the use of remote sensing instruments either needs significant access to the turbine to mount an instrument, or is complicated to use on a ship due to the ship's own movement. In any case, a good LIDAR or SODAR will cost many tens of thousands of euros. Another current problem in wind energy is the coming generation of wind turbines in the 10-12 MW class, with tip heights of over 200 m. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics - all that is known is that the boundary layer description we used so far is not valid any more. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used as either an extension of current high masts or to build a network of very high ‘masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In comparison to a multitude of high masts, UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test

  19. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  20. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  1. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  2. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  3. Solar Wind Drivers for Steady Magnetospheric Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherron, Robert L.; O'Brien, T. Paul; Thompson, Scott; Lui, A. T. Y. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Steady magnetospheric convection (SMC) also known as convection bays, is a particular mode of response of the magnetosphere to solar wind coupling. It is characterized by convection lasting for times longer than a typical substorm recovery during which no substorms expansions can be identified. It is generally believed that the solar wind must be unusually steady for the magnetosphere to enter this state. However, most previous studies have assumed this is true and have used such conditions to identify events. In a preliminary investigation using only the AE and AL indices to select events we have shown that these expectations are generally correct. SMC events seem to be associated with slow speed solar wind and moderate, stable IMF Bz. In this report we extend our previous study including additional parameters and the time variations in various statistical quantities. For the intervals identified as SMCs we perform a detailed statistical analysis of the properties of different solar wind variables. We compare these statistics to those determined from all data, and from intervals in which substorms but not SMCs are present. We also consider the question of whether substorms are required to initiate and terminate an SMC. We conclude that the intervals we have identified as SMC are likely to be examples of the original Dungey concept of balanced reconnection at a pair of x-lines on the day and night side of the Earth.

  4. Winding for linear pump

    DOEpatents

    Kliman, G.B.; Brynsvold, G.V.; Jahns, T.M.

    1989-08-22

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium are disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet. 4 figs.

  5. Winding for linear pump

    DOEpatents

    Kliman, Gerald B.; Brynsvold, Glen V.; Jahns, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium is disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet.

  6. Tornado type wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  7. Tornado type wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Ch.-T.

    1984-06-05

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  8. Moist wind relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, William H.

    1990-01-01

    The equations describing the temporal and spatial behavior of the kinematic moisture and heat flux are described. In these nonlinear equations, the contribution by diabatic processes to the large-scale flux is composed of two parts. One part is associated with a Rayleigh damping term while the other arises from temporal and spatial changes in the pressure gradient term. It was found that the influence of diabatic processes on large-scale moisture fluxes depends greatly on the degree of balance between forcing and damping terms in the governing kinematic flux equations. The existence of a near balance requires a reduction in the large-scale horizontal geostrophic wind speed. Based on an examination of the moisture flux equations, it is argued that reductions in the large-scale horizontal wind speed observed within major cumulus cloud systems help conserve large-scale moisture fluxes. The deviation of the wind from geostrophic conditions is easily estimated for a near balanced state. This wind modification induces secondary vertical circulations that contribute to convergence, creating or supporting long-lived mesoscale flows. We believe this process to be a major supporter of the mesoscale circulations observed in severe storms and squall lines. In the tropics the wind modification has an antitriptic relationship. These diagnostic findings suggest possible modifications to the wind field in the application of a cumulus parameterization, and may be important in diabatic initialization of numerical weather prediction models.

  9. Winds in the Thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killeen, T. L.; Burns, A. G.

    2005-12-01

    T. L. Killeen and A. G. Burns Studies of thermospheric dynamics began in the middle 1960s, when King suggested that winds would flow from the hot afternoon sector into the cooler morning region. Later work showed that winds were also driven by the high latitude ion convection pattern and by waves propagating upwards from the lower atmosphere. Ground based Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs) were soon developed that could measure these winds. These interferometers have been deployed successfully both at a variety of ground based locations and in space. Other types of instruments, such as the DE-FPI, WATS and the WINDII instruments, have been deployed successfully in space. The development of thermospheric general circulation models (GCMs) has also greatly increased our understanding of the dynamics of the thermosphere and the way that these dynamics develop as forcing changes. Recent developments include thermosphere-ionosphere GCMs that are coupled with the magnetosphere and improved empirical wind models. In this presentation we summarize the history of thermospheric dynamics. In addition, we discuss current developments with reference to some new, coupled model results that show a number of unexpected features such as strong vertical gradients of horizontal winds in certain conditions and a complex morphology of the dawn convection pattern. Lastly, we suggest some future directions for investigations of the winds in the thermosphere.

  10. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsevski, Peter; Afjeh, Abdollah; Jamali, Mohsin; Bingman, Verner

    2014-04-04

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack

  11. Medical planning for extended remote expeditions.

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2013-12-01

    Remote extended expeditions often support scientific research and commercial resource exploration or extraction in hostile environments. Medical support for these expeditions is inherently complex and requires in-depth planning. To be successful, this planning must include substantial input from clinicians with experience in remote, emergency, and prehospital medicine and from personnel familiar with the proposed working environment. Using the guidelines discussed in this paper will help ensure that planners consider all necessary, medically relevant elements before launching an extended remote expedition. The 10 key elements of a workable remote healthcare system are to: 1. Optimize workers’ fitness. 2. Anticipate treatable problems. 3. Stock appropriate medications. 4. Provide appropriate equipment. 5. Provide adequate logistical support. 6. Provide adequate medical communications. 7. Know the environmental limitations on patient access and evacuation. 8. Use qualified providers. 9. Arrange for knowledgeable and timely consultations. 10. Establish and distribute rational administrative rules. Planners using these guidelines may better be able to generate a strategy that optimizes the participants' health benefits, the expedition's productivity, and the expedition sponsor's cost savings.

  12. Agents in grid extended to clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Bǎdicǎ, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.; Fidanova, S.

    2016-10-01

    The presented work is an attempt to extend considerations from the Agents in Grid (AiG) project to the Clouds. The AiG project is aimed at the development of an agent-semantic infrastructure for efficient resource management in the grid. Decision support within the AIG system helps the user, without in-depth knowledge, to choose optimal algorithm and/or resource to solve a problem from a given domain, and later to choose the best contract defining terms of collaboration with the provider of a resource used to solve the problem. Cloud computing refers to an architecture, in which groups of remote servers are networked, to allow online access to computer services or resources. The general vision is the same as in the case of computational grids, i.e., to reduce cost of computing, as well as to increase flexibility and reliability of the infrastructure. However, there are also important differences. It is relatively easy to notice that solutions considered in the context of the AiG system can be easily extended to computational clouds that evolved from computational grids. As it was shown in the case of grids, integrating software agents, semantics and cloud computing could enable highly efficient, intelligent systems, making clouds even more flexible, autonomic and usable.

  13. Condition monitoring system of wind turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdusamad, Khaled B.

    The development and implementation of the condition monitoring systems (CMS) play a significant role in overcoming the number of failures in the wind turbine generators that result from the harsh operation conditions, such as over temperature, particularly when turbines are deployed offshore. In order to increase the reliability of the wind energy industry, monitoring the operation conditions of wind generators is essential to detect the immediate faults rapidly and perform appropriate preventative maintenance. CMS helps to avoid failures, decrease the potential shutdowns while running, reduce the maintenance and operation costs and maintain wind turbines protected. The knowledge of wind turbine generators' faults, such as stator and rotor inter-turn faults, is indispensable to perform the condition monitoring accurately, and assist with maintenance decision making. Many techniques are utilized to avoid the occurrence of failures in wind turbine generators. The majority of the previous techniques that are applied to monitor the wind generator conditions are based on electrical and mechanical concepts and theories. An advanced CMS can be implemented by using a variety of different techniques and methods to confirm the validity of the obtained electrical and mechanical condition monitoring algorithms. This thesis is focused on applying CMS on wind generators due to high temperature by contributing the statistical, thermal, mathematical, and reliability analyses, and mechanical concepts with the electrical methodology, instead of analyzing the electrical signal and frequencies trends only. The newly developed algorithms can be compared with previous condition monitoring methods, which use the electrical approach in order to establish their advantages and limitations. For example, the hazard reliability techniques of wind generators based on CMS are applied to develop a proper maintenance strategy, which aims to extend the system life-time and reduce the potential

  14. Mars atmosphere during the Mariner 9 Extended Mission - Television results.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leovy, C. B.; Briggs, G. A.; Smith, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Extended Mission of Mariner 9 provided data from 23 revolutions and recorded seasonal changes in the atmosphere of Mars during northern spring and early summer. The visibility of the surface was exceptional, indicating atmospheric clarity greater than that previously observed by Mariner 9 or by Mariner 6 and 7. Cloud systems were observed over both polar regions and indicated westerly winds in the -45 to -65 deg latitude zone (southern winter) and easterly winds in the vicinity of +75 deg (northern summer). The puzzling brightening phenomena that recur seasonally and diurnally over Tharsis, Amazonis, and Nix Olympica were seen to be clouds of a generally diffuse character but with some indications of convective activity. These clouds show a remarkable degree of topographic control, and their large-scale patterns are closely duplicated from day to day.

  15. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Tim; Preus, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  16. Wind Energy Workforce Development & Jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-11-08

    The United States needs a skilled and qualified wind energy workforce to produce domestic clean power. To assist with wind energy workforce development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are engaged with several efforts.This presentation by Suzanne Tegen describes these efforts, including a wind industry survey, DOE's Wind Career Map, the DOE Wind Vision report, and an in-depth discussion of the Jobs & Economic Development Impacts Model.

  17. WINS. Market Simulation Tool for Facilitating Wind Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad

    2012-10-30

    results are often text-based demonstrations. WINS includes a powerful visualization tool and user interface capability for transmission analyses, planning, and assessment, which will be of great interest to power market participants, power system planners and operators, and state and federal regulatory entities; and (3) WINS can handle extended transmission models for wind integration studies. WINS models include limitations on transmission flow as well as bus voltage for analyzing power system states. The existing decision tools often consider transmission flow constraints (dc power flow) alone which could result in the over-utilization of existing resources when analyzing wind integration. WINS can be used to assist power market participants including transmission companies, independent system operators, power system operators in vertically integrated utilities, wind energy developers, and regulatory agencies to analyze economics, security, and reliability of various options for wind integration including transmission upgrades and the planning of new transmission facilities. WINS can also be used by industry for the offline training of reliability and operation personnel when analyzing wind integration uncertainties, identifying critical spots in power system operation, analyzing power system vulnerabilities, and providing credible decisions for examining operation and planning options for wind integration. Researches in this project on wind integration included (1) Development of WINS; (2) Transmission Congestion Analysis in the Eastern Interconnection; (3) Analysis of 2030 Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration in the Eastern Interconnection; (4) Large-scale Analysis of 2018 Wind Energy Integration in the Eastern U.S. Interconnection. The research resulted in 33 papers, 9 presentations, 9 PhD degrees, 4 MS degrees, and 7 awards. The education activities in this project on wind energy included (1) Wind Energy Training Facility Development; (2) Wind Energy Course

  18. Aquarius Scatterometer Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueh, S. H.; Fore, A.; Freedman, A. P.; Neumann, G.; Tang, W.; Brown, S.; Chaubell, M. J.; Jones, L.; Lagerloef, G. S.; LeVine, D.; Dinnat, E. P.; Meissner, T.; Wentz, F. J.; Vandemark, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Aquarius is a combined passive/active L-band microwave instrument developed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The data will support studies of the coupling between ocean circulation, the global water cycle, and climate. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 km and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu globally on a monthly basis. The measurement principle is based on the response of the L-band (1.413 GHz) sea surface brightness temperatures to sea surface salinity. To achieve the required 0.2 psu accuracy, the impact of sea surface roughness (e.g. wind-generated ripples and waves), along with several additional factors impacting the observed brightness temperature, must be corrected to better than a few tenths of a degree Kelvin. To this end, Aquarius includes a scatterometer to help correct for this surface roughness effect. The Aquarius/SACD was launched successfully on June 10, 2011, and the instrument is expected to be turned on in August. The prelaunch tests of Aquarius showed that the instrument should be extremely stable at the week-to-month time scale with drift of less than 0.1 K for the radiometer and 0.1 dB for the scatterometer. The current baseline algorithm for Aquarius is to use the scatterometer data in conjunction with the NCEP wind direction to derive the ocean surface wind speed and then a radiometer roughness correction. The pre-launch simulations predict 1 m/s wind speed accuracy. This will be tested using the Aquarius data collected in the coming few months. To quantify the benefits of combining passive and active microwave sensors for ocean salinity remote sensing, the Passive/Active L-band Sensor (PALS) was used to acquire data over a wide range of ocean surface wind conditions during the High Ocean Wind (HOW) Campaign in 2009. The PALS brightness

  19. Wind Measurements with a 355 nm Molecular Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Chen, Huailin; Li, Steven X.

    2000-01-01

    A Doppler lidar system based on the molecular double edge technique is described. The system is mounted in a modified van to allow deployment in field operations. The lidar operates with a tripled Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm, a 45cm aperture telescope and a matching azimuth-over-elevation scanner to allow full sky access. Validated atmospheric wind profiles have been measured from 1.8 km to 35 km with a 178 m vertical resolution. The range dependent rms deviation of the horizontal wind speed is 0.4 - 6 m/s. The results of wind speed and direction are in good agreement with balloon sonde wind measurements made simultaneously at the same location.

  20. View of fourlane Henry Hudson Parkway winding through Riverdale, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of four-lane Henry Hudson Parkway winding through Riverdale, showing service roads, from White Hall Cooperative Apartments. Henry Hudson Bridge, Inwood Hill Park, the Cloisters and Fort Tryon Park, George Washington Bridge, and Manhattan skyline in background, looking southwest. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  1. Integration of Wind Energy Systems into Power Engineering Education Program at UW-Madison

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataramanan, Giri; Lesieutre, Bernard; Jahns, Thomas; Desai, Ankur R

    2012-09-01

    This project has developed an integrated curriculum focused on the power engineering aspects of wind energy systems that builds upon a well-established graduate educational program at UW- Madison. Five new courses have been developed and delivered to students. Some of the courses have been offered on multiple occasions. The courses include: Control of electric drives for Wind Power applications, Utility Applications of Power Electronics (Wind Power), Practicum in Small Wind Turbines, Utility Integration of Wind Power, and Wind and Weather for Scientists and Engineers. Utility Applications of Power Electronics (Wind Power) has been provided for distance education as well as on-campus education. Several industrial internships for students have been organized. Numerous campus seminars that provide discussion on emerging issues related to wind power development have been delivered in conjunction with other campus events. Annual student conferences have been initiated, that extend beyond wind power to include sustainable energy topics to draw a large group of stakeholders. Energy policy electives for engineering students have been identified for students to participate through a certificate program. Wind turbines build by students have been installed at a UW-Madison facility, as a test-bed. A Master of Engineering program in Sustainable Systems Engineering has been initiated that incorporates specializations that include in wind energy curricula. The project has enabled UW-Madison to establish leadership at graduate level higher education in the field of wind power integration with the electric grid.

  2. 75 FR 47301 - Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...; EG10-36-000; EG10-37-000; EG10-38-000] Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC; Wessington Wind Energy Center, LLC; Juniper Canyon Wind Power LLC; Loraine Windpark Project, LLC; White Oak Energy LLC; Meadow Lake Wind Farm III LLC; Meadow Lake Wind...

  3. The Role of Flux Transfer Events in Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorelli, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent global MHD simulations of Flux Transfer Events (FTE's)[Dorelli and Bhattachar ee, JGR, 114, 2009] demonstrate that they are topologically complex flux ropes which extend large distances away from the subsolar magnetopause. Thus, FTE's represent a significant perturbation to the magnetopause magnetic field topology. Specifically, prior to the formation of the first FTE of the simulation, the dayside magnetopause has a relatively simple topology consisting of a single magnetic separator draping northward (even for southward IMF) over the dayside magnetopause (in a manner similar to the "overdraping" which occurs under northward IMF conditions). After the first FTE forms, however, the magnetopause becomes topologically more complex, consisting of multiple separators and braided flux domains. One consequence of this topological complexity is that open flux tubes have direct access to the magnetosphere near the subsolar region (such direct access is not possible during steady separator reconnection). Since the magnetopause topology affects the mapping of the solar wind electric field to the magnetosphere, an interesting question arises: What is the effect of FTE generation on the global magnetospheric convection pattern? In this talk, we address this question by exploring the differences between magnetospheric and ionospheric convection before and after the formation of the first FTE of the simulation.

  4. 75 FR 8927 - Autism Services Demonstration Project for TRICARE Beneficiaries Under the Extended Care Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... of the Secretary Autism Services Demonstration Project for TRICARE Beneficiaries Under the Extended...: This notice provides a 2-year extension of the Department of Defense Enhanced Access to Autism Services Demonstration Project under the Extended Care Health Option for beneficiaries diagnosed with an Autism...

  5. Wind-powered heat pump experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, D.C.

    1983-05-01

    The work described in this report was completed in two parts. The first part was an evaluation of an automotive type freon compressor, which demonstrated that such a device could be operated at slow speeds (600 to 1200 rpm) and still produce useful amounts of heat transfer. This device was evaluated and output measured by temperature measurements made on tanks of water in which the condenser and evaporator coils were immersed. The second portion of the project was to have been a demonstration using a wind turbine as the motive power and construction of a full scale system. However, after several different attempts to construct a working system, the work had to be terminated because the device to convert the wind power to mechanical power for turning the compressor coud never be successfully operated for any extended period of time. A description of the work completed and the reasons for the failure of the concept are delineated.

  6. Measuring electron temperature in the extended corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Gardner, L. D.; Kohl, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A technique for measuring electron temperature in the extended corona from the line profile of the electron scattered component of coronal H I Ly alpha produced by Thomson scattering of chromospheric Ly alpha emission is discussed. Because of the high thermal velocity of electrons at coronal temperatures (approximately 6800 km/s at T(sub e) = 1,500,000 K) the effect of nonthermal velocities and solar wind flows on the electron velocity distribution are negligible. However, the low electron mass which is responsible for the high thermal velocity also results in a very wide profile (approximately equal to 50 A). This wide profile, together with an intensity that is three orders of magnitude weaker than the resonantly scattered component of Ly alpha makes the direct measurement of T(sub e) a challenging observational problem. An evaluation of this technique based on simulated measurements is presented and the subsequent instrumental requirements necessary to make a meaningful determination of the electron temperature are discussed. Estimates of uncertainties in the measured electron temperature are related to critical instrument parameters such as grating stray light suppression.

  7. Wind Variability of B Supergiants. No. 2; The Two-component Stellar Wind of gamma Arae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinja, R. K.; Massa, D.; Fullerton, A. W.; Howarth, I. D.; Pontefract, M.

    1996-01-01

    The stellar wind of the rapidly rotating early-B supergiant, gamma Ara, is studied using time series, high-resolution IUE spectroscopy secured over approx. 6 days in 1993 March. Results are presented based on an analysis of several line species, including N(N), C(IV), Si(IV), Si(III), C(II), and Al(III). The wind of this star is grossly structured, with evidence for latitude-dependent mass loss which reflects the role of rapid rotation. Independent, co-existing time variable features are identified at low-velocity (redward of approx. -750 km/s) and at higher-speeds extending to approx. -1500 km/s. The interface between these structures is 'defined' by the appearance of a discrete absorption component which is extremely sharp (in velocity space). The central velocity of this 'Super DAC' changes only gradually, over several days, between approx. -400 and -750 km/s in most of the ions. However, its location is shifted redward by almost 400 km/s in Al(III) and C(II), indicating that the physical structure giving rise to this feature has a substantial velocity and ionization jump. Constraints on the relative ionization properties of the wind structures are discussed, together with results based on SEI line-profile-fitting methods. The overall wind activity in gamma Ara exhibits a clear ion dependence, such that low-speed features are promoted in low-ionization species, including Al(III), C(II), and Si(III). We also highlight that - in contrast to most OB stars - there are substantial differences in the epoch-to-epoch time-averaged wind profiles of gamma Ara. We interpret the results in terms of a two-component wind model for gamma Ara, with an equatorially compressed low ionization region, and a high speed, higher-ionization polar outflow. This picture is discussed in the context of the predicted bi-stability mechanism for line-driven winds in rapidly rotating early-B type stars, and the formation of compressed wind regions in rapidly rotating hot stars. The apparent

  8. Wind turbine wake properties from Doppler lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichugina, Y.; Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Lundquist, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Wake properties were estimated from the High-Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL) measurements during the Turbine Wake and Inflow Characterization Study (TWICS) in the spring of 2011. Velocity deficit, wake downwind extent, and wake meandering were obtained by detailed analysis of both lidar vertical-slice scans, performed straddling along the lidar-turbine centerline, and lidar conical scans, performed in narrow, nearly horizontal sectors that include the wind turbine inflow, and its wake at four levels. Simultaneous measurements of inflow and turbine outflow were corrected by terrain and wind direction to obtain mean wake properties. It has been found out that an operating wind turbine generates a wake with the maximum velocity deficit varying from 20% to 70% extending up to 10 rotor diameters downstream of the turbine, depending on the wind strength and atmospheric turbulence. Details including images and animations of the wake behavior will be presented.

  9. Lifting system and apparatus for constructing wind turbine towers

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, Tracy; Schrader, Terry; Goldhardt, James; Lott, James

    2011-02-01

    The disclosed invention is utilized for mounting a wind turbine and blade assembly on the upper end of a wind turbine tower. The invention generally includes a frame or truss that is pivotally secured to the top bay assembly of the tower. A transverse beam is connected to the frame or truss and extends fore of the tower when the frame or truss is in a first position and generally above the tower when in a second position. When in the first position, a wind turbine or blade assembly can be hoisted to the top of the tower. The wind turbine or blade assembly is then moved into position for mounting to the tower as the frame or truss is pivoted to a second position. When the turbine and blade assembly are secured to the tower, the frame or truss is disconnected from the tower and lowered to the ground.

  10. Review: Wind impacts on plant growth, mechanics and damage.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Barry; Berry, Peter; Moulia, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Land plants have adapted to survive under a range of wind climates and this involve changes in chemical composition, physical structure and morphology at all scales from the cell to the whole plant. Under strong winds plants can re-orientate themselves, reconfigure their canopies, or shed needles, leaves and branches in order to reduce the drag. If the wind is too strong the plants oscillate until the roots or stem fail. The mechanisms of root and stem failure are very similar in different plants although the exact details of the failure may be different. Cereals and other herbaceous crops can often recover after wind damage and even woody plants can partially recovery if there is sufficient access to water and nutrients. Wind damage can have major economic impacts on crops, forests and urban trees. This can be reduced by management that is sensitive to the local site and climatic conditions and accounts for the ability of plants to acclimate to their local wind climate. Wind is also a major disturbance in many plant ecosystems and can play a crucial role in plant regeneration and the change of successional stage.

  11. WindWaveFloat (WWF): Final Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alla Weinstein; Roddier, Dominique; Banister, Kevin

    2012-03-30

    Principle Power Inc. and National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) have completed a contract to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating wave energy converters into the WindFloat, resulting in a new concept called the WindWaveFloat (WWF). The concentration of several devices on one platform could offer a potential for both economic and operational advantages. Wind and wave energy converters can share the electrical cable and power transfer equipment to transport the electricity to shore. Access to multiple generation devices could be simplified, resulting in cost saving at the operational level. Overall capital costs may also be reduced, provided that the design of the foundation can be adapted to multiple devices with minimum modifications. Finally, the WindWaveFloat confers the ability to increase energy production from individual floating support structures, potentially leading to a reduction in levelized energy costs, an increase in the overall capacity factor, and greater stability of the electrical power delivered to the grid. The research conducted under this grant investigated the integration of several wave energy device types into the WindFloat platform. Several of the resulting system designs demonstrated technical feasibility, but the size and design constraints of the wave energy converters (technical and economic) make the WindWaveFloat concept economically unfeasible at this time. Not enough additional generation could be produced to make the additional expense associated with wave energy conversion integration into the WindFloat worthwhile.

  12. Complex terrain experiments in the New European Wind Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Angelou, N.; Callies, D.; Cantero, E.; Arroyo, R. Chávez; Courtney, M.; Cuxart, J.; Dellwik, E.; Gottschall, J.; Ivanell, S.; Kühn, P.; Lea, G.; Matos, J. C.; Palma, J. M. L. M.; Peña, A.; Rodrigo, J. Sanz; Söderberg, S.; Vasiljevic, N.; Rodrigues, C. Veiga

    2017-01-01

    The New European Wind Atlas project will create a freely accessible wind atlas covering Europe and Turkey, develop the model chain to create the atlas and perform a series of experiments on flow in many different kinds of complex terrain to validate the models. This paper describes the experiments of which some are nearly completed while others are in the planning stage. All experiments focus on the flow properties that are relevant for wind turbines, so the main focus is the mean flow and the turbulence at heights between 40 and 300 m. Also extreme winds, wind shear and veer, and diurnal and seasonal variations of the wind are of interest. Common to all the experiments is the use of Doppler lidar systems to supplement and in some cases replace completely meteorological towers. Many of the lidars will be equipped with scan heads that will allow for arbitrary scan patterns by several synchronized systems. Two pilot experiments, one in Portugal and one in Germany, show the value of using multiple synchronized, scanning lidar, both in terms of the accuracy of the measurements and the atmospheric physical processes that can be studied. The experimental data will be used for validation of atmospheric flow models and will by the end of the project be freely available. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Wind energy in complex terrains’. PMID:28265025

  13. Complex terrain experiments in the New European Wind Atlas.

    PubMed

    Mann, J; Angelou, N; Arnqvist, J; Callies, D; Cantero, E; Arroyo, R Chávez; Courtney, M; Cuxart, J; Dellwik, E; Gottschall, J; Ivanell, S; Kühn, P; Lea, G; Matos, J C; Palma, J M L M; Pauscher, L; Peña, A; Rodrigo, J Sanz; Söderberg, S; Vasiljevic, N; Rodrigues, C Veiga

    2017-04-13

    The New European Wind Atlas project will create a freely accessible wind atlas covering Europe and Turkey, develop the model chain to create the atlas and perform a series of experiments on flow in many different kinds of complex terrain to validate the models. This paper describes the experiments of which some are nearly completed while others are in the planning stage. All experiments focus on the flow properties that are relevant for wind turbines, so the main focus is the mean flow and the turbulence at heights between 40 and 300 m. Also extreme winds, wind shear and veer, and diurnal and seasonal variations of the wind are of interest. Common to all the experiments is the use of Doppler lidar systems to supplement and in some cases replace completely meteorological towers. Many of the lidars will be equipped with scan heads that will allow for arbitrary scan patterns by several synchronized systems. Two pilot experiments, one in Portugal and one in Germany, show the value of using multiple synchronized, scanning lidar, both in terms of the accuracy of the measurements and the atmospheric physical processes that can be studied. The experimental data will be used for validation of atmospheric flow models and will by the end of the project be freely available.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  14. Solar-wind velocity measurements from near-Sun comets C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy), C/2011 L4 (Pan-STARRS), and C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanjooloo, Y.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A.; Owens, M. J.; Battams, K.

    2014-07-01

    Since the mid-20th century, comets' plasma (type I) tails have been studied as natural probes of the solar wind [1]. Comets have induced magnetotails, formed through the draping of the heliospheric magnetic field by the velocity shear in the mass-loaded solar wind. These can be easily observed remotely as the comets' plasma tails, which generally point away from the Sun. Local solar-wind conditions directly influence the morphology and dynamics of a comet's plasma tail. During ideal observing geometries, the orientation and structure of the plasma tail can reveal large-scale and small-scale variations in the local solar-wind structure. These variations can be manifested as tail condensations, kinks, and disconnection events. Over 50 % of observed catalogued comets are sungrazing comets [2], fragments of three different parent comets. Since 2011, two bright new comets, C/2011 W3 [3] (from hereon comet Lovejoy) and C/2012 S1 [4] (hereon comet ISON) have experienced extreme solar-wind conditions and insolation of their nucleus during their perihelion passages, approaching to within 8.3×10^5 km (1.19 solar radii) and 1.9×10^6 km (2.79 solar radii) of the solar centre. They each displayed a prominent plasma tail, proving to be exceptions amongst the observed group of sungrazing comets. These bright sungrazers provide unprecedented access to study the solar wind in the heretofore unprobed innermost region of the solar corona. The closest spacecraft in-situ sampling of the solar wind by the Helios probes reached 0.29 au. For this study, we define a sungrazing comet as one with its perihelion within the solar Roche limit (3.70 solar radii). We also extend this study to include C/2011 L4 [5] (comet Pan-STARRS), a comet with a much further perihelion distance of 0.302 au. The technique employed in this study was first established by analysing geocentric amateur observations of comets C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and C/2004 Q2 (Machholz) [7]. These amateur images, obtained with modern

  15. Proposed Wind Turbine Aeroelasticity Studies Using Helicopter Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladkany, Samaan G.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced systems for the analysis of rotary wing aeroelastic structures (helicopters) are being developed at NASA Ames by the Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Branch, ARA. The research has recently been extended to the study of wind turbines, used for electric power generation Wind turbines play an important role in Europe, Japan & many other countries because they are non polluting & use a renewable source of energy. European countries such as Holland, Norway & France have been the world leaders in the design & manufacture of wind turbines due to their historical experience of several centuries, in building complex wind mill structures, which were used in water pumping, grain grinding & for lumbering. Fossil fuel cost in Japan & in Europe is two to three times higher than in the USA due to very high import taxes. High fuel cost combined with substantial governmental subsidies, allow wind generated power to be competitive with the more traditional sources of power generation. In the USA, the use of wind energy has been limited mainly because power production from wind is twice as expensive as from other traditional sources. Studies conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) indicate that the main cost in the production of wind turbines is due to the materials & the labor intensive processes used in the construction of turbine structures. Thus, for the US to assume world leadership in wind power generation, new lightweight & consequently very flexible wind turbines, that could be economically mass produced, would have to be developed [4,5]. This effort, if successful, would result in great benefit to the US & the developing nations that suffer from overpopulation & a very high cost of energy.

  16. A new approach to wind energy: Opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabiri, John O.; Greer, Julia R.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Moin, Parviz; Peng, Jifeng

    2015-03-01

    Despite common characterizations of modern wind energy technology as mature, there remains a persistent disconnect between the vast global wind energy resource—which is 20 times greater than total global power consumption—and the limited penetration of existing wind energy technologies as a means for electricity generation worldwide. We describe an approach to wind energy harvesting that has the potential to resolve this disconnect by geographically distributing wind power generators in a manner that more closely mirrors the physical resource itself. To this end, technology development is focused on large arrays of small wind turbines that can harvest wind energy at low altitudes by using new concepts of biology-inspired engineering. This approach dramatically extends the reach of wind energy, as smaller wind turbines can be installed in many places that larger systems cannot, especially in built environments. Moreover, they have lower visual, acoustic, and radar signatures, and they may pose significantly less risk to birds and bats. These features can be leveraged to attain cultural acceptance and rapid adoption of this new technology, thereby enabling significantly faster achievement of state and national renewable energy targets than with existing technology alone. Favorable economics stem from an orders-of-magnitude reduction in the number of components in a new generation of simple, mass-manufacturable (even 3D-printable), vertical-axis wind turbines. However, this vision can only be achieved by overcoming significant scientific challenges that have limited progress over the past three decades. The following essay summarizes our approach as well as the opportunities and challenges associated with it, with the aim of motivating a concerted effort in basic and applied research in this area.

  17. Extending permanent volcano monitoring networks into Iceland's ice caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Bergsson, Bergur H.; Kjartansson, Vilhjálmur; Jónsson, Thorsteinn; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Roberts, Matthew J.; Jóhannesson, Tómas; Pálsson, Finnur; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Erlendsson, Pálmi; Ingvarsson, Thorgils; Pálssson, Sighvatur K.

    2015-04-01

    The goals of the FUTUREVOLC project are the establishment of a volcano Supersite in Iceland to enable access to volcanological data from the country's many volcanoes and the development of a multiparametric volcano monitoring and early warning system. However, the location of some of Iceland's most active volcanoes inside the country's largest ice cap, Vatnajökull, makes these goals difficult to achieve as it hinders access and proper monitoring of seismic and deformation signals from the volcanoes. To overcome these obstacles, one of the developments in the project involves experimenting with extending the permanent real-time networks into the ice cap, including installation of stations in the glacier ice. At the onset of the project, only one permanent seismic and GPS site existed within Vatnajökull, on the caldera rim of the Grímsvötn volcano. Two years into the project both seismic and GPS stations have been successfully installed and operated inside the glacier; on rock outcrops as well as on the glacier surface. The specific problems to overcome are (i) harsh weather conditions requiring sturdy and resilient equipment and site installations, (ii) darkness during winter months shutting down power generation for several weeks, (iii) high snow accumulation burying the instruments, solar panels and communication and GPS antennae, and in some locations (iv) extreme icing conditions blocking transmission signals and connection to GPS satellites, as well as excluding the possibility of power generation by wind generators. In 2013, two permanent seismic stations and one GPS station were installed on rock outcrops within the ice cap in locations with 3G connections and powered by solar panels and enough battery storage to sustain operation during the darkest winter months. These sites have successfully operated for over a year with mostly regular maintenance requirements, transmitting data in real-time to IMO for analysis. Preparations for two permanent seismic

  18. Wind energy: Program overview, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The DOE Wind Energy Program assists utilities and industry in developing advanced wind turbine technology to be economically competitive as an energy source in the marketplace and in developing new markets and applications for wind systems. This program overview describes the commercial development of wind power, wind turbine development, utility programs, industry programs, wind resources, applied research in wind energy, and the program structure.

  19. "What Page, Miss?" Enhancing Text Accessibility with DAISY (Digital Accessible Information SYstem)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The provision of specially formatted materials is a complex and increasingly difficult task, given the extensive and burgeoning range of texts and resources available for classroom use. The need to extend the provision of accessible formats to include digital resources (in addition to braille, audio, and large print) led to a study…

  20. Hourly Wind Speed Interval Prediction in Arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaouch, M.; Ouarda, T.

    2013-12-01

    The long and extended warm and dry summers, the low rate of rain and humidity are the main factors that explain the increase of electricity consumption in hot arid regions. In such regions, the ventilating and air-conditioning installations, that are typically the most energy-intensive among energy consumption activities, are essential for securing healthy, safe and suitable indoor thermal conditions for building occupants and stored materials. The use of renewable energy resources such as solar and wind represents one of the most relevant solutions to overcome the increase of the electricity demand challenge. In the recent years, wind energy is gaining more importance among the researchers worldwide. Wind energy is intermittent in nature and hence the power system scheduling and dynamic control of wind turbine requires an estimate of wind energy. Accurate forecast of wind speed is a challenging task for the wind energy research field. In fact, due to the large variability of wind speed caused by the unpredictable and dynamic nature of the earth's atmosphere, there are many fluctuations in wind power production. This inherent variability of wind speed is the main cause of the uncertainty observed in wind power generation. Furthermore, producing wind power forecasts might be obtained indirectly by modeling the wind speed series and then transforming the forecasts through a power curve. Wind speed forecasting techniques have received substantial attention recently and several models have been developed. Basically two main approaches have been proposed in the literature: (1) physical models such as Numerical Weather Forecast and (2) statistical models such as Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, Neural Networks. While the initial focus in the literature has been on point forecasts, the need to quantify forecast uncertainty and communicate the risk of extreme ramp events has led to an interest in producing probabilistic forecasts. In short term

  1. Equilibrium pricing in electricity markets with wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Ofir David

    precision is still low. Therefore, it is crucial that the uncertainty in forecasting wind power is considered when modeling trading behavior. Our theoretical framework is based on finding a symmetric Cournot-Nash equilibrium in double-sided auctions in both forwards and spot electricity markets. The theoretical framework allows for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a model of electricity markets that explain two main empirical findings; the existence of forwards premium and spot market mark-ups. That is a significant contribution since so far forward premiums have been explained exclusively by the assumption of risk-averse behavior while spot mark-ups are the outcome of the body of literature assuming oligopolistic competition. In the next step, we extend the theoretical framework to account for deregulated electricity markets with wind power. Modeling a wind-integrated electricity market allows us to analyze market outcomes with respect to three main factors; the introduction of uncertainty from the supply side, ownership of wind power capacity and the geographical diversification of wind power capacity. For the purpose of modeling trade in electricity forwards one should simulate the information agents have regarding future availability of aggregate wind power. This is particularly important for modeling accurately traders' ability to predict the spot price distribution. We develop a novel numerical methodology for the simulation of the conditional distribution of regional wind power at the time of trading short-term electricity forwards. Finally, we put the theoretical framework and the numerical methodology developed in this study to work by providing a detailed computational experiment examining electricity market outcomes for a particular expansion path of wind power capacity.

  2. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) toolkit (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline Draxl: NREL

    2014-01-01

    Regional wind integration studies require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high penetration scenarios. The wind datasets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as being time synchronized with available load profiles.As described in this presentation, the WIND Toolkit fulfills these requirements by providing a state-of-the-art national (US) wind resource, power production and forecast dataset.

  3. Towards an Optimal Noise Versus Resolution Trade-Off in Wind Scatterometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brent A.

    2011-01-01

    A scatterometer is a radar that measures the normalized radar cross section sigma(sup 0) of the Earth's surface. Over the ocean this signal is related to the wind via the geophysical model function (GMF). The objective of wind scatterometry is to estimate the wind vector field from sigma(sup 0) measurements; however, there are many subtleties that complicate this problem-making it difficult to obtain a unique wind field estimate. Conventionally, wind estimation is split into two stages: a wind retrieval stage in which several ambiguous solutions are obtained, and an ambiguity removal stage in which ambiguities are chosen to produce an appropriate wind vector field estimate. The most common approach to wind field estimation is to grid the scatterometer swath into wind vector cells and estimate wind vector ambiguities independently for each cell. Then, field wise structure is imposed on the solution by an ambiguity selection routine. Although this approach is simple and practical, it neglects field wise structure in the retrieval step and does not account for the spatial correlation imposed by the sampling. This makes it difficult to develop a theoretically appropriate noise versus resolution trade-off using pointwise retrieval. Fieldwise structure may be imposed in the retrieval step using a model-based approach. However, this approach is generally only practical if a low order wind field model is applied, which may discard more information than is desired. Furthermore, model-based approaches do not account for the structure imposed by the sampling. A more general fieldwise approach is to estimate all the wind vectors for all the WVCs simultaneously from all the measurements. This approach can account for structure of the wind field as well as structure imposed by the sampling in the wind retrieval step. Williams and Long in 2010 developed a fieldwise retrieval method based on maximum a posteriori estimation (MAP). This MAP approach can be extended to perform a

  4. Environmental impact of wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, J.; Teilmann, J.

    2013-09-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative ways. For example, some farms are safe havens for porpoises while other farms show fewer harbor porpoises even after ten years. Atmospheric computer experiments are carried out to investigate the possible impact and resource of future massive installations of wind turbines. The following questions are treated. What is the global capacity for energy production by the wind? Will the added turbulence and reduced wind speeds generated by massive wind farms cool or heat the surface? Can wind farms affect precipitation? It is also shown through life-cycle analysis how wind energy can reduce the atmospheric emission of eight air pollutants. Finally, noise generation and its impact on humans are studied.

  5. Providing Minute-to-Minute Regulation from Wind Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Ela, E.

    2010-01-01

    Our earlier work showed that it may be both technically and economically feasible for wind plants to supply minute-to-minute regulation under some circumstances. In this paper, we extend the previous analysis using time series data from existing wind plants, system loads, and regulation and energy markets. Both wind plant response performance requirements and power system needs are addressed. In present-day regulation markets, the regulation market price is typically based on the supplier's opportunity cost in the energy market. With a near-zero marginal production cost, wind would not be expected to be an attractive regulation supplier most of the time. Minimum load problems, typically on nights with high wind, and the need for conventional generators to incur additional costs when operating above minimum loads appear to make regulation from wind an economical option for some hours of the year. Unlike contingency reserves whose prices are generally low at night, the price for regulation typically remains high around the clock. In this paper, we examine wind and regulation markets in several regions to assess the viability of the concept.

  6. Oblique, Stratified Winds about a Shelter Fence. Part I: Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John D.

    2004-08-01

    Wind statistics were measured using cup and sonic anemometers, placed upwind and downwind from a porous plastic windbreak fence (height h = 1.25 m, length Y = 114 m, resistance coefficient kr0 = 2.4, and porosity p = 0.45) standing on otherwise uniform land (short grass with roughness length z0 1.9 cm). Intercomparison with collocated two-dimensional sonic anemometers suggested that, except in strongly stratified winds, cup anemometers (distance constant 1.5 m), subjected to a uniform overspeeding correction (here 10%), provide a reasonably accurate transect of the mean wind across the disturbed flow region. The measurements, binned with respect to mean wind direction and stratification, establish that the resistance coefficient of a windbreak of this type implies the maximum (or “potential”) mean wind reduction, a potential that is realized in neutral, perpendicular flow and for which a semiempirical formula is derived. Obliquity of the approaching wind reduces actual shelter effectiveness below the potential value, as was already known. However, a systematic influence of stratification could only be discriminated in winds that were not too far (say, within about ±30°) from perpendicular, under which conditions both stable and unstable stratification reduced shelter effectiveness. The “quiet zone,” in which velocity standard deviations (σu, σ) are reduced relative to the approach flow, was found to extend farther downwind for the normal velocity component (u) than for the parallel component ().


  7. Magnetocentrifugal Winds in 3D: Nonaxisymmetric Steady State

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jeffrey M.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Blandford, Roger D.; /SLAC

    2006-11-28

    Outflows can be loaded and accelerated to high speeds along rapidly rotating, open magnetic field lines by centrifugal forces. Whether such magnetocentrifugally driven winds are stable is a longstanding theoretical problem. As a step towards addressing this problem, we perform the first large-scale 3D MHD simulations that extend to a distance {approx} 10{sup 2} times beyond the launching region, starting from steady 2D (axisymmetric) solutions. In an attempt to drive the wind unstable, we increase the mass loading on one half of the launching surface by a factor of {radical}10, and reduce it by the same factor on the other half. The evolution of the perturbed wind is followed numerically. We find no evidence for any rapidly growing instability that could disrupt the wind during the launching and initial phase of propagation, even when the magnetic field of the magnetocentrifugal wind is toroidally dominated all the way to the launching surface. The strongly perturbed wind settles into a new steady state, with a highly asymmetric mass distribution. The distribution of magnetic field strength is, in contrast, much more symmetric. We discuss possible reasons for the apparent stability, including stabilization by an axial poloidal magnetic field, which is required to bend field lines away from the vertical direction and produce a magnetocentrifugal wind in the first place.

  8. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  9. A novel extended state observer.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shaofeng; Wang, Weihong; Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Zengqiang; Wang, Sen

    2015-09-01

    A novel extended state observer, which feeds back the output estimation error via both nonlinear and switching terms, is put forward for the first time in this paper. No longer neglecting the lumped uncertainty׳s first time derivative, the problem of disturbance observer design is transformed into the problem of state observer design in the presence of external disturbance. The switching term of the output estimation error is employed to counteract the adverse effect of external disturbance. The newly developed extended state observer provides an attractive solution to the issue of high precision motion control system. Both numerical simulation and experimentation on a speed turntable with temperature box are implemented to verify the performance of the proposed newly developed extended state observer.

  10. Extended cognition in science communication.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, David

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a methodological externalism that takes knowledge about science to be partly constituted by the environment. My starting point is the debate about extended cognition in contemporary philosophy and cognitive science. Externalists claim that human cognition extends beyond the brain and can be partly constituted by external devices. First, I show that most studies of public knowledge about science are based on an internalist framework that excludes the environment we usually utilize to make sense of science and does not allow the possibility of extended knowledge. In a second step, I argue that science communication studies should adopt a methodological externalism and accept that knowledge about science can be partly realized by external information resources such as Wikipedia.

  11. Wind energy and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  12. Doppler wind profile experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The data collection phase of a Doppler wind measurement experiment supported by high-resolution Jimsphere/FPS-16 wind data and Windsonde data was carried out at the Kennedy Space Center in February, March and early April of 1985. The Doppler wind measurements were made using a hybrid doppler profiler put in place by the Johnson Space Center and a SOUSY profiler operated by Radian Corporation. Both systems operated at 50 Mhz. Although the doppler profiler systems were located 10 km apart to enable concurrent operation of the systems for data comparison, little concurrent data were obtained due to set-up delays with the SOUSY system, and system problems with the WPL system during the last month of the test. During the test period, special serial Jimsphere soundings were taken at two-hour intervals on six days in March and April in addition to balloon soundings taken in support of the Shuttle launch operations. In addition, there is temperature, moisture and wind information available from the daily morning Radiosonde sounding taken at the Kennedy site. The balloon release point was at the same location as the SOUSY profiler. Vertical resolution of the SOUSY profiler was 150 M to approximately 20 km. The vertical resolution of the WPL profiler was 290 M to 10 km and 870 M to 17 km. Winds determined form the Jimsphere balloon have a vertical resolution of 30 M.

  13. WFRC patrners: our extended family

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connolly, P.; Elliot, D.; Parsley, M.; Winton, J.

    2007-01-01

    For more than five decades the Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has worked with partners to provide research findings to managers of aquatic resources. Those partners form an extended family, a network of clients, colleagues, co-investigators, and customers. Our partners include numerous clients in other Department of Interior bureaus such as the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, and the National Park Service. But there is much more--we have partners in other federal agencies, state agencies, and universities. The extended family includes tribal governments, and non-government organizations such as the Nature Conservancy and the Lower Columbia River Estuary Program.

  14. Wind field model-based estimation of Seasat scatterometer winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, David G.

    1993-01-01

    A model-based approach to estimating near-surface wind fields over the ocean from Seasat scatterometer (SASS) measurements is presented. The approach is a direct assimilation technique in which wind field model parameters are estimated directly from the scatterometer measurements of the radar backscatter of the ocean's surface using maximum likelihood principles. The wind field estimate is then computed from the estimated model parameters. The wind field model used in this approach is based on geostrophic approximation and on simplistic assumptions about the wind field vorticity and divergence but includes ageostrophic winds. Nine days of SASS data were processed to obtain unique wind estimates. Comparisons in performance to the traditional two-step (point-wise wind retrieval followed by ambiguity removal) wind estimate method and the model-based method are provided using both simulated radar backscatter measurements and actual SASS measurements. In the latter case the results are compared to wind fields determined using subjective ambiguity removal. While the traditional approach results in missing measurements and reduced effective swath width due to fore/aft beam cell coregistration problems, the model-based approach uses all available measurements to increase the effective swath width and to reduce data gaps. The results reveal that the model-based wind estimates have accuracy comparable to traditionally estimated winds with less 'noise' in the directional estimates, particularly at low wind speeds.

  15. Offshore Wind Power Integration in severely fluctuating Wind Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bremen, L.

    2010-09-01

    Strong power fluctuations from offshore wind farms that are induced by wind speed fluctuations pose a severe problem to the save integration of offshore wind power into the power supply system. Experience at the first large-scale offshore wind farm Horns Rev showed that spatial smoothing of power fluctuations within a single wind farm is significantly smaller than onshore results suggest when distributed wind farms of 160 MW altogether are connected to a single point of common-coupling. Wind power gradients larger than 10% of the rated capacity within 5 minutes require large amount of regulation power that is very expensive for the grid operator. It must be noted that a wind speed change of only 0.5m/s result in a wind power change of 10% (within the range of 9-11 m/s where the wind power curve is steepest). Hence, it is very important for the grid operator to know if strong fluctuations are likely or not. Observed weather conditions at the German wind energy research platform FINO1 in the German bight are used to quantify wind fluctuations. With a standard power curve these wind fluctuations are transfered to wind power. The aim is to predict the probability of exceedence of certain wind power gradients that occur in a time interval of e.g. 12 hours. During 2006 and 2009 the distribution of wind power fluctuations looks very similar giving hope that distinct atmospheric processes can be determined that act as a trigger. Most often high wind power fluctuations occur in a range of wind speeds between 9-12 m/s as can be expected from the shape of the wind power curve. A cluster analysis of the 500 hPa geopotential height to detect predominant weather regimes shows that high fluctuations are more likely in north-western flow. It is shown that most often high fluctuations occur in non-stable atmospheric stratification. The description of stratification by means of the vertical gradient of the virtual potential temperature is chosen to be indicative for convection, i

  16. A mathematical analysis of the influence of adverse and favourable winds on sprinting.

    PubMed

    Ward-Smith, A J

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of running performance, based on the first law of thermodynamics and originally derived for still air conditions, is extended to account for the effects of favourable and adverse winds. Solutions to the full theory have been obtained by numerical integration of the governing equations. Simplifications to the full calculation procedure have also been investigated. Calculations for races over a distance of 100 m show that the advantage to an athlete of a following wind increases progressively with increasing wind speed. A favourable wind of 2 ms-1 provides a benefit of about 0.18 s on running time.

  17. Lidar-Enhanced Wind Turbine Control: Past, Present, and Future: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Scholbrock, Andrew; Fleming, Paul; Wright, Alan; Wang, Na; Schlipf, David; Johnson, Kathryn

    2016-07-01

    This paper will look at the development of lidar-enhanced controls and how they have been used for turbine load reduction with pitch actuation, as well as increased energy production with improved yaw control. Ongoing work will also be discussed to show that combining pitch and torque control using feedforward nonlinear model predictive control can lead to both reduced loads and increased energy production. Future work is also proposed on extending individual wind turbine controls to the wind plant level and determining how lidars can be used for control methods to further lower the cost of wind energy by minimizing wake impacts in a wind farm.

  18. Low current extended duration spark ignition system

    DOEpatents

    Waters, Stephen Howard; Chan, Anthony Kok-Fai

    2005-08-30

    A system for firing a spark plug is disclosed. The system includes a timing controller configured to send a first timing signal and a second timing signal. The system also includes an ignition transformer having a primary winding and a secondary winding and a spark-plug that is operably associated with the secondary winding. A first switching element is disposed between the timing controller and the primary winding of the ignition transformer. The first switching element controls a supply of power to the primary winding based on the first timing signal. Also, a second switching element is disposed between the timing controller and the primary winding of the ignition transformer. The second switching element controls the supply of power to the primary winding based on the second timing signal. A method for firing a spark plug is also disclosed.

  19. Harvesting the wind

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, R.D.

    1984-11-01

    This paper describes the wind farms in the Altamont Pass, the Tehachapi Mountains, and the San Gorgonio pass, all in California. The threat by Congress to eliminate federal tax credits could put the fledgling industry in the doldrums. The author shows how the selection of the right wind site can make the difference between a profitable venture and an expensive kinetic sculpture. To improve reliability wind-farm developers have turned to more durable Danish turbines from Zond, Windmatic, and Bonus. Recent research under DOE sponsorship has studied large-scale MOD-2 machines built by Boeing, several of which are now operating at a PGandL site north of San Francisco. The result of recent new standards may require the filing of quarterly reports on machine capacity, performance, and the amounts of electricity produced from the installation.

  20. Elysium Mons Wind Streak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-556, 26 November 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a wind streak formed behind a meteor impact crater on the lower north flank of the volcano, Elysium Mons. Winds blow down the volcano slope, toward the northeast (toward upper right), causing a tail of uneroded dust to be captured behind the crater. Thin, filamentary dark streaks (resembling pencil scratches in this image) can be seen on the surface of the bright wind streak; these may have formed by disruption of surface dust by passing dust devils. This picture is located near 27.7oN, 212.7oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide, and is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  1. Wind measurements by parachute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordstroem, S.

    1982-01-01

    Tests used the 8 cm Lotta grenade as well as 12 cm M/70 and 10.5 m/62 grenades, released at altitudes between 2000 and 6400 meters. The parachutes were tracked by AP and RFK. In later experiments wind data were also obtained for comparison by tracking hydrogen filled balloons in part with the CORA system, in part with radar. Generally radar picked up the objects without visual assistance. Wind measurements from parachutes correlated well with those obtained by balloon. Even when the radar locked on to a part of a grenade, descending faster than the parachute, some of the measurements obtained were good. Bodies with a greater rate of descent than parachutes, with less or no tendency toward drift and with sufficient, surface for radar tracking, ought to provide reliable results. The existence of vertically well defined winds of jet stream type at low altitudes was established.

  2. Time dependent wind fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelton, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Two tasks were performed: (1) determination of the accuracy of Seasat scatterometer, altimeter, and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer measurements of wind speed; and (2) application of Seasat altimeter measurements of sea level to study the spatial and temporal variability of geostrophic flow in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The results of the first task have identified systematic errors in wind speeds estimated by all three satellite sensors. However, in all cases the errors are correctable and corrected wind speeds agree between the three sensors to better than 1 ms sup -1 in 96-day 2 deg. latitude by 6 deg. longitude averages. The second task has resulted in development of a new technique for using altimeter sea level measurements to study the temporal variability of large scale sea level variations. Application of the technique to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current yielded new information about the ocean circulation in this region of the ocean that is poorly sampled by conventional ship-based measurements.

  3. Wind abrasion on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Aeolian activity was predicted for Mars from earth based observations of changing surface patterns that were interpreted as dust storms. Mariner 9 images showed conclusive evidence for aeolian processes in the form of active dust storms and various aeolian landforms including dunes and yardangs. Windspeeds to initiate particle movement are an order of magnitude higher on Mars than on Earth because of the low atmospheric density on Mars. In order to determine rates of abrasion by wind blown particles, knowledge of three factors is required: (1) particle parameters such as numbers and velocities of windblown grains as functions of windspeeds at various heights above the surface; (2) the susceptibility to abrasion of various rocks and minerals; and (3) wind frequencies and speeds. For estimates appropriate to Mars, data for the first two parameters can be determined through lab and wind tunnel tests; data for the last two factors are available directly from the Viking Lander meteorology experiments for the two landing sites.

  4. A circular median filter approach for resolving directional ambiguities in wind fields retrieved from spaceborne scatterometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Howard

    1990-01-01

    The retrieval algorithm for spaceborne scatterometry proposed by Schultz (1985) is extended. A circular median filter (CMF) method is presented, which operates on wind directions independently of wind speed, removing any implicit wind speed dependence. A cell weighting scheme is included in the algorithm, permitting greater weights to be assigned to more reliable data. The mathematical properties of the ambiguous solutions to the wind retrieval problem are reviewed. The CMF algorithm is tested on twelve simulated data sets. The effects of spatially correlated likelihood assignment errors on the performance of the CMF algorithm are examined. Also, consideration is given to a wind field smoothing technique that uses a CMF.

  5. Community Wind: Once Again Pushing the Envelope of Project Finance

    SciTech Connect

    bolinger, Mark A.

    2011-01-18

    financed by an intrastate offering of both debt and equity, (4) a 6 MW project in Washington state that taps into New Markets Tax Credits using an 'inverted' or 'pass-through' lease structure, and (5) a 9 MW project in Oregon that combines a variety of state and federal incentives and loans with unconventional equity from high-net-worth individuals. In most cases, these are first-of-their-kind structures that could serve as useful examples for other projects - both community and commercial wind alike. This report describes each of these innovative new financing structures in some detail, using a case-study approach. The purpose is twofold: (1) to disseminate useful information on these new financial structures, most of which are widely replicable; and (2) to highlight the recent policy changes - many of them temporary unless extended - that have facilitated this innovation. Although the community wind market is currently only a small sub-sector of the U.S. wind market - as defined here, less than 2% of the overall market at the end of 2009 (Wiser and Bolinger 2010) - its small size belies its relevance to the broader market. As such, the information provided in this report has relevance beyond its direct application to the community wind sector. The next two sections of this report briefly summarize how most community wind projects in the U.S. have been financed historically (i.e., prior to this latest wave of innovation) and describe the recent federal policy changes that have enabled a new wave of financial innovation to occur, respectively. Section 4 contains brief case studies of how each of the five projects mentioned above were financed, noting the financial significance of each. Finally, Section 5 concludes by distilling a number of general observations or pertinent lessons learned from the experiences of these five projects.

  6. Advancements in Wind Integration Study Data Modeling: The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Draxl, C.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.; Jones, W.; Searight, K.; Getman, D.; Harrold, S.; McCaa, J.; Cline, J.; Clark, C.

    2013-10-01

    Regional wind integration studies in the United States require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high-penetration scenarios. The wind data sets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as be time synchronized with available load profiles. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit described in this paper fulfills these requirements. A wind resource dataset, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts from a numerical weather prediction model run on a nationwide 2-km grid at 5-min resolution will be made publicly available for more than 110,000 onshore and offshore wind power production sites.

  7. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-12-01

    This brochure serves as an introduction to Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools Project, including a description of the project, the participants, funding sources, and the basic configurations of the project.

  8. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project (Alaska) (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-02-01

    This brochure provides an overview of Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools Project, including a description of the project, the participants, funding sources, the basic configurations, and how interested parties can become involved.

  9. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-08-01

    This brochure provides an overview of Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools Project, including a description of the project, the participants, funding sources, the basic configurations, and how interested parties can become involved.

  10. Wind Powering America Webinar Series (Postcard), Wind Powering America (WPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    Wind Powering America offers a free monthly webinar series that provides expert information on today?s key wind energy topics. This postcard is an outreach tool that provides a brief description of the webinars as well as the URL.

  11. Wind Turbines Adaptation to the Variability of the Wind Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulianov, Yuriy; Martynenko, Gennadii; Misaylov, Vitaliy; Soliannikova, Iuliia

    2010-05-01

    WIND TURBINES ADAPTATION TO THE VARIABILITY OF THE WIND FIELD The subject of our scientific research is wind power turbines (WPT) with the horizontal axis which were now common in the world. Efficient wind turbines work is largely determined by non-stationarity of the wind field, expressed in its gustiness, the presence of vertical and horizontal shifts of wind speed and direction. At critical values of the wind parameters WPT has aerodynamic and mechanical overload, leading to breakdowns, premature wear and reduce the life of the wind turbine. To prevent accidents at the peak values of wind speed it is used the regulatory system of windwheels. WPT control systems provide a process orientation of the wind turbine rotor axis in the line of the mean wind. Wind turbines are also equipped with braking device used to protect against breakdowns when a significant increase in the wind. In general, all these methods of regulation are not always effective. Thus, in practice there may be situations when the wind speed is many times greater than the stated limit. For example, if there are microbursts in the atmospheric boundary layer, low-level wind shears caused by its gust front, storms, etc. It is required for a wind power turbine adaptation to intensive short-term wind impulses and considerable vertical wind shifts that the data about them shall be obtained ahead of time. To do this it is necessary to have the information on the real structure of the wind field in the area of the blade sweep for the minimum range against the wind that is determined by the mean speed and the system action time. The implementation of acoustic and laser traditional wind sounding systems is limited by ambient acoustic noise, by heavy rain, snowfall and by fog. There are free of these disadvantages the inclined radioacoustic sounding (IRASS) technique which works for a system of remote detection and control of wind gusts. IRASS technique is realized as low-potential Doppler pulse radar

  12. Wind Energy Status and Future Wind Engineering Challenges: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, R.; Schreck, S.; Robinson, M.; Veers, P.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the current status of wind energy technology, the potential for future wind energy development and the science and engineering challenges that must be overcome for the technology to meet its potential.

  13. Offshore wind resource estimation from satellite SAR wind field maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasager, C. B.; Nielsen, M.; Astrup, P.; Barthelmie, R.; Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N. O.; Jørgensen, B. H.; Pryor, S. C.; Rathmann, O.; Furevik, B. R.

    2005-10-01

    A wind resource estimation study based on a series of 62 satellite wind field maps is presented. The maps were retrieved from imaging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The wind field maps were used as input to the software RWT, which calculates the offshore wind resource based on spatial averaging (footprint modelling) of the wind statistic in each satellite image. The calculated statistics can then be input to the program WAsP and used in lieu of in-situ observations by meteorological instruments. A regional wind climate map based on satellite SAR images delineates significant spatial wind speed variations. The site of investigation was Horns Rev in the North Sea, where a meteorological time series is used for comparison. The advantages and limitations of these new techniques, which seem particularly useful for mapping of the regional wind climate, are discussed. Copyright

  14. Winds over Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumley, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Before World War II, weather forecasters had little knowledge of upper-air wind patterns above 20000 feet. Data were seldom avai able at these heights, and the need was not great because commercial aircraft seldom flew at these altitudes. The war in the Pacific changed all that. Wind forecasts for 30000 feet plus became urgent to support the XXI Bomber Command in its bombing mission over Japan.The U.S. Army Air Force Pacific Ocean Area (AAFPOA) placed a Weather Central in the Marianas Islands in 1944 (Saipan in 1944 and Guam in 1945) to provide forecasting support for this mission. A forecasting procedure was put into operation that combined the elements known as "single-station forecasting" and an advanced procedure that used "altirmeter corrections" to analyze upper-airdata and make prognoses. Upper-air charts were drawn for constant pressure surfaces rather than constant height surfaces. The constant pressure surfaces were tied together by means of the atmospheric temperature field represented by specific temperature anomalies between pressure surfaces. Wind forecasts over the Marianas-Japan route made use of space cross sections that provided the data to forecast winds at each 5000-ft level to 35000 ft along the mission flight path. The new procedures allowed the forecaster to construct internally consistent meteorological charts in three dimensions in regions of sparse data.Army air force pilots and their crews from the Marianas were among the first to experience the extreme wind conditions now known as the "jet stream". Air force forecasters demonstrated that, with experience, such winds could reasonably be forecast under difficult operational conditions.

  15. Lightweight extendable and retractable pole

    DOEpatents

    Warren, J.L.; Brandt, J.E.

    1994-08-02

    A lightweight extendable and retractable telescopic pole is disclosed comprising a plurality of non-metallic telescoping cylinders with sliding and sealing surfaces between the cylinders, a first plug member on the upper end of the smallest cylinder, and a second plug member on the lower end of the largest cylinder, whereby fluid pressure admitted to the largest cylinder will cause the telescoping cylinders to slide relative to one another causing the pole to extend. An elastomeric member connects the first plug member with one of the intermediate cylinders to urge the cylinders back into a collapsed position when the fluid pressure in the cylinders is vented. Annular elastomer members are provided which seal one cylinder to another when the pole is fully extended and further serve to provide a cushion to prevent damage to the cylinders when the pole is urged back into its retractable position by the elastomeric members and the venting of the pressure. A value mechanism associated with the pole is provided to admit a fluid under pressure to the interior of the telescoping cylinders of the pole while pressurizing a pressure relief port having an opening larger than the inlet port in a closed position whereby removal of the pressure on the relief port will cause the relief port to open to quickly lower the pressure in the interior of the telescoping cylinders to thereby assist in the rapid retraction of the extended pole. 18 figs.

  16. Lightweight extendable and retractable pole

    DOEpatents

    Warren, John L.; Brandt, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A lightweight extendable and retractable telescopic pole is disclosed comprising a plurality of non-metallic telescoping cylinders with sliding and sealing surfaces between the cylinders, a first plug member on the upper end of the smallest cylinder, and a second plug member on the lower end of the largest cylinder, whereby fluid pressure admitted to the largest cylinder will cause the telescoping cylinders to slide relative to one another causing the pole to extend. An elastomeric member connects the first plug member with one of the intermediate cylinders to urge the cylinders back into a collapsed position when the fluid pressure in the cylinders is vented. Annular elastomer members are provided which seal one cylinder to another when the pole is fully extended and further serve to provide a cushion to prevent damage to the cylinders when the pole is urged back into its retractable position by the elastomeric members and the venting of the pressure. A value mechanism associated with the pole is provided to admit a fluid under pressure to the interior of the telescoping cylinders of the pole while pressurizing a pressure relief port having an opening larger than the inlet port in a closed position whereby removal of the pressure on the relief port will cause the relief port to open to quickly lower the pressure in the interior of the telescoping cylinders to thereby assist in the rapid retraction of the extended pole.

  17. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Robert C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  18. Rigid gas permeable extended wear.

    PubMed

    Maehara, J R; Kastl, P R

    1994-04-01

    We have reviewed the pertinent literature on rigid gas permeable (RGP) extended wear contact lenses, and we discuss the benefits and adverse reactions of this contact lens modality, drawing conclusions from reviewed studies. We suggest parameters for success with these lenses and guidelines for the prevention of adverse reactions.

  19. Group Development: Extending Tuckman's Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maples, Mary F.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a framework for extending the Tuckman model of developmental sequence in small groups. Considers Tuckman's stages of forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning lacking in descriptive depth and clear definition. Gathered and organized group dynamics graduate students' assessments of characteristics of stages over five-year…

  20. Extending the Internet 2 Domain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 community, formed from partnerships involving universities, businesses, and the government, focuses on the K-20 Initiative that extends Internet 2 developments to other nonmember environments, including elementary and secondary schools, community colleges, universities, libraries, and museums. Discusses networking and…

  1. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, R.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1994-01-18

    An apparatus is described for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy. 6 figures.

  2. Engage, Enhance, and Extend Learning!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Kolb, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Educators often say that technology is more than a gimmick or add-on, and that it should engage, enhance, or extend learning in ways that traditional tools do not. Yet they seldom stop to define these terms, and they can be confusing, especially for teachers and preservice teachers. Recently, while collaborating on an English language arts and…

  3. Wind-Eroded Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    5 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust-mantled, wind-eroded landscape in the Medusae Sulci region of Mars. Wind eroded the bedrock in this region, and then, later, windblown dust covered much of the terrain.

    Location near: 5.7oS, 160.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  4. Wind Erosion in Aeolis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    09 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the effects of severe wind erosion of layered sedimentary rock in the Aeolis region of Mars. The sharp ridges formed by wind movement from the lower left (southwest) toward top/upper right (northeast) are known as yardangs. The dark patches in the lower half of the image are sand dunes. This scene is located near 5.0oS, 203.7oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the terrain from the left/upper left.

  5. Wind power machine

    SciTech Connect

    Denehi, D.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes wind powered apparatus for producing electricity. It comprises: an endless chain trained over and movable in a continuous path about two substantially spaced-apart sprockets, a plurality of sails fixedly attached to the chain, guide means positioned adjacent the chain and operable, a rotary electrical generator; means connecting at least one of the sprockets to the generator to rotate the latter in response to movement of the chain by wind acting upon the sail flaps when in the first, open position thereof.

  6. Flank solar wind interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Stewart L.; Greenstadt, Eugene W.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first 12 months of our program to study the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind on the far flanks of the bow shock. This study employs data from the ISEE-3 spacecraft during its traversals of the Earth's magnetotail and correlative data from spacecraft monitoring the solar wind upstream. Our main effort to date has involved assembling data sets and developing new plotting programs. Two talks were given at the Spring Meeting of the American Geophysical Union describing our initial results from analyzing data from the far flank foreshock and magnetosheath. The following sections summarize our results.

  7. Instrumentation in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takashima, K.

    1986-01-01

    Requirements in designing instrumentation systems and measurements of various physical quantities in wind tunnels are surveyed. Emphasis is given to sensors used for measuring pressure, temperature, and angle, and the measurements of air turbulence and boundary layers. Instrumentation in wind tunnels require accuracy, fast response, diversity and operational simplicity. Measurements of force, pressure, attitude angle, free flow, pressure distribution, and temperature are illustrated by a table, and a block diagram. The LDV (laser Doppler velocimeter) method for measuring air turbulence and flow velocity and measurement of skin friction and flow fields using laser holograms are discussed. The future potential of these techniques is studied.

  8. Electrodynamics, wind and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    This RTOP provides for correlative meteorological wind and temperature measurements with atmospheric electrodynamic measurements. Meteorological rocketsondes were launched as part of a number of electrodynamic investigations in Alaska, Norway, Peru, Sweden, and at the Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia. Measurements obtained as part of the MAC/Epsilon campaign during October 1987 from Andoya, Norway, were in conjunction with electric field, ion mobility, conductivity, and energy deposition studies. The measurements obtained between 30 and 90 km are to evaluate and correlate changes in the atmospheric electrical structure caused by the neutral wind and temperature, or changes in the neutral atmosphere resulting from electrical anomalies.

  9. Wind Tails Near Chimp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the rock 'Chimp' was taken by the Sojourner rover's right front camera on Sol 72 (September 15). Fine-scale texture on Chimp and other rocks is clearly visible. Wind tails, oriented from lower right to upper left, are seen next to small pebbles in the foreground. These were most likely produced by wind action.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  10. Wind Turbine Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thresher, R. W. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in the analysis and prediction of the dynamic behavior of wind turbine generators is discussed. The following areas were addressed: (1) the adequacy of state of the art analysis tools for designing the next generation of wind power systems; (2) the use of state of the art analysis tools designers; and (3) verifications of theory which might be lacking or inadequate. Summaries of these informative discussions as well as the questions and answers which followed each paper are documented in the proceedings.

  11. Advancing Test Capabilities at NASA Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA maintains twelve major wind tunnels at three field centers capable of providing flows at 0.1 M 10 and unit Reynolds numbers up to 45106m. The maintenance and enhancement of these facilities is handled through a unified management structure under NASAs Aeronautics and Evaluation and Test Capability (AETC) project. The AETC facilities are; the 11x11 transonic and 9x7 supersonic wind tunnels at NASA Ames; the 10x10 and 8x6 supersonic wind tunnels, 9x15 low speed tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, and Propulsion Simulator Laboratory, all at NASA Glenn; and the National Transonic Facility, Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, LAL aerothermodynamics laboratory, 8 High Temperature Tunnel, and 14x22 low speed tunnel, all at NASA Langley. This presentation describes the primary AETC facilities and their current capabilities, as well as improvements which are planned over the next five years. These improvements fall into three categories. The first are operations and maintenance improvements designed to increase the efficiency and reliability of the wind tunnels. These include new (possibly composite) fan blades at several facilities, new temperature control systems, and new and much more capable facility data systems. The second category of improvements are facility capability advancements. These include significant improvements to optical access in wind tunnel test sections at Ames, improvements to test section acoustics at Glenn and Langley, the development of a Supercooled Large Droplet capability for icing research, and the development of an icing capability for large engine testing. The final category of improvements consists of test technology enhancements which provide value across multiple facilities. These include projects to increase balance accuracy, provide NIST-traceable calibration characterization for wind tunnels, and to advance optical instruments for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation. Taken as a whole, these individual projects provide significant

  12. Wind Technology Advancements and Impacts on Western Wind Resources (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-09-01

    Robi Robichaud made this presentation at the Bureau of Land Management West-wide Wind Opportunities and Constraints Mapping (WWOCM) Project public meeting in Denver, Colorado in September 2014. This presentation outlines recent wind technology advancements, evolving turbine technologies, and industry challenges. The presentation includes maps of mean wind speeds at 50-m, 80-m, and 100-m hub heights on BLM lands. Robichaud also presented on the difference in mean wind speeds from 80m to 100m in Wyoming.

  13. Wind Forcing of the Pacific Ocean Using Scatterometer Wind Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Kathryn A.

    1999-01-01

    The long-term objective of this research was an understanding of the wind-forced ocean circulation, particularly for the Pacific Ocean. To determine the ocean's response to the winds, we first needed to generate accurate maps of wind stress. For the ocean's response to wind stress we examined the sea surface height (SSH) both from altimeters and from numerical models for the Pacific Ocean.

  14. Wind motor applications for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Lysenko, G.P.; Grigoriev, B.V.; Karpin, K.B.

    1996-12-31

    Motion equation for a vehicle equipped with a wind motor allows, taking into account the drag coefficients, to determine the optimal wind drag velocity in the wind motor`s plane, and hence, obtain all the necessary data for the wind wheel blades geometrical parameters definition. This optimal drag velocity significantly differs from the flow drag velocity which determines the maximum wind motor power. Solution of the motion equation with low drag coefficients indicates that the vehicle speed against the wind may be twice as the wind speed. One of possible transportation wind motor applications is its use on various ships. A ship with such a wind motor may be substantially easier to steer, and if certain devices are available, may proceed in autonomous control mode. Besides, it is capable of moving within narrow fairways. The cruise speed of a sailing boat and wind-motored ship were compared provided that the wind velocity direction changes along a harmonic law with regard to the motion direction. Mean dimensionless speed of the wind-motored ship appears to be by 20--25% higher than that of a sailing boat. There was analyzed a possibility of using the wind motors on planet rovers in Mars or Venus atmospheric conditions. A Mars rover power and motor system has been assessed for the power level of 3 kW.

  15. Channel Access in Erlang

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  16. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  17. Northerly surface winds over the eastern North Pacific Ocean in spring and summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, S.V.; Cayan, D.R.; Graham, N.E.; Georgakakos, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent spring and summer northerly surface winds are the defining climatological feature of the western coast of North America, especially south of the Oregon coast. Northerly surface winds are important for upwelling and a vast array of other biological, oceanic, and atmospheric processes. Intermittence in northerly coastal surface wind is characterized and wind events are quantitatively defined using coastal buoy data south of Cape Mendocino on the northern California coast. The defined wind events are then used as a basis for composites in order to explain the spatial evolution of various atmospheric and oceanic processes. Wind events involve large-scale changes in the three-dimensional atmospheric circulation including the eastern North Pacific subtropical anticyclone and southeast trade winds. Composites of QSCAT satellite scatterometer wind estimates from 1999 to 2005 based on a single coastal buoy indicate that wind events typically last 72-96 h and result in anomalies in surface wind and Ekman pumping that extend over 1000 kin from the west coast of North America. It may be useful to consider ocean circulation and dependent ecosystem dynamics and the distribution of temperature, moisture, and aerosols in the atmospheric boundary layer in the context of wind events defined herein. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Wind Turbine Wake Variability in a Large Wind Farm, Observed by Scanning Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Xiaoxia, G.; Aitken, M.; Quelet, P. T.; Rana, J.; Rhodes, M. E.; St Martin, C. M.; Tay, K.; Worsnop, R.; Irvin, S.; Rajewski, D. A.; Takle, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Although wind turbine wake modeling is critical for accurate wind resource assessment, operational forecasting, and wind plant optimization, verification of such simulations is currently constrained by sparse datasets taken in limited atmospheric conditions, often of single turbines in isolation. To address this knowledge gap, our team deployed a WINDCUBE 200S scanning lidar in a 300-MW operating wind farm as part of the CWEX-13 field experiment. The lidar was deployed ~2000 m from a row of four turbines, such that wakes from multiple turbines could be sampled with horizontal scans. Twenty minutes of every hour were devoted to horizontal scans at ½ degree resolution at six different elevation angles. Twenty-five days of data were collected, with wind speeds at hub height ranging from quiescent to 14 m/s, and atmospheric stability varying from unstable to strongly stable. The example scan in Fig. 1a shows wakes from a row of four turbines propagating to the northwest. This extensive wake dataset is analyzed based on the quantitative approach of Aitken et al. (J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 2014), who developed an automated wake detection algorithm to characterize wind turbine wakes from scanning lidar data. We have extended the Aitken et al. (2014) method to consider multiple turbines in a single scan in order to classify the large numbers of wakes observed in the CWEX-13 dataset (Fig. 1b) during southerly flow conditions. The presentation will explore the variability of wake characteristics such as the velocity deficit and the wake width. These characteristics vary with atmospheric stability, atmospheric turbulence, and inflow wind speed. We find that the strongest and most persistent wakes occur at low to moderate wind speeds (region 2 of the turbine power curve) in stable conditions. We also present evidence that, in stable conditions with strong changes of wind direction with height, wakes propagate in different directions at different elevations above the surface

  19. 77 FR 40608 - Notice of Petition for Enforcement and Declaratory Order; Exelon Wind 1, LLC; Exelon Wind 2, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Petition for Enforcement and Declaratory Order; Exelon Wind 1, LLC; Exelon Wind 2, LLC; Exelon Wind 3, LLC; Exelon Wind 4, LLC; Exelon Wind 5, LLC; Exelon Wind 6, LLC; Exelon Wind 7, LLC; Exelon Wind 8, LLC; Exelon Wind 9, LLC; Exelon Wind 10, LLC; Exelon Wind 11,...

  20. Blowing in the Wind: A Review of Wind Power Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The use of wind as a replenishable energy resource has come back into favour in recent decades. It is much promoted as a viable, clean energy option that will help towards reducing CO[subscript 2] emissions in the UK. This article examines the history of wind power and considers the development of wind turbines, together with their economic,…