Science.gov

Sample records for access full functionality

  1. Facilitating Full-text Access to Biomedical Literature Using Open Access Resources.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongyu; Hou, Zhen; Li, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Open access (OA) resources and local libraries often have their own literature databases, especially in the field of biomedicine. We have developed a method of linking a local library to a biomedical OA resource facilitating researchers' full-text article access. The method uses a model based on vector space to measure similarities between two articles in local library and OA resources. The method achieved an F-score of 99.61%. This method of article linkage and mapping between local library and OA resources is available for use. Through this work, we have improved the full-text access of the biomedical OA resources. PMID:26262422

  2. Minimal full-access networks: Enumeration and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, M. A.; Raghavendra, C. S.

    1990-08-01

    Minimal full-access (MFA) networks are the class of all interconnection networks for 2N = 2n+1 inputs and outputs that require a minimum number of switching elements and provide full access capability. In this paper, MFA networks with 2 × 2 switching elements are studied. Graph-theoretic ideas used in developing previous results concerning uniform MFA networks [M. A. Sridhar and C. S. Raghavendra, J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 5, (1988), 383-403] are generalized to show how to enumerate a large class of MFA networks. An exponential lower bound on the number of such networks is derived, and routing algorithms are outlined. In the process, a characterization of the set of automorphisms of the Omega network is derived. A characterization of the permutations realizable by a certain subclass of these networks is also derived. Finally, it is shown that a simple self-routing algorithm exists for the class of networks introduced here. This author's research is supported in part by NSF Grant MIP 8452003 with matching funds from AT&T and TRW, DARPA/ARO Contract DAAG 29-84-K-0066, and ONR Contract N00014-86-K-0602.

  3. Full Waveform Inversion with Optimal Basis Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gang; Chang, Qianshun; Sheng, Ping

    2003-03-01

    Based on the approach suggested by Tarantola, and Gauthier etal., we show that the alternate use of the step (linear) function basis and the block function (quasi-δ function) basis can give accurate full waveform inversion results for the layered acoustic systems, starting from a uniform background. Our method is robust against additive white noise (up to 20% of the signal) and can resolve layers that are comparable to or smaller than a wavelength in thickness. The physical reason for the success of our approach is illustrated through a simple example.

  4. Wider Access and Progression among Full-Time Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Muir; Knox, Hazel; Rimmer, Russell

    2007-01-01

    By 2010 the UK government intends to widen access and provide experience of higher education to half of those aged up to 30. Unlike many institutions, University of Paisley (UP) has exceeded its individual target on access. It has done this by providing entry routes for students with "non-traditional" qualifications. It is feared that low entry…

  5. Accessibility: Maximum Mobility and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyser, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to design school and university labs to comply with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) standards, focusing on counter height for students in wheelchairs; appropriate knee space and sink height in sink areas; ADA-compliant fume hoods; accessible laboratory doors and entryways; and safety concerns (e.g., emergency eyewash stations…

  6. Modeling the efficient access of full-text information

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, M.; Kero, R.; Korp, P.; McCusker-Whiting, M.; Tsur, S.; Dunlap, K.; Johnson, L.

    1996-05-01

    The title of this paper describes a research goal set by many offices within US DOE. This paper reviews efficient full-text searching techniques being developed to better understand and meet this goal. Classical computer human interaction (CHI) approaches provided by commercial information retrieval (IR) engines fail to contextualize information in ways that facilitate timely decision making. Use of advanced CHI techniques (eg, visualization) in combination with deductive database technology augment the weaknesses found in presentation capabilities of IR engines and are discussed. Various techniques employed in a Web-based prototype system currently under development are presented.

  7. Full-Text Linking: Affiliated versus Nonaffiliated Access in a Free Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogg, Jill E.; Andreadis, Debra K.; Kirk, Rachel A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a comparison of access to full-text articles from a free bibliographic database (PubSCIENCE) for affiliated and unaffiliated users. Found that affiliated users had access to more full-text articles than unaffiliated users had, and that both types of users could increase their level of access through additional searching and greater…

  8. Ratioless full-complementary 12-transistor static random access memory for ultra low supply voltage operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Hiromasa; Hoketsu, Satoko; Imi, Hitoshi; Okamura, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a ratioless full-complementary 12-transistor static random access memory (SRAM) was developed and measured to evaluate its operation under an ultra low supply voltage range. The ratioless SRAM design concept enables a memory cell design that is free from the consideration of the static noise margin (SNM). Furthermore, it enables a SRAM function without the restriction of transistor parameter (W/L) settings and the dependence on the variability of device characteristics. The test chips that include both conventional 6-transistor SRAM cells and the ratioless full-complementary 12-transistor SRAM cells were developed by a 180 nm CMOS process to compare their stable operations under an ultralow supply voltage condition. The measured results show that the ratioless full-complementary 12-transistor SRAM has superior immunity to device variability, and its inherent operating ability at the supply voltage of 0.22 V was experimentally confirmed.

  9. What Is the Impact of Full Access to Technology on the Achievement of the Hispanic Student?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, John E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The problem studied in this research was whether the impact of full access to technology both at home and in school would affect the achievement of Hispanic students. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the access to technology and the achievement of the Hispanic students at a suburban middle school. What are the…

  10. Modular properties of full 5D SYM partition function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jian; Tizzano, Luigi; Winding, Jacob; Zabzine, Maxim

    2016-03-01

    We study properties of the full partition function for the U(1) 5D N = {2}^{ast } gauge theory with adjoint hypermultiplet of mass M . This theory is ultimately related to abelian 6D (2,0) theory. We construct the full non-perturbative partition function on toric Sasaki-Einstein manifolds by gluing flat copies of the Nekrasov partition function and we express the full partition function in terms of the generalized double elliptic gamma function G 2 C associated with a certain moment map cone C. The answer exhibits a curious SL(4 , ℤ) modular property. Finally, we propose a set of rules to construct the partition function that resembles the calculation of 5d supersymmetric partition function with the insert ion of defects of various co-dimensions.

  11. Mead Data Central's MEDIS: medical information access in full-text.

    PubMed

    Albright, R G

    1989-01-01

    Electronic information access is an imperative skill for the modern health professional. Mead Data Central's MEDIS overcomes the limitations of "abstract-only" information networks and provides rapid access to a large collection of full-text medical information. With its proprietary communications software, Mead can display citations in a paged format with on-screen highlighting (in "reverse video") of search terms as they appear in documents. Users can move through the electronic pages as easily as they would thumb through a journal or book. A practice section on MEDIS is billed only for connect charges for using, and a unique on-line tutorial, which, while not specific for MEDIS, introduces users to searching the Mead system. Training is available to subscribers in several major cities and training software is available. MEDIS is a unique resource to access medical literature in full-text quickly and efficiently. PMID:10303627

  12. Functional Traits for Carbon Access in Macrophytes

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Catherine A.; Wootton, J. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding functional trait distributions among organisms can inform impacts on and responses to environmental change. In marine systems, only 1% of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater exists as CO2. Thus the majority of marine macrophytes not only passively access CO2 for photosynthesis, but also actively transport CO2 and the more common bicarbonate (HCO3-, 92% of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon) into their cells. Because species with these carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are non-randomly distributed in ecosystems, we ask whether there is a phylogenetic pattern to the distribution of CCMs among algal species. To determine macrophyte traits that influence carbon uptake, we assessed 40 common macrophyte species from the rocky intertidal community of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to a) query whether macrophytes have a CCM and b) determine the evolutionary history of CCMs, using ancestral state reconstructions and stochastic character mapping based on previously published data. Thirty-two species not only depleted CO2, but also concentrated and depleted HCO3-, indicative of a CCM. While analysis of CCMs as a continuous trait in 30 families within Phylum Rhodophyta showed a significant phylogenetic signal under a Brownian motion model, analysis of CCMs as a discrete trait (presence or absence) indicated that red algal families are more divergent than expected in their CCM presence or absence; CCMs are a labile trait within the Rhodophyta. In contrast, CCMs were present in each of 18 Ochrophyta families surveyed, indicating that CCMs are highly conserved in the brown algae. The trait of CCM presence or absence was largely conserved within Families. Fifteen of 23 species tested also changed the seawater buffering capacity, or Total Alkalinity (TA), shifting DIC composition towards increasing concentrations of HCO3- and CO2 for photosynthesis. Manipulating the external TA of the local environment may influence carbon availability in boundary layers and

  13. Functional Traits for Carbon Access in Macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Courtney C; Pfister, Catherine A; Wootton, J Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding functional trait distributions among organisms can inform impacts on and responses to environmental change. In marine systems, only 1% of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater exists as CO2. Thus the majority of marine macrophytes not only passively access CO2 for photosynthesis, but also actively transport CO2 and the more common bicarbonate (HCO3-, 92% of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon) into their cells. Because species with these carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are non-randomly distributed in ecosystems, we ask whether there is a phylogenetic pattern to the distribution of CCMs among algal species. To determine macrophyte traits that influence carbon uptake, we assessed 40 common macrophyte species from the rocky intertidal community of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to a) query whether macrophytes have a CCM and b) determine the evolutionary history of CCMs, using ancestral state reconstructions and stochastic character mapping based on previously published data. Thirty-two species not only depleted CO2, but also concentrated and depleted HCO3-, indicative of a CCM. While analysis of CCMs as a continuous trait in 30 families within Phylum Rhodophyta showed a significant phylogenetic signal under a Brownian motion model, analysis of CCMs as a discrete trait (presence or absence) indicated that red algal families are more divergent than expected in their CCM presence or absence; CCMs are a labile trait within the Rhodophyta. In contrast, CCMs were present in each of 18 Ochrophyta families surveyed, indicating that CCMs are highly conserved in the brown algae. The trait of CCM presence or absence was largely conserved within Families. Fifteen of 23 species tested also changed the seawater buffering capacity, or Total Alkalinity (TA), shifting DIC composition towards increasing concentrations of HCO3- and CO2 for photosynthesis. Manipulating the external TA of the local environment may influence carbon availability in boundary layers and

  14. Numerical Methodology For Full-Body TPS Sizing And Optimization For Access-To-Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Henline, William D.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents details of the methodology and numerical procedures developed at NASA Ames for full-body TEXAS sizing and optimization for Access to Space vehicle concepts. The core of the procedures is a robust implicit solver for one dimensional transient heat conduction in reusable multilayer TEXAS stackups. The solver includes an arbitrary number of material layers, contact resistances between materials, temperature and pressure dependent material and surface properties, numerous boundary-condition options, and self-adaptive time stepping. The solver is coupled with the Access-to-Space material database of 23 candidate TPS and structural materials and a thermal-environment database obtained from trajectory-based fullbody Navier-Stokes computations of the external flowfield. The thermal environment and material response are coupled through the use of T-type heat transfer coefficients. TIPS sizing and weight optimization are performed at every surface point on the vehicle based on sizing constraints which include material temperature limits, maximum backwall temperature, and cumulative interior heat flux. Typical results are presented for a lifting body concept with 10000 surface points, which required 35 minutes to compute on an SGI Indigo 2.

  15. Accessing FMS Functionality: The Impact of Design on Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, Karl; Sherry, Lance; Roberts, Ralph, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In modern commercial and military aircraft, the Flight Management System (FMS) lies at the heart of the functionality of the airplane. The nature of the FMS has also caused great difficulties learning and accessing this functionality. This study examines actual Air Force pilots who were qualified on the newly introduced advanced FMS and shows that the design of the system itself is a primary source of difficulty learning the system. Twenty representative tasks were selected which the pilots could be expected to accomplish on an ' actual flight. These tasks were analyzed using the RAFIV stage model (Sherry, Polson, et al. 2002). This analysis demonstrates that a great burden is placed on remembering complex reformulation of the task to function mapping. 65% of the tasks required retaining one access steps in memory to accomplish the task, 20% required two memorized access steps, and 15% required zero memorized access steps. The probability that a participant would make an access error on the tasks was: two memorized access steps - 74%, one memorized access step - 13%, and zero memorized access steps - 6%. Other factors were analyzed as well, including experience with the system and frequency of use. This completed the picture of a system with many memorized steps causing difficulty with the new system, especially when trying to fine where to access the correct function.

  16. Full Computer Access for People with Disabilities: The Goal of Transparency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffel, Debora L.; Agnew, Jo

    This paper examines the goal of providing transparent computer access to people with disabilities, especially those with visual impairments. First, four basic strategies to provide this population with access to technology are identified: (1) building features into the computer, operating system, or application programs; (2) using adaptive…

  17. Providing public standardized data access function: Lessons learned from accessing USGS Landsat archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, X.; Bai, Y.; Di, L.; Nebert, D.

    2009-01-01

    The geospatial community is experiencing a shift from having data locally to sharing them over the Web. However, not all the data accessing systems are built in compliance with open geospatial standards and thus are weak in terms of interoperability. The USGS Landsat data are now available through free electronic access though not yet through standard Web service interfaces. This paper intends to discuss the experience and lessons learned from integrating a public data access function to the USGS Landsat data archive into a geospatial workflow environment. Currently available systems and their problems, proposed solutions and application scenarios are discussed.

  18. Functional cardiac imaging by random access microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Crocini, Claudia; Coppini, Raffaele; Ferrantini, Cecilia; Pavone, Francesco S.; Sacconi, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the development of voltage sensitive dyes and Ca2+ sensors in combination with innovative microscopy techniques allowed researchers to perform functional measurements with an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. At the moment, one of the shortcomings of available technologies is their incapability of imaging multiple fast phenomena while controlling the biological determinants involved. In the near future, ultrafast deflectors can be used to rapidly scan laser beams across the sample, performing optical measurements of action potential and Ca2+ release from multiple sites within cardiac cells and tissues. The same scanning modality could also be used to control local Ca2+ release and membrane electrical activity by activation of caged compounds and light-gated ion channels. With this approach, local Ca2+ or voltage perturbations could be induced, simulating arrhythmogenic events, and their impact on physiological cell activity could be explored. The development of this optical methodology will provide fundamental insights in cardiac disease, boosting new therapeutic strategies, and, more generally, it will represent a new approach for the investigation of the physiology of excitable cells. PMID:25368580

  19. NCBI2RDF: Enabling Full RDF-Based Access to NCBI Databases

    PubMed Central

    Anguita, Alberto; García-Remesal, Miguel; de la Iglesia, Diana; Maojo, Victor

    2013-01-01

    RDF has become the standard technology for enabling interoperability among heterogeneous biomedical databases. The NCBI provides access to a large set of life sciences databases through a common interface called Entrez. However, the latter does not provide RDF-based access to such databases, and, therefore, they cannot be integrated with other RDF-compliant databases and accessed via SPARQL query interfaces. This paper presents the NCBI2RDF system, aimed at providing RDF-based access to the complete NCBI data repository. This API creates a virtual endpoint for servicing SPARQL queries over different NCBI repositories and presenting to users the query results in SPARQL results format, thus enabling this data to be integrated and/or stored with other RDF-compliant repositories. SPARQL queries are dynamically resolved, decomposed, and forwarded to the NCBI-provided E-utilities programmatic interface to access the NCBI data. Furthermore, we show how our approach increases the expressiveness of the native NCBI querying system, allowing several databases to be accessed simultaneously. This feature significantly boosts productivity when working with complex queries and saves time and effort to biomedical researchers. Our approach has been validated with a large number of SPARQL queries, thus proving its reliability and enhanced capabilities in biomedical environments. PMID:23984425

  20. Full waveform inversion with an auxiliary bump functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, Pawan; Mulder, Wim; Drijkoningen, Guy

    2016-08-01

    Least-squares inversion of seismic arrivals can provide remarkably detailed models of the Earth's subsurface. However, cycle skipping associated with these oscillatory arrivals is the main cause for local minima in the least-squares objective function. Therefore, it is often difficult for descent methods to converge to the solution without an accurate initial large-scale velocity estimate. The low frequencies in the arrivals, needed to update the large-scale components in the velocity model, are usually unreliable or absent. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a multi-objective inversion scheme that uses the conventional least-squares functional along with an auxiliary data-domain objective. As the auxiliary objective effectively replaces the seismic arrivals by bumps, we call it the bump functional. The bump functional minimization can be made far less sensitive to cycle skipping and can deal with multiple arrivals in the data. However, it can only be used as an auxiliary objective since it usually does not provide a unique model after minimization even when the regularized-least-squares functional has a unique global minimum and hence a unique solution. The role of the bump functional during the multi-objective inversion is to guide the optimization towards the global minimum by pulling the trapped solution out of the local minima associated with the least-squares functional whenever necessary. The computational complexity of the bump functional is equivalent to that of the least-squares functional. In this paper, we describe various characteristics of the bump functional using simple and illustrative numerical examples. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed multi-objective inversion scheme by considering more realistic examples. These include synthetic and field data from a cross-well experiment, surface-seismic synthetic data with reflections and synthetic data with refracted arrivals at long offsets.

  1. Full waveform inversion with an auxiliary bump functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, Pawan; Mulder, Wim; Drijkoningen, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Least-squares inversion of seismic arrivals can provide remarkably detailed models of the Earth's subsurface. However, cycle skipping associated with these oscillatory arrivals is the main cause for local minima in the least-squares objective function. Therefore, it is often difficult for descent methods to converge to the solution without an accurate initial large-scale velocity estimate. The low frequencies in the arrivals, needed to update the large-scale components in the velocity model, are usually unreliable or absent. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a multi-objective inversion scheme that uses the conventional least-squares functional along with an auxiliary data-domain objective. As the auxiliary objective effectively replaces the seismic arrivals by bumps, we call it the bump functional. The bump functional minimization can be made far less sensitive to cycle skipping and can deal with multiple arrivals in the data. However, it can only be used as an auxiliary objective since it usually does not provide a unique model after minimization The role of the bump functional during the multi-objective inversion is to guide the optimization towards the global minimum by pulling the trapped solution out of the local minima associated with the least-squares functional whenever necessary. The computational complexity of the bump functional is equivalent to that of the least-squares functional. In this paper, we describe various characteristics of the bump functional using simple and illustrative numerical examples. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed multi-objective inversion scheme by considering more realistic examples. These include synthetic and field data from a cross-well experiment, surface-seismic synthetic data with reflections and synthetic data with refracted arrivals at long offsets.

  2. A Multivariate Granger Causality Concept towards Full Brain Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Schmid-Hertel, Nicole; Witte, Herbert; Wismüller, Axel; Leistritz, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Detecting changes of spatially high-resolution functional connectivity patterns in the brain is crucial for improving the fundamental understanding of brain function in both health and disease, yet still poses one of the biggest challenges in computational neuroscience. Currently, classical multivariate Granger Causality analyses of directed interactions between single process components in coupled systems are commonly restricted to spatially low- dimensional data, which requires a pre-selection or aggregation of time series as a preprocessing step. In this paper we propose a new fully multivariate Granger Causality approach with embedded dimension reduction that makes it possible to obtain a representation of functional connectivity for spatially high-dimensional data. The resulting functional connectivity networks may consist of several thousand vertices and thus contain more detailed information compared to connectivity networks obtained from approaches based on particular regions of interest. Our large scale Granger Causality approach is applied to synthetic and resting state fMRI data with a focus on how well network community structure, which represents a functional segmentation of the network, is preserved. It is demonstrated that a number of different community detection algorithms, which utilize a variety of algorithmic strategies and exploit topological features differently, reveal meaningful information on the underlying network module structure. PMID:27064897

  3. The urban underserved: Attitudes toward gaining full access to electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Walker, Jan; Reisch, Lisa; Oster, Natalia; Delbanco, Thomas; Elmore, Joann

    2012-01-01

    Background As the use of electronic medical records (EMRs) spreads, health care organizations are increasingly offering patients online access to their medical records. Studies evaluating patient attitudes toward viewing elements of their records through secure, electronic patient portals have generally not included medically underserved patients or those with HIV/AIDS. The goal of this study was to gain insight into such patients’ attitudes toward online access to their medical records, including their doctors’ visit notes. Methods Qualitative study of four focus groups with adult patients in general adult medicine and HIV clinics at a large county hospital. Transcripts were analyzed for themes using an immersion/crystallization approach. Results Patients’ baseline understanding of the health record was limited. Perceived benefits of online access were improved patient understanding of health and disease, convenience, empowerment, and a stronger relationship with their provider. Concerns included threats to privacy, worries about being unable to understand their record, fear that the computer would replace direct provider contact, and hesitancy about potential demands on a provider’s time. Patients also recommended providing online visit reminders, links to credible health information, and assistance for paying bills. Conclusion Despite their initial lack of knowledge of the health record, focus group participants were overwhelmingly positive about the prospect of online access to medical records. However, they worried about potential loss of privacy and interference with the patient-provider relationship. As EMRs increasingly offer patients open access to their medical records, vulnerable patient groups will likely join others in desiring and adopting such change, but may need targeted support during times of transition. PMID:22738155

  4. Using Operational Analysis to Improve Access to Pulmonary Function Testing.

    PubMed

    Ip, Ada; Asamoah-Barnieh, Raymond; Bischak, Diane P; Davidson, Warren J; Flemons, W Ward; Pendharkar, Sachin R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Timely pulmonary function testing is crucial to improving diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Perceptions of poor access at an academic pulmonary function laboratory prompted analysis of system demand and capacity to identify factors contributing to poor access. Methods. Surveys and interviews identified stakeholder perspectives on operational processes and access challenges. Retrospective data on testing demand and resource capacity was analyzed to understand utilization of testing resources. Results. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that stakeholder groups had discrepant views on access and capacity in the laboratory. Mean daily resource utilization was 0.64 (SD 0.15), with monthly average utilization consistently less than 0.75. Reserved testing slots for subspecialty clinics were poorly utilized, leaving many testing slots unfilled. When subspecialty demand exceeded number of reserved slots, there was sufficient capacity in the pulmonary function schedule to accommodate added demand. Findings were shared with stakeholders and influenced scheduling process improvements. Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of operational data to identify causes of poor access, guide system decision-making, and determine effects of improvement initiatives in a variety of healthcare settings. Importantly, simple operational analysis can help to improve efficiency of health systems with little or no added financial investment. PMID:27445545

  5. Using Operational Analysis to Improve Access to Pulmonary Function Testing

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Ada; Asamoah-Barnieh, Raymond; Bischak, Diane P.; Davidson, Warren J.; Flemons, W. Ward; Pendharkar, Sachin R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Timely pulmonary function testing is crucial to improving diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Perceptions of poor access at an academic pulmonary function laboratory prompted analysis of system demand and capacity to identify factors contributing to poor access. Methods. Surveys and interviews identified stakeholder perspectives on operational processes and access challenges. Retrospective data on testing demand and resource capacity was analyzed to understand utilization of testing resources. Results. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that stakeholder groups had discrepant views on access and capacity in the laboratory. Mean daily resource utilization was 0.64 (SD 0.15), with monthly average utilization consistently less than 0.75. Reserved testing slots for subspecialty clinics were poorly utilized, leaving many testing slots unfilled. When subspecialty demand exceeded number of reserved slots, there was sufficient capacity in the pulmonary function schedule to accommodate added demand. Findings were shared with stakeholders and influenced scheduling process improvements. Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of operational data to identify causes of poor access, guide system decision-making, and determine effects of improvement initiatives in a variety of healthcare settings. Importantly, simple operational analysis can help to improve efficiency of health systems with little or no added financial investment. PMID:27445545

  6. Improving e-book access via a library-developed full-text search tool*

    PubMed Central

    Foust, Jill E.; Bergen, Phillip; Maxeiner, Gretchen L.; Pawlowski, Peter N.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on the development of a tool for searching the contents of licensed full-text electronic book (e-book) collections. Setting: The Health Sciences Library System (HSLS) provides services to the University of Pittsburgh's medical programs and large academic health system. Brief Description: The HSLS has developed an innovative tool for federated searching of its e-book collections. Built using the XML-based Vivísimo development environment, the tool enables a user to perform a full-text search of over 2,500 titles from the library's seven most highly used e-book collections. From a single “Google-style” query, results are returned as an integrated set of links pointing directly to relevant sections of the full text. Results are also grouped into categories that enable more precise retrieval without reformulation of the search. Results/Evaluation: A heuristic evaluation demonstrated the usability of the tool and a web server log analysis indicated an acceptable level of usage. Based on its success, there are plans to increase the number of online book collections searched. Conclusion: This library's first foray into federated searching has produced an effective tool for searching across large collections of full-text e-books and has provided a good foundation for the development of other library-based federated searching products. PMID:17252065

  7. Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/accessibility.html MedlinePlus Accessibility To use the sharing features on this page, ... Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs ...

  8. Desktop Access to Full-Text NACA and NASA Reports: Systems Developed by NASA Langley Technical Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Manjula Y.; Adams, David L.; Trinidad, P. Paul

    1997-01-01

    NASA Langley Technical Library has been involved in developing systems for full-text information delivery of NACA/NASA technical reports since 1991. This paper will describe the two prototypes it has developed and the present production system configuration. The prototype systems are a NACA CD-ROM of thirty-three classic paper NACA reports and a network-based Full-text Electronic Reports Documents System (FEDS) constructed from both paper and electronic formats of NACA and NASA reports. The production system is the DigiDoc System (DIGItal Documents) presently being developed based on the experiences gained from the two prototypes. DigiDoc configuration integrates the on-line catalog database World Wide Web interface and PDF technology to provide a powerful and flexible search and retrieval system. It describes in detail significant achievements and lessons learned in terms of data conversion, storage technologies, full-text searching and retrieval, and image databases. The conclusions from the experiences of digitization and full- text access and future plans for DigiDoc system implementation are discussed.

  9. Development of microgravity, full body functional reach envelope using 3-D computer graphic models and virtual reality technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Patricia F.

    1994-01-01

    In microgravity conditions mobility is greatly enhanced and body stability is difficult to achieve. Because of these difficulties, optimum placement and accessibility of objects and controls can be critical to required tasks on board shuttle flights or on the proposed space station. Anthropometric measurement of the maximum reach of occupants of a microgravity environment provide knowledge about maximum functional placement for tasking situations. Calculations for a full body, functional reach envelope for microgravity environments are imperative. To this end, three dimensional computer modeled human figures, providing a method of anthropometric measurement, were used to locate the data points that define the full body, functional reach envelope. Virtual reality technology was utilized to enable an occupant of the microgravity environment to experience movement within the reach envelope while immersed in a simulated microgravity environment.

  10. Hemodynamic responses to functional activation accessed by optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Songlin; Li, Pengcheng; Yang, Yuanyuan; Lv, Xiaohua; Luo, Qingming

    2006-01-01

    A multi-wavelength light-emitting diode (LED) and laser diode (LD) based optical imaging system was developed to visualize the changes in cerebral blood flow, oxygenation following functional activation simultaneously in rodent cortex. The 2-D blood flow image was accessed by laser speckle contrast imaging, and the spectroscopic imaging of intrinsic signal was used for the calculation of oxyhemoglobin (HbO), deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) and total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration. The combination of spectroscopic imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging provides the capability to simultaneously investigate the spatial and temporal blood flow and hemoglobin concentration changes with high resolution, which may lead to a better understanding of the coupling between neuronal activation and vascular responses. The optical imaging system been built is compact and convenient to investigators. And it is reliable to acquire raw data. In present study, the hemodynamic responses to cortical spreading depression (CSD) in parietal cortex of ~-chloralose/urethan anesthetized rats were demonstrated.

  11. Internet Access and Use of the Web for Instruction: A National Study of Full-Time and Part-Time Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akroyd, Duane; Jaeger, Audrey; Jackowski, Melissa; Jones, Logan C.

    2004-01-01

    This research explored the issues of access to the internet and use of the web for instructional purposes between full-time and part-time community college faculty. The findings that 40% of part-time faculty do not have Internet access at work would seem to indicate that part-time faculty are poorly integrated into the technology infrastructure of…

  12. Testing a full-range soil-water retention function in modeling water potential and temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andraski, B.J.; Jacobson, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent work has emphasized development of full-range water-retention functions that are applicable under both wet and dry soil conditions, but evaluation of such functions in numerical modeling has been limited. Here we show that simulations using the Rossi-Nimmo (RN) full-range function compared favorably with those using the common Brooks-Corey function and that the RN function can improve prediction of water potentials in near-surface soil, particularly under dry conditions. Simulations using the RN function also improved prediction of temperatures throughout the soil profile. Such improvements could be important for calculations of liquid and vapor flow in near-surface soils and in deep unsaturated zones of arid and semiarid regions.

  13. 47 CFR 76.1204 - Availability of equipment performing conditional access or security functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive... security functions. (a)(1) A multichannel video programming distributor that utilizes navigation devices to... access functions of such devices. Commencing on July 1, 2007, no multichannel video...

  14. Full-duplex fiber-wireless link with 40 Gbit/s 16-QAM signals for alternative wired and wireless accesses based on homodyne/heterodyne coherent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruijiao; Ma, Jianxin; Wang, Zhao; Zhang, Junjie; Li, Yanjie; Zheng, Guoli; Liu, Wen; Yu, Jianguo; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qin; Liu, Renhao

    2014-06-01

    A novel full-duplex fiber-wireless link with 40 Gbit/s 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals is proposed to provide alternative wired and wireless accesses for the user terminals. In the central station (CS), the downstream signal for wired and wireless accesses is beared onto the CW laser source via an optical I/Q modulator to realize the QAM modulation. At the hybrid optical network unit (HONU), a tunable laser is used to provide coherent optical local oscillator for homo-/heterodyne beating to coherently down-convert the baseband optical signal to the baseband electrical one for wired access or to the mm-wave one for wireless access according to the requirement of the user terminals. Simultaneously, the lightwave from the tunable laser is also used as the uplink optical carrier for either wired or wireless access, and is modulated colorlessly by the baseband or mm-wave signal of the uplink alternatively. After filtering, only one tone carrying the uplink signal is transmitted back to the CS even for the wireless access. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that our proposed full-duplex link for the alternative wired and wireless accesses maintains good performance even when the transmission link with standard single mode fiber (SSMF) is extended to 30 km.

  15. Relativistic Green's Functions in Full-Potential Multiple-Scattering Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianglin; Wang, Yang; Eisenbach, Markus; Stocks, G. Malcolm

    The Green's functions play a central role in MST based KKR method. Obtaining the Green's functions by solving the Dirac equation is appealing since it naturally incorporated the electron spin and the spin-orbit coupling effects. Here we implemented the full-potential relativistic KKR method using a technique called the sine and cosine matrices formalism. The charge density and the density of states of some pure element crystals have been calculated. Different expressions of the Green's functions have been investigated for numerical benefits.

  16. Achieving early functional auditory access in paediatric cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Orzan, E; Muzzi, E; Marchi, R; Falzone, C; Battelino, S; Ciciriello, E

    2016-02-01

    Cochlear implantation (CI) is a viable option for providing access to auditory stimulation in severe-to-profound hearing loss/impairment of cochlear origin. It has been demonstrated that CI is safe and effective for deaf children. Younger age at activation after CI is linked with better outcomes. It is important to study variables and issues that can interfere with an early fitting and access to sound after CI. They range from patient characteristics, family compliance and support, to technical, medical or organisational problems. A SWOT analysis and a subsequent TOWS matrix was conducted to discuss issues and propose recommendations to be considered when operating an early switch on of the CI. PMID:27054390

  17. Accessible Home Environments for People with Functional Limitations: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hea Young; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Clarke, Michael; Mannan, Hasheem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the health and social effects of accessible home environments for people with functional limitations, in order to provide evidence to promote well-informed decision making for policy guideline development and choices about public health interventions. MEDLINE and nine other electronic databases were searched between December 2014 and January 2015, for articles published since 2004. All study types were included in this review. Two reviewers independently screened 12,544 record titles or titles and abstracts based on our pre-defined eligibility criteria. We identified 94 articles as potentially eligible; and assessed their full text. Included studies were critically appraised using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool, version 2011. Fourteen studies were included in the review. We did not identify any meta-analysis or systematic review directly relevant to the question for this systematic review. A narrative approach was used to synthesise the findings of the included studies due to methodological and statistical heterogeneity. Results suggest that certain interventions to enhance the accessibility of homes can have positive health and social effects. Home environments that lack accessibility modifications appropriate to the needs of their users are likely to result in people with physical impairments becoming disabled at home. PMID:27548194

  18. Accessible Home Environments for People with Functional Limitations: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hea Young; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Clarke, Michael; Mannan, Hasheem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the health and social effects of accessible home environments for people with functional limitations, in order to provide evidence to promote well-informed decision making for policy guideline development and choices about public health interventions. MEDLINE and nine other electronic databases were searched between December 2014 and January 2015, for articles published since 2004. All study types were included in this review. Two reviewers independently screened 12,544 record titles or titles and abstracts based on our pre-defined eligibility criteria. We identified 94 articles as potentially eligible; and assessed their full text. Included studies were critically appraised using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool, version 2011. Fourteen studies were included in the review. We did not identify any meta-analysis or systematic review directly relevant to the question for this systematic review. A narrative approach was used to synthesise the findings of the included studies due to methodological and statistical heterogeneity. Results suggest that certain interventions to enhance the accessibility of homes can have positive health and social effects. Home environments that lack accessibility modifications appropriate to the needs of their users are likely to result in people with physical impairments becoming disabled at home. PMID:27548194

  19. Density functional with full exact exchange, balanced nonlocality of correlation, and constraint satisfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdew, John P.; Staroverov, Viktor N.; Tao, Jianmin; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2008-11-01

    We construct a nonlocal density functional approximation with full exact exchange, while preserving the constraint-satisfaction approach and justified error cancellations of simpler semilocal functionals. This is achieved by interpolating between different approximations suitable for two extreme regions of the electron density. In a “normal” region, the exact exchange-correlation hole density around an electron is semilocal because its spatial range is reduced by correlation and because it integrates over a narrow range to -1 . These regions are well described by popular semilocal approximations (many of which have been constructed nonempirically), because of proper accuracy for a slowly varying density or because of error cancellation between exchange and correlation. “Abnormal” regions, where nonlocality is unveiled, include those in which exchange can dominate correlation (one-electron, nonuniform high density, and rapidly varying limits), and those open subsystems of fluctuating electron number over which the exact exchange-correlation hole integrates to a value greater than -1 . Regions between these extremes are described by a hybrid functional mixing exact and semilocal exchange energy densities locally, i.e., with a mixing fraction that is a function of position r and a functional of the density. Because our mixing fraction tends to 1 in the high-density limit, we employ full exact exchange according to the rigorous definition of the exchange component of any exchange-correlation energy functional. Use of full exact exchange permits the satisfaction of many exact constraints, but the nonlocality of exchange also requires balanced nonlocality of correlation. We find that this nonlocality can demand at least five empirical parameters, corresponding roughly to the four kinds of abnormal regions. Our local hybrid functional is perhaps the first accurate fourth-rung density functional or hyper-generalized gradient approximation, with full exact exchange

  20. Density functional with full exact exchange, balanced nonlocality of correlations, and constraint satisfaction

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Jianmin; Perdew, John P; Staroverov, Viktor N; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2008-01-01

    We construct a nonlocal density functional approximation with full exact exchange, while preserving the constraint-satisfaction approach and justified error cancellations of simpler semilocal functionals. This is achieved by interpolating between different approximations suitable for two extreme regions of the electron density. In a 'normal' region, the exact exchange-correlation hole density around an electron is semilocal because its spatial range is reduced by correlation and because it integrates over a narrow range to -1. These regions are well described by popular semilocal approximations (many of which have been constructed nonempirically), because of proper accuracy for a slowly-varying density or because of error cancellation between exchange and correlation. 'Abnormal' regions, where non locality is unveiled, include those in which exchange can dominate correlation (one-electron, nonuniform high-density, and rapidly-varying limits), and those open subsystems of fluctuating electron number over which the exact exchange-correlation hole integrates to a value greater than -1. Regions between these extremes are described by a hybrid functional mixing exact and semi local exchange energy densities locally (i.e., with a mixing fraction that is a function of position r and a functional of the density). Because our mixing fraction tends to 1 in the high-density limit, we employ full exact exchange according to the rigorous definition of the exchange component of any exchange-correlation energy functional. Use of full exact exchange permits the satisfaction of many exact constraints, but the nonlocality of exchange also requires balanced nonlocality of correlation. We find that this nonlocality can demand at least five empirical parameters (corresponding roughly to the four kinds of abnormal regions). Our local hybrid functional is perhaps the first accurate size-consistent density functional with full exact exchange. It satisfies other known exact constraints

  1. Comparative study of objective functions to overcome noise and bandwidth limitations in full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Tejero, C. E.; Dagnino, D.; Sallarès, V.; Ranero, C. R.

    2015-10-01

    Ongoing works on full waveform inversion (FWI) are yielding an increasing number of objective functions as alternative to the traditional L2-waveform. These studies aim at designing more robust functions and inversion strategies to reduce the intrinsic dependence of the FWI results on (1) the initial model and (2) the lowest frequency present in field data. In this work, we perform a comparative study of five objective functions in time domain under a common 2-D-acoustic FWI scheme using the Marmousi model as benchmark. In particular, we compare results obtained with L2-based functions that consider the minimization of different wave attributes; the waveform-based, non-integration-method; instantaneous envelope; a modified version of the wrapped instantaneous phase and an improved version of the cross-correlation travel time (CCTT) method; and hybrid strategies combining some of them. We evaluate the robustness of these functionals as a function of their performance with and without low frequencies in the data and the presence of random white Gaussian noise. Our results reveal promising strategies to invert noisy data with limited low-frequency content (≥4 Hz), which is the single strategy using the instantaneous phase objective function followed by the hybrid strategies using the instantaneous phase or CCTT as initial models, in particular the combinations [I. Phase + Waveform], [CCTT + Waveform] and [CCTT + I. Phase].

  2. Analysis of the 237Np-233Pa photon spectrum using the full response function method.

    PubMed

    Shchukin, G; Iakovlev, K; Morel, J

    2004-01-01

    A study has been made of X- and gamma-ray emission from 237Np in equilibrium with 233Pa using the full response function method. This analysis process is characterised by photon spectrometry in which the entire spectrum is modelled in a pseudo-empirical way by means of elementary functions describing the total absorption and escape peaks, the Compton diffusion internal and external to the detector and the peaks resulting from detection of internal conversion electrons. This method has been applied to determine the L X-, K X- and gamma-rays emission probabilities in 237Np and 233Pa decay studies. PMID:14987650

  3. Functional Recombinant Extra Membrane Loop of Human CD20, an Alternative of the Full Length CD20 Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Anbouhi, Mahdi Habibi; Baraz, Aida Feiz; Bouzari, Saeid; Abolhassani, Mohsen; Khanahmad, Hossein; Golkar, Majid; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Behdani, Mahdi; Najafabadi, Ali Jahanian; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Targeting of CD20 antigen with monoclonal antibodies has become the mainstay in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and immunotherapeutic depletion of malignant B cells. Accessibility of antigen is one of the crucial factors in development of monoclonal antibodies against this antigen. One major problem in expression of full length CD20 is aggregation and misfolding. Therefore, production of an alternative polypeptide is easer and favorable comparing to that of a full length transmembrane protein CD20. Methods: In this study, we expressed the extra membrane loop of hCD20 (exCD20) consisting of a non-glycosylated 47-amino acids region. The exCD20 coding sequence was amplified by PCR and cloned in pET32a(+) expression vector. The desired protein was expressed in fusion with thioredoxin and 6× His tag in E. coli Origami strain. ELISA and Western-blotting data were performed to indicate the functionality of this protein. Results: We have obtained the exCD20 recombinant protein which can be detected in ELISA and Western-blot experiments. This recombinant fusion protein was soluble and stable without aggregation and misfolding problems. Conclusion: The recombinant extra membrane loop of human CD20 protein in fusion with thioredoxin (exCD20) can be used in function assays and some applications such as ELISA, immuneblotting, affinity purification, immunization, screening, and development of anti-CD20 antibodies. PMID:23023212

  4. The densities produced by the density functional theory: Comparison to full configuration interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochevarov, Arteum D.; Friesner, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate one of the fundamental observables, electronic charge density, as produced by a number of popular functionals of the density functional theory (DFT): SVWN5, B3LYP, B3LYP, OLYP, O3LYP, BP86, B3P86, O3P86, and PBE using restricted and unrestricted orbitals. Measuring and comparing the quality of the densities could tell us more about the physical soundness of the functional models. The study is performed on the small molecules He, H2, LiH, H4 in an extensive range of correlation-consistent basis sets. We compare DFT densities to those of full configuration interaction (FCI) under the assumption that the FCI density in the largest employed basis set is sufficiently close to the exact one. For LiH and H4, we also compare the DFT densities to those of CCSD. The SVWN5 functional consistently shows the worst performance. The OPTX exchange functional regularly beats the Becke exchange. Among the best performers are all the hybrid functionals, the novel O3P86 being the most accurate in most cases. The popular functional B3LYP was consistently outmatched by O3LYP, and produced, in fact, some of the poorest densities among the hybrids. CCSD was found to produce much more accurate densities than any DFT functional in the case of LiH in equilibrium geometry, but was sometimes outperformed by DFT in the case of slightly stretched H4, where CCSD theory itself starts to break down. Surprisingly, as one stretches the H2 molecule, BP86 and PBE improve the description of density although such behavior is not observed in other systems. We conclude by reasoning how functionals such as B3LYP, despite being quite average for density, could still be very successful in predicting thermodynamic properties.

  5. Full duplex fiber link for alternative wired and wireless access based on SSB optical millimeter-wave with 4-PAM signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianxin; Zhang, Junjie

    2015-03-01

    A novel full-duplex fiber-wireless link based on single sideband (SSB) optical millimeter (mm)-wave with 10 Gbit/s 4-pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) signal is proposed to provide alternative wired and 40 GHz wireless accesses for the user terminals. The SSB optical mm-wave with 4-PAM signal consists of two tones: one bears the 4-PAM signal and the other is unmodulated with high power. After transmission over the fiber to the hybrid optical network unit (HONU), the SSB optical mm-wave signal can be decomposed by fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) as the SSB optical mm-wave signal with reduced carrier-to-sideband ratio (the baseband 4-PAM optical signal) and the uplink optical carrier for the wireless (wired) access. This makes the HONU free from the laser source. For the uplink, since the wireless access signal is converted to the baseband by power detection, both the transmitter in the HONU and the receiver in optical line terminal (OLT) are co-shared for both wireless and wired accesses, which makes the full duplex link much simpler. In our scheme, the optical electrical field of the square-root increment level 4-PAM signal assures an equal level spacing receiving for both the downlink wired and wireless accesses. Since the downlink wireless signal is down-converted to the baseband by power detection, RF local oscillator is unnecessary. To confirm the feasibility of our proposed scheme, a simulation full duplex link with 40 GHz SSB optical mm-wave with 10 Gbit/s 4-PAM signal is built. The simulation results show that both down- and up-links for either wired or wireless access can keep good performance even if the link length of the SSMF is extended to 40 km.

  6. Bureau of Prisons access control system: functional and operational requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janus, Michael; Carlson, Peter M.; Kane, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) operates 86 correctional institutions nationwide. The BOP has grown dramatically, the size of its inmate population growing from just over 41,000 inmates in 1987 to over 100,000 today. The number of BOP staff managing these facilities has grown correspondingly, more than doubling in number in the same ten year period. Technology has paid a major role in keeping up with this growth while maintaining high standards of security in BOP institutions. In an attempt to further enhance security in its institutions, the BOP has recently begun pilot testing an access control and entry system (ACES). ACES is intended to provide an automated record of very entry and exit to a correctional institution. ACES takes advantage of several methods of identifying an individual (inmate, staff or visitor) to assure that the individual exiting the institution is the same as the individual entering. The pilot test has raised a number of questions regarding the implementation of a technologically sophisticated system in a correctional institution. Questions of training, support, 'ownership,' cost effectiveness, and future potential all influence the deployment of this system. Preliminary results indicate that an adequate training and support system is essential to the performance of any sophisticated system and that other organizational issues need to be addressed before the decision to implement is made.

  7. A full-potential approach to the relativistic single-site Green's function

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Xianglin; Wang, Yang; Eisenbach, Markus; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2016-07-07

    One major purpose of studying the single-site scattering problem is to obtain the scattering matrices and differential equation solutions indispensable to multiple scattering theory (MST) calculations. On the other hand, the single-site scattering itself is also appealing because it reveals the physical environment experienced by electrons around the scattering center. In this study, we demonstrate a new formalism to calculate the relativistic full-potential single-site Green's function. We implement this method to calculate the single-site density of states and electron charge densities. Lastly, the code is rigorously tested and with the help of Krein's theorem, the relativistic effects and full potentialmore » effects in group V elements and noble metals are thoroughly investigated.« less

  8. A full-potential approach to the relativistic single-site Green's function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianglin; Wang, Yang; Eisenbach, Markus; Malcolm Stocks, G

    2016-09-01

    One major purpose of studying the single-site scattering problem is to obtain the scattering matrices and differential equation solutions indispensable to multiple scattering theory (MST) calculations. On the other hand, the single-site scattering itself is also appealing because it reveals the physical environment experienced by electrons around the scattering center. In this paper we demonstrate a new formalism to calculate the relativistic full-potential single-site Green's function. We implement this method to calculate the single-site density of states and electron charge densities. The code is rigorously tested and with the help of Krein's theorem, the relativistic effects and full potential effects in group V elements and noble metals are thoroughly investigated. PMID:27388858

  9. A full-potential approach to the relativistic single-site Green’s function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianglin; Wang, Yang; Eisenbach, Markus; Stocks, G. Malcolm

    2016-09-01

    One major purpose of studying the single-site scattering problem is to obtain the scattering matrices and differential equation solutions indispensable to multiple scattering theory (MST) calculations. On the other hand, the single-site scattering itself is also appealing because it reveals the physical environment experienced by electrons around the scattering center. In this paper we demonstrate a new formalism to calculate the relativistic full-potential single-site Green’s function. We implement this method to calculate the single-site density of states and electron charge densities. The code is rigorously tested and with the help of Krein’s theorem, the relativistic effects and full potential effects in group V elements and noble metals are thoroughly investigated.

  10. Proton stopping using a full conserving dielectric function in plasmas at any degeneracy

    SciTech Connect

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2010-10-15

    In this work, we present a dielectric function including the three conservation laws (density, momentum and energy) when we take into account electron-electron collisions in a plasma at any degeneracy. This full conserving dielectric function (FCDF) reproduces the random phase approximation (RPA) and Mermin ones, which confirms this outcome. The FCDF is applied to the determination of the proton stopping power. Differences among diverse dielectric functions in the proton stopping calculation are minimal if the plasma electron collision frequency is not high enough. These discrepancies can rise up to 2% between RPA values and the FCDF ones, and to 8% between the Mermin ones and FCDF ones. The similarity between RPA and FCDF results is not surprising, as all conservation laws are also considered in RPA dielectric function. Even for plasmas with low collision frequencies, those discrepancies follow the same behavior as for plasmas with higher frequencies. Then, discrepancies do not depend on the plasma degeneracy but essentially do on the value of the plasma collision frequency.

  11. Full-band envelope-function approach for type-II broken-gap superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andlauer, Till; Vogl, Peter

    2009-07-01

    We present a charge self-consistent mesoscopic electronic-structure method for type-II broken-gap superlattices that is based on the multiband kṡp envelope-function method. This scheme avoids the separate classification and occupation of electron and hole states that causes the standard effective-mass theory to fail once conduction- and valence-band states strongly intermix. The computational efficiency of envelope-function methods is maintained. Free or bound charge-carrier redistributions can be taken into account self-consistently. With this method that we term as full-band envelope-function approach, we calculate effective band gaps, effective masses, and optical transition energies of InAs/GaSb superlattices as a function of the layer width. Good agreement with experiment is obtained. We also discuss semiconductor to semimetal transitions in wide layer structures. We find the charge carriers to form a two-dimensional gas of approximately massless Dirac particles at a critical layer width.

  12. Complementary assessments of executive function in preterm and full-term preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Loe, Irene M; Chatav, Maya; Alduncin, Nidia

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are interrelated cognitive processes that have been studied in relation to behavior, attention, academic achievement, and developmental disorders. Studies of EF skills assessed through parent report and performance-based measures show correlations between them ranging from none to modest. Few studies have examined the relationship between EF skills measured through parent report and performance-based measures in relation to adaptive function. The present study included preschool children born preterm as a population at high risk for EF impairments. Preschool children (N = 149) completed a battery of EF tasks that assess working memory, response inhibition, idea generation, and attention shifting or cognitive flexibility. Parents reported on children's EF and adaptive skills. Preterm children showed more parent-rated and performance-based EF impairments than did full-term children. The combined use of either parent report or performance-based measures resulted in the identification of a large number of children at risk for EF impairment, especially in the preterm group. Both parent report and performance-based EF measures were associated with children's adaptive function. EF skills are measurable in young child'ren, and we suggest that EF skills may serve as targets for intervention to improve functional outcomes. We recommend the use of both parent report and performance-based measures to characterize children's EF profiles and to customize treatment. PMID:24754400

  13. Alternative Wired and 60-GHz Wireless Full Duplex Access Based on a Polarization Orthogonal Dual-Tone Optical Millimeter-Wave Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianxin; Zhang, Ruijiao; Zhang, Junjie; Xin, Xiangjun

    2015-11-01

    A novel full duplex fiber wireless link providing alternative wired and 60-GHz wireless access is proposed based on a polarization orthogonal dual-tone optical millimeter-wave signal. In a hybrid optical network unit, the downlink optical signal can be decomposed as a single-sideband optical millimeter-wave signal (baseband optical signal) for wireless (wired) access by a polarization controller and polarization beam splitter. The uplink optical carrier abstracted from the downlink optical signal makes the hybrid optical network unit free from the optical source. The simulation results show that both downlinks and uplinks for either wired or wireless access can maintain quite good performance over 60 km of fiber.

  14. National Crime Information Center Mandatory Minimum Standards Curriculum for Full Access Terminal Operators. Volume Two--NCIC "Hot" Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC. National Crime Information Center.

    This document is the second volume of a two-volume set of lesson plans that together make up a complete training package for full-service terminal operators. The lesson plans are designed to ensure that a state's National Crime Information Center (NCIC) training program meets Advisory Policy Board standards. (NCIC is a nationwide computerized…

  15. Frequency response functions of shape features from full-field vibration measurements using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weizhuo; Mottershead, John E.; Siebert, Thorsten; Pipino, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    The availability of high speed digital cameras has enabled three-dimensional (3D) vibration measurement by stereography and digital image correlation (DIC). The 3D DIC technique provides non-contact full-field measurements on complex surfaces whereas conventional modal testing methods employ point-wise frequency response functions. It is proposed to identify the modal properties by utilising the domain-wise responses captured by a DIC system. This idea will be illustrated by a case study in the form a car bonnet of 3D irregular shape typical of many engineering structures. The full-field measured data are highly redundant, but the application of image processing using functional transformation enables the extraction of a small number of shape features without any significant loss of information from the raw DIC data. The complex bonnet surface on which the displacement responses are measured is essentially a 2-manifold. It is possible to apply surface parameterisation to 'flatten' the 3D surface to form a 2D planar domain. Well-developed image processing techniques are defined on planar domains and used to extract features from the displacement patterns on the surface of a specimen. An adaptive geometric moment descriptor (AGMD), defined on surface parametric space, is able to extract shape features from a series of full-field transient responses under random excitation. Results show the effectiveness of the AGMD and the obtained shape features are demonstrated to be succinct and efficient. Approximately 14 thousand data points of raw DIC measurement are represented by 20 shape feature terms at each time step. Shape-descriptor frequency response functions (SD-FRFs) of the response field and the loading field are derived in the shape feature space. It is seen that the SD-FRF has a similar format to the conventional receptance FRF. The usual modal identification procedure is applied to determine the natural frequencies, damping factors and eigen-shape-feature vectors

  16. Percutaneous Access: Acute Effects on Renal Function and Structure in a Porcine Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, Rajash K.; Willis, Lynn R.; Evan, Andrew P.; Connors, Bret A.; Ying, Jun; Fat-Anthony, William; Wind, Kelli R.; Johnson, Cynthia D.; Blomgren, Philip M.; Estrada, Mark C.; Paterson, Ryan F.; Kuo, Ramsay L.; Kim, Samuel C.; Matlaga, Brian R.; Miller, Nicole L.; Watkins, Stephanie L.; Handa, Shelly E.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-04-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) involves gaining access into the urinary collecting system to remove kidney stones. Animal studies demonstrated that a reduction in renal filtration and perfusion in both kidneys, and a decline in tubular organic anion transport in the treated kidney characterizes the acute (hours) functional response to unilateral percutaneous access. The acute morphologic and histological changes in the treated kidney were consistent with blunt trauma and ischemia. Only tubular organic anion transport remained depressed during the late (3-day) response to the access procedure. Human studies revealed an acute decline in glomerular function and bilateral renal vasoconstriction following unilateral PCNL. Therefore, percutaneous access is not a benign procedure, but is associated with acute functional and structural derangements.

  17. Functional Coordination of a Full-Body Gaze Control Mechanisms Elicited During Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Cohen, Helen S.

    2003-01-01

    Control of locomotion requires precise interaction between several sensorimotor subsystems. Exposure to the microgravity environment of spaceflight leads to postflight adaptive alterations in these multiple subsystems leading to postural and gait disturbances. Countermeasures designed to mitigate these postflight gait alterations will need to be assessed with a new generation of functional tests that evaluate the interaction of various elements central to locomotor control. The goal of this study is to determine how the multiple, interdependent, full- body sensorimotor subsystems aiding gaze stabilization during locomotion are functionally coordinated. To explore this question two experiments were performed. In the first study (Study 1) we investigated how alteration in gaze tasking changes full-body locomotor control strategies. Subjects (n=9) performed two discreet gaze stabilization tasks while walking at 6.4 km/hr on a motorized treadmill: 1) focusing on a central point target; 2) reading numeral characters; both presented at 2m in front at eye level. The second study (Study 2) investigated the potential of adaptive remodeling of the full-body gaze control systems following exposure to visual-vestibular conflict. Subjects (n=14) walked (6.4 km/h) on the treadmill before and after they were exposed to 0.5X minifying lenses worn for 30 minutes during self-generated sinusoidal vertical head rotations performed while seated. In both studies we measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. Results from Study 1 showed that while reading numeral characters as compared to the central point target: 1) compensatory head pitch movements were on average 22% greater 2) the peak acceleration measured at the head was significantly reduced by an average of 13% in four of the six

  18. Predictors of Pain and Function in Patients With Symptomatic, Atraumatic Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Joshua D.; Pedroza, Angela; Jones, Grant L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of full-thickness rotator cuff tears increases with age, many patients are asymptomatic and may not require surgical repair. The factors associated with pain and loss of function in patients with rotator cuff tears are not well defined. Purpose To determine which factors correlate with pain and loss of function in patients with symptomatic, atraumatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears who are enrolled in a structured physical therapy program. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A multicenter group enrolled patients with symptomatic, atraumatic rotator cuff tears in a prospective, nonrandomized cohort study evaluating the effects of a structured physical therapy program. Time-zero patient data were reviewed to test which factors correlated with Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores. Results A total of 389 patients were enrolled. Mean ASES score was 53.9; mean WORC score was 46.9. The following variables were associated with higher WORC and ASES scores: female sex (P = .001), education level (higher education, higher score; P <.001), active abduction (degrees; P = .021), and strength in forward elevation (P = .002) and abduction (P = .007). The following variables were associated with lower WORC and ASES scores: male sex (P = .001), atrophy of the supraspinatus (P = .04) and infraspinatus (P = .003), and presence of scapulothoracic dyskinesia (P < .001). Tear size was not a significant predictor (WORC) unless comparing isolated supraspinatus tears to supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis tears (P = .004). Age, tear retraction, duration of symptoms, and humeral head migration were not statistically significant. Conclusion Nonsurgically modifiable factors, such as scapulothoracic dyskinesia, active abduction, and strength in forward elevation and abduction, were identified that could be addressed nonoperatively with therapy. Therefore

  19. Evolution and Genetic Architecture of Chromatin Accessibility and Function in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Caitlin F.; Wakefield, Jon; Akey, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin accessibility is an important functional genomics phenotype that influences transcription factor binding and gene expression. Genome-scale technologies allow chromatin accessibility to be mapped with high-resolution, facilitating detailed analyses into the genetic architecture and evolution of chromatin structure within and between species. We performed Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements sequencing (FAIRE-Seq) to map chromatin accessibility in two parental haploid yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus and their diploid hybrid. We show that although broad-scale characteristics of the chromatin landscape are well conserved between these species, accessibility is significantly different for 947 regions upstream of genes that are enriched for GO terms such as intracellular transport and protein localization exhibit. We also develop new statistical methods to investigate the genetic architecture of variation in chromatin accessibility between species, and find that cis effects are more common and of greater magnitude than trans effects. Interestingly, we find that cis and trans effects at individual genes are often negatively correlated, suggesting widespread compensatory evolution to stabilize levels of chromatin accessibility. Finally, we demonstrate that the relationship between chromatin accessibility and gene expression levels is complex, and a significant proportion of differences in chromatin accessibility might be functionally benign. PMID:24992477

  20. Photosystem II Function and Dynamics in Three Widely Used Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lan; Fristedt, Rikard; Vener, Alexander V.; Schoefs, Benoît; Spetea, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Columbia-0 (Col-0), Wassilewskija-4 (Ws-4), and Landsberg erecta-0 (Ler-0) are used as background lines for many public Arabidopsis mutant collections, and for investigation in laboratory conditions of plant processes, including photosynthesis and response to high-intensity light (HL). The photosystem II (PSII) complex is sensitive to HL and requires repair to sustain its function. PSII repair is a multistep process controlled by numerous factors, including protein phosphorylation and thylakoid membrane stacking. Here we have characterized the function and dynamics of PSII complex under growth-light and HL conditions. Ws-4 displayed 30% more thylakoid lipids per chlorophyll and 40% less chlorophyll per carotenoid than Col-0 and Ler-0. There were no large differences in thylakoid stacking, photoprotection and relative levels of photosynthetic complexes among the three accessions. An increased efficiency of PSII closure was found in Ws-4 following illumination with saturation flashes or continuous light. Phosphorylation of the PSII D1/D2 proteins was reduced by 50% in Ws-4 as compared to Col-0 and Ler-0. An increase in abundance of the responsible STN8 kinase in response to HL treatment was found in all three accessions, but Ws-4 displayed 50% lower levels than Col-0 and Ler-0. Despite this, the HL treatment caused in Ws-4 the lagest extent of PSII inactivation, disassembly, D1 protein degradation, and the largest decrease in the size of stacked thylakoids. The dilution of chlorophyll-protein complexes with additional lipids and carotenoids in Ws-4 may represent a mechanism to facilitate lateral protein traffic in the membrane, thus compensating for the lack of a full complement of STN8 kinase. Nevertheless, additional PSII damage occurs in Ws-4, which exceeds the D1 protein synthesis capacity, thus leading to enhanced photoinhibition. Our findings are valuable for selection of appropriate background line for PSII characterization in Arabidopsis mutants, and also

  1. Functionality Enhancement of Industrialized Optical Fiber Sensors and System Developed for Full-Scale Pavement Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huaping; Liu, Wanqiu; He, Jianping; Xing, Xiaoying; Cao, Dandan; Gao, Xipeng; Hao, Xiaowei; Cheng, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements. PMID:24854060

  2. 47 CFR 76.1204 - Availability of equipment performing conditional access or security functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... security functions. (a)(1) A multichannel video programming distributor that utilizes navigation devices to... access functions of such devices. Commencing on July 1, 2007, no multichannel video programming... requirement shall not apply to a multichannel video programming distributor that supports the active use...

  3. Functional requirements with survey results for integrated intrusion detection and access control annunciator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the guidance Functional Requirements for an Integrated Intrusion Detection and Access Control Annunciator System, and survey results of selected commercial systems. The survey questions were based upon the functional requirements; therefore, the results reflect which and sometimes how the guidance recommendations were met.

  4. Experimental demonstration of a full-duplex high-speed visible light communication access network architecture based on frequency division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiguang; Wang, Yuanquan; Tao, Li; Shi, Jianyang; Chi, Nan

    2014-11-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a full-duplex high-speed visible light communication (VLC) access network based on star topology architecture to offer high-speed optical wireless access for a large number of users. Optical fiber is used as the backbone of the VLC network and directly connected to the light-emitting diode lamps. Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) is utilized for both the downlink and uplink. The bidirectional transmission of 32 quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal FDM signals at an overall throughput of 4 Gb/s is successfully achieved to support four users access, and each user is offered 500 Mb/s downstream and 500 Mb/s upstream. The measured bit error rates of the downlink and uplink for all four users are <7% pre-forward error correction limit of 3.8×10-3 after a 25 km standard single-mode fiber and 65 cm free space, which clearly validates the promising potential of the proposed VLC network architecture to offer more than 10 Gb/s wireless access.

  5. Isolation, characterization and functional analysis of full length p53 cDNA from Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minu; Aggarwal, Suruchi; Mohanty, Ashok K; Mukhopadhyay, Tapas

    2015-09-01

    p53 plays a pivotal role in maintaining the genomic integrity of the cell and has an important role in cellular transformation. We isolated and cloned a full length p53 cDNA (Bp53) from water buffalo in expression vectors designed to generate tagged proteins with FLAG or GFP. Bp53 was found to be 1161 nucleotide long and codes for 386 amino acid residues with 79% homology with human p53 containing 393 amino acids. Although Bp53 has some inherent differences in amino acid composition in different functional domains as compared to human p53 but the total electrostatic charge of amino acids has been maintained. Bp53 cDNA was transiently transfected in a p53 null human NSCLC cell line and as expected, it was predominantly localized in the nucleus. Besides, Bp53 effectively transactivates a number of target genes similar to human p53 and exerts most of its anti-tumorigenic potential in culture as observed in clonogenic and cell viability assays. Like human p53 mutants, core domain mutant version of Bp53 was found to be mis-localized to cytoplasm with diminished tumor suppressor activity. However, Bp53 appeared to be more sensitive to mdm2 mediated degradation and as a result, this protein was less stable as compared to human p53. For the first time we have characterized a functionally efficient wild-type p53 from buffalo having lower stability than human p53 and thus, buffalo p53 could be used as a model system for further insight to the molecular basis of wild-type p53 instability. PMID:26003295

  6. The Full Globin Repertoire of Turtles Provides Insights into Vertebrate Globin Evolution and Functions

    PubMed Central

    Schwarze, Kim; Singh, Abhilasha; Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Globins are small heme proteins that play an important role in oxygen supply, but may also have other functions. Globins offer a unique opportunity to study the functional evolution of genes and proteins. We have characterized the globin repertoire of two different turtle species: the Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and the western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii). In the genomes of both species, we have identified eight distinct globin types: hemoglobin (Hb), myoglobin, neuroglobin, cytoglobin, globin E, globin X, globin Y, and androglobin. Therefore, along with the coelacanth, turtles are so far the only known vertebrates with a full globin repertoire. This fact allows for the first time a comparative analysis of the expression of all eight globins in a single species. Phylogenetic analysis showed an early divergence of neuroglobin and globin X before the radiation of vertebrates. Among the other globins, cytoglobin diverged first, and there is a close relationship between myoglobin and globin E; the position of globin Y is not resolved. The globin E gene was selectively lost in the green anole, and the genes coding for globin X and globin Y were deleted in chicken. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction experiments revealed that myoglobin, neuroglobin, and globin E are highly expressed with tissue-specific patterns, which are in line with their roles in the oxidative metabolism of the striated muscles, the brain, and the retina, respectively. Histochemical analyses showed high levels of globin E in the pigment epithelium of the eye. Globin E probably has a myoglobin-like role in transporting O2 across the pigment epithelium to supply in the metabolically highly active retina. PMID:26078264

  7. Full-Scale Turbofan-Engine Turbine-Transfer Function Determination Using Three Internal Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    Existing NASA/Honeywell EVNERT full-scale static engine test data is analyzed by using source-separation techniques in order to determine the turbine transfer of the currently sub-dominant combustor noise. The results are used to assess the combustor-noise prediction capability of the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). Time-series data from three sensors internal to the Honeywell TECH977 research engine is used in the analysis. The true combustor-noise turbine-transfer function is educed by utilizing a new three-signal approach. The resulting narrowband gain factors are compared with the corresponding constant values obtained from two empirical acoustic-turbine-loss formulas. It is found that a simplified Pratt & Whitney formula agrees better with the experimental results for frequencies of practical importance. The 130 deg downstream-direction far-field 1/3-octave sound-pressure levels (SPL) results of Hultgren & Miles are reexamined using a post-correction of their ANOPP predictions for both the total noise signature and the combustion-noise component. It is found that replacing the standard ANOPP turbine-attenuation function for combustion noise with the simplified Pratt & Whitney formula clearly improves the predictions. It is recommended that the GECOR combustion-noise module in ANOPP be updated to allow for a user-selectable switch between the current transmission-loss model and the simplified Pratt & Whitney formula. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic.

  8. Rat hepatic glutaminase: identification of the full coding sequence and characterization of a functional promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Chung-Bok, M I; Vincent, N; Jhala, U; Watford, M

    1997-01-01

    Glutamine catabolism in mammalian liver is catalysed by a unique isoenzyme of phosphate-activated glutaminase. The full coding and 5' untranslated sequence for rat hepatic glutaminase was isolated by screening lambda ZAP cDNA libraries and a Charon 4a rat genomic library. The sequence produces a mRNA 2225 nt in length, encoding a polypeptide of 535 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 59.2 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of rat liver glutaminase shows 86% similarity to that of rat kidney glutaminase and 65% similarity to a putative glutaminase from Caenorhabditis elegans. A genomic clone to rat liver glutaminase was isolated that contains 3.5 kb of the gene and 7.5 kb of the 5' flanking region. The 1 kb immediately upstream of the hepatic glutaminase gene (from -1022 to +48) showed functional promoter activity in HepG2 hepatoma cells. This promoter region did not respond to treatment with cAMP, but was highly responsive (10-fold stimulation) to the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Subsequent 5' deletion analysis indicated that the promoter region between -103 and +48 was sufficient for basal promoter activity. This region does not contain an identifiable TATA element, indicating that transcription of the glutaminase gene is driven by a TATA-less promoter. The region responsive to glucocorticoids was mapped to -252 to -103 relative to the transcription start site. PMID:9164856

  9. Wireless Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring in Inpatient Full-Term Pregnant Women: Testing Functionality and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Boatin, Adeline A.; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this

  10. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Boatin, Adeline A; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this

  11. Measuring safety treatment effects using full Bayes non-linear safety performance intervention functions.

    PubMed

    El-Basyouny, Karim; Sayed, Tarek

    2012-03-01

    Full Bayes linear intervention models have been recently proposed to conduct before-after safety studies. These models assume linear slopes to represent the time and treatment effects across the treated and comparison sites. However, the linear slope assumption can only furnish some restricted treatment profiles. To overcome this problem, a first-order autoregressive (AR1) safety performance function (SPF) that has a dynamic regression equation (known as the Koyck model) is proposed. The non-linear 'Koyck' model is compared to the linear intervention model in terms of inference, goodness-of-fit, and application. Both models were used in association with the Poisson-lognormal (PLN) hierarchy to evaluate the safety performance of a sample of intersections that have been improved in the Greater Vancouver area. The two models were extended by incorporating random parameters to account for the correlation between sites within comparison-treatment pairs. Another objective of the paper is to compute basic components related to the novelty effects, direct treatment effects, and indirect treatment effects and to provide simple expressions for the computation of these components in terms of the model parameters. The Koyck model is shown to furnish a wider variety of treatment profiles than those of the linear intervention model. The analysis revealed that incorporating random parameters among matched comparison-treatment pairs in the specification of SPFs can significantly improve the fit, while reducing the estimates of the extra-Poisson variation. Also, the proposed PLN Koyck model fitted the data much better than the Poisson-lognormal linear intervention (PLNI) model. The novelty effects were short lived, the indirect (through traffic volumes) treatment effects were approximately within ±10%, whereas the direct treatment effects indicated a non-significant 6.5% reduction during the after period under PLNI compared to a significant 12.3% reduction in predicted collision

  12. Flexible OFDM-based access systems with intrinsic function of chromatic dispersion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Murakawa, Takuya; Nagashima, Tomotaka; Hasegawa, Makoto; Shimizu, Satoshi; Hattori, Kuninori; Okuno, Masayuki; Mino, Shinji; Himeno, Akira; Uenohara, Hiroyuki; Wada, Naoya; Cincotti, Gabriella

    2015-12-01

    Cost-effective and tunable chromatic dispersion compensation in a fiber link are still an open issue in metro and access networks to cope with increasing costs and power consumption. Intrinsic chromatic dispersion compensation functionality of optical fractional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is discussed and experimentally demonstrated using dispersion-tunable transmitter and receiver based on wavelength selective switching devices.

  13. 1 Gbps full-duplex links for ultra-dense-WDM 6.25 GHz frequency slots in optical metro-access networks.

    PubMed

    Altabas, Jose A; Izquierdo, David; Lazaro, Jose A; Lerin, Adolfo; Sotelo, Felix; Garces, Ignacio

    2016-01-11

    1 Gbps full-duplex optical links for 6.25 GHz ultra dense WDM frequency slots are demonstrated and optimized for cost-effective metro-access networks. The OLT-ONU downlinks are based on 1 Gbps Nyquist-DPSK using MZM and single-detector heterodyne reception obtaining a sensitivity of -52 dBm. The ONU-OLT uplinks are based on 1 Gbps NRZ-DPSK by directly phase modulated DFB and also single-detector heterodyne reception obtaining same sensitivity of -52 dBm. The power budget of full-duplex link is 43 dB. These proposed links can provide service to 16 (32) users at each 100 (200) GHz WDM channel. PMID:26832286

  14. Retrotransposon mdg3 of Drosophila: General structure and functional domains of the full-length copy

    SciTech Connect

    Avedisov, S.N.; Ilyin, Yu.V.

    1995-09-01

    A full-length copy of the transposable element mdg3 from the plasmid clone Dm38 of Drosophila melanogaster was obtained by screening the DNA library of the cell culture 67J25D. Previous work demonstrated that only full-length copies of mdg3 (5.5 kb) are amplified in this culture, whereas the number of deleted copies probably has not changed since the cell line was established. We sequenced the full-length copy of mdg3 from cDm38 by the method described by Sanger. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Getting full control of canonical correlation analysis with the AutoBiplot.CCA function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. Rui

    2016-06-01

    Function AutoBiplot.CCA was built in R language. Given two multivariate data sets, this function carries out a conventional canonical correlation analysis, followed by the automatic production of predictive biplots based on the accuracy of readings as assessed by a mean standard predictive error and a user defined tolerance value. As the user's intervention is mainly restricted to the choice of the magnitude of the t.axis value, common misinterpretations, overestimations and adjustments between outputs and personal beliefs are avoided.

  16. Numerical solution of transonic full stream function equations in conservation form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafez, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    The stream function equation in conservation form is solved iteratively based on the artificial compressibility method. The density is not a unique function of the mass flux. In order to avoid the ambiguity near the sonic line, the density is updated in terms of the velocity, which is obtained through a simple integration of a first order equation step by step in the flow field. Iteration algorithms and finite difference approximations are discussed and numerical results of both conservative and nonconservative calculations are presented.

  17. Hydrologic and Pollutant Removal Performance of a Full-Scale, Fully Functional Permeable Pavement Parking Lot

    EPA Science Inventory

    In accordance with the need for full-scale, replicated studies of permeable pavement systems used in their intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes to evaluate these systems, the EPA’s Urb...

  18. Emergency planning for people with disabilities and others with access and functional needs to ensure inclusiveness.

    PubMed

    Webster, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations and litigation have prompted a shift in the way the field of emergency management plans for people with disabilities and others with access and functional needs. The purpose of this article is to aid readers in understanding some of the legal and practical requirements that may apply to jurisdictions' emergency preparedness programs to ensure the ability of plans, planning efforts, programs, and services to meet the needs of people with disabilities and others with access and functional needs. The cases of Communities Actively Living Independent and Free (CALIF) v. City of Los Angeles and Brooklyn Center for Independence of the Disabled v. Bloomberg will be used as case studies. Note that this is not intended nor should it be construed as legal advice. PMID:25062821

  19. Ctk1 function is necessary for full translation initiation activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Coordes, Britta; Brünger, Katharina M; Burger, Kaspar; Soufi, Boumediene; Horenk, Juliane; Eick, Dirk; Olsen, Jesper V; Sträßer, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Translation is a fundamental and highly regulated cellular process. Previously, we reported that the kinase and transcription elongation factor Ctk1 increases fidelity during translation elongation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that loss of Ctk1 function also affects the initiation step of translation. Translation active extracts from Ctk1-depleted cells show impaired translation activity of capped mRNA, but not mRNA reporters containing the cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Furthermore, the formation of 80S initiation complexes is decreased, which is probably due to reduced subunit joining. In addition, we determined the changes in the phosphorylation pattern of a ribosome enriched fraction after depletion of Ctk1. Thus, we provide a catalogue of phosphoproteomic changes dependent on Ctk1. Taken together, our data suggest a stimulatory function of Ctk1 in 80S formation during translation initiation. PMID:25416238

  20. Obtaining structural and functional information for GPCRs using the substituted-cysteine accessibility method (SCAM).

    PubMed

    Liapakis, George

    2014-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are proteins of the plasma membrane, which are characterized by seven membrane-spanning segments (TMs). GPCRs play an important role in almost all of our physiological and pathophysiological conditions by interacting with a large variety of ligands and stimulating different G-proteins and signaling cascades. By playing a key role in the function of our body and being involved in the pathophysiology of many disorders, GPCRs are very important therapeutic targets. Determination of the structure and function of GPCRs could advance the design of novel receptor-specific drugs against various diseases. A powerful method to obtain structural and functional information for GPCRs is the cysteine substituted accessibility method (SCAM). SCAM is used to systematically map the TM residues of GPCRs and determine their functional role. SCAM can also be used to determine differences in the structures of the TMs in different functional states of GPCRs. PMID:25335535

  1. Development of non-equilibrium Green's functions for use with full interaction in complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, Richard A.; van Leeuwen, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We present an ongoing development of an existing code for calculating ground- state, steady-state, and transient properties of many-particle systems. The development involves the addition of the full four-index two electron integrals, which allows for the calculation of transport systems, as well as the extension to multi-level electronic systems, such as atomic and molecular systems and other applications. The necessary derivations are shown, along with some preliminary results and a summary of future plans for the code.

  2. Full-Scale Turbofan-Engine Turbine-Transfer Function Determination Using Three Internal Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2012-01-01

    Noise-source separation techniques, using three engine-internal sensors, are applied to existing static-engine test data to determine the turbine transfer function for the currently subdominant combustion noise. The results are used to assess the combustion-noise prediction capability of the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) and an improvement to the combustion-noise module GECOR is suggested. The work was carried out in response to the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Program s Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge.

  3. Two-step cyanomethylation protocol: convenient access to functionalized aryl- and heteroarylacetonitriles.

    PubMed

    Lindsay-Scott, Peter J; Clarke, Aimee; Richardson, Jeffery

    2015-02-01

    A two-step protocol has been developed for the introduction of cyanomethylene groups to metalated aromatics through the intermediacy of substituted isoxazoles. A palladium-mediated cross-coupling reaction was used to introduce the isoxazole unit, followed by release of the cyanomethylene function under thermal or microwave-assisted conditions. The intermediate isoxazoles were shown to be amenable to further functionalization prior to deprotection of the sensitive cyanomethylene motif, allowing access to a wide range of aryl- and heteroaryl-substituted acetonitrile building blocks. PMID:25590210

  4. Access to Cyclic Amino Boronates via Rhodium-Catalyzed Functionalization of Alkyl MIDA Boronates.

    PubMed

    St Denis, Jeffrey D; Lee, C Frank; Yudin, Andrei K

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we describe the rhodium-catalyzed C-H amination reaction of 1,2-boryl sulfamate esters derived from amphoteric α-boryl aldehydes. Depending on the substitution pattern of the boryl sulfamate ester, a diverse range of five- or six-membered ring heterocycles are accessible using this transformation. The highly chemoselective nature of the C-H functionalization reaction preserves the alkyl boronate functional group, which enables the synthesis of B-C-N and B-C-C-N motifs that are present in a number of hydrolase inhibitors. PMID:26588176

  5. Glucocorticoid Functional Reserve in Full-Spectrum Intensity of Primary Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; González-Velázquez, Camilo; González-Saldívar, Gerardo; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; González-González, José Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Adrenal function might be impaired in patients with primary hypothyroidism. The objective was to evaluate adrenocortical function using the low-dose cosyntropin test in patients with primary hypothyroidism. Consequently a prospective, longitudinal, controlled study of sixty adult patients with primary hypothyroidism was carried out. Patients naïve to L-T4 treatment were compared with control participants. A low-dose cosyntropin test was done before and after L-T4 therapy. Thirty and sixty minutes after the low-dose cosyntropin, the mean cortisol values were lower in the cases group (612.6 ± 133.1 and 603.4 ± 153.7 nmol/L) when compared to the control group (677.0 ± 82.4 and 669.9 ± 83.7 nmol/L) (P = 0.001 and 0.003), respectively. After L-T4 therapy, this difference was lost. Four out of 60 cases (6.7%) taking a cortisol cutoff value of 500 mmol/L and 11 out of 60 (18.3%) having 550 mmol/L as the cutoff had adrenal insufficiency before L-T4 therapy. After L-T4 therapy, 50% and 81% of the cases had normal cortisol response. In conclusion, patients with different degrees of intensity of primary hypothyroidism had improved cortisol response after reaching euthyroidism. The incidence of adrenal insufficiency was 6.7–18.3% and more than 50% of the cases had a normal cortisol response after L-T4 therapy. PMID:25180035

  6. A functional 4-hydroxybenzoate degradation pathway in the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris is required for full pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Yuan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Bo; Sun, Shuang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ming; Tang, Hongzhi; Jiang, Bo-Le; Tang, Ji-Liang; He, Ya-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Plants contain significant levels of natural phenolic compounds essential for reproduction and growth, as well as defense mechanisms against pathogens. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is the causal agent of crucifers black rot. Here we showed that genes required for the synthesis, utilization, transportation, and degradation of 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HBA) are present in Xcc. Xcc rapidly degrades 4-HBA, but has no effect on 2-hydroxybenzoate and 3-hydroxybenzoate when grown in XOLN medium. The genes for 4-HBA degradation are organized in a superoperonic cluster. Bioinformatics, biochemical, and genetic data showed that 4-HBA is hydroxylated by 4-HBA 3-hydroxylase (PobA), which is encoded by Xcc0356, to yield PCA. The resulting PCA is further metabolized via the PCA branches of the β-ketoadipate pathway, including Xcc0364, Xcc0365, and PcaFHGBDCR. Xcc0364 and Xcc0365 encode a new form of β-ketoadipate succinyl-coenzyme A transferase that is required for 4-HBA degradation. pobA expression was induced by 4-HBA via the transcriptional activator, PobR. Radish and cabbage hydrolysates contain 2-HBA, 3-HBA, 4-HBA, and other phenolic compounds. Addition of radish and cabbage hydrolysates to Xcc culture significantly induced the expression of pobA via PobR. The 4-HBA degradation pathway is required for full pathogenicity of Xcc in radish. PMID:26672484

  7. A functional 4-hydroxybenzoate degradation pathway in the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris is required for full pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Yuan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Bo; Sun, Shuang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ming; Tang, Hongzhi; Jiang, Bo-Le; Tang, Ji-Liang; He, Ya-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Plants contain significant levels of natural phenolic compounds essential for reproduction and growth, as well as defense mechanisms against pathogens. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is the causal agent of crucifers black rot. Here we showed that genes required for the synthesis, utilization, transportation, and degradation of 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HBA) are present in Xcc. Xcc rapidly degrades 4-HBA, but has no effect on 2-hydroxybenzoate and 3-hydroxybenzoate when grown in XOLN medium. The genes for 4-HBA degradation are organized in a superoperonic cluster. Bioinformatics, biochemical, and genetic data showed that 4-HBA is hydroxylated by 4-HBA 3-hydroxylase (PobA), which is encoded by Xcc0356, to yield PCA. The resulting PCA is further metabolized via the PCA branches of the β-ketoadipate pathway, including Xcc0364, Xcc0365, and PcaFHGBDCR. Xcc0364 and Xcc0365 encode a new form of β-ketoadipate succinyl-coenzyme A transferase that is required for 4-HBA degradation. pobA expression was induced by 4-HBA via the transcriptional activator, PobR. Radish and cabbage hydrolysates contain 2-HBA, 3-HBA, 4-HBA, and other phenolic compounds. Addition of radish and cabbage hydrolysates to Xcc culture significantly induced the expression of pobA via PobR. The 4-HBA degradation pathway is required for full pathogenicity of Xcc in radish. PMID:26672484

  8. Less than full-time training in surgery: a cross-sectional study evaluating the accessibility and experiences of flexible training in the surgical trainee workforce

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Rhiannon L; Gokani, Vimal J; Smitham, Peter; Fitzgerald, J Edward F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Generational changes in lifestyle expectations, working environments and the feminisation of the medical workforce have seen an increased demand in postgraduate less than full-time training (LTFT). Despite this, concerns remain regarding access to, and information about, flexible training for surgeons. This study aimed to assess the opinions and experiences of LTFT for surgical trainees. Design Prospective, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. Setting/participants An electronic, self-administered questionnaire was distributed in the UK and Republic of Ireland through mailing lists via the Association of Surgeons in Training and British Orthopedic Trainee Association. Results Overall, 876 completed responses were received, representing all grades of trainee across all 10 surgical specialties. Median age was 33 years and 63.4% were female. Of those who had undertaken LTFT, 92.5% (148/160) were female. Most worked 60% of a full-time post (86/160, 53.8%). The reasons for either choosing or considering LTFT were childrearing (82.7%), caring for a dependent (12.6%) and sporting commitments (6.8%). Males were less likely to list childrearing than females (64.9% vs 87.6%; p<0.0001). Only 38% (60/160) found the application process easy and 53.8% (86/160) experienced undermining behaviour from workplace staff as a result of undertaking LTFT. Of all respondents, an additional 53.7% (385/716) would consider LTFT in future; 27.5% of which were male (106/385). Overall, only 9.9% of all respondents rated current LTFT information as adequate. Common sources of information were other trainees (47.3%), educational supervisors (20.6%) and local postgraduate school website (19.5%). Conclusions Over half of surgical trainees working LTFT have experienced undermining behaviour as a result of their LTFT. Despite a reported need for LTFT in both genders, this remains difficult to organise, access to useful information is poor and negative attitudes among staff remain

  9. Functional and expression analyses of transcripts based on full-length cDNAs of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Setsuko; Makita, Yuko; Kuriyama-Kondou, Tomoko; Kawashima, Mika; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most important crops for food and bioethanol production. Its small diploid genome and resistance to environmental stress make sorghum an attractive model for studying the functional genomics of the Saccharinae and other C4 grasses. We analyzed the domain-based functional annotation of the cDNAs using the gene ontology (GO) categories for molecular function to characterize all the genes cloned in the full-length cDNA library of sorghum. The sorghum cDNA library successfully captured a wide range of cDNA-encoded proteins with various functions. To characterize the protein function of newly identified cDNAs, a search of their deduced domains and comparative analyses in the Oryza sativa and Zea mays genomes were carried out. Furthermore, genes on the sense strand corresponding to antisense transcripts were classified based on the GO of molecular function. To add more information about these genes, we have analyzed the expression profiles using RNA-Seq of three tissues (spikelet, seed and stem) during the starch-filling phase. We performed functional analysis of tissue-specific genes and expression analysis of genes of starch biosynthesis enzymes. This functional analysis of sorghum full-length cDNAs and the transcriptome information will facilitate further analysis of the Saccharinae and grass families. PMID:26546227

  10. Functional and expression analyses of transcripts based on full-length cDNAs of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Setsuko; Makita, Yuko; Kuriyama-Kondou, Tomoko; Kawashima, Mika; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most important crops for food and bioethanol production. Its small diploid genome and resistance to environmental stress make sorghum an attractive model for studying the functional genomics of the Saccharinae and other C4 grasses. We analyzed the domain-based functional annotation of the cDNAs using the gene ontology (GO) categories for molecular function to characterize all the genes cloned in the full-length cDNA library of sorghum. The sorghum cDNA library successfully captured a wide range of cDNA-encoded proteins with various functions. To characterize the protein function of newly identified cDNAs, a search of their deduced domains and comparative analyses in the Oryza sativa and Zea mays genomes were carried out. Furthermore, genes on the sense strand corresponding to antisense transcripts were classified based on the GO of molecular function. To add more information about these genes, we have analyzed the expression profiles using RNA-Seq of three tissues (spikelet, seed and stem) during the starch-filling phase. We performed functional analysis of tissue-specific genes and expression analysis of genes of starch biosynthesis enzymes. This functional analysis of sorghum full-length cDNAs and the transcriptome information will facilitate further analysis of the Saccharinae and grass families. PMID:26546227

  11. ACCESS: NIR luminosity function and stellar mass function of galaxies in the Shapley supercluster environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merluzzi, P.; Mercurio, A.; Haines, C. P.; Smith, R. J.; Busarello, G.; Lucey, J. R.

    2010-02-01

    We present the near-infrared luminosity and stellar mass functions (SMFs) of galaxies in the core of the Shapley supercluster at z = 0.048, based on new K-band observations carried out at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope with the Wide Field Infrared Camera in conjunction with B- and R-band photometry from the Shapley Optical Survey, and including a subsample (~650 galaxies) of spectroscopically confirmed supercluster members. These data sets allow us to investigate the supercluster galaxy population down to M*K + 6 and . For the overall 3deg2 field, the K-band luminosity function (LF) is described by a Schechter function with M*K = -24.96 +/- 0.10 and α = -1.42 +/- 0.03, a significantly steeper faint-end slope than that observed in field regions. We investigate the effect of environment by deriving the LF in three regions selected according to the local galaxy density and observe a significant (2σ) increase in the faint-end slope going from high-density (α = -1.33) to low-density (α = -1.49) environments, while a faint-end upturn at MK > -21 becomes increasingly apparent in the lower density regions. The galaxy SMF is fitted well by a Schechter function with and α = -1.20 +/- 0.02. The SMF of supercluster galaxies is also characterized by an excess of massive galaxies that are associated with the brightest cluster galaxies. While the value of depends on the environment, increasing by 0.2dex from low- to high-density regions, the slope of the galaxy SMF does not vary with the environment. By comparing our findings with cosmological simulations, we conclude that the environmental dependences of the LF are not primarily due to variations in the merging histories, but to processes which are not treated in the semi-analytical models, such as tidal stripping or harassment. In field regions, the SMF shows a sharp upturn below , close to our mass limit, suggesting that the upturns seen in our K-band LFs, but not in the SMF, are due to this dwarf population. The

  12. Gold-Catalyzed Oxidation/C-H Functionalization of Ynones: Efficient and Rapid Access to Functionalized Polycyclic Salicyl Ketones.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kegong; Yang, Fang; Gao, Shiyue; Tang, Jiangjiang; Gao, Jinming

    2016-07-11

    An efficient strategy to construct salicyl ketones through gold-catalyzed oxidation/C-H functionalization of ynones is reported. A variety of functionalized salicyl ketones are readily accessed by utilizing this non-diazo approach, thus providing a viable alternative to synthetically useful salicyl ketones with a yield up to 98 %. The α-oxo gold carbenes generated in situ through gold-catalyzed oxidation of ynones can be trapped effectively by internal aryl and heteroaromatic groups. Electronic and steric effects were also investigated in this reaction. The anticancer activity of one salicyl ketone analogue was investigated and its cytotoxicity assays against the PC-3 prostate cancer cell line and SKOV-3 human ovarian carcinoma cell line yield IC50 were 0.81±0.05 and 0.87±0.15 μm, respectively, demonstrating that salicyl ketone analogues showed good anticancer activity. PMID:27276524

  13. The density matrix functional approach to electron correlation: dynamic and nondynamic correlation along the full dissociation coordinate.

    PubMed

    Mentel, Ł M; van Meer, R; Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

    2014-06-01

    For chemistry an accurate description of bond weakening and breaking is vital. The great advantage of density matrix functionals, as opposed to density functionals, is their ability to describe such processes since they naturally cover both nondynamical and dynamical correlation. This is obvious in the Löwdin-Shull functional, the exact natural orbital functional for two-electron systems. We present in this paper extensions of this functional for the breaking of a single electron pair bond in N-electron molecules, using LiH, BeH(+), and Li2 molecules as prototypes. Attention is given to the proper formulation of the functional in terms of not just J and K integrals but also the two-electron L integrals (K integrals with a different distribution of the complex conjugation of the orbitals), which is crucial for the calculation of response functions. Accurate energy curves are obtained with extended Löwdin-Shull functionals along the complete dissociation coordinate using full CI calculations as benchmark. PMID:24907988

  14. The density matrix functional approach to electron correlation: Dynamic and nondynamic correlation along the full dissociation coordinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentel, Ł. M.; van Meer, R.; Gritsenko, O. V.; Baerends, E. J.

    2014-06-01

    For chemistry an accurate description of bond weakening and breaking is vital. The great advantage of density matrix functionals, as opposed to density functionals, is their ability to describe such processes since they naturally cover both nondynamical and dynamical correlation. This is obvious in the Löwdin-Shull functional, the exact natural orbital functional for two-electron systems. We present in this paper extensions of this functional for the breaking of a single electron pair bond in N-electron molecules, using LiH, BeH+, and Li2 molecules as prototypes. Attention is given to the proper formulation of the functional in terms of not just J and K integrals but also the two-electron L integrals (K integrals with a different distribution of the complex conjugation of the orbitals), which is crucial for the calculation of response functions. Accurate energy curves are obtained with extended Löwdin-Shull functionals along the complete dissociation coordinate using full CI calculations as benchmark.

  15. The density matrix functional approach to electron correlation: Dynamic and nondynamic correlation along the full dissociation coordinate

    SciTech Connect

    Mentel, Ł. M.; Meer, R. van; Gritsenko, O. V.; Baerends, E. J.

    2014-06-07

    For chemistry an accurate description of bond weakening and breaking is vital. The great advantage of density matrix functionals, as opposed to density functionals, is their ability to describe such processes since they naturally cover both nondynamical and dynamical correlation. This is obvious in the Löwdin-Shull functional, the exact natural orbital functional for two-electron systems. We present in this paper extensions of this functional for the breaking of a single electron pair bond in N-electron molecules, using LiH, BeH{sup +}, and Li{sub 2} molecules as prototypes. Attention is given to the proper formulation of the functional in terms of not just J and K integrals but also the two-electron L integrals (K integrals with a different distribution of the complex conjugation of the orbitals), which is crucial for the calculation of response functions. Accurate energy curves are obtained with extended Löwdin-Shull functionals along the complete dissociation coordinate using full CI calculations as benchmark.

  16. Full and Open Access to Data in the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS): Implementing the GEOSS Data Sharing Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.; Uhlir, P. F.; Gabrinowicz, J. I.

    2008-12-01

    Full and open access to data from remote sensing platforms and other sources can facilitate not only scientific research but also the more widespread and effective use of scientific data for the benefit of society. The Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) is a major international initiative of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) to develop "coordinated, comprehensive and sustained Earth observations and information." In 2005, GEO adopted the GEOSS Data Sharing Principles, which call for the "full and open exchange of data, metadata, and products shared within GEOSS, recognizing relevant international instruments and national policies and legislation." These Principles also note that "All shared data, metadata, and products will be made available with minimum time delay and at minimum cost" and that "All shared data, metadata, and products being free of charge or no more than cost of reproduction will be encouraged for research and education." GEOSS Task DA-06-01, aimed at developing a set of recommended implementation guidelines for the Principles, was established in 2006 under the leadership of CODATA, the Committee on Data for Science and Technology of the International Council for Science (ICSU). An international team of authors has developed a draft White Paper on the GEOSS Data Sharing Principles and a proposed set of implementation guidelines. These have been carefully reviewed by independent reviewers, various GEO Committees, and GEO National Members and Participating Organizations. It is expected that the proposed implementation guidelines will be discussed at the GEO-V Plenary in Budapest in November 2008. The current version of the proposed implementation guidelines recognizes the importance of good faith, voluntary adherence to the Principles by GEO National Members and Participating Organizations. It underscores the value of reuse and re-dissemination of GEOSS data with minimum restrictions, not only within GEOSS itself but on the part of

  17. Long Term Follow-Up of the Endovascular Trans-Vessel Wall Technique for Parenchymal Access in Rabbit with Full Clinical Integration

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Johan; Jonsson, Stefan; Holmin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Endovascular techniques are providing options to surgical/percutaneous cell transplantation methods. Some cells, e.g. insulin producing cells, are not suitable for intra-luminal transplantation and for such cells, other options must be found. We have constructed a “nanocatheter” with a penetrating tip for vessel perforation, thereby creating a working channel for parenchymal access by endovascular technique. To finish the procedure safely, the distal tip is detached to provide a securing plug in the vessel wall defect. Materials and Methods We have performed interventions with full clinical integration in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), the subclavian artery and the external carotid artery in rabbits. No hemorrhagic- or thromboembolic events occurred during the procedure. Stenosis formation and distal embolisation were analyzed by angiography and macroscopic inspection during autopsy at five, 30 and 80 days. All animals and implanted devices were also evaluated by micro-dissections and histochemical analysis. Results In this study we show safety data on the trans-vessel wall technique by behavioral, angiographical and histological analysis. No stenosis formation was observed at any of the follow-up time points. No animals or organs have shown any signs of distress due to the intervention. Histological examination showed no signs of hemorrhage, excellent biocompatibility with no inflammation and a very limited fibrous capsule formation around the device, comparable to titanium implants. Further, no histological changes were detected in the endothelia of the vessels subject to intervention. Conclusions The trans-vessel wall technique can be applied for e.g. cell transplantations, local substance administration and tissue sampling with low risk for complications during the procedure and low risk for hemorrhage, stenosis development or adverse tissue reactions with an 80 days follow-up time. The benefit should be greatest in organs that are

  18. Effect of color on pilot performance and transfer functions using a full-spectrum, calligraphic, color display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    The use of blue and red color in out-of-window cockpit displays, in full-spectrum calligraphic computer-generated display systems, is studied with attention given to pilot stereographic depth perception and response to visual cues. Displays for vertical approach, with dynamic and frozen-range landing approach and perspective arrays, are analyzed. Pilot transfer function and the transfer function associated with the contrasted approach and perspective arrays are discussed. Out-of-window blue lights are perceived by pilots as indicating greater distance depth, red lights as indicating proximity. The computer-generated chromatic display was adapted to flight simulators for the tests.

  19. Three-dimensional elastic full waveform inversion of land data using an envelope-based misfit function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, D.; Yuan, Y. O.; Gao, F.; Simons, F. J.; Tromp, J.

    2015-12-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is an efficient data fitting technique used to estimate properties of the Earth (e.g., compressional and/or shear wavespeeds) from seismic data by minimizing the misfit between observed and simulated seismograms. Because of the very high computational cost, this technique has so far been used either with a 2D full elastic formulation or a 3D acoustic formulation applied to active-source surveys to image the shallow (i.e., the top few kilometers) subsurface. However, the Earth is three-dimensional, (visco)elastic and highly heterogeneous. Therefore, obtaining more accurate models requires solving a full 3D elastic wave equation. In this study we apply elastic FWI to synthetic 3D datasets, generated for realistic land geology with complex shallow structures. The seismic traces recorded on the surface are dominated by high-amplitude and dispersive surface waves. Inversion of these seismograms makes conventional (waveform difference) FWI highly sensitive to the initial model due to increased nonlinear behavior of the misfit function. For such datasets we extend the envelope-based misfit function (Yuan et al. 2015) to 3D geometry while inverting surfaces waves at early stages of the FWI in order to improve the shallow parts of the P and S wavespeeds. We demonstrate that reliable near surface models allow us to better reconstruct deeper parts at later stages, while inverting body waves using a waveform difference misfit function. We also show that 2D inversion of 3D data collected in complex geological settings is not as accurate as full 3D FWI.

  20. A Selective C-H Deprotonation Strategy to Access Functionalized Arynes by Using Hypervalent Iodine.

    PubMed

    Sundalam, Sunil K; Nilova, Aleksandra; Seidl, Thomas L; Stuart, David R

    2016-07-11

    Described here is an efficient method to access highly functionalized arynes from unsymmetrical aryl(mesityl)iodonium tosylate salts. The iodonium salts are prepared in a single pot from either commercially available aryl iodides or arylboronic acids. The aryne intermediates are generated by ortho-C-H deprotonation of aryl(mesityl)iodonium salt with a commercially available amide base and trapped in a cycloaddition reaction with furan in moderate to good yields. Coupling partners for the aryne intermediates beyond furan are also described, including benzyl azide and alicyclic amine nucleophiles. The regio- and chemoselectivity of this reaction is discussed and evidence for the spectator aryl ligand of the iodonium salt as a critical control element in selectivity is presented. PMID:27239971

  1. Integration of Mature Adipocytes to Build-Up a Functional Three-Layered Full-Skin Equivalent.

    PubMed

    Huber, Birgit; Link, Antonia; Linke, Kirstin; Gehrke, Sandra A; Winnefeld, Marc; Kluger, Petra J

    2016-08-01

    Large, deep full-thickness skin wounds from high-graded burns or trauma are not able to reepithelialize sufficiently, resulting in scar formation, mobility limitations, and cosmetic deformities. In this study, in vitro-constructed tissue replacements are needed. Furthermore, such full-skin equivalents would be helpful as in vivo-like test systems for toxicity, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical testing. Up to date, no skin equivalent is available containing the underlying subcutaneous fatty tissue. In this study, we composed a full-skin equivalent and evaluated three different media for the coculture of mature adipocytes, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes. Therefore, adipocyte medium was supplemented with ascorbyl-2-phosphate and calcium chloride, which are important for successful epidermal stratification (Air medium). This medium was further supplemented with two commercially available factor combinations often used for the in vitro culture of keratinocytes (Air-HKGS and Air-KGM medium). We showed that in all media, keratinocytes differentiated successfully to build a stratified epidermal layer and expressed cytokeratin 10 and 14. Perilipin A-positive adipocytes could be found in all tissue models for up to 14 days, whereas adipocytes in the Air-HKGS and Air-KGM medium seemed to be smaller. Adipocytes in all tissue models were able to release adipocyte-specific factors, whereas the supplementation of keratinocyte-specific factors had a slightly negative effect on adipocyte functionality. The permeability of the epidermis of all models was comparable since they were able to withstand a deep penetration of cytotoxic Triton X in the same manner. Taken together, we were able to compose functional three-layered full-skin equivalents by using the Air medium. PMID:27334067

  2. Integration of Mature Adipocytes to Build-Up a Functional Three-Layered Full-Skin Equivalent

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Birgit; Link, Antonia; Linke, Kirstin; Gehrke, Sandra A.; Winnefeld, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Large, deep full-thickness skin wounds from high-graded burns or trauma are not able to reepithelialize sufficiently, resulting in scar formation, mobility limitations, and cosmetic deformities. In this study, in vitro-constructed tissue replacements are needed. Furthermore, such full-skin equivalents would be helpful as in vivo-like test systems for toxicity, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical testing. Up to date, no skin equivalent is available containing the underlying subcutaneous fatty tissue. In this study, we composed a full-skin equivalent and evaluated three different media for the coculture of mature adipocytes, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes. Therefore, adipocyte medium was supplemented with ascorbyl-2-phosphate and calcium chloride, which are important for successful epidermal stratification (Air medium). This medium was further supplemented with two commercially available factor combinations often used for the in vitro culture of keratinocytes (Air-HKGS and Air-KGM medium). We showed that in all media, keratinocytes differentiated successfully to build a stratified epidermal layer and expressed cytokeratin 10 and 14. Perilipin A-positive adipocytes could be found in all tissue models for up to 14 days, whereas adipocytes in the Air-HKGS and Air-KGM medium seemed to be smaller. Adipocytes in all tissue models were able to release adipocyte-specific factors, whereas the supplementation of keratinocyte-specific factors had a slightly negative effect on adipocyte functionality. The permeability of the epidermis of all models was comparable since they were able to withstand a deep penetration of cytotoxic Triton X in the same manner. Taken together, we were able to compose functional three-layered full-skin equivalents by using the Air medium. PMID:27334067

  3. Overall accessibility to traveling by rail for the elderly with and without functional limitations: the whole-trip perspective.

    PubMed

    Sundling, Catherine; Berglund, Birgitta; Nilsson, Mats E; Emardson, Ragne; Pendrill, Leslie R

    2014-01-01

    Elderly persons' perceived accessibility to railway traveling depends on their functional limitations/diseases, their functional abilities and their travel behaviors in interaction with the barriers encountered during whole trips. A survey was conducted on a random sample of 1000 city residents (65-85 years old; 57% response rate). The travels were perceived least accessible by respondents with severely reduced functional ability and by those with more than one functional limitation/disease (e.g., restricted mobility and chronic pain). Those who traveled "often", perceived the accessibility to be better than those who traveled less frequently. For travelers with high functional ability, the main barriers to more frequent traveling were travel costs and low punctuality. For those with low functional ability, one's own health was reported to be the main barrier. Our results clarify the links among existing functional limitations/functional abilities, the barriers encountered, the travel behavior, and the overall accessibility to traveling. By operationalizing the whole-trip concept as a chain of events, we deliver practical knowledge on vulnerable groups for decision-making to improve the transport environment for all. PMID:25514149

  4. Overall Accessibility to Traveling by Rail for the Elderly with and without Functional Limitations: The Whole-Trip Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sundling, Catherine; Berglund, Birgitta; Nilsson, Mats E.; Emardson, Ragne; Pendrill, Leslie R.

    2014-01-01

    Elderly persons’ perceived accessibility to railway traveling depends on their functional limitations/diseases, their functional abilities and their travel behaviors in interaction with the barriers encountered during whole trips. A survey was conducted on a random sample of 1000 city residents (65–85 years old; 57% response rate). The travels were perceived least accessible by respondents with severely reduced functional ability and by those with more than one functional limitation/disease (e.g., restricted mobility and chronic pain). Those who traveled “often”, perceived the accessibility to be better than those who traveled less frequently. For travelers with high functional ability, the main barriers to more frequent traveling were travel costs and low punctuality. For those with low functional ability, one’s own health was reported to be the main barrier. Our results clarify the links among existing functional limitations/functional abilities, the barriers encountered, the travel behavior, and the overall accessibility to traveling. By operationalizing the whole-trip concept as a chain of events, we deliver practical knowledge on vulnerable groups for decision-making to improve the transport environment for all. PMID:25514149

  5. Web Site Accessibility and Usability: Towards More Functional Sites for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Ross

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore both accessibility and usability and examine the inhibitors and methods to evaluate site accessibility. Design techniques which improve end-user access and site interactivity, demonstrated by practical examples, are also studied. Design/methodology/approach: Assesses various web sites for…

  6. Specification list and function structure for a full-body dynamometer to be used aboard Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Robert

    1993-01-01

    NASA has a need for a machine which can be used as an exercise device and as an instrument to measure an astronaut's muscle performance. The purpose of the exercise device is to work various muscle groups of the astronaut to prevent muscle atrophy, the loss of muscle strength and mass from prolonged exposure to a microgravity environment. The measurement part of the machine will be used to collect data on the strength and power of the astronaut's muscle groups to be used in studies examining the effects of prolonged space inhabitation. The principle device used in this machine to both exercise and measure muscle performance is the dynamometer. The dynamometer converts electrical energy to mechanical energy and mechanical energy to electrical energy or signals. The task of the designer will be to incorporate a dynamometer into a device which can meet all of the needs discussed above. This memorandum has two sections which clarify the design task of producing a full-body dynamometer. The first section is a specification list. The specification list provides the requirements that the designer must meet in his/her design. The second part is a function structure. The function structure shows graphically the flow of material, energy, and information through the machine. These two items will be used by the designer in the design process for the full-body dynamometer.

  7. Characterization of 40 full-length MHC class IIA functional alleles in miiuy croaker: Polymorphism and positive selection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tianjun; Liu, Jiang; Sun, Yueyan; Zhu, Zhihuang; Liu, Tianxing

    2016-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex is a highly polymorphic gene superfamily in vertebrates that plays an important role in adaptive immune response. In the present study, we identified 40 full-length miiuy croaker MHC class IIA (Mimi-DAA) functional alleles from 26 miiuy croaker individuals and found that the alleles encode 30 amino acid sequences. A high level of polymorphism in Mimi-DAA was detected in miiuy croaker. The rate of non-synonymous substitutions (d(N)) occurred at a significantly higher frequency than that of synonymous substitutions (d(S)) in the peptide-binding region (PBR) and non-PBR. This result suggests that balancing selection maintains polymorphisms at the Mimi-DAA locus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length sequences showed that the Mimi-DAA alleles clustered into three groups. However, the phylogenetic tree constructed using the exon 2 sequences indicated that the Mimi-DAA alleles clustered into two groups. A total of 22 positively selected sites were identified on the Mimi-DAA alleles after testing for positive selection, and five sites were predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen, suggesting that a few selected residues may play a significant role in immune function. PMID:26598111

  8. Overall accessibility to traveling by rail for the elderly with and without functional limitations: the whole-trip perspective.

    PubMed

    Sundling, Catherine; Berglund, Birgitta; Nilsson, Mats E; Emardson, Ragne; Pendrill, Leslie R

    2014-12-01

    Elderly persons’ perceived accessibility to railway traveling depends on their functional limitations/diseases, their functional abilities and their travel behaviors in interaction with the barriers encountered during whole trips. A survey was conducted on a random sample of 1000 city residents (65–85 years old; 57% response rate). The travels were perceived least accessible by respondents with severely reduced functional ability andby those with more than one functional limitation/disease (e.g., restricted mobility and chronic pain). Those who traveled "often", perceived the accessibility to be better than those who traveled less frequently. For travelers with high functional ability, the main barriers to more frequent traveling were travel costs and low punctuality. For those with low functionalability, one's own health was reported to be the main barrier. Our results clarify the links among existing functional limitations/functional abilities, the barriers encountered, the travel behavior, and the overall accessibility to traveling. By operationalizing the whole-trip concept as a chain of events, we deliver practical knowledge on vulnerable groups for decision-making to improve the transport environment for all. PMID:25590078

  9. Identification and Functional Analyses of 11 769 Full-length Human cDNAs Focused on Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Wakamatsu, Ai; Kimura, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Nomura, Nobuo; Sugano, Sumio; Isogai, Takao

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed diversity of mRNA produced as a result of alternative splicing in order to evaluate gene function. First, we predicted the number of human genes transcribed into protein-coding mRNAs by using the sequence information of full-length cDNAs and 5′-ESTs and obtained 23 241 of such human genes. Next, using these genes, we analyzed the mRNA diversity and consequently sequenced and identified 11 769 human full-length cDNAs whose predicted open reading frames were different from other known full-length cDNAs. Especially, 30% of the cDNAs we identified contained variation in the transcription start site (TSS). Our analysis, which particularly focused on multiple variable first exons (FEVs) formed due to the alternative utilization of TSSs, led to the identification of 261 FEVs expressed in the tissue-specific manner. Quantification of the expression profiles of 13 genes by real-time PCR analysis further confirmed the tissue-specific expression of FEVs, e.g. OXR1 had specific TSS in brain and tumor tissues, and so on. Finally, based on the results of our mRNA diversity analysis, we have created the FLJ Human cDNA Database. From our result, it has been understood mechanisms that one gene produces suitable protein-coding transcripts responding to the situation and the environment. PMID:19880432

  10. Function-Space-Based Solution Scheme for the Size-Modified Poisson-Boltzmann Equation in Full-Potential DFT.

    PubMed

    Ringe, Stefan; Oberhofer, Harald; Hille, Christoph; Matera, Sebastian; Reuter, Karsten

    2016-08-01

    The size-modified Poisson-Boltzmann (MPB) equation is an efficient implicit solvation model which also captures electrolytic solvent effects. It combines an account of the dielectric solvent response with a mean-field description of solvated finite-sized ions. We present a general solution scheme for the MPB equation based on a fast function-space-oriented Newton method and a Green's function preconditioned iterative linear solver. In contrast to popular multigrid solvers, this approach allows us to fully exploit specialized integration grids and optimized integration schemes. We describe a corresponding numerically efficient implementation for the full-potential density-functional theory (DFT) code FHI-aims. We show that together with an additional Stern layer correction the DFT+MPB approach can describe the mean activity coefficient of a KCl aqueous solution over a wide range of concentrations. The high sensitivity of the calculated activity coefficient on the employed ionic parameters thereby suggests to use extensively tabulated experimental activity coefficients of salt solutions for a systematic parametrization protocol. PMID:27323006

  11. Maturation of Streptococcus pneumoniae lipoproteins by a type II signal peptidase is required for ABC transporter function and full virulence

    PubMed Central

    Khandavilli, Suneeta; Homer, Karen A; Yuste, Jose; Basavanna, Shilpa; Mitchell, Timothy; Brown, Jeremy S

    2008-01-01

    Cell surface lipoproteins are important for the full virulence of several bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. Processing of prolipoproteins seems to be conserved among different bacterial species, and requires type II signal peptidase (Lsp) mediated cleavage of the N-terminal signal peptide to form the mature lipoprotein. Lsp has been suggested as a target for new antibiotic therapies, but at present there are only limited data on the function of Lsp for Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. We have investigated the function and role during disease pathogenesis of the S. pneumoniae Lsp, which, blast searches suggest, is encoded by the gene Sp0928. Expression of Sp0928 protected Escherichia coli against the Lsp antagonist globomycin, and proteomics and immunoblot analysis demonstrated that deletion of Sp0928 prevented processing of S. pneumoniae prolipoproteins to mature lipoproteins. These data strongly suggest that Sp0928 encodes the S. pneumoniae Lsp. However, immunoblots of membrane-associated proteins, immunoelectron microscopy and flow cytometry assays all confirmed that in the absence of Lsp, immature lipoproteins were still attached to the cell surface. Despite preservation of lipoprotein attachment to the cell membrane, loss of S. pneumoniae Lsp resulted in several phenotypes associated with impaired lipoprotein function and reduced S. pneumoniae replication in animal models of infection. PMID:18086214

  12. Right ventricular diastolic function in dialysis patients could be affected by vascular access.

    PubMed

    Di Lullo, Luca; Floccari, Fulvio; Polito, Pasquale

    2011-01-01

    Tricuspid annular plane excursion (TAPSE) measurement in echocardiography is a measure of heart diastolic distensibility: a low TAPSE indicates reduced ventricular distensibility leading to diastolic dysfunction. It is a good prognostic index for cardiac mortality risk in congestive heart failure patients, adding significant prognostic information to the NYHA clinical classification. Our study was designed to evaluate the effect of a single hemodialysis (HD) session on diastolic function and TAPSE, focusing on the effects of vascular access typology. Twenty chronically uremic patients (age 51 ± 10 years, dialytic age 24 ± 8 months), without overt heart disease, underwent conventional two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography immediately before starting and 15 min after ending a mid-week HD session. Ten patients had distal radiocephalic arterovenous fistula (AVF), and 10 had permanent central venous catheters (CVC). The amount of fluid removed by HD was 2,706 ± 1,047 g/session. HD led to a reduction in TAPSE, left ventricle end-diastole volume, left ventricle end-systole volume, right ventricle end-diastole diameter, peak early transmitral flow velocity, and the ratio of early to late Doppler velocities of diastolic mitral flow. AVF patients showed greater right ventricle diameters versus CVC patients, while TAPSE appeared higher in the latter. Only the AVF patient group showed TAPSE values <15 mm. Our data confirm the effects of terminal uremia on right ventricle function (chamber dilation, impaired diastolic function), showing that these abnormalities are more frequent in AVF patients as opposed to CVC patients. It is reasonable to explain these clinical features as the effect of preload increase operated by AVF. PMID:21196771

  13. Contrast transfer functions for Zernike phase contrast in full-field transmission hard X-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Cheng, Yin; Heine, Ruth; Baumbach, Tilo

    2016-03-21

    Full-field transmission hard X-ray microscopy (TXM) has been widely applied to study morphology and structures with high spatial precision and to dynamic processes. Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) in hard X-ray TXM is often utilized to get an in-line phase contrast enhancement for weak-absorbing materials with little contrast differences. Here, following forward image formation, we derive and simplify the contrast transfer functions (CTFs) of the Zernike phase imaging system in TXM based on a linear space-shift-invariant imaging mode under certain approximations. The CTFs in ZPC in their simplified forms show a high similarity to the one in free-space propagation X-ray imaging systems. PMID:27136800

  14. Full-zone spectral envelope function formalism for the optimization of line and point tunnel field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Verreck, Devin Groeseneken, Guido; Verhulst, Anne S.; Mocuta, Anda; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron; Van de Put, Maarten; Magnus, Wim; Sorée, Bart

    2015-10-07

    Efficient quantum mechanical simulation of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) is indispensable to allow for an optimal configuration identification. We therefore present a full-zone 15-band quantum mechanical solver based on the envelope function formalism and employing a spectral method to reduce computational complexity and handle spurious solutions. We demonstrate the versatility of the solver by simulating a 40 nm wide In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As lineTFET and comparing it to p-n-i-n configurations with various pocket and body thicknesses. We find that the lineTFET performance is not degraded compared to semi-classical simulations. Furthermore, we show that a suitably optimized p-n-i-n TFET can obtain similar performance to the lineTFET.

  15. Effects of extrusion cooking on functional properties of mixtures of full-fat soy and sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Iwe, M O

    1998-01-01

    Full-fat soy and sweet potato were extruded at 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0 ratios in an Insta-Pro 600 single screw extruder operated at 180, 200, 220 rpm respectively. Functional properties: bulk density, expansion ratio, water absorption and solubility indices and trypsin inhibitor were assayed. Results showed that addition of soybeans to sweet potatoes considerably increased the protein, fat, ash and trypsin inhibitor levels of the raw material mixtures. It also led to decreases in viscosities of raw mixtures, with corresponding increases in pasting temperatures. Addition of soybean significantly (p <0.05) affected expansion ratio, water absorption and solubility indices and trypsin inhibitor but not bulk density. Variation in screw rotation speed (rpm) significantly (p <0.05) affected only water solubility index at increasing speed. Extrudates generally received severe heat treatment, rendering them applicable only in soup bases, flour mixes and breakfast foods. PMID:10890756

  16. Full-wave Simulations of ICRF Heating in Toroidal Plasma with Non-Maxwellian Distribution Functions in the FLR Limit

    SciTech Connect

    E.J. Valeo, C.K. Phillips, H. Okuda, J.C. Wright, P.T. Bonoli, L.A. Berry, and the RF SciDAC Team

    2007-07-18

    At the power levels required for signicant heating and current drive in magnetically-con ned toroidal plasma, modi cation of the particle distribution function from a Maxwellian shape is likely [T.H. Stix, Nucl. Fusion, 15:737 1975], with consequent changes in wave propagation and in the location and amount of absorption. In order to study these e ects computationally, the nite-Larmor-radius, full-wave, hot-plasma toroidal simulation code, TORIC [M. Brambilla. Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion, 41:1, 1999], has been extended to allow the prescription of arbitrary velocity distributions of the form ƒ (ν||, ν⊥, Ψ, θ). For H minority heating of a D-H plasma with anisotropic Maxwellian H distributions, the fractional H absorption varies signi cantly with changes in parallel temperature but is essentially independent of perpendicular temperature.

  17. Improved yields of full-length functional human FGF1 can be achieved using the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Fantoni, Adele; Bill, Roslyn M; Gustafsson, Lena; Hedfalk, Kristina

    2007-03-01

    We have produced human fibroblast growth factor 1 (hFGF1) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris in order to obtain the large amounts of active protein required for subsequent functional and structural characterization. Four constructs were made to examine both intracellular and secreted expression, with variations in the location of the His6 tag at either end of the peptide. hFGF1 could be produced from all four constructs in shake flasks, but production was optimized by growing only the highest-yielding of these strains, which produced hFGF1 intracellularly, under tightly controlled conditions in a 3 L fermentor. One hundred and eight milligrams of pure protein was achieved per liter culture (corresponding to 0.68 mg of protein per gram of wet cells), the function of which was verified using NIH 3T3 cell cultures. This is a 30-fold improvement over previously reported yields of full-length hFGF1. PMID:17134911

  18. Human wild-type full-length tau accumulation disrupts mitochondrial dynamics and the functions via increasing mitofusins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia-Chun; Hu, Yu; Wang, Zhi-hao; Luo, Yu; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Xiu-Ping; Feng, Qiong; Wang, Qun; Ye, Keqiang; Liu, Gong-Ping; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular accumulation of tau protein is hallmark of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD), however, the cellular mechanism whereby tau accumulation causes neurodegeneration is poorly understood. Here we report that overexpression of human wild-type full-length tau (termed htau) disrupted mitochondrial dynamics by enhancing fusion and induced their perinuclear accumulation in HEK293 cells and rat primary hippocampal neurons. The htau accumulation at later stage inhibited mitochondrial functions shown by the decreased ATP level, the ratio of ATP/ADP and complex I activity. Simultaneously, the cell viability was decreased with retraction of the cellular/neuronal processes. Further studies demonstrated that htau accumulation increased fusion proteins, including OPA1 and mitofusins (Mfn1, Mfn2) and reduced the ubiquitination of Mfn2. Downregulation of the mitofusins by shRNA to ~45% or ~52% of the control levels attenuated the htau-enhanced mitochondrial fusion and restored the functions, while downregulation of OPA1 to ~50% of the control level did not show rescue effects. Finally, abnormal mitochondrial accumulation and dysfunction were also observed in the brains of htau transgenic mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate that htau accumulation decreases cell viability and causes degeneration via enhancing mitofusin-associated mitochondrial fusion, which provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tauopathies. PMID:27099072

  19. Identification of 48 full-length MHC-DAB functional alleles in miiuy croaker and evidence for positive selection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Sun, Yueyan; Xu, Tianjun

    2016-07-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a vital role in the immune response and are a highly polymorphic gene superfamily in vertebrates. As the molecular marker associated with polymorphism and disease susceptibility/resistance, the polymorphism of MHC genes has been investigated in many tetrapods and teleosts. Most studies were focused on the polymorphism of the second exon, which encodes the peptide-binding region (PBR) in the α1- or β1-domain, but few studies have examined the full-length coding region. To comprehensive investigate the polymorphism of MHC gene, we identified 48 full-length miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) MHC class IIB (Mimi-DAB) functional alleles from 26 miiuy croaker individuals. All of the alleles encode 34 amino acid sequences, and a high level of polymorphism was detected in Mimi-DAB alleles. The rate of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) occurred at a significantly higher frequency than that of synonymous substitutions (dS) in the PBR, and this result suggests that balancing selection maintains polymorphisms at the Mimi-DAB locus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length and exon 2 sequences of Mimi-DAB alleles both showed that the Mimi-DAB alleles were clustered into two major groups. A total of 19 positive selected sites were identified on the Mimi-DAB alleles after testing for positive selection, and 14 sites were predicted to be associated with antigen-binding sites, which suggests that most of selected sites are significant for disease resistance. The polymorphism of Mimi-DAB alleles provides an important resource for analyzing the association between the polymorphism of MHC gene and disease susceptibility/resistance, and for researching the molecular selective breeding of miiuy croaker with enhanced disease resistance. PMID:27164216

  20. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RANDOM ACCESS MULTIPHOTON MICROSCOPY FOR FAST FUNCTIONAL IMAGING OF NEURONAL ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Gaddum Duemani; Kelleher, Keith; Fink, Rudy; Saggau, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic ability of neuronal dendrites to shape and integrate synaptic responses is the hallmark of information processing in the brain. Effectively studying this phenomenon requires concurrent measurements at multiple sites on live neurons. Significant progress has been made by optical imaging systems which combine confocal and multiphoton microscopy with inertia-free laser scanning. However, all systems developed to date restrict fast imaging to two dimensions. This severely limits the extent to which neurons can be studied, since they represent complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. Here we present a novel imaging system that utilizes a unique arrangement of acousto-optic deflectors to steer a focused ultra-fast laser beam to arbitrary locations in 3D space without moving the objective lens. As we demonstrate, this highly versatile random-access multiphoton microscope supports functional imaging of complex 3D cellular structures such as neuronal dendrites or neural populations at acquisition rates on the order of tens of kilohertz. PMID:18432198

  1. Predictive functional profiling using marker gene sequences and community diversity analyses of microbes in full-scale anaerobic sludge digesters.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Liu, Guoji; Li, Hongping; Xu, Li; Du, Lili; Yang, Bo

    2016-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is widely used in treating the sewage sludge, as it can reduce the amount of sludge, eliminate pathogens and produce biofuel. To enhance the operational performance and stability of anaerobic bioreactors, operational and conventional chemical data from full-scale sludge anaerobic digesters were collected over a 2-year period and summarized, and the microbial community diversity of the sludge sample was investigated at various stages of the AD process. For the purpose of distinguishing between the functional and community diversity of the microbes, Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) software was used to impute the prevalence of 16S rDNA marker gene sequences in the difference in various sludge samples. Meanwhile, a taxa analysis was also carried out to investigate the different sludge samples. The microbial community diversity analysis of one AD sludge sample showed that the most dominant bacterial genera were Saccharicrinis, Syntrophus, Anaerotruncus and Thermanaerothrix. Among archaea, acetoclastic Methanosaeta represented 56.0 %, and hydrogenotrophic Methanospirillum, Methanoculleus, Methanothermus and Methanolinea accounted for 41.3 % of all methanogens. The taxa, genetic and functional prediction analyses of the feedstock and AD sludge samples suggested great community diversity differences between them. The taxa of bacteria in two AD sludge samples were considerably different, but the abundances of the functional KEGG pathways took on similar levels. The numbers of identified pathogens were significantly lower in the digested sludge than in the feedstock, but the PICRUSt results showed the difference in "human diseases" abundances in the level-1 pathway between the two sludge samples was small. PMID:27016946

  2. Body Functions and Structures Pertinent to Infrared Thermography-Based Access for Clients with Severe Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memarian, Negar; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.; Chau, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Infrared thermography has been recently proposed as an access technology for individuals with disabilities, but body functions and structures pertinent to its use have not been documented. Seven clients (2 adults, 5 youth) with severe disabilities and their primary caregivers participated in this study. All clients had a Gross Motor Functional…

  3. Invariant NKT Cell Development Requires a Full Complement of Functional CD3 ζ Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-Based Activation Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Amy M.; Blevins, Jon S.; Tomson, Farol L.; Eitson, Jennifer L.; Medeiros, Jennifer J.; Yarovinsky, Felix; Norgard, Michael V.; van Oers, Nicolai S. C.

    2010-01-01

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells regulate early immune responses to infections, in part because of their rapid release of IFN-γ and IL-4. iNKT cells are proposed to reduce the severity of Lyme disease following Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Unlike conventional T cells, iNKT cells express an invariant αβ TCR that recognizes lipids bound to the MHC class I-like molecule, CD1d. Furthermore, these cells are positively selected following TCR interactions with glycolipid/CD1d complexes expressed on CD4+CD8+ thymocytes. Whereas conventional T cell development can proceed with as few as 4/10 CD3 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs), little is known about the ITAM requirements for iNKT cell selection and expansion. We analyzed iNKT cell development in CD3 ζ transgenic lines with various tyrosine-to-phenylalanine substitutions (YF) that eliminated the functions of the first (YF1,2), third (YF5,6), or all three (YF1–6) CD3 ζ ITAMs. iNKT cell numbers were significantly reduced in the thymus, spleen, and liver of all YF mice compared with wild type mice. The reduced numbers of iNKT cells resulted from significant reductions in the expression of the early growth response 2 and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger transcription factors. In the mice with few to no iNKT cells, there was no difference in the severity of Lyme arthritis compared with wild type controls, following infections with the spirochete B. burgdorferi. These findings indicate that a full complement of functional CD3 ζ ITAMs is required for effective iNKT cell development. The Journal of Immunology, 2010, 184: 6822–6832. PMID:20483726

  4. Exciting: a full-potential all-electron package implementing density-functional theory and many-body perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Gulans, Andris; Kontur, Stefan; Meisenbichler, Christian; Nabok, Dmitrii; Pavone, Pasquale; Rigamonti, Santiago; Sagmeister, Stephan; Werner, Ute; Draxl, Claudia

    2014-09-10

    Linearized augmented planewave methods are known as the most precise numerical schemes for solving the Kohn-Sham equations of density-functional theory (DFT). In this review, we describe how this method is realized in the all-electron full-potential computer package, exciting. We emphasize the variety of different related basis sets, subsumed as (linearized) augmented planewave plus local orbital methods, discussing their pros and cons and we show that extremely high accuracy (microhartrees) can be achieved if the basis is chosen carefully. As the name of the code suggests, exciting is not restricted to ground-state calculations, but has a major focus on excited-state properties. It includes time-dependent DFT in the linear-response regime with various static and dynamical exchange-correlation kernels. These are preferably used to compute optical and electron-loss spectra for metals, molecules and semiconductors with weak electron-hole interactions. exciting makes use of many-body perturbation theory for charged and neutral excitations. To obtain the quasi-particle band structure, the GW approach is implemented in the single-shot approximation, known as G(0)W(0). Optical absorption spectra for valence and core excitations are handled by the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, which allows for the description of strongly bound excitons. Besides these aspects concerning methodology, we demonstrate the broad range of possible applications by prototypical examples, comprising elastic properties, phonons, thermal-expansion coefficients, dielectric tensors and loss functions, magneto-optical Kerr effect, core-level spectra and more. PMID:25135665

  5. The Role of Inhibition in Age-related Off-Topic Verbosity: Not Access but Deletion and Restraint Functions.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shufei; Peng, Huamao

    2016-01-01

    The speech of older adults is commonly described as verbose and off-topic, which is thought to influence their social communication. This study investigated the role of inhibition in age-related off-topic verbosity (OTV). Inhibition consists of three functions: access, deletion, and restraint. The access function is responsible for preventing irrelevant information from accessing the attention center (pre-mechanism of inhibition); The deletion function is responsible for deleting previously relevant but currently irrelevant information from working memory, and the restraint function is responsible for restraining strong but inappropriate responses (post-mechanisms of inhibition). A referential communication task was used to determine whether OTV was influenced by the pre-mechanism of inhibition. A self-involved event interview task was used to investigate the effect of the post-mechanisms of inhibition on OTV. Results showed that the OTV of the elderly participants was associated with an age-related decline in the post-mechanisms of inhibition, while the OTV exhibited by young adults was most likely due to deficits in the pre-mechanism function of inhibition. This research contributed to fill gaps in the existing knowledge about the potential relationship between specific functions of inhibition and age-related OTV. PMID:27199793

  6. The Role of Inhibition in Age-related Off-Topic Verbosity: Not Access but Deletion and Restraint Functions

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shufei; Peng, Huamao

    2016-01-01

    The speech of older adults is commonly described as verbose and off-topic, which is thought to influence their social communication. This study investigated the role of inhibition in age-related off-topic verbosity (OTV). Inhibition consists of three functions: access, deletion, and restraint. The access function is responsible for preventing irrelevant information from accessing the attention center (pre-mechanism of inhibition); The deletion function is responsible for deleting previously relevant but currently irrelevant information from working memory, and the restraint function is responsible for restraining strong but inappropriate responses (post-mechanisms of inhibition). A referential communication task was used to determine whether OTV was influenced by the pre-mechanism of inhibition. A self-involved event interview task was used to investigate the effect of the post-mechanisms of inhibition on OTV. Results showed that the OTV of the elderly participants was associated with an age-related decline in the post-mechanisms of inhibition, while the OTV exhibited by young adults was most likely due to deficits in the pre-mechanism function of inhibition. This research contributed to fill gaps in the existing knowledge about the potential relationship between specific functions of inhibition and age-related OTV. PMID:27199793

  7. Sign problem in full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo: Linear and sublinear representation regimes for the exact wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, James J.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Spencer, James S.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the sign problem for full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC), a stochastic algorithm for finding the ground-state solution of the Schrödinger equation with substantially reduced computational cost compared with exact diagonalization. We find k -space Hubbard models for which the solution is yielded with storage that grows sublinearly in the size of the many-body Hilbert space, in spite of using a wave function that is simply a linear combination of states. The FCIQMC algorithm is able to find this sublinear scaling regime without bias and with only a choice of the Hamiltonian basis. By means of a demonstration we solve for the energy of a 70-site half-filled system (with a space of 1038 determinants) in 250 core hours, substantially quicker than the ˜1036 core hours that would be required by exact diagonalization. This is the largest space that has been sampled in an unbiased fashion. The challenge for the recently developed FCIQMC method is made clear: Expand the sublinear scaling regime while retaining exact-on-average accuracy. We comment upon the relationship between this and the scaling law previously observed in the initiator adaptation (i-FCIQMC). We argue that our results change the landscape for the development of FCIQMC and related methods.

  8. I2-Catalyzed Multicomponent Reactions for Accessing Densely Functionalized Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines and Their Disulphenylated Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Qiu, Jiang-Kai; Jiang, Bo; Hao, Wen-Juan; Guo, Cheng; Tu, Shu-Jiang

    2016-04-15

    New I2-catalyzed multicomponent bicyclization reactions of β-ketonitriles with sulfonyl hydrazides have been established, providing a direct and metal-free access toward unreported pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-4-ium sulfonates. The latter could be quantitatively converted into densely functionalized pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines in the presence of bases. Using sulfonyl hydrazides as a sulfenylating agent, the resulting pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines enabled I2-catalyzed unprecedented disulphenylations to access fully substituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines through direct C(sp(2))-H bond bifunctionalization. PMID:26991413

  9. Computational Study on Full-length Human Ku70 with Double Stranded DNA: Dynamics, Interactions and Functional Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    The Ku70/80 heterodimer is the first repair protein in the initial binding of double-strand break (DSB) ends following DNA damage, and is a component of nonhomologous end joining repair, the primary pathway for DSB repair in mammalian cells. In this study we constructed a full-length human Ku70 structure based on its crystal structure, and performed 20 ns conventional molecular dynamic (CMD) simulations on this protein and several other complexes with short DNA duplexes of different sequences. The trajectories of these simulations indicated that, without the topological support of Ku80, the residues in the bridge and C-terminal arm of Ku70 are more flexible than other experimentally identified domains. We studied the two missing loops in the crystal structure and predicted that they are also very flexible. Simulations revealed that they make an important contribution to the Ku70 interaction with DNA. Dislocation of the previously studied SAP domain was observed in several systems, implying its role in DNA binding. Targeted molecular dynamic (TMD) simulation was also performed for one system with a far-away 14bp DNA duplex. The TMD trajectory and energetic analysis disclosed detailed interactions of the DNA-binding residues during the DNA dislocation, and revealed a possible conformational transition for a DSB end when encountering Ku70 in solution. Compared to experimentally based analysis, this study identified more detailed interactions between DNA and Ku70. Free energy analysis indicated Ku70 alone is able to bind DNA with relatively high affinity, with consistent contributions from various domains of Ku70 in different systems. The functional implications of these domains in the processes of Ku heterodimerization and DNA damage recognition and repair can be characterized in detail based upon this analysis.

  10. Detective quantum efficiency measured as a function of energy for two full-field digital mammography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, N. W.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents detective quantum efficiency (DQE) data measured for a range of x-ray beam qualities for two full-field digital mammography (FFDM) systems: a caesium iodide (CsI) detector-based unit and a system designed around an amorphous selenium (a-Se) x-ray detector. Four beam qualities were studied for each system, covering mean energies from 17.8 keV to 23.4 keV for the CsI system and 17.8 keV to 24.7 keV for the a-Se unit. These were set using 2, 4, 6 and 7 cm polymethylmethacralate (PMMA) and typical tube voltage and target/filter combinations selected by the automatic exposure control (AEC) program used clinically on these systems. Normalized noise power spectra (NNPS) were calculated from flood images acquired at these beam qualities for a target detector air kerma of 100 µGy. Modulation transfer function (MTF) data were acquired at 28 kV and Mo/Mo target/filter setting. The DQE was then calculated from the MTF and NNPS results. For comparison, the quantum detective efficiency (QDE) and energy absorption efficiency (EAE) were calculated from tabulated narrow beam spectral data. With regard to detector response, some energy dependence was noted for pixel value plotted against air kerma at the detector. This amounted to a change in the gradient of the detector response of approximately 15% and 30% per keV for the CsI- and a-Se-based systems, respectively. For the DQE results, a reduction in DQE(0) of 22% was found for the CsI-based unit as beam quality changed from 25 kV Mo/Mo and 2 cm PMMA to 32 kV Rh/Rh and 7 cm PMMA. For the a-Se system, a change in beam quality from 25 kV Mo/Mo and 2 cm PMMA to 34 kV Mo/Rh and 7 cm PMMA led to a reduction in DQE(0) of 8%. Comparing measured data with simple calculations, a reduction in x-ray quantum detection efficiency of 27% was expected for the CsI-based system, while a reduction of 11% was predicted for the a-Se system.

  11. Detective quantum efficiency measured as a function of energy for two full-field digital mammography systems.

    PubMed

    Marshall, N W

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents detective quantum efficiency (DQE) data measured for a range of x-ray beam qualities for two full-field digital mammography (FFDM) systems: a caesium iodide (CsI) detector-based unit and a system designed around an amorphous selenium (a-Se) x-ray detector. Four beam qualities were studied for each system, covering mean energies from 17.8 keV to 23.4 keV for the CsI system and 17.8 keV to 24.7 keV for the a-Se unit. These were set using 2, 4, 6 and 7 cm polymethylmethacralate (PMMA) and typical tube voltage and target/filter combinations selected by the automatic exposure control (AEC) program used clinically on these systems. Normalized noise power spectra (NNPS) were calculated from flood images acquired at these beam qualities for a target detector air kerma of 100 microGy. Modulation transfer function (MTF) data were acquired at 28 kV and Mo/Mo target/filter setting. The DQE was then calculated from the MTF and NNPS results. For comparison, the quantum detective efficiency (QDE) and energy absorption efficiency (EAE) were calculated from tabulated narrow beam spectral data. With regard to detector response, some energy dependence was noted for pixel value plotted against air kerma at the detector. This amounted to a change in the gradient of the detector response of approximately 15% and 30% per keV for the CsI- and a-Se-based systems, respectively. For the DQE results, a reduction in DQE(0) of 22% was found for the CsI-based unit as beam quality changed from 25 kV Mo/Mo and 2 cm PMMA to 32 kV Rh/Rh and 7 cm PMMA. For the a-Se system, a change in beam quality from 25 kV Mo/Mo and 2 cm PMMA to 34 kV Mo/Rh and 7 cm PMMA led to a reduction in DQE(0) of 8%. Comparing measured data with simple calculations, a reduction in x-ray quantum detection efficiency of 27% was expected for the CsI-based system, while a reduction of 11% was predicted for the a-Se system. PMID:19384004

  12. Full-duplex fiber-wireless link for alternative wired and 40-GHz band wireless access based on differential quaternary phase-shift optical single sideband millimeter-wave signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruijiao; Ma, Jianxin; Xin, Xiangjun

    2015-02-01

    A full-duplex fiber-wireless link with a uniform single sideband differential quaternary phase-shift keying optical millimeter-wave signal is proposed to provide wired or 40-GHz band wireless access alternatively. The uniform optical millimeter-wave signal that supports services for wired or wireless users is produced via an LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator. After being transmitted to the hybrid optical network unit (HONU), it can be demodulated in different patterns on the demand of the user terminals for wired or wireless access. Simultaneously, part of the blank optical carrier abstracted from it is reused as the uplink optical carrier, so the HONU is free from the laser source, and thus, the complexity and cost of the system are reduced. Moreover, since the two tones of the dual-tone optical millimeter wave come from the same source, they maintain high coherency even after being transmitted over fiber. Additionally, the downlink data are carried by one tone of the dual-tone optical millimeter wave, so the downlink optical millimeter-wave signal suffers little from the fiber chromatic dispersion and laser phase noise. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that our proposed full-duplex link for alternative wired and wireless access maintains good performance even when the transmission link with standard single mode fiber is extended to 30 km.

  13. I2/O2-Enabled N-S Bond Formation to Access Functionalized 1,2,3-Thiadiazoles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Li, Qun; Li, Yanrong; Sun, Hao; Jiang, Bo; Li, Guigen

    2016-03-18

    A new, metal-free intermolecular formal [3 + 2] heterocyclization between triethylammonium thiolates and aryl hydrazines has been established by using the combination of I2 and O2 as efficient oxidation sources, allowing a concise and low-cost access to new densely functionalized 1,2,3-thiadiazoles with good to excellent yields. The reaction showed a broad scope of substrates of both reactants and attractive characteristics consisting of eco-friendly oxidants, flexible structural modification, broad functional group compatibility, and mild reaction conditions. PMID:26927417

  14. Signal 3 determines tolerance versus full activation of naive CD8 T cells: dissociating proliferation and development of effector function.

    PubMed

    Curtsinger, Julie M; Lins, Debra C; Mescher, Matthew F

    2003-05-01

    Activation of naive CD8 T cells to undergo clonal expansion and develop effector function requires three signals: (a) Ag, (b) costimulation, and (c) IL-12 or adjuvant. The requirement for the third signal to stimulate Ag-dependent proliferation is variable, making the greatest contribution when Ag levels are low. At high Ag levels, extensive proliferation can occur in vitro or in vivo in the absence of a third signal. However, despite having undergone the same number of divisions, cells that expand in the absence of a third signal fail to develop cytolytic effector function. Thus, proliferation and development of cytolytic function can be fully uncoupled. Furthermore, these cells are rendered functionally tolerant in vivo, in that subsequent restimulation with a potent stimulus results in limited clonal expansion, impaired IFN-gamma production, and no cytolytic function. Thus, the presence or absence of the third signal appears to be a critical variable in determining whether stimulation by Ag results in tolerance versus development of effector function and establishment of a responsive memory population. PMID:12732656

  15. Efficient treatment of stacked metasurfaces for optimizing and enhancing the range of accessible optical functionalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, C.; Sperrhake, J.; Pertsch, T.

    2016-06-01

    We present, discuss, and validate an adapted S -matrix formalism for an efficient, simplified treatment of stacked homogeneous periodically structured metasurfaces operated under normally incident plane wave excitation. The proposed formalism can be applied to any material system, arbitrarily shaped metaatoms, at any frequency, and with arbitrary subwavelength periods. Circumventing the introduction of any kind of effective parameters we directly use the S parameters of the individual metasurfaces to calculate the response of an arbitrary stack. In fact, the S parameters are the complex parameters of choice fully characterizing the homogeneous metasurfaces, in particular with respect to its polarization manipulating properties. Just as effective material parameters like the permittivity and the permeability or wave parameters like the propagation constant and the impedance, the stacking based upon S matrices can be applied as long as the individual layers are decoupled with respect to their near fields. This requirement eventually sets the limits for using the optical properties of the individual layers to calculate the response of the stacked system—this being the conceptual aim for any homogeneous metasurface or metamaterial layer and therefore the essence of what is eventually possible with homogeneous metasurfaces. As simple and appealing as this approach is, it is as powerful as well: Combining structured metasurfaces with each other as well as with isotropic, anisotropic, or chiral homogeneous layers is possible by simple semianalytical S -matrix multiplication. Hence, complex stacks and resonators can be set up, accurately treated and optimized with respect to their dispersive polarization sensitive optical functionality without the need for further rigorous full-wave simulations.

  16. Hydrologic and Pollutant Removal Performance of a Full-Scale, Fully Functional Permeable Pavement Parking Lot - paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    To meet the need for long-term, full-scale, replicated studies of permeable pavement systems used in their intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes to evaluate these systems, the EPA’s Urb...

  17. Graduate Student WAIS-III Scoring Accuracy Is a Function of Full Scale IQ and Complexity of Examiner Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Richard, David C. S.

    2005-01-01

    Research on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) suggests that practicing clinical psychologists and graduate students make item-level scoring errors that affect IQ, index, and subtest scores. Studies have been limited in that Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and examiner administration,…

  18. Ramsey Interference in One-Dimensional Systems: The Full Distribution Function of Fringe Contrast as a Probe of Many-Body Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagawa, Takuya; Pielawa, Susanne; Demler, Eugene; Imambekov, Adilet; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Gritsev, Vladimir

    2010-06-25

    We theoretically analyze Ramsey interference experiments in one-dimensional quasicondensates and obtain explicit expressions for the time evolution of full distribution functions of fringe contrast. We show that distribution functions contain unique signatures of the many-body mechanism of decoherence. We argue that Ramsey interference experiments provide a powerful tool for analyzing strongly correlated nature of 1D interacting systems.

  19. Modeling a Cascade of Effects: The Role of Speed and Executive Functioning in Preterm/Full-Term Differences in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified deficits in executive functioning in pre-adolescent preterms and modeled their role, along with processing speed, in explaining preterm/full-term differences in reading and mathematics. Preterms (less than 1750 g) showed deficits at 11 years on a battery of tasks tapping the three basic executive functions identified by…

  20. Anomalous Dispersion, Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents, the Full Intermediate Scattering Function and 3D-PTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, J. H.; Moroni, M.

    2002-12-01

    Velocity fluctuations over evolving scales of motion, on the scale of observation, often lead to anomalous dispersion of conservative tracers in fluid mechanics studies of turbulence and heterogeneous porous media. Recent theories of anomalous dispersion lead to space-time non-local constitutive models for the flux of concentration, which can adequately model this problem. We review one such model, which has its foundations in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. The basic premise is that knowledge of the evolution of the self-part of the intermediate scattering function is all that is required to model the phenomena of interest. We derive the basic integro-partial-differential equation this function satisfies and solve the inverse problem to obtain the kernels and use these to describe the wave-vector and frequency dependent dispersion tensor. Subsequently we use this information to study the transition from anomalous to Fickian dispersion. We also make use of the finite size Lyapunov exponent in the description of the dispersive process. Three-camera, three-dimensional, particle -tracking velocimetry experiments are undertaken to study dispersion within a matched-index heterogeneous porous medium. Particle trajectories, mean square displacements, velocity covariance's, intermediate scattering functions, classical dispersion tensors, wave-vector and frequency dependent generalized dispersion tensors and the finite-size Lyapunov exponents are obtained. Comparisons are made in the small frequency and small wave vector limits to obtain the transition from preasymptotic to asymptotic dispersion.

  1. Angular correlation functions of X-ray point-like sources in the full exposure XMM-LSS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyiv, A.; Clerc, N.; Plionis, M.; Surdej, J.; Pierre, M.; Basilakos, S.; Chiappetti, L.; Gandhi, P.; Gosset, E.; Melnyk, O.; Pacaud, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Our aim is to study the large-scale structure of different types of AGN using the medium-deep XMM-LSS survey. Methods: We measure the two-point angular correlation function of 5700 and 2500 X-ray point-like sources over the 11 sq. deg. XMM-LSS field in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard (2-10 keV) bands. For the conversion from the angular to the spatial correlation function we used the Limber integral equation and the luminosity-dependent density evolution model of the AGN X-ray luminosity function. Results: We have found significant angular correlations with the power-law parameters γ = 1.81 ± 0.02, θ0 = 1.3'' ± 0.2'' for the soft, and γ = 2.00 ± 0.04, θ0 = 7.3'' ± 1.0'' for the hard bands. The amplitude of the correlation function w(θ) is higher in the hard than in the soft band for fx ≲ 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 and lower above this flux limit. We confirm that the clustering strength θ0 grows with the flux limit of the sample, a trend which is also present in the amplitude of the spatial correlation function, but only for the soft band. In the hard band, it remains almost constant with r0 ≃ 10h-1 Mpc, irrespective of the flux limit. Our analysis of AGN subsamples with different hardness ratios shows that the sources with a hard-spectrum are more clustered than soft-spectrum ones. This result may be a hint that the two main types of AGN populate different environments. Finally, we find that our clustering results correspond to an X-ray selected AGN bias factor of 2.5 for the soft band sources (at a median bar{z} ≃ 1.1) and 3.3 for the hard band sources (at a median bar{z} ≃ 1), which translates into a host dark matter halo mass of 1013h-1M⊙ and 1013.7h-1M⊙ for the soft and hard bands, respectively. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Olivier Garcet who has initiated the present work just before his sudden death.

  2. Full-duplex RoF link with broadband mm-wave signal in W-band based on WDM-PON access network with optical mm-wave local oscillator broadcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianxin; Zhang, Ruijiao; Li, Yanjie; Zhang, Qi; Yu, Jianguo

    2015-02-01

    A novel full-duplex link with an optical mm-wave local oscillator broadcasting for broadband millimeter (mm)-wave wireless access in W-band is proposed based on the WDM-PON-RoF. In our scheme, a universal optical mm-wave local oscillator in W-band is distributed over the whole network to up-convert the downlink IF optical signal, which not only improves the spectrum efficiency by reducing the bandwidth requirement of each downlink, but also decreases the degradation caused by the fiber chromatic dispersion. Moreover, since the incoherently down-converted uplink signal is modulated on the reused blank optical carrier extracted from the downlink signal, the base stations (BSs) need no optical source, and so its structure is simplified. The numerical simulation results agree well with the theoretical analysis and show that the proposed full-duplex link for the W-band wireless access based on WDM-PON-RoF maintains good performance with cost effective implement.

  3. Functional Communication Training in the Treatment of Problem Behavior Maintained by Access to Rituals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispoli, Mandy; Camargo, Síglia; Machalicek, Wendy; Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the assessment and treatment of problem behaviors related to rituals for children with autism. After functional analyses, we used a multiple-probe design to examine the effects of functional communication training (FCT) plus extinction and schedule thinning as a treatment package for problem behavior and appropriate…

  4. Development of Bench and Full-Scale Temperature and pH Responsive Functionalized PVDF Membranes with Tunable Properties

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Li; Isner, Austin; Waldrop, Krysta; Saad, Anthony; Takigawa, Doreen; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    Temperature and pH responsive polymers (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), and polyacrylic acid, PAA) were synthesized in one common macrofiltration PVDF membrane platform by pore-filling method. The microstructure and morphology of the PNIPAAm-PVDF, and PNIPAAm-FPAA-PVDF membranes were studied by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The membrane pore size was controlled by the swelling and shrinking of the PNIPAAm at the temperature around lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The composite membrane demonstrated a rapid and reversible swelling and deswelling change within a small temperature range. The controllable flux makes it possible to utilize this temperature responsive membrane as a valve to regulate filtration properties by temperature change. Dextran solution (Mw=2,000,000g/mol, 26 nm diameter) was used to evaluate the separation performance of the temperature responsive membranes. The ranges of dextran rejection are from 4% to 95% depending on the temperature, monomer amount and pressure. The full-scale membrane was also developed to confirm the feasibility of our bench-scale experimental results. The full-scale membrane also exhibited both temperature and pH responsivity. This system was also used for controlled nanoparticles synthesis and for dechlorination reaction. PMID:24944434

  5. A novel functional full-fat hard cheese containing liposomal nanoencapsulated green tea catechins: manufacture and recovery following simulated digestion.

    PubMed

    Rashidinejad, Ali; Birch, E John; Everett, David W

    2016-07-13

    (+)-Catechin or green tea extract were encapsulated in soy lecithin nanoliposomes and incorporated into a full-fat cheese, then ripened at 8 °C for 90 days. Cheese samples were subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion to measure total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of the cheese digesta, and to determine the catechin recovery after digestion by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Addition of catechin or green tea extract significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased TPC and antioxidant activity (measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of the full-fat cheese without affecting pH or proximate composition. HPLC analysis confirmed retention of encapsulated catechins in the cheese curd; however, individual catechins were recovered in differing amounts (15-52%) from cheese digesta after 6 h of digestion. Transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided evidence for association of nanoliposomes with the surface of milk fat globules inside the cheese matrix. The study shows the potential for using cheese as a delivery vehicle for green tea antioxidants. PMID:27374326

  6. A Liver Full of JNK: Signaling in Regulation of Cell Function and Disease Pathogenesis, and Clinical Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Ekihiro; Brenner, David A.; Karin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    c-Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family member that is activated by diverse stimuli, including cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1), reactive oxygen species (ROS), pathogens, toxins, drugs, endoplasmic reticulum stress, free fatty acids, and metabolic changes. Upon activation, JNK induces multiple biologic events through the transcription factor AP-1 and transcription-independent control of effector molecules. JNK isozymes regulate cell death and survival, differentiation, proliferation, ROS accumulation, metabolism, insulin signaling, and carcinogenesis in the liver. The biologic functions of JNK are isoform, cell-type, and context dependent. Recent studies using genetically engineered mice showed that loss or hyper-activation of the JNK pathway contributes to the development of inflammation, fibrosis, cancer growth, and metabolic diseases that include obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. We review the functions and pathways of JNK in liver physiology and pathology, and discuss findings from pre-clinical studies with JNK inhibitors. PMID:22705006

  7. Access resistance of stimulation electrodes as a function of electrode proximity to the retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majdi, Joseph A.; Minnikanti, Saugandhika; Peixoto, Nathalia; Agrawal, Anant; Cohen, Ethan D.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. Epiretinal prostheses seek to effectively stimulate the retina by positioning electrode arrays close to its surface so current pulses generate narrow retinal electric fields. Our objective was to evaluate the use of the electrical impedance of insulated platinum electrodes as a measure of the proximity of insulated platinum electrodes to the inner surface of the retina. Approach. We examined the impedance of platinum disk electrodes, 0.25 mm in diameter, insulated with two widths (0.8 and 1.6 mm outer diameter) of transparent fluoropolymer in a rabbit retinal eyecup preparation. Optical coherence tomography measured the electrode’s proximity to the retinal surface which was correlated with changes in the voltage waveform at the electrode. Electrode impedance changes during retinal deformation were also studied. Main results. When the 1.6 mm diameter insulated electrodes advanced towards the retinal surface from 1000 μm, their voltage step at current pulse onset increased, reflecting an access resistance increase of 3880 ± 630 Ω, with the 50% midpoint averaging 30 μm, while thin 0.8 mm insulated electrode advancement showed an access resistance increase 50% midpoint averaging 16 μm. Using impedance spectroscopy, electrode-retina proximity differences were seen in the 1.6 mm insulated electrode impedance modulus between 1 and 100 kHz and the waveform phase angle at 0.3-10 kHz, while thin 0.8 mm insulated electrode advancement produced smaller impedance modulus changes with retinal proximity between 3 and 100 kHz. These impedance changes with retinal proximity may reflect different sized zones of eye wall being coupled in series with the insulated platinum electrode. Significance. The proximity of stimulus electrodes to neural tissue in fluid-filled spaces can be estimated from access resistance changes in the stimulus pulse waveform. Because many prosthetic devices allow back telemetry communication of the stimulus electrode waveform, it is possible

  8. Assessment of the Effects of Access Count in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy on Renal Functions by Technetium-99m-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Demirtaş, Abdullah; Caniklioğlu, Mehmet; Kula, Mustafa; Akınsal, Emre Can; Ergül, Mehmet Ali; Baydilli, Numan; Ekemekçioğlu, Oğuz

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effects of percutaneous nephrolithotomy on renal functions by using DMSA scintigraphy while considering access counts. Material and Methods. A total of 37 patients who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy were included. Preoperative DMSA scans were performed a day before the surgery, whereas postoperative scans were randomized by evaluating them before (n = 25) and after (n = 12) the 6th postoperative month. Twenty-six of 37 cases underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy with a single access site and 11 with multiple access sites. Results. There were no significant changes of total renal functions in the whole study group (P = 0.054). In the single access group, total functions were significantly elevated (P = 0.03) In the multiple access group, while treated site functions were significantly decreased (P = 0.01), total functions did not change significantly (P = 0.42). There was an insignificant decrease in those evaluated before the 6th postoperative month (P = 0.27) and an insignificant increase in the others (P = 0.11). Conclusion. We could not find a superiority of single access over multiple accesses. There is a temporary functional loss in the treated site. PMID:23738147

  9. Functionally relevant microorganisms to enhanced biological phosphorus removal performance at full-scale wastewater treatment plants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gu, April Z; Saunders, A; Neethling, J B; Stensel, H D; Blackall, L L

    2008-08-01

    The abundance and relevance ofAccumulibacter phosphatis (presumed to be polyphosphate-accumulating organisms [PAOs]), Competibacter phosphatis (presumed to be glycogen-accumulating organisms [GAOs]), and tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) to phosphorus removal performance at six full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment plants were investigated. Coexistence of various levels of candidate PAOs and GAOs were found at these facilities. Accumulibacter were found to be 5 to 20% of the total bacterial population, and Competibacter were 0 to 20% of the total bacteria population. The TFO abundance varied from nondetectable to dominant. Anaerobic phosphorus (P) release to acetate uptake ratios (P(rel)/HAc(up)) obtained from bench tests were correlated positively with the abundance ratio of Accumulibacter/(Competibacter +TFOs) and negatively with the abundance of (Competibacter +TFOs) for all plants except one, suggesting the relevance of these candidate organisms to EBPR processes. However, effluent phosphorus concentration, amount of phosphorus removed, and process stability in an EBPR system were not directly related to high PAO abundance or mutually exclusive with a high GAO fraction. The plant that had the lowest average effluent phosphorus and highest stability rating had the lowest P(rel)/HAc(up) and the most TFOs. Evaluation of full-scale EBPR performance data indicated that low effluent phosphorus concentration and high process stability are positively correlated with the influent readily biodegradable chemical oxygen demand-to-phosphorus ratio. A system-level carbon-distribution-based conceptual model is proposed for capturing the dynamic competition between PAOs and GAOs and their effect on an EBPR process, and the results from this study seem to support the model hypothesis. PMID:18751532

  10. Phosphorylation of ASPP2 by RAS/MAPK Pathway Is Critical for Its Full Pro-Apoptotic Function

    PubMed Central

    Slee, Elizabeth; Lu, Xin

    2013-01-01

    We reported recently that apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP) 2, an activator of p53, co-operates with oncogenic RAS to enhance the transcription and apoptotic function of p53. However, the detailed mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that ASPP2 is a novel substrate of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Phosphorylation of ASPP2 by MAPK is required for RAS-induced increased binding to p53 and increased transactivation of pro-apoptotic genes. In contrast, an ASPP2 phosphorylation mutant exhibits reduced p53 binding and fails to enhance transactivation and apoptosis. Thus phosphorylation of ASPP2 by RAS/MAPK pathway provides a novel link between RAS and p53 in regulating apoptosis. PMID:24312625

  11. Withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration results in dysregulated functional activity and altered locomotor activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Calipari, Erin S.; Beveridge, Thomas J.R.; Jones, Sara R.; Porrino, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Much work has focused on determining the consequences of cocaine self-administration on specific neurotransmitter systems, thus neglecting the global changes that occur. Previous imaging studies have focused on the effects of cocaine self-administration in the presence of high blood levels of cocaine, but have not determined the functional effects of cocaine self-administration after cocaine has cleared. Extended-access cocaine self-administration, where animals administer cocaine for 6 hours each day, results in escalation in the rate of cocaine intake and is believed to model the transition from recreational use to addiction in humans. We aimed to determine the functional changes following acute (48 hours) withdrawal from an extended-access, defined intake self-administration paradigm (5 days, 40 inj/day, 6hrs/day), a time point when behavioral changes are present. Using the 2-[14C]deoxyglucose method to measure rates of local cerebral glucose metabolism, an indicator of functional activity, we found reductions in circuits related to learning and memory, attention, sleep, and reward processing, which have important clinical implications for cocaine addiction. Additionally, lower levels of functional activity were found in the dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus, suggesting that cocaine self-administration may have broader effects on brain function than previously noted. These widespread neurochemical reductions were concomitant with substantial behavioral differences in these animals, highlighted by increased vertical activity and decreased stereotypy. These data demonstrate that behavioral and neurochemical impairments following cocaine self-administration are present in the absence of drug and persist after cocaine has been cleared PMID:24118121

  12. The full set of gas giant structures. I: On the origin of planetary masses and the planetary initial mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeg, Christopher H.

    2009-11-01

    ContextCurrent planet search programs are detecting extrasolar planets at a rate of 60 planets per year. These planets show more diverse properties than was expected. AimsWe try to get an overview of possible gas giant (proto-) planets for a full range of orbital periods and stellar masses. This allows the prediction of the full range of possible planetary properties which might be discovered in the near future. MethodsWe calculate the purely hydrostatic structure of the envelopes of proto-planets that are embedded in protoplanetary disks for all conceivable locations: combinations of different planetesimal accretion rates, host star masses, and orbital separations. At each location all hydrostatic equilibrium solutions to the planetary structure equations are determined by variation of core mass and pressure over many orders of magnitude. For each location we analyze the distribution of planetary masses. ResultsWe get a wide spectrum of core-envelope structures. However, practically all calculated proto-planets are in the planetary mass range. Furthermore, the planet masses show a characteristic bimodal, sometimes trimodal, distribution. For the first time, we identify three physical processes that are responsible for the three characteristic planet masses: self-gravity in the Hill sphere, compact objects, and a region of very low adiabatic pressure gradient in the hydrogen equation of state. Using these processes, we can explain the dependence of the characteristic masses on the planet's location: orbital period, host star mass, and planetesimal accretion rate (luminosity). The characteristic mass caused by the self-gravity effect at close proximity to the host star is typically one Neptune mass, thus producing the so-called hot Neptunes. ConclusionsOur results suggest that hot Jupiters with orbital period less than 64 days (the exact location of the boundary depends on stellar type and accretion rate) have quite distinct properties which we expect to be

  13. Leukotriene E4 is a full functional agonist for human cysteinyl leukotriene type 1 receptor-dependent gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Holly R.; Fuerst, Elisabeth; Branchett, William; Lee, Tak H.; Cousins, David J.; Woszczek, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Leukotriene E4 (LTE4) the most stable of the cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) binds poorly to classical type 1 (CysLT1) and 2 (CysLT2) receptors although it induces potent responses in human airways in vivo, such as bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammatory cell influx suggesting the presence of a novel receptor that preferentially responds to LTE4. To identify such a receptor two human mast cell lines, LAD2 and LUVA, were selected that differentially responded to LTE4 when analysed by intracellular signalling and gene expression. Comparative transcriptome analysis and recombinant gene overexpression experiments revealed CysLT1 as a receptor responsible for potent LTE4-induced response in LAD2 but not in LUVA cells, an observation confirmed further by gene knockdown and selective inhibitors. Lentiviral overexpression of CysLT1 in LUVA cells augmented intracellular calcium signalling induced by LTE4 but did not restore full agonist responses at the gene expression level. Our data support a model where both an increased expression of Gαq-coupled CysLT1, and sustained intracellular calcium mobilisation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation, are required for LTE4-mediated regulation of gene expression in human cells. Our study shows for the first time that CysLT1 expression is critically important for responsiveness to LTE4 within a human cell system. PMID:26830450

  14. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is required for full functionality and has a novel twist

    SciTech Connect

    Madauss, Kevin P.; Burkhart, William A.; Consler, Thomas G.; Cowan, David J.; Gottschalk, William K.; Miller, Aaron B; Short, Steven A.; Tran, Thuy B.; Williams, Shawn P.

    2009-06-15

    Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) may prevent lipid-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, making the enzyme an attractive pharmaceutical target. Although the enzyme is highly conserved amongst animals, only the yeast enzyme structure is available for rational drug design. The use of biophysical assays has permitted the identification of a specific C-terminal truncation of the 826-residue human ACC2 carboxyl transferase (CT) domain that is both functionally competent to bind inhibitors and crystallizes in their presence. This C-terminal truncation led to the determination of the human ACC2 CT domain-CP-640186 complex crystal structure, which revealed distinctions from the yeast-enzyme complex. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is comprised of three intertwined -helices that extend outwards from the enzyme on the opposite side to the ligand-binding site. Differences in the observed inhibitor conformation between the yeast and human structures are caused by differing residues in the binding pocket.

  15. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is required for full functionality and has a novel twist

    SciTech Connect

    Madauss, Kevin P.; Burkhart, William A.; Consler, Thomas G.; Cowan, David J.; Gottschalk, William K.; Miller, Aaron B.; Short, Steven A.; Tran, Thuy B.; Williams, Shawn P.

    2009-05-01

    The use of biophysical assays permitted the identification of a specific human ACC2 carboxyl transferase (CT) domain mutant that binds inhibitors and crystallizes in their presence. This mutant led to determination of the human ACC2 CT domain–CP-640186 complex crystal structure, which revealed differences in the inhibitor conformation from the yeast protein complex that are caused by differing residues in the binding pocket. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) may prevent lipid-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, making the enzyme an attractive pharmaceutical target. Although the enzyme is highly conserved amongst animals, only the yeast enzyme structure is available for rational drug design. The use of biophysical assays has permitted the identification of a specific C-terminal truncation of the 826-residue human ACC2 carboxyl transferase (CT) domain that is both functionally competent to bind inhibitors and crystallizes in their presence. This C-terminal truncation led to the determination of the human ACC2 CT domain–CP-640186 complex crystal structure, which revealed distinctions from the yeast-enzyme complex. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is comprised of three intertwined α-helices that extend outwards from the enzyme on the opposite side to the ligand-binding site. Differences in the observed inhibitor conformation between the yeast and human structures are caused by differing residues in the binding pocket.

  16. Comparison of Newly Assembled Full Length HIV-1 Integrase With Prototype Foamy Virus Integrase: Structure-Function Prospective

    PubMed Central

    Dayer, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Drug design against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase through its mechanistic study is of great interest in the area in biological research. The main obstacle in this area is the absence of the full-length crystal structure for HIV-1 integrase to be used as a model. A complete structure, similar to HIV-1 of a prototype foamy virus integrase in complex with DNA, including all conservative residues, is available and has been extensively used in recent investigations. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether the above model is precisely representative of HIV-1 integrase. This would critically determine the success of any designed drug using the model in deactivation of integrase and AIDS treatment. Materials and Methods Primarily, a new structure for HIV-1 was constructed, using a crystal structure of prototype foamy virus as the starting structure. The constructed structure of HIV-1 integrase was simultaneously simulated with a prototype foamy virus integrase on a separate occasion. Results Our results indicate that the HIV-1 system behaves differently from the prototype foamy virus in terms of folding, hydration, hydrophobicity of binding site and stability. Conclusions Based on our findings, we can conclude that HIV-1 integrase is vastly different from the prototype foamy virus integrase and does not resemble it, and the modeling output of the prototype foamy virus simulations could not be simply generalized to HIV-1 integrase. Therefore, our HIV-1 model seems to be more representative and more useful for future research. PMID:27540450

  17. Functional Heterologous Expression of an Engineered Full Length CipA from Clostridium thermocellum in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Devin; Herring, Christopher; Guss, Adam M; Olson, Daniel G.; Hogsett, David; Lynd, Lee R

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cellulose is highly recalcitrant and thus requires a specialized suite of enzymes to solubilize it into fermentable sugars. In C. thermocellum, these extracellular enzymes are present as a highly active multi-component system known as the cellulosome. This study explores the expression of a critical C. thermocellum cellulosomal component in T. saccharolyticum as a step toward creating a thermophilic bacterium capable of consolidated bioprocessing by employing heterologously expressed cellulosomes. RESULTS: We developed an inducible promoter system based on the native T. saccharolyticum xynA promoter, which was shown to be induced by xylan and xylose. The promoter was used to express the cellulosomal component cipA*, an engineered form of the wild-type cipA from C. thermocellum. Expression and localization to the supernatant were both verified for CipA*. When a cipA mutant C. thermocellum strain was cultured with a CipA*-expressing T. saccharolyticum strain, hydrolysis and fermentation of 10 grams per liter SigmaCell 101, a highly crystalline cellulose, were observed. This trans-species complementation of a cipA deletion demonstrated the ability for CipA* to assemble a functional cellulosome. CONCLUSION: This study is the first example of an engineered thermophile heterologously expressing a structural component of a cellulosome. To achieve this goal we developed and tested an inducible promoter for controlled expression in T. saccharolyticum as well as a synthetic cipA. In addition, we demonstrate a high degree of hydrolysis (up to 93%) on microcrystalline cellulose.

  18. Accessing Elaborated 2,1-Borazaronaphthalene Cores Using Photoredox/Nickel Dual-Catalytic Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Jouffroy, Matthieu; Davies, Geraint H M; Molander, Gary A

    2016-04-01

    A highly effective method for derivatizing 2,1-borazaronaphthalene cores using ammonium alkylbis(catecholato)silicates via photoredox/nickel dual catalysis is reported. By forging Csp(3)-Csp(2) bonds via this approach, alkyl fragments with various functional groups can be introduced to the azaborine core, affording previously inaccessible heterocyclic isosteres in good to excellent yields. The base-free, room-temperature conditions outlined allow sensitive functional group tolerance, even permitting the cross-coupling of unprotected primary and secondary amines. PMID:26986819

  19. 41 CFR 102-76.85 - What is a primary function area for purposes of providing an accessible route in leased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... function area for purposes of providing an accessible route in leased facilities subject to the standards... AND CONSTRUCTION Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.85 What is a primary function area for purposes...), a primary function area is an area that contains a major activity for which the leased facility...

  20. A Unified Multi-Functional Dynamic Spectrum Access Framework: Tutorial, Theory and Multi-GHz Wideband Testbed

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Robert; Guo, Nan; Li, Husheng; Wu, Zhiqiang; Chakravarthy, Vasu; Song, Yu; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic spectrum access is a must-have ingredient for future sensors that are ideally cognitive. The goal of this paper is a tutorial treatment of wideband cognitive radio and radar—a convergence of (1) algorithms survey, (2) hardware platforms survey, (3) challenges for multi-function (radar/communications) multi-GHz front end, (4) compressed sensing for multi-GHz waveforms—revolutionary A/D, (5) machine learning for cognitive radio/radar, (6) quickest detection, and (7) overlay/underlay cognitive radio waveforms. One focus of this paper is to address the multi-GHz front end, which is the challenge for the next-generation cognitive sensors. The unifying theme of this paper is to spell out the convergence for cognitive radio, radar, and anti-jamming. Moore’s law drives the system functions into digital parts. From a system viewpoint, this paper gives the first comprehensive treatment for the functions and the challenges of this multi-function (wideband) system. This paper brings together the inter-disciplinary knowledge. PMID:22454598

  1. A Unified Multi-Functional Dynamic Spectrum Access Framework: Tutorial, Theory and Multi-GHz Wideband Testbed.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Robert; Guo, Nan; Li, Husheng; Wu, Zhiqiang; Chakravarthy, Vasu; Song, Yu; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic spectrum access is a must-have ingredient for future sensors that are ideally cognitive. The goal of this paper is a tutorial treatment of wideband cognitive radio and radar-a convergence of (1) algorithms survey, (2) hardware platforms survey, (3) challenges for multi-function (radar/communications) multi-GHz front end, (4) compressed sensing for multi-GHz waveforms-revolutionary A/D, (5) machine learning for cognitive radio/radar, (6) quickest detection, and (7) overlay/underlay cognitive radio waveforms. One focus of this paper is to address the multi-GHz front end, which is the challenge for the next-generation cognitive sensors. The unifying theme of this paper is to spell out the convergence for cognitive radio, radar, and anti-jamming. Moore's law drives the system functions into digital parts. From a system viewpoint, this paper gives the first comprehensive treatment for the functions and the challenges of this multi-function (wideband) system. This paper brings together the inter-disciplinary knowledge. PMID:22454598

  2. Rapid Access to Orthogonally Functionalized Naphthalenes: Application to the Total Synthesis of the Anticancer Agent Chartarin.

    PubMed

    Unzner, Teresa A; Grossmann, Adriana S; Magauer, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis of orthogonally functionalized naphthalenes from simple, commercially available indanones in four steps. The developed method proceeds through a two-step process that features a thermally induced fragmentation of a cyclopropane indanone with simultaneous 1,2-chloride shift. Migration of the chloride substituent occurs in a regioselective manner to preferentially afford the para-chloronaphthol substitution pattern. The obtained naphthols are versatile building blocks that can be selectively modified and used for the efficient construction of biologically active molecules. This has enabled the total synthesis of the potent anticancer natural product chartarin through a highly convergent retrosynthetic bond disconnection. PMID:27355517

  3. Solubility and crystallizability: facile access to functionalized π-conjugated compounds with chlorendylimide protecting groups.

    PubMed

    Gebers, Jan; Rolland, Damien; Marty, Roman; Suàrez, Stéphane; Cervini, Luca; Scopelliti, Rosario; Brauer, Jan Cornelius; Frauenrath, Holger

    2015-01-19

    Functional π-conjugated molecules are relevant for the preparation of new organic electronic materials with improved performance. However, their synthesis is often rendered difficult by their inherently low solubility, and the permanent attachment of solubilizing groups may change the properties of the material. Here, we introduced the chlorendylimidyl moiety as a new temporary protecting group for the straightforward large-scale synthesis of protected quarter-, sexi-, octathiophene, and perylene bisimide diamine and dicarboxylic acid derivatives. The obtained chlorendylimides and chlorendylimidyl active esters were highly soluble in organic solvents, and optical spectroscopy confirmed the low tendency of the compounds to aggregate in solution. At the same time, they could be conveniently purified by recrystallization or precipitation. Single-crystal X-ray structures obtained for most compounds showed supramolecular motifs highlighting the role of the rigid, polychlorinated chlorendyl moieties in their crystallization. The obtained protected diamine and dicarboxylic acid derivatives were easily deprotected and converted into various amide-substituted oligothiophenes and perylene bisimides that are of interest as new functional materials for organic electronic thin film or nanowire devices. PMID:25427947

  4. Accessing siloxane functionalized polynorbornenes via vinyl-addition polymerization for CO2 separation membranes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Saito, Tomonori; Long, Brian K.; Gmernicki, Kevin R.; Hong, Eunice; Maroon, Christopher R.

    2016-07-06

    Here, the vinyl addition polymerization of norbornylbased monomers bearing polar functional groups is often problematic, leading to low molecular weight polymers in poor yield. Herein, we provide proof-of-principle evidence that addition-type homopolymers of siloxane substituted norbornyl-based monomers may be readily synthesized using the catalyst trans-[Ni(C6F5)2(SbPh3)2]. Polymerizations using this catalyst reached moderate to high conversion in just 5 min of polymerization and produced siloxanesubstituted polymers with molecular weights exceeding 100 kg/mol. These polymers showed excellent thermal stability (Td ≥ 362 °C) and were cast into membranes that displayed high CO2 permeability and enhanced CO2/N2 selectivity as compared to related materials.

  5. A new set of ESTs and cDNA clones from full-length and normalized libraries for gene discovery and functional characterization in citrus

    PubMed Central

    Marques, M Carmen; Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; Forment, Javier; Arribas, Raquel; Alamar, Santiago; Conejero, Vicente; Perez-Amador, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    Background Interpretation of ever-increasing raw sequence information generated by modern genome sequencing technologies faces multiple challenges, such as gene function analysis and genome annotation. Indeed, nearly 40% of genes in plants encode proteins of unknown function. Functional characterization of these genes is one of the main challenges in modern biology. In this regard, the availability of full-length cDNA clones may fill in the gap created between sequence information and biological knowledge. Full-length cDNA clones facilitate functional analysis of the corresponding genes enabling manipulation of their expression in heterologous systems and the generation of a variety of tagged versions of the native protein. In addition, the development of full-length cDNA sequences has the power to improve the quality of genome annotation. Results We developed an integrated method to generate a new normalized EST collection enriched in full-length and rare transcripts of different citrus species from multiple tissues and developmental stages. We constructed a total of 15 cDNA libraries, from which we isolated 10,898 high-quality ESTs representing 6142 different genes. Percentages of redundancy and proportion of full-length clones range from 8 to 33, and 67 to 85, respectively, indicating good efficiency of the approach employed. The new EST collection adds 2113 new citrus ESTs, representing 1831 unigenes, to the collection of citrus genes available in the public databases. To facilitate functional analysis, cDNAs were introduced in a Gateway-based cloning vector for high-throughput functional analysis of genes in planta. Herein, we describe the technical methods used in the library construction, sequence analysis of clones and the overexpression of CitrSEP, a citrus homolog to the Arabidopsis SEP3 gene, in Arabidopsis as an example of a practical application of the engineered Gateway vector for functional analysis. Conclusion The new EST collection denotes an

  6. Evaluation of functional microbial community's difference in full-scale and lab-scale anaerobic digesters feeding with different organic solid waste: Effects of substrate and operation factors.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qigui; Kobayashi, Takuro; Takemura, Yasuyuki; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2015-10-01

    Samples taken from the full-scale and lab-scale anaerobic digesters feeding with different organic solid waste were investigated with assessment of the substrate effects. To understand the substrate effects on the microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure, twelve samples were analyzed by constructing 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and statistical analysis. Microbial diversity varied according to substrate types and operating parameters. With acetoclastic methanogen of genus Methanosaeta predominated in full scale and Methanosarcina predominated in the lab-scale digesters, a significant difference archaeal communities were found. Principal component analysis clearly indicates that both bacterial and archaeal communities create independent clusters according to substrate types. However, the relationship between acetogenic bacteria and the acetoclastic methanogens had a similar variation tends in most of full-scale and lab-scale reactors. Canonical correlation analysis and variance partitioning analysis implied that bacterial and archaeal community variations were significantly affected by substrate and the operation conditions. PMID:26119052

  7. Power spectral density function and spatial autocorrelation of the ambient vibration full-wavefield generated by a distribution of spatially correlated surface sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunedei, Enrico; Albarello, Dario

    2016-03-01

    Synthetic dispersion curves are here computed in the frame of an ambient-vibration full-wavefield model, which relies on the description of both ambient-vibration ground displacement and its sources as stochastic fields defined on the Earth's surface, stationary in time and homogeneous in space. In this model, previously developed for computing synthetic Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio curves, the power spectral density function and the spatial autocorrelation of the displacement are naturally described as functions of the power spectral density function of the generating forces and of the subsoil properties (via the relevant Green's function), by also accounting for spatial correlation of these forces. Dispersion curves are computed from the displacement power spectral density function and from the spatial autocorrelation according with the well-known f-k and SPAC techniques, respectively. Two examples illustrate the way this new ambient-vibration model works, showing its possible use in better understanding the role of the surface waves in forming the dispersion curves, as well as its capability to capture some remarkable experimental findings.

  8. Full-3D waveform tomography of Southern California crustal structure by using earthquake recordings and ambient noise Green's functions based on adjoint and scattering-integral methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Chen, P.; Jordan, T. H.; Maechling, P. J.; Denolle, M.; Beroza, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    We apply a unified methodology for seismic waveform analysis and inversions to Southern California. To automate the waveform selection processes, we developed a semi-automatic seismic waveform analysis algorithm for full-wave earthquake source parameters and tomographic inversions. The algorithm is based on continuous wavelet transforms, a topological watershed method, and a set of user-adjustable criteria to select usable waveform windows for full-wave inversions. The algorithm takes advantages of time-frequency representations of seismograms and is able to separate seismic phases in both time and frequency domains. The selected wave packet pairs between observed and synthetic waveforms are then used for extracting frequency-dependent phase and amplitude misfit measurements, which are used in our seismic source and structural inversions. Our full-wave waveform tomography uses the 3D SCEC Community Velocity Model Version 4.0 as initial model, a staggered-grid finite-difference code to simulate seismic wave propagations. The sensitivity (Fréchet) kernels are calculated based on the scattering integral and adjoint methods to iteratively improve the model. We use both earthquake recordings and ambient noise Green's functions, stacking of station-to-station correlations of ambient seismic noise, in our full-3D waveform tomographic inversions. To reduce errors of earthquake sources, the epicenters and source parameters of earthquakes used in our tomographic inversion are inverted by our full-wave CMT inversion method. Our current model shows many features that relate to the geological structures at shallow depth and contrasting velocity values across faults. The velocity perturbations could up to 45% with respect to the initial model in some regions and relate to some structures that do not exist in the initial model, such as southern Great Valley. The earthquake waveform misfits reduce over 70% and the ambient noise Green's function group velocity delay time variance

  9. Deriving k·p parameters from full-Brillouin-zone descriptions: A finite-element envelope function model for quantum-confined wurtzite nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiangyu; Ghione, Giovanni; Bertazzi, Francesco Goano, Michele; Bellotti, Enrico

    2014-07-21

    We present a multiband envelope-function model for wurtzite nanostructures based on a rigorous numerical procedure to determine operator ordering and band parameters from nonlocal empirical pseudopotential calculations. The proposed approach, implemented within a finite-element scheme, leads to well-posed, numerically stable envelope equations that accurately reproduce full-Brillouin-zone subband dispersions of quantum systems. Although demonstrated here for III-nitride nonlocal empirical pseudopotentials, the model provides a general theoretical framework applicable to ab initio electronic structures of wurtzite semiconductors.

  10. Seeing with the nano-eye: accessing structure, function, and dynamics of matter on its natural length and time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, Markus

    2015-03-01

    To understand and ultimately control the properties of most functional materials, from molecular soft-matter to quantum materials, requires access to the structure, coupling, and dynamics on the elementary time and length scales that define the microscopic interactions in these materials. To gain the desired nanometer spatial resolution with simultaneous spectroscopic specificity we combine scanning probe microscopy with different optical, including coherent, nonlinear, and ultrafast spectroscopies. The underlying near-field interaction mediated by the atomic-force or scanning tunneling microscope tip provides the desired deep-sub wavelength nano-focusing enabling few-nm spatial resolution. I will introduce our generalization of the approach in terms of the near-field impedance matching to a quantum system based on special optical antenna-tip designs. The resulting enhanced and qualitatively new forms of light-matter interaction enable measurements of quantum dynamics in an interacting environment or to image the electromagnetic local density of states of thermal radiation. Other applications include the inter-molecular coupling and dynamics in soft-matter hetero-structures, surface plasmon interferometry as a probe of electronic structure and dynamics in graphene, and quantum phase transitions in correlated electron materials. These examples highlight the general applicability of the new near-field microscopy approach, complementing emergent X-ray and electron imaging tools, aiming towards the ultimate goal of probing matter on its most elementary spatio-temporal level.

  11. Functionally Active T1-T1 Interfaces Revealed by the Accessibility of Intracellular Thiolate Groups in Kv4 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangyu; Shahidullah, Mohammad; Rocha, Carmen A.; Strang, Candace; Pfaffinger, Paul J.; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Gating of voltage-dependent K+ channels involves movements of membrane-spanning regions that control the opening of the pore. Much less is known, however, about the contributions of large intracellular channel domains to the conformational changes that underlie gating. Here, we investigated the functional role of intracellular regions in Kv4 channels by probing relevant cysteines with thiol-specific reagents. We find that reagent application to the intracellular side of inside-out patches results in time-dependent irreversible inhibition of Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 currents. In the absence or presence of Kv4-specific auxiliary subunits, mutational and electrophysiological analyses showed that none of the 14 intracellular cysteines is essential for channel gating. C110, C131, and C132 in the intersubunit interface of the tetramerization domain (T1) are targets responsible for the irreversible inhibition by a methanethiosulfonate derivative (MTSET). This result is surprising because structural studies of Kv4-T1 crystals predicted protection of the targeted thiolate groups by constitutive high-affinity Zn2+ coordination. Also, added Zn2+ or a potent Zn2+ chelator (TPEN) does not significantly modulate the accessibility of MTSET to C110, C131, or C132; and furthermore, when the three critical cysteines remained as possible targets, the MTSET modification rate of the activated state is ∼200-fold faster than that of the resting state. Biochemical experiments confirmed the chemical modification of the intact α-subunit and the purified tetrameric T1 domain by MTS reagents. These results conclusively demonstrate that the T1–T1 interface of Kv4 channels is functionally active and dynamic, and that critical reactive thiolate groups in this interface may not be protected by Zn2+ binding. PMID:15955876

  12. Recombinant production of functional full-length and truncated human TRAM/TICAM-2 adaptor protein involved in Toll-like receptor and interferon signaling.

    PubMed

    Ullah, M Obayed; Valkov, Eugene; Ve, Thomas; Williams, Simon; Mas, Caroline; Mansell, Ashley; Kobe, Bostjan

    2015-02-01

    TRAM/TICAM-2 is used by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) as a bridging adaptor during the mammalian innate immune response. It recruits TRIF, another TIR domain-containing adaptor protein, to TLR4 via TIR domain interactions, which leads to the activation of transcription factors responsible for the production of type-1 interferon and cytokines. The molecular mechanisms of these dual interactions mediated by the TRAM TIR domain are not clear. To understand the molecular basis of TIR:TIR domain interactions, structural and biochemical studies of TRAM TIR domain are necessary, and require a functional soluble protein. In this paper, we report a successful purification and characterization of full-length TRAM. Because full-length TRAM likely contains unstructured regions that may be disadvantageous for structural studies, we also carried out a systematic construct design to determine the boundaries of the TRAM TIR domain. The truncated TRAM constructs were designed based on secondary structure predictions and screened by small-scale expression. Selected constructs were subjected to biophysical analyses. We show that the expressed TRAM TIR domain is functional using in vitro GST pull-down assays that demonstrate a physical interaction with the TLR4 TIR domain. We further show, by site-directed mutagenesis, that the "BB loop" regions of both the TRAM TIR domain and the TLR4 TIR domain are crucial for this physical interaction. PMID:25306876

  13. Precursors of social emotional functioning among full-term and preterm infants at 12 months: Early infant withdrawal behavior and symptoms of maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Moe, Vibeke; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Slinning, Kari; Vannebo, Unni Tranaas; Guedeney, Antoine; Heimann, Mikael; Rostad, Anne Margrethe; Smith, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study forms part of a longitudinal investigation of early infant social withdrawal, maternal symptoms of depression and later child social emotional functioning. The sample consisted of a group of full-term infants (N=238) and their mothers, and a group of moderately premature infants (N=64) and their mothers. At 3 months, the infants were observed with the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) and the mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At 12 months, the mothers filled out questionnaires about the infants' social emotional functioning (Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Social Emotional). At 3 months, as we have previously shown, the premature infants had exhibited more withdrawal behavior and their mothers reported elevated maternal depressive symptoms as compared with the full-born group. At 12 months the mothers of the premature infants reported more child internalizing behavior. These data suggest that infant withdrawal behavior as well as maternal depressive mood may serve as sensitive indices of early risk status. Further, the results suggest that early maternal depressive symptoms are a salient predictor of later child social emotional functioning. However, neither early infant withdrawal behavior, nor gestational age, did significantly predict social emotional outcome at 12 months. It should be noted that the differences in strength of the relations between ADBB and EPDS, respectively, to the outcome at 12 months was modest. An implication of the study is that clinicians should be aware of the complex interplay between early infant withdrawal and signs of maternal postpartum depression in planning ports of entry for early intervention. PMID:27429050

  14. Reconstitution and Functional Analysis of a Full-Length Hepatitis C Virus NS5B Polymerase on a Supported Lipid Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic targeting of membrane-associated viral proteins is complicated by the challenge of investigating their enzymatic activities in the native membrane-bound state. To permit functional characterization of these proteins, we hypothesized that the supported lipid bilayer (SLB) can support in situ reconstitution of membrane-associated viral protein complexes. As proof-of-principle, we selected the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase which is essential for HCV genome replication, and determined that the SLB platform enables functional reconstitution of membrane protein activity. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring enabled label-free detection of full-length NS5B membrane association, its interaction with replicase subunits NS3, NS5A, and template RNA, and most importantly its RNA synthesis activity. This latter activity could be inhibited by the addition of candidate small molecule drugs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the SLB platform can support functional studies of membrane-associated viral proteins engaged in critical biological activities. PMID:27504492

  15. Reconstitution and Functional Analysis of a Full-Length Hepatitis C Virus NS5B Polymerase on a Supported Lipid Bilayer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Nam-Joon; Pham, Edward A; Hagey, Rachel J; Lévêque, Vincent J; Ma, Han; Klumpp, Klaus; Glenn, Jeffrey S

    2016-07-27

    Therapeutic targeting of membrane-associated viral proteins is complicated by the challenge of investigating their enzymatic activities in the native membrane-bound state. To permit functional characterization of these proteins, we hypothesized that the supported lipid bilayer (SLB) can support in situ reconstitution of membrane-associated viral protein complexes. As proof-of-principle, we selected the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase which is essential for HCV genome replication, and determined that the SLB platform enables functional reconstitution of membrane protein activity. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring enabled label-free detection of full-length NS5B membrane association, its interaction with replicase subunits NS3, NS5A, and template RNA, and most importantly its RNA synthesis activity. This latter activity could be inhibited by the addition of candidate small molecule drugs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the SLB platform can support functional studies of membrane-associated viral proteins engaged in critical biological activities. PMID:27504492

  16. IGHV-unmutated and IGHV-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells produce activation-induced deaminase protein with a full range of biologic functions

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Piers E. M.; Chu, Charles C.; Albesiano, Emilia; Damle, Rajendra N.; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Kim, Dorothy; Zhang, Lu; Magli, Amanda R.; Barrientos, Jacqueline; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Allen, Steven L.; Rai, Kanti R.; Roa, Sergio; Mongini, Patricia K.; MacCarthy, Thomas; Scharff, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Clonal evolution occurs during the course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and activation-induced deaminase (AID) could influence this process. However, this possibility has been questioned in CLL because the number of circulating AID mRNA+ cells is exceedingly low; synthesis of AID protein by blood CLL cells has not been demonstrated; the full range of AID functions is lacking in unmutated CLL (U-CLL), and no prospective analysis linking AID expression and disease severity has been reported. The results of the present study show that circulating CLL cells and those within secondary lymphoid tissues can make AID mRNA and protein. This production is related to cell division because more AID mRNA was detected in recently divided cells and AID protein was limited to the dividing fraction and was up-regulated on induction of cell division. AID protein was functional because AID+ dividing cells exhibited more double-stranded DNA breaks, IGH class switching, and new IGHV-D-J mutations. Each of these actions was documented in U-CLL and mutated CLL (M-CLL). Furthermore, AID protein was associated with worse patient outcome and adverse cytogenetics. We conclude that the production of fully functional AID protein by U-CLL and M-CLL cells could be involved in clonal evolution of the disease. PMID:23071276

  17. Continuum Contrast as a function of Magnetic Flux Density and Disk Position: Results from a full Solar Cycle of SOHO/MDI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, K.; Basri, G.; Ramos-Stierle, F.; Lewis, T.; Reiners, A.; Berger, T.

    2006-12-01

    The key to understanding total solar irradiance variability is to understand the mechanisms by continuum contrast is effected by the distribution of magnetic flux across the surface of the Sun. The Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite has measured full-disk Stokes-V magnetograms along with cotemporal continuum images throughout Solar Cycle 23. We present the results of an examination of the relationship between corrected MDI continuum images with their cotemporal corrected MDI magnetograms. By separating the series of images into bins of Magnetic Flux Density (MFD) and limb angle, we perform a non-linear least squares fit to the data to produce a 3rd-order polynomial function of continuum contrast vs. MFD and disk position. Using the obtained function we can accurately predict continuum contrast at any given disk position as a function of MFD measured in a given magnetogram. The resulting predictions can be used to make simulated continuum images suitable for bolometric correction and input into total irradiance models. This research was partially supported by LWS TR&T Grant NNG05GK46G

  18. Ability or Access-Ability: Differential Item Functioning of Items on Alternate Performance-Based Assessment Tests for Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zigmond, Naomi; Zimmerman, George J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated differential item functioning (DIF) of test items on Pennsylvania's Alternate System of Assessment (PASA) for students with visual impairments and severe cognitive disabilities and what the reasons for the differences may be. Methods: The Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to analyze differences in the scores…

  19. Functional social support, psychological capital, and depressive and anxiety symptoms among people living with HIV/AIDS employed full-time

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological distress (e.g., depression and anxiety) has been regarded as the main cause of leaving work for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in workplaces. This study aims to explore the associations of functional social support (FSS) and psychological capital (PC) with depressive and anxiety symptoms among PLWHA employed full-time. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed in Liaoning, China, during the period of December 2010–April 2011. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire, and the Psychological Capital Questionnaire were completed by PLWHA employed full-time. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed relationships between variables. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were performed to explore the mediating roles of PC and its components (self-efficacy, hope, optimism, resilience). Results Of 320 participants surveyed, 66.3% had depressive symptoms, and 45.6% had anxiety symptoms. Significant negative associations of FSS and PC with depressive and anxiety symptoms were revealed. PC (a*b = −0.209, BCa 95% CI: -0.293, -0.137, p < 0.05), hope (a*b = −0.103, BCa 95% CI: -0.192, -0.034, p < 0.05), and optimism (a*b = −0.047, BCa 95% CI: -0.106, -0.008, p < 0.05) significantly mediated the association between FSS and depressive symptoms. PC (a*b = −0.151, BCa 95% CI: -0.224, -0.095, p < 0.05) and self-efficacy (a*b = −0.080, BCa 95% CI: -0.158, -0.012, p < 0.05) significantly mediated the FSS-anxiety symptoms association. Conclusions FSS and PC could help reduce depressive and anxiety symptoms among PLWHA employed full-time. PC fully mediates the associations of FSS with depressive and anxiety symptoms. In addition to enhancing FSS, PC development could be included in the prevention and treatment strategies for depressive and anxiety symptoms targeted at PLWHA employed

  20. Density functional theory study on the full ALD process of silicon nitride thin film deposition via BDEAS or BTBAS and NH3.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang; Han, Bo; Han, Bing; Derecskei-Kovacs, Agnes; Xiao, Manchao; Lei, Xinjian; O'Neill, Mark L; Pearlstein, Ronald M; Chandra, Haripin; Cheng, Hansong

    2014-09-14

    A detailed reaction mechanism has been proposed for the full ALD cycle of Si3N4 deposition on the β-Si3N4(0001) surface using bis(diethylamino)silane (BDEAS) or bis(tertiarybutylamino)silane (BTBAS) as a Si precursor with NH3 acting as the nitrogen source. Potential energy landscapes were derived for all elementary steps in the proposed reaction network using a periodic slab surface model in the density functional approximation. Although the dissociative reactivity of BTBAS was slightly better than that of BDEAS, the thermal deposition process was still found to be an inherently high temperature process due to the high activation energies during the dissociative chemisorption of both precursors and the surface re-amination steps. These results underline the need to develop new precursors and alternative nitrogen sources when low temperature thermal silicon nitride films are targeted. PMID:25072273

  1. Gene VI of figwort mosaic virus (caulimovirus group) functions in posttranscriptional expression of genes on the full-length RNA transcript.

    PubMed

    Gowda, S; Wu, F C; Scholthof, H B; Shepherd, R J

    1989-12-01

    Experimental evidence for a molecular function for gene VI of the caulimoviruses is presented. Based on experiments with the figwort mosaic virus (FMV), it appears that gene VI has a role in the posttranscriptional expression of the closely packed genes (VII and I-V), which appear on the larger, full-length RNA transcript of this virus. Gene VI with its flanking 5'/3' expression signals included as a separate plasmid during electroporation of DNA into protoplasts of Nicotiana edwardsonii shows an unusual type of transactivation of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene fused at its 5' end to a small open reading frame (gene VII) of the long 5' leader of the full-length RNA transcript of the FMV genome. The level of activity of the CAT gene is increased up to 20-fold over the activity of control plasmids when gene VI is included in the electroporation mixture. Mutagenesis of the coding portions of gene VI of pGS1 RVI, a transactivating plasmid used in the electroporation experiments, demonstrated that it was probably the polypeptide product of gene VI that was responsible for the transactivating effect. Experiments with various portions of the 5' leader of the large, full-length RNA of FMV showed that the coding region of gene VII is necessary for the transactivation event. Clones of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) or FMV with intact gene VI were found to reciprocally transactivate gene VII-CAT fusions (FMV) or gene I-CAT fusions (CaMV) located downstream of the 5' leader sequences of either viral genome. PMID:2594762

  2. Effect of germination and fermentation on the proximate composition and functional properties of full-fat and defatted cucumeropsis mannii seed flours.

    PubMed

    Omowaye-Taiwo, Omolara Adenike; Fagbemi, Tayo Nathaniel; Ogunbusola, Eunice Moriyike; Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele

    2015-08-01

    Germinated, fermented and raw Cucumeropsis mannii (melon) seeds were processed into flours. A portion of the flours were defatted using n-hexane; both the full fat and defatted flours were evaluated for proximate composition and functional properties. The proximate compositions of the full fat and defatted C. mannii seed flours were: moisture, 4.97-5.67 % and 6.17-8.13 %; total ash, 1.95-3.24 % and 4.38-7.19 %; crude protein, 36.62-39.91 % and 71.91-77.05 %; crude fat, 45.06-49.57 % and 1.56-2.57 %; crude fibre, 2.71-3.63 % and 4.34-4.59 %; carbohydrate, 3.78-4.07 % and 4.45-6.54 %, respectively. The functional properties of the flour from full-fat and defatted seed were: water absorption capacity, 116.67-183.33 % and 216.67-267.67 %; oil absorption capacity, 252.33-274.00 % and 292.00-345.00 %; foaming capacity 17.36-30.34 % and 34.78-44.69 %; foaming stability, 5.17-11.54 % and 11.41-14.55 %; least gelation concentration, 24.67-28.00 and 13.33-18.67 %; emulsion capacity, 49.73-79.28 mL/g and 40.34-65.61 mL/g; bulk density 0.65-0.81 g/mL and 0.36-0.39 g/mL; protein solubility 4.00-5.89 % and 5.21-7.11 %, respectively. Germination enhanced the water absorption capacity, foaming capacity and protein solubility while fermentation increased the emulsion capacity. Defatting improved the water and oil absorption capacities, foaming capacity and protein solubility. The flour from germinated seeds may find use as ingredients in food emulsion and salad dressing, while those from fermented seeds may be used as food thickeners. PMID:26243950

  3. A metro-access integrated network with all-optical virtual private network function using DPSK/ASK modulation format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yue; Leng, Lufeng; Su, Yikai

    2008-11-01

    All-optical virtual private network (VPN), which offers dedicated optical channels to connect users within a VPN group, is considered a promising approach to efficient internetworking with low latency and enhanced security implemented in the physical layer. On the other hand, time-division multiplexed (TDM) / wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) network architecture based on a feeder-ring with access-tree topology, is considered a pragmatic migration scenario from current TDM-PONs to future WDM-PONs and a potential convergence scheme for access and metropolitan networks, due to its efficiently shared hardware and bandwidth resources. All-optical VPN internetworking in such a metro-access integrated structure is expected to cover a wider service area and therefore is highly desirable. In this paper, we present a TDM/WDM metro-access integrated network supporting all-optical VPN internetworking among ONUs in different sub- PONs based on orthogonal differential-phase-shift keying (DPSK) / amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulation format. In each ONU, no laser but a single Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is needed for the upstream and VPN signal generation, which is cost-effective. Experiments and simulations are performed to verify its feasibility as a potential solution to the future access service.

  4. Novel insights into structure–function mechanism and tissue-specific expression profiling of full-length dxr gene from Cymbopogon winterianus

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Dehury, Budheswar; Phukon, Munmi; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Sen, Priyabrata

    2015-01-01

    The 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR; EC1.1.1.267), an NADPH-dependent reductase, plays a pivotal role in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway (MEP), in the conversion of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) into MEP. The sheath and leaf of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) accumulates large amount of terpenes and sesquiterpenes with proven medicinal value and economic uses. Thus, sequencing of full length dxr gene and its characterization seems to be a valuable resource in metabolic engineering to alter the flux of isoprenoid active ingredients in plants. In this study, full length DXR from citronella was characterized through in silico and tissue-specific expression studies to explain its structure–function mechanism, mode of cofactor recognition and differential expression. The modelled DXR has a three-domain architecture and its active site comprised of a cofactor (NADPH) binding pocket and the substrate-binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulation studies indicated that DXR model retained most of its secondary structure during 10 ns simulation in aqueous solution. The modelled DXR superimposes well with its closest structural homolog but subtle variations in the charge distribution over the cofactor recognition site were noticed. Molecular docking study revealed critical residues aiding tight anchoring NADPH within the active pocket of DXR. Tissue-specific differential expression analysis using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qRT-PCR in various tissues of citronella plant revealed distinct differential expression of DXR. To our knowledge, this is the first ever report on DXR from the important medicinal plant citronella and further characterization of this gene will open up better avenues for metabolic engineering of secondary metabolite pathway genes from medicinal plants in the near future. PMID:25941629

  5. Transpo-mAb display: Transposition-mediated B cell display and functional screening of full-length IgG antibody libraries.

    PubMed

    Waldmeier, Lorenz; Hellmann, Ina; Gutknecht, Chantal K; Wolter, Fabian I; Cook, Skylar C; Reddy, Sai T; Grawunder, Ulf; Beerli, Roger R

    2016-01-01

    In vitro antibody display and screening technologies geared toward the discovery and engineering of clinically applicable antibodies have evolved from screening artificial antibody formats, powered by microbial display technologies, to screening of natural, full-IgG molecules expressed in mammalian cells to readily yield lead antibodies with favorable properties in production and clinical applications. Here, we report the development and characterization of a novel, next-generation mammalian cell-based antibody display and screening platform called Transpo-mAb Display, offering straightforward and efficient generation of cellular libraries by using non-viral transposition technology to obtain stable antibody expression. Because Transpo-mAb Display uses DNA-transposable vectors with substantial cargo capacity, genomic antibody heavy chain expression constructs can be utilized that undergo the natural switch from membrane bound to secreted antibody expression in B cells by way of alternative splicing of Ig-heavy chain transcripts from the same genomic expression cassette. We demonstrate that stably transposed cells co-express transmembrane and secreted antibodies at levels comparable to those provided by dedicated constructs for secreted and membrane-associated IgGs. This unique feature expedites the screening and antibody characterization process by obviating the need for intermediate sequencing and re-cloning of individual antibody clones into separate expression vectors for functional screening purposes. In a series of proof-of-concept experiments, we demonstrate the seamless integration of antibody discovery with functional screening for various antibody properties, including binding affinity and suitability for preparation of antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:26986818

  6. Full-scale system impact analysis: Digital document storage project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Digital Document Storage Full Scale System can provide cost effective electronic document storage, retrieval, hard copy reproduction, and remote access for users of NASA Technical Reports. The desired functionality of the DDS system is highly dependent on the assumed requirements for remote access used in this Impact Analysis. It is highly recommended that NASA proceed with a phased, communications requirement analysis to ensure that adequate communications service can be supplied at a reasonable cost in order to validate recent working assumptions upon which the success of the DDS Full Scale System is dependent.

  7. Pathology accessioning and retrieval system with encoding by computer (PARSEC). A microcomputer-based system for anatomic pathology featuring automated SNOP coding and multiple administrative functions.

    PubMed

    Foulis, P R; Norbut, A M; Mendelow, H; Kessler, G F

    1980-06-01

    A pathology accessioning and retrieval system with encoding by computer (PARSEC) has been developed, employing a relatively inexpensive microcomputer. PARSEC performs a variety of administrative functions for anatomic pathology, including accessioning of surgical specimens, storage of patient demographic information, editing, retrieval, and archiving of patient data, as well as CAP (college of American Pathologists) workload units, billing, and inventory functions for histopathology. In addition, appropriate gross and microscopic descriptions and pathologic diagnoses can be entered into the system by a text editor. Automatic assignment of SNOP (Systematized Nomenclature of Pathology) codes, is accomplished via an online SNOP lexicon, allowing the ultimate generation of completed surgical pathology reports. The data base management system employed makes optimum use of disk storage space, while permitting rapid data retrieval. Data file maintenance is automatically accomplished by the system, requiring no user intervention. PMID:7395803

  8. Time-Dependent Distribution Functions in C-Mod Calculated with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW, AORSA Full-Wave, and DC Lorentz Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W. (Bob); Petrov, Yu. V.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Bader, A.

    2015-11-01

    A time-dependent simulation of C-Mod pulsed ICRF power is made calculating minority hydrogen ion distribution functions with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW finite-orbit-width Fokker-Planck code. ICRF fields are calculated with the AORSA full wave code, and RF diffusion coefficients are obtained from these fields using the DC Lorentz gyro-orbit code. Prior results with a zero-banana-width simulation using the CQL3D/AORSA/DC time-cycles showed a pronounced enhancement of the H distribution in the perpendicular velocity direction compared to results obtained from Stix's quasilinear theory, in general agreement with experiment. The present study compares the new FOW results, including relevant gyro-radius effects, to determine the importance of these effects on the the NPA synthetic diagnostic time-dependence. The new NPA results give increased agreement with experiment, particularly in the ramp-down time after the ICRF pulse. Funded, through subcontract with Massachusetts Institute of Technology, by USDOE sponsored SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions.

  9. Binary pseudo-random patterned structures for modulation transfer function calibration and resolution characterization of a full-field transmission soft x-ray microscope.

    PubMed

    Yashchuk, V V; Fischer, P J; Chan, E R; Conley, R; McKinney, W R; Artemiev, N A; Bouet, N; Cabrini, S; Calafiore, G; Lacey, I; Peroz, C; Babin, S

    2015-12-01

    We present a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) one-dimensional sequences and two-dimensional arrays as an effective method for spectral characterization in the spatial frequency domain of a broad variety of metrology instrumentation, including interferometric microscopes, scatterometers, phase shifting Fizeau interferometers, scanning and transmission electron microscopes, and at this time, x-ray microscopes. The inherent power spectral density of BPR gratings and arrays, which has a deterministic white-noise-like character, allows a direct determination of the MTF with a uniform sensitivity over the entire spatial frequency range and field of view of an instrument. We demonstrate the MTF calibration and resolution characterization over the full field of a transmission soft x-ray microscope using a BPR multilayer (ML) test sample with 2.8 nm fundamental layer thickness. We show that beyond providing a direct measurement of the microscope's MTF, tests with the BPRML sample can be used to fine tune the instrument's focal distance. Our results confirm the universality of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters. PMID:26724037

  10. Binary pseudo-random patterned structures for modulation transfer function calibration and resolution characterization of a full-field transmission soft x-ray microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashchuk, V. V.; Fischer, P. J.; Chan, E. R.; Conley, R.; McKinney, W. R.; Artemiev, N. A.; Bouet, N.; Cabrini, S.; Calafiore, G.; Lacey, I.; Peroz, C.; Babin, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) one-dimensional sequences and two-dimensional arrays as an effective method for spectral characterization in the spatial frequency domain of a broad variety of metrology instrumentation, including interferometric microscopes, scatterometers, phase shifting Fizeau interferometers, scanning and transmission electron microscopes, and at this time, x-ray microscopes. The inherent power spectral density of BPR gratings and arrays, which has a deterministic white-noise-like character, allows a direct determination of the MTF with a uniform sensitivity over the entire spatial frequency range and field of view of an instrument. We demonstrate the MTF calibration and resolution characterization over the full field of a transmission soft x-ray microscope using a BPR multilayer (ML) test sample with 2.8 nm fundamental layer thickness. We show that beyond providing a direct measurement of the microscope's MTF, tests with the BPRML sample can be used to fine tune the instrument's focal distance. Our results confirm the universality of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  11. Binary pseudo-random patterned structures for modulation transfer function calibration and resolution characterization of a full-field transmission soft x-ray microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, V. V. Chan, E. R.; Lacey, I.; Fischer, P. J.; Conley, R.; McKinney, W. R.; Artemiev, N. A.; Bouet, N.; Cabrini, S.; Calafiore, G.; Peroz, C.; Babin, S.

    2015-12-15

    We present a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) one-dimensional sequences and two-dimensional arrays as an effective method for spectral characterization in the spatial frequency domain of a broad variety of metrology instrumentation, including interferometric microscopes, scatterometers, phase shifting Fizeau interferometers, scanning and transmission electron microscopes, and at this time, x-ray microscopes. The inherent power spectral density of BPR gratings and arrays, which has a deterministic white-noise-like character, allows a direct determination of the MTF with a uniform sensitivity over the entire spatial frequency range and field of view of an instrument. We demonstrate the MTF calibration and resolution characterization over the full field of a transmission soft x-ray microscope using a BPR multilayer (ML) test sample with 2.8 nm fundamental layer thickness. We show that beyond providing a direct measurement of the microscope’s MTF, tests with the BPRML sample can be used to fine tune the instrument’s focal distance. Our results confirm the universality of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  12. On-Line Remote Catalog Access and Circulation Control System. Part I: Functional Specifications. Part II: User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., Gaithersburg, MD. Data Processing Div.

    The Ohio State University Libraries On-line Remote Catalog Access and Circulation Control System (LCS) began on-line operations with the conversion of one department library in November 1970. By December all 26 libraries had been converted to the automated system and LCS was fully operational one month ahead of schedule. LCS is designed as a…

  13. A novel iridium/acid co-catalyzed transfer hydrogenative C(sp(3))-H bond alkylation to access functionalized N-heteroaromatics.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhenda; Jiang, Huanfeng; Zhang, Min

    2016-08-01

    A novel iridium/acid co-catalysed transfer hydrogenative coupling strategy, enabling direct alkylation of C(sp(3))-H bonds and atom-economic access to alkyl chain-lengthened N-heteroaromatics from six-membered 2-alkyl cyclic amines and aldehydes, has been demonstrated. This work has built an important basis to convert cyclic amines, a class of bulk chemical raw materials, into functionalized products. PMID:27355181

  14. Full Service Document Delivery: Our Likely Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldinger, Jeffrey

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on five issues of central concern to full-service document suppliers (provide on-demand delivery of any material, without limitations of subject, document type, or publication date) and their clients: end user access, ownership versus access, cooperation of all document suppliers, technology, and speed of access. (EJS)

  15. The Full-Size ABCG Transporters Nb-ABCG1 and Nb-ABCG2 Function in Pre- and Postinvasion Defense against Phytophthora infestans in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yusuke; Ojika, Makoto; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Jones, David A; Kawakita, Kazuhito; Takemoto, Daigo

    2016-05-01

    The sesquiterpenoid capsidiol is the major phytoalexin produced by Nicotiana and Capsicum species. Capsidiol is produced in plant tissues attacked by pathogens and plays a major role in postinvasion defense by inhibiting pathogen growth. Using virus-induced gene silencing-based screening, we identified two Nicotiana benthamiana (wild tobacco) genes encoding functionally redundant full-size ABCG (PDR-type) transporters, Nb-ABCG1/PDR1 and Nb-ABCG2/PDR2, which are essential for resistance to the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans Silencing of Nb-ABCG1/2 compromised secretion of capsidiol, revealing Nb-ABCG1/2 as probable exporters of capsidiol. Accumulation of plasma membrane-localized Nb-ABCG1 and Nb-ABCG2 was observed at the site of pathogen penetration. Silencing of EAS (encoding 5-epi-aristolochene synthase), a gene for capsidiol biosynthesis, reduced resistance to P. infestans, but penetration by P. infestans was not affected. By contrast, Nb-ABCG1/2-silenced plants showed reduced penetration defense, indicating that Nb-ABCG1/2 are involved in preinvasion defense against P. infestans Plastidic GGPPS1 (geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase) was also found to be required for preinvasion defense, thereby suggesting that plastid-produced diterpene(s) are the antimicrobial compounds active in preinvasion defense. These findings suggest that N. benthamiana ABCG1/2 are involved in the export of both antimicrobial diterpene(s) for preinvasion defense and capsidiol for postinvasion defense against P. infestans. PMID:27102667

  16. Immune function is related to adult carotenoid and bile pigment levels, but not to dietary carotenoid access during development, in female mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael W; McGraw, Kevin J

    2013-07-15

    Immune function can be modulated by multiple physiological factors, including nutrition and reproductive state. Because these factors can vary throughout an individual's lifetime as a result of environmental conditions (affecting nutrition) or life-history stage (e.g. entering the adult reproduction stage), we must carefully examine the degree to which developmental versus adult conditions shape performance of the immune system. We investigated how variation in dietary access to carotenoid pigments - a class of molecules with immunostimulatory properties that females deposit into egg yolks - during three different developmental time points affected adult immunological and reproductive traits in female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). In males and females of other avian species, carotenoid access during development affects carotenoid assimilation ability, adult sexual ornamentation and immune function, while carotenoid access during adulthood can increase immune response and reproductive investment (e.g. egg-laying capacity, biliverdin deposition in eggshells). We failed to detect effects of developmental carotenoid supplementation on adult immune function [phytohemagglutinin-induced cutaneous immune response, antibody production in response to the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), or oxidative burst, assessed by changes in circulating nitric oxide levels], carotenoid-pigmented beak coloration, ovarian development, circulating carotenoid levels or concentration of bile pigments in the gall bladder. However, we did uncover positive relationships between circulating carotenoid levels during adulthood and KLH-specific antibody production, and a negative relationship between biliverdin concentration in bile and KLH-specific antibody production. These results are consistent with the view that adult physiological parameters better predict current immune function than do developmental conditions, and highlight a possible, previously unstudied relationship

  17. Gold-catalysed facile access to indene scaffolds via sequential C-H functionalization and 5-endo-dig carbocyclization.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ben; Wu, Ziang; Huang, Ben; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Junliang

    2016-08-01

    A concise synthesis of functionalized indene derivatives via the gold(i)-catalysed cascade C-H functionalization/conia-ene type reaction of electron-rich aromatics with o-alkynylaryl α-diazoesters has been developed. In this transformation, the gold catalyst not only catalysed the formation of the zwitterionic intermediate via intermolecular C-H functionalization but promoted the subsequent intramolecular 5-endo-dig cyclization via activation of alkynes. The reaction is characterized by high chemo- and site-selectivity, readily available starting materials, nice functional-group tolerance and mild reaction conditions. PMID:27373228

  18. Role of the fourth transmembrane domain in proton-coupled folate transporter function as assessed by the substituted cysteine accessibility method.

    PubMed

    Shin, Daniel Sanghoon; Zhao, Rongbao; Fiser, Andras; Goldman, I David

    2013-06-15

    The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT, SLC46A1) mediates folate transport across the apical brush-border membrane of the proximal small intestine and the basolateral membrane of choroid plexus ependymal cells. Two loss-of-function mutations in PCFT, which are the basis for hereditary folate malabsorption, have been identified within the fourth transmembrane domain (TMD4) in subjects with this disorder. We have employed the substituted Cys accessibility method (SCAM) to study the accessibilities of all residues in TMD4 and their roles in folate substrate binding to the carrier. When residues 146-167 were replaced by Cys, all except R148C were expressed at the cell surface. Modification of five of these substituted Cys residues (positions 147, 152, 157, 158, and 161) by methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents led to reduction of PCFT function. All five residues could be labeled with N-biotinylaminoethyl-MTS, and this could be blocked by the high-affinity PCFT substrate pemetrexed. Pemetrexed also protected PCFT mutant function from inhibitory modification of the substituted Cys at positions 157, 158, and 161 by a MTS. The findings indicate that these five residues in TMD4 are accessible to the aqueous translocation pathway, play a role in folate substrate binding, and are likely located within or near the folate binding pocket. A homology model of PCFT places three of these residues, Phe¹⁵⁷, Gly¹⁵⁸, and Leu¹⁶¹, within a breakpoint in the midportion of TMD4, a region that likely participates in alterations in the PCFT conformational state during carrier cycling. PMID:23552283

  19. Ready access to functionally embellished cis-hydrindanes and cis-decalins: protecting group-free total syntheses of (±)-Nootkatone and (±)-Noreremophilane.

    PubMed

    Handore, Kishor L; Seetharamsingh, B; Reddy, D Srinivasa

    2013-08-16

    A simple and efficient synthesis of functionalized cis-hydrindanes and cis-decalins was achieved using a sequential Diels-Alder/aldol approach in a highly diastereoselective manner. The scope of this method was tested with a variety of substrates and was successfully applied to the synthesis of two natural products in racemic form. The highlights of the present work provide ready access to 13 new cis-hydrindanes/cis-decalins, a protecting group-free total synthesis of an insect repellent Nootkatone, and the first synthesis of a Noreremophilane using the shortest sequence. PMID:23855542

  20. BioPortal: enhanced functionality via new Web services from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology to access and use ontologies in software applications

    PubMed Central

    Whetzel, Patricia L.; Noy, Natalya F.; Shah, Nigam H.; Alexander, Paul R.; Nyulas, Csongor; Tudorache, Tania; Musen, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO) is one of the National Centers for Biomedical Computing funded under the NIH Roadmap Initiative. Contributing to the national computing infrastructure, NCBO has developed BioPortal, a web portal that provides access to a library of biomedical ontologies and terminologies (http://bioportal.bioontology.org) via the NCBO Web services. BioPortal enables community participation in the evaluation and evolution of ontology content by providing features to add mappings between terms, to add comments linked to specific ontology terms and to provide ontology reviews. The NCBO Web services (http://www.bioontology.org/wiki/index.php/NCBO_REST_services) enable this functionality and provide a uniform mechanism to access ontologies from a variety of knowledge representation formats, such as Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) format. The Web services provide multi-layered access to the ontology content, from getting all terms in an ontology to retrieving metadata about a term. Users can easily incorporate the NCBO Web services into software applications to generate semantically aware applications and to facilitate structured data collection. PMID:21672956

  1. Divinyl-end-functionalized polyethylenes: ready access to a range of telechelic polyethylenes through thiol-ene reactions.

    PubMed

    Norsic, Sebastien; Thomas, Coralie; D'Agosto, Franck; Boisson, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Telechelic α,ω-iodo-vinyl-polyethylenes (Vin-PE-I) were obtained by catalytic ethylene polymerization in the presence of [(C5 Me5 )2 NdCl2 Li(OEt2 )2 ] in combination with a functionalized chain-transfer agent, namely, di(10-undecenyl)magnesium, followed by treatment of the resulting di(vinylpolyethylenyl)magnesium compounds ((vinyl-PE)2 Mg) with I2 . The iodo-functionalized vinylpolyethylenes (Vin-PE-I) were transformed into unique divinyl-functionalized polyethylenes (Vin-PE-Vin) by simple treatment with tBuOK in toluene at 95 °C. Thiol-ene reactions were then successfully performed on Vin-PE-Vin with functionalized thiols in the presence of AIBN. A range of homobifunctional telechelic polyethylenes were obtained on which a hydroxy, diol, carboxylic acid, amine, ammonium chloride, trimethoxysilyl, chloro, or fluoroalkyl group was installed quantitatively at each chain end. PMID:25688747

  2. An Open-Source Sandbox for Increasing the Accessibility of Functional Programming to the Bioinformatics and Scientific Communities

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Matthew; Sesanker, Colbert; Schiller, Martin R.; Ellis, Heidi JC; Hinman, M. Lee; Vyas, Jay; Gryk, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists are continually faced with the need to express complex mathematical notions in code. The renaissance of functional languages such as LISP and Haskell is often credited to their ability to implement complex data operations and mathematical constructs in an expressive and natural idiom. The slow adoption of functional computing in the scientific community does not, however, reflect the congeniality of these fields. Unfortunately, the learning curve for adoption of functional programming techniques is steeper than that for more traditional languages in the scientific community, such as Python and Java, and this is partially due to the relative sparseness of available learning resources. To fill this gap, we demonstrate and provide applied, scientifically substantial examples of functional programming, We present a multi-language source-code repository for software integration and algorithm development, which generally focuses on the fields of machine learning, data processing, bioinformatics. We encourage scientists who are interested in learning the basics of functional programming to adopt, reuse, and learn from these examples. The source code is available at: https://github.com/CONNJUR/CONNJUR-Sandbox (see also http://www.connjur.org). PMID:25328913

  3. An Open-Source Sandbox for Increasing the Accessibility of Functional Programming to the Bioinformatics and Scientific Communities.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Matthew; Sesanker, Colbert; Schiller, Martin R; Ellis, Heidi Jc; Hinman, M Lee; Vyas, Jay; Gryk, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Scientists are continually faced with the need to express complex mathematical notions in code. The renaissance of functional languages such as LISP and Haskell is often credited to their ability to implement complex data operations and mathematical constructs in an expressive and natural idiom. The slow adoption of functional computing in the scientific community does not, however, reflect the congeniality of these fields. Unfortunately, the learning curve for adoption of functional programming techniques is steeper than that for more traditional languages in the scientific community, such as Python and Java, and this is partially due to the relative sparseness of available learning resources. To fill this gap, we demonstrate and provide applied, scientifically substantial examples of functional programming, We present a multi-language source-code repository for software integration and algorithm development, which generally focuses on the fields of machine learning, data processing, bioinformatics. We encourage scientists who are interested in learning the basics of functional programming to adopt, reuse, and learn from these examples. The source code is available at: https://github.com/CONNJUR/CONNJUR-Sandbox (see also http://www.connjur.org). PMID:25328913

  4. Pd-Catalyzed C-H activation/oxidative cyclization of acetanilide with norbornene: concise access to functionalized indolines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Huang, Yubing; Wu, Wanqing; Huang, Kefan; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2014-08-01

    An efficient Pd-catalyzed oxidative cyclization reaction for the synthesis of functionalized indolines by direct C-H activation of acetanilide has been developed. The norbornylpalladium species formed via direct ortho C-H activation of acetanilides is supposed to be a key intermediate in this transformation. PMID:24942255

  5. Community Adaptation of Youth Accessing Residential Programs or a Home-Based Alternative: School Attendance and Academic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frensch, Karen; Cameron, Gary; Preyde, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Caregivers of 210 youth receiving residential treatment (RT) or intensive family services (IFS) in Ontario were interviewed about the long term community adaptation of youth after leaving these programs. School attendance and academic functioning data at admission, discharge, and 12-18 months post-discharge were analyzed to explore predictors of…

  6. Functional Characterization of a Full Length Pregnane X Receptor, Expression in vivo, and Identification of PXR Alleles in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Bainy, Afonso C. D.; Kubota, Akira; Goldstone, Jared V.; Lille-Langøy, Roger; Karchner, Sibel I.; Celander, Malin C.; Hahn, Mark E.; Goksøyr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) (nuclear receptor NR1I2) is a ligand activated transcription factor, mediating responses to diverse xenobiotic and endogenous chemicals. The properties of PXR in fish are not fully understood. Here we report on cloning and characterization of full-length PXR of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and pxr expression in vivo. Initial efforts gave a cDNA encoding a 430 amino acid protein identified as zebrafish pxr by phylogenetic and synteny analysis. The sequence of the cloned Pxr DNA binding domain was highly conserved, with 74% identity to human PXR, while the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the cloned sequence was only 44% identical to human PXR-LBD. Sequence variation among clones in the initial effort prompted sequencing of multiple clones from a single fish. There were two prominent variants, one sequence with S183, Y218 and H383 and the other with I183, C218 and N383, which we designate as alleles pxr*1 (nr1i2*1) and pxr*2 (nr1i2*2), respectively. In COS-7 cells co-transfected with a PXR-responsive reporter gene, the full-length Pxr*1 (the more common variant) was activated by known PXR agonists clotrimazole and pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile but to a lesser extent than the full-length human PXR. Activation of full-length Pxr*1 was only 10% of that with the Pxr*1 LBD. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed prominent expression of pxr in liver and eye, as well as brain and intestine of adult zebrafish. The pxr was expressed in heart and kidney at levels similar to that in intestine. The expression of pxr in liver was weakly induced by ligands for mammalian PXR or CAR (NR1I3). The results establish a foundation for PXR studies in this vertebrate model. PXR allelic variation and the differences between the full-length PXR and the LBD in reporter assays have implications for assessing the action of PXR ligands in zebrafish. PMID:24121122

  7. Full Multigrid Flow Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond E.; Thomas, James L.; Biedron, Robert T.; Diskin, Boris

    2005-01-01

    FMG3D (full multigrid 3 dimensions) is a pilot computer program that solves equations of fluid flow using a finite difference representation on a structured grid. Infrastructure exists for three dimensions but the current implementation treats only two dimensions. Written in Fortran 90, FMG3D takes advantage of the recursive subroutine feature, dynamic memory allocation, and structured-programming constructs of that language. FMG3D supports multi-block grids with three types of block-to-block interfaces: periodic, C-zero, and C-infinity. For all three types, grid points must match at interfaces. For periodic and C-infinity types, derivatives of grid metrics must be continuous at interfaces. The available equation sets are as follows: scalar elliptic equations, scalar convection equations, and the pressure-Poisson formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid. All the equation sets are implemented with nonzero forcing functions to enable the use of user-specified solutions to assist in verification and validation. The equations are solved with a full multigrid scheme using a full approximation scheme to converge the solution on each succeeding grid level. Restriction to the next coarser mesh uses direct injection for variables and full weighting for residual quantities; prolongation of the coarse grid correction from the coarse mesh to the fine mesh uses bilinear interpolation; and prolongation of the coarse grid solution uses bicubic interpolation.

  8. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  9. Comparing the Antibacterial and Functional Properties of Cameroonian and Manuka Honeys for Potential Wound Healing-Have We Come Full Cycle in Dealing with Antibiotic Resistance?

    PubMed

    Boateng, Joshua; Diunase, Keshu Nso

    2015-01-01

    The increased incidence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has generated renewed interest in "traditional" antimicrobials, such as honey. This paper reports on a study comparing physico-chemical, antioxidant and antibacterial characteristics (that potentially contribute in part, to the functional wound healing activity) of Cameroonian honeys with those of Manuka honey. Agar well diffusion was used to generate zones of inhibition against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus while broth dilutions were used to study the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Non-peroxide activity was investigated by catalase for hydrogen peroxide reduction. The Cameroonian honeys demonstrated functional properties similar to Manuka honey, with strong correlations between the antioxidant activity and total phenol content of each honey. They were also as effective as Manuka honey in reducing bacteria load with an MIC of 10% w/v against all three bacteria and exhibited non-peroxide antimicrobial activity. These Cameroon honeys have potential therapeutic activity and may contain compounds with activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Antibacterial agents from such natural sources present a potential affordable treatment of wound infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, which are a leading cause of amputations and deaths in many African countries. PMID:26364634

  10. Functionalized paper--A readily accessible adsorbent for removal of dissolved heavy metal salts and nanoparticles from water.

    PubMed

    Setyono, Daisy; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2016-01-25

    Paper, a readily available renewable resource, comprises of interwoven cellulosic fibers, which can be functionalized to develop interesting low-cost adsorbent material for water purification. In this study, polyethyleneimine (PEI)-functionalized paper was used for the removal of hazardous pollutants such as Au and Ag nanoparticles, Cr(VI) anions, Ni(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) cations from spiked water samples. Compared to untreated paper, the PEI-coated paper showed significant improvement in adsorption capacities toward the pollutants investigated in this study. Kinetics, isotherm models, pH, and desorption studies were carried out to study the adsorption mechanism of pollutants on the adsorbent surface. Adsorption of pollutants was better described by pseudo-second order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm model. Maximum adsorption of anionic pollutants was achieved at pH 5 while that of cations was at pH>6. Overall, the PEI-functionalized paper showed interesting Langmuir adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions such as Cr(VI) (68 mg/g), Ni(2+) (208 mg/g), Cd(2+) (370 mg/g), and Cu(2+) (435 mg/g) ions at neutral pH. In addition, the modified paper was also used to remove Ag-citrate (79 mg/g), Ag-PVP (46 mg/g), Au-citrate (30 mg/g), Au-PVP (17 mg/g) nanoparticles from water. Desorption of NPs from the adsorbent was done by washing with 2 M HCl or thiourea solution, while heavy metal ions were desorbed using 1 M NaOH or HNO3 solution. The modified paper retained its extraction efficiencies upon desorption of pollutants. PMID:26452090

  11. RhI-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Spirocyclization via C–C Cleavage of Benzocyclobutenones: An Efficient Approach to Access Functionalized Spirocycles

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tao; Savage, Nikolas A.; Dong, Guangbin

    2014-01-01

    We describe a rhodium-catalyzed all-carbon spirocenter formation through a decarbonylative coupling of trisubstituted cyclic olefins and benzocyclobutenones via C–C activation. A [Rh(CO)2Cl]2/P(C6F5)3 metal-ligand combination was found to catalyze this transformation most efficiently. A range of diverse spirocyclic rings were synthesized in good to excellent yields and many sensitive functional groups were tolerated. Mechanistic study supports the hydrogen-transfer process that occurs via a β-H elimination/decarbonylation pathway. PMID:24446067

  12. The Full Spectrum of Holoprosencephaly-Associated Mutations within the ZIC2 Gene in Humans Predicts Loss-of-Function as the Predominant Disease Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, Erich; Lacbawan, Felicitas; Dubourg, Christèle; Paulussen, Aimee; Herbergs, Jos; Hehr, Ute; Bendavid, Claude; Zhou, Nan; Ouspenskaia, Maia; Bale, Sherri; Odent, Sylvie; David, Vèronique; Muenke, Maximilian

    2009-01-01

    Mutations of the ZIC2 transcription factor gene are among the most common heterozygous variations detected in holoprosencephaly (HPE) patients, a patient group who lack critical midline forebrain specification due to defective embryonic signaling during development. Recent studies indicate that complete deficiency of the related murine Zic2 transcription factor can also be a contributing factor to variable midline deficiencies, presenting during mid-gastrulation, that could explain similar forebrain anomalies in this model system. Here we collect and summarize all available mutations in the human ZIC2 gene detected in HPE patients (21 published and 62 novel). Our analysis corroborates this mechanism proposed in mice by predicting loss-of-function as the likely pathogenetic mechanism common to most, if not all, of these mutations in HPE. PMID:19177455

  13. Exact relativistic kinetic theory of the full unstable spectrum of an electron-beam-plasma system with Maxwell-Jüttner distribution functions.

    PubMed

    Bret, A; Gremillet, L; Bénisti, D

    2010-03-01

    Following a recent Letter by Bret [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 205008 (2008)], we present a detailed report of the entire unstable k spectrum of a relativistic collisionless beam-plasma system within a fully kinetic framework. In contrast to a number of previously published studies, our linear analysis makes use of smooth momentum distribution functions of the Maxwell-Jüttner form. The three competing classes of instabilities, namely, two-stream, filamentation, and oblique modes, are dealt with in a unified manner, no approximation being made regarding the beam-plasma densities, temperatures, and drift energies. We investigate the hierarchy between the competing modes, paying particular attention to the relatively poorly known quasielectrostatic oblique modes in the regime where they govern the system. The properties of the fastest growing oblique modes are examined in terms of the system parameters and compared to those of the dominant two-stream and filamentation modes. PMID:20365877

  14. Pure MW Data for v=0-6 of PbI Give Vibrational Spacings and a Full Analytic Potential Energy Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Ji Ho (Chris); Evans, Corey; Walker, Nick; Le Roy, Robert J.

    2015-06-01

    At last year's ISMS meeting, Zaleski et al. reported new broadband MW spectroscopy measurements of pure rotational transitions in the v=0-6 levels of the ^2Π1/2 ground electronic state of PbI. The analysis presented at that time was a conventional v-level by v-level `band-constant' analysis performed using the PGopher program. That level-by-level PGopher analysis yielded values of B_v, D_v and five spin-splitting parameters for each vibrational level of each isotopologue. Ignoring the spin-splitting information, the B_v and D_v values were used to generate a set of synthetic pure R(0) transitions for each level that were taken to represent the ``mechanical'' information about the molecule contained in these spectra. A standard direct-potential-fit (DPF) analysis was then used to fit these data to an ``Expanded Morse Oscillator'' (EMO) potential function form. The well-depth parameter D_e was fixed at the literature value, while values of the equilibrium distance r_e and three EMO exponent-coefficient expansion `potential shape' parameters are determined from the fits. The best fits to the data yield potentials whose fundamental vibrational spacings are in excellent agreement with experiment together with reliable predictions for the first five overtone energies. D.P. Zaleski, H. Köckert, S.L. Stephens, N. Walker, L.-M. Dickens, and C. Evans, paper RE08 at the 69th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, University of Illinois (2014). PGopher - a Program for Simulating Rotational Structure, C. M. Western, University of Bristol, http://pgopher.chm.bris.ac.uk DPotFit 2.0: A Computer Program for fitting Diatomic Molecule Spectra to Potential Energy Functions, R.J. Le Roy, J. Seto and Y. Huang, University of Waterloo Chemical Physics Research Report CP-667 (2013); see http://leroy.uwaterloo.ca/programs/. K. Ziebarth, R. Breidohr, O. Shestakov and E.H. Fink, Chem. Phys. Lett. 190, 271 (1992).

  15. Internal resistor of multi-functional tunnel barrier for selectivity and switching uniformity in resistive random access memory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this research, we analyzed the multi-functional role of a tunnel barrier that can be integrated in devices. This tunnel barrier, acting as an internal resistor, changes its resistance with applied bias. Therefore, the current flow in the devices can be controlled by a tunneling mechanism that modifies the tunnel barrier thickness for non-linearity and switching uniformity of devices. When a device is in a low-resistance state, the tunnel barrier controls the current behavior of the device because most of the bias is applied to the tunnel barrier owing to its higher resistance. Furthermore, the tunnel barrier induces uniform filament formation during set operation with the tunnel barrier controlling the current flow. PMID:25114654

  16. Automated Computer Access Request System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Automated Computer Access Request (AutoCAR) system is a Web-based account provisioning application that replaces the time-consuming paper-based computer-access request process at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Auto- CAR combines rules-based and role-based functionality in one application to provide a centralized system that is easily and widely accessible. The system features a work-flow engine that facilitates request routing, a user registration directory containing contact information and user metadata, an access request submission and tracking process, and a system administrator account management component. This provides full, end-to-end disposition approval chain accountability from the moment a request is submitted. By blending both rules-based and rolebased functionality, AutoCAR has the flexibility to route requests based on a user s nationality, JSC affiliation status, and other export-control requirements, while ensuring a user s request is addressed by either a primary or backup approver. All user accounts that are tracked in AutoCAR are recorded and mapped to the native operating system schema on the target platform where user accounts reside. This allows for future extensibility for supporting creation, deletion, and account management directly on the target platforms by way of AutoCAR. The system s directory-based lookup and day-today change analysis of directory information determines personnel moves, deletions, and additions, and automatically notifies a user via e-mail to revalidate his/her account access as a result of such changes. AutoCAR is a Microsoft classic active server page (ASP) application hosted on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).

  17. Microbial structures and community functions of anaerobic sludge in six full-scale wastewater treatment plants as revealed by 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Shu, Duntao; He, Yanling; Yue, Hong; Wang, Qingyi

    2015-06-01

    The microbial communities and abundance in anaerobic sludge from 4 industrial and 2 municipal wastewater treatment plants were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology in this study. A total of 5482-8692 high-quality reads of 16S rRNA V3-V5 regions were obtained. Taxonomic analysis using QIIME and RDP classifier found that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla in these samples. Furthermore, real-time PCR was used to validate the absolute abundance of these 16S rRNAs and some functional genes, including total bacteria, anammox bacteria, NOB (Nitrobacter, Nitrospira), AOA amoA, AOB amoA, nosZ, nirS, nirK, narG, napA, nrfA, mcrA and dsrA. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that AOA might be mixotrophic. Finally, redundancy analysis was used to reveal the relationships between operation parameters and microbial communities. Results showed that the coexistence of anammox, denitrification and DNRA could be useful for the simultaneous removal of nitrogen and organic matter. PMID:25817026

  18. Analysis of the Mycoplasma genitalium MgpB Adhesin to Predict Membrane Topology, Investigate Antibody Accessibility, Characterize Amino Acid Diversity, and Identify Functional and Immunogenic Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Iverson-Cabral, Stefanie L.; Wood, Gwendolyn E.; Totten, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted pathogen and is associated with reproductive tract disease that can be chronic in nature despite the induction of a strong antibody response. Persistent infection exacerbates the likelihood of transmission, increases the risk of ascension to the upper tract, and suggests that M. genitalium may possess immune evasion mechanism(s). Antibodies from infected patients predominantly target the MgpB adhesin, which is encoded by a gene that recombines with homologous donor sequences, thereby generating sequence variation within and among strains. We have previously characterized mgpB heterogeneity over the course of persistent infection and have correlated the induction of variant-specific antibodies with the loss of that particular variant from the infected host. In the current study, we examined the membrane topology, antibody accessibility, distribution of amino acid diversity, and the location of functional and antigenic epitopes within the MgpB adhesin. Our results indicate that MgpB contains a single transmembrane domain, that the majority of the protein is surface exposed and antibody accessible, and that the attachment domain is located within the extracellular C-terminus. Not unexpectedly, amino acid diversity was concentrated within and around the three previously defined variable regions (B, EF, and G) of MgpB; while nonsynonymous mutations were twice as frequent as synonymous mutations in regions B and G, region EF had equal numbers of nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations. Interestingly, antibodies produced during persistent infection reacted predominantly with the conserved C-terminus and variable region B. In contrast, infection-induced antibodies reacted poorly with the N-terminus, variable regions EF and G, and intervening conserved regions despite the presence of predicted B cell epitopes. Overall, this study provides an important foundation to define how different segments of the MgpB adhesin contribute to

  19. Normal-mode function representation of global 3-D data sets: open-access software for the atmospheric research community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, N.; Kasahara, A.; Terasaki, K.; Tribbia, J.; Tanaka, H.

    2015-04-01

    This article presents new software for the analysis of global dynamical fields in (re)analyses, weather forecasts and climate models. A new diagnostic tool, developed within the MODES project, allows one to diagnose properties of balanced and inertio-gravity (IG) circulations across many scales. In particular, the IG spectrum, which has only recently become observable, can be studied simultaneously in the mass and wind fields while considering the whole model depth in contrast to the majority of studies. The paper includes the theory of normal-mode function (NMF) expansion, technical details of the Fortran 90 code, examples of namelists which control the software execution and outputs of the software application on the ERA Interim reanalysis data set. The applied libraries and default compiler are from the open-source domain. A limited understanding of Fortran suffices for the successful implementation of the software. The presented application of the software to the ERA Interim data set reveals several aspects of the large-scale circulation after it has been partitioned into the linearly balanced and IG components. The global energy distribution is dominated by the balanced energy while the IG modes contribute around 10% of the total wave energy. However, on sub-synoptic scales, IG energy dominates and it is associated with the main features of tropical variability on all scales. The presented energy distribution and features of the zonally averaged and equatorial circulation provide a reference for the validation of climate models.

  20. Normal-mode function representation of global 3-D datasets: an open-access software for atmospheric research community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, N.; Kasahara, A.; Terasaki, K.; Tribbia, J.; Tanaka, H.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents new software for the analysis of global dynamical fields in (re)analyses, weather forecasts and climate models. A new diagnostic tool, developed within the MODES project, allows one to diagnose properties of balanced and inertio-gravity (IG) circulation across many scales. In particular, the IG spectrum, which has only recently become observable, can be studied simultaneously in the mass field and wind field and considering the whole model depth in contrary to majority of studies. The paper presentation includes the theory of normal-mode function expansion, technical details of the Fortran 90 code, examples of namelists which control the software execution and outputs of the software application on the reanalysis dataset ERA Interim. The applied libraries and default compiler are from the open-source domain. A limited understanding of Fortran suffices for the successful implementation of the software. The presented application of the software to the ERA Interim dataset show some features of the large-scale circulation after it has been split into the balanced and IG components. The global energy distribution is dominated by the balanced energy with IG modes making less than 10% of the total wave energy. However, on subsynoptic scales IG energy dominates and it is associated with the main features of tropical variability on all scales. The presented energy distribution and features of the zonally-averaged and equatorial circulation provide a reference for the validation of climate models.

  1. Naturally occurring broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance in a Central American tomato accession is caused by loss of mlo function.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yuling; Pavan, Stefano; Zheng, Zheng; Zappel, Nana F; Reinstädler, Anja; Lotti, Concetta; De Giovanni, Claudio; Ricciardi, Luigi; Lindhout, Pim; Visser, Richard; Theres, Klaus; Panstruga, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    The resistant cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) line LC-95, derived from an accession collected in Ecuador, harbors a natural allele (ol-2) that confers broad-spectrum and recessively inherited resistance to powdery mildew (Oidium neolycopersici). As both the genetic and phytopathological characteristics of ol-2-mediated resistance are reminiscent of powdery mildew immunity conferred by loss-of-function mlo alleles in barley and Arabidopsis, we initiated a candidate-gene approach to clone Ol-2. A tomato Mlo gene (SlMlo1) with high sequence-relatedness to barley Mlo and Arabidopsis AtMLO2 mapped to the chromosomal region harboring the Ol-2 locus. Complementation experiments using transgenic tomato lines as well as virus-induced gene silencing assays suggested that loss of SlMlo1 function is responsible for powdery mildew resistance conferred by ol-2. In progeny of a cross between a resistant line bearing ol-2 and the susceptible tomato cultivar Moneymaker, a 19-bp deletion disrupting the SlMlo1 coding region cosegregated with resistance. This polymorphism results in a frameshift and, thus, a truncated nonfunctional SlMlo1 protein. Our findings reveal the second example of a natural mlo mutant that possibly arose post-domestication, suggesting that natural mlo alleles might be evolutionarily short-lived due to fitness costs related to loss of mlo function. PMID:18052880

  2. Analytical computation of two integrals, appearing in the theory of elliptical accretion discs. III. Solving of the full set of auxiliary integrals, containing logarithmic functions into their integrands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, Dimitar

    2014-09-01

    The present investigation encloses the started in the earlier papers [3] and [4] analytical evaluations of some kinds definite integrals. These solutions are necessary steps towards the revealing the mathematical structure of the dynamical equation, governing the properties of the stationary elliptical accretion discs, which apse lines of all orbits are in line with each other[5]. Though the considered here task, at first glance, may seem as a purely mathematical one, there are some restrictions of physical nature on the variables, entering as arguments into the integrals. In this paper we resolve analytically the following two definite integrals, including into their nominators (as a factor) the logarithmic function ln(1 + ecosφ). Concretely, we find in an explicit form the solutions of the integrals Li(e,ė) ≡ 2 π ≡ ∫[ln(1 + ecosφ)](1 + ecosφ) – 1[1 + (e – ė)cosφ] – i dφ, (i = 0,…, 3), 0 2 π and Kj(e,ė) ≡ ∫[ln(1 + ecosφ)] [1 +(e – ė)cosφ] – j dφ, (j = 1, …, 5). 0 Here we have used the following notations: φ is the azimutal angle. The integration over φ from 0 to 2π means an averaging over the whole trajectory for each disc particle. Each such particle spirals inward to the center of the disc, moving on (quasi-) elliptical orbits with focal parameters p. These parameters p are allowed to vary for different elliptical orbits.In the our approach of computations, we treat e(u) and ė(u) as independent variables. The physically imposed restrictions (which, to some extend, lead to simplifications of the problems) are |e(u)| < 1,|ė(u)| < 1 and |e(u) – ė(u)| < 1 for all admitted values of u. That is to say, between the innermost and outermost orbits of the disc. Consequently, the established in this paper analytical solutions for the integrals Li(e,ė), (i = 0,…, 3) and Kj(e,ė), (j = 1, …, 5), are, probably, not the most general ones, even in the domain of the real analysis. But nevertheless, they are sufficient for our

  3. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  4. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  5. Enabling Web-Based GIS Tools for Internet and Mobile Devices To Improve and Expand NASA Data Accessibility and Analysis Functionality for the Renewable Energy and Agricultural Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, A.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Tisdale, B.; Tisdale, M.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Kusterer, J.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center Science Directorate and Atmospheric Science Data Center have initiated a pilot program to utilize Geographic Information System (GIS) tools that enable, generate and store climatological averages using spatial queries and calculations in a spatial database resulting in greater accessibility of data for government agencies, industry and private sector individuals. The major objectives of this effort include the 1) Processing and reformulation of current data to be consistent with ESRI and openGIS tools, 2) Develop functions to improve capability and analysis that produce "on-the-fly" data products, extending these past the single location to regional and global scales. 3) Update the current web sites to enable both web-based and mobile application displays for optimization on mobile platforms, 4) Interact with user communities in government and industry to test formats and usage of optimization, and 5) develop a series of metrics that allow for monitoring of progressive performance. Significant project results will include the the development of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant web services (WMS, WCS, WFS, WPS) that serve renewable energy and agricultural application products to users using GIS software and tools. Each data product and OGC service will be registered within ECHO, the Common Metadata Repository, the Geospatial Platform, and Data.gov to ensure the data are easily discoverable and provide data users with enhanced access to SSE data, parameters, services, and applications. This effort supports cross agency, cross organization, and interoperability of SSE data products and services by collaborating with DOI, NRCan, NREL, NCAR, and HOMER for requirements vetting and test bed users before making available to the wider public.

  6. Full control of the regiospecific N-functionalization of C-functionalized cyclam bisaminal derivatives and application to the synthesis of their TETA, TE2A, and CB-TE2A analogues.

    PubMed

    Camus, Nathalie; Halime, Zakaria; Le Bris, Nathalie; Bernard, Hélène; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Tripier, Raphaël

    2014-03-01

    We describe an easy synthesis of original C-functionalized cyclam derivatives based on the efficient bisaminal template method. In the perspective of developing bifunctional chelating agents (BCAs), this new synthetic strategy offers the possibility of introducing various coupling functions on one carbon atom in the β-N position of the macrocycle, leaving the four nitrogen atoms available for the introduction of pendant coordinating arms. The methodology is based on a keystone C-functionalized oxo-cyclam bisaminal intermediate that is obtained by cyclization of a preorganized tetraamine using various methyl acrylate analogues. These compounds constitute valuable precursors for selective preparation of mono- and di-N-protected C-functionalized cyclams and C-functionalized cyclams, cross-bridged cyclams, and oxo-cyclam derivatives. This approach was successfully adapted to the synthesis of three BCAs with great interest especially for biomedical applications: TETA, TE2A, and CB-TE2A. The structures of different intermediates and Cu(II) complexes of C-functionalized cyclam derivatives were confirmed using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, while reactivity of the key intermediates was rationalized by the analysis of the electrostatic potentials calculated at the TPSSh/6-311G(d,p) level. PMID:24552189

  7. Multiscale full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Trampert, Jeannot; Cupillard, Paul; Saygin, Erdinc; Taymaz, Tuncay; Capdeville, Yann; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    We develop and apply a full waveform inversion method that incorporates seismic data on a wide range of spatio-temporal scales, thereby constraining the details of both crustal and upper-mantle structure. This is intended to further our understanding of crust-mantle interactions that shape the nature of plate tectonics, and to be a step towards improved tomographic models of strongly scale-dependent earth properties, such as attenuation and anisotropy. The inversion for detailed regional earth structure consistently embedded within a large-scale model requires locally refined numerical meshes that allow us to (1) model regional wave propagation at high frequencies, and (2) capture the inferred fine-scale heterogeneities. The smallest local grid spacing sets the upper bound of the largest possible time step used to iteratively advance the seismic wave field. This limitation leads to extreme computational costs in the presence of fine-scale structure, and it inhibits the construction of full waveform tomographic models that describe earth structure on multiple scales. To reduce computational requirements to a feasible level, we design a multigrid approach based on the decomposition of a multiscale earth model with widely varying grid spacings into a family of single-scale models where the grid spacing is approximately uniform. Each of the single-scale models contains a tractable number of grid points, which ensures computational efficiency. The multi-to-single-scale decomposition is the foundation of iterative, gradient-based optimization schemes that simultaneously and consistently invert data on all scales for one multi-scale model. We demonstrate the applicability of our method in a full waveform inversion for Eurasia, with a special focus on Anatolia where coverage is particularly dense. Continental-scale structure is constrained by complete seismic waveforms in the 30-200 s period range. In addition to the well-known structural elements of the Eurasian mantle

  8. Item response theory analysis of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised in the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials Database.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Elizabeth D; Staniewska, Dorota; Coyne, Karin S; Boyer, Stacey; White, Leigh Ann; Zach, Neta; Cedarbaum, Jesse M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to examine dimensionality and item-level performance of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) across time using classical and modern test theory approaches. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses were conducted using data from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Pooled Resources Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database with complete ALSFRS-R data (n = 888) at three time-points (Time 0, Time 1 (6-months), Time 2 (1-year)). Results demonstrated that in this population of 888 patients, mean age was 54.6 years, 64.4% were male, and 93.7% were Caucasian. The CFA supported a 4* individual-domain structure (bulbar, gross motor, fine motor, and respiratory domains). IRT analysis within each domain revealed misfitting items and overlapping item response category thresholds at all time-points, particularly in the gross motor and respiratory domain items. Results indicate that many of the items of the ALSFRS-R may sub-optimally distinguish among varying levels of disability assessed by each domain, particularly in patients with less severe disability. Measure performance improved across time as patient disability severity increased. In conclusion, modifications to select ALSFRS-R items may improve the instrument's specificity to disability level and sensitivity to treatment effects. PMID:26473473

  9. An accessible protocol for solid-phase extraction of N-linked glycopeptides through reductive amination by amine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Kuang, Min; Zhang, Lijuan; Yang, Pengyuan; Lu, Haojie

    2013-06-01

    In light of the significance of glycosylation for wealthy biological events, it is important to prefractionate glycoproteins/glycopeptides from complex biological samples. Herein, we reported a novel protocol of solid-phase extraction of glycopeptides through a reductive amination reaction by employing the easily accessible 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. The amino groups from APTES, which were assembled onto the surface of the nanoparticles through a one-step silanization reaction, could conjugate with the aldehydes from oxidized glycopeptides and, therefore, completed the extraction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of applying the reductive amination reaction into the isolation of glycopeptides. Due to the elimination of the desalting step, the detection limit of glycopeptides was improved by 2 orders of magnitude, compared to the traditional hydrazide chemistry-based solid phase extraction, while the extraction time was shortened to 4 h, suggesting the high sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency for the extraction of N-linked glycopeptides by this method. In the meantime, high selectivity toward glycoproteins was also observed in the separation of Ribonuclease B from the mixtures contaminated with bovine serum albumin. What's more, this technique required significantly less sample volume, as demonstrated in the successful mapping of glycosylation of human colorectal cancer serum with the sample volume as little as 5 μL. Because of all these attractive features, we believe that the innovative protocol proposed here will shed new light on the research of glycosylation profiling. PMID:23659689

  10. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  11. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - ...

  12. ACCESS Project: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, Heiko

    2015-04-01

    The ACCESS project addressed the development, testing, and demonstration of the proposed advanced technologies and the associated emission and fuel economy improvement at an engine dynamometer and on a full-scale vehicle. Improve fuel economy by 25% with minimum performance penalties Achieve SULEV level emissions with gasoline Demonstrate multi-mode combustion engine management system

  13. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  14. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  15. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  16. A matter of access

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Chen, Kaifu; Li, Wei; Tyler, Jessica K

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism whereby transcriptional activators facilitate transcription activation has been debated. Our recent genome-wide profiling of gene expression during aging, where nucleosomes are depleted, indicates that the function of seemingly all transcriptional activators is to trigger nucleosome disassembly from promoters to allow the general transcription machinery access to the DNA. PMID:25764221

  17. ACCESS PENNSYLVANIA Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Library, Harrisburg.

    This curriculum guide was prepared as a tool for teaching students the purpose and function of the ACCESS PENNSYLVANIA database in the total concept of information literacy. The database on compact laser disc contains information about the holdings of hundreds of school, public, academic, and special use libraries. The database can be searched at…

  18. Full-Service Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChesney, Jim

    1996-01-01

    This research summary reviews six publications that explore the need for integrated school-based community services and describe ways in which challenges can be overcome to create effective full-time schools. The publications include the following: (1) "Full-Service Schools: A Revolution in Health and Social Services for Children, Youth, and…

  19. RiceFOX: A Database of Arabidopsis Mutant Lines Overexpressing Rice Full-Length cDNA that Contains a Wide Range of Trait Information to Facilitate Analysis of Gene Function

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Tetsuya; Kondou, Youichi; Akiyama, Kenji; Kurotani, Atsushi; Higuchi, Mieko; Ichikawa, Takanari; Kuroda, Hirofumi; Kusano, Miyako; Mori, Masaki; Saitou, Tsutomu; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Sugano, Shoji; Suzuki, Makoto; Takahashi, Hideki; Takahashi, Shinya; Takatsuji, Hiroshi; Yokotani, Naoki; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Saito, Kazuki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Oda, Kenji; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Matsui, Minami

    2011-01-01

    Identification of gene function is important not only for basic research but also for applied science, especially with regard to improvements in crop production. For rapid and efficient elucidation of useful traits, we developed a system named FOX hunting (Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressor gene hunting) using full-length cDNAs (fl-cDNAs). A heterologous expression approach provides a solution for the high-throughput characterization of gene functions in agricultural plant species. Since fl-cDNAs contain all the information of functional mRNAs and proteins, we introduced rice fl-cDNAs into Arabidopsis plants for systematic gain-of-function mutation. We generated >30,000 independent Arabidopsis transgenic lines expressing rice fl-cDNAs (rice FOX Arabidopsis mutant lines). These rice FOX Arabidopsis lines were screened systematically for various criteria such as morphology, photosynthesis, UV resistance, element composition, plant hormone profile, metabolite profile/fingerprinting, bacterial resistance, and heat and salt tolerance. The information obtained from these screenings was compiled into a database named ‘RiceFOX’. This database contains around 18,000 records of rice FOX Arabidopsis lines and allows users to search against all the observed results, ranging from morphological to invisible traits. The number of searchable items is approximately 100; moreover, the rice FOX Arabidopsis lines can be searched by rice and Arabidopsis gene/protein identifiers, sequence similarity to the introduced rice fl-cDNA and traits. The RiceFOX database is available at http://ricefox.psc.riken.jp/. PMID:21186176

  20. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-dialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-dialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency-dialysis access; Chronic kidney failure-dialysis access; Chronic renal failure-dialysis access

  1. Bibliographic Access and Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Betsy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents a brief summary of the functions of the Bibliographic Access & Control System (BACS) implemented at the Washington University School of Medicine Library, and outlines the design, development, and uses of the system. Bibliographic control of books and serials and user access to the system are also discussed. (Author/JL)

  2. Natural variation in stomatal response to closing stimuli among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions after exposure to low VPD as a tool to recognize the mechanism of disturbed stomatal functioning

    PubMed Central

    Aliniaeifard, Sasan; van Meeteren, Uulke

    2014-01-01

    Stomatal responses to closing stimuli are disturbed after long-term exposure of plants to low vapour pressure deficit (VPD). The mechanism behind this disturbance is not fully understood. Genetic variation between naturally occurring ecotypes can be helpful to elucidate the mechanism controlling stomatal movements in different environments. We characterized the stomatal responses of 41 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana to closing stimuli (ABA and desiccation) after they had been exposed for 4 days to moderate VPD (1.17 kPa) or low VPD (0.23 kPa). A fast screening system was used to test stomatal response to ABA using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging under low O2 concentrations of leaf discs floating on ABA solutions. In all accessions stomatal conductance (gs) was increased after prior exposure to low VPD. After exposure to low VPD, stomata of 39 out of 41 of the accessions showed a diminished ABA closing response; only stomata of low VPD-exposed Map-42 and C24 were as responsive to ABA as moderate VPD-exposed plants. In response to desiccation, most of the accessions showed a normal stomata closing response following low VPD exposure. Only low VPD-exposed Cvi-0 and Rrs-7 showed significantly less stomatal closure compared with moderate VPD-exposed plants. Using principle component analysis (PCA), accessions could be categorized to very sensitive, moderately sensitive, and less sensitive to closing stimuli. In conclusion, we present evidence for different stomatal responses to closing stimuli after long-term exposure to low VPD across Arabidopsis accessions. The variation can be a useful tool for finding the mechanism of stomatal malfunctioning. PMID:25205580

  3. Full Duplex, Spread Spectrum Radio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to support the development of a full duplex, spread spectrum voice communications system. The assembly and testing of a prototype system consisting of a Harris PRISM spread spectrum radio, a TMS320C54x signal processing development board and a Zilog Z80180 microprocessor was underway at the start of this project. The efforts under this project were the development of multiple access schemes, analysis of full duplex voice feedback delays, and the development and analysis of forward error correction (FEC) algorithms. The multiple access analysis involved the selection between code division multiple access (CDMA), frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and time division multiple access (TDMA). Full duplex voice feedback analysis involved the analysis of packet size and delays associated with full loop voice feedback for confirmation of radio system performance. FEC analysis included studies of the performance under the expected burst error scenario with the relatively short packet lengths, and analysis of implementation in the TMS320C54x digital signal processor. When the capabilities and the limitations of the components used were considered, the multiple access scheme chosen was a combination TDMA/FDMA scheme that will provide up to eight users on each of three separate frequencies. Packets to and from each user will consist of 16 samples at a rate of 8,000 samples per second for a total of 2 ms of voice information. The resulting voice feedback delay will therefore be 4 - 6 ms. The most practical FEC algorithm for implementation was a convolutional code with a Viterbi decoder. Interleaving of the bits of each packet will be required to offset the effects of burst errors.

  4. Keeping Rural Schools up to Full Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beesley, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Rural schools are long accustomed to meeting challenges in innovative ways. For them, the challenge is not so much a lack of technology as it is adequate internet access, which affects both teachers and students. In this article, the author discusses how to keep rural schools up to full speed. The author suggests that the best approach when…

  5. Full Text Journal Subscriptions: An Evolutionary Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of companies offering Web accessible subscriptions to full text electronic versions of scientific, technical, and medical journals (Academic Press, Blackwell, EBSCO, Elsevier, Highwire Press, Information Quest, Institute of Physics, Johns Hopkins University Press, OCLC, OVID, Springer, and SWETS). Also lists guidelines for…

  6. Full-F gyrofluid model

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, Jens

    2013-07-15

    A global electromagnetic gyrofluid model based on the full-F gyrokinetic model is derived. The gyrofluid moment variables are not split into fluctuating and equilibrium parts. Profiles are evolved freely, and gyro-averaging operators are not parametrized, but are functions of the gyrofluid moment variables. The fluid moment hierarchy is closed by approximating the gyrokinetic distribution function as a finite order Hermite-Laguerre polynomial and by determining closure approximations for terms involving the gyrokinetic gyro-averaging operator. The model exactly conserves the gyrokinetic full-F energy invariant evaluated using the Hermite-Laguerre decomposition. The model is suited for qualitative studies of the interplay between turbulence, flows, and dynamically evolving profiles in magnetically confined plasmas.

  7. VisPort: Web-Based Access to Community-Specific Visualization Functionality [Shedding New Light on Exploding Stars: Visualization for TeraScale Simulation of Neutrino-Driven Supernovae (Final Technical Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M Pauline

    2007-06-30

    The VisPort visualization portal is an experiment in providing Web-based access to visualization functionality from any place and at any time. VisPort adopts a service-oriented architecture to encapsulate visualization functionality and to support remote access. Users employ browser-based client applications to choose data and services, set parameters, and launch visualization jobs. Visualization products typically images or movies are viewed in the user's standard Web browser. VisPort emphasizes visualization solutions customized for specific application communities. Finally, VisPort relies heavily on XML, and introduces the notion of visualization informatics - the formalization and specialization of information related to the process and products of visualization.

  8. Full range resistive thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, E.; Rotter, M.; De Combarieu, M.; Forget, P.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Pari, P.

    2015-12-01

    Resistive thermometers are widely used in low temperature physics, thanks to portability, simplicity of operation and reduced size. The possibility to precisely follow the temperature from room temperature down to the mK region is of major interest for numerous applications, although no single thermometer can nowadays cover this entire temperature range. In this article we report on a method to realize a full range thermometer, capable to measure, by itself, temperatures in the whole above-cited temperature range, with constant sensitivity and sufficient precision for the typical cryogenic applications. We present here the first results for three different full range thermometer prototypes. A detailed description of the set-up used for measurements and characterization is also reported.

  9. Neptune - full ring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This pair of Voyager 2 images (FDS 11446.21 and 11448.10), two 591-s exposures obtained through the clear filter of the wide angle camera, show the full ring system with the highest sensitivity. Visible in this figure are the bright, narrow N53 and N63 rings, the diffuse N42 ring, and (faintly) the plateau outside of the N53 ring (with its slight brightening near 57,500 km).

  10. Full Scale Tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Interior view of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. (Small human figures have been added for scale.) On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel . 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow.

  11. Accessing Inpatient Rehabilitation after Acute Severe Stroke: Age, Mobility, Prestroke Function and Hospital Unit Are Associated with Discharge to Inpatient Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkennes, Sharon; Hill, Keith D.; Brock, Kim; Bernhardt, Julie; Churilov, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the variables associated with discharge to inpatient rehabilitation following acute severe stroke and to determine whether hospital unit contributed to access. Five acute hospitals in Victoria, Australia participated in this study. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had suffered an acute severe…

  12. Australia: a full house.

    PubMed

    Short, R

    1994-01-01

    Australia had a population of 17.6 million in 1991. In 1992, Australia's population grew at the rate of 1.06%, 0.8% due to natural increase and 0.26% from immigration. The recent Australian Bureau of Statistics Report estimates that it will grow to 18.9 million by the end of the century and 23.1 million by 2025, assuming fertility remains at current levels and net migration stabilizes at 70,000 per annum from the year 2000. The World Bank estimates that Australia's population will stabilize at 25 million some time in the future. Since Australia's politicians and economists fail to understand that the country already has a large enough population, no national population policy has been declared. The Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, responsible for all population issues, gives no thought to the long-term environmental consequences of the rapidly growing population and determines the annual migrant intake simply on the basis of the nation's economic needs, demands from new immigrants for admission of their next of kin, and humanitarian considerations with regard to refugees. Population growth in Australia needs to be checked as soon as possible. Reducing the annual migrant intake to below 50,000, Australia could achieve a stable population of approximately 23 million by 2040; the annual intake of 150,000 immigrants will grow the population to 37 million. The total fertility rate (TFR) has been below replacement level since 1976, but the population's skewed age distribution will cause it to continue to grow through natural increase at the current rate of approximately 0.8% per year for some time to come. Improving educational opportunities for women and ensuring that all have ready access to modern contraception could help produce a further decline in TFR. Moreover, education about contraception must be made a part of every school curriculum. Steps taken now may avert any future flood of millions of ecological refugees from Southeast Asia, particularly

  13. A Methodology to Assess the Accuracy with which Remote Data Characterize a Specific Surface, as a Function of Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM): Application to Three Italian Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Betti, Mattia; Campanelli, Alessandra; Di Cicco, Annalisa; Guglietta, Daniela; Penna, Pierluigi; Piermattei, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    This methodology assesses the accuracy with which remote data characterizes a surface, as a function of Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). The purpose is to identify the best remote data that improves the characterization of a surface, evaluating the number of bands in the spectral range. The first step creates an accurate dataset of remote simulated data, using in situ hyperspectral reflectances. The second step evaluates the capability of remote simulated data to characterize this surface. The spectral similarity measurements, which are obtained using classifiers, provide this capability. The third step examines the precision of this capability. The assumption is that in situ hyperspectral reflectances are considered the “real” reflectances. They are resized with the same spectral range of the remote data. The spectral similarity measurements which are obtained from “real” resized reflectances, are considered “real” measurements. Therefore, the quantity and magnitude of “errors” (i.e., differences between spectral similarity measurements obtained from “real” resized reflectances and from remote data) provide the accuracy as a function of FWHM. This methodology was applied to evaluate the accuracy with which CHRIS-mode1, CHRIS-mode2, Landsat5-TM, MIVIS and PRISMA data characterize three coastal waters. Their mean values of uncertainty are 1.59%, 3.79%, 7.75%, 3.15% and 1.18%, respectively. PMID:24434875

  14. SDO Data Access And Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somani, A.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Cheung, C.; Freeland, S. L.; Slater, G. L.; Seguin, R.; Timmons, R.; Green, S.; Chang, L.; Kobashi, A.; Jaffey, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), Event Detection System (EDS), iSolSearch, Panorama, Event Viewer and Control Software (EVACS), and a variety of SolarSoft routines all work together to provide a suite of tools to facilitate access and analysis of SDO data. The HEK, which consists of the Heliophysics Event Registry (HER) and the Heliophysics Coverage Registry (HCR), uses XML formats built upon the IVOA VOEvent specification to ingest, store, and search events. Web services and SolarSoft routines are available to make use of these functions. The EDS is one of the sources that provides events for ingest into the HEK. The EDS continuously runs feature finding modules on SDO data. It's a distributed system that allows it to keep up with SDO's data rate. iSolSearch allows the user to browse the events in the HER and search for events given a specific time interval and other constraints. Panorama is the software tool used for rapid visualization of large volumes of solar image data in multiple channels/wavelengths. With the EVACS front-end GUI tool, Panorama allows the user to, in real-time, change channel pixel scaling, weights, alignment, blending and colorization of data. The user can also easily create WYSIWYG movies and launch the Annotator tool to describe events and features the user observes in the data. Panorama can also be used to drive clustered HiperSpace walls using the CGLX toolkit. Panorama harnesses the power of the GPU and OpenGL fragment shaders to enable stunning visualization. EVACS provides a JOGL powered GUI that the user can search both the HER and HCR with. EVACS displays the searched for events on a full disk magnetogram of the sun while displaying more detailed information for events. EVACS can also be used to launch Panorama with a selected set of FITS or PRGB files, as well as control many aspects of Panorama. A host of SolarSoft routines are available to not only access functions of the HEK, but to also access metadata and/or image

  15. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

  16. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

  17. Subject Access Points in Electronic Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjorland, Birger; Nielsen, Lykke Kyllesbech

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of subject access points in databases concentrates on the broader theoretical perspective. Topics include technology-driven stages in the development of subject access points; a taxonomy of subject access points; document titles; abstracts; references and citations; full text; and descriptors, identifiers, classification codes, and…

  18. Full Jupiter Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of Jupiter is produced from a 2x2 mosaic of photos taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), and assembled by the LORRI team at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The telescopic camera snapped the images during a 3-minute, 35-second span on February 10, when the spacecraft was 29 million kilometers (18 million miles) from Jupiter. At this distance, Jupiter's diameter was 1,015 LORRI pixels -- nearly filling the imager's entire (1,024-by-1,024 pixel) field of view. Features as small as 290 kilometers (180 miles) are visible.

    Both the Great Red Spot and Little Red Spot are visible in the image, on the left and lower right, respectively. The apparent 'storm' on the planet's right limb is a section of the south tropical zone that has been detached from the region to its west (or left) by a 'disturbance' that scientists and amateur astronomers are watching closely.

    At the time LORRI took these images, New Horizons was 820 million kilometers (510 million miles) from home -- nearly 51/2 times the distance between the Sun and Earth. This is the last full-disk image of Jupiter LORRI will produce, since Jupiter is appearing larger as New Horizons draws closer, and the imager will start to focus on specific areas of the planet for higher-resolution studies.

  19. Full Color Holographic Endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanlou, A.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Mirlis, E.; Crosby, P.; Shore, A.; Henderson, P.; Napier, P.

    2013-02-01

    The ability to produce color holograms from the human tissue represents a major medical advance, specifically in the areas of diagnosis and teaching. This has been achieved at Glyndwr University. In corporation with partners at Gooch & Housego, Moor Instruments, Vivid Components and peninsula medical school, Exeter, UK, for the first time, we have produced full color holograms of human cell samples in which the cell boundary and the nuclei inside the cells could be clearly focused at different depths - something impossible with a two-dimensional photographic image. This was the main objective set by the peninsula medical school at Exeter, UK. Achieving this objective means that clinically useful images essentially indistinguishable from the object human cells could be routinely recorded. This could potentially be done at the tip of a holo-endoscopic probe inside the body. Optimised recording exposure and development processes for the holograms were defined for bulk exposures. This included the optimisation of in-house recording emulsions for coating evaluation onto polymer substrates (rather than glass plates), a key step for large volume commercial exploitation. At Glyndwr University, we also developed a new version of our in-house holographic (world-leading resolution) emulsion.

  20. Full text and figure display improves bioscience literature search.

    PubMed

    Divoli, Anna; Wooldridge, Michael A; Hearst, Marti A

    2010-01-01

    When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine, a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface. PMID:20418942

  1. Full Text and Figure Display Improves Bioscience Literature Search

    PubMed Central

    Divoli, Anna; Wooldridge, Michael A.; Hearst, Marti A.

    2010-01-01

    When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine [1], a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface. PMID:20418942

  2. Express Sequence Tag Analysis - Identification of Anseriformes Trypsin Genes from Full-Length cDNA Library of the Duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and Characterization of Their Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haining; Cai, Shasha; Gao, Jiuxiang; Wang, Chen; Qiao, Xue; Wang, Hui; Feng, Lan; Wang, Yipeng

    2016-02-01

    Trypsins are key proteins important in animal protein digestion by breaking down the peptide bonds on the carboxyl side of lysine and arginine residues, hence it has been used widely in various biotechnological processes. In the current study, a full-length cDNA library with capacity of 5·10(5) CFU/ml from the duck (Anas platyrhynchos) was constructed. Using express sequence tag (EST) sequencing, genes coding two trypsins were identified and two full-length trypsin cDNAs were then obtained by rapid-amplification of cDNA end (RACE)-PCR. Using Blast, they were classified into the trypsin I and II subfamilies, but both encoded a signal peptide, an activation peptide, and a 223-a.a. mature protein located in the C-terminus. The two deduced mature proteins were designated as trypsin-IAP and trypsin-IIAP, and their theoretical isoelectric points (pI) and molecular weights (MW) were 7.99/23466.4 Da and 4.65/24066.0 Da, respectively. Molecular characterizations of genes were further performed by detailed bioinformatics analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that trypsin-IIAP has an evolution pattern distinct from trypsin-IAP, suggesting its evolutionary advantage. Then the duck trypsin-IIAP was expressed in an Escherichia coli system, and its kinetic parameters were measured. The three dimensional structures of trypsin-IAP and trypsin-IIAP were predicted by homology modeling, and the conserved residues required for functionality were identified. Two loops controlling the specificity of the trypsin and the substrate-binding pocket represented in the model are almost identical in primary sequences and backbone tertiary structures of the trypsin families. PMID:27260395

  3. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Installation of Full Scale Tunnel (FST) power plant. Virginia Public Service Company could not supply adequate electricity to run the wind tunnels being built at Langley. (The Propeller Research Tunnel was powered by two submarine diesel engines.) This led to the consideration of a number of different ideas for generating electric power to drive the fan motors in the FST. The main proposition involved two 3000 hp and two 1000 hp diesel engines with directly connected generators. Another, proposition suggested 30 Liberty motors driving 600 hp DC generators in pairs. For a month, engineers at Langley were hopeful they could secure additional diesel engines from decommissioned Navy T-boats but the Navy could not offer a firm commitment regarding the future status of the submarines. By mid-December 1929, Virginia Public Service Company had agreed to supply service to the field at the north end of the King Street Bridge connecting Hampton and Langley Field. Thus, new plans for FST powerplant and motors were made. Smith DeFrance described the motors in NACA TR No. 459: 'The most commonly used power plant for operating a wind tunnel is a direct-current motor and motor-generator set with Ward Leonard control system. For the FST it was found that alternating current slip-ring induction motors, together with satisfactory control equipment, could be purchased for approximately 30 percent less than the direct-current equipment. Two 4000-horsepower slip-ring induction motors with 24 steps of speed between 75 and 300 r.p.m. were therefore installed.'

  4. Migrants' access to healthcare.

    PubMed

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-10-01

    . Additionally, more migrants had irrelevant ER visits as evaluated by caregivers. Substudy IV addressed formal and informal barriers to access and screening. According to the law asylum seekers are entitled to emergency care only in 10 out of 24 countries. Medical screening was carried out in all but one of the 24 EU countries; however, the content and extent of screening programmes vary. The thesis aimed to explore if there are differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants. Differences in utilisation and clinical outcome were identified between migrants and non-migrants. Reasons why disparities exist were also identified in relation to communication with primary care and on policy level. The thesis shows that various perspectives and scientific problems are important to get a full understanding of the process of access to healthcare for different migrant groups. Moreover, various complementary methodological approaches are needed when studying problems of migrants' access to healthcare. PMID:21975158

  5. SOHO Resumes Full Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    SOHO orbit hi-res Size hi-res: 324 kb Credits: SOHO (ESA & NASA) SOHO orbit Because of its static position, every three months the high-gain antenna loses sight of Earth. During this time, engineers will rotate the spacecraft by 180 degrees to regain full contact a few days later. Since 19 June 2003, SOHO's high-gain antenna (HGA), which transmits high-speed data to Earth, has been fixed in position following the discovery of a malfunction in its pointing mechanism. This resulted in a loss of signal through SOHO's usual 26-metre ground stations on 27 June 2003. However, 34-metre radio dishes continued to receive high-speed transmissions from the HGA until 1 July 2003. Since then, astronomers have been relying primarily on a slower transmission rate signal, sent through SOHO's backup antenna. It can be picked up whenever a 34-metre dish is available. However, this signal could not transmit all of SOHO's data. Some data was recorded on board, however, and downloaded using high-speed transmissions through the backup antenna when time on the largest, 70-metre dishes could be spared. SOHO itself orbits a point in space, 1.5 million kilometres closer to the Sun than the Earth, once every 6 months. To reorient the HGA for the next half of this orbit, engineers rolled the spacecraft through a half-circle on 8 July 2003. On 10 July, the 34-metre radio dish in Madrid re-established contact with SOHO's HGA. Then on the morning of 14 July 2003, normal operations with the spacecraft resumed through its usual 26-metre ground stations, as predicted. With the HGA now static, the blackouts, lasting between 9 and 16 days, will continue to occur every 3 months. Engineers will rotate SOHO by 180 degrees every time this occurs. This manoeuvre will minimise data losses. Stein Haugan, acting SOHO project scientist, says "It is good to welcome SOHO back to normal operations, as it proves that we have a good understanding of the situation and can confidently work around it."

  6. Substituted cysteine accessibility reveals a novel transmembrane 2-3 reentrant loop and functional role for transmembrane domain 2 in the human proton-coupled folate transporter.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mike R; Hou, Zhanjun; Matherly, Larry H

    2014-09-01

    The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) is a folate-proton symporter highly expressed in solid tumors that can selectively target cytotoxic antifolates to tumors under acidic microenvironment conditions. Predicted topology models for PCFT suggest that the loop domain between transmembrane domains (TMDs) 2 and 3 resides in the cytosol. Mutations involving Asp-109 or Arg-113 in the TMD2-3 loop result in loss of activity. By structural homology to other solute carriers, TMD2 may form part of the PCFT substrate binding domain. In this study we mutated the seven cysteine (Cys) residues of human PCFT to serine, creating Cys-less PCFT. Thirty-three single-Cys mutants spanning TMD2 and the TMD2-3 loop in a Cys-less PCFT background were transfected into PCFT-null HeLa cells. All 33 mutants were detected by Western blotting, and 28 were active for [(3)H]methotrexate uptake at pH 5.5. For the active residues, we performed pulldown assays with membrane-impermeable 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate-biotin and streptavidin beads to determine their aqueous-accessibilities. Multiple residues in TMD2 and the TMD2-3 loop domain reacted with 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate-biotin, establishing aqueous accessibilities. Pemetrexed pretreatment inhibited biotinylation of TMD2 mutants G93C and F94C, and biotinylation of these residues inhibited methotrexate transport activity. Our results suggest that the TMD 2-3 loop domain is aqueous-accessible and forms a novel reentrant loop structure. Residues in TMD2 form an aqueous transmembrane pathway for folate substrates, and Gly-93 and Phe-94 may contribute to a substrate binding domain. Characterization of PCFT structure is essential to understanding the transport mechanism including the critical determinants of substrate binding. PMID:25053408

  7. Substituted Cysteine Accessibility Reveals a Novel Transmembrane 2–3 Reentrant Loop and Functional Role for Transmembrane Domain 2 in the Human Proton-coupled Folate Transporter*

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mike R.; Hou, Zhanjun; Matherly, Larry H.

    2014-01-01

    The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) is a folate-proton symporter highly expressed in solid tumors that can selectively target cytotoxic antifolates to tumors under acidic microenvironment conditions. Predicted topology models for PCFT suggest that the loop domain between transmembrane domains (TMDs) 2 and 3 resides in the cytosol. Mutations involving Asp-109 or Arg-113 in the TMD2-3 loop result in loss of activity. By structural homology to other solute carriers, TMD2 may form part of the PCFT substrate binding domain. In this study we mutated the seven cysteine (Cys) residues of human PCFT to serine, creating Cys-less PCFT. Thirty-three single-Cys mutants spanning TMD2 and the TMD2-3 loop in a Cys-less PCFT background were transfected into PCFT-null HeLa cells. All 33 mutants were detected by Western blotting, and 28 were active for [3H]methotrexate uptake at pH 5.5. For the active residues, we performed pulldown assays with membrane-impermeable 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate-biotin and streptavidin beads to determine their aqueous-accessibilities. Multiple residues in TMD2 and the TMD2-3 loop domain reacted with 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate-biotin, establishing aqueous accessibilities. Pemetrexed pretreatment inhibited biotinylation of TMD2 mutants G93C and F94C, and biotinylation of these residues inhibited methotrexate transport activity. Our results suggest that the TMD 2–3 loop domain is aqueous-accessible and forms a novel reentrant loop structure. Residues in TMD2 form an aqueous transmembrane pathway for folate substrates, and Gly-93 and Phe-94 may contribute to a substrate binding domain. Characterization of PCFT structure is essential to understanding the transport mechanism including the critical determinants of substrate binding. PMID:25053408

  8. Pd(0)-Catalyzed Direct C-H Functionalization of 2-H-4-Benzylidene Imidazolones: Friendly and Large-Scale Access to GFP and Kaede Protein Fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Muselli, Mickaël; Baudequin, Christine; Perrio, Cécile; Hoarau, Christophe; Bischoff, Laurent

    2016-04-11

    The first one-pot synthesis of N-substituted 2-H-4-benzylidene imidazolones and their subsequent palladium-catalyzed and copper-assisted direct C2-H arylation and alkenylation with aryl- and alkenylhalides are described. This innovative synthesis is step-economical, azide-free, high yielding, highly flexible in the introduction of a variety of electronically different groups, and can be operated on large-scale. Moreover, the method allows direct access to C2-arylated or alkenylated imidazolone-based green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Kaede protein fluorophores, including ortho-hydroxylated models. PMID:26960963

  9. Measuring Spatial Accessibility of Health Care Providers – Introduction of a Variable Distance Decay Function within the Floating Catchment Area (FCA) Method

    PubMed Central

    Groneberg, David A.

    2016-01-01

    We integrated recent improvements within the floating catchment area (FCA) method family into an integrated ‘iFCA`method. Within this method we focused on the distance decay function and its parameter. So far only distance decay functions with constant parameters have been applied. Therefore, we developed a variable distance decay function to be used within the FCA method. We were able to replace the impedance coefficient β by readily available distribution parameter (i.e. median and standard deviation (SD)) within a logistic based distance decay function. Hence, the function is shaped individually for every single population location by the median and SD of all population-to-provider distances within a global catchment size. Theoretical application of the variable distance decay function showed conceptually sound results. Furthermore, the existence of effective variable catchment sizes defined by the asymptotic approach to zero of the distance decay function was revealed, satisfying the need for variable catchment sizes. The application of the iFCA method within an urban case study in Berlin (Germany) confirmed the theoretical fit of the suggested method. In summary, we introduced for the first time, a variable distance decay function within an integrated FCA method. This function accounts for individual travel behaviors determined by the distribution of providers. Additionally, the function inherits effective variable catchment sizes and therefore obviates the need for determining variable catchment sizes separately. PMID:27391649

  10. Accessible solitons of fractional dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj; Zhang, Yiqi

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons.

  11. FURSMASA: a new approach to rapid scoring functions that uses a MD-averaged potential energy grid and a solvent-accessible surface area term with parameters GA fit to experimental data.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, David A; Rao, B Govinda; Charifson, Paul

    2008-05-15

    We demonstrate a new approach to the development of scoring functions through the formulation and parameterization of a new function, which can be used both for rapidly ranking the binding of ligands to proteins and for estimating relative aqueous molecular solubilities. The intent of this work is to introduce a new paradigm for creation of scoring functions, wherein we impose the following criteria upon the function: (1) simple; (2) intuitive; (3) requires no postparameterization tweaking; (4) can be applied (without reparameterization) to multiple target systems; and (5) can be rapidly evaluated for any potential ligand. Following these criteria, a new function, FURSMASA (function for rapid scoring using an MD-averaged grid and the accessible surface area) has been developed. Three novel features of the function include: (1) use of an MD-averaged potential energy grid for ligand-protein interactions, rather than a simple static grid; (2) inclusion of a term that depends on the change in the solvent-accessible surface area changes on an atomic (not molecular) basis; and (3) use of the recently derived predictive index (PI) target when optimizing the function, which focuses the function on its intended purpose of relative ranking. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the function against test data sets that include ligands for the following proteins: IMPDH, p38, gyrase B, HIV-1, and TACE, as well as the Syracuse Research solubility database. We find that the function is predictive, and can simultaneously fit all the test data sets with cross-validated predictive indices ranging from 0.68 to 0.82. As a test of the ability of this function to predict binding for systems not in the training set, the resulting fitted FURSAMA function is then applied to 23 ligands of the COX-2 enzyme. Comparing the results for COX-2 against those obtained using a variety of well-known rapid scoring functions demonstrates that FURSMASA outperforms all of them in terms of the PI and

  12. UKPMC: a full text article resource for the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    McEntyre, Johanna R.; Ananiadou, Sophia; Andrews, Stephen; Black, William J.; Boulderstone, Richard; Buttery, Paula; Chaplin, David; Chevuru, Sandeepreddy; Cobley, Norman; Coleman, Lee-Ann; Davey, Paul; Gupta, Bharti; Haji-Gholam, Lesley; Hawkins, Craig; Horne, Alan; Hubbard, Simon J.; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Lewin, Ian; Lyte, Vic; MacIntyre, Ross; Mansoor, Sami; Mason, Linda; McNaught, John; Newbold, Elizabeth; Nobata, Chikashi; Ong, Ernest; Pillai, Sharmila; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Rosie, Heather; Rowbotham, Rob; Rupp, C. J.; Stoehr, Peter; Vaughan, Philip

    2011-01-01

    UK PubMed Central (UKPMC) is a full-text article database that extends the functionality of the original PubMed Central (PMC) repository. The UKPMC project was launched as the first ‘mirror’ site to PMC, which in analogy to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration, aims to provide international preservation of the open and free-access biomedical literature. UKPMC (http://ukpmc.ac.uk) has undergone considerable development since its inception in 2007 and now includes both a UKPMC and PubMed search, as well as access to other records such as Agricola, Patents and recent biomedical theses. UKPMC also differs from PubMed/PMC in that the full text and abstract information can be searched in an integrated manner from one input box. Furthermore, UKPMC contains ‘Cited By’ information as an alternative way to navigate the literature and has incorporated text-mining approaches to semantically enrich content and integrate it with related database resources. Finally, UKPMC also offers added-value services (UKPMC+) that enable grantees to deposit manuscripts, link papers to grants, publish online portfolios and view citation information on their papers. Here we describe UKPMC and clarify the relationship between PMC and UKPMC, providing historical context and future directions, 10 years on from when PMC was first launched. PMID:21062818

  13. UKPMC: a full text article resource for the life sciences.

    PubMed

    McEntyre, Johanna R; Ananiadou, Sophia; Andrews, Stephen; Black, William J; Boulderstone, Richard; Buttery, Paula; Chaplin, David; Chevuru, Sandeepreddy; Cobley, Norman; Coleman, Lee-Ann; Davey, Paul; Gupta, Bharti; Haji-Gholam, Lesley; Hawkins, Craig; Horne, Alan; Hubbard, Simon J; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Lewin, Ian; Lyte, Vic; MacIntyre, Ross; Mansoor, Sami; Mason, Linda; McNaught, John; Newbold, Elizabeth; Nobata, Chikashi; Ong, Ernest; Pillai, Sharmila; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Rosie, Heather; Rowbotham, Rob; Rupp, C J; Stoehr, Peter; Vaughan, Philip

    2011-01-01

    UK PubMed Central (UKPMC) is a full-text article database that extends the functionality of the original PubMed Central (PMC) repository. The UKPMC project was launched as the first 'mirror' site to PMC, which in analogy to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration, aims to provide international preservation of the open and free-access biomedical literature. UKPMC (http://ukpmc.ac.uk) has undergone considerable development since its inception in 2007 and now includes both a UKPMC and PubMed search, as well as access to other records such as Agricola, Patents and recent biomedical theses. UKPMC also differs from PubMed/PMC in that the full text and abstract information can be searched in an integrated manner from one input box. Furthermore, UKPMC contains 'Cited By' information as an alternative way to navigate the literature and has incorporated text-mining approaches to semantically enrich content and integrate it with related database resources. Finally, UKPMC also offers added-value services (UKPMC+) that enable grantees to deposit manuscripts, link papers to grants, publish online portfolios and view citation information on their papers. Here we describe UKPMC and clarify the relationship between PMC and UKPMC, providing historical context and future directions, 10 years on from when PMC was first launched. PMID:21062818

  14. Database Access Integration Services (DAIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, P. . Sensor and System Development Center); Nordell, D. )

    1992-12-01

    The Database Access Integration Services (DAIS) is a collection of services that facilitate access to data among diverse data systems in an electric utility communications network. DAIS provides access to data in distributed, heterogeneous data systems that include relational database management systems, other database management systems, control systems, file systems, and application systems. It also provides a common method for describing data, common data access operations and essential support services including a data dictionary, a data directory and distributed data access management capabilities. The DAIS project has developed specifications intended for vendor and third-party implementation. The software developed is only to implement a data access integration demonstration. These specifications can serve as a basis for influencing industry standards development. One important consequence of this strategy is that most actual software development will be performed by vendors, not utilities. DAIS is a tool to support data access. It is policy neutral regarding issues such as local or central administration of data or standardization of information model contents (e.g., EPRI Plant Information Network). As a tool, it can be used to help realize such policies. The DAIS does not provide data storage facilities, schema integration, distributed query processing, distributed applications or cooperative processing. Rather, DAIS is complementary to these functions and can be used with other software that does provide these functions. This project documented the requirements for the DAIS. These requirements are the basis for design of the DAIS specifications. The key requirements for a DAIS are: Uniform access to heterogeneous utility data systems, remote update; coexistence with local data systems; local autonomy ; Security and access restriction enforcement; OSI compatibility; open architecture and extensibility; and operating platform independence.

  15. 41 CFR 102-76.85 - What is a primary function area for purposes of providing an accessible route in leased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.85 What is a primary function area for...

  16. 41 CFR 102-76.85 - What is a primary function area for purposes of providing an accessible route in leased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.85 What is a primary function area for...

  17. 41 CFR 102-76.85 - What is a primary function area for purposes of providing an accessible route in leased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.85 What is a primary function area for...

  18. 41 CFR 102-76.85 - What is a primary function area for purposes of providing an accessible route in leased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.85 What is a primary function area for...

  19. Open Access Publishing in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2012-08-01

    Open Access (OA) in scholarly literature means the "immediate, free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these articles". The Open Access movement has been made possible thanks to the wide-spread availability of internet access and has received increasing interest since the 1990s, mostly due to the fast rising journal subscription prices. This presentation will review the current situation of Open Access in astronomy. It will answer the question why it makes sense to publish in an OA journal and will provide criteria to judge the quality of OA journals and publishers, along with suggestions how to identify so-called predatory publishers.

  20. All-optical 100-Gbit s word packet time-division-multiplexed access node in a looped-back configuration: enabling technologies for sequential add drop functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Janet W.; Liang, Yi; Boyraz, Ozdal; Islam, Mohammed N.

    2000-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the adding, dropping, and passing through of 100-Gbit s word packets in a looped-back all-optical time-division-multiplexed (TDM) access node. Packets are routed with a 17-dB contrast ratio and demultiplexed with a 20-dB contrast ratio. This node uses short 100-Gbit s words to demonstrate its potential to process data packets from multiple sources and to perform packet switching in a multinode ring network configuration. The ability to tolerate timing jitter as well as varying input signal characteristics is essential to an all-optical access node in a multinode network. For 2-ps input pulses, the header processor has a timing window of 5 ps, and the demultiplexer has a timing window of 5.5 ps. This allows for tolerance to bit-to-bit timing jitters or to an increase in the pulse width of as much as 3 ps. Packet-to-packet timing jitter is detected and compensated by the technique used to synchronize the local source to each packet. The key enabling technologies of an all-optical TDM packet add drop multiplexer are discussed, including an erbium-doped fiber laser, a nonlinear optical loop mirror logic gate, self-synchronization to incoming packets with a fast-saturation slow-recovery gain element followed by an intensity discriminator, a two-wavelength nonlinear optical loop mirror demultiplexer, and synchronization of new packets to the network packet rate with a phase-locked loop. The local source is automatically synchronized to the incoming packet, because it uses an extracted pulse from the packet, which has a contrast ratio of 20 dB to the rest of the packet. Finally, new packets are added by use of a local laser and a synchronization method, which gives a timing jitter of 1 ps. Using a statistical method of measuring Q value with picosecond resolution, we show that a header processor with two cascaded logic gates has a Q value of 7.1 with a 95% confidence level.

  1. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. ...

  2. Full waveform modelling and misfit calculation using the VERCE platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garth, Thomas; Spinuso, Alessandro; Casarotti, Emanuele; Magnoni, Federica; Krischner, Lion; Igel, Heiner; Schwichtenberg, Horst; Frank, Anton; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    simulated and recorded waveforms, enabling seismologists to specify and steer their misfit analyses using existing python tools and libraries such as Pyflex and the dispel4py data-intensive processing library. All these processes, including simulation, data access, pre-processing and misfit calculation, are presented to the users of the gateway as dedicated and interactive workspaces. The VERCE platform can also be used to produce animations of seismic wave propagation through the velocity model, and synthetic shake maps. We demonstrate the functionality of the VERCE platform with two case studies, using the pre-loaded velocity model and mesh for Chile and Northern Italy. It is envisioned that this tool will allow a much greater range of seismologists to access these full waveform inversion tools, and aid full waveform tomographic and source inversion, synthetic shake map production and other full waveform applications, in a wide range of tectonic settings.

  3. 7 CFR 1738.31 - Full faith and credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Full faith and credit. 1738.31 Section 1738.31... AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Types of Loans § 1738.31 Full faith and credit. Loan guarantees made under this part are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States....

  4. Exchange of pacing or defibrillator leads following laser sheath extraction of non-functional leads in patients with ipsilateral obstructed venous access

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F; van Gelder, L M; Sreeram, N; Meijer, A

    2000-01-01

    Occlusion of the subclavian or brachiocephalic vein in pacemaker or defibrillator patients prohibits ipsilateral implantation of new leads with standard techniques in the event of lead malfunction. Three patients are presented in whom laser sheath extraction of a non-functional lead was performed in order to recanalise the occluded vein and to secure a route for implantation of new leads. This technique avoids abandoning a useful subpectoral site for pacing or defibrillator therapy. The laser sheath does not affect normally functioning leads at the same site.


Keywords: laser sheath; venous occlusion; pacemaker; lead extraction PMID:10814646

  5. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in Co-Based Full Heusler Alloy Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Xu, X. G.; Miao, J.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Half-metallic Co-based full Heusler alloys have been qualified as promising functional materials in spintronic devices due to their high spin polarization. The lack of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is one of the biggest obstacles restricting their application in next generation ultrahigh density storage such as magnetic random access memory (MARM). How to induce the PMA in Co-based full Heusler alloy thin films has attracted much research interest of scientists. This paper presents an overview of recent progress in this research area. We hope that this paper would provide some guidance and ideas to develop highly spin-polarized Co-based Heusler alloy thin films with PMA.

  6. A Theory of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribot, Jesse C.; Peluso, Nancy Lee

    2003-01-01

    The term "access" is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as "the "ability" to derive benefits from things," broadening from property's classical definition as…

  7. Critical Approaches to Accessibility for Technology-Enhanced Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewthwaite, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The term "accessibility" is broadly used to describe the degree to which a service or product gives learners the "ability to access" functionality, services or materials. In recent years there has been a push towards accessibility in technology-enhanced learning (TEL) across all levels of education. However, accessibility represents a shifting…

  8. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  9. Assorted morphosynthesis: access to multi-faceted nano-architectures from a super-responsive dual π-functional amphiphilic construct.

    PubMed

    Asthana, Deepak; Shukla, Jyoti; Dana, Srikanta; Rani, Varsha; Ajayakumar, M R; Rawat, Kamla; Mandal, Kalyanashis; Yadav, Premlata; Ghosh, Subhasis; Mukhopadhyay, Pritam

    2015-10-25

    An electronically segmented amphiphile was created by conjugating two π-functional units hydroxyquinoline and naphthalenediimide (HQ/NDI) for the first time. The differential electrostatic potential of the π-surfaces, H-bonding units, etc. trigger a manifold response and direct the assembly of a unique collection of seven diverse nano-architectures. Chiral assembly, distinct classes of fibers, 3-D sheets, and metallo-spheres/fibrils with μM levels of Co/Cu/Zn(ii) ions emerged from this new approach of assorted morphosynthesis under ambient conditions. PMID:26194349

  10. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  11. Efficient synthetic access to cationic dendrons and their application for ZnO nanoparticles surface functionalization: new building blocks for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gnichwitz, Jan-Frederik; Marczak, Renata; Werner, Fabian; Lang, Nina; Jux, Norbert; Guldi, Dirk M; Peukert, Wolfgang; Hirsch, Andreas

    2010-12-22

    A new concept for the efficient synthesis of cationic dendrons, 4-tert-butyl-1-(3-(3,4-dihydroxybenzamido)benzyl)pyridinium bromide (17), 1,1'-(5-(3,4-dihydroxybenzamido)-1,3-phenylene)bis(methylene)bis(4-tert-butylpyridinium) bromide (18), N1,N7-bis(3-(4-tert-butyl-pyridium-methyl)phenyl)-4-(3-(3-(4-tert-butyl-pyridinium-methyl)phenyl-amino)-3-oxopropyl)-4-(3,4-dihydroxybenzamido)heptanediamide tribromide (19), and N1,N7-bis(3,5-bis(4-tert-butyl-pyridium-methyl)phenyl)-4-(3-(3,5-bis(4-tert-butyl-pyridinium-methyl)phenylamino)-3-oxopropyl)-4-(3,4-dihydroxybenzamido)heptanediamide hexabromide (20), and their facile binding to zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures is introduced. Dendrons containing highly reactive benzylic bromides reacted readily with 4-tert-butyl-pyridine and resulted in cationic dendrons. Furthermore, these permanently positively charged dendrons were equipped with a catechol anchor group. This enabled ZnO surface functionalization by simple immersion. The adsorption of 17, 18, 19, and 20 on the colloidal nanoparticles was monitored by Langmuir isotherms. The highest obtained experimental loadings correspond to 99.5%, 98.6%, 99.1%, and 42.5% of the particle surface for 17, 18, 19, and 20, respectively. These results indicate insufficient adsorption of the largest molecule 20 leading to reduced colloidal stability of the nanoparticles, while an enhanced stability after grafting with 17, 18, and 19 was observed. Mesoporous films suitable for the use as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared. Subsequently, the films were functionalized with 18, 19, or 20 and sensitized with zinc-5,15-bis-[2',6'-bis-{2'',2''-bis-(carboxy)-ethyl}-methyl-4'-tert-butyl-pheny]-10,20-bis-(4'-tert-butylphenyl)porphyrin-octasodium-salt. UV-vis absorption spectra confirmed that 18, 19, and 20 are suitable for the stable electrostatic attachment of the dye. Current-voltage characteristics of complete cells demonstrated that increasing positive

  12. Differential effects of early- and late-life access to carotenoids on adult immune function and ornamentation in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael W; McGraw, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Environmental conditions early in life can affect an organism's phenotype at adulthood, which may be tuned to perform optimally in conditions that mimic those experienced during development (Environmental Matching hypothesis), or may be generally superior when conditions during development were of higher quality (Silver Spoon hypothesis). Here, we tested these hypotheses by examining how diet during development interacted with diet during adulthood to affect adult sexually selected ornamentation and immune function in male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Mallards have yellow, carotenoid-pigmented beaks that are used in mate choice, and the degree of beak coloration has been linked to adult immune function. Using a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design, we reared mallards on diets containing either low or high levels of carotenoids (nutrients that cannot be synthesized de novo) throughout the period of growth, and then provided adults with one of these two diets while simultaneously quantifying beak coloration and response to a variety of immune challenges. We found that both developmental and adult carotenoid supplementation increased circulating carotenoid levels during dietary treatment, but that birds that received low-carotenoid diets during development maintained relatively higher circulating carotenoid levels during an adult immune challenge. Individuals that received low levels of carotenoids during development had larger phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced cutaneous immune responses at adulthood; however, dietary treatment during development and adulthood did not affect antibody response to a novel antigen, nitric oxide production, natural antibody levels, hemolytic capacity of the plasma, or beak coloration. However, beak coloration prior to immune challenges positively predicted PHA response, and strong PHA responses were correlated with losses in carotenoid-pigmented coloration. In sum, we did not find consistent support for either the Environmental

  13. Wavefield Compression for Full-Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas; de la Puente, Josep; Hanzich, Mauricio

    2015-04-01

    We present compression techniques tailored to iterative nonlinear minimization methods that significantly reduce the memory requirements to store the forward wavefield for the computation of sensitivity kernels. Full-waveform inversion on 3d data sets requires massive computing and memory capabilities. Adjoint techniques offer a powerful tool to compute the first and second derivatives. However, due to the asynchronous nature of forward and adjoint simulations, a severe bottleneck is introduced by the necessity to access both wavefields simultaneously when computing sensitivity kernels. There exist two opposing strategies to deal with this challenge. On the one hand, conventional approaches save the whole forward wavefield to the disk, which yields a significant I/O overhead and might require several terabytes of storage capacity per seismic event. On the other hand, checkpointing techniques allow to trade an almost arbitrary amount of memory requirements for a - potentially large - number of additional forward simulations. We propose an alternative approach that strikes a balance between memory requirements and the need for additional computations. Here, we aim at compressing the forward wavefield in such a way that (1) the I/O overhead is reduced substantially without the need for additional simulations, (2) the costs for compressing/decompressing the wavefield are negligible, and (3) the approximate derivatives resulting from the compressed forward wavefield do not affect the rate of convergence of a Newton-type minimization method. To this end, we apply an adaptive re-quantization of the displacement field that uses dynamically adjusted floating-point accuracies - i.e., a locally varying number of bits - to store the data. Furthermore, the spectral element functions are adaptively downsampled to a lower polynomial degree. In addition, a sliding-window cubic spline re-interpolates the temporal snapshots to recover a smooth signal. Moreover, a preprocessing step

  14. Communication: Wigner functions in action-angle variables, Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization, the Heisenberg correspondence principle, and a symmetrical quasi-classical approach to the full electronic density matrix.

    PubMed

    Miller, William H; Cotton, Stephen J

    2016-08-28

    It is pointed out that the classical phase space distribution in action-angle (a-a) variables obtained from a Wigner function depends on how the calculation is carried out: if one computes the standard Wigner function in Cartesian variables (p, x), and then replaces p and x by their expressions in terms of a-a variables, one obtains a different result than if the Wigner function is computed directly in terms of the a-a variables. Furthermore, the latter procedure gives a result more consistent with classical and semiclassical theory-e.g., by incorporating the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition (quantum states defined by integer values of the action variable) as well as the Heisenberg correspondence principle for matrix elements of an operator between such states-and has also been shown to be more accurate when applied to electronically non-adiabatic applications as implemented within the recently developed symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) Meyer-Miller (MM) approach. Moreover, use of the Wigner function (obtained directly) in a-a variables shows how our standard SQC/MM approach can be used to obtain off-diagonal elements of the electronic density matrix by processing in a different way the same set of trajectories already used (in the SQC/MM methodology) to obtain the diagonal elements. PMID:27586896

  15. Steps toward Creating Fully Accessible Reading Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.

    2010-01-01

    The National Accessible Reading Assessment Projects (NARAP) have been conducting research and engaging in other activities to pull together a full view of the issues and potential solutions for developing reading assessments that are fully accessible and produce valid results for students with disabilities. To introduce this topic, the assumptions…

  16. Introduction: Access to fertility care.

    PubMed

    Davis, Owen K; Sokol, Rebecca Z

    2016-05-01

    Given that only an estimated 24% of infertile couples in the United States can fully engage in the medical care required to successfully conceive, the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) has incorporated improved access to the full gamut of fertility therapies as an integral component of the Society's strategic plan that was launched in 2014. Toward this end, the ASRM hosted a two-day summit held in Washington D.C. in September 2015 that attracted thought leaders, both speakers and attendees, from around the world. This issue's Views and Reviews focuses on several key areas integral to this effort: an appreciation of the economic challenges to access, as well as the impact and interplay of racial, ethnic, emotional and gender-specific issues in the treatment of infertility. The potential to broaden access to care through modification of existing assisted reproductive techniques is also explored. PMID:27054311

  17. Increasing Access to Preschool: Recommendations for Reducing Barriers to Providing Full-day, Full-year Programs. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kate

    2008-01-01

    More than ever before, Californians recognize that preschool provides young children with a strong start in school and life. Research confirms that effective preschool not only prepares children for kindergarten, but benefits them in the long-term. Despite the benefits, only 48% of 3- and 4-year-old children attend preschool in California. While…

  18. Full-Service Schooling, "At Risk" Students and Democratic Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmens, Robert A.

    Currently in Australia, two school-based initiatives, "full-service" schooling and civics/citizenship curriculum, have been introduced to address two aspects of the problem of youth alienation from school and society. The "full-service" response is to provide coordinated access to health and welfare services so that "at risk" students are able to…

  19. Full Text Psychology Journals Available from Popular Library Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joswick, Kathleen E.

    2006-01-01

    The author identified 433 core journals in psychology and investigated their full text availability in popular databases. While 62 percent of the studied journals were available in at least one database, access from individual databases ranged from 1.4 percent to 38.1 percent of the titles. The full text of influential psychology journals is not…

  20. Unlimited full configuration interaction calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Peter J.; Handy, Nicholas C.

    1989-08-01

    In very large full configuration interaction (full CI), nearly all of the CI coefficients are very small. Calculations, using a newly developed algorithm which exploits this fact, on NH3 with a DZP basis are reported, involving 2×108 Slater determinants. Such calculations are impossible with other existing full CI codes. The new algorithm opens up the opportunity of full CI calculations which are unlimited in size.

  1. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis . Updated July 23, 2014. Available at: kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/vascularaccess/index.aspx. Accessed: February 9, 2015. ...

  2. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  3. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  4. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  5. Open Access and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shawn; Schmidt, Christian; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Philip W

    2006-01-01

    Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature. PMID:16956402

  6. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  7. Construction of a Reactive Diblock Copolymer, Polyphosphoester-block-Poly(L-lactide), as a Versatile Framework for Functional Materials that are Capable of Full Degradation and Nanoscopic Assembly Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Young H.; Heo, Gyu Seong; Cho, Sangho; Wooley, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a diblock copolymer, polyphosphoester-block-poly(L-lactide), which has potential for being fully-degradable and biocompatible, was achieved by one-pot sequential ring-opening polymerizations (ROPs) of two cyclic monomers: alkyne-functionalized phospholane and L-lactide (LLA). A kinetic study of the polymerization in each step was investigated in a detailed manner by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC), revealing living/controlled characteristics with narrow molecular weight distributions and a linear increase of molecular weights vs. monomer conversion and time. Subsequently, photo-induced thiol-yne “click” reactions with small molecule thiols bearing either carboxylic acid or amino groups afforded amphiphilic diblock copolymers with carboxylate or amino side-chain functionalities along the polyphosphoester segment of the diblock copolymer backbone. Finally, direct dissolution of the two different types of amphiphilic diblock copolymers in aqueous solutions yielded well-defined spherical micelles with corresponding negative or positive surface charges, respectively, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential analyses. PMID:24167757

  8. Full CI benchmark calculations on CH3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1987-01-01

    Full CI calculations have been performed on the CH3 radical. The full CI results are compared to those obtained using CASSCF/multireference CI and coupled-pair functional methods, both at the equilibrium CH distance and at geometries with the three CH bonds extended. In general, the performance of the approximate methods is similar to that observed in calculations on other molecules in which one or two bonds were stretched.

  9. A Beta Version of the GIS-Enabled NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Web Site With Expanded Data Accessibility and Analysis Functionality for Renewable Energy and Other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Barnett, A. J.; Tisdale, M.; Tisdale, B.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Westberg, D. J.; Quam, B.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA LaRC Atmospheric Science Data Center has deployed it's beta version of an existing geophysical parameter website employing off the shelf Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The revitalized web portal is entitled the "Surface meteorological and Solar Energy" (SSE - https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/) and has been supporting an estimated 175,000 users with baseline solar and meteorological parameters as well as calculated parameters that enable feasibility studies for a wide range of renewable energy systems, particularly those systems featuring solar energy technologies. The GIS tools enable, generate and store climatological averages using spatial queries and calculations (by parameter for the globe) in a spatial database resulting in greater accessibility by government agencies, industry and individuals. The data parameters are produced from NASA science projects and reformulated specifically for the renewable energy industry and other applications. This first version includes: 1) processed and reformulated set of baseline data parameters that are consistent with Esri and open GIS tools, 2) development of a limited set of Python based functions to compute additional parameters "on-the-fly" from the baseline data products, 3) updated the current web sites to enable web-based displays of these parameters for plotting and analysis and 4) provided for the output of data parameters in geoTiff, ASCII and .netCDF data formats. The beta version is being actively reviewed through interaction with a group of collaborators from government and industry in order to test web site usability, display tools and features, and output data formats. This presentation provides an overview of this project and the current version of the new SSE-GIS web capabilities through to the end usage. This project supports cross agency and cross organization interoperability and access to NASA SSE data products and OGC compliant web services and aims also to provide mobile platform

  10. The case for full practice authority.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Olivia; Kinsey-Weathers, Shanieka

    2016-03-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended in its 2010 report on the future of nursing that advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) should factor prominently in providing care to the millions of Americans who access healthcare services under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The IOM also recommended that APRNs practice to the full extent of their education and training.However, many states have laws in place that limit full practice authority for APRNs, specifically NPs, in providing basic health services such as primary care. These laws place restrictions on independent practice and Medicaid and Medicare reimbursement, which prevent nurses from “responding effectively to rapidly changing health care settings and an evolving health care system.” Less than half of the United States has adopted full practice authority licensure and practice laws (see APRN practice authority at a glance). This article discusses how the primary care needs of millions of Americans can be met by granting full practice authority to APRNs nationwide and provides evidence to support the high level of care these practitioners can provide independently. PMID:26910092

  11. Time-dependent distribution functions and resulting synthetic NPA spectra in C-Mod calculated with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW, AORSA full-wave, and DC Lorentz codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Bader, A.

    2015-12-01

    A time-dependent simulation of C-Mod pulsed TCRF power is made obtaining minority hydrogen ion distributions with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW finite-orbit-width Fokker-Planck code. Cyclotron-resonant TCRF fields are calculated with the AORSA full wave code. The RF diffusion coefficients used in CQL3D are obtained with the DC Lorentz gyro-orbit code for perturbed particle trajectories in the combined equilibrium and TCRF electromagnetic fields. Prior results with a zero-banana-width simulation using the CQL3D/AORSA/DC time-cycles showed a pronounced enhancement of the H distribution in the perpendicular velocity direction compared to results obtained from Stix's quasilinear theory, and this substantially increased the rampup rate of the observed vertically-viewed neutral particle analyzer (NPA) flux, in general agreement with experiment. However, ramp down of the NPA flux after the pulse, remained long compared to the experiment. The present study compares the new FOW results, including relevant gyro-radius effects, to determine the importance of these new effects on the the NPA time-dependence.

  12. Individuals with Access and Functional Needs

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Make a Plan & Create a Support Network How might a disaster affect me? What are ... plans with the trusted people in your support network – tell them: Where your emergency supplies are kept ...

  13. Mechanisms that improve referential access.

    PubMed

    Gernsbacher, M A

    1989-07-01

    suppression and enhancement improve referential access, and the contribution of these two mechanisms is a function of explicitness. The role of these two mechanisms in mediating other referential access phenomena is also discussed. PMID:2752708

  14. GO RIO: Achieving Universal Access to Mass Transit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ted, Jr.; Castaneda-Calleros, Russell

    2009-01-01

    GO RIO is a universal access, mass-transit program that has been offered to all students who are registered full-time at Rio Hondo College. Through an agreement with five local transit agencies, full-time students can obtain a pass that provides full access seven days a week throughout the entire semester.

  15. Metabolic fingerprinting of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions.

    PubMed

    Sotelo-Silveira, Mariana; Chauvin, Anne-Laure; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Winkler, Robert; de Folter, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In the post-genomic era much effort has been put on the discovery of gene function using functional genomics. Despite the advances achieved by these technologies in the understanding of gene function at the genomic and proteomic level, there is still a big genotype-phenotype gap. Metabolic profiling has been used to analyze organisms that have already been characterized genetically. However, there is a small number of studies comparing the metabolic profile of different tissues of distinct accessions. Here, we report the detection of over 14,000 and 17,000 features in inflorescences and leaves, respectively, in two widely used Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. A predictive Random Forest Model was developed, which was able to reliably classify tissue type and accession of samples based on LC-MS profile. Thereby we demonstrate that the morphological differences among A. thaliana accessions are reflected also as distinct metabolic phenotypes within leaves and inflorescences. PMID:26074932

  16. Metabolic fingerprinting of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions

    PubMed Central

    Sotelo-Silveira, Mariana; Chauvin, Anne-Laure; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Winkler, Robert; de Folter, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In the post-genomic era much effort has been put on the discovery of gene function using functional genomics. Despite the advances achieved by these technologies in the understanding of gene function at the genomic and proteomic level, there is still a big genotype-phenotype gap. Metabolic profiling has been used to analyze organisms that have already been characterized genetically. However, there is a small number of studies comparing the metabolic profile of different tissues of distinct accessions. Here, we report the detection of over 14,000 and 17,000 features in inflorescences and leaves, respectively, in two widely used Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. A predictive Random Forest Model was developed, which was able to reliably classify tissue type and accession of samples based on LC-MS profile. Thereby we demonstrate that the morphological differences among A. thaliana accessions are reflected also as distinct metabolic phenotypes within leaves and inflorescences. PMID:26074932

  17. Full-coverage film cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, P. L.

    1980-01-01

    Program calculates coolant flow and wall temperatures of full-coverage film-cooled vanes or blades. Thermal barrier coatings may be specified on outer surfaces of blade. Program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution on UNIVAC 1100.

  18. Paraxial Full-Field Cloaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Joseph; Howell, John

    2015-05-01

    Broadband, omnidirectional invisibility cloaking has been a goal of scientists since coordinate transformations were suggested for cloaking. The requirements for realizing such a cloak can be simplified by considering only the paraxial (`small-angle') regime. We recap the experimental demonstration of paraxial ray optics cloaking and theoretically complete its formalism, by extending it to the full-field of light. We then show how to build a full-field paraxial cloaking system.

  19. Demystifying Open Access

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a 'fair share' scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  20. Demystifying Open Access

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a "fair share" scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  1. Access Interface Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fager, Susan; Beukelman, David R.; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Jakobs, Tom; Baker, John

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices to support their communication often have physical movement challenges that require alternative methods of access. Technology that supports access, particularly for those with the most severe movement deficits, have expanded substantially over the years. The purposes of this article are to review the state of the science of access technologies that interface with augmentative and alternative communication devices and to propose a future research and development agenda that will enhance access options for people with limited movement capability due to developmental and acquired conditions. PMID:22590797

  2. Achieving open access to conservation science.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-12-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees. PMID:25158824

  3. LANSCE personnel access control system

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  4. LHAPDF6: parton density access in the LHC precision era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Andy; Ferrando, James; Lloyd, Stephen; Nordström, Karl; Page, Ben; Rüfenacht, Martin; Schönherr, Marek; Watt, Graeme

    2015-03-01

    The Fortran LHAPDF library has been a long-term workhorse in particle physics, providing standardised access to parton density functions for experimental and phenomenological purposes alike, following on from the venerable PDFLIB package. During Run 1 of the LHC, however, several fundamental limitations in LHAPDF's design have became deeply problematic, restricting the usability of the library for important physics-study procedures and providing dangerous avenues by which to silently obtain incorrect results. In this paper we present the LHAPDF 6 library, a ground-up re-engineering of the PDFLIB/LHAPDF paradigm for PDF access which removes all limits on use of concurrent PDF sets, massively reduces static memory requirements, offers improved CPU performance, and fixes fundamental bugs in multi-set access to PDF metadata. The new design, restricted for now to interpolated PDFs, uses centralised numerical routines and a powerful cascading metadata system to decouple software releases from provision of new PDF data and allow completely general parton content. More than 200 PDF sets have been migrated from LHAPDF 5 to the new universal data format, via a stringent quality control procedure. LHAPDF 6 is supported by many Monte Carlo generators and other physics programs, in some cases via a full set of compatibility routines, and is recommended for the demanding PDF access needs of LHC Run 2 and beyond.

  5. Nonvolatile random access memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A nonvolatile magnetic random access memory can be achieved by an array of magnet-Hall effect (M-H) elements. The storage function is realized with a rectangular thin-film ferromagnetic material having an in-plane, uniaxial anisotropy and inplane bipolar remanent magnetization states. The thin-film magnetic element is magnetized by a local applied field, whose direction is used to form either a 0 or 1 state. The element remains in the 0 or 1 state until a switching field is applied to change its state. The stored information is detcted by a Hall-effect sensor which senses the fringing field from the magnetic storage element. The circuit design for addressing each cell includes transistor switches for providing a current of selected polarity to store a binary digit through a separate conductor overlying the magnetic element of the cell. To read out a stored binary digit, transistor switches are employed to provide a current through a row of Hall-effect sensors connected in series and enabling a differential voltage amplifier connected to all Hall-effect sensors of a column in series. To avoid read-out voltage errors due to shunt currents through resistive loads of the Hall-effect sensors of other cells in the same column, at least one transistor switch is provided between every pair of adjacent cells in every row which are not turned on except in the row of the selected cell.

  6. Education in vascular access.

    PubMed

    Moist, Louise M; Lee, Timmy C; Lok, Charmaine E; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed; Xi, Wang; Campbell, Vern; Graham, Janet; Wilson, Barb; Vachharajani, Tushar J

    2013-01-01

    The successful creation and use of an arteriovenous vascular access (VA) requires a coordinated, educated multidisciplinary team to ensure an optimal VA for each patient. Patient education programs on VA are associated with increased arteriovenous VA use at dialysis initiation. Education should be tailored to patient goals and preferences with the understanding that experiential education from patient to patient is far more influential than that provided by the healthcare professional. VA education for the nephrologist should focus on addressing the systematic and patient-level barriers in achieving a functional VA, with specific components relating to VA creation, maturation, and cannulation that consider patient goals and preferences. A deficit in nursing skills in the area of assessment and cannulation can have devastating consequences for hemodialysis patients. Delivery of an integrated education program increases nurses' knowledge of VA and development of simulation programs or constructs to assist in cannulation of the VA will greatly facilitate the much needed skill transfer. Adequate VA surgical training and experience are critical to the creation and outcomes of VA. Simulations can benefit nephrologists, dialysis nurses surgeons, and interventionalists though aiding in surgical creation, understanding of the physiology and anatomy of a dysfunctional VA, and practicing cannulation techniques. All future educational initiatives must emphasize the importance of multidisciplinary care to attain successful VA outcomes. PMID:23432319

  7. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  8. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan; Jersey Inst Ansari, New; Jersey Inst, New

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  9. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  10. Full and partial gauge fixing

    SciTech Connect

    Shirzad, A.

    2007-08-15

    Gauge fixing may be done in different ways. We show that using the chain structure to describe a constrained system enables us to use either a full gauge, in which all gauged degrees of freedom are determined, or a partial gauge, in which some first class constraints remain as subsidiary conditions to be imposed on the solutions of the equations of motion. We also show that the number of constants of motion depends on the level in a constraint chain in which the gauge fixing condition is imposed. The relativistic point particle, electromagnetism, and the Polyakov string are discussed as examples and full or partial gauges are distinguished.

  11. Accessing the Microform Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Stan

    1985-01-01

    Characterizes types of indexing programs used by Research Publications, Inc. and describes provision of access to four major projects: "The Official Washington Post Index" (provides access to newspaper and microfilm edition); "The Eighteenth Century"; "The Declassified Documents Reference System" (ongoing fiche project abstracted and indexed…

  12. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  13. Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia; De Oliver, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This case study researches the degree to which the location and services offered by a multicampus university, geographically situated consistent with the commercial principles of a large mass-market enterprise, facilitate access for educationally underserved groups. First, the necessity of democratizing educational access to an underprivileged…

  14. Intellectual Access to Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-Liang; Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1999-01-01

    The increased availability of digital images is accompanied by a need for solutions to the problems inherent in indexing them for retrieval. Problems in image description and access are discussed, with a perspective on traditional and new solutions. Recent developments in intellectual access to images are surveyed and contrasted with…

  15. The Universal Access System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Neil G.

    This final report discusses the outcomes of a project that created a Universal Access System (UAS), a system that gives students with disabilities access to the same computers as their classmates. The project developed a new approach in which the needs of the individual with disabilities are handled separately from the computers and other devices…

  16. MedlinePlus: Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools Español You Are Here: Home → MedlinePlus Accessibility URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/accessibility.html ... or (301) 594-5983 and provide the address (URL) of the page on which you need assistance, ...

  17. Access and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Lemuel W.

    2004-01-01

    Community colleges are well positioned to provide underserved student populations with access to computer technology. This chapter explores the issues of access and technology from multiple perspectives in the community college, and explains how community colleges can develop a foundation for their technology plan.

  18. Improving School Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Few things are more important for school safety and security than controlling access to buildings and grounds. It is relatively easy to incorporate effective access control measures in new school designs but more difficult in existing schools, where most building and site features cannot be readily altered or reconfigured. The National…

  19. Full Orchestra in Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Doreen; Edman, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Contends that starting a full orchestra in elementary school allows a music program to be visible to the community and garner support for budgetary requests. Discusses the process for organizing an elementary orchestra and problems that orchestra directors may encounter. Includes a list of orchestra music for elementary musicians. (DSK)

  20. Step up to Full Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jill; Kindem, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    Elementary students make great scientists. They are natural questioners and observers. Capitalizing on this natural curiosity and wonderment, the authors have developed a method of doing inquiry investigations with students that many teachers have found practical and user friendly. Their belief is that full inquiry lessons serve as a vital method…

  1. Access to Scientific Publications: The Scientist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Voronin, Yegor; Myrzahmetov, Askar; Bernstein, Alan

    2011-01-01

    provide access to the full range of HIV vaccine research literature. Access to papers through subscriptions is complemented by a variety of other means, including emailing corresponding authors, joint affiliations, use of someone else's login information and posting requests on message boards. This complex picture makes it difficult to assess the real ability of scientists to access literature, but the observed differences in access levels between institutions suggest an unlevel playing field, in which some researchers have to spend more efforts than others to obtain the same information. PMID:22114716

  2. [Permanent vascular access for haemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Manafov, E N; Batrashov, V A; Sergeev, O G; Yudaev, S S

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a permanent vascular access (PVA) is the pledge of successful treatment of patients being on chronic haemodialysis (CD). Creation and maintenance of a functioning PVA is the priority task of vascular and endovascular surgeons, nephrologists and specialists of haemodialysis departments. According to the KDOQI guidelines, the most preferable type of PVA is a native arteriovenous fistula (AVF). As an alternative it is possible to use a synthetic prosthesis for creating an arteriovenous shunt (AVS) or implantation of a central venous catheter (CVC). Various complications of vascular accesses leading to their loss create the necessity of forming just another PVA, thus negatively influencing the life span and quality of life of this cohort of patients. Improving surgical technique and approaches to treatment, as well as carrying out dynamic monitoring of the condition of the created PVA make it possible to considerably decrease the incidence rate of such complications and to improve the quality of medical care rendered. PMID:26451410

  3. Moving beyond the Amalgam: Restructuring Access Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Brice

    2010-01-01

    At least since the early 1990s, academic libraries have been merging Circulation and various other related functions into a single department typically labeled "Access Services." In many cases, however, that merger has proven to be administrative rather than functional, with minimal integration of common workflows. This article describes a…

  4. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-03-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  5. Nucleon Axial Charge in Full Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.G.; Richards, D.G.; Fleming, G.T.; Haegler, Ph.; Negele, J.W.; Pochinsky, A.V.; Orginos, K.; Renner, D.B.; Schroers, W.

    2006-02-10

    The nucleon axial charge is calculated as a function of the pion mass in full QCD. Using domain wall valence quarks and improved staggered sea quarks, we present the first calculation with pion masses as light as 354 MeV and volumes as large as (3.5 fm){sup 3}. We show that finite volume effects are small for our volumes and that a constrained fit based on finite volume chiral perturbation theory agrees with experiment within 7% statistical errors.

  6. The Kepler Full Frame Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Batalha, N.; Bryson, S.; Caldwell, D. A.; Clarke, B.; Haas, M. R.; Jenkins, J.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Quintana, E.; Van Cleve, J.; Kepler Team

    2010-01-01

    NASA's exoplanet discovery mission Kepler provides uninterrupted 1-min and 30-min optical photometry of a 100 square degree field over a 3.5 yr nominal mission. Downlink bandwidth is filled at these short cadences by selecting only detector pixels specific to 105 preselected stellar targets. The majority of the Kepler field, comprising 4 x 106 mv < 20 sources, is sampled at much lower 1-month cadence in the form of a full-frame image. The Full Frame Images (FFIs) are calibrated by the Science Operations Center at NASA Ames Research Center. The Kepler Team employ these images for astrometric and photometric reference but make the images available to the astrophysics community through the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST). The full-frame images provide a resource for potential Kepler Guest Observers to select targets and plan observing proposals, while also providing a freely-available long-cadence legacy of photometric variation across a swathe of the Galactic disk. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.

  7. The Kepler Full Frame Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's exoplanet discovery mission Kepler provides uninterrupted 1-min and 30-min optical photometry of a 100 square degree field over a 3.5 yr nominal mission. Downlink bandwidth is filled at these short cadences by selecting only detector pixels specific to 105 preselected stellar targets. The majority of the Kepler field, comprising 4 x 10(exp 6) m_v < 20 sources, is sampled at much lower 1-month cadence in the form of a full-frame image. The Full Frame Images (FFIs) are calibrated by the Science Operations Center at NASA Ames Research Center. The Kepler Team employ these images for astrometric and photometric reference but make the images available to the astrophysics community through the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST). The full-frame images provide a resource for potential Kepler Guest Observers to select targets and plan observing proposals, while also providing a freely-available long-cadence legacy of photometric variation across a swathe of the Galactic disk.

  8. Virtual Hubs for facilitating access to Open Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Latre, Miguel Á.; Ernst, Julia; Brumana, Raffaella; Brauman, Stefan; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    set of five Virtual Hubs (VHs) at national level in France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and an additional one at the European level. VHs will be provided according to the cloud Software-as-a-Services model. The main expected impact of VHs is the creation of new business opportunities opening up access to Research Data and Public Sector Information. Therefore, ENERGIC-OD addresses not only end-users, who will have the opportunity to access the VH through a geo-portal, but also application developers who will be able to access VH functionalities through simple Application Programming Interfaces (API). ENERGIC-OD Consortium will develop ten different applications on top of the deployed VHs. They aim to demonstrate how VHs facilitate the development of new and multidisciplinary applications based on the full exploitation of (open) GI, hence stimulating innovation and business activities.

  9. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  10. Composite hull for full-ocean depth

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, R.E.; Hawkes, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    A lightweight and economical modular design concept for a manned submersible is proposed to give two passengers repeated access to the deepest parts of the ocean in a safe, comfortable, and efficient manner. This versatile craft will allow work and exploration to be accomplished at moderate to maximum depths without any compromise in terms of capabilities or operating cost. Its design follows the experience acquired from the numerous existing minimum volume'' pressure hull submersible, and represents a radical departure from conventional designs. This paper addresses issues of gaining effective, safe working access for full ocean depth. Cylindrical composite hulls have the potential to achieve positive buoyancy sufficient to carry personnel and equipment swiftly back to the surface after completing exploration of the deepest ocean. Buoyancy for a submersible is similar to lift for an airplane, except that without lift, the airplane remains on the surface, but without buoyancy, the submersible never returns to the surface. There are two means of achieving buoyancy. The traditional method used to steel, titanium, or aluminium alloy deep-ocean vehicles is to add a very large buoy to compensate for the negative buoyancy of the hull. The alternate method is for the hull to displace more than its weight in water. This requires at least twice compression strength per unit mass of hull than steel, titanium, or aluminum alloys can provide. Properly constructed organic-matrix composites are light and strong enough to form a dry, 1-atm cabin with buoyancy to carry research staff and equipment to any depth in the ocean. Three different composite hull configurations are presented. Each is capable of serving as a cabin for a two-person crew. None would displace more than 4 tons of seawater. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Transport of momentum in full f gyrokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Felix I.; Catto, Peter J.

    2010-05-15

    Full f electrostatic gyrokinetic formulations employ two gyrokinetic equations, one for ions and the other for electrons, and quasineutrality to obtain the ion and electron distribution functions and the electrostatic potential. We demonstrate with several examples that the long wavelength radial electric field obtained with full f approaches is extremely sensitive to errors in the ion and electron density since small deviations in density give rise to large, nonphysical deviations in the conservation of toroidal angular momentum. For typical tokamak values, a relative error of 10{sup -7} in the ion or electron densities is enough to obtain the incorrect toroidal rotation. Based on the insights gained with the examples considered, three simple tests to check transport of toroidal angular momentum in full f simulations are proposed.

  12. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks

    Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology

    Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

    Background

    With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the

  13. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Wing and nacelle set-up in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The NACA conducted drag tests in 1931 on a P3M-1 nacelle which were presented in a special report to the Navy. Smith DeFrance described this work in the report's introduction: 'Tests were conducted in the full-scale wind tunnel on a five to four geared Pratt and Whitney Wasp engine mounted in a P3M-1 nacelle. In order to simulate the flight conditions the nacelle was assembled on a 15-foot span of wing from the same airplane. The purpose of the tests was to improve the cooling of the engine and to reduce the drag of the nacelle combination. Thermocouples were installed at various points on the cylinders and temperature readings were obtained from these by the power plants division. These results will be reported in a memorandum by that division. The drag results, which are covered by this memorandum, were obtained with the original nacelle condition as received from the Navy with the tail of the nacelle modified, with the nose section of the nacelle modified, with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached to the engine, with a Type G ring developed by the N.A.C.A., and with a Type D cowling which was also developed by the N.A.C.A.' (p. 1)

  14. 47 CFR 76.970 - Commercial leased access rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... access programmer for a full-time channel on that particular tier. The average implicit fee shall be... programmer's cost or the fair market value, whichever is lower. The average implicit fee shall be based on... that the operator may charge the leased access programmer for placement as a full-time a la...

  15. 47 CFR 76.970 - Commercial leased access rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... access programmer for a full-time channel on that particular tier. The average implicit fee shall be... programmer's cost or the fair market value, whichever is lower. The average implicit fee shall be based on... that the operator may charge the leased access programmer for placement as a full-time a la...

  16. Returning to Our Roots Student Access. Second Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report by 27 college and university presidents stresses the primacy of efforts to provide full and equal access to institutions of higher education, especially land grant institutions, and to the full range of programs and services they provide. Three challenges are identified in increasing access. First, price, although public university…

  17. Is random access memory random?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor addressing rate with memory service rate. These include interleaved and cached memory. A very high fraction of a processor's address requests can be satified from the cache without reference to the main memory. The cache requests information from main memory in blocks that can be transferred at the full memory speed. Programmers who organize algorithms for locality can realize the highest performance from these computers.

  18. HRP Data Accessibility 2009

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Clarence Sams spoke at the 2009 Human Research Program's Investigators Workshop on the current status of Data Accessibility. In this presentation he discusses the content of the Human Life Scie...

  19. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CAH Conditions of Participation . What are the location requirements for CAH status? Critical Access Hospitals must be ... clinic that does not meet the CAH distance requirements? As of January 1, 2008, all CAHs, including ...

  20. Computer memory access technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zottarelli, L. J.

    1967-01-01

    Computer memory access commutator and steering gate configuration produces bipolar current pulses while still employing only the diodes and magnetic cores of the classic commutator, thereby appreciably reducing the complexity of the memory assembly.

  1. Adapting Web Browsers for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Paul; Birkmire, Mike

    This paper examines ways to make World Wide Web browsers accessible for individuals with disabilities, and through them, gain access to the information on the Web. It discusses which browsers can be made more accessible and evaluates different types of input. Mouse access, keyboard access, and voice input are reviewed. Processing aids, such as…

  2. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  3. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  4. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Modified propeller and spinner in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel. 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow. This model can be constructed in a comparatively short time, using 2 by 4 framing with matched sheathing inside, and where circular sections are desired they can be obtained by nailing sheet metal to wooden ribs, which can be cut on the band saw. It is estimated that three months will be required for the construction and testing of such a model and that the cost will be approximately three thousand dollars, one thousand dollars of which will be for the motors. No suitable location appears to exist in any of our present buildings, and it may be necessary to build it outside and cover it with a roof.' George Lewis responded immediately (June 27) granting the authority to proceed. He urged Langley to expedite construction and to employ extra carpenters if necessary. Funds for the model came from the FST project

  5. Public Education and Outreach Through Full-Dome Video Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, John

    2009-03-01

    My long-term goal is to enhance public understanding of complex systems that can be best demonstrated through richly detailed computer graphic animation displayed with full-dome video technology. My current focus is on health science advances that focus on regenerative medicine, which helps the body heal itself. Such topics facilitate science learning and health literacy. My team develops multi-media presentations that bring the scientific and medical advances to the public through immersive high-definition video animation. Implicit in treating the topics of regenerative medicine will be the need to address stem cell biology. The topics are clarified and presented from a platform of facts and balanced ethical consideration. The production process includes communicating scientific information about the excitement and importance of stem cell research. Principles of function are emphasized over specific facts or terminology by focusing on a limited, but fundamental set of concepts. To achieve this, visually rich, biologically accurate 3D computer graphic environments are created to illustrate the cells, tissues and organs of interest. A suite of films are produced, and evaluated in pre- post-surveys assessing attitudes, knowledge and learning. Each film uses engaging interactive demonstrations to illustrate biological functions, the things that go wrong due to disease and disability, and the remedy provided by regenerative medicine. While the images are rich and detailed, the language is accessible and appropriate to the audience. The digital, high-definition video is also re-edited for presentation in other ``flat screen'' formats, increasing our distribution potential. Show content is also presented in an interactive web space (www.sepa.duq.edu) with complementing teacher resource guides and student workbooks and companion video games.

  6. Vascular Access in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh Keller, Marc S.

    2011-02-15

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the 'expert procedural pyramid' is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  7. Access to health care

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Martin; Maltais, Danielle; Hudon, Catherine; Lapointe, Lise; Ntetu, Antoine Lutumba

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore access to health care for patients presenting with multiple chronic conditions and to identify barriers and factors conducive to access. DESIGN Qualitative study with focus groups. SETTING Family practice unit in Chicoutimi (Saguenay), Que. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-five male and female adult patients with at least four chronic conditions but no cognitive disorders or decompensating conditions. METHODS For this pilot study, only three focus group discussions were held. MAIN FINDINGS The main barriers to accessing follow-up appointments included long waits on the telephone, automated telephone-answering systems, and needing to attend at specific times to obtain appointments. The main barriers to specialized care were long waiting times and the need to get prescriptions and referrals from family physicians. Factors reported conducive to access included systematic callbacks and the personal involvement of family physicians. Good communication between family physicians and specialists was also perceived to be an important factor in access. CONCLUSION Systematic callbacks, family physicians’ personal efforts to obtain follow-up visits, and better physician-specialist communication were all suggested as ways to improve access to care for patients with multiple chronic conditions. PMID:16926944

  8. Full-bridge capacitive extensometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Randall D.

    1993-08-01

    Capacitive transducers have proven to be very effective sensors of small displacements, because of inherent stability and noninvasive high resolution. The most versatile ones have been those of a differential type, in which two elements are altered in opposite directions in response to change of the system parameter being monitored. Oftentimes, this differential pair has been incorporated into a bridge circuit, which is a useful means for employing synchronous detection to improve signal to noise ratios. Unlike previous differential capacitive dilatometers which used only two active capacitors, the present sensor is a full-bridge type, which is well suited to measuring low-level thermal expansions. This analog sensor is capable of 0.1 μm resolution anywhere within a range of several centimeters, with a linearity of 0.1%. Its user friendly output can be put on a strip chart recorder or directed to a computer for sophisticated data analysis.

  9. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

  10. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST): 120-Foot Truss hoisting, one and two point suspension. In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

  11. CALCEPH: Planetary ephemeris files access code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastineau, M.; Laskar, J.; Manche, H.; Fienga, A.

    2015-05-01

    CALCEPH accesses binary planetary ephemeris files, including INPOPxx, JPL DExxx ,and SPICE ephemeris files. It provides a C Application Programming Interface (API) and, optionally, a Fortran 77 or 2003 interface to be called by the application. Two groups of functions enable the access to the ephemeris files, single file access functions, provided to make transition easier from the JPL functions, such as PLEPH, to this library, and many ephemeris file at the same time. Although computers have different endianess (order in which integers are stored as bytes in computer memory), CALCEPH can handles the binary ephemeris files with any endianess by automatically swaps the bytes when it performs read operations on the ephemeris file.

  12. Mechanisms that improve referential access*

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    Kim …”). Thus, both suppression and enhancement improve referential access, and the contribution of these two mechanisms is a function of explicitness. The role of these two mechanisms in mediating other referential access phenomena is also discussed. PMID:2752708

  13. A combined computational and structural model of the full-length human prolactin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bugge, Katrine; Papaleo, Elena; Haxholm, Gitte W.; Hopper, Jonathan T. S.; Robinson, Carol V.; Olsen, Johan G.; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Kragelund, Birthe B.

    2016-01-01

    The prolactin receptor is an archetype member of the class I cytokine receptor family, comprising receptors with fundamental functions in biology as well as key drug targets. Structurally, each of these receptors represent an intriguing diversity, providing an exceptionally challenging target for structural biology. Here, we access the molecular architecture of the monomeric human prolactin receptor by combining experimental and computational efforts. We solve the NMR structure of its transmembrane domain in micelles and collect structural data on overlapping fragments of the receptor with small-angle X-ray scattering, native mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Along with previously published data, these are integrated by molecular modelling to generate a full receptor structure. The result provides the first full view of a class I cytokine receptor, exemplifying the architecture of more than 40 different receptor chains, and reveals that the extracellular domain is merely the tip of a molecular iceberg. PMID:27174498

  14. A combined computational and structural model of the full-length human prolactin receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugge, Katrine; Papaleo, Elena; Haxholm, Gitte W.; Hopper, Jonathan T. S.; Robinson, Carol V.; Olsen, Johan G.; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Kragelund, Birthe B.

    2016-05-01

    The prolactin receptor is an archetype member of the class I cytokine receptor family, comprising receptors with fundamental functions in biology as well as key drug targets. Structurally, each of these receptors represent an intriguing diversity, providing an exceptionally challenging target for structural biology. Here, we access the molecular architecture of the monomeric human prolactin receptor by combining experimental and computational efforts. We solve the NMR structure of its transmembrane domain in micelles and collect structural data on overlapping fragments of the receptor with small-angle X-ray scattering, native mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Along with previously published data, these are integrated by molecular modelling to generate a full receptor structure. The result provides the first full view of a class I cytokine receptor, exemplifying the architecture of more than 40 different receptor chains, and reveals that the extracellular domain is merely the tip of a molecular iceberg.

  15. [Patients' access to their medical records].

    PubMed

    Laranjo, Liliana; Neves, Ana Luisa; Villanueva, Tiago; Cruz, Jorge; Brito de Sá, Armando; Sakellarides, Constantitno

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the medical record was seen exclusively as being the property of health institutions and doctors. Its great technical and scientific components, as well as the personal characteristics attributed by each doctor, have been the reasons appointed for that control. However, nowadays throughout the world that paradigm has been changing. In Portugal, since 2007 patients are allowed full and direct access to their medical records. Nevertheless, the Deontological Code of the Portuguese Medical Association (2009) explicitly states that patients' access to their medical records should have a doctor as intermediary and that the records are each physician's intellectual property. Furthermore, several doctors and health institutions, receiving requests from patients to access their medical records, end up requesting the legal opinion of the Commission for access to administrative documents. Each and every time, that opinion goes in line with the notion of full and direct patient access. Sharing medical records with patients seems crucial and inevitable in the current patient-centred care model, having the potential to improve patient empowerment, health literacy, autonomy, self-efficacy and satisfaction with care. With the recent technological developments and the fast dissemination of Personal Health Records, it is foreseeable that a growing number of patients will want to access their medical records. Therefore, promoting awareness on this topic is essential, in order to allow an informed debate between all the stakeholders. PMID:23815842

  16. Full L.A. treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Wahbeh, V.N.; Clark, J.H.; Naydo, W.R.; Horii, R.S.

    1993-09-01

    The high-purity-oxygen activated sludge process will be used to expand secondary treatment capacity and improve water quality in Santa Monica Bay. The facility is operated by the city of Los Angeles Department of Public Works` Bureau of Sanitation. The overall Hyperion Full Secondary Project is 30% complete, including a new headworks, a new primary clarifier battery, an electrical switch yard, and additional support facilities. The upgrading of secondary facilities is 50% complete, and construction of the digester facilities, the waste-activated sludge thickening facility, and the second phase of the three-phase modification to existing primary clarifier batteries has just begun. The expansion program will provide a maximum monthly design capacity of 19,723 L/s(450 mgd). Hyperion`s expansion program uses industrial treatment techniques rarely attempted in a municipal facility, particularly on such a large scale, including: a user-friendly intermediate pumping station featuring 3.8-m Archimedes screw pumps with a capacity of 5479 L/s each; space-efficient, high-purity-oxygen reactors; a one-of-a-kind, 777-Mg/d oxygen-generating facility incorporating several innovative features that not only save money and energy, but reduce noise; design improvements in 36 new final clarifiers to enhance settling and provide high effluent quality; and egg-shaped digesters to respond to technical and aesthetic design parameters.

  17. Full-Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) balance. Smith DeFrance described the 6-component type balance in NACA TR No. 459 (which also includes a schematic diagram of the balance and its various parts). 'Ball and socket fittings at the top of each of the struts hod the axles of the airplane to be tested; the tail is attached to the triangular frame. These struts are secured to the turntable, which is attached to the floating frame. This frame rests on the struts (next to the concrete piers on all four corners), which transmit the lift forces to the scales (partially visible on the left). The drag linkage is attached to the floating frame on the center line and, working against a known counterweight, transmits the drag force to the scale (center, face out). The cross-wind force linkages are attached to the floating frame on the front and rear sides at the center line. These linkages, working against known counterweights, transmit the cross-wind force to scales (two front scales, face in). In the above manner the forces in three directions are measured and by combining the forces and the proper lever arms, the pitching, rolling, and yawing moments can be computed. The scales are of the dial type and are provided with solenoid-operated printing devices. When the proper test condition is obtained, a push-button switch is momentarily closed and the readings on all seven scales are recorded simultaneously, eliminating the possibility of personal errors.'

  18. Full Stokes polarization imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedel, M.; Breugnot, S.; Lechocinski, N.

    2011-10-01

    Objective and background: We present a new version of Bossa Nova Technologies' passive polarization imaging camera. The previous version was performing live measurement of the Linear Stokes parameters (S0, S1, S2), and its derivatives. This new version presented in this paper performs live measurement of Full Stokes parameters, i.e. including the fourth parameter S3 related to the amount of circular polarization. Dedicated software was developed to provide live images of any Stokes related parameters such as the Degree Of Linear Polarization (DOLP), the Degree Of Circular Polarization (DOCP), the Angle Of Polarization (AOP). Results: We first we give a brief description of the camera and its technology. It is a Division Of Time Polarimeter using a custom ferroelectric liquid crystal cell. A description of the method used to calculate Data Reduction Matrix (DRM)5,9 linking intensity measurements and the Stokes parameters is given. The calibration was developed in order to maximize the condition number of the DRM. It also allows very efficient post processing of the images acquired. Complete evaluation of the precision of standard polarization parameters is described. We further present the standard features of the dedicated software that was developed to operate the camera. It provides live images of the Stokes vector components and the usual associated parameters. Finally some tests already conducted are presented. It includes indoor laboratory and outdoor measurements. This new camera will be a useful tool for many applications such as biomedical, remote sensing, metrology, material studies, and others.

  19. Advanced access appointments

    PubMed Central

    Hudec, John C.; MacDougall, Steven; Rankin, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of advanced access (same-day physician appointments) on patient and provider satisfaction and to determine its association with other variables such as physician income and patient emergency department use. DESIGN Patient satisfaction survey and semistructured interviews with physicians and support staff; analysis of physician medical insurance billings and patient emergency department visits. SETTING Cape Breton, NS. PARTICIPANTS Patients, physicians, and support staff of 3 comparable family physician practices that had not implemented advanced access and an established advanced access practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported provider and patient satisfaction, physician office income, and patients’ emergency department use. RESULTS The key benefits of implementation of advanced access were an increase in provider and patient satisfaction levels, same or greater physician office income, and fewer less urgent (triage level 4) and nonurgent (triage level 5) emergency department visits by patients. CONCLUSION Currently within the Central Cape Breton Region, 33% of patients wait 4 or more days for urgent appointments. Findings from this study can be used to enhance primary care physician practice redesign. This research supports many benefits of transitioning to an advanced access model of patient booking. PMID:20944024

  20. Full-Scale Tests of NACA Cowlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Brevoort, M J; Stickle, George W

    1937-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation has been carried on with full-scale models in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel, the general purpose of which is to furnish information in regard to the physical functioning of the composite propeller-nacelle unit under all conditions of take-off, taxiing, and normal flight. This report deals exclusively with the cowling characteristics under condition of normal flight and includes the results of tests of numerous combinations of more than a dozen nose cowlings, about a dozen skirts, two propellers, two sizes of nacelle, as well as various types of spinners and other devices.

  1. NIMO's advanced state estimator copes with NUGs and open access

    SciTech Connect

    Rutz, W.L. )

    1994-12-01

    Nonutility generators (NUGs) are placing increasing wheeling demands on the transmission networks of electric utilities and, with the advent of [open quotes]open access,[close quotes] utilities also face increasing competition for their own electricity customers. Niagara Mohawk Power Corp (NIMO) has found surprising new ways to cope with and even profit from these circumstances by exploiting an advance suite of network security applications, which have been in continuous use since 1991. The network package adds advanced state estimation, load flow, and contingency analysis functions to NIMO's energy management system (EMS). According to the utility's managers, the network security functions have had important tangible benefits. These include the ability to: maximize the use of the transmission network; increase reliability by accurately predicting contingencies; determine when expensive reserve units can be safely shut down; and improve the accuracy of loss calculations, thereby permitting full recovery of wheeling losses. 1 fig.

  2. ISDC Data Access Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D.; Borkowski, J.; Contessi, T.; Lock, T.; Rohlfs, R.; Walter, R.

    The ISDC Data Access Layer (DAL) is an ANSI C and \\fortran 90 compatible library under development in support of the ESA INTEGRAL mission data analysis software. DALs primary purpose is to isolate the analysis software from the specifics of the data formats while at the same time providing new data abstraction and access capabilities. DAL supports the creation and manipulation of hierarchical data sets which may span multiple files and, in theory, multiple computer systems. A number of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are supported by DAL that allow software to view and access data at different levels of complexity. DAL also allows data sets to reside on disk, in conventional memory or in shared memory in a way that is transparent to the user/application.

  3. Access to space studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently considering possible directions in Earth-to-orbit vehicle development under a study called 'Access to Space.' This agency-wide study is considering commercial launch vehicles, human transportation, space station logistics, and other space transportation requirements over the next 40 years. Three options are being considered for human transportation: continued use of the Space Shuttle; development of a small personnel carrier (personnel logistics system (PLS)); or development of an advanced vehicle such as a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO). Several studies related to the overall Access to Space study are reported in this document.

  4. Accessibility | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Smokefree.gov is committed to providing access to all individuals—disabled or not—who are seeking information on its Web sites. To provide this information, the smokefree.gov Web site has been designed to comply with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (as amended). Section 508 requires that all individuals with disabilities (whether they are federal government employees or members of the general public) have access to and use of information and data comparable to that provided to individuals without disabilities, unless an undue burden would be imposed.

  5. Accessing Data via DAP in IDL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloy, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Data Access Protocol (DAP) and its related server and client software have emerged as important components of the earth science data system infrastructure. The Interactive Data Language (IDL) is also widely used in the this community for data analysis and visualization. Making data accessible through DAP in a familiar way for IDL users reduces the time to access, analyze, and visualize data for these researchers. This poster will demonstrate both command line scripting and interactive GUI tools. These tools focus on ease of use and installation while providing full DAP client support. Furthermore, server-side analysis and visualization on an OPeNDAP Hyrax server can be done via IDL scripts. Reduced data or visualizations can be returned to a DAP client instead of performing local analysis after a full data set download. Work funded by NASA SBIR #NNX09CA72C.

  6. 47 CFR 76.971 - Commercial leased access terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... access terms and conditions. (a)(1) Cable operators shall place leased access programmers that request... select from among leased access programmers using objective, content-neutral criteria. (4) Cable... a channel already carrying an existing full-time non-leased access programmer, the operator does...

  7. 47 CFR 76.971 - Commercial leased access terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... access terms and conditions. (a)(1) Cable operators shall place leased access programmers that request... select from among leased access programmers using objective, content-neutral criteria. (4) Cable... a channel already carrying an existing full-time non-leased access programmer, the operator does...

  8. 47 CFR 76.971 - Commercial leased access terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... access terms and conditions. (a)(1) Cable operators shall place leased access programmers that request... select from among leased access programmers using objective, content-neutral criteria. (4) Cable... a channel already carrying an existing full-time non-leased access programmer, the operator does...

  9. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  10. Full-Text Cancer Literature Retrieval by Computer

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Morris F.

    1987-01-01

    A physician with a personal computer equipped with a modem linked to a telephone line can now access directly to the extensive cancer literature stored in vast computerized medical databases. This permits efficient on-line search and retrieval, not only of MEDLINE, the National Library of Medicine's world-wide medical literature abstracts, but also of the full-text of much of the cancer literature and of the National Cancer Institute's information and treatment protocols in its Physician Data Query (PDQ).

  11. Unique Access to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  12. Internet 2 Access Grid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

  13. Serving up Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    When low-income students returned to Chicago public schools this fall, many had better access to technology, thanks to a public-private partnership. Chicago families with children enrolled in the National School Lunch Program are eligible for subsidized computers and Internet connections through an agreement between the city and telecom giant…

  14. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  15. College Access Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  16. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  17. Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

    The document presents uniform standards for facility accessibility by physically handicapped persons for Federal and federally funded facilities. The standards are to be applied during the design, construction, and alteration of buildings and facilities to the extent required by the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968, as amended. Technical…

  18. Improved Access to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra; Simkins, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes efforts by principal of the Willow Elementary School in the Charter Oak Unified School District (California) to provide students with technology-enhanced access to information and learning resources to improve reading and mathematics skills. Includes list of the Web addresses for the skills software used at the school. (PKP)

  19. CAS. Controlled Access Security

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Pomeroy, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Security Alarm System is a data acquisition and control system which collects data from intrusion sensors and displays the information in a real-time environment for operators. The Access Control System monitors and controls the movement of personnel with the use of card readers and biometrics hand readers.

  20. Strategies for Improving Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore, Terry; Barwood, Bryan

    1989-01-01

    The development of the varied strategies that have been introduced in order to improve access for disadvantaged groups at Monash University is discussed. The Junior University Programme, the Monash Orientation Scheme for Aborigines, the Mature Age Special Admission Scheme, Special Entry Scheme, and the Schools Link Programme are described. (MLW)

  1. Access to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunken, Anna; Delly, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Changes to education in Australia have seen new government legislations increasing educational pathways so students can more easily enter university, the aim being to increase participation. Now, many domestic students utilise various pathways to access university. Some have undertaken basic Further Education Diplomas, received subject credits,…

  2. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  3. Evolutionary Accessibility in Tunably Rugged Fitness Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Jasper; Krug, Joachim

    2012-09-01

    The adaptive evolution of a population under the influence of mutation and selection is strongly influenced by the structure of the underlying fitness landscape, which encodes the interactions between mutations at different genetic loci. Theoretical studies of such landscapes have been carried out for several decades, but only recently experimental fitness measurements encompassing all possible combinations of small sets of mutations have become available. The empirical studies have spawned new questions about the accessibility of optimal genotypes under natural selection. Depending on population dynamic parameters such as mutation rate and population size, evolutionary accessibility can be quantified through the statistics of accessible mutational pathways (along which fitness increases monotonically), or through the study of the basin of attraction of the optimal genotype under greedy (steepest ascent) dynamics. Here we investigate these two measures of accessibility in the framework of Kauffman's LK-model, a paradigmatic family of random fitness landscapes with tunable ruggedness. The key parameter governing the strength of genetic interactions is the number K of interaction partners of each of the L sites in the genotype sequence. In general, accessibility increases with increasing genotype dimensionality L and decreases with increasing number of interactions K. Remarkably, however, we find that some measures of accessibility behave non-monotonically as a function of K, indicating a special role of the most sparsely connected, non-trivial cases K=1 and 2. The relation between models for fitness landscapes and spin glasses is also addressed.

  4. Full-text information services at the desktop

    SciTech Connect

    Judy, J.R.

    1993-12-01

    In order to develop true electronic information services, libraries will be called upon to deliver a wide array of full-text documents to users` desktop computers. This requirement can currently be seen in the demands for electronic access to the ever-growing array of federal, state and local regulations covering almost any activity at DOE sites. The Hanford Technical Library has put together a new online statutory and regulatory information service, SARIS, that is described in this paper. SARIS is expected to serve as a platform fort the delivery of additional full-text information sources in the future.

  5. 50 CFR 648.60 - Sea scallop area access program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... scallop vessels. A full-time scallop vessel may take two trips in the Elephant Trunk Access Area, one trip... Delmarva and Elephant Trunk Access Areas specified in § 648.59(a) and (e). For example, a full-time vessel may declare up to two trips in the Elephant Trunk Access Area or up to one trip in the Elephant...

  6. Electronic Journals in Aggregated Collections: Providing Access through the Catalog and a Cold Fusion Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Patrons in academic libraries want convenient 24-hour access to full-text journals in a rapid, convenient manner. They want "anytime, anywhere" access to information and they do not want to enter a library to obtain it. This article describes how Eastern Washington University Libraries provide access to full-text journals through several…

  7. Telerehabilitation Technologies: Accessibility and Usability

    PubMed Central

    Pramuka, Michael; van Roosmalen, Linda

    2009-01-01

    In the fields of telehealth and telemedicine, phone and/or video technologies are key to the successful provision of services such as remote monitoring and visits. How do these technologies affect service accessibility, effectiveness, quality, and usefulness when applied to rehabilitation services in the field of telerehabilitation? To answer this question, we provide a overview of the complex network of available technologies and discuss how they link to rehabilitation applications, services, and practices as well as to the telerehabilitation end-user. This white paper will first present the numerous professional considerations that shape the use of technology in telerehabilitation service and set it somewhat apart from telemedicine. It will then provide an overview of concepts essential to usability analysis; present a summary of various telerehabilitation technologies and their strengths and limitations, and consider how the technologies interface with end users’ clinical needs for service accessibility, effectiveness, quality, and usefulness. The paper will highlight a conceptual framework (including task analyses and usability issues) that underlies a functional match between telerehabilitation technologies, clinical applications, and end-user capabilities for telerehabilitation purposes. Finally, we will discuss pragmatic issues related to user integration of telerehabilitation technology versus traditional face-to-face approaches. PMID:25945165

  8. Data access for scientific problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, James W.

    1987-01-01

    An essential ingredient in scientific work is data. In disciplines such as Oceanography, data sources are many and volumes are formidable. The full value of large stores of data cannot be realized unless careful thought is given to data access. JPL has developed the Pilot Ocean Data System to investigate techniques for archiving and accessing ocean data obtained from space. These include efficient storage and rapid retrieval of satellite data, an easy-to-use user interface, and a variety of output products which, taken together, permit researchers to extract and use data rapidly and conveniently.

  9. Accessing Space Weather Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, D.; Weiss, M.; Immer, E. A.; Patrone, D.; Potter, M.; Barnes, R. J.; Colclough, C.; Holder, R.

    2009-12-01

    To meet the needs of our technology based society, space weather forecasting needs to be advanced and this will entail collaboration amongst research, military and commercial communities to find new ways to understand, characterize, and forecast. In this presentation VITMO, the Virtual Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere Observatory will be used as a prototype for a generalized system as a means to bring together a set of tools to access data, models and online collaboration tools to enable rapid progress. VITMO, available at http://vitmo.jhuapl.edu/, currently provides a data access portal for researchers and scientists to enable finding data products as well as access to tools and models. To further the needs of space weather forecasters, the existing VITMO data holdings need to be expanded to provide additional datasets as well as integrating relevant models and model output. VITMO can easily be adapted for the Space Weather domain in its entirety. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how VITMO and the VITMO architecture can be utilized as a prototype in support of integration of Space Weather forecasting tools, models and data.

  10. Working Concept of Accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Bastian J.; Rouphail, Nagui M.; Hughes, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    This research presents an analysis framework and associated performance measures for quantifying the accessibility of pedestrian crossings at modern roundabouts for pedestrians who are blind. The measures, developed under two ongoing national research projects, NCHRP Project 3-78A and a bioengineering research grant from the National Institutes of Health–National Eye Institute, attempt to isolate the components of the crossing task for a blind pedestrian into computable and replicable quantities that allow the comparison of accessibility across individuals or sites. The framework differentiates between crossing opportunities in the form of yields and crossable gaps and the utilization of these opportunities by the pedestrian. It further accounts for the amount of delay and risk involved in the crossing. The analysis framework and measures are demonstrated for two single-lane roundabouts in North Carolina evaluated under the aforementioned research projects. The application shows that the accessibility of a pedestrian crossing to a blind pedestrian is characterized by a combination of different measures and further depends on crossing geometry, traffic volume, driver behavior, and the travel skills and risk-taking behavior of the individual. With successful demonstration at roundabout crosswalks, the analysis framework is hypothesized to have broader application to unsignalized pedestrian crossings, including midblock locations. PMID:20664802

  11. Remote access thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Parisha; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Kadi, Abida; Walvekar, Rohan R.

    2015-01-01

    Robot assisted thyroid surgery has been the latest advance in the evolution of thyroid surgery after endoscopy assisted procedures. The advantage of a superior field vision and technical advancements of robotic technology have permitted novel remote access (trans-axillary and retro-auricular) surgical approaches. Interestingly, several remote access surgical ports using robot surgical system and endoscopic technique have been customized to avoid the social stigma of a visible scar. Current literature has displayed their various advantages in terms of post-operative outcomes; however, the associated financial burden and also additional training and expertise necessary hinder its widespread adoption into endocrine surgery practices. These approaches offer excellent cosmesis, with a shorter learning curve and reduce discomfort to surgeons operating ergonomically through a robotic console. This review aims to provide details of various remote access techniques that are being offered for thyroid resection. Though these have been reported to be safe and feasible approaches for thyroid surgery, further evaluation for their efficacy still remains. PMID:26425450

  12. Digital imaging access library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Jay F.; Hansen, Mark; Francoise, James J.; Leckie, Robert G.; Smith, Donald V.

    1994-05-01

    The ability to access a vast array of radiological and pathologic diagnoses through computer searches of local medical facility databases is a by-product of the continued development of filmless imaging systems. The Department of Defense (DoD) Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support initiative is expanding through the addition of on-line systems at several DoD health care facilities. Madigan Army Medical Center, as the initial site, will soon be 90% filmless, with over one million images archived. Multiple other DoD medical centers are under installation. The eventual goal is an interconnected network of PACS systems of DoD medical centers and their supported medical facilities throughout the United States. To access this potential pool of medical information requires a centralized database capable of acting as a diagnostic index system. The establishment of a multi-center film library index begins with an initial analysis of issues regarding data storage and access, indexing, cross-coding with pathological files, communication formats, cost sharing, and patient confidentiality. In initiating these first steps to developing this telecommunications library these issues and their implications are discussed. The final implementation of this system will facilitate markedly improved research and teaching capabilities in both radiological and pathological fields.

  13. ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT OF ELOPEMENT MAINTAINED BY ACCESS TO STEREOTYPY

    PubMed Central

    Falcomata, Terry S; Roane, Henry S; Feeney, Brian J; Stephenson, Kasey M

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a treatment for elopement maintained by access to stereotypic door play. First, we conducted a functional analysis of elopement that produced undifferentiated results. Next, we conducted an assessment in which we evaluated the relation between elopement and door play. Results suggested a functional relation between the 2 behaviors (i.e., elopement was maintained by contingent access to door play). Finally, we implemented functional communication training as a treatment for elopement in which access to door play was made contingent on a target appropriate communication response. PMID:21358912

  14. Assessment and treatment of elopement maintained by access to stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Falcomata, Terry S; Roane, Henry S; Feeney, Brian J; Stephenson, Kasey M

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a treatment for elopement maintained by access to stereotypic door play. First, we conducted a functional analysis of elopement that produced undifferentiated results. Next, we conducted an assessment in which we evaluated the relation between elopement and door play. Results suggested a functional relation between the 2 behaviors (i.e., elopement was maintained by contingent access to door play). Finally, we implemented functional communication training as a treatment for elopement in which access to door play was made contingent on a target appropriate communication response. PMID:21358912

  15. 47 CFR 76.978 - Leased access annual reporting requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rate and actual rates. (5) The programmers using each commercial leased access channel and whether each programmer is using the channel on a full-time or part-time basis. (6) The number of requests received for... different rates, terms, or conditions on commercial leased access programmers (such as with respect...

  16. 47 CFR 76.978 - Leased access annual reporting requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rate and actual rates. (5) The programmers using each commercial leased access channel and whether each programmer is using the channel on a full-time or part-time basis. (6) The number of requests received for... different rates, terms, or conditions on commercial leased access programmers (such as with respect...

  17. 47 CFR 76.978 - Leased access annual reporting requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... rate and actual rates. (5) The programmers using each commercial leased access channel and whether each programmer is using the channel on a full-time or part-time basis. (6) The number of requests received for... different rates, terms, or conditions on commercial leased access programmers (such as with respect...

  18. 5 CFR 2606.201 - Requests for access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... on OGE's Web site at http://www.usoge.gov, or upon request from OGE's Office of General Counsel and... Office of Federal Register at the GPO Access Web site (http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/aces/PrivacyAct... individual's full name (including her maiden name, if pertinent), dates of employment, social security...

  19. Public Access Workstations in the Library: New Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of microcomputer-based workstations that are provided for public access in libraries. Criteria for workstations are discussed, including standard hardware, open-design software, scalable interface, and connectivity options for networking; systems that provide full-text access are described; and the need for standards is…

  20. The Open Access Availability of Library and Information Science Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Doug

    2010-01-01

    To examine the open access availability of Library and Information Science (LIS) research, a study was conducted using Google Scholar to search for articles from 20 top LIS journals. The study examined whether Google Scholar was able to find any links to full text, if open access versions of the articles were available and where these articles…

  1. 10 CFR 1304.105 - Requests for access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requests for access to records. 1304.105 Section 1304.105 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.105 Requests for access to records. (a) All requests for records should include the following information: (1) Full name, address, and telephone number of requester. (2)...

  2. NOAA Enterprise Archive Access Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rank, R. H.; McCormick, S.; Cremidis, C.

    2010-12-01

    A challenge for any consumer of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) environmental data archives is that the disparate nature of these archives makes it difficult for consumers to access data in a unified manner. If it were possible for consumers to have seamless access to these archives, they would be able to better utilize the data and thus maximize the return on investment for NOAA’s archival program. When unified data access is coupled with sophisticated data querying and discovery techniques, it will be possible to provide consumers with access to richer data sets and services that extend the use of key NOAA data. Theoretically, there are two ways that unified archive access may be achieved. The first approach is to develop a single archive or archiving standard that would replace the current NOAA archives. However, the development of such an archive would pose significant technical and administrative challenges. The second approach is to develop a middleware application that would provide seamless access to all existing archives, in effect allowing each archive to exist “as is” but providing a translation service for the consumer. This approach is deemed more feasible from an administrative and technical standpoint; however, it still presents unique technical challenges due to the disparate architectures that exist across NOAA archives. NOAA has begun developing the NEAAT. The purpose of NEAAT is to provide a middleware and a simple standardized API between NOAA archives and data consumers. It is important to note that NEAAT serves two main purposes: 1) To provide a single application programming interface (API) that enables designated consumers to write their own custom applications capable of searching and acquiring data seamlessly from multiple NOAA archives. 2) To allow archive managers to expose their data to consumers in conjunction with other NOAA resources without modifying their archiving systems or way of presenting data

  3. A full-scale STOVL ejector experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barankiewicz, Wendy S.

    1993-01-01

    The design and development of thrust augmenting short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) ejectors has typically been an iterative process. In this investigation, static performance tests of a full-scale vertical lift ejector were performed at primary flow temperatures up to 1560 R (1100 F). Flow visualization (smoke generators, yarn tufts and paint dots) was used to assess inlet flowfield characteristics, especially around the primary nozzle and end plates. Performance calculations are presented for ambient temperatures close to 480 R (20 F) and 535 R (75 F) which simulate 'seasonal' aircraft operating conditions. Resulting thrust augmentation ratios are presented as functions of nozzle pressure ratio and temperature. Full-scale experimental tests such as this are expensive, and difficult to implement at engine exhaust temperatures. For this reason the utility of using similarity principles -- in particular, the Munk and Prim similarity principle for isentropic flow -- was explored. At different primary temperatures, exit pressure contours are compared for similarity. A nondimensional flow parameter is then shown to eliminate primary nozzle temperature dependence and verify similarity between the hot and cold flow experiments. Under the assumption that an appropriate similarity principle can be established, then properly chosen performance parameters should be similar for both hot flow and cold flow model tests.

  4. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  5. NASA project 1: Full-body dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Li-Dai

    1993-01-01

    In space, where the body does only a fraction of work it does on earth, muscle atrophy is a major concern. The bones and the muscles will begin to deteriorate after a short stay in weightlessness. Bone decalcification appears to be a major problem with extensive living in microgravity. Resistance exercise is not only essential to prevent muscle atrophy in space, it also helps to keep bone decalcification in check. For a space station, where the astronauts are expected to live for months at a time, exercise is especially important. Experts recommend about an hour and a half to two hours of exercise per day to keep the muscles in good condition in microgravity. The exercises will not only keep the astronauts in excellent physical condition, it will also make it easier for them to readjust to earth's gravity on return. The stationary bicycle and the treadmill have been the astronauts' primary sources of exercise since the 1970's. The major problem with both the stationary bicycle and the treadmill is that while they may keep the leg muscles from deteriorating in microgravity, they do little for muscles in the upper body. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing a full-body dynamometer (FBD), which will provide the astronauts with a full-body workout. It will also test the astronauts for muscle atrophy and rehabilitate the weakened muscle. The specification and the function structure for the FBD is presented.

  6. Generalized Full-Information Item Bifactor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Li; Yang, Ji Seung; Hansen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Full-information item bifactor analysis is an important statistical method in psychological and educational measurement. Current methods are limited to single group analysis and inflexible in the types of item response models supported. We propose a flexible multiple-group item bifactor analysis framework that supports a variety of multidimensional item response theory models for an arbitrary mixing of dichotomous, ordinal, and nominal items. The extended item bifactor model also enables the estimation of latent variable means and variances when data from more than one group are present. Generalized user-defined parameter restrictions are permitted within or across groups. We derive an efficient full-information maximum marginal likelihood estimator. Our estimation method achieves substantial computational savings by extending Gibbons and Hedeker’s (1992) bifactor dimension reduction method so that the optimization of the marginal log-likelihood only requires two-dimensional integration regardless of the dimensionality of the latent variables. We use simulation studies to demonstrate the flexibility and accuracy of the proposed methods. We apply the model to study cross-country differences, including differential item functioning, using data from a large international education survey on mathematics literacy. PMID:21534682

  7. Interactively Browsing NASA's EOS Imagery in Full Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, R. A.; Joshi, T.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Worldview is a new tool designed to interactively browse full-resolution imagery from NASA's fleet of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. It is web-based and developed using open standards (JavaScript, CSS, HTML) for cross-platform compatibility. It addresses growing user demands for access to full-resolution imagery by providing a responsive, interactive interface with global coverage, no artificial boundaries, and views in geographic and polar projections. Currently tailored to the near real-time community, Worldview enables the rapid evaluation and comparison of imagery related to such application areas as fires, floods, and air quality. It is supported by the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS), a system that continuously ingests, mosaics, and serves approximately 21GB of imagery daily. This imagery spans over 50 data products that are available within three hours of observation from instruments aboard Terra, Aqua, and Aura. The GIBS image archive began in May 2012 and will have published approximately 4.4TB of imagery as of December 2012. Worldview facilitates rapid access to this archive and is supplemented by socioeconomic data layers from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), including products such as population density and economic risk from cyclones. Future plans include the accessibility of additional products that cover the entire Terra/MODIS and Aqua/MODIS missions (>150TB) and the ability to download the underlying science data of the onscreen imagery.

  8. An excited-state approach within full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, N. S.; Smart, Simon D.; Booth, George H.; Alavi, Ali

    2015-10-07

    We present a new approach to calculate excited states with the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) method. The approach uses a Gram-Schmidt procedure, instantaneously applied to the stochastically evolving distributions of walkers, to orthogonalize higher energy states against lower energy ones. It can thus be used to study several of the lowest-energy states of a system within the same symmetry. This additional step is particularly simple and computationally inexpensive, requiring only a small change to the underlying FCIQMC algorithm. No trial wave functions or partitioning of the space is needed. The approach should allow excited states to be studied for systems similar to those accessible to the ground-state method due to a comparable computational cost. As a first application, we consider the carbon dimer in basis sets up to quadruple-zeta quality and compare to existing results where available.

  9. [Daily difficulties associated with full conventional dentures].

    PubMed

    Machado, Flávia Christiane de Azevedo; da Costa, Anna Paula Serêjo; Pontes, Anna Lepríncia Bezerra; Lima, Kenio Costa; Ferreira, Maria Ângela Fernandes

    2013-10-01

    The effectiveness of health services can be evaluated from the quality of life (QOL) standpoint. Thus, this study evaluated rehabilitation services using full conventional dentures (FCD) of Specialized Dental Care Centers (SDCC) in Rio Grande do Norte (RN) regarding daily difficulties associated with these dentures made between 2007 and 2009. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 138 users of these FCD, collecting data by clinical examination and a questionnaire based on the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index. The Fisher and chi-square tests were used to test the association between the variables. The result was that 42% of users reported difficulties in executing oral activities due to FCDs. These difficulties were more frequent and intense in the activities of eating, speaking and smiling. In general, 58.7% of users did not have functional teeth. In relation to the clinical evaluation of FCDs, 57.2% of upper and 9.2% of lower FCDs were satisfactory. There was an association between difficulty and the absence of functional teeth, but not with inadequate FCDs. Thus, the SDCCs were effective in upper FCD rehabilitation, since the difficulties encountered are within the standard limitations of this type of rehabilitation. On the other hand, the cost-benefit of rehabilitation of lower FCDs must be evaluated. PMID:24061036

  10. After Access: Underrepresented Students' Postmatriculation Perceptions of College Access Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Darris R.; Pyne, Kimberly B.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the perceived impact of college-going capital gained during participation in a college access program. In three, semistructured interviews spanning the first-year college experience, 10 first-year college students who participated in a college access program articulate the value of access programming and also raise…

  11. Higher Education in Michigan: Overcoming Challenges to Expand Access. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Alisa F.; Erisman, Wendy; Looney, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of important facts from "Higher Education in Michigan: Overcoming Challenges to Expand Access," which examines access to postsecondary degrees and institutions in underserved regions of Michigan. [For the full report, see ED501512.

  12. User Procedures Standardization for Network Access. NBS Technical Note 799.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, A. J.

    User access procedures to information systems have become of crucial importance with the advent of computer networks, which have opened new types of resources to a broad spectrum of users. This report surveys user access protocols of six representative systems: BASIC, GE MK II, INFONET, MEDLINE, NIC/ARPANET and SPIRES. Functional access…

  13. Access Control Management for SCADA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seng-Phil; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Xu, Wenjuan

    The information technology revolution has transformed all aspects of our society including critical infrastructures and led a significant shift from their old and disparate business models based on proprietary and legacy environments to more open and consolidated ones. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems have been widely used not only for industrial processes but also for some experimental facilities. Due to the nature of open environments, managing SCADA systems should meet various security requirements since system administrators need to deal with a large number of entities and functions involved in critical infrastructures. In this paper, we identify necessary access control requirements in SCADA systems and articulate access control policies for the simulated SCADA systems. We also attempt to analyze and realize those requirements and policies in the context of role-based access control that is suitable for simplifying administrative tasks in large scale enterprises.

  14. Web access to tidal models for TIMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Forbes, J.; Miyahara, S.; Hagan, M.

    As part of the interdisciplinary investigation "Tides, Planetary Waves, and Eddy Forcing of the Mean MLT Circulation", we provide web-based access to global monthly mean tidal fields from two models: the Kyushu University General Circulation Model, and the NCAR/HAO Global Scale Wave Model. Interactive solutions (Hough functions) to Laplace's Tidal Equation and various animations are also available. Herein, we briefly describe the models and illustrate the various tabular and plot options available. This web site also illustrates web data sharing protocols relevant to wider applications: (1) Balance of public access vs. rights of the investigators - Data sharing agreements, appropriate uses and attribution of the data; (2) Levels of accessibility - Agreement, simple form, application and request for password; (3) Methods of data distribution - Data tables, data files, archived data files, plots; (4) Database management - data dictionary, data recovery, resource lock, security.

  15. Patient Access to Their Health Record Using Open Source EHR.

    PubMed

    Chelsom, John; Dogar, Naveed

    2015-01-01

    In both Europe and North America, patients are beginning to gain access to their health records in electronic form. Using the open source cityEHR as an example, we have focussed on the needs of clinical users to gather requirements for patient access and have implemented these requirements in a new application called cityEHR-PA. The development of a separate application for patient access was necessary to address requirements for security and ease of use. The use of open standards throughout the design of the EHR allows the possibility of third parties to develop applications for patient access, consuming the individual patient record extracted from the full EHR. PMID:25676956

  16. Chemists, Access, Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    2000-06-01

    New JCE Internet Feature at JCE Online Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists is a new JCE Internet feature on JCE Online. Edited by Barbara Burke, this feature provides biographical information on leading chemists, especially women and minority chemists, fostering the attitude that the practitioners of chemistry are as human as those who endeavor to learn about it. Currently, the column features biographical "snapshots" of 30 chemists. Each snapshot includes keywords and bibliography and several contain links to additional online information about the chemist. More biographical snapshots will appear in future installments. In addition, a database listing over 140 women and minority chemists is being compiled and will be made available online with the snapshots in the near future. The database includes the years of birth and death, gender and ethnicity, major and minor discipline, keywords to facilitate searching, and references to additional biographical information. We welcome your input into what we think is a very worthwhile resource. If you would like to provide additional biographical snapshots, see additional chemists added to the database, or know of additional references for those that are already in the database, please contact JCE Online or the feature editor. Your feedback is welcome and appreciated. You can find Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists starting from the JCE Online home page-- click the Features item under JCE Internet and then the Chemist Bios item. Access JCE Online without Name and Password We have recently been swamped by libraries requesting IP-number access to JCE Online. With the great benefit IP-number authentication gives to librarians (no user names and passwords to administer) and to their patrons (no need to remember and enter valid names and passwords) this is not surprising. If you would like access to JCE Online without the need to remember and enter a user name and password, you should tell your librarian about our

  17. Performance of code division multiple access systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, C. L.; Huth, G. K.; Batson, B. H.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of code division multiple-access (CDMA) systems is determined using direct sequence spectral spreading. Under relatively ideal conditions, the degradation in system performance as a function of the number of users is shown to have a threshold effect. This basic limitation in the number of users of the system is further limited if the powers are unequal. For two users, system performance as a function of their power ratio also has a threshold effect. System performance as a function of the amount of spectral spreading is determined. The performance of both coded and uncoded systems is predicted.

  18. Access to Space Interactive Design Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, John; Cutlip, William; Hametz, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The Access To Space (ATS) Group at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) supports the science and technology community at GSFC by facilitating frequent and affordable opportunities for access to space. Through partnerships established with access mode suppliers, the ATS Group has developed an interactive Mission Design web site. The ATS web site provides both the information and the tools necessary to assist mission planners in selecting and planning their ride to space. This includes the evaluation of single payloads vs. ride-sharing opportunities to reduce the cost of access to space. Features of this site include the following: (1) Mission Database. Our mission database contains a listing of missions ranging from proposed missions to manifested. Missions can be entered by our user community through data input tools. Data is then accessed by users through various search engines: orbit parameters, ride-share opportunities, spacecraft parameters, other mission notes, launch vehicle, and contact information. (2) Launch Vehicle Toolboxes. The launch vehicle toolboxes provide the user a full range of information on vehicle classes and individual configurations. Topics include: general information, environments, performance, payload interface, available volume, and launch sites.

  19. Access to legal abortion.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    Countries are grouped by the nature and extent of access to legal abortion. The categories include abortion on demand, for social reasons, for health reasons, for rape or incest or to save a mother's life, and only to save a mother's life. Abortion on demand is available for about 40% of the world's population and may have restrictions, such as parental consent or approval of state committees or physicians. There are 22 countries in Europe, 12 in the former Soviet Union, four in Asia, four in the Americas, one in the Middle East (Turkey), and one in Africa (Tunisia) which provide access to early abortion on demand. Abortion for social and economic reasons is available to 21% of the world's population in five countries in Asia, three in Europe (Great Britain, Finland, and Hungary), and one in Africa (Zambia). Abortion for health reasons is available to 16% of the world's population located in 21 countries in Africa, eight in the Americas, seven in Asia, five in Europe, and four in the Middle East. Laws governing about 5% of the world's population permit abortion only in the case of rape, incest, or when a mother's life is in danger (Brazil, Mexico, and Sudan). 18% of the world's population is covered by laws which permit an abortion only when a mother's life is in danger; this includes 19 countries in Africa, 11 in the Americas, nine in Asia, seven in the Middle East, and one in Europe (Ireland). PMID:12287145

  20. Accessible magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, L; Arakawa, M; Hale, J; Rothschild, P; Carlson, J; Hake, K; Kramer, D; Lu, W; Van Heteren, J

    1989-10-01

    The cost of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is driven by magnetic field strength. Misperceptions as to the impact of field strength on performance have led to systems that are more expensive than they need to be. Careful analysis of all the factors that affect diagnostic quality lead to the conclusion that field strength per se is not a strong determinant of system performance. Freed from the constraints imposed by high-field operation, it is possible to exploit a varied set of opportunities afforded by low-field operation. In addition to lower costs and easier siting, we can take advantage of shortened T1 times, higher contrast, reduced sensitivity to motion, and reduced radiofrequency power deposition. These conceptual advantages can be made to coalesce onto practical imaging systems. We describe a low-cost MRI system that utilizes a permanent magnet of open design. Careful optimization of receiving antennas and acquisition sequences permit performance levels consistent with those needed for an effective diagnostic unit. Ancillary advantages include easy access to the patient, reduced claustrophobia, quiet and comfortable operation, and absence of a missile effect. The system can be sited in 350 sq ft and consumes a modest amount of electricity. MRI equipment of this kind can widen the population base than can access this powerful and beneficial diagnostic modality. PMID:2640910

  1. Low-cost display-memory architectures for multiwindow full-motion video and graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, A. A.; La Hei, G. D.

    1994-04-01

    Video display systems require large amounts of high-bandwidth memory to implement multi- window display-processing functions for full-motion video images (e.g. multi-source gen-lock, variable scaling, scan conversion, etc.) and high resolution animated graphics (e.g. (alpha) - channeling, block moving, multi-windowing, etc.). In this paper, low-cost memory architectures are presented that efficiently share memory among the different video and graphics functions in a multi-window full-motion video and graphics display system. The major problem associated with shared (display) memory systems: I/O bottleneck, is eliminated by using a segmented memory, I/O buffers and a communication network that routes concurrent streams of video and graphics data between I/O devices, buffers and memory segments. Further reduction of memory is obtained by encoding the window overlay priorities with 2D run lengths instead of overlay codes for every pixel on the screen. This approach also reduces the real-time performance requirements for the controllers of the architecture. Finally, the paper describes an algorithm that schedules the video/graphics access to the segments of the display memory such that bus contention is minimized. The resulting `free time' can be used by a graphics processor to perform fast updates in the display memory.

  2. Full Waveform Inversion Using Waveform Sensitivity Kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Florian; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    We present a full waveform inversion concept for applications ranging from seismological to enineering contexts, in which the steps of forward simulation, computation of sensitivity kernels, and the actual inversion are kept separate of each other. We derive waveform sensitivity kernels from Born scattering theory, which for unit material perturbations are identical to the Born integrand for the considered path between source and receiver. The evaluation of such a kernel requires the calculation of Green functions and their strains for single forces at the receiver position, as well as displacement fields and strains originating at the seismic source. We compute these quantities in the frequency domain using the 3D spectral element code SPECFEM3D (Tromp, Komatitsch and Liu, 2008) and the 1D semi-analytical code GEMINI (Friederich and Dalkolmo, 1995) in both, Cartesian and spherical framework. We developed and implemented the modularized software package ASKI (Analysis of Sensitivity and Kernel Inversion) to compute waveform sensitivity kernels from wavefields generated by any of the above methods (support for more methods is planned), where some examples will be shown. As the kernels can be computed independently from any data values, this approach allows to do a sensitivity and resolution analysis first without inverting any data. In the context of active seismic experiments, this property may be used to investigate optimal acquisition geometry and expectable resolution before actually collecting any data, assuming the background model is known sufficiently well. The actual inversion step then, can be repeated at relatively low costs with different (sub)sets of data, adding different smoothing conditions. Using the sensitivity kernels, we expect the waveform inversion to have better convergence properties compared with strategies that use gradients of a misfit function. Also the propagation of the forward wavefield and the backward propagation from the receiver

  3. Full hoop casing for midframe of industrial gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Gerald A.; Charron, Richard C.

    2015-12-01

    A can annular industrial gas turbine engine, including: a single-piece rotor shaft spanning a compressor section (82), a combustion section (84), a turbine section (86); and a combustion section casing (10) having a section (28) configured as a full hoop. When the combustion section casing is detached from the engine and moved to a maintenance position to allow access to an interior of the engine, a positioning jig (98) is used to support the compressor section casing (83) and turbine section casing (87).

  4. The "Free from Housing Accessibility Problems" App.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Oskar; Slaug, Björn; Haak, Maria; Mårtensson, Knut; Schmidt, Steven M; Oswald, Frank; Rimland, Joseph M; Tomsone, Signe; Svensson, Torbjörn; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The present study concerns the development of a computerized tool targeting housing accessibility issues. A user-centered approach involving professionals from the housing sector and senior citizens from four European countries resulted in a fully functional prototype of a mobile application (app) including an apartment database. The app raises awareness on housing accessibility and has the potential to support decision making and strengthen all citizens regardless of functional capacity to be more active in their endeavors for a satisfying housing solution. Further refinements and additional features are needed to enhance the potential benefits; they include addressing potential challenges facing senior citizens, developing interactive features that allow users to provide input and adapting to different national contexts to make the app applicable for the European market. PMID:27534351

  5. Remote access astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beare, Richard; Bowdley, David; Newsam, Andrew; Roche, Paul

    2003-05-01

    There is still nothing to beat the excitement and fulfilment that you can get from observing celestial bodies on a clear dark night, in a remote location away from the seemingly ever increasing light pollution from cities. However, it is also the specific requirements for good observing that can sometimes prevent teachers from offering this opportunity to their students. Compromises for a town-based school or college might be to view only bright objects such as planets, or stars of magnitude 4 or brighter because of light pollution, but you would still require a knowledgeable teacher or astronomer and equipment to take outside with the students. Remote access astronomy using robotic telescopes can partly provide a solution to these problems and also opens up the doors to exciting projects that may otherwise be inaccessible to schools and colleges.

  6. Public Access and Open Access: Is There a Difference? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Robin Meckley, Contributing Writer, and Tracie Frederick, Guest Writer Open access and public access—are they different concepts or are they the same? What do they mean for the researchers at NCI at Frederick? “Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the Internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder,” according to an open access website maintained by Peter Suber, director, Harvard Open Access Project.

  7. Making Diabetes Education Accessible For People With Visual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ann S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify changes needed to make the diabetes education materials and programs of the Diabetes Association of Greater Cleveland (DAGC) accessible for people who have visual impairment and diabetes (PVID). Methods Using the principles and techniques of participatory action research (PAR), five PVID and four staff members of a local diabetes association met once a month for a year to plan, implement, and evaluate progress towards full accessibility of all diabetes education materials and programs. The researcher served as facilitator. Results Four “transformational moments” are presented through which the PAR process enabled PVID and diabetes professionals to learn to understand and trust each other. Changes made to increase accessibility included: production of two recordings for providing access to print information about diabetes; planning public education program publicity and locations for access; development of guidelines to help speakers make their diabetes education presentations accessible for people who cannot see slides and gestures. and presentation of an inservice for the entire staff of the diabetes association, including information about how they live with visual impairment, and common courtesies that make communication with PVID more effective Implications Diabetes education programs should include planning for full accessibility for PVID. Diabetes organizations should publish teaching materials in accessible format. PMID:19417119

  8. Remote Data Access with IDL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A tool based on IDL (Interactive Data Language) and DAP (Data Access Protocol) has been developed for user-friendly remote data access. A difficulty for many NASA researchers using IDL is that often the data to analyze are located remotely and are too large to transfer for local analysis. Researchers have developed a protocol for accessing remote data, DAP, which is used for both SOHO and STEREO data sets. Server-side side analysis via IDL routine is available through DAP.

  9. Metal- and Catalyst-Free, Formal [4 + 1] Annulation via Tandem C═O/C═S Functionalization: One-Pot Access to 3,5-Disubstituted/Annulated Isothiazoles.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Gaurav; Srivastava, Abhijeet; Singh, Maya Shankar

    2016-05-20

    An operationally simple and user-friendly new protocol for the synthesis of 3,5-disubstituted/annulated isothiazoles is devised utilizing β-ketodithioesters/β-ketothioamides and NH4OAc via C═O/C═S bond functionalization under metal- and catalyst-free conditions. The strategic [4 + 1] annulation initiated by NH4OAc is carbon-economic and relies on a sequential imine formation/cyclization/aerial oxidation cascade forming consecutive C-N and S-N bonds in one pot. A wide range of previously inaccessible and synthetically challenging isothiazoles are compatible with this transformation under nontoxic conditions with excellent functional group tolerance. The products bear useful synthetic handles for further functionalization. PMID:27149251

  10. 28 CFR 17.44 - Access eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Access to Classified Information § 17.44 Access eligibility. (a) Determinations of eligibility for access to classified information are separate from suitability determinations with respect...

  11. 28 CFR 17.44 - Access eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Access to Classified Information § 17.44 Access eligibility. (a) Determinations of eligibility for access to classified information are separate from suitability determinations with respect...

  12. Very large full configuration interaction calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Peter J.

    1989-03-01

    The extreme sparsity of the solution of the full configuration interaction (full CI) secular equations is exploited in a new algorithm. For very large problems, the high speed memory, disk storage, and CPU requirements are reduced considerably, compared to previous techniques. This allows the possibility of full CI calculations with more than 10 8 Slater determinants. The power of the method is demonstrated in preliminary full CI calculations for the NH molecule, including up to 27901690 determinants.

  13. Chiral Ferrocenyl P,N-Ligands for Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Formal [3 + 2] Cycloaddition of Propargylic Esters with β-Ketoesters: Access to Functionalized Chiral 2,3-Dihydrofurans.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Zhu, Fu-Lin; Liu, Zhen-Ting; Zhou, Xiao-Mao; Hu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-06-01

    A highly enantioselective palladium-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition of propargylic esters with β-ketoesters has been realized by employing a newly developed chiral ferrocene/benzimidazole-based P,N-ligand. This protocol features a good tolerance of functional groups in both propargylic esters and β-ketoesters, thereby delivering a variety of highly functionalized chiral 2,3-dihydrofurans bearing an exocyclic double bond at the 3-position in good yields and with high enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee). PMID:27194080

  14. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  15. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  16. OBIS - an Open Access Data Center for the Okavango River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralisch, Sven; Zander, Franziska; Dhliwayo, Masego; Masamba, Wellington; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable land and resource management and related interdisciplinary research projects like The Future Okavango (TFO) demand for integrated data management systems to store, describe, analyze and disseminate related information. These systems should not only take account of the possibly large range of varying data types and formats, but also have to consider different user groups and the demand for collaborative data access and data sharing. Within TFO these requirements are addressed with the development of the Okavango Basin Information System (OBIS). OBIS is designed as a web-based data management and analysis platform with full read/write access to all data, using open software and open standards whenever possible. This paper briefly describes the requirements that guided the OBIS development, its functions and interfaces, and gives an overview of data already stored in the system.

  17. Vascular access creation and care should be provided by nephrologists.

    PubMed

    Malovrh, Marko

    2015-01-01

    The long-term survival and quality of life of patients on hemodialysis is dependent on the adequacy of dialysis via an appropriately placed vascular access. Recent clinical practice guidelines recommend the creation of native arteriovenous fistula or synthetic graft before start of chronic hemodialysis therapy to prevent the need for complication-prone dialysis catheters. The direct involvement of nephrologists in the management of referral patterns, predialysis follow-up, policy of venous preservation, preoperative evaluation, vascular access surgery and vascular access care seems to be important and productive targets for the quality of care delivered to the patients with end-stage renal disease. Early referral to nephrologists is important for delay progression of both kidney disease and its complications by specific and adequate treatment, for education program which should include modification of lifestyle, medication management, selection of treatment modality and instruction for vein preservation and vascular access. Nephrologists are responsible for on-time placement and adequate maturation of vascular access. The number of nephrologists around the world who create their own fistulas and grafts is growing, driven by a need for better patient outcomes on hemodialysis. Nephrologists have also a key role for care of vascular access during hemodialysis treatment by following vascular access function using clinical data, physical examination and additional ultrasound evaluation. Timely detection of malfunctioning vascular access means timely surgical or radiological intervention and increases the survival of vascular access. PMID:25751545

  18. Academic Journal Embargoes and Full Text Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sam

    2003-01-01

    Documents the reasons for embargoes of academic journals in full text databases (i.e., publisher-imposed delays on the availability of full text content) and provides insight regarding common misconceptions. Tables present data on selected journals covering a cross-section of subjects and publishers and comparing two full text business databases.…

  19. A determinant based full configuration interaction program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Peter J.; Handy, Nicholas C.

    1989-04-01

    The program FCI solves the Full Configuration Interaction (Full CI) problem of quantum chemistry, in which the electronic Schrödinger equation is solved exactly within a given one particle basis set. The Slater determinant based algorithm leads to highly efficient implementation on a vector computer, and has enabled Full CI calculations of dimension more than 10 7 to be performed.

  20. ACCESS: Detector Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Foltz, R.; McCandliss, S. R.; Pelton, R. S.; Wright, E. L.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Riess, A. G.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Woodgate, B. E.; Bohlin, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Kurucz, R. L.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.

    2013-01-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (overview Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been performed. The flight detector controller boards have been installed into a ruggedized flight housing. They have been successfully vacuum tested for periods significantly longer than the flight length, and components have been heat-sunk and reinforced as necessary. Thermal stability tests have been performed, and results will be presented. Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL) executed initial characterization tests for the flight detector in 2007. These were repeated in 2012, to ensure and establish baseline performance. Current lab characterization tests at Johns Hopkins are ongoing, and results will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  1. Mobile access control vestibule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePoy, Jennifer M.

    1998-12-01

    The mobile access control vestibule (MACV) is an adaptation of techniques developed for mobile military command centers. The overall configuration of modules acts as an entry control/screening facility or transportable command center. The system would provide the following capabilities: (1) A key element for force protection, rapid deployment units sent to areas having no prepositioned equipment or where there has been a degradation of that equipment as a result of natural disasters or civil unrest. (2) A rapidly deployable security control center to upgrade the security at nonmilitary sites (e.g., diplomatic or humanitarian organizations). (3) Personnel screening, package screening, badge/identification card production for authorized personnel, centralized monitoring of deployed perimeter sensors, and centralized communications for law enforcement personnel. (4) Self-contained screening and threat detection systems, including explosives detection using the system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the FAA. When coupled with transportable electric generators, the system is self-sufficient. The communication system for the MACV would be a combination of physically wired and wireless communication units that supports by ad hoc networking.

  2. Access to space study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comprehensive NASA in-house study to identify and assess alternate approaches to access to space through the year 2030, and to select and recommend a preferred cause of action. The goals of the study were to identify the best vehicles and transportation architectures to make major reductions in the cost of space transportation (at least 50%), while at the same time increasing safety for flight crews by at least an order of magnitude. In addition, vehicle reliability was to exceed 0.98 percent, and, as important, the robustness, pad time, turnaround time, and other aspects of operability were to be vastly improved. This study examined three major optional architectures: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable vehicles using conventional technologies and transition from current vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition from current vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch-needs, mission model utilized for for the study was based upon today's projection of civil, defense, and commercial mission payload requirements.

  3. A quantum access network.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Bernd; Dynes, James F; Lucamarini, Marco; Sharpe, Andrew W; Yuan, Zhiliang; Shields, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    The theoretically proven security of quantum key distribution (QKD) could revolutionize the way in which information exchange is protected in the future. Several field tests of QKD have proven it to be a reliable technology for cryptographic key exchange and have demonstrated nodal networks of point-to-point links. However, until now no convincing answer has been given to the question of how to extend the scope of QKD beyond niche applications in dedicated high security networks. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate the concept of a 'quantum access network': based on simple and cost-effective telecommunication technologies, the scheme can greatly expand the number of users in quantum networks and therefore vastly broaden their appeal. We show that a high-speed single-photon detector positioned at a network node can be shared between up to 64 users for exchanging secret keys with the node, thereby significantly reducing the hardware requirements for each user added to the network. This point-to-multipoint architecture removes one of the main obstacles restricting the widespread application of QKD. It presents a viable method for realizing multi-user QKD networks with efficient use of resources, and brings QKD closer to becoming a widespread technology. PMID:24005413

  4. Making Astronomy Accessible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, Noreen A.

    2011-05-01

    A new semester begins, and your students enter the classroom for the first time. You notice a student sitting in a wheelchair or walking with assistance from a cane. Maybe you see a student with a guide dog or carrying a Braille computer. Another student gestures "hello” but then continues hand motions, and you realize the person is actually signing. You wonder why another student is using an electronic device to speak. Think this can't happen in your class? According to the U.S. Census, one out of every five Americans has a disability. And some disabilities, such as autism, dyslexia and arthritis, are considered "invisible” disabilities. This means you have a high probability that one of your students will have a disability. As an astronomy instructor, you have the opportunity to reach a wide variety of learners by using creative teaching strategies. I will share some suggestions on how to make astronomy and your part of the universe more accessible for everyone.

  5. Remote direct memory access

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  6. Ferroelectric random access memories.

    PubMed

    Ishiwara, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) is a nonvolatile memory, in which data are stored using hysteretic P-E (polarization vs. electric field) characteristics in a ferroelectric film. In this review, history and characteristics of FeRAMs are first introduced. It is described that there are two types of FeRAMs, capacitor-type and FET-type, and that only the capacitor-type FeRAM is now commercially available. In chapter 2, properties of ferroelectric films are discussed from a viewpoint of FeRAM application, in which particular attention is paid to those of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, SrBi2Ta2O9, and BiFeO3. Then, cell structures and operation principle of the capacitor-type FeRAMs are discussed in chapter 3. It is described that the stacked technology of ferroelectric capacitors and development of new materials with large remanent polarization are important for fabricating high-density memories. Finally, in chapter 4, the optimized gate structure in ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors is discussed and experimental results showing excellent data retention characteristics are presented. PMID:23421123

  7. Evaluating Web accessibility at different processing phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, N.; Lopes, R.; Carriço, L.

    2012-09-01

    Modern Web sites use several techniques (e.g. DOM manipulation) that allow for the injection of new content into their Web pages (e.g. AJAX), as well as manipulation of the HTML DOM tree. This has the consequence that the Web pages that are presented to users (i.e. after browser processing) are different from the original structure and content that is transmitted through HTTP communication (i.e. after browser processing). This poses a series of challenges for Web accessibility evaluation, especially on automated evaluation software. This article details an experimental study designed to understand the differences posed by accessibility evaluation after Web browser processing. We implemented a Javascript-based evaluator, QualWeb, that can perform WCAG 2.0 based accessibility evaluations in the two phases of browser processing. Our study shows that, in fact, there are considerable differences between the HTML DOM trees in both phases, which have the consequence of having distinct evaluation results. We discuss the impact of these results in the light of the potential problems that these differences can pose to designers and developers that use accessibility evaluators that function before browser processing.

  8. File access prediction using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Patra, Prashanta Kumar; Sahu, Muktikanta; Mohapatra, Subasish; Samantray, Ronak Kumar

    2010-06-01

    One of the most vexing issues in design of a high-speed computer is the wide gap of access times between the memory and the disk. To solve this problem, static file access predictors have been used. In this paper, we propose dynamic file access predictors using neural networks to significantly improve upon the accuracy, success-per-reference, and effective-success-rate-per-reference by using neural-network-based file access predictor with proper tuning. In particular, we verified that the incorrect prediction has been reduced from 53.11% to 43.63% for the proposed neural network prediction method with a standard configuration than the recent popularity (RP) method. With manual tuning for each trace, we are able to improve upon the misprediction rate and effective-success-rate-per-reference using a standard configuration. Simulations on distributed file system (DFS) traces reveal that exact fit radial basis function (RBF) gives better prediction in high end system whereas multilayer perceptron (MLP) trained with Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) backpropagation outperforms in system having good computational capability. Probabilistic and competitive predictors are the most suitable for work stations having limited resources to deal with and the former predictor is more efficient than the latter for servers having maximum system calls. Finally, we conclude that MLP with LM backpropagation algorithm has better success rate of file prediction than those of simple perceptron, last successor, stable successor, and best k out of m predictors. PMID:20421183

  9. 12 CFR 1806.304 - Books of account, records and government access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Treasury, the Comptroller General, and its duly authorized representatives, shall have full and free access... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Books of account, records and government access... of account, records and government access. An Awardee shall submit such financial and...

  10. Is Your Church Accessible? Houses of Worship: Physical Accessibility Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Arselia, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This checklist is intended to help churches evaluate the accessibility of their facilities to those with physical disabilities. Categories covered are: basic accessibility, parking lots, walks, ramps, entrances/exits, doors and doorways, stairs and steps, floors, worship space, rest rooms, controls, water fountains, identification, warning…

  11. Access to Public Educational Facilities under the Equal Access Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig; Goldblatt, Steven M.

    1988-01-01

    Discussion centers on the legal bases by which school administrators permit access to public educational facilities by religiously and politically oriented student organizations. It concludes that access should be granted to students whose purposes do not disrupt teaching and learning. (JAM)

  12. Self-Access Centers: Maximizing Learners' Access to Center Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurry, Benjamin L.; Tanner, Mark W.; Anderson, Neil J.

    2009-01-01

    Although some students have discovered how to use self-access centers effectively, the majority appear to be unaware of available resources. A website and database of materials were created to help students locate materials and use the Self-Access Study Center (SASC) at Brigham Young University's English Language Center (ELC) more effectively.…

  13. Identification of Tetrapeptides from a Mixture Based Positional Scanning Library That Can Restore nM Full Agonist Function of the L106P, I69T, I102S, A219V, C271Y, and C271R Human Melanocortin-4 Polymorphic Receptors (hMC4Rs)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human obesity has been linked to genetic factors and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) SNPs have been associated with up to 6% frequency in morbidly obese children and adults. A potential therapy for individuals possessing such genetic modifications is the identification of molecules that can restore proper receptor signaling and function. These compounds could serve as personalized medications improving quality of life issues as well as alleviating diseases symptoms associated with obesity including type 2 diabetes. Several hMC4 SNP receptors have been pharmacologically characterized in vitro to have a decreased, or a lack of response, to endogenous agonists such as α-, β-, and γ2-melanocyte stimulating hormones (MSH) and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). Herein we report the use of a mixture based positional scanning combinatorial tetrapeptide library to discover molecules with nM full agonist potency and efficacy to the L106P, I69T, I102S, A219V, C271Y, and C271R hMC4Rs. The most potent compounds at all these hMC4R SNPs include Ac-His-(pI)DPhe-Tic-(pNO2)DPhe-NH2, Ac-His-(pCl)DPhe-Tic-(pNO2)DPhe-NH2, Ac-His-(pCl)DPhe-Arg-(pI)Phe-NH2, and Ac-Arg-(pCl)DPhe-Tic-(pNO2)DPhe-NH2, revealing new ligand pharmacophore models for melanocortin receptor drug design strategies. PMID:24517312

  14. User-Centered Indexing for Adaptive Information Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie

    1996-01-01

    We are focusing on information access tasks characterized by large volume of hypermedia connected technical documents, a need for rapid and effective access to familiar information, and long-term interaction with evolving information. The problem for technical users is to build and maintain a personalized task-oriented model of the information to quickly access relevant information. We propose a solution which provides user-centered adaptive information retrieval and navigation. This solution supports users in customizing information access over time. It is complementary to information discovery methods which provide access to new information, since it lets users customize future access to previously found information. It relies on a technique, called Adaptive Relevance Network, which creates and maintains a complex indexing structure to represent personal user's information access maps organized by concepts. This technique is integrated within the Adaptive HyperMan system, which helps NASA Space Shuttle flight controllers organize and access large amount of information. It allows users to select and mark any part of a document as interesting, and to index that part with user-defined concepts. Users can then do subsequent retrieval of marked portions of documents. This functionality allows users to define and access personal collections of information, which are dynamically computed. The system also supports collaborative review by letting users share group access maps. The adaptive relevance network provides long-term adaptation based both on usage and on explicit user input. The indexing structure is dynamic and evolves over time. Leading and generalization support flexible retrieval of information under similar concepts. The network is geared towards more recent information access, and automatically manages its size in order to maintain rapid access when scaling up to large hypermedia space. We present results of simulated learning experiments.

  15. The Table Access Protocol: Providing standard access to astronomical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandrekar-Heinis, D.; Michel, L.; Louys, M.; Bonnarel, F.

    2014-11-01

    In the upcoming era of large scale, geographically distributed, varied sources of astronomical data, a standard, simple and flexible way to access this data is necessary and useful for astronomers across the globe. Most of the modern surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are available in well organized tabular formats. The Table Access Protocol (TAP) supports a standard web interface to access this kind of tabular data. Predefined queries and results formats help different data providers to implement these services. TAP also helps various software tools to access data and perform cross-matches seamlessly across different data sources. It is then possible to access data in tools that consume TAP web services. This supports further detailed data analysis on a queried slice of data. This document describes TAP and its utility for astronomers and data scientists. It also provides information on the protocol for data providers and developers.

  16. LANDSAT-4 horizon scanner full orbit data averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, J. P.; Bilanow, S.

    1983-01-01

    Averages taken over full orbit data spans of the pitch and roll residual measurement errors of the two conical Earth sensors operating on the LANDSAT 4 spacecraft are described. The variability of these full orbit averages over representative data throughtout the year is analyzed to demonstrate the long term stability of the sensor measurements. The data analyzed consist of 23 segments of sensor measurements made at 2 to 4 week intervals. Each segment is roughly 24 hours in length. The variation of full orbit average as a function of orbit within a day as a function of day of year is examined. The dependence on day of year is based on association the start date of each segment with the mean full orbit average for the segment. The peak-to-peak and standard deviation values of the averages for each data segment are computed and their variation with day of year are also examined.

  17. The Access to Higher Schools in Poland (In the Aspect of Social Equality and Economic Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomala, Jerzy; And Others

    Analyzing the effects of higher education accessibility, the present state of difficulties re: accessibility, and the functioning of various means of accessibility compensation, this paper presents the development of Polish education in terms of the social, political, and economic systems operative during the inter-war period (1918-39) and the…

  18. Internet Access to Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Jackson, Chris; Price, Harold; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project at NASA's Goddard Space flight Center (GSFC), is demonstrating the use of standard Internet protocols for spacecraft communication systems. This year, demonstrations of Internet access to a flying spacecraft have been performed with the UoSAT-12 spacecraft owned and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL). Previously, demonstrations were performed using a ground satellite simulator and NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). These activities are part of NASA's Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) Technology Program, The work is focused on defining the communication architecture for future NASA missions to support both NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" concept and to enable new types of collaborative science. The use of standard Internet communication technology for spacecraft simplifies design, supports initial integration and test across an IP based network, and enables direct communication between scientists and instruments as well as between different spacecraft, The most recent demonstrations consisted of uploading an Internet Protocol (IP) software stack to the UoSAT- 12 spacecraft, simple modifications to the SSTL ground station, and a series of tests to measure performance of various Internet applications. The spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 3 months. The tests included basic network connectivity (PING), automated clock synchronization (NTP), and reliable file transfers (FTP). Future tests are planned to include additional protocols such as Mobile IP, e-mail, and virtual private networks (VPN) to enable automated, operational spacecraft communication networks. The work performed and results of the initial phase of tests are summarized in this paper. This work is funded and directed by NASA/GSFC with technical leadership by CSC in arrangement with SSTL, and Vytek Wireless.

  19. Accessing the Internet Via Satellite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lisa M.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the use of satellite technology as an option for public schools to access the Internet. Examines costs and available technology. Presents two examples of school-satellite usage, including its use by the Navajo Nation to provide Internet access for its students who are spread out across 26,000 square miles. (GR)

  20. Money, Equity, and College Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Three decades after massive government commitment to financial aid, minority and low income access is declining and aid going to middle class students. Policies and political deadlock have worsened the situation of those in need, and hard choices must be made if college access is to be restored without greater expenditures. (SK)

  1. Advanced Placement: Access Not Exclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Wayne; Dorans, Neil J.; Morgan, Rick; Myford, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Refutes the assertion by W. Lichten (2000) that increased access to advanced placement (AP) courses in high school has led to a decline in AP quality. Suggests that increased access exposes students to college-level course material, encourages teachers to expand their knowledge domains, increases curriculum rigor, and give students new challenges.…

  2. ERIC Data Access System (EDAS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Pal V.

    The ERIC Data Access System (EDAS) is an information retrieval system developed at Eastern Illinois University to access the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database and make it available to Eastern faculty and students in a convenient and timely fashion. This paper describes briefly why and how Eastern developed and implemented…

  3. Editorial: Next Generation Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, Marco; Cincotti, Gabriella; Pizzinat, Anna; Vetter, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade we have seen an increasing number of operators deploying Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) solutions in access networks, in order to provide home users with a much needed network access upgrade, to support higher peak rates, higher sustained rates and a better and more uniform broadband coverage of the territory.

  4. Distributed Access to Administrative Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Eugene

    1987-01-01

    Administrators, faculty, and staff should have electronic access to records needed to perform their jobs, and students should have access to their own records--course registration and addresses. User-directed analysis and reporting are discussed and the security and audit issues are examined. (Author/MLW)

  5. Internet Accessibility in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymond, Ruel

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the problems that prohibit expanded Internet access and possible solutions to these problems, particularly with respect to the country of Chile. The three main problems that block Internet usage in Latin America are high demand and poor infrastructure; high costs for Internet access; and high preliminary costs for computers, modems, and…

  6. Accessibility on the Hudson River

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how Beverly and Martin Ryfa, working with an architect who specializes in accessible design, were able to build a house that is handicap accessible for their 9-year-old daughter, Danielle, who suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage when she was three days old. The article describes the features of their house that make…

  7. Accessible Multimedia for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaparyniuk, Nicholas; Code, Jillianne

    With the Internet taking a dominant role in corporate training, education, retail, and customer based product exploration, authors of Web-based information need to ensure that the media they deliver is accessible to the widest possible audience. Whether users have a visual, auditory, physical, or developmental disability, accessible multimedia can…

  8. Open access: a closed shop?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Your December 2012 issue contains both a short news article on the progress of the open-access movement ("UK open access gains ground", p11) and a lengthy feature about the visionary Irish physicist Edward Hutchinson Synge ("Unknown genius", pp26-29). I find the combination of these articles ironic.

  9. Minority Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

  10. Trends in communicative access solutions for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Myrden, Andrew; Schudlo, Larissa; Weyand, Sabine; Zeyl, Timothy; Chau, Tom

    2014-08-01

    Access solutions may facilitate communication in children with limited functional speech and motor control. This study reviews current trends in access solution development for children with cerebral palsy, with particular emphasis on the access technology that harnesses a control signal from the user (eg, movement or physiological change) and the output device (eg, augmentative and alternative communication system) whose behavior is modulated by the user's control signal. Access technologies have advanced from simple mechanical switches to machine vision (eg, eye-gaze trackers), inertial sensing, and emerging physiological interfaces that require minimal physical effort. Similarly, output devices have evolved from bulky, dedicated hardware with limited configurability, to platform-agnostic, highly personalized mobile applications. Emerging case studies encourage the consideration of access technology for all nonverbal children with cerebral palsy with at least nascent contingency awareness. However, establishing robust evidence of the effectiveness of the aforementioned advances will require more expansive studies. PMID:24820337

  11. External access to ALICE controls conditions data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadlovský, J.; Jadlovská, A.; Sarnovský, J.; Jajčišin, Š.; Čopík, M.; Jadlovská, S.; Papcun, P.; Bielek, R.; Čerkala, J.; Kopčík, M.; Chochula, P.; Augustinus, A.

    2014-06-01

    ALICE Controls data produced by commercial SCADA system WINCCOA is stored in ORACLE database on the private experiment network. The SCADA system allows for basic access and processing of the historical data. More advanced analysis requires tools like ROOT and needs therefore a separate access method to the archives. The present scenario expects that detector experts create simple WINCCOA scripts, which retrieves and stores data in a form usable for further studies. This relatively simple procedure generates a lot of administrative overhead - users have to request the data, experts needed to run the script, the results have to be exported outside of the experiment network. The new mechanism profits from database replica, which is running on the CERN campus network. Access to this database is not restricted and there is no risk of generating a heavy load affecting the operation of the experiment. The developed tools presented in this paper allow for access to this data. The users can use web-based tools to generate the requests, consisting of the data identifiers and period of time of interest. The administrators maintain full control over the data - an authorization and authentication mechanism helps to assign privileges to selected users and restrict access to certain groups of data. Advanced caching mechanism allows the user to profit from the presence of already processed data sets. This feature significantly reduces the time required for debugging as the retrieval of raw data can last tens of minutes. A highly configurable client allows for information retrieval bypassing the interactive interface. This method is for example used by ALICE Offline to extract operational conditions after a run is completed. Last but not least, the software can be easily adopted to any underlying database structure and is therefore not limited to WINCCOA.

  12. Accessibility & Inclusivity in the Astronomical Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Lauren; Shanahan, J.; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A.; Noel-Storr, Jacob; Murphy, Nicholas Arnold

    2016-06-01

    Nearly one in five Americans have a disability. However, in a 2013 survey, fewer than 2% of AAS members identified as having a disability. Persons with disabilities are dramatically underrepresented in STEM fields and astronomy in particular. Though the Americans with Disabilities Act has been law for 25 years, few astronomy departments have implemented full universal design and structures for accessibility for students. Our field which often sees itself as pushing the limits can offer an environment for enhanced stigmatization and discrimination based on disability. Indeed, many current structures place undue burden to those who are excluded. Instead, we aspire to a way of working together that does not require disclosure of disability, and where diverse needs are being met with each of our interactions and activities. A mindset of diverse access makes the experience of learning, working, and collaborating stronger for all.

  13. Entanglement-assisted random access codes

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Marcin; Zukowski, Marek

    2010-04-15

    An (n,m,p) random access code (RAC) makes it possible to encode n bits in an m-bit message in such a way that a receiver of the message can guess any of the original n bits with probability p greater than (1/2). In quantum RACs (QRACs), one transmits n qubits. The full set of primitive entanglement-assisted random access codes (EARACs) is introduced, in which parties are allowed to share a two-qubit singlet. It is shown that via a concatenation of these, one can build for any n an (n,1,p) EARAC. QRACs for n>3 exist only if parties also share classical randomness. We show that EARACs outperform the best of known QRACs not only in the success probabilities but also in the amount of communication needed in the preparatory stage of the protocol. Upper bounds on the performance of EARACs are given and shown to limit also QRACs.

  14. A parallel Full-CI algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansaloni, Roberto; Bendazzoli, Gian Luigi; Evangelisti, Stefano; Rossi, Elda

    2000-06-01

    A Full Configuration Interaction (Full-CI) algorithm is described. It is an integral-driven approach, with on-the-fly computation of the string-excitation lists that realize the application of the Hamiltonian to the Full-CI vector. The algorithm has been implemented on vector and parallel architectures, both of shared and distributed-memory type. This gave us the possibility of performing large benchmark calculations, with a Full-CI space dimension up to almost ten billion of symmetry-adapted Slater determinants.

  15. Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Bernhard; Pircher, Michael; Götzinger, Erich; Hitzenberger, Christoph K

    2007-10-01

    We demonstrate a new full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography (FRC SD-OCT) method. Other than FRC SD-OCT systems reported in literature, which employed devices such as electro-/acousto optic modulators or piezo-driven mirrors providing the phase modulations necessary for retrieval of the complex-valued signal, the system presented works without any additional phase shifting device. The required phase shift is introduced by the galvanometer scanner used for transversally scanning the sample beam. By means of a slight displacement of the probe beam with respect to the scanning mirror's pivot axis, the sample arm length and thus the phase is continuously modulated as the beam is scanned in lateral direction. From such modulated spectral data, the complex-valued data yielding a twofold increase of accessible depth range can be calculated using an algorithm based on the Hilbert transform. To demonstrate the performance of our method quantitative measurements of the suppression of mirror images as a function of induced phase shift were performed. In order to validate the FRC SD-OCT technique for high-speed imaging of biological tissue, we present full-range images of the human anterior chamber in vivo. PMID:19550607

  16. Vascular access for extracorporeal renal replacement therapy in veterinary patients.

    PubMed

    Chalhoub, Serge; Langston, Cathy E; Poeppel, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Vascular access is the first and most basic requirement for successful extracorporeal renal replacement therapy (ERRT). Dual-lumen catheters are the most commonly used method of vascular access for ERRT in veterinary patients. An adequately functioning dialysis catheter allows for smooth and efficient patient management, whereas a poorly functioning catheter frustrates the technician, doctor, and patient. These catheters are fairly quick to place but require meticulous care for optimal function. The most common complications are thrombosis and infection. Monitoring catheter performance should be a routine part of dialysis patient care. PMID:21251515

  17. A Demand Access Protocol for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Jay L.; Leang, Dee

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a demand access protocol for space communications, which is a messaging procedure that facilitates the exchange of resource requests and grants between users and service providers. A minimal set of operational and environmental needs and constraints are assumed since the intent is to keep the protocol flexible and efficient for a wide-range of envisioned NASA robotic and human exploration missions. The protocol described in this document defines the message format and procedures used to ensure proper and correct functioning of a demand access communications system, which must operate under customized resource management policies applied by the users and service providers. This protocol also assumes a minimal set of capabilities from the underlying communications system so that no unique requirements are imposed on the communications sub-systems.

  18. ASDF: An Adaptable Seismic Data Format with Full Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. A.; Krischer, L.; Tromp, J.; Lefebvre, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    In order for seismologists to maximize their knowledge of how the Earth works, they must extract the maximum amount of useful information from all recorded seismic data available for their research. This requires assimilating large sets of waveform data, keeping track of vast amounts of metadata, using validated standards for quality control, and automating the workflow in a careful and efficient manner. In addition, there is a growing gap between CPU/GPU speeds and disk access speeds that leads to an I/O bottleneck in seismic workflows. This is made even worse by existing seismic data formats that were not designed for performance and are limited to a few fixed headers for storing metadata.The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is a new data format for seismology that solves the problems with existing seismic data formats and integrates full provenance into the definition. ASDF is a self-describing format that features parallel I/O using the parallel HDF5 library. This makes it a great choice for use on HPC clusters. The format integrates the standards QuakeML for seismic sources and StationXML for receivers. ASDF is suitable for storing earthquake data sets, where all waveforms for a single earthquake are stored in a one file, ambient noise cross-correlations, and adjoint sources. The format comes with a user-friendly Python reader and writer that gives seismologists access to a full set of Python tools for seismology. There is also a faster C/Fortran library for integrating ASDF into performance-focused numerical wave solvers, such as SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. Finally, a GUI tool designed for visually exploring the format exists that provides a flexible interface for both research and educational applications. ASDF is a new seismic data format that offers seismologists high-performance parallel processing, organized and validated contents, and full provenance tracking for automated seismological workflows.

  19. Assessment and Treatment of Elopement Maintained by Access to Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcomata, Terry S.; Roane, Henry S.; Feeney, Brian J.; Stephenson, Kasey M.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a treatment for elopement maintained by access to stereotypic door play. First, we conducted a functional analysis of elopement that produced undifferentiated results. Next, we conducted an assessment in which we evaluated the relation between elopement and door play. Results suggested a functional relation between the 2 behaviors…

  20. How to prolong the patency of vascular access.

    PubMed

    Glazer, Sidney; Saint, Lindsey; Shenoy, Surendra

    2015-01-01

    Prolonging the patency and limiting the complications of a functioning hemodialysis (HD) access require a multidisciplinary approach. It begins with careful access planning that is executed and continually reinforced by physicians and facility staff encouraging active patient participation. Vascular access (VA) dysfunctions identified by regular monitoring and surveillance need further evaluation. Color duplex ultrasound is evolving as the primary tool to evaluate functional implication of the structural problems in the VA. While ease of scheduling makes endovascular management attractive, definitive surgical management provides better longevity and should be used when indicated. Timing of intervention and selection of technique depend on optimal use of available expertise and the nature of the problem. Avoiding a bridging HD catheter should be a priority while prolonging access patency and improving patient safety. PMID:25676299