Science.gov

Sample records for access hatches driven

  1. 3. VIEW OF WATER TANKS FROM ACCESS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WATER TANKS FROM ACCESS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT. VIEW NORTH. LUCKY TIGER MILL OFFICE (FEATURE B-I) IN DISTANCE. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Water Tanks, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  2. Spread of hatch and delayed feed access affect post hatch performance of female broiler chicks up to day 5.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Li, Y; Willems, E; Willemsen, H; Franssens, L; Koppenol, A; Guo, X; Tona, K; Decuypere, E; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2014-04-01

    It is not rare that newly hatched chicks remain without feed for about 24 to 48 h before they are placed on farms due to a series of logistic operations. Furthermore, the spread in hatching time can also mount up to 30 to 48 h for late v. early hatchers. In other words, the practice is a complex combination of spread of hatch and delayed feed access. The present study was aimed to investigate the combined effects of hatching time with a delay in feed access of 48 h, starting from their hatch-time (biological age). When chicks had access to feed immediately after hatch, late hatchers had a higher feed intake and relative growth rate up to day 5 compared with their early hatched counterparts. Feed deprivation during the first 48 h resulted in retarded early growth rate, which was further aggravated by an impaired feed intake after refeeding. In addition, the differential effects of hatching time on relative growth rate and feed intake observed in immediately fed chicks were eliminated by the 48 h feed delay. The yolk utilization after hatch was faster for the late hatchers up to biological day 2 regardless of the feeding treatments. Hatching muscle glycogen content was higher in the late hatchers compared with that of their early counterparts at hatch and at biological day 2 independent of feeding treatment. Moreover, the liver glycogen content of the late hatchers was also higher at hatch. For the immediately fed chicks, the proportional breast muscle weight of the late hatchers was higher at biological day 2 and 5. For the starved chicks, on the other hand, this effect was only observed after they had access to feed (biological day 5). The different plasma T3 levels at hatch may have contributed to the different post hatch performance. It is concluded that the spread of hatch influenced post hatch performance, especially appetite and growth at least until day 5. Moreover, the delay in feed access interacted with the hatching time and caused adverse effects on the

  3. 9. Acircuit weather cover in foreground, personnel access hatch, transporter/erector ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. A-circuit weather cover in foreground, personnel access hatch, transporter/erector grounding points at right center - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility D-6, 4 miles north of Badlands National Park Headquarters, 4.5 miles east of Jackson County line on county road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  4. Hatching behavior in turtles.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Ricky-John; Janzen, Fredric J

    2011-07-01

    Incubation temperature plays a prominent role in shaping the phenotypes and fitness of embryos, including affecting developmental rates. In many taxa, including turtles, eggs are deposited in layers such that thermal gradients alter developmental rates within a nest. Despite this thermal effect, a nascent body of experimental work on environmentally cued hatching in turtles has revealed unexpected synchronicity in hatching behavior. This review discusses environmental cues for hatching, physiological mechanisms behind synchronous hatching, proximate and ultimate causes for this behavior, and future directions for research. Four freshwater turtle species have been investigated experimentally, with hatching in each species elicited by different environmental cues and responding via various physiological mechanisms. Hatching of groups of eggs in turtles apparently involves some level of embryo-embryo communication and thus is not a purely passive activity. Although turtles are not icons of complex social behavior, life-history theory predicts that the group environment of the nest can drive the evolution of environmentally cued hatching.

  5. Hatch: Moving towards seamless database protocols for ecological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremier, A. K.; Blair, C.; Smith, S.; Weigel, D.; Newsom, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Data collection and ecological processes do not occur at similar scales. Monitoring our environment, therefore, requires research approaches that integrate data across spatial and temporal scales. Despite the enormous amount of data being collected annually, many government agencies are only now beginning to build coordinated data management systems. With efficient data flows and coded analysis tools, researchers will be better prepared to quickly answer key ecological questions across datasets. In this project, we designed an online platform for seamless data management, called Hatch. Our aim is to improve database protocols and data access to allow timely analysis of existing data, across time and space. Hatch is being developed for ecological monitoring of stream ecosystems in the Methow River basin in Washington State; however, the platform is general enough for managing multiple forms of database types. Hatch currently applies both a schema and schema-less database structure to link data collection events. It applies data standards developed and accepted across the Columbia River Basin. Initial data capture is driven by data needs for a mechanism-based model of ecosystem processes (namely periphyton production). Input data files, both past and current flows, are validated and stored along with metadata. Data search tools are being designed in accordance with data sharing agreements with appropriate security. The goal of Hatch is to defragment the analysis workspace by integrating data capture, search and analysis. Hatch helps researchers capture, search and analyze data in an online, flexible platform while conforming to project a specific schema. With less fragmented database protocols, scientists will be better prepared to efficiently answer scientific questions at relevant ecological scales.

  6. Information access: will make or break consumer-driven health plans.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Bruce; Attridge, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Consumer-driven health plans offer employers potentially significant cost savings. Yet such potential cannot be realized without greater consumer access to price, quality and treatment information. This article describes why consumer-based strategies have taken hold and how consumer-driven plan design and financial incentives are of only limited value in controlling costs. After reviewing the importance and availability of existing health care information, the authors suggest actions employers can take to ensure consumer-driven plans reach their potential.

  7. Cytokines and Blastocyst Hatching.

    PubMed

    Seshagiri, Polani B; Vani, Venkatappa; Madhulika, Pathak

    2016-03-01

    Blastocyst implantation into the uterine endometrium establishes early pregnancy. This event is regulated by blastocyst- and/or endometrium-derived molecular factors which include hormones, growth factors, cell adhesion molecules, cytokines and proteases. Their coordinated expression and function are critical for a viable pregnancy. A rate-limiting event that immediately precedes implantation is the hatching of blastocyst. Ironically, blastocyst hatching is tacitly linked to peri-implantation events, although it is a distinct developmental phenomenon. The exact molecular network regulating hatching is still unclear. A number of implantation-associated molecular factors are expressed in the pre-implanting blastocyst. Among others, cytokines, expressed by peri-implantation blastocysts, are thought to be important for hatching, making blastocysts implantation competent. Pro-inflammatory (IL-6, LIF, GM-CSF) and anti-inflammatory (IL-11, CSF-1) cytokines improve hatching rates; they modulate proteases (MMPs, tPAs, cathepsins and ISP1). However, functional involvement of cytokines and their specific mediation of hatching-associated proteases are unclear. There is a need to understand mechanistic roles of cytokines and proteases in blastocyst hatching. This review will assess the available knowledge on blastocyst-derived pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and their role in potentially regulating blastocyst hatching. They have implications in our understanding of early embryonic loss and infertility in mammals, including humans.

  8. Event-Driven Random-Access-Windowing CCD Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve; Portillo, Angel; Ortiz, Gerardo; Alexander, James; Lam, Raymond; Liu, William

    2004-01-01

    A charge-coupled-device (CCD) based high-speed imaging system, called a realtime, event-driven (RARE) camera, is undergoing development. This camera is capable of readout from multiple subwindows [also known as regions of interest (ROIs)] within the CCD field of view. Both the sizes and the locations of the ROIs can be controlled in real time and can be changed at the camera frame rate. The predecessor of this camera was described in High-Frame-Rate CCD Camera Having Subwindow Capability (NPO- 30564) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 12 (December 2002), page 26. The architecture of the prior camera requires tight coupling between camera control logic and an external host computer that provides commands for camera operation and processes pixels from the camera. This tight coupling limits the attainable frame rate and functionality of the camera. The design of the present camera loosens this coupling to increase the achievable frame rate and functionality. From a host computer perspective, the readout operation in the prior camera was defined on a per-line basis; in this camera, it is defined on a per-ROI basis. In addition, the camera includes internal timing circuitry. This combination of features enables real-time, event-driven operation for adaptive control of the camera. Hence, this camera is well suited for applications requiring autonomous control of multiple ROIs to track multiple targets moving throughout the CCD field of view. Additionally, by eliminating the need for control intervention by the host computer during the pixel readout, the present design reduces ROI-readout times to attain higher frame rates. This camera (see figure) includes an imager card consisting of a commercial CCD imager and two signal-processor chips. The imager card converts transistor/ transistor-logic (TTL)-level signals from a field programmable gate array (FPGA) controller card. These signals are transmitted to the imager card via a low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) cable

  9. Laser driven launch vehicles for continuous access to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, C. J.; Bailey, A.; Gelb, A.; Gauthier, M.; Goldey, C.; Lo, E.; Resendes, D.; Rosen, D.; Weyl, G.

    1990-04-01

    The availability of megawatt laser systems in the next century will make laser launch systems from ground to orbit feasible and useful. Systems studies indicate launch capabilities of 1 ton payload per gigawatt laser power. Recent research in ground to orbit laser propulsion has emphasized laser supported detonation wave thrusters driven by repetitively pulsed infrared lasers. In this propulsion concept each laser repetition cycle consists of two pulses. A lower energy first pulse is used to vaporize a small amount of solid propellant and then after a brief expansion period, a second and higher energy laser pulse is used to drive a detonation wave through the expanded vapor. The results are reported of numerical studies comparing the detonation wave properties of various candidate propellants, and the simulation of thruster performance under realistic conditions. Experimental measurements designed to test the theoretical predictions are also presented. Measurements are discussed of radiance and opacity in absorption waves, and mass loss and momentum transfer. These data are interpreted in terms of specific impulse and energy conversion efficiency.

  10. Laser driven launch vehicles for continuous access to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollins, C. J.; Bailey, A.; Gelb, A.; Gauthier, M.; Goldey, C.; Lo, E.; Resendes, D.; Rosen, D.; Weyl, G.

    1990-01-01

    The availability of megawatt laser systems in the next century will make laser launch systems from ground to orbit feasible and useful. Systems studies indicate launch capabilities of 1 ton payload per gigawatt laser power. Recent research in ground to orbit laser propulsion has emphasized laser supported detonation wave thrusters driven by repetitively pulsed infrared lasers. In this propulsion concept each laser repetition cycle consists of two pulses. A lower energy first pulse is used to vaporize a small amount of solid propellant and then after a brief expansion period, a second and higher energy laser pulse is used to drive a detonation wave through the expanded vapor. The results are reported of numerical studies comparing the detonation wave properties of various candidate propellants, and the simulation of thruster performance under realistic conditions. Experimental measurements designed to test the theoretical predictions are also presented. Measurements are discussed of radiance and opacity in absorption waves, and mass loss and momentum transfer. These data are interpreted in terms of specific impulse and energy conversion efficiency.

  11. Transforming Barriers into Bridges: The Benefits of a Student-Driven Accessibility Planning Committee. Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragg, Stephanie J.; Carter, Irene; Nikolova, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The School of Social Work and Disability Studies Accessibility Planning Committee (APC) is a student-driven initiative that has been in existence for over 10 years. This practice brief looked at the committee through interviews with faculty and student members. The investigation aimed to determine whether the benefits of having a student-driven…

  12. Hatching Eggs in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    This article provides detailed instructions on how to hatch chicken eggs. Sections include: (1) making the incubator; (2) making the brooder; (3) guidelines for hatching eggs; (4) from incubator to brooder; and (5) recommended readings. (JMK)

  13. Mechanism Guides Hatch Through Hatchway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barron, Daniel R.; Kennedy, Steven E.

    1993-01-01

    Elliptical hatch designed to move through hatchway to make pressure-assisted seal with either side of bulkhead. Compact three-degree-of-freedom mechanism guides hatch through hatchway or holds hatch off to one side to facilitate passage of crew and/or equipment. Hatches and mechanisms used in submarines, pressure chambers (including hyperbaric treatment chambers), vacuum chambers, and vacuum-or-pressure test chambers.

  14. Effects of feed access after hatch and inclusion of fish oil and medium chain fatty acids in a pre-starter diet on broiler chicken growth performance and humoral immunity.

    PubMed

    Lamot, D M; van der Klein, S A S; van de Linde, I B; Wijtten, P J A; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H; Lammers, A

    2016-09-01

    Delayed feed and water access is known to impair growth performance of day old broiler chickens. Although effects of feed access on growth performance and immune function of broilers have been examined before, effects of dietary composition and its potential interaction with feed access are hardly investigated. This experiment aimed to determine whether moment of first feed and water access after hatch and pre-starter composition (0 to 7 days) affect growth rate and humoral immune function in broiler chickens. Direct fed chickens received feed and water directly after placement in the grow-out facility, whilst delayed fed chickens only after 48 h. Direct and delayed fed chickens received a control pre-starter diet, or a diet containing medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) or fish oil. At 21 days, chickens were immunized by injection of sheep red blood cells. The mortality rate depended on an interaction between feed access and pre-starter composition (P=0.014). Chickens with direct feed access fed the control pre-starter diet had a higher risk for mortality than chickens with delayed feed access fed the control pre-starter diet (16.4% v. 4.2%) whereas the other treatment groups were in-between. BW gain and feed intake till 25 days in direct fed chickens were higher compared with delayed fed chickens, whilst gain to feed ratio was lower. Within the direct fed chickens, the control pre-starter diet resulted in the highest BW at 28 days and the MCFA pre-starter diet the lowest (Δ=2.4%), whereas this was opposite for delayed fed chickens (Δ=3.0%; P=0.033). Provision of MCFA resulted in a 4.6% higher BW gain and a higher gain to feed ratio compared with other pre-starter diets, but only during the period it was provided (2 to 7 days). Minor treatment effects were found for humoral immune response by measuring immunoglobulins, agglutination titers, interferon gamma (IFN- γ ), and complement activity. Concluding, current inclusion levels of fish oil (5 g/kg) and MCFA (30 g

  15. Environmentally cued hatching in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Doody, J S

    2011-07-01

    Evidence is accumulating for the widespread occurrence of environmentally cued hatching (ECH) in animals, but its diversity and distribution across taxa are unknown. Herein I review three types of ECH in reptiles: early hatching, delayed hatching, and synchronous hatching. ECH is currently known from 43 species, including turtles, crocodilians, lizards, snakes, tuatara, and possibly worm lizards. Early hatching caused by physical disturbance (e.g., vibrations) is the most commonly reported ECH across all groups; although it apparently serves an antipredator function in some species, its adaptive value is unknown in most. Delayed hatching, characterized by metabolic depression or embryonic aestivation, and sometimes followed by a hypoxic cue (flooding), occurs in some turtles and possibly in monitor lizards and crocodilians; in some of these species delayed hatching serves to defer hatching from the dry season until the more favorable conditions of the wet season. Synchronous hatching, whereby sibling eggs hatch synchronously despite vertical thermal gradients in the nest, occurs in some turtles and crocodilians. Although vibrations and vocalizations in hatching-competent embryos can stimulate synchronous hatching, cues promoting developmentally less advanced embryos to catch up with more advanced embryos have not been confirmed. Synchronous hatching may serve to dilute predation risk by promoting synchronous emergence or reduce the period in which smells associated with hatching can attract predators to unhatched eggs. Within species, advancing our understanding of ECH requires three types of studies: (1) experiments identifying hatching cues and the plastic hatching period, (2) experiments disentangling hypotheses about multiple hatching cues, and (3) investigations into the environmental context in which ECH might evolve in different species (major predators or abiotic influences on the egg, embryo, and hatchling). Among species and groups, surveys for ECH are

  16. Hatch securing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culling, Robert K.

    1992-09-01

    The invention is a hatch securing mechanism having a base attached to a hatchway and a hasp attached to a hatch lid. The base has an apertured retainer and a pinway element, the hasp being held between the retainer and pinway element during closure of the lid. A latch pin translatable in the pinway element has an angled tip which slides against a bevelled surface of the hasp to force the hasp into tighter, locked engagement with the base. The latch pin has a helical groove segment about the pin's axis, and a stud fixed to the pinway element engages the groove segment. The interaction of the stud and groove segment effects translation of the latch pin when the pin is manually rotated. The action of the latch pin also compresses an elastically deformable seal between the door and door frame so that the seal is increasingly effective against explosive blast pressures. The invention includes a lock mechanism for keeping the latch pin in a hasp retaining position unless the pin is manually moved.

  17. Secondary Use of Clinical Data to Enable Data-Driven Translational Science with Trustworthy Access Management.

    PubMed

    Mosa, Abu Saleh Mohammad; Yoo, Illhoi; Apathy, Nate C; Ko, Kelly J; Parker, Jerry C

    2015-01-01

    University of Missouri (MU) Health Care produces a large amount of digitized clinical data that can be used in clinical and translational research for cohort identification, retrospective data analysis, feasibility study, and hypothesis generation. In this article, the implementation of an integrated clinical research data repository is discussed. We developed trustworthy access-management protocol for providing access to both clinically relevant data and protected health information. As of September 2014, the database contains approximately 400,000 patients and 82 million observations; and is growing daily. The system will facilitate the secondary use of electronic health record (EHR) data at MU to promote data-driven clinical and translational research, in turn enabling better healthcare through research.

  18. Station Crew Opens Dragon's Hatch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The hatch between the newly arrived SpaceX Dragon spacecraft and the Harmony module of the International Space Station was opened by NASA Astronaut Don Pettit at 5:53 am EDT as the station flew 253...

  19. Station Crew Opens Dragon Hatch

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams and Flight Engineer Aki Hoshide opened the hatch to the SpaceX Dragon cargo ship at 1:40 p.m. EDT Wednesday, Oct. 10, marking a milestone for the first commerc...

  20. Heartbeat-driven medium-access control for body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaming; Tan, Jindong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel time division multiple access based MAC protocol designed for body sensor networks (BSNs) is presented. H-medium-access control (MAC) aims to improve BSNs energy efficiency by exploiting heartbeat rhythm information, instead of using periodic synchronization beacons, to perform time synchronization. Heartbeat rhythm is inherent in every human body and observable in various biosignals. Biosensors in a BSN can extract the heartbeat rhythm from their own sensory data by detecting waveform peaks. All rhythms represented by peak sequences are naturally synchronized since they are driven by the same source, i.e., the heartbeat. Following the rhythm, biosensors can achieve time synchronization without having to turn on their radio to receive periodic timing information from a central controller, so that energy cost for time synchronization can be completely eliminated and the lifetime of the network can be prolonged. An active synchronization recovery scheme is also developed, including two resynchronization approaches. The algorithms are simulated using the discrete event simulator OMNet + + with real-world data from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Boston's Beth Israel Hospital multiparameter database Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring for Intensive Care. The results show that H-MAC can prolong the network life dramatically.

  1. NSA AERI Hatch Correction Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer

    Turner, David

    2012-03-23

    From 2000-2008, the NSA AERI hatch was determined to be indicated as open too frequently. Analysis suggests that the hatch was actually opening and closing properly but that its status was not being correctly reported by the hatch controller to the datastream. An algorithm was written to determine the hatch status from the observed

  2. Open Core Data: Semantic driven data access and distribution for terrestrial and marine scientific drilling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fils, D.; Noren, A. J.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Open Core Data (OCD) is a science-driven, innovative, efficient, and scalable infrastructure for data generated by scientific drilling and coring projects across all Earth sciences. It is designed to make make scientific drilling data semantically discoverable, persistent, citable, and approachable to maximize their utility to present and future geoscience researchers. Scientific drilling and coring is crucial for the advancement of the Earth Sciences, unlocking new frontiers in the geologic record. Open Core Data will utilize and link existing data systems, services, and expertise of the JOIDES Resolution Science Operator (JRSO), the Continental Scientific Drilling Coordination Office (CSDCO), the Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA) data facility, and the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (OL). Open Core Data will leverage efforts currently taking place under the EarthCube GeoLink Building Block and other previous efforts in Linked Open Data around ocean drilling data coordinated by OL. The OCD architecture for data distribution blends Linked Data Platform approaches with web services and schema.org use. OCD will further enable integration and tool development by assigning and using vocabularies, provenance, and unique IDs (DOIs, IGSN, URIs) in scientific drilling resources. A significant focus of this effort is to enable large scale automated access to the data by domain specific communities such as MagIC and Neotoma. Providing them a process to integrate the facility data into their data models, workflows and tools. This aspect will encompass methods to maintain awareness of authority information enabling users to trace data back to the originating facility. Initial work on OCD is taking place under a supplemental awarded to IEDA. This talk gives an overview of that work to date and planned future directions for the distribution of scientific drilling data by this effort.

  3. 78 FR 6173 - Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen... Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and Richard Kosiba...

  4. Glassfrog embryos hatch early after parental desertion

    PubMed Central

    Delia, Jesse R. J.; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Summers, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Both parental care and hatching plasticity can improve embryo survival. Research has found that parents can alter hatching time owing to a direct effect of care on embryogenesis or via forms of care that cue the hatching process. Because parental care alters conditions critical for offspring development, hatching plasticity could allow embryos to exploit variation in parental behaviour. However, this interaction of parental care and hatching plasticity remains largely unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that embryos hatch early to cope with paternal abandonment in the glassfrog Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Centrolenidae). We conducted male-removal experiments in a wild population, and examined embryos' response to conditions with and without fathers. Embryos hatched early when abandoned, but extended development in the egg stage when fathers continued care. Paternal care had no effect on developmental rate. Rather, hatching plasticity was due to embryos actively hatching at different developmental stages, probably in response to deteriorating conditions without fathers. Our experimental results are supported by a significant correlation between the natural timing of abandonment and hatching in an unmanipulated population. This study demonstrates that embryos can respond to conditions resulting from parental abandonment, and provides insights into how variation in care can affect selection on egg-stage adaptations. PMID:24789892

  5. Glassfrog embryos hatch early after parental desertion.

    PubMed

    Delia, Jesse R J; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Summers, Kyle

    2014-06-22

    Both parental care and hatching plasticity can improve embryo survival. Research has found that parents can alter hatching time owing to a direct effect of care on embryogenesis or via forms of care that cue the hatching process. Because parental care alters conditions critical for offspring development, hatching plasticity could allow embryos to exploit variation in parental behaviour. However, this interaction of parental care and hatching plasticity remains largely unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that embryos hatch early to cope with paternal abandonment in the glassfrog Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Centrolenidae). We conducted male-removal experiments in a wild population, and examined embryos' response to conditions with and without fathers. Embryos hatched early when abandoned, but extended development in the egg stage when fathers continued care. Paternal care had no effect on developmental rate. Rather, hatching plasticity was due to embryos actively hatching at different developmental stages, probably in response to deteriorating conditions without fathers. Our experimental results are supported by a significant correlation between the natural timing of abandonment and hatching in an unmanipulated population. This study demonstrates that embryos can respond to conditions resulting from parental abandonment, and provides insights into how variation in care can affect selection on egg-stage adaptations.

  6. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  7. Plasma corticosterone in American kestrel siblings: effects of age, hatching order, and hatching asynchrony.

    PubMed

    Love, Oliver P; Bird, David M; Shutt, Laird J

    2003-04-01

    Although it is well documented that hatching asynchrony in birds can lead to competitive and developmental hierarchies, potentially greatly affecting growth and survival of nestlings, hatching asynchrony may also precipitate modulations in neuroendocrine development or function. Here we examine sibling variation in adrenocortical function in postnatally developing, asynchronously hatching American kestrels (Falco sparverius) by measurements of baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone at ages 10, 16, 22, and 28 days posthatching. There was a significant effect of hatching order on both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels during development and these effects grew stronger through development. First-hatched chicks exhibited higher baseline levels than later-hatched chicks throughout development and higher stress-induced levels during the latter half of development. Furthermore, there was significant hatching span (difference in days between first- and last-hatched chicks) x hatching order interaction on both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels during development. Hatching span was also positively correlated with both measures of corticosterone and body mass in first-hatched chicks, but was negatively correlated with these factors through most of the development in last-hatched chicks. It is known that hatching asynchrony creates mass and size hierarchies within kestrel broods and we suggest that hierarchies in adrenocortical function among siblings may be one physiological mechanism by which these competitive hierarchies are maintained.

  8. Lessons Learned from a Data-Driven College Access Program: The National College Advising Corps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horng, Eileen L.; Evans, Brent J.; antonio, anthony l.; Foster, Jesse D.; Kalamkarian, Hoori S.; Hurd, Nicole F.; Bettinger, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses the collaboration between a national college access program, the National College Advising Corps (NCAC), and its research and evaluation team at Stanford University. NCAC is currently active in almost four hundred high schools and through the placement of a recent college graduate to serve as a college adviser provides…

  9. 46 CFR 174.220 - Hatches and coamings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Offshore Supply Vessels § 174.220 Hatches and coamings. (a) Each hatch exposed to the weather must be watertight, except that the following hatches may... inches) above the weather deck. (2) Each hatch in a cabin top. (b) Each hatch cover must— (1)...

  10. Solvent-driven electron trapping and mass transport in reduced graphites to access perfect graphene

    PubMed Central

    Vecera, Philipp; Holzwarth, Johannes; Edelthalhammer, Konstantin F.; Mundloch, Udo; Peterlik, Herwig; Hauke, Frank; Hirsch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report on a significant discovery, namely, the quantitative discharging of reduced graphite forms, such as graphite intercalation compounds, graphenide dispersions and graphenides deposited on surfaces with the simple solvent benzonitrile. Because of its comparatively low reduction potential, benzonitrile is reduced during this process to the radical anion, which exhibits a red colour and serves as a reporter molecule for the quantitative determination of negative charges on the carbon sheets. Moreover, this discovery reveals a very fundamental physical–chemical phenomenon, namely a quantitative solvent reduction induced and electrostatically driven mass transport of K+ ions from the graphite intercalation compounds into the liquid. The simple treatment of dispersed graphenides suspended on silica substrates with benzonitrile leads to the clean conversion to graphene. This unprecedented procedure represents a rather mild, scalable and inexpensive method for graphene production surpassing previous wet-chemical approaches. PMID:27506380

  11. Solvent-driven electron trapping and mass transport in reduced graphites to access perfect graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecera, Philipp; Holzwarth, Johannes; Edelthalhammer, Konstantin F.; Mundloch, Udo; Peterlik, Herwig; Hauke, Frank; Hirsch, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we report on a significant discovery, namely, the quantitative discharging of reduced graphite forms, such as graphite intercalation compounds, graphenide dispersions and graphenides deposited on surfaces with the simple solvent benzonitrile. Because of its comparatively low reduction potential, benzonitrile is reduced during this process to the radical anion, which exhibits a red colour and serves as a reporter molecule for the quantitative determination of negative charges on the carbon sheets. Moreover, this discovery reveals a very fundamental physical-chemical phenomenon, namely a quantitative solvent reduction induced and electrostatically driven mass transport of K+ ions from the graphite intercalation compounds into the liquid. The simple treatment of dispersed graphenides suspended on silica substrates with benzonitrile leads to the clean conversion to graphene. This unprecedented procedure represents a rather mild, scalable and inexpensive method for graphene production surpassing previous wet-chemical approaches.

  12. FLOSYS--a web-accessible workflow system for protocol-driven biomolecular sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Badidi, E; Lang, B F; Burger, G

    2004-11-01

    FLOSYS is an interactive web-accessible bioinformatics workflow system designed to assist biologists in multi-step data analyses. FLOSYS allows the user to create complex analysis pathways (protocols) graphically, similar to drawing a flowchart: icons representing particular bioinformatics tools are dragged and dropped onto a canvas and lines connecting those icons are drawn to specify the relationships between the tools. In addition, FLOSYS permits to select input-data, execute the protocol and store the results in a personal workspace. The three-tier architecture of FLOSYS has been implemented in Java and uses a relational database system together with new technologies for distributed and web computing such as CORBA, RMI, JSP and JDBC. The prototype of FLOSYS, which is part of the bioinformatics workbench AnaBench, is accessible on-line at http://malawimonas.bcm.umontreal.ca: 8091/anabench. The entire package is available on request to academic groups who wish to have a customized local analysis environment for research or teaching.

  13. 9 CFR 91.29 - Hatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....25 (e) and (f) are met and sufficient space shall be left clear on such hatches for passageway across... stowed, sufficient space shall be left clear for the proper removal and handling of such hay and feed...

  14. Hatches Open, Expedition 32 Expands to Six

    NASA Video Gallery

    The hatches between the Soyuz and the Rassvet module opened Tuesday at 3:23 a.m. when Flight Engineers Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide entered the International Space Station. Exped...

  15. Accessibility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal laws, including Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, mandate that people with disabilities have access to the same information that someone without a disability would have. 508 standards cover electronic and information technology (EIT) products.

  16. Tunable Rare Earth fcu-MOF Platform: Access to Adsorption Kinetics Driven Gas/Vapor Separations via Pore Size Contraction.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dong-Xu; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Jiang, Hao; Adil, Karim; Cairns, Amy J; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-04-22

    Reticular chemistry approach was successfully employed to deliberately construct new rare-earth (RE, i.e., Eu(3+), Tb(3+), and Y(3+)) fcu metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with restricted window apertures. Controlled and selective access to the resultant contracted fcu-MOF pores permits the achievement of the requisite sorbate cutoff, ideal for selective adsorption kinetics based separation and/or molecular sieving of gases and vapors. Predetermined reaction conditions that permitted the formation in situ of the 12-connected RE hexanuclear molecular building block (MBB) and the establishment of the first RE-fcu-MOF platform, especially in the presence of 2-fluorobenzoic acid (2-FBA) as a modulator and a structure directing agent, were used to synthesize isostructural RE-1,4-NDC-fcu-MOFs based on a relatively bulkier 2-connected bridging ligand, namely 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate (1,4-NDC). The subsequent RE-1,4-NDC-fcu-MOF structural features, contracted windows/pores and high concentration of open metal sites combined with exceptional hydrothermal and chemical stabilities, yielded notable gas/solvent separation properties, driven mostly by adsorption kinetics as exemplified in this work for n-butane/methane, butanol/methanol, and butanol/water pair systems.

  17. Early transition of the digestive system to exogenous nutrition in domestic post-hatch birds.

    PubMed

    Pinchasov, Y

    1995-03-01

    The effect of early transition of the digestive system to exogenous nutrition was examined in three experiments with growing birds. A nutrient mixture (0.5 ml) of glucose, starch and oil (1:1:0.5, by vol) was orally administered immediately after hatch to turkey poults (Meleagris gallopavo) having immediate or delayed access to feed (Expt 1). Increasing amounts (0, 0.25 and 0.5 ml) of this mixture were administered immediately after hatch to turkey poults (Expt 2), or to broiler chicks (Gallus domesticus; Expt 3). The relative weights of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and its ingesta content, and the amylolytic capability of the pancreas were examined during the immediate post-hatch period (to 30 h). Oral administration of nutrients immediately after hatching only slightly influenced the growth of the pancreas and its amylolytic activity, but significantly increased GIT weight in both species, in a dose-dependent manner. It is suggested that early post-hatching exposure of the digestive system by the forced administration of nutrient mixture induces anatomical and metabolic changes in the digestive system slightly earlier than in birds with late access to feed. This increases GIT content and plasma glucose levels, resulting in enhanced feed consumption and growth promotion.

  18. Starting with a handicap: effects of asynchronous hatching on growth rate, oxidative stress and telomere dynamics in free-living great tits.

    PubMed

    Stier, Antoine; Massemin, Sylvie; Zahn, Sandrine; Tissier, Mathilde L; Criscuolo, François

    2015-12-01

    A trade-off between resource investment into growth rate and body self-maintenance is likely to occur, but the underlying molecular mediators of such a trade-off remain to be determined. In many altricial birds, hatching asynchrony creates a sibling competitive hierarchy within the brood, with first-hatched nestlings enjoying substantial advantages compared to last-hatched nestlings. We used this opportunity to test for a trade-off between growth and self-maintenance processes (oxidative stress, telomere erosion) in great tit nestlings, since resource availability and allocation are likely to differ between first-hatched and last-hatched nestlings. We found that despite their starting competitive handicap (i.e. being smaller/lighter before day 16), last-hatched nestlings exhibited growth rate and mass/size at fledging similar to first-hatched ones. However, last-hatched nestlings suffered more in terms of oxidative stress, and ended growth with shorter telomeres than first-hatched ones. Interestingly, growth rate was positively related to plasma antioxidant capacity and early life telomere length (i.e. at 7 days old), but among last-hatched nestlings, those exhibiting the faster body size growth were also those exhibiting the greatest telomere erosion. Last-hatched nestlings exhibited elevated levels of plasma testosterone (T), but only at day 7. T levels were positively associated with oxidative damage levels and plasma antioxidant capacity, the latter being only significant for first-hatched nestlings. Our results suggest that last-hatched nestlings present a specific trade-off between growth rate and self-maintenance processes, which is possibly driven by their need to compete with their older siblings and potentially mediated by elevated levels of T.

  19. Killifish Hatching and Orientation experiment MA-161

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheld, H. W.; Boyd, J. F.; Bozarth, G. A.; Conner, J. A.; Eichler, V. B.; Fuller, P. M.; Hoffman, R. B.; Keefe, J. R.; Kuchnow, K. P.; Oppenheimer, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The killifish Fundulus heteroclitus was used as a model system for study of embryonic development and vestibular adaptation in orbital flight. Juvenile fish in a zero gravity environment exhibited looping swimming activity similar to that observed during the Skylab 3 mission. Hatchings from a 336 hour egg stage were also observed to loop. At splashdown, both juveniles and hatchings exhibited a typical diving response suggesting relatively normal vestibular function. Juveniles exhibited swimming patterns suggestive of abnormal swim bladders. The embryos exhibited no abnormalities resulting from development in a zero gravity environment.

  20. Aspects of hatching success and chick survival in Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyler, T.B.; Erwin, R.M.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Because of a long-term population decline in Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) nesting along the coast of Virginia, we began a three year study in 1994 to monitor hatching success and survival of Gull-billed Tern chicks at several Virginia colony sites. Colonies were located on either small, storm-deposited shellpiles along marsh fringes or large, sandshell overwash fans of barrier islands. Nests were monitored one to three times a week for hatching success, and enclosures were installed around selected nests to monitor chick survival from hatching to about two weeks of age. Hatching success was lower in marsh colonies than island colonies, and was lower in 1995 than in 1994 and 1996, primarily because of flooding. The average brood size of nests where at least one chick hatched was 1.99 chicks. Survival rates of chicks to 14 days depended on hatch order and year but not brood size (one vs. two or more) or time of season. A-chicks had higher survival rates than B-chicks and third-hatched C-chicks (0.661 compared to 0.442 and 0.357, respectively). The year effect was significant only for A-chicks, with lower survival in 1994 (0.50) than in 1995 (0.765) or 1996 (0.758). Overall, productivity was low (0.53 chick per nest) compared to estimates for colonies in Denmark, and was attributable to nest flooding by spring and storm-driven high tides and chick predation, presumably mostly by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus).

  1. Effects of Selected Nematicides on Hatching of Heterodera schachtii.

    PubMed

    Steele, A E

    1983-07-01

    Aldicarb, carbofuran, fensulfothion, and phenamiphos were tested in concentrations of 1-100 mug/ml for their effects on hatching of Heterodera schachtii. Exposure of cysts to 1 mug aldicarb or carbofuran/ml stimulated hatch whereas phenamiphos and, to a lesser degree, fensulfothion inhibited hatch. Addition of aldicarb to sugarbeet root diffusate or 4 mM zinc chloride suppressed activities of these hatching agents. Transfer of cysts previously treated with aldicarb or carbofuran to zinc chloride or water rapidly initiated hatch which finally exceeded the hatch from cysts not treated with the nematicides.

  2. Mechanical Hatching Egg Sanitization: A Fresh Look

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three to four decades ago, hatching egg sanitization was done by immersion of eggs in an egg-gathering basket (plastic-coated metal wire) into a small vat with a heating element and disinfectant solution. This procedure failed miserably for several reasons. First, the eggs were not subjected to the...

  3. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility close the access hatch to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  4. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility make final preparations for closing the access hatch to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  5. Prebreeding survival of Roseate Terns Sterna dougallii varies with sex, hatching order and hatching date

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nisbet, Ian C.T.; Monticelli, David; Spendelow, Jeffrey A.; Szczys, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Unequal sex ratios can reduce the productivity of animal populations and are especially prevalent among endangered species. A cohort of 333 Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii chicks at a site where the adult sex ratio was skewed towards females was sexed at hatching and followed through fledging and return to the breeding area, and subsequently during adulthood. The entire regional metapopulation was sampled for returning birds. Prebreeding survival (from fledging to age 3 years) was lower in males than in females, but only among B-chicks (second in hatching order). Prebreeding survival also declined with hatching date. The proportion of females in this cohort increased from 54.6% at hatching to 56.2% at fledging and to an estimated 58.0% among survivors at age 3 years. This was more than sufficient to explain the degree of skew in the sex ratio of the adult population, but changes in this degree of skew during the study period make it difficult to identify the influence of a single cohort of recruits. Many studies of prebreeding survival in other bird species have identified effects of sex, hatching order or hatching date, but no previous study has tested for effects of all three factors simultaneously.

  6. 1. VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE HATCH ADIT (FEATURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28), FACING WEST. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Hatch Adit, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  7. Section BB Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging Knees at Hatch; Elevation A-A Hull Framing; Section at Hatch Frame 36, Starboard Looking Aft; Midship Section Frame 37, Port Looking Aft - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  8. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... practices should be observed: (a) Cleaned and disinfected containers, such as egg flats, should be used...

  9. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... practices should be observed: (a) Cleaned and disinfected containers, such as egg flats, should be used...

  10. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... practices should be observed: (a) Cleaned and disinfected containers, such as egg flats, should be used...

  11. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... practices should be observed: (a) Cleaned and disinfected containers, such as egg flats, should be used...

  12. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... practices should be observed: (a) Cleaned and disinfected containers, such as egg flats, should be used...

  13. 46 CFR 185.610 - Watertight doors and watertight hatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight doors and watertight hatches. 185.610 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.610 Watertight doors and watertight hatches. Watertight doors and watertight hatches must be marked on both sides in clearly legible letters at least...

  14. 46 CFR 169.747 - Watertight doors and hatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watertight doors and hatches. 169.747 Section 169.747... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.747 Watertight doors and hatches. Each watertight door and watertight hatch must be marked on both sides in at least 1-inch...

  15. 46 CFR 169.747 - Watertight doors and hatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight doors and hatches. 169.747 Section 169.747... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.747 Watertight doors and hatches. Each watertight door and watertight hatch must be marked on both sides in at least 1-inch...

  16. 46 CFR 185.610 - Watertight doors and watertight hatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watertight doors and watertight hatches. 185.610 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.610 Watertight doors and watertight hatches. Watertight doors and watertight hatches must be marked on both sides in clearly legible letters at least...

  17. 29 CFR 1918.43 - Handling hatch beams and covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... apply in cases where hatch beams are of such design that: (1) The width of the flange is 50 percent or more of the height of the web; and (2) The flange rests flat on the deck when the hatch beam is stood... position, unless the design of the system otherwise prevents unintentional movement. (h) Hatches shall...

  18. Consequences of Hatch Phenology on Stages of Fish Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Bogner, David M.; Wuellner, Melissa R.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how hatch phenology (e.g., the start, peak, and duration of hatching) could influence subsequent recruitment of freshwater fishes into a population. We used two commonly sympatric fish species that exhibit different hatching phenologies to examine recruitment across multiple life stages. Nine yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) annual cohorts were sampled from 2004 through 2013 across larval, age-0, age-1, and age-2 life stages in a Nebraska (U.S.A.) Sandhill lake. Yellow perch hatched earlier in the season and displayed a more truncated hatch duration compared to bluegill. The timing of hatch influenced recruitment dynamics for both species but important hatching metrics were not similar between species across life stages. A longer hatch duration resulted in greater larval yellow perch abundance but greater age-1 bluegill abundance. In contrast, bluegill larval and age-0 abundances were greater during years when hatching duration was shorter and commenced earlier, whereas age-0 yellow perch abundance was greater when hatching occurred earlier. As a result of hatch phenology, yellow perch recruitment variability was minimized sooner (age-0 life stage) than bluegill (age-1 life stage). Collectively, hatch phenology influenced recruitment dynamics across multiple life stages but was unique for each species. Understanding the complexities of when progeny enter an environment and how this influences eventual recruitment into a population will be critical in the face of ongoing climate change. PMID:27764216

  19. Causes of hatching failure in endangered birds

    PubMed Central

    Hemmings, N.; West, M.; Birkhead, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    About 10 per cent of birds' eggs fail to hatch, but the incidence of failure can be much higher in endangered species. Most studies fail to distinguish between infertility (due to a lack of sperm) and embryo mortality as the cause of hatching failure, yet doing so is crucial in order to understand the underlying problem. Using newly validated techniques to visualize sperm and embryonic tissue, we assessed the fertility status of unhatched eggs of five endangered species, including both wild and captive birds. All eggs were classified as ‘infertile’ when collected, but most were actually fertile with numerous sperm on the ovum. Eggs of captive birds had fewer sperm and were more likely to be infertile than those of wild birds. Our findings raise important questions regarding the management of captive breeding programmes. PMID:22977070

  20. Hatching asynchrony in Burrowing Owls is influenced by clutch size and hatching success but not by food.

    PubMed

    Wellicome, Troy I

    2005-01-01

    In most animals, siblings from a given reproductive event emerge over a very short period of time. In contrast, many species of birds hatch their young asynchronously over a period of days or weeks, handicapping last-hatched chicks with an age and size disadvantage. Numerous studies have examined the adaptive significance of this atypical hatching pattern, but few have attempted to explain the considerable intrapopulation variation that exists in hatching asynchrony. I explored proximate determinants of hatching asynchrony by monitoring 112 Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) nests in the grasslands of southern Saskatchewan, Canada, over 4 years. Age disparities between first- and last-hatched siblings (i.e., hatching spans) varied considerably, ranging between 1 and 7 days (mode = 4 days). These hatching spans increased with increased hatching success. Hatching spans also increased with larger clutches, but the increase was less than predicted given the increased time required to lay more eggs. Hatching span was unrelated to number of prey cached in the nest during egg laying (an index of food availability), and was unaltered by a year of super-abundant prey. Furthermore, pairs given extra food during laying had hatching spans equal to those of unsupplemented control pairs. These results were inconsistent with both the energy constraint and facultative manipulation hypotheses, which predict that hatching asynchrony should vary with the level of food during laying, when incubation onset is determined. Burrowing Owls were apparently free of food limitation early in breeding, yet may not have been able to optimize hatching spans because food conditions during laying were largely unrelated to food conditions during brooding. Thus, one of the premises for facultative manipulation of hatching asynchrony-that laying females are able to forecast post-hatch food conditions-may not have been met for this population of Burrowing Owls.

  1. STS-96 Astronauts Adjust Unity Hatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts Rick D. Husband and Tamara E. Jernigan adjust the hatch for the U.S. built Unity node. The task was part of an overall effort of seven crew members to prepare the existing portion of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched on May 27, 1999, aboard the Orbiter Discovery, the STS-96 mission was the second ISS assembly flight and the first shuttle mission to dock with the station.

  2. Induced hatching to avoid infectious egg disease in whitefish.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, Claus

    2002-01-08

    Reacting to a threat before physical contact, e.g., induced by air- or water-borne substances, appears to be an elegant way of defense. The reaction may be behavioral, developmental, morphological, or physiological, and it can involve a shift in niche or life history. Hatching from eggs is a shift in niche and in life history. From niche shift and life history models, one would predict that the timing of hatching is, to some degree, phenotypically plastic, i.e., early or delayed hatching is likely to be inducible. Temporary increased larval mortality (e.g., increased predation on larvae) would favor delayed hatching, while relatively high egg mortality would favor early hatching. Here, I show experimentally that eggs of the whitefish (Coregonus sp.) hatch earlier in the presence of a virulent egg parasite and that this early hatching is induced by water-borne cues emitted from infected eggs.

  3. Hatching Behavior of Potato Cyst Nematodes from the Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, J. A.; Phillips, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    The present work investigated early hatching differences in naturally occuring field populations and newly reared populations of potato cyst nematodes from the Canary Islands. Hatching behavior of the two species appears to be distinct, with more juveniles hatched from G. pallida that hatch earlier and over a shorter time than G. rostochiensis. The hatching rate of 3-year-old PCN populations was more than double (mean 44.5% ñ 1) that shown by newly reared populations (mean 19.1% ñ 12.5), and those that could be classified as pathotype Pa 1 (Pa 1 and P 13) were found to hatch particularly poorly. Significant differences were also observed in the juveniles released in tap water between newly reared populations of both species, with mean hatch significantly higher for G. rostochiensis. The results are discussed in relation to the implication that these findings may have for competition between the two species of PCN in the field. PMID:19277163

  4. Effects of hatching time for larval ambystomatid salamanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.; Scott, D.E.; Niewiarowski, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    In aquatic communities, the phenology of breeding may influence species interactions. In the early-breeding marbled salamander, Ambystoma opacum, timing of pond filling may determine whether interactions among larvae are competitive or predatory. The objectives of our studies were to determine how time of egg hatching affected size, larval period, and survival to metamorphosis in A. opacum, and if early-hatching in A. opacum influenced the competitive and predator-prey relationships with smaller larvae of the mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum. Salamander larvae were reared from hatching through metamorphosis in large, outdoor enclosures located in a natural temporary pond in Aiken County, South Carolina, in two experiments. In study 1, we reared early- and late-hatching A. opacum larvae separately from hatching through metamorphosis. In study 2, we examined how early- versus late-hatching A. opacum affected a syntopic species, A. talpoideum. In general, early-hatching A. opacum were larger and older at metamorphosis, had greater survival, and left the pond earlier than late-hatching larvae. Ambystoma talpoideum reared in the presence of early-hatching A. opacum had lower survival than in controls, suggesting that A. opacum may predate upon A. talpoideum when they gain a growth advantage over later-hatching larvae. Our studies demonstrate that time of pond filling and phenology of breeding may influence population dynamics and alter the nature of relationships that develop among species.

  5. Corticosterone stimulates hatching of late-term tree lizard embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Stacey L.; Johnston, Gwynne; Moore, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    The regulation of hatching in oviparous animals is important for successful reproduction and survival, but is poorly understood. We unexpectedly found that RU-486, a progesterone and glucocorticoid antagonist, interferes with hatching of viable tree lizard (Urosaurus ornatus) embryos in a dose-dependent manner and hypothesized that embryonic glucocorticoids regulate hatching. To test this hypothesis, we treated eggs with corticosterone (CORT) or vehicle on Day 30 (85%) of incubation, left other eggs untreated, and observed relative hatch order and hatch time. In one study, the CORT egg hatched first in 9 of 11 clutches. In a second study, the CORT egg hatched first in 9 of 12 clutches, before vehicle-treated eggs in 10 of 12 clutches, and before untreated eggs in 7 of 9 clutches. On average, CORT eggs hatched 18.2h before vehicle-treated eggs and 11.6h before untreated eggs. Thus, CORT accelerates hatching of near-term embryos and RU-486 appears to block this effect. CORT may mobilize energy substrates that fuel hatching and/or accelerate lung development, and may provide a mechanism by which stressed embryos escape environmental stressors. PMID:17208477

  6. The Hatch-Waxman Act: encouraging innovation and generic drug competition.

    PubMed

    Sokal, Allen M; Gerstenblith, Bart A

    2010-01-01

    Congress carefully crafted the Hatch-Waxman Act to address two competing goals: to spur new pharmaceutical development and to encourage greater public access to generic drugs. To that end, the Act contains important provisions directed to fulfilling each goal, including provisions favorable to either branded drug or generic drug manufacturers. This article addresses those provisions in the context of issues pertaining to patent rights and in light of the congressional goals.

  7. Understanding the Voice of the Customer: Practical, Data-Driven Planning and Decision Making for Access Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff-Eibl, Robyn; Miller-Wells, John; Begay, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the process and role frontline access and public service staff play in needs assessment and evaluation of user services, specifically in understanding the voice of the customer. Information includes how the University of Arizona Libraries have incorporated daily data collection into the strategic planning process, resources…

  8. Ovulation Order Mediates a Trade-Off between Pre-Hatching and Post-Hatching Viability in an Altricial Bird

    PubMed Central

    Sockman, Keith W.

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneously dependent siblings often compete for parentally provided resources. This competition may lead to mortality, the probability of which may be a function, in part, of the individual offspring's production order. In birds, serial ovulation followed by hatching asynchrony of simultaneous dependents leads to differences in post-hatching survival that largely depend on ovulation (laying) order. This has led to the widespread assumption that early-laid eggs are of greater value and therefore should possess different maternally manipulated characteristics than later-laid eggs. However, this perspective ignores the potential effect of laying order on pre-hatching viability, an effect which some studies suggest should offset the effect of laying order on post-hatching viability. I examined the relationship between laying order and hatching and fledging probability in wild, free-living Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii). In broods with complete hatching success, first-laid and therefore first-hatched offspring had the highest probability of fledging, and fledging probability declined with increasing laying order. However, first-laid eggs were less likely than later-laid eggs to hatch. This effect of laying order on pre-hatching viability seemed to offset that on post-hatching viability, and, consistently, maternal investment in egg size varied little if at all with respect to laying order. These results suggest that ovulation order mediates a trade-off between pre-hatching and post-hatching viability and should encourage a re-evaluation of the solitary role post-embryonic survival often plays when researchers make assumptions about the value of propagules based on the order in which they are produced. PMID:18335056

  9. A cicada that ensures its fitness during climate warming by synchronizing its hatching time with the rainy season.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Minoru; Numata, Hideharu

    2011-12-01

    A shift in phenology due to climate change is associated with some recent changes in populations, as it can disrupt the synchrony between organisms' requirements and resource availability. This conceptual framework has been developed mostly in systems of trophic interactions. Many coincidental changes, however, are involved in trophic interactions, preventing us from describing the direct impact of phenological shifts on fitness consequences. Here we address the phenological relationship in a simple non-trophic interaction to document a causal process of a warming-driven fitness change in a cicada, Cryptotympana facialis, whose numbers increased dramatically in Osaka, Japan in the late 20th century. We show that synchrony of the rainy season and hatching time may have a substantial influence on hatching success, by 1) shifting the time of completion of embryonic development, and 2) supplying water at various intervals. We estimate the change in hatching time over the last eleven decades (1901-2009) based on meteorological records and the temperature-dependent rate of C. facialis embryogenesis. Our estimate shows that hatching had initially occurred after the rainy season, and that warming had advanced it into the rainy season in the late 20th century. The probability of hatching success was markedly variable, and often very low before this synchronization occurred, but became stably high thereafter. Our findings suggest that the stabilizing effect of this synchrony on fitness was indispensable to the recent population increase of C. facialis.

  10. 45 CFR 1226.10 - Hatch Act restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hatch Act restrictions. 1226.10 Section 1226.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROHIBITIONS ON ELECTORAL AND LOBBYING ACTIVITIES Volunteer Activities § 1226.10 Hatch...

  11. 29 CFR 1918.43 - Handling hatch beams and covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... stable piles not closer to the hatch coaming than three feet (.91 m). Exception: On the working side of... their sides, or stood on an edge close together and lashed. Exception: This paragraph (b) shall not apply in cases where hatch beams are of such design that: (1) The width of the flange is 50 percent...

  12. Effect of storage environment on hatching of Globodera ellingtonae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globodera spp. eggs go through a diapause stage in which development remains dormant until favorable hatching conditions are reached. Because of the regulatory concerns with Globodera spp., it is often only possible to rear eggs for research in the greenhouse. However, hatch is often lower for green...

  13. 29 CFR 780.211 - Contract production of hatching eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contract production of hatching eggs. 780.211 Section 780... eggs. It is common practice for hatcherymen to enter into arrangements with farmer poultry raisers for the production of hatching eggs which the hatchery agrees to buy. Ordinarily, the farmer furnishes...

  14. 29 CFR 780.211 - Contract production of hatching eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contract production of hatching eggs. 780.211 Section 780... eggs. It is common practice for hatcherymen to enter into arrangements with farmer poultry raisers for the production of hatching eggs which the hatchery agrees to buy. Ordinarily, the farmer furnishes...

  15. 29 CFR 780.211 - Contract production of hatching eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract production of hatching eggs. 780.211 Section 780... eggs. It is common practice for hatcherymen to enter into arrangements with farmer poultry raisers for the production of hatching eggs which the hatchery agrees to buy. Ordinarily, the farmer furnishes...

  16. 29 CFR 780.211 - Contract production of hatching eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contract production of hatching eggs. 780.211 Section 780... eggs. It is common practice for hatcherymen to enter into arrangements with farmer poultry raisers for the production of hatching eggs which the hatchery agrees to buy. Ordinarily, the farmer furnishes...

  17. 29 CFR 780.211 - Contract production of hatching eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contract production of hatching eggs. 780.211 Section 780... eggs. It is common practice for hatcherymen to enter into arrangements with farmer poultry raisers for the production of hatching eggs which the hatchery agrees to buy. Ordinarily, the farmer furnishes...

  18. 46 CFR 122.610 - Watertight doors and watertight hatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watertight doors and watertight hatches. 122.610 Section... Markings Required § 122.610 Watertight doors and watertight hatches. Watertight doors and watertight...: “WATERTIGHT DOOR—KEEP CLOSED” or “WATERTIGHT HATCH—KEEP CLOSED”, unless such markings are deemed...

  19. 46 CFR 131.893 - Watertight doors and watertight hatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watertight doors and watertight hatches. 131.893 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.893 Watertight doors and watertight hatches. Each watertight door in a bulkhead that must be watertight in compliance with the requirements...

  20. 46 CFR 131.893 - Watertight doors and watertight hatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight doors and watertight hatches. 131.893 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.893 Watertight doors and watertight hatches. Each watertight door in a bulkhead that must be watertight in compliance with the requirements...

  1. 46 CFR 122.610 - Watertight doors and watertight hatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight doors and watertight hatches. 122.610 Section... Markings Required § 122.610 Watertight doors and watertight hatches. Watertight doors and watertight...: “WATERTIGHT DOOR—KEEP CLOSED” or “WATERTIGHT HATCH—KEEP CLOSED”, unless such markings are deemed...

  2. 14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  3. 46 CFR 108.145 - Hatches and tonnage openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hatches and tonnage openings. 108.145 Section 108.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.145 Hatches and...

  4. 46 CFR 108.145 - Hatches and tonnage openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hatches and tonnage openings. 108.145 Section 108.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.145 Hatches and...

  5. Speaking Two Languages for the Price of One: Bypassing Language Control Mechanisms via Accessibility-Driven Switches.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Daniel; Gollan, Tamar H

    2016-05-01

    How do bilinguals switch easily between languages in everyday conversation, even though studies have consistently found that switching slows responses? In previous work, researchers have not considered that although switches may happen for different reasons, only some switches-including those typically studied in laboratory experiments-might be costly. Using a repeated picture-naming task, we found that bilinguals can maintain and use two languages as efficiently as a single language, switching between them frequently without any cost, if they switch only when a word is more accessible in the other language. These results suggest that language switch costs arise during lexical selection, that top-down language control mechanisms can be suspended, and that language-mixing efficiency can be strategically increased with instruction. Thus, bilinguals might switch languages spontaneously because doing so is not always costly, and there appears to be greater flexibility and efficiency in the cognitive mechanisms that enable switching than previously assumed.

  6. Advancing Long Tail Data Capture and Access Through Trusted, Community-Driven Data Services at the IEDA Data Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V.; Hsu, L.; Arko, R. A.; Walker, J. D.; O'hara, S. H.

    2012-12-01

    Substantial volumes of data in the Earth Sciences are collected in small- to medium-size projects by individual investigators or small research teams, known as the 'Long Tail' of science. Traditionally, these data have largely stayed 'in the dark', i.e. they have not been properly archived, and have therefore been inaccessible and underutilized. The primary reason has been the lack of appropriate infrastructure, from adequate repositories to resources and support for investigators to properly manage their data, to community standards and best practices. Lack of credit for data management and for the data themselves has contributed to the reluctance of investigators to share their data. IEDA (Integrated Earth Data Applications), a NSF-funded data facility for solid earth geoscience data, has developed a comprehensive suite of data services that are designed to address the concerns and needs of investigators. IEDA's data publication service registers datasets with DOI and ensures their proper citation and attribution. IEDA is working with publishers on advanced linkages between datasets in the IEDA repository and scientific online articles to facilitate access to the data, enhance their visibility, and augment their use and citation. IEDA's investigator support ranges from individual support for data management to tools, tutorials, and virtual or face-to-face workshops that guide and assist investigators with data management planning, data submission, and data documentation. A critical aspect of IEDA's concept has been the disciplinary expertise within the team and its strong liaison with the science community, as well as a community-based governance. These have been fundamental to gain the trust and support of the community that have lead to significantly improved data preservation and access in the communities served by IEDA.

  7. Can-out hatch assembly with magnetic retention means

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Robert C.; Hoh, Joseph C.

    1986-01-01

    A can-out hatch assembly may be positioned in sealed engagement about an aperture within a chamber and is adapted to engage a cover on a container positioned over the aperture to allow the transfer of a contaminant from the chamber to the container while maintaining the contaminant as well as internal portions of the chamber and container isolated from the surrounding environment. With the container's cover engaged by the can-out hatch assembly, the hatch assembly as well as the cover may be pivotally displaced from the aperture with the cover maintaining the exterior portion of the hatch assembly isolated from the contaminant. After the contaminant is transferred from the chamber to the container, the hatch assembly and cover are again positioned in sealed engagement about the aperture. The hatch assembly then positions the cover upon the open end of the container in a sealed manner allowing the container to be removed while maintaining the chamber sealed relative to the surrounding environment. The can-out hatch assembly is particularly adapted for operation by remote control means within the sealed chamber.

  8. Can-out hatch assembly and positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Basnar, Paul J.; Frank, Robert C.; Hoh, Joseph C.

    1986-01-01

    A can-out hatch assembly is adapted to engage in a sealed manner the upper end of a covered sealed container around an aperture in a sealed chamber and to remove the cover from the container permitting a contaminant to be transferred between the container and the chamber while isolating internal portions of the container and chamber from the surrounding environment. A swing bracket is coupled at a first end thereof to the inner, lower wall of the sealed container adjacent to the aperture therein. To a second end of the swing bracket is mounted a hatch cover which may be positioned in sealed engagement about the chamber's aperture by rotating the hatch cover in a first direction when the swing bracket is in the full down position. Rotation of the hatch cover in a second direction releases it from sealed engagement with the chamber's aperture. A lid support rod also coupled to the second end of the swing bracket and inserted through an aperture in the center of the hatch cover may be rotated for threadably engaging the container's cover whereupon the cover may be removed from the container and the hatch cover displaced from the aperture by pivoting displacement of the swing bracket. The contaminant may then be either removed from the container and placed within the sealed chamber, or vice versa, followed by positioning of the cover upon the container and the hatch cover over the aperture in a sealed manner.

  9. Can-out hatch assembly and positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Basnar, Paul J.; Frank, Robert C.; Hoh, Joseph C.

    1986-01-07

    A can-out hatch assembly is adapted to engage in a sealed manner the upper end of a covered sealed container around an aperture in a sealed chamber and to remove the cover from the container permitting a contaminant to be transferred between the container and the chamber while isolating internal portions of the container and chamber from the surrounding environment. A swing bracket is coupled at a first end thereof to the inner, lower wall of the sealed container adjacent to the aperture therein. To a second end of the swing bracket is mounted a hatch cover which may be positioned in sealed engagement about the chamber's aperture by rotating the hatch cover in a first direction when the swing bracket is in the full down position. Rotation of the hatch cover in a second direction releases it from sealed engagement with the chamber's aperture. A lid support rod also coupled to the second end of the swing bracket and inserted through an aperture in the center of the hatch cover may be rotated for threadably engaging the container's cover whereupon the cover may be removed from the container and the hatch cover displaced from the aperture by pivoting displacement of the swing bracket. The contaminant may then be either removed from the container and placed within the sealed chamber, or vice versa, followed by positioning of the cover upon the container and the hatch cover over the aperture in a sealed manner.

  10. Can-out hatch assembly with magnetic retention means

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Robert C.; Hoh, Joseph C.

    1986-01-07

    A can-out hatch assembly may be positioned in sealed engagement about an aperture within a chamber and is adapted to engage a cover on a container positioned over the aperture to allow the transfer of a contaminant from the chamber to the container while maintaining the contaminant as well as internal portions of the chamber and container isolated from the surrounding environment. With the container's cover engaged by the can-out hatch assembly, the hatch assembly as well as the cover may be pivotally displaced from the aperture with the cover maintaining the exterior portion of the hatch assembly isolated from the contaminant. After the contaminant is transferred from the chamber to the container, the hatch assembly and cover are again positioned in sealed engagement about the aperture. The hatch assembly then positions the cover upon the open end of the container in a sealed manner allowing the container to be removed while maintaining the chamber sealed relative to the surrounding environment. The can-out hatch assembly is particularly adapted for operation by remote control means within the sealed chamber.

  11. Can-out hatch assembly and positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Basnar, P.J.; Frank, R.C.; Hoh, J.C.

    1985-07-03

    A can-out hatch assembly is adapted to engage in a sealed manner the upper end of a covered sealed container around an aperture in a sealed chamber and to remove the cover from the container permitting a contaminant to be transferred between the container and the chamber while isolating internal portions of the container and chamber from the surrounding environment. A swing bracket is coupled at a first end thereof to the inner, lower wall of the sealed container adjacent to the aperture therein. To a second end of the swing bracket is mounted a hatch cover which may be positioned in sealed engagement about the chamber's aperture by rotating the hatch cover in a first direction when the swing bracket is in the full down position. Rotation of the hatch cover in a second direction release it from sealed engagement with the chamber's aperture. A lid support rod also coupled to the second end of the swing bracket and inserted through an aperture in the center of the hatch cover may be rotated for theadably engaging the container's cover whereupon the cover may be removed from the container and the hatch cover displaced from the aperture by pivoting displacement of the swing bracket. The contaminant may then be either removed from the container and placed within the sealed chamber, or vice versa, followed by positioning of the cover upon the container and the hatch cover over the aperture in a sealed manner.

  12. Can-out hatch assembly with magnetic retention means

    DOEpatents

    Frank, R.C.; Hoh, J.C.

    1985-07-03

    A can-out hatch assembly may be positioned in sealed engagement about aperture within a chamber and is adapted to engage a cover on a container positioned over the aperture to allow the transfer of a contaminant from the chamber to the container while maintaining the contaminant as well as internal portions of the chamber and container isolated from the surrounding environment. With the container's cover engaged by the can-out hatch assembly, the hatch assembly as well as the cover may be pivotally displaced from the aperture with the cover maintaining the exterior portion of the hatch assembly isolated from the contaminant. After the contaminant is transferred from the chamber to the container, the hatch assembly and cover are again positioned in sealed engagement about the aperture. The hatch assembly then positions the cover upon the open end of the container in a sealed manner allowing the container to be removed while maintaining the chamber sealed relative to the surrounding environment. The can-out hatch assembly is particularly adapted for operation by remote control means within the sealed chamber.

  13. A novel report of hatching plasticity in the phylum Echinodermata.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, A Frances; Blackburn, Holly N; Allen, Jonathan D

    2013-02-01

    Hatching plasticity occurs in response to a wide range of stimuli across many animal taxa, including annelids, arthropods, mollusks, and chordates. Despite the prominence of echinoderms in developmental biology and more than 100 years of detailed examination of their development under a variety of conditions, environmentally cued hatching plasticity has never been reported in the phylum Echinodermata. Here we report plasticity in the timing and stage of hatching of embryos of the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma in response to reductions in salinity. Embryos of E. parma increased their time to hatching more than twofold in response to ecologically relevant salinity reductions, while maintaining an otherwise normal developmental schedule. Embryos that experienced the greatest delay in hatching time emerged from the fertilization envelope as four-arm pluteus larvae rather than hatching as blastulae or early gastrulae. Salinity manipulations across multiple male-female pairs indicated high variability in hatching time both within and among clutches, suggesting significant intraspecific variation in developmental responses to salinity.

  14. Circadian clock controlling egg hatching in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Itoh, M T; Sumi, Y

    2000-06-01

    Adult crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) were maintained under a 12-h light:12-h dark cycle (LD 12:12). After oviposition, their eggs were incubated under different lighting regimens at 23 degrees C, and temporal profiles of egg hatching were examined. When the eggs were incubated in LD 12:12 or in DL 12:12 with a phase difference of 12h from LD 12:12, throughout embryogenesis, 88% to 97% of hatching occurred within 3 h of the dark-light transition on days 17 and 18 of embryogenesis; the phases of the egg-hatching rhythms in the LD 12:12 and DL 12:12 groups differed by about 12 h. In eggs incubated in constant darkness (DD) throughout embryogenesis, a circadian (about 24 h) rhythm of hatching was found, and the phase of the rhythm was similar to that seen in eggs incubated in LD 12:12, but not DL 12:12, throughout embryogenesis. When eggs that had been incubated in DD after oviposition were transferred to DL 12:12 in the middle or later stages of embryogenesis and were returned to DD after three cycles of DL 12:12, the rhythm of hatching synchronized (entrained) to DL 12:12. However, when eggs in the earlier stages of embryogenesis were transferred from DD to DL 12:12 and returned to DD after three cycles, 52% to 94% of hatching did not entrain to DL 12:12. To determine whether photoperiodic conditions to which the parents had been exposed influenced the timing of egg hatching, adult crickets were maintained in DL 12:12, and their eggs were incubated in LD 12:12, DL 12:12, or DD throughout embryogenesis. The egg-hatching rhythm was also found in the eggs incubated under these three lighting regimens. In DD, the phase of the rhythm was similar to that seen in eggs incubated in DL 12:12, not LD 12:12, throughout embryogenesis. The results indicate that in the cricket, the timing of egg hatching is under circadian control and that the circadian rhythm of hatching entrains to 24-h light:dark cycles, but only if the light:dark cycles are imposed midway through embryogenesis

  15. Astronaut Richard Gordon returns to hatch of spacecraft following EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., pilot for the Gemini 11 space flight, returns to the hatch of the spacecraft following extravehicular activity (EVA). This picture was taken over the Atlantic Ocean at approximately 160 nautical miles above the earth's surface.

  16. Interior below decks in fish hold looking forward. Fish hatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior below decks in fish hold looking forward. Fish hatch opening is at upper left, ceiling planks and knees at center and right. - Purse Seiner SHENANDOAH, Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Society and Museum, Gig Harbor, Pierce County, WA

  17. 52. Patent steering gear, hatch and steering compass binnacle, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Patent steering gear, hatch and steering compass binnacle, view from starboard looking aft. Photograph by Jet Lowe, April 1988. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 9. Mispillion Lighthouse, Tower Lantern Floor Hatch Mispillion Lighthouse, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Mispillion Lighthouse, Tower Lantern Floor Hatch - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  19. 14. View inside Building 802, the "Escape Hatch" at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View inside Building 802, the "Escape Hatch" at the rear of the "Sleeping Quarters", facing south. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  20. SOUTHWEST REAR, SHOWING CLOSED ENTRY HATCH, BUILDING 1934. Looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHWEST REAR, SHOWING CLOSED ENTRY HATCH, BUILDING 1934. Looking north - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Observation Bunker Types, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. BLDG 10, INTERIOR DETAIL OF WINDOW AND CEILING FEED HATCHES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 10, INTERIOR DETAIL OF WINDOW AND CEILING FEED HATCHES - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Storage Building, Kolekole Road near Sixty-first Street intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. DETAIL OF OPEN HATCH SHOWING INTERIOR OF MISSILE TUBE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF OPEN HATCH SHOWING INTERIOR OF MISSILE TUBE AND OPEN HATCH AND DOOR ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF TUBE (AT THIRD LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB). VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Hatching the Cleidoic Egg: The Role of Thyroid Hormones

    PubMed Central

    De Groef, Bert; Grommen, Sylvia V.H.; Darras, Veerle M.

    2013-01-01

    A major life stage transition in birds and other oviparous sauropsids is the hatching of the cleidoic egg. Not unlike amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in these species can be regarded as a transition from a relatively well-protected “aqueous” environment to a more hazardous and terrestrial life outside the egg, a transition in which thyroid hormones (THs) (often in concert with glucocorticoids) play an important role. In precocial birds such as the chicken, the perihatch period is characterized by peak values of THs. THs are implicated in the control of muscle development, lung maturation and the switch from chorioallantoic to pulmonary respiration, yolk sac retraction, gut development and induction of hepatic genes to accommodate the change in dietary energy source, initiation of thermoregulation, and the final stages of brain maturation as well as early post-hatch imprinting behavior. There is evidence that, at least for some of these processes, THs may have similar roles in non-avian sauropsids. In altricial birds such as passerines on the other hand, THs do not rise significantly until well after hatching and peak values coincide with the development of endothermy. It is not known how hatching-associated processes are regulated by hormones in these animals or how this developmental mode evolved from TH-dependent precocial hatching. PMID:23755041

  4. 9 CFR 82.9 - Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of hatching eggs... Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area. Hatching eggs from birds or poultry not known...) The hatching eggs are accompanied by a permit obtained in accordance with § 82.11; (b) Copies of...

  5. 9 CFR 82.9 - Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of hatching eggs... Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area. Hatching eggs from birds or poultry not known...) The hatching eggs are accompanied by a permit obtained in accordance with § 82.11; (b) Copies of...

  6. 9 CFR 82.9 - Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of hatching eggs... Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area. Hatching eggs from birds or poultry not known...) The hatching eggs are accompanied by a permit obtained in accordance with § 82.11; (b) Copies of...

  7. 9 CFR 82.9 - Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of hatching eggs... Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area. Hatching eggs from birds or poultry not known...) The hatching eggs are accompanied by a permit obtained in accordance with § 82.11; (b) Copies of...

  8. Extended hatching periods in the subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa (Crustacea: Decapoda: Lithodidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatje, S.; Calcagno, J. A.; Lovrich, G. A.; Sartoris, F. J.; Anger, K.

    2003-06-01

    Temporal pattern of hatching was studied in the subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla (Molina) and Paralomis granulosa (Jaquinot) from the Argentine Beagle Channel. In both species, larval hatching occurred in low daily numbers over an extended period of up to several weeks, depending on hatch size. Low daily hatching activity and low oxygen-consumption rates in freshly hatched P. granulosa larvae are discussed as life history adaptations to, and/or physiological constraints by, the environmental conditions of high latitudes.

  9. Should we maintain baby hatches in our society?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A baby hatch called the “Stork’s Cradle” has been in place at Jikei Hospital in Kumamoto City, Japan, since May 10, 2007. Babyklappes were first established in Germany in 2000, and there are currently more than 90 locations. Attitudes regarding baby hatches are divided in Japan and neither opinions for nor against baby hatches have thus far been overwhelming. To consider the appropriateness of baby hatches, we present and examine the validity of each major objection to establishing baby hatches. Discussion There are various objections to baby hatches as follows: It violates a child’s right to know the identity of his or her biological parents by allowing anonymous birth; it neglects fulfillment of the biological parents’ basic obligation to raise their child and its very availability induces abandonment of infants; some people abuse it for very selfish reasons; it cannot save babies’ lives; the rights of one parent can be ignored if the other surrenders a child without his or her consent; it puts a baby in medical jeopardy; and it has no clear legal basis. The authors would argue that there are many plausible refutations for each objection mainly based on priority of child’s right to life, pregnant women’s vulnerability and necessity of anonymity, social responsibility to protect and raise children, differences between dropping a child off at a baby hatch and child neglect, limited function of social childcare center, inevitability of abuse by a minority of people, necessary distinction between outcomes that occur only because baby hatches exist and those that occur regardless of their existence, important local direct and upmost measures for women in trouble, and difference between ambiguous legality and illegality. Summary We argue that a certain number of baby hatches should continue to be established as a last resort, in a form that can maintain anonymity if the parent dropping the child off so desires. It should be supported if it is

  10. Hatching asynchrony in American Goldfinches: an experimental study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skagen, Susan Knight

    1987-01-01

    I examined Lack's (1954, 1968) hypothesis that asynchronous hatching is an adaptive response to food shortage during the breeding season by comparing growth and survival of nestlings in asynchronous and artificially created synchronous broods of American Goldfinches (Carduelis tristis). I also examined the effects of seasonal and environmental factors on nestling growth and survival and on hatching asynchrony. Nestlings in asynchronous broods were more likely to diverge in mass and did so at a faster rate than those in synchronous broods. The lightest nestlings of asynchronous broods grew more slowly than their heavier nestmates and than all nestlings in synchronous broods. Brood reduction occurred more frequently in asynchronous broods. Survival and growth rates decreased throughout the breeding season and during inclement weather. Hatching intervals increased during the season. When brood reduction or differential growth among nestmates occurred in asynchronous broods, suggesting that the energy available for growth was limiting, heavy nestlings in asynchronous broods grew nonsignificantly faster than heavy nestlings in concurrent synchronous broods. This trend implies that when insufficient food is delivered to nestlings, asynchronous hatching may provide a slight advantage for older nestlings. Growth rates of all nestlings, however, were greatest in highly synchronous broods. Explanations other than growth of young must be invoked to explain why extreme synchrony is not more common in goldfinches. I discuss constraints on the normal pattern of hatching asynchrony characteristic of this species. The proximate mechanism for differential feeding and brood reduction is discussed.

  11. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart I of... - Existing California Area Closures (hatched areas extend to 3 miles offshore; cross-hatched areas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Existing California Area Closures (hatched areas extend to 3 miles offshore; cross-hatched areas extend beyond 3 miles offshore) and Optional.... I, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Subpart I of Part 660—Existing California Area Closures (hatched areas...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart I of... - Existing California Area Closures (hatched areas extend to 3 miles offshore; cross-hatched areas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Existing California Area Closures (hatched areas extend to 3 miles offshore; cross-hatched areas extend beyond 3 miles offshore) and Optional.... I, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Subpart I of Part 660—Existing California Area Closures (hatched areas...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart I of... - Existing California Area Closures (hatched areas extend to 3 miles offshore; cross-hatched areas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Existing California Area Closures (hatched areas extend to 3 miles offshore; cross-hatched areas extend beyond 3 miles offshore) and Optional.... I, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Subpart I of Part 660—Existing California Area Closures (hatched areas...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart I of... - Existing California Area Closures (hatched areas extend to 3 miles offshore; cross-hatched areas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing California Area Closures (hatched areas extend to 3 miles offshore; cross-hatched areas extend beyond 3 miles offshore) and Optional.... I, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Subpart I of Part 660—Existing California Area Closures (hatched areas...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart I of... - Existing California Area Closures (hatched areas extend to 3 miles offshore; cross-hatched areas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Existing California Area Closures (hatched areas extend to 3 miles offshore; cross-hatched areas extend beyond 3 miles offshore) and Optional.... I, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Subpart I of Part 660—Existing California Area Closures (hatched areas...

  16. Forced collapse of the blastocoel enhances survival of cryotop vitrified bovine hatching/hatched blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Min, Sung-Hun; Lee, Enok; Son, Hyeong-Hoon; Yeon, Ji-Yeong; Koo, Deog-Bon

    2013-04-01

    Freezing of bovine blastocysts has been widely used to improve the feasibility of cattle production by the embryo transfer technique. However, the low survival of vitrified-warmed embryos and their further development are crucial problems. Particularly, the production of offspring in vitrified-warmed bovine hatching/hatched blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is very low. Thus, we examined the effects of forced blastocoel collapse (FBC) before vitrification of bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched embryos on the survival rate and apoptosis index after warming. Under optimal conditions, the overall survival rates in vitrified-warmed bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched blastocysts were higher in FBC groups than in non-FBC groups (p<0.05). The total cell numbers of vitrified-warmed hatching/hatched blastocysts were higher in FBC groups than in non-FBC groups (p<0.05). Otherwise, the number of apoptotic positive cells of vitrified-warmed hatching/hatched blastocysts was lower in FBC groups than in non-FBC groups (p<0.05). Taken together, these findings suggest that forced collapse of the blastocoel using a pulled Pasteur pipette is an effective pretreatment technique for vitrification of bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched blastocysts.

  17. Effects of first exogenous nutrients on the mRNA levels of atrogin-1/MAFbx and GLUT1 in the skeletal muscles of newly hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Ijiri, Daichi; Shimamoto, Saki; Kawaguchi, Mana; Furukawa, Airi; Nakashima, Kazuki; Tada, Osamu; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of first exogenous nutrients on the mRNA levels of muscle atrophy F-box (atrogin-1/MAFbx) and glucose transporters (GLUTs) in the skeletal muscles of newly hatched chicks with no feed experience. In experiment 1, newly hatched chicks had free access to feed or were fasted for the first 24h. The chicks having free access to feed for the first 24h increased their body weight and had decreased atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA levels in their sartorius and pectoralis major muscles compared with the fasted chicks. In experiment 2, newly hatched chicks received a single feed via intubation into the crop. Three hours after intubation, levels of atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA in the sartorius muscle were decreased whereas the plasma insulin concentration and phosphorylated AKT levels in the sartorius muscle were increased. In addition, the mRNA levels of GLUT1 and GLUT8 were increased in the sartorius muscle after the intubation. However, in the pectoralis major muscle, AKT phosphorylation and levels of atrogin-1/MAFbx, GLUT1 and GLUT8 mRNA were not affected 3h after intubation. The first exogenous nutrients increased the level of phosphorylated AKT in the sartorius muscle of newly hatched chicks, possibly because of the decrease in atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA levels. Furthermore, the sartorius muscle in newly hatched chicks appeared to be more susceptible to the first feed compared with the pectoralis major muscle.

  18. Heartbeat, embryo communication and hatching synchrony in snake eggs

    PubMed Central

    Aubret, Fabien; Blanvillain, Gaëlle; Bignon, Florent; Kok, Philippe J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Communication is central to life at all levels of complexity, from cells to organs, through to organisms and communities. Turtle eggs were recently shown to communicate with each other in order to synchronise their development and generate beneficial hatching synchrony. Yet the mechanism underlying embryo to embryo communication remains unknown. Here we show that within a clutch, developing snake embryos use heart beats emanating from neighbouring eggs as a clue for their metabolic level, in order to synchronise development and ultimately hatching. Eggs of the water snake Natrix maura increased heart rates and hatched earlier than control eggs in response to being incubated in physical contact with more advanced eggs. The former produced shorter and slower swimming young than their control siblings. Our results suggest potential fitness consequences of embryo to embryo communication and describe a novel driver for the evolution of egg-clustering behaviour in animals. PMID:26988725

  19. Effects of freshwater petroleum contamination on amphibian hatching and metamorphosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mahaney, P.A. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1994-02-01

    This study examined the effects of freshwater petroleum contamination on amphibian reproduction. The primary objectives were to assess the potential environmental and physiological impacts of runoff petroleum products on amphibians, using the green tree frog (Hyla cinerea) as a target species and engine crankcase oil as a contaminant. Egg hatching success, tadpole growth, and successful metamorphosis were measured in four concentrations of oil. The effects of oil on food source was also studied. Hatching success was not measurably influenced by the presence of oil. Tadpole and alga growth were negatively associated with the presence of oil. No tadpoles from the high concentration of oil treatments successfully metamorphosed.

  20. Pre-hatching fluoxetine-induced neurochemical, neurodevelopmental, and immunological changes in newly hatched cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Bidel, Flavie; Di Poi, Carole; Imarazene, Boudjema; Koueta, Noussithé; Budzinski, Hélène; Van Delft, Pierre; Bellanger, Cécile; Jozet-Alves, Christelle

    2016-03-01

    Embryonic and early postembryonic development of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (a cephalopod mollusk) occurs in coastal waters, an environment subject to considerable pressure from xenobiotic pollutants such as pharmaceutical residues. Given the role of serotonin in brain development and its interaction with neurodevelopmental functions, this study focused on fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, antidepressant). The goal was to determine the effects of subchronic waterborne FLX exposure (1 and 10 μg L(-1)) during the last 15 days of embryonic development on neurochemical, neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and immunological endpoints at hatching. Our results showed for the first time that organic contaminants, such as FLX, could pass through the eggshell during embryonic development, leading to a substantial accumulation of this molecule in hatchlings. We also found that FLX embryonic exposure (1 and 10 μg L(-1)) (1) modulated dopaminergic but not serotonergic neurotransmission, (2) decreased cell proliferation in key brain structures for cognitive and visual processing, (3) did not induce a conspicuous change in camouflage quality, and (4) decreased lysozyme activity. In the long term, these alterations observed during a critical period of development may impair complex behaviors of the juvenile cuttlefish and thus lead to a decrease in their survival. Finally, we suggest a different mode of action by FLX between vertebrate and non-vertebrate species and raise questions regarding the vulnerability of early life stages of cuttlefish to the pharmaceutical contamination found in coastal waters.

  1. 46 CFR 196.15-20 - Hatches and other openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... responsibility of the master to assure himself that all exposed hatches and other openings in the hull of his... all respects properly secured for sea before leaving protected waters. (b) The openings to which this... not relieve the master of his responsibility for the safety of his vessel, equipment or persons...

  2. 46 CFR 196.15-20 - Hatches and other openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... responsibility of the master to assure himself that all exposed hatches and other openings in the hull of his... all respects properly secured for sea before leaving protected waters. (b) The openings to which this... not relieve the master of his responsibility for the safety of his vessel, equipment or persons...

  3. 46 CFR 97.15-20 - Hatches and other openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... stated in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, it shall be the responsibility of the master to assure... secured for sea before leaving protected waters. (2) A vessel engaged in a voyage exclusively on Great... not relieve the master of any responsibility for the securing and protection of his hatches during...

  4. 46 CFR 196.15-20 - Hatches and other openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... responsibility of the master to assure himself that all exposed hatches and other openings in the hull of his... all respects properly secured for sea before leaving protected waters. (b) The openings to which this... not relieve the master of his responsibility for the safety of his vessel, equipment or persons...

  5. 11. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS HATCH DOOR INTO WINCH ROOM IN THE SUPERSTRUCTURE (LABELED AT PASSAGE & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY ON PLAN). - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 6. Detail of forward fuselage showing open cockpit hatch and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of forward fuselage showing open cockpit hatch and ladder. View to southeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. 45 CFR 1226.10 - Hatch Act restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hatch Act restrictions. 1226.10 Section 1226.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY..., watcher or challenger for any party or faction, transporting voters to or from the polls, or...

  8. 45 CFR 1226.10 - Hatch Act restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hatch Act restrictions. 1226.10 Section 1226.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY..., watcher or challenger for any party or faction, transporting voters to or from the polls, or...

  9. 45 CFR 1226.10 - Hatch Act restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hatch Act restrictions. 1226.10 Section 1226.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY..., watcher or challenger for any party or faction, transporting voters to or from the polls, or...

  10. Oxygenation of anoxic sediments triggers hatching of zooplankton eggs.

    PubMed

    Broman, Elias; Brüsin, Martin; Dopson, Mark; Hylander, Samuel

    2015-10-22

    Many coastal marine systems have extensive areas with anoxic sediments and it is not well known how these conditions affect the benthic-pelagic coupling. Zooplankton lay their eggs in the pelagic zone, and some sink and lie dormant in the sediment, before hatched zooplankton return to the water column. In this study, we investigated how oxygenation of long-term anoxic sediments affects the hatching frequency of dormant zooplankton eggs. Anoxic sediments from the brackish Baltic Sea were sampled and incubated for 26 days with constant aeration whereby, the sediment surface and the overlying water were turned oxic. Newly hatched rotifers and copepod nauplii (juveniles) were observed after 5 and 8 days, respectively. Approximately 1.5 × 10(5) nauplii m(-2) emerged from sediment turned oxic compared with 0.02 × 10(5) m(-2) from controls maintained anoxic. This study demonstrated that re-oxygenation of anoxic sediments activated a large pool of buried zooplankton eggs, strengthening the benthic-pelagic coupling of the system. Modelling of the studied anoxic zone suggested that a substantial part of the pelagic copepod population can derive from hatching of dormant eggs. We suggest that this process should be included in future studies to understand population dynamics and carbon flows in marine pelagic systems.

  11. Oxygenation of anoxic sediments triggers hatching of zooplankton eggs

    PubMed Central

    Broman, Elias; Brüsin, Martin; Dopson, Mark; Hylander, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Many coastal marine systems have extensive areas with anoxic sediments and it is not well known how these conditions affect the benthic–pelagic coupling. Zooplankton lay their eggs in the pelagic zone, and some sink and lie dormant in the sediment, before hatched zooplankton return to the water column. In this study, we investigated how oxygenation of long-term anoxic sediments affects the hatching frequency of dormant zooplankton eggs. Anoxic sediments from the brackish Baltic Sea were sampled and incubated for 26 days with constant aeration whereby, the sediment surface and the overlying water were turned oxic. Newly hatched rotifers and copepod nauplii (juveniles) were observed after 5 and 8 days, respectively. Approximately 1.5 × 105 nauplii m−2 emerged from sediment turned oxic compared with 0.02 × 105 m−2 from controls maintained anoxic. This study demonstrated that re-oxygenation of anoxic sediments activated a large pool of buried zooplankton eggs, strengthening the benthic–pelagic coupling of the system. Modelling of the studied anoxic zone suggested that a substantial part of the pelagic copepod population can derive from hatching of dormant eggs. We suggest that this process should be included in future studies to understand population dynamics and carbon flows in marine pelagic systems. PMID:26468249

  12. HATCH CONNECTING TEMPERED AIR CHAMBER AND HOT AIR CHAMBER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HATCH CONNECTING TEMPERED AIR CHAMBER AND HOT AIR CHAMBER OF PLENUM WITH ATTACHED DRAFT REGULATOR. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  13. PLAN SECTIONS AND DETAILS OF CELL HATCHES MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLAN SECTIONS AND DETAILS OF CELL HATCHES MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP-601). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0601-00-291-103256. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 542-11-F-302. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. 29 CFR 1918.42 - Hatch beam and pontoon bridles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... inch (2.54 cm) longer than twice the largest diameter of the holes into which they are placed. (c... reach the holes, rings, or other lifting attachments on the hatch beams and pontoons easily; (2) Of adequate strength to lift the load safely; and (3) Properly maintained, including covering or blunting...

  15. 29 CFR 1918.42 - Hatch beam and pontoon bridles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... inch (2.54 cm) longer than twice the largest diameter of the holes into which they are placed. (c... reach the holes, rings, or other lifting attachments on the hatch beams and pontoons easily; (2) Of adequate strength to lift the load safely; and (3) Properly maintained, including covering or blunting...

  16. 11. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS HATCH DOOR INTO WINCH ROOM IN THE SUPERSTRUCTURE (LABELED AS FASSAGE & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY ON PLAN), SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF GEARED WHEEL OF BOOM. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  17. DETAIL OF MISSILE TUBE HATCH WITH MILLED FITTINGS AT GROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF MISSILE TUBE HATCH WITH MILLED FITTINGS AT GROUND FLOOR LEVEL. VIEW FACING EAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 2. WEST REAR, WITH PORTHOLE ESCAPE HATCH ABOVE ENTRY DOOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST REAR, WITH PORTHOLE ESCAPE HATCH ABOVE ENTRY DOOR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Next-Generation MKIII Lightweight HUT/Hatch Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Mike; Toscano, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    The MK III (H-1) carbon-graphite/ epoxy Hard Upper Torso (HUT)/Hatch assembly was designed, fabricated, and tested in the early 1990s. The spacesuit represented an 8.3 psi (˜58 kPa) technology demonstrator model of a zero prebreathe suit. The basic torso shell, brief, and hip areas of the suit were composed of a carbon-graphite/epoxy composite lay-up. In its current configuration, the suit weighs approximately 120 lb (˜54 kg). However, since future planetary suits will be designed to operate at 0.26 bar (˜26 kPa), it was felt that the suit's re-designed weight could be reduced to 79 lb (˜35 kg) with the incorporation of lightweight structural materials. Many robust, lightweight structures based on the technologies of advanced honeycomb materials, revolutionary new composite laminates, metal matrix composites, and recent breakthroughs in fullerene fillers and nanotechnology lend themselves well to applications requiring materials that are both light and strong. The major problem involves the reduction in weight of the HUT/ Hatch assembly for use in lunar and/or planetary applications, while at the same time maintaining a robust structural design. The technical objective is to research, design, and develop manufacturing methods that support fa b rica - tion of a lightweight HUT/Hatch assembly using advanced material and geometric redesign as necessary. Additionally, the lightweight HUT/Hatch assembly will interface directly with current MK III hardware. Using the new operating pressure and current MK III (H-1) interfaces as a starting block, it is planned to maximize HUT/Hatch assembly weight reduction through material selection and geometric redesign. A hard upper torso shell structure with rear-entry closure and corresponding hatch will be fabricated. The lightweight HUT/Hatch assembly will retrofit and interface with existing MK III (H-1) hardware elements, providing NASA with immediate "plug-andplay" capability. NASA crewmembers will have a lightweight

  20. 49 CFR 238.441 - Emergency roof access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency roof access. 238.441 Section 238.441... Equipment § 238.441 Emergency roof access. (a) Existing passenger cars and power cars. Each passenger car..., 2011, shall have a minimum of one roof hatch emergency access location with a minimum opening of...

  1. 49 CFR 238.441 - Emergency roof access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency roof access. 238.441 Section 238.441... Equipment § 238.441 Emergency roof access. (a) Existing passenger cars and power cars. Each passenger car..., 2011, shall have a minimum of one roof hatch emergency access location with a minimum opening of...

  2. Efficacy of polymers in combination with biocides as sanitizer of salmonella inoculated broiler hatching eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella contamination of broiler hatching eggs can be carried through the hatchery and with the hatched chick into the broiler house. Commercially available chemical hatching egg sanitizers have achieved acceptable levels of eggshell decontamination of >70% reductions when applied prior to setti...

  3. 9 CFR 82.9 - Interstate movement of hatching eggs from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of hatching eggs... hatching eggs from a quarantined area. Hatching eggs from birds or poultry not known to be infected with or... eggs are accompanied by a permit obtained in accordance with § 82.11; (b) Copies of the...

  4. Hatching and fledging times from grassland passerine nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Granfors, D.A.; Grant, T.A.; Ribic, C.A.; Thompson, F. R.; Pietz, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimates of fledging age are needed in field studies to avoid inducing premature fledging or missing the fledging event. Both may lead to misinterpretation of nest fate. Correctly assessing nest fate and length of the nestling period can be critical for accurate calculation of nest survival rates. For researchers who mark nestlings, knowing the age at which their activities may cause young to leave nests prematurely could prevent introducing bias to their studies. We obtained estimates of fledging age using data from grassland bird nests monitored from hatching through fledging with video-surveillance systems in North Dakota and Minnesota during 1996–2001. We compared these values to those obtained from traditional nest visits and from available literature. Mean and modal fledging ages for video-monitored nests were generally similar to those for visited nests, although Clay-colored Sparrows (Spizella pallida) typically fledged 1 day earlier from visited nests. Average fledging ages from both video and nest visits occurred within ranges reported in the literature, but expanded by 1–2 days the upper age limit for Clay-colored Sparrows and the lower age limit for Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). Video showed that eggs hatched throughout the day whereas most young fledged in the morning (06:30–12:30 CDT). Length of the hatching period for a clutch was usually >1 day and was positively correlated with clutch size. Length of the fledging period for a brood was usually <1 day, and in nearly half the nests, fledging was completed within <2 hr. Video surveillance has proven to be a useful tool for providing new information and for corroborating published statements related to hatching and fledging chronology. Comparison of data collected from video and nest visits showed that carefully conducted nest visits generally can provide reliable data for deriving estimates of survival.

  5. Egg storage duration and hatch window affect gene expression of nutrient transporters and intestine morphological parameters of early hatched broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, S; Gursel, I; Bilgen, G; Izzetoglu, G T; Horuluoglu, B H; Gucluer, G

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, researchers have given emphasis on the differences in physiological parameters between early and late hatched chicks within a hatch window. Considering the importance of intestine development in newly hatched chicks, however, changes in gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of early hatched chicks within a hatch window have not been studied yet. This study was conducted to determine the effects of egg storage duration before incubation and hatch window on intestinal development and expression of PepT1 (H+-dependent peptide transporter) and SGLT1 (sodium-glucose co-transporter) genes in the jejunum of early hatched broiler chicks within a 30 h of hatch window. A total of 1218 eggs obtained from 38-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flocks were stored for 3 (ES3) or 14 days (ES14) and incubated at the same conditions. Eggs were checked between 475 and 480 h of incubation and 40 chicks from each egg storage duration were weighed; chick length and rectal temperature were measured. The chicks were sampled to evaluate morphological parameters and PepT1 and SGLT1 expression. The remaining chicks that hatched between 475 and 480 h were placed back in the incubator and the same measurements were conducted with those chicks at the end of hatch window at 510 h of incubation. Chick length, chick dry matter content, rectal temperature and weight of small intestine segments increased, whereas chick weight decreased during the hatch window. The increase in the jejunum length and villus width and area during the hatch window were higher for ES3 than ES14 chicks. PepT1 expression was higher for ES3 chicks compared with ES14. There was a 10.2 and 17.6-fold increase in PepT1 and SGLT1 expression of ES3 chicks at the end of hatch window, whereas it was only 2.3 and 3.3-fold, respectively, for ES14 chicks. These results suggested that egg storage duration affected development of early hatched chicks during 30 h of hatch window. It can be concluded that

  6. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Spooner, B S; DeBell, L; Armbrust, L; Guikema, J A; Metcalf, J; Paulsen, A

    1994-01-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by introduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spaceflight, and show that extensive degrees of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  7. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-08-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by intrduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spaceflight, and show that extensive degress of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  8. Thermal effects in laser-assisted embryo hatching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, Diarmaid H.; Conia, Jerome D.

    2000-08-01

    Diode lasers [(lambda) equals 1480 nm] are used with in-vitro fertilization [IVF] as a promoter of embryo hatching. A focused laser beam is applied in vitro to form a channel in the zona pellucida (shell) of the pre-embryo. After transfer into the uterus, the embryo hatches: it extrudes itself through the channel and implants into the uterine wall. Laser-assisted hatching can result in improving implantation and pregnancy success rates. We present examples of zone pellucida ablation using animal models. In using the laser it is vital not to damage pre-embryo cells, e.g. by overheating. In order to define safe regimes we have derived some thermal side-effects of zona pellucida removal. The temperature profile in the beam and vicinity is predicted as function of laser pulse duration and power. In a crossed-beam experiment a HeNe laser probe detects the temperature-induced change in refractive index. We find that the diode laser beam produces superheated water approaching 200 C on the beam axis. Thermal histories during and following the laser pulse are given for regions in the neighborhood of the beam. We conclude that an optimum regime exists with pulse duration

  9. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by introduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spa ceflight, and show that extensive degrees of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  10. Modeling cross-hatch surface morphology in growing mismatched layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, A. M.; Speck, J. S.; Romanov, A. E.; Bobeth, M.; Pompe, W.

    2002-02-01

    We propose and investigate a model for the development of cross-hatch surface morphology in growing mismatched layers. The model incorporates two important elements: (i) strain relaxation due to dislocation glide in the layer (film) interior that is also associated with misfit dislocation formation at the film/substrate interface and (ii) lateral surface transport that eliminates surface steps that originated from dislocation glide. A combination of dislocation-assisted strain relaxation and surface step flow leads to the appearance of surface height undulations during layer growth. A Monte Carlo simulation technique was applied to model dislocation nucleation events in the course of strain relaxation. The simulation was used to model the influence of dislocations on film surface height profiles. The surface height displacement was calculated from the analytic elasticity solutions for edge dislocations near a free surface. The results of the modeling predict that the average amplitude of the surface undulations and their apparent wavelength both increase with increasing film relaxation and film thickness. The developed cross-hatch pattern is characterized by an atomically smooth but mesoscopically (lateral dimensions ˜0.1-10 μm) rough surface morphology. The conclusions of the model are in agreement with atomic force microscopy observations of cross-hatch surface relief in In0.25Ga0.75As/GaAs samples grown well beyond the critical thickness for misfit dislocation formation.

  11. Influence of Herbicide Application to Soybeans on Soybean Cyst Nematode Egg Hatching

    PubMed Central

    Levene, Brian C.; Owen, Micheal D. K; Tylka, Gregory L.

    1998-01-01

    The hatching of Heterodera glycines eggs in soybean root exudates collected after postemergence application of three herbicides, and the hatching potential of H. glycines eggs from females feeding on herbicide-treated plants, were measured in vitro. Hatching in all root exudate solutions (RES) was greater than in deionized water but less than in 0.003 M ZnSO₄ solution. Filtering RES with a 0.22-μm-filter increased H. glycines hatching in RES. Application of acifluorfen, bentazon, and lactofen to foliage of soybean plants inhibited hatching of H. glycines eggs from the same plants. Hatching in RES from the different herbicide-treated soybeans was similar. Application of crop oil concentrate and non-ionic surfactant adjuvant to foliage did not affect hatching of H. glycines eggs from soybean plants. PMID:19274227

  12. To hatch and hatch not: similar selective trade-offs but different responses to egg predators in two closely related, syntopic treefrogs.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Warkentin, Karen M

    2007-08-01

    Risk-sensitive hatching is adaptive for species facing a trade-off between egg-stage and post-hatching risks, and environmental variation in one or both stages. Such plasticity has been found in amphibians, fishes, reptiles and spiders, with red-eyed treefrogs (Agalychnis callidryas) being the best-studied case. We assessed hatching plasticity and egg- and larval-stage risks in a closely related, syntopic species, the gliding leaf-frog (Agalychnis spurrelli). We found a lower hatching response to egg-eating snakes in A. spurrelli (9-28% of embryos escaped) than in A. callidryas (59-80% escaped). Levels of snake predation were similarly high for clutches of both species monitored at a pond in Costa Rica, and in fish predation experiments early-hatched A. spurrelli tadpoles were more vulnerable than later hatchlings, as has been shown for A. callidryas. A. spurrelli thus face a risk trade-off similar to A. callidryas, and likely would benefit from predator-induced hatching; their lower responsiveness to snakes appears nonadaptive. A. spurrelli embryos showed a stronger hatching response (57% hatched in 1 h) to submergence underwater than to snake attacks even though submergence is a less frequent risk. This suggests they have a greater capacity for early hatching than is expressed in the context of snake attacks, but have much lower sensitivity to snake cues than to flooding cues. Development in A. spurrelli is accelerated compared to syntopic A. callidryas, and spontaneous hatching is earlier and more synchronous. This is congruent with predictions based on selection by egg predators in the absence of a strong escape hatching response.

  13. The location of "8"-shaped hatching influences inner cell mass formation in mouse blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Yohei; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Goto, Mayumi; Anzai, Mibuki; Ono, Natsuki; Shirasawa, Hiromitsu; Sato, Wataru; Miura, Hiroshi; Sato, Naoki; Sato, Akira; Kumazawa, Yukiyo; Terada, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    The hatching of a blastocyst where the blastocyst portions on the inside and the outside of the zona pellucida feature a figure-of-eight shape is termed "8"-shaped hatching; this type of hatching has been reported to affect the proper presentation of the inner cell mass (ICM) in both human and mouse embryos. Here, our aim was to investigate the factors that affect ICM presentation during "8"-shaped hatching. We performed IVF by using B6D2F1 female mice and ICR male mice, and used the 104 captured blastocysts. Embryos were maintained in KSOM at 37°C in a 5% CO2, 5% O2, and 90% N2 environment, and their growth behavior was monitored individually and continuously using time-lapse cinematography. At 120 h after insemination, embryos were immunostained and examined under a confocal microscope. We used the hatching form to identify "8"-shaped hatching, and we classified the "8"-shaped-hatching blastocysts into two groups, one in which the hatching site was near the ICM center, and the other in which the hatching site was far from the ICM center. We measured each group for ICM size and the number of Oct3/4-positive cells. Of the 95 hatching or hatched embryos, 74 were "8"-shaped-hatching blastocysts, and in these embryos, the ICM was significantly wider when the hatching site was near the ICM than when the hatching site was far from the ICM (P = 0.0091). Moreover, in the "8"-shaped-hatching blastocysts in which the ICM was included in the blastocyst portion outside the zona pellucida-the portion defined as the "outside blastocyst"-after the collapse of this outside blastocyst, the ICM adhered to the trophectoderm of the outside blastocyst, opposite the hatching site. Our results indicate that in "8"-shaped-hatching blastocysts, the hatching site and the collapse of outside blastocyst affect ICM formation. Thus, the assessment of "8"-shaped hatching behaviors could yield indices for accurately evaluating embryo quality.

  14. A facile phenol-driven intramolecular diastereoselective thermal/base-catalyzed dipolar [2+2] annulation reactions: an easy access to complex bioactive natural and unnatural benzopyran congeners.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Mukulesh; Puranik, Vedavati G; Argade, Narshinha P

    2007-03-16

    The complex bioactive natural and unnatural benzopyran congeners have been synthesized using one-/two-step approaches in very good yields from the reactions of two different dihydroxyphthalides, natural resorcyclic acid derivative, and trihydroxybenzophenone with citral and/or farnesal, via the phenol-driven intramolecular diastereoselective thermal/base-catalyzed dipolar [2+2] cycloaddition reactions and three different thermal intramolecular cyclization reactions. The effects of the nature and the position of phenolic groups in the starting materials on the course of these cycloaddition reactions have also been described. Depending upon the absence or presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding of the phenolic group with the carbonyl moiety in the starting materials, these phenol-driven intramolecular thermal/base-catalyzed dipolar [2+2] cycloaddition reactions either furnished the kinetically controlled products or directly formed the thermodynamically controlled rearranged products, respectively.

  15. Plasticity of hatching in amphibians: evolution, trade-offs, cues and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Warkentin, Karen M

    2011-07-01

    Many species of frogs and salamanders, in at least 12 families, alter their timing of hatching in response to conditions affecting mortality of eggs or larvae. Some terrestrially laid or stranded embryos wait to hatch until they are submerged in water. Some embryos laid above water accelerate hatching if the eggs are dehydrating; others hatch early if flooded. Embryos can hatch early in response to predators and pathogens of eggs or delay hatching in response to predators of larvae; some species do both. The phylogenetic pattern of environmentally cued hatching suggests that similar responses have evolved convergently in multiple amphibian lineages. The use of similar cues, including hypoxia and physical disturbance, in multiple contexts suggests potential shared mechanisms underlying the capacity of embryos to respond to environmental conditions. Shifts in the timing of hatching often have clear benefits, but we know less about the trade-offs that favor plasticity, the mechanisms that enable it, and its evolutionary history. Some potentially important types of cued hatching, such as those involving embryo-parent interactions, are relatively unexplored. I discuss promising directions for research and the opportunities that the hatching of amphibians offers for integrative studies of the mechanisms, ecology and evolution of a critical transition between life-history stages.

  16. Astronaut Vance Brand practices operating Docking Module hatch for ASTP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) prime crew, practices operating a Docking Module hatch during ASTP pre-flight training at JSC. The Docking Module is designed to link the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft during their docking in Earth orbit mission. Gary L. Doerre of JSC's Crew Training and Procedures Division is working with Brand. Doerre is wearing a face mask to help prevent possible exposure to Brand of disease prior to the ASTP launch.

  17. Need for higher fuel burnup at the Hatch Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Beckhman, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    Hatch is a BWR 4 and has been in operation for some time. The first unit became commercial about 1975. Obtaining higher burnups, or higher average discharge exposures, is nothing new at Hatch. Since we have started, the discharge exposure of the plant has increased. Now, of course, we are not approaching the numbers currently being discussed but, the average discharge exposure has increased from around 20,000 MWD/MTU in the early to mid-1980s to 34,000 MWD/MTU in 1994, I am talking about batch average values. There are also peak bundle and peak rod values. You will have to make the conversions if you think in one way or the other because I am talking in batch averages. During Hatch`s operating history we have had some problems with fuel failure. Higher burnup fuel raises a concern about how much fuel failure you are going to have. Fuel failure is, of course, an economic issue with us. Back in the early 1980s, we had a problem with crud-induced localized corrosion, known as CILC. We have gotten over that, but we had some times when it was up around 27 fuel failures a year. That is not a pleasant time to live through because it is not what you want from an economic viewpoint or any other. We have gotten that down. We have had some fuel failures recently, but they have not been related to fuel burnup or to corrosion. In fact, the number of failures has decreased from the early 1980s to the 90s even though burnup increased during that time. The fuel failures are more debris-related-type failures. In addition to increasing burnups, utilities are actively evaluating or have already incorporated power uprate and longer fuel cycles (e.g., 2-year cycles). The goal is to balance out the higher power density, longer cycles, higher burnup, and to have no leakers. Why do we as an industry want to have higher burnup fuel? That is what I want to tell you a little bit about.

  18. Plasticity of hatching and the duration of planktonic development in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Oyarzun, Fernanda X; Strathmann, Richard R

    2011-07-01

    Plasticity in hatching potentially adjusts risks of benthic and planktonic development for benthic marine invertebrates. The proportionate effect of hatching plasticity on duration of larval swimming is greatest for animals that can potentially brood or encapsulate offspring until hatching near metamorphic competence. As an example, early hatching of the nudibranch mollusk Phestilla sibogae is stimulated by scattering of encapsulated offspring, as by a predator feeding on the gelatinous egg ribbon. When egg ribbons are undisturbed, hatching is at or near metamorphic competence. Disturbance of an unguarded benthic egg mass can insert 4 or more days of obligate larval dispersal into the life history. As another example, the spionid annelid Boccardia proboscidea broods capsules, each with both cannibalistic and developmentally arrested planktivorous siblings plus nurse eggs. Early hatching produces mainly planktivorous larvae with a planktonic duration of 15 days. Late hatching produces mainly adelphophages who have eaten their planktivorous siblings and metamorphose with little or no period of swimming. Mothers actively hatch their offspring by tearing the capsules, and appeared to time hatching in response to their environment and not to the stage of development of their offspring. Higher temperature increased the variance of brooding time. Females appeared to hatch capsules at an earlier developmental stage at lower temperatures. Species that release gametes or zygotes directly into the plankton have less scope for plasticity in stage at hatching. Their embryos develop singly with little protection and hatch at early stages, often as blastulae or gastrulae. Time of hatching cannot be greatly advanced, and sensory capabilities of blastulae may be limited.

  19. Special structures of hoopoe eggshells enhance the adhesion of symbiont-carrying uropygial secretion that increase hatching success.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Soler, Juan J; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M; Arco, Laura; Martín-Platero, Antonio M; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Valdivia, Eva

    2014-11-01

    Animals live in a bacterial world, and detecting and exploring adaptations favouring mutualistic relationships with antibiotic-producing bacteria as a strategy to fight pathogens are of prime importance for evolutionary ecologists. Uropygial secretion of European hoopoes (Upupa epops, Linnaeus) contains antimicrobials from mutualistic bacteria that may be used to prevent embryo infection. Here, we investigated the microscopic structure of hoopoe eggshells looking for special features favouring the adhesion of antimicrobial uropygial secretions. We impeded female access to the uropygial gland and compared microscopic characteristics of eggshells, bacterial loads of eggs and of uropygial secretion, and hatching success of experimental and control females. Then, we explored the link between microbiological characteristics of uropygial secretion and these of eggs of hoopoes, as well as possible fitness benefits. The microscopic study revealed special structures in hoopoes' eggshells (crypts). The experimental prevention of females' gland access demonstrated that crypts are filled with uropygial secretion and that symbiotic enterococci bacteria on the eggshells come, at least partially, from those in the female's uropygial gland. Moreover, the experiment resulted in a higher permeability of eggshells by several groups of bacteria and in elimination of the positive relationships detected for control nests between hatching success and density of symbiotic bacteria, either in the uropygial secretion of females or on the eggshell. The findings of specialized crypts on the eggshells of hoopoes, and of video-recorded females smearing secretion containing symbiotic bacteria at a high density onto the eggshells strongly support a link between secretion and bacteria on eggs. Moreover, the detected associations between bacteria and hatching success suggest that crypts enhancing the adhesion of symbiont-carrying uropygial secretion likely protect embryos against infections.

  20. Pre- and post-hatch trophic egg production in the subsocial burrower bug, Canthophorus niveimarginatus (Heteroptera: Cydnidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, Lisa; Baba, Narumi; Inadomi, Koichi; Yanagi, Takao; Hironaka, Mantaro; Nomakuchi, Shintaro

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, three terrestrial bugs, Adomerus triguttulus and Sehirus cinctus (Cydnidae) and the closely related Parastrachia japonensis (Parastrachiidae), have been the focus of several fascinating studies because of the remarkable, extensive parental care they were found to display. This care includes egg and nymph guarding, production of trophic eggs, unfertilized, low cost eggs that are used as food by newly hatched nymphs, and progressive provisioning of the host seed. In this study, we have investigated yet a third related Asian cydnid, Canthophorus niveimarginatus, with regard to the possible occurrence of some or all of these complex traits in order to assess how widespread these maternal investment patterns are in this group of insects and to better understand the implications of their manifestations from an evolutionary context. Manipulative experiments were carried out in the lab to determine whether females provision nests. Observational and egg removal studies were carried out to determine whether trophic eggs are produced, and, if they are, their possible impact on nymphal success. The findings revealed that C. niveimarginatus does, in fact, progressively provision young, and this species also displays all of the other behaviors associated with extended parental care in subsocial insects. Moreover, unlike the other two related species, which place trophic eggs on the surface of the original egg mass, C. niveimarginatus produces both pre- and post-hatch trophic eggs. Nymphs deprived of access to post-hatch trophic eggs had significantly lower body weight and survival rate than those that fed on them. To our knowledge, this is the first time the production of both pre- and post-hatch trophic eggs has been demonstrated in insects outside the Hymenoptera. In this paper, we qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate the provisioning behavior and patterns of trophic egg production in C. niveimarginatus. When and how trophic eggs are produced and

  1. Effects of color bands on Semipalmated Sandpipers banded at hatch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, J.; Battaglia, D.; Senner, N.

    2001-01-01

    Effects of color bands on adult birds have been investigated in many studies, but much less is known about the effects of bands on birds banded at hatch. We captured Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) chicks at hatch on the Alaskan North Slope and attached 0-3 bands to them. The chicks were resighted and reweighed during the subsequent two weeks. The number of chicks banded varied from 18 to 21 among treatments; 6-9 were resighted, and 6-7 were reweighed, per treatment. The proportion resighted varied from 0.33 to 0.45. The estimated resighting probability, given that we encountered a brood, was 82%. We tested for effects of the bands on survival and mass gain by analyzing whether the proportion of chicks resighted, or their mass, varied with the number of bands. We found no evidence that bands affected the chicks and were able to rule out (with 95% confidence) a decline in survivorship of more than 13% and a loss of mass of more than 10%. Although bands had little if any effect on chicks in our study, we believe their effects should be evaluated whenever survivorship or mass gain are estimated using color-marked chicks.

  2. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility prepare the hatch of the Unity connecting module for closure before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  3. Cosmonaut Gidzenko Near Hatch Between Unity and Destiny

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Cosmonaut Yuri P. Gidzenko, Expedition One Soyuz commander, stands near the hatch leading from the Unity node into the newly-attached Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules. The U.S.-built Unity module was launched aboard the Orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998, and connected to Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Cargo Block (FGB). The U.S. Laboratory (Destiny) module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity in space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (STS-98 mission) on February 7, 2001. The aluminum module is 8.5 meters (28 feet) long and 4.3 meters (14 feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations, and payload racks will occupy 13 locations especially designed to support experiments.

  4. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility hold part of the equipment to close the hatch to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  5. Spawning and hatching of endangered Gila Chub in captivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, Andrew A.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Information on reproductive characteristics of the endangered Gila Chub Gila intermedia is largely limited and qualitative, and culture techniques and requirements are virtually unknown. Here we provide the first published data on spawning and selected reproductive and developmental characteristics of Gila Chub. Fish were brought to the laboratory in March 2003 from Sabino Creek, Arizona (12.3°C). Fish were then warmed slowly and spawned at 14.9°C, 10 d after collection. Following this initial spawning, Gila Chub spawned consistently in the laboratory without hormonal, chemical, photoperiod, temperature, or substrate manipulation during all times of the year. Spawns were noted at temperatures ranging from about 15°C to 26°C; however, we noted that Gila Chub spawned less frequently at temperatures above 24°C. Multiple spawning attempts per year per individual are probable. There was a strong, inverse relationship between time to hatch and incubation temperature. The hatch rate of eggs was high (mean = 99.43%), and larval Gila Chub accepted a variety of natural and formulated diets at first feeding. The future of Gila Chub may someday depend in part on hatchery propagation to provide specimens for restocking formerly occupied habitats and establishing refuge populations. Information from our study can aid future efforts to successfully spawn and rear Gila Chub and related species.

  6. Asynchronous hatching and food limitation: a test of Lack's hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skagen, Susan Knight

    1988-01-01

    Lack’s (1954, 1968) hypothesis that asynchronous hatching of altricial birds is an adaptive response to unpredictable food shortages during the breeding season was examined in the highly granivorous Zebra Finch (Poephila guttata). I compared growth and survival of nestlings in asynchronous and artificially created synchronous brood reared under food-limited and food-abundant conditions in an aviary. I also examined the role of parental experience on survival and growth of nestlings. There was no differential mortality of Zebra Finch nestlings due to either asynchrony or food abundance. Young in abundant food treatments grew more rapidly, however, than those in food restricted treatments. Heaviest Zebra Finch nestlings in a brood grew more quickly than their lightest siblings when food was limited, supporting Lack’s hypothesis. Further, differential survival of light and heavy siblings occurred when food was abundant, suggesting that asynchronous hatching can be maladaptive under some ecological conditions. Nestlings reared by inexperienced parents suffered greater mortality and slower growth when food was abundant than nestlings raised by experienced parents. Prefledging mass was correlated with size at adulthood.

  7. Pesticide contamination and hatching success of waterbirds in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Fleming, W.J.; Ensor, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    Waterfowl wintering on the Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) were contaminated (ltoreq 4 ppm wet wt) with dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), but residues were below levels known to affect waterfowl. Eggs of some nesting waterbirds contained higher than expected levels of DDE, especially those of green-backed herons (Butorides striatus), ranging up to 43 ppm wet weight. Hatching success (P lt 0.05) and eggshell thickness (P lt 0.05) in green-backed herons and anhingas (Anhinga anhinga) were negatively correlated with DDE in the eggs, and shell thinning (P lt 0.05) was evident 12-13 years after DDT was banned in the United States. The threshold level of DDE determined necessary for reduced hatching success in green-backed heron eggs was 5.1-10 ppm wet weight. These results further increase our ability to interpret DDE concentrations in waterbirds and predict their potential effects on productivity.

  8. Differential effects of egg albumen content on barn swallow nestlings in relation to hatch order.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, R P; Martinelli, R; Saino, N

    2006-05-01

    In diverse animal taxa, egg mass variation mediates maternal effects with long-term consequences for offspring ontogeny and fitness. Patterns of egg mass variation with laying order differ considerably among birds, but no study has experimentally investigated the function of variation in albumen or yolk egg content in the wild. In barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), absolute and relative albumen mass increased with egg laying order. Experimental albumen removal delayed hatching, had larger negative effects on growth of late-hatched nestlings, and reduced nestling survival. Laying order positively predicted hatch order. Because nestling competitive ability depends on size, and albumen egg content influences hatchling size, present results suggest that by increasing albumen content of late eggs mothers reduce hatching asynchrony and enhance growth particularly of late-hatched nestlings. Thus, variation in albumen mass with laying order may function to mitigate the negative phenotypic consequences of hatching late in species that adopt a 'brood-survival' strategy.

  9. The effect of moisture stress upon the hatching of Nematodirus battus larvae.

    PubMed

    Parkin, J T

    1975-04-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of soil moisture stress upon the hatching behaviour of Nematodirus battus. The method involved the use of polyethylene glycol solutions to maintain a steady osmotic pressure around a soil containing N. battus eggs, which were ready to hatch. Different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (creating different moisture stresses) were found to affect the numbers and the rate of egg hatching markedly.

  10. Effects of Hatching Time on Behavior and Weight Development of Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Løtvedt, Pia; Jensen, Per

    2014-01-01

    The length of the embryonic period varies both among and within species and can affect the individual phenotype in many ways, both physiologically and behaviorally. In chickens, the hatch window may last 24–48 hours (up to 10% of the incubation time), and studies have shown that incubation length may affect post-hatch growth and physiology. However, little is known about effects on behavior. We therefore investigated how behavior variation correlates with hatching time in the early life of chickens. We also measured egg weight and egg weight loss in relation to hatching time, as well as post-hatch growth. For females, there was a negative correlation between hatch time and body weight from day 4 and throughout the experiment. For males, such a correlation was only observed when testing all hatched males up until day 10. The birds were exposed to a number of behavioral tests, and a principal components analysis was performed on the variables, resulting in four components. For the largest component, termed “Passivity”, a tendency of a difference was found between early and middle male hatchers. Furthermore, a significant difference between early and middle male hatchers was found in the second component, termed “Response to novelty”. In a spatial learning test, late hatchers tended to learn slower. The behavior of females was not significantly affected by hatching time in any of these tests. This study is among the first to demonstrate a link between time of hatching and early behavior in a precocial species like the chicken, and may help shedding light on the evolutionary trade-offs between incubation length and post-hatch traits. The results may also be relevant from a perspective of stress coping and therefore also for animal welfare and productivity in the chicken industry. The mechanisms linking hatching time with post-hatch phenotype remain to be investigated. PMID:25058654

  11. Hatching success of Caspian terns nesting in the lower Laguna Madre, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, C.A.; Custer, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    The average clutch size of Caspian Terns nesting in a colony in the Lower Laguna Madre near Laguna Vista, Texas, USA in 1984 was 1.9 eggs per nest. Using the Mayfield method for calculating success, one egg hatched in 84.1% of the nests and 69.8% of the eggs laid hatched. These hatching estimates are as high or higher than estimates from colonies in other areas.

  12. STS-38 MS Springer climbs through CCT side hatch prior to egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), climbs through the side hatch of the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Springer will practice emergency egress through the side hatch using the crew escape system (CES) pole (at Springer's left). The inflated safety cushion under Springer will break his fall as he rolls out of the side hatch.

  13. A Comparison of the Hatching of Juveniles from Cysts of Heterodera schachtii and H. trifolii

    PubMed Central

    Steele, A. E.; Toxopeus, H.; Heijbroek, W.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of root diffusates of selected plants within the families Chenopodiaceae and Cruciferae and the hatching agent zinc chloride were tested for their effects on hatching and emergence of juveniles from cysts of Heterodera schachtii and a race of H. trifolii parasitic on Chenopodaceae and Cruciferae in The Netherlands. Although all diffusates strongly stimulated hatching of juveniles of H. schachtii, their effects on H. trifolii were less evident. PMID:19295758

  14. Immunoreactive prolactin in the pituitary gland of cyprinodont fish at the time of hatching.

    PubMed

    Schoots, A F; Ruijter, J M; van Kemenade, J A; Denucé, J M

    1983-01-01

    In the developing pituitary gland of embryos of the annual fish Cynolebias whitei and the medaka, Oryzias latipes, prolactin cells have been identified before hatching by means of a light-microscopic immunocytochemical method with antiserum against ovine prolactin. At the time of hatching, changes in the intensity of the immunoperoxidase staining occur. Histological staining by Cleveland and Wolfe's trichrome shows differentiation of cell types in the adenohypophysis only later in ontogeny. Our results indicate that, in teleosts, differentiated prolactin cells are present before hatching and that prolactin may be involved in the endocrine control of the hatching process.

  15. A comparison of artificial incubation and natural incubation hatching success of gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) eggs in southern Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noel, Krista M.; Qualls, Carl P.; Ennen, Joshua R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have found that Gopher Tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus, populations in southern Mississippi exhibit low recruitment, due in part to very low hatching success of their eggs. We sought to determine if the cause(s) of this low hatching success was related to egg quality (intrinsic factors), unsuitability of the nest environment (extrinsic factors), or a combination of the two. In 2003, hatching success was monitored simultaneously for eggs from the same clutches that were incubated in the laboratory and left to incubate in nests. A subset of randomly chosen eggs from each clutch was incubated in the laboratory under physical conditions that were known to be conducive to successful hatching to estimate the proportion of eggs that were capable of hatching in a controlled setting. Hatching success in the laboratory was compared with that of eggs incubated in natural nests to estimate the proportion of eggs that failed to hatch presumably from extrinsic factors. Laboratory hatching success was 58.8%, suggesting that roughly 40% of the eggs were intrinsically incapable of hatching even when incubated under controlled conditions. Hatching success in natural nests, 16.7%, was significantly lower than hatching success in the laboratory, suggesting that approximately 42.1% of eggs were capable of hatching but failed to hatch due to some extrinsic aspect(s) of the nest environment. Thus, the low hatching success of Gopher Tortoise eggs in southern Mississippi appears to be attributable to a combination of intrinsic (egg quality) and extrinsic (nest environment) factors.

  16. Suspension of Egg Hatching Caused by High Humidity and Submergence in Spider Mites.

    PubMed

    Ubara, Masashi; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2015-08-01

    We tested the effects of high humidity and submergence on egg hatching of spider mites. In both the high humidity and submergence treatments, many Tetranychus and Panonychus eggs did not hatch until after the hatching peak of the lower humidity or unsubmerged controls. However, after humidity decreased or water was drained, many eggs hatched within 1-3 h. This was observed regardless of when high humidity or submergence treatments were implemented: either immediately after oviposition or immediately before hatching was due. Normal eyespot formation was observed in most eggs in the high humidity and submergence treatments, which indicates that spider mite embryos develop even when eggs are underwater. Therefore, delays in hatching are not caused by delayed embryonic development. A delay in hatching was always observed in Panonychus citri (McGregor) but was more variable in Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida. The high humidity and submergence treatments affected but did not suppress larval development in these species. In contrast, many Oligonychus eggs died following the high humidity treatments. In Tetranychus and Panonychus spider mites, suspension of egg hatching may mitigate the adverse effects of rainfall.

  17. 2. VIEW OF THE HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B28), FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF THE HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28), FACING NORTH. ADIT ROAD IS VISIBLE IN THE FOREGROUND AND OFFICE (FEATURE B-1) IN THE BACKGROUND. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Hatch Adit, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  18. Disruption of the hatching dynamics of zooplankton egg banks due to glyphosate application.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, María Florencia; Battauz, Yamila; Caisso, Belén

    2017-03-01

    Hatching rhythms of eggs banks are important processes because they favor species co-existence and promote resilience of ecosystems after natural disturbances. Anthropogenic stressors can disrupt such natural hatching dynamics. This work examines the effects of concentrations ranging from 1 to 8 mg l(-1) of a commercial glyphosate-based formulation (Sulfosato Touchdown(®)) on the hatching dynamics of zooplankton dormant stages, present in the sediment of a natural lake. Sediment samples were collected from the surface sediment (<10 cm deep) of an isolated shallow lake free from pesticide pollution. An ex situ emergence assessment method was carried out and four treatments plus one control (without pesticide) were performed with three replicate each. Zooplankton hatching from the resting stages was monitored during 30 days. In total, 30 zooplankton taxa were recognized. The species diversity decreased significantly at concentration above 2.7 mg l(-1) glyphosate. The proportion of cladocerans within hatchling organisms decreased, while that of rotifers Bdelloidea increased in all treatments with glyphosate. Time of the first hatching (TFH), time of maximum hatching (TMH) and the frequency of hatchings (FH) of most zooplankton species were also altered. In conclusion, the application of a glyphosate-based pesticide selectively affected the hatching dynamic of zooplankton egg banks, which suggest that these resting structures are highly sensitive to the toxicity of the pesticide.

  19. Host Status of Different Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Varieties and Hatching in Root Diffusates of Globodera ellingtonae.

    PubMed

    Zasada, Inga A; Peetz, Amy; Wade, Nadine; Navarre, Roy A; Ingham, Russ E

    2013-09-01

    Globodera ellingtonae was detected in Oregon in 2008. In order to make decisions regarding the regulation of this nematode, knowledge of its biology is required. We determined the host status of a diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in soil-based experiments and identified hatching stimulants in in vitro hatching assays. 'Russet Burbank,' 'Desiree,' 'Modac,' 'Norland,' 'Umatilla,' and 'Yukon Gold' were good hosts (RF > 14) for G. ellingtonae. Potato varieties 'Maris Piper,' 'Atlantic,' and 'Satina,' all which contain the Ro1 gene that confers resistance to G. rostochiensis, were not hosts for G. ellingtonae. In in vitro hatching assays, G. ellingtonae hatched readily in the presence of diffusates from potato (PRD) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; TRD). Egg hatch occurred in an average of between 87% and 90% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 144 and 164 juveniles emerging per cyst, from PRD- and TRD-treated cysts, respectively. This nematode hatched rapidly in the presence of PRD and TRD, with at least 66% of total hatch occurring by day 3 of exposure. There was no dose-response of egg hatch to concentrations of PRD or TRD ranging from 1:5 to 1:100 diffusate to water. When G. ellingtonae was exposed to root diffusates from 21 different plants, hatch occurred in 0% to 70% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 0 to 27 juveniles emerging per cyst. When root diffusate-exposed cysts were subsequently transferred to PRD to test viability, root diffusates from arugula (Eruca sativa), sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii), and common vetch (Vicia sativa) continued to inhibit egg hatch compared with the other root diffusates or water in which hatch occurred readily (60 to 182 juveniles emerging per cyst). Previously known hatching stimulants of G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, and sodium thiocyanate, stimulated some egg hatch. Although, Globodera ellingtonae hatched readily in PRD and TRD

  20. Host Status of Different Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Varieties and Hatching in Root Diffusates of Globodera ellingtonae

    PubMed Central

    Zasada, Inga A.; Peetz, Amy; Wade, Nadine; Navarre, Roy A.; Ingham, Russ E.

    2013-01-01

    Globodera ellingtonae was detected in Oregon in 2008. In order to make decisions regarding the regulation of this nematode, knowledge of its biology is required. We determined the host status of a diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in soil-based experiments and identified hatching stimulants in in vitro hatching assays. ‘Russet Burbank,’ ‘Desiree,’ ‘Modac,’ ‘Norland,’ ‘Umatilla,’ and ‘Yukon Gold’ were good hosts (RF > 14) for G. ellingtonae. Potato varieties ‘Maris Piper,’ ‘Atlantic,’ and ‘Satina,’ all which contain the Ro1 gene that confers resistance to G. rostochiensis, were not hosts for G. ellingtonae. In in vitro hatching assays, G. ellingtonae hatched readily in the presence of diffusates from potato (PRD) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; TRD). Egg hatch occurred in an average of between 87% and 90% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 144 and 164 juveniles emerging per cyst, from PRD- and TRD-treated cysts, respectively. This nematode hatched rapidly in the presence of PRD and TRD, with at least 66% of total hatch occurring by day 3 of exposure. There was no dose-response of egg hatch to concentrations of PRD or TRD ranging from 1:5 to 1:100 diffusate to water. When G. ellingtonae was exposed to root diffusates from 21 different plants, hatch occurred in 0% to 70% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 0 to 27 juveniles emerging per cyst. When root diffusate-exposed cysts were subsequently transferred to PRD to test viability, root diffusates from arugula (Eruca sativa), sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii), and common vetch (Vicia sativa) continued to inhibit egg hatch compared with the other root diffusates or water in which hatch occurred readily (60 to 182 juveniles emerging per cyst). Previously known hatching stimulants of G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, and sodium thiocyanate, stimulated some egg hatch. Although, Globodera

  1. The EarthScope Array Network Facility: application-driven low-latency web-based tools for accessing high-resolution multi-channel waveform data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, R. L.; Lindquist, K. G.; Clemesha, A.; Vernon, F. L.

    2008-12-01

    Since April 2004 the EarthScope USArray seismic network has grown to over 400 broadband stations that stream multi-channel data in near real-time to the Array Network Facility in San Diego. Providing secure, yet open, access to real-time and archived data for a broad range of audiences is best served by a series of platform agnostic low-latency web-based applications. We present a framework of tools that interface between the world wide web and Boulder Real Time Technologies Antelope Environmental Monitoring System data acquisition and archival software. These tools provide audiences ranging from network operators and geoscience researchers, to funding agencies and the general public, with comprehensive information about the experiment. This ranges from network-wide to station-specific metadata, state-of-health metrics, event detection rates, archival data and dynamic report generation over a stations two year life span. Leveraging open source web-site development frameworks for both the server side (Perl, Python and PHP) and client-side (Flickr, Google Maps/Earth and jQuery) facilitates the development of a robust extensible architecture that can be tailored on a per-user basis, with rapid prototyping and development that adheres to web-standards.

  2. Lunar rhythms in the egg hatching of the subtidal crustacean: Callinectes arcuatus Ordway (Decapoda: Brachyura)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVries, M. C.; Epifanio, C. E.; Dittel, A. I.

    1983-12-01

    Gravid female portunid crabs, Callinectes arcuatus, were held in a recirculating seawater system and the development of the eggs was observed. Based on morphological criteria, nine developmental stages were noted. The relationship between a given stage and the subsequent time to hatching was determined. Based on this, an index was devised that predicted hatching date from microscopic observation of an egg mass. This index was used to predict the date of hatching of eggs from 439 crabs collected in the Gulf of Nicoya, Central America, and the frequency of hatching was analysed in relation to the lunar and tidal cycles. Significantly more eggs hatched during periods of spring than neap tides. The adaptive significance of this rhythmicity is unclear at present.

  3. Cold winter temperatures condition the egg-hatching dynamics of a grape disease vector.

    PubMed

    Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis

    2009-07-01

    The leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus is the vector of a major phytoplasma grapevine disease, Flavescence dorée. The vector's distribution is in Eastern and Northern Europe, and its population dynamics varies as a function of vineyard latitude. We tested the hypothesis that hatching dynamics are cued by cold temperatures observed in winter. We exposed eggs from a natural population to simulated "cold" and "mild" winters and varied the exposure time at 5 degrees C from 0 to 63 days. We show that temperature cooling mainly affected the onset of hatching and is negatively correlated to the cold time exposure. The majority of hatchings occurred more quickly in cold rather than in mild winter simulated conditions, but there was no significant difference between the duration of hatching of eggs whatever the cold time exposure. In agreement with the Northern American origin of the vector, the diapause termination and thus the timing regulation of egg hatching require cold winters.

  4. Can Artemia Hatching Assay Be a (Sensitive) Alternative Tool to Acute Toxicity Test?

    PubMed

    Rotini, A; Manfra, L; Canepa, S; Tornambè, A; Migliore, L

    2015-12-01

    Artemia sp. is extensively used in ecotoxicity testing, despite criticisms inherent to both acute and long-term tests. Alternative endpoints and procedures should be considered to support the use of this biological model. The hatching process comprises several developmental steps and the cyst hatchability seems acceptable as endpoint criterion. In this study, we assessed the reliability of the hatching assay on A. franciscana by comparing with acute and long-term mortality tests, using two chemicals: Diethylene Glycol (DEG), Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS). Both DEG and SDS tests demonstrated a dose dependent hatching inhibition. The hatching test resulted more sensitive than acute mortality test and less sensitive than the long-term one. Results demonstrate the reliability and high sensitivity of this hatching assay on a short time lag and support its useful application in first-tier risk assessment procedures.

  5. Hatching rates of resting eggs of 'Cladocera' (Crustacea; Branchiopoda) at a tropical bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mugrabe, G; Barros, S; Marazzo, A; Valentin, J L

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the development time of embryos and to estimate the hatching rates of resting eggs of cladocerans found in the sediment of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, under experimental conditions. Eggs were sorted by species (Penilia avirostris--Sididae; Pleopis polyphemoides and Pseudevadne tergestina--Podonidae) and incubated at a temperature of 25 degrees C, salinity 35 and photoperiod 12 hours light/ 12 hours dark. Hatching rates were about 38% for Pseudevadne tergestina and 28% for Pleopis polyphemoides. Embryos of resting eggs of Penilia avirostris developed comparatively slowly (hatching after 86 days of incubation), with a hatching rate of only 5%. It was observed that development and hatching of resting eggs of marine cladocerans suggest that pulses of recruitment may exist, thus contributing to the rapid appearance and maintenance of planktonic populations of these crustaceans in Guanabara Bay.

  6. Expression and function of cyclooxygenase-2 is necessary for hamster blastocyst hatching.

    PubMed

    Sen Roy, Shubhendu; Seshagiri, Polani B

    2013-12-01

    Blastocyst hatching is critical for successful implantation leading to pregnancy. Its failure causes infertility. The phenomenon of blastocyst hatching in humans is poorly understood and the available information on this stems from studies of rodents such as mice and hamsters. We and others showed that hamster blastocyst hatching is characterized by firstly blastocyst deflation followed by a dissolution of the zona pellucida (zona) and accompanied by trophectodermal projections (TEPs). We also showed that embryo-derived cathepsins (Cat) proteases, specifically Cat-L, -B and -P act as zonalysins and are responsible for hatching. In this study, we show the expression and function of one of the potential regulators of embryogenesis, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 during blastocyst development and hatching. The expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein was observed in 8-cell through hatched blastocyst stages and it was also localized to blastocyst's TEPs. Specific COX-2 inhibitors, NS-398 and CAY-10404, inhibited blastocyst hatching; percentages achieved were only 28.4 ± 5.3 and 32.3 ± 5.4%, respectively, compared with >90% with untreated embryos. Interestingly, inhibitor-treated blastocysts failed to deflate, normally observed during hatching. Supplementation of prostaglandins (PGs)-E2 or -I2 to cultured embryos reversed the inhibitors' effect on hatching and also the deflation behavior. Importantly, the levels of mRNA and protein of Cat-L, -B and -P showed a significant reduction in the inhibitor-treated embryos compared with untreated embryos, although its mechanism remains to be examined. These data provide the first evidence that COX-2 is critical for blastocyst hatching in the golden hamster.

  7. Delayed egg hatching of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) pending water agitation.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Babak; Shakibi, Sanam; Foster, Woodbridge A

    2014-05-01

    Mosquito eggs laid on water surfaces typically hatch spontaneously soon after the embryos within them become fully formed first-instar larvae. However, we have found that Anopheles gambiae Giles, an important vector of malaria in Africa, exhibits delayed hatching until the water surface is agitated, a feature overlooked in most laboratory colonies. Agitation within 24 h postoviposition, before embryonation was complete, failed to stimulate delayed postembryonic hatching of isolated eggs on the following day (day 2), when < 1% had hatched spontaneously. However, 5 min of water agitation of these dormant pharate first-instar larvae on day 2 resulted in an almost immediate hatch of 63.3 versus 0% of nonagitated controls, plus another 3.9 versus 0.3%, respectively, during the following 24 h. With daily agitation, installment hatching occurred mainly during 2-6 d postoviposition. The mean cumulative hatch after 7 d of daily agitation was 83.1 versus 1.1% of nonagitated eggs. Experiments with eggs in groups demonstrated that egg density and activity of already-hatched larvae had no stimulatory effect. Eggs stored 1-4 wk at 25.5 or at 15.5 degrees C, and then agitated daily for 6 d at 25.5 degrees C, showed a gradual decline in viability. Viability was sustained longer at the lower temperature. Implications of agitation-induced egg hatching for rainy-season and dry-season ecology of An. gambiae are discussed. Suspended hatching and cool storage already are proving convenient for efficient mass rearing and accurate modeling of weather-based population dynamics.

  8. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility work in the doorway of the Unity connecting module preparing it for closure before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  9. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility prepare the Unity connecting module for closure before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  10. Hatching asynchrony aggravates inbreeding depression in a songbird (Serinus canaria): an inbreeding-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Raïssa A; Eens, Marcel; Fransen, Erik; Müller, Wendt

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how the intensity of inbreeding depression is influenced by stressful environmental conditions is an important area of enquiry in various fields of biology. In birds, environmental stress during early development is often related to hatching asynchrony; differences in age, and thus size, impose a gradient in conditions ranging from benign (first hatched chick) to harsh (last hatched chick). Here, we compared the effect of hatching order on growth rate in inbred (parents are full siblings) and outbred (parents are unrelated) canary chicks (Serinus canaria). We found that inbreeding depression was more severe under more stressful conditions, being most evident in later hatched chicks. Thus, consideration of inbreeding-environment interactions is of vital importance for our understanding of the biological significance of inbreeding depression and hatching asynchrony. The latter is particularly relevant given that hatching asynchrony is a widespread phenomenon, occurring in many bird species. The exact causes of the observed inbreeding-environment interaction are as yet unknown, but may be related to a decrease in maternal investment in egg contents with laying position (i.e. prehatching environment), or to performance of the chicks during sibling competition and/or their resilience to food shortage (i.e. posthatching environment).

  11. Effects of Eight Herbicides on In Vitro Hatching of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Wong, A. T. S.; Tylka, G. L.; Hartzler, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate effects of selected herbicides on hatching of free eggs of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. The herbicides used were Atrazine (atrazine), Basagran (bentazon), Bladex (cyanazine), Blazer (acifluorfen), Command (clomazone), Lasso (alachlor), Sonalan (ethalfluralin), and Treflan (trifluralin). Treatments comprised two concentrations of commercial herbicide formulations and deionized water and 3.14 mM zinc sulfate as negative and positive controls, respectively. Eggs were extracted from females and cysts, surface disinfested, and incubated in herbicide or control solutions at 25 ± 2 C in darkness. Hatched second-stage juveniles were counted every other day for 24 days. Hatching of H. glycines eggs in 50 and 500 μg/ml Blazer was 42 to 67% less than that in deionized water and 6l to 78% less than that in zinc sulfate solution. Zinc sulfate significantly increased hatching activity in 50 μg/ml but not 500 μg/ml Blazer. The other herbicides tested at various concentrations had no significant effect on egg hatching. The specific component of Blazer inhibiting egg hatching is unknown. Suppression of hatching by Blazer indicates that this postemergence soybean herbicide may have a potential role in managing H. glycines. PMID:19279812

  12. Effects of Nematicides and Herbicides Alone or Combined on Meloidogyne incognita Egg Hatch and Development.

    PubMed

    Payan, L A; Johnson, A W; Littrell, R H

    1987-10-01

    The effects of nematicides carbofuran (C) and fenamiphos (F) and herbicides metribuzin (M) and trifluralin (T), alone and in combination, on hatching, penetration, development, and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 were determined under laboratory conditions. To study hatching, entire egg masses were exposed to nematicides (6 mug/ml), herbicides (0.5 mug/ml), and their combinations over a period of 16 days; the hatched juveniles were extracted and counted every 48 hours. Second-stage juveniles that hatched from day 6 to day 8 were used as inoculum to determine the effects of the chemicals on penetration, development, and reproduction of M. incognita on tomato 4, 16, and 32 days after inoculation. F, F + T, and F + M inhibited hatching; whereas, C, T, M, C + T, and C + M did not affect hatching, penetration, development of females, or reproduction. Since so few juveniles hatched from the fenamiphos treatments, we were not able to use them for the postinfection development study. There was no apparent reduction in the effect of the nematicides by the herbicides.

  13. Activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) promotes blastocyst hatching in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Jung; Hwang, Soo Jin; Yoon, Jung Ah; Jun, Jin Hyun; Lim, Hyunjung Jade; Yoon, Tae Ki; Song, Haengseok

    2011-10-01

    Prostaglandins participate in a variety of female reproductive processes, including ovulation, fertilization, embryo implantation and parturition. In particular, maternal prostacyclin (PGI(2)) is critical for embryo implantation and the action of PGI(2) is not mediated via its G-protein-coupled membrane receptor, IP, but its nuclear receptor, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ). Recently, several studies have shown that PGI(2) enhances blastocyst development and/or hatching rate in vitro, and subsequently implantation and live birth rates in mice. However, the mechanism by which PGI(2) improves preimplantation embryo development in vitro remains unclear. Using molecular, pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we show that PGI(2)-induced PPARδ activation accelerates blastocyst hatching in mice. mRNAs for PPARδ, retinoid X receptor (heterodimeric partners of PPARδ) and PGI(2) synthase (PGIS) are temporally induced after zygotic gene activation, and their expression reaches maximum levels at the blastocyst stage, suggesting that functional complex of PPARδ can be formed in the blastocyst. Carbaprostacyclin (a stable analogue of PGI(2)) and GW501516 (a PPARδ selective agonist) significantly accelerated blastocyst hatching but did not increase total cell number of cultured blastocysts. Whereas U51605 (a PGIS inhibitor) interfered with blastocyst hatching, GW501516 restored U51605-induced retarded hatching. In contrast to the improvement of blastocyst hatching by PPARδ agonists, PPAR antagonists significantly inhibited blastocyst hatching. Furthermore, deletion of PPARδ at early stages of preimplantation mouse embryos caused delay of blastocyst hatching, but did not impair blastocyst development. Taken together, PGI(2)-induced PPARδ activation accelerates blastocyst hatching in mice.

  14. Factors affecting hatch success of hawksbill sea turtles on Long Island, Antigua, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Ditmer, Mark Allan; Stapleton, Seth Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Current understanding of the factors influencing hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) hatch success is disparate and based on relatively short-term studies or limited sample sizes. Because global populations of hawksbills are heavily depleted, evaluating the parameters that impact hatch success is important to their conservation and recovery. Here, we use data collected by the Jumby Bay Hawksbill Project (JBHP) to investigate hatch success. The JBHP implements saturation tagging protocols to study a hawksbill rookery in Antigua, West Indies. Habitat data, which reflect the varied nesting beaches, are collected at egg deposition, and nest contents are exhumed and categorized post-emergence. We analyzed hatch success using mixed-model analyses with explanatory and predictive datasets. We incorporated a random effect for turtle identity and evaluated environmental, temporal and individual-based reproductive variables. Hatch success averaged 78.6% (SD: 21.2%) during the study period. Highly supported models included multiple covariates, including distance to vegetation, deposition date, individual intra-seasonal nest number, clutch size, organic content, and sand grain size. Nests located in open sand were predicted to produce 10.4 more viable hatchlings per clutch than nests located >1.5 m into vegetation. For an individual first nesting in early July, the fourth nest of the season yielded 13.2 more viable hatchlings than the initial clutch. Generalized beach section and inter-annual variation were also supported in our explanatory dataset, suggesting that gaps remain in our understanding of hatch success. Our findings illustrate that evaluating hatch success is a complex process, involving multiple environmental and individual variables. Although distance to vegetation and hatch success were inversely related, vegetation is an important component of hawksbill nesting habitat, and a more complete assessment of the impacts of specific vegetation types on hatch

  15. Environmentally cued hatching across taxa: embryos respond to risk and opportunity.

    PubMed

    Warkentin, Karen M

    2011-07-01

    Most animals begin life in eggs, protected and constrained by a capsule, shell, or other barrier. As embryos develop, their needs and abilities change, altering the costs and benefits of encapsulation, and the risks and opportunities of the outside world. When the cost/benefit ratio is better outside the egg, animals should hatch. Adaptive timing of hatching evolves in this context. However, many environmental variables affect the optimal timing of hatching so there is often no consistent best time. Across a broad range of animals, from flatworms and snails to frogs and birds, embryos hatch at different times or at different developmental stages in response to changing risks or opportunities. Embryos respond to many types of cues, assessed via different sensory modalities. Some responses appear simple. Others are surprisingly complex and sophisticated. Parents also manipulate the timing of hatching. The number and breadth of examples of cued hatching suggest that, in the absence of specific information, we should not assume that hatching timing is fixed. Our challenge now is to integrate information on the timing of hatching across taxa to better understand the diversity of patterns and how they are structured in relation to different types of environmental and developmental variation. As starting points for comparative studies, I: (1) suggest a framework based on heterokairy-individual, plastic variation in the rate, timing, or sequence of developmental events and processes-to describe patterns and mechanisms of variation in the timing of hatching; (2) briefly review the distribution of environmentally cued hatching across the three major clades of Bilateria, highlighting the diverse environmental factors and mechanisms involved; and (3) discuss factors that shape the diversity of plastic and fixed timing of hatching, drawing on evolutionary theory on phenotypic plasticity which directs our attention to fitness trade-offs, environmental heterogeneity, and

  16. 46 CFR 78.17-35 - Hatches and other openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accessible during navigation. Dead covers on such port lights shall also be secured. (6) Port lights in spaces appropriated alternately to the carriage of cargo and passengers, when cargo is carried....

  17. 46 CFR 78.17-35 - Hatches and other openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accessible during navigation. Dead covers on such port lights shall also be secured. (6) Port lights in spaces appropriated alternately to the carriage of cargo and passengers, when cargo is carried....

  18. 46 CFR 78.17-35 - Hatches and other openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accessible during navigation. Dead covers on such port lights shall also be secured. (6) Port lights in spaces appropriated alternately to the carriage of cargo and passengers, when cargo is carried....

  19. 46 CFR 97.15-20 - Hatches and other openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... secured for sea before leaving protected waters. (2) A vessel engaged in a voyage exclusively on Great.... (3) Port lights that are not accessible during navigation including the dead lights for such...

  20. The effects of laser assisted hatching on pregnancy rates

    PubMed Central

    Ghannadi, Alireza; Kazerooni, Marjaneh; Jamalzadeh, Fatemeh; Amiri, Sahar; Rostami, Parifar; Absalan, Forouzan

    2011-01-01

    Background: For infertile women aged over 35 years, failure of the ZP (zona pellucida) to rupture is believed to be associated with a decreased implantation rate in in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Objective: In this research, laser assisted hatching (LAH) was offered to patients with advanced maternal age to evaluate a possible benefit. Materials and Methods: Nine hundred thirty two cycles of IVF/ICSI in females were analyzed. Women included in this study were allocated in 4 groups. In group I and II, embryos were cultured and transferred with and without LAH in women aged ≤35, whereas embryos of group III and IV were examined with and without LAH in women aged ≥ 35. Laser manipulations were performed using a suturn-Tm3 system using 2-3 pulses of 0.8 millisecond with 400 voltage duration. The size of the hole made in the zona was measured to be 5-10 µm, depending on the zona thickness of each individual embryo. Results: The performance of LAH significantly increased clinical pregnancy rates in all patients. In group I and II, the chemical (50.99% and 31.61% respectively), clinical (50% and 30.69% respectively) and multiple pregnancies (22.27% and 5.94% respectively) significantly differ between these groups. In the patients with advanced female age ≥35 the performance of LAH significantly increased chemical (30.12%) and clinical pregnancy (27.71%) rates compared to whom without LAH (18.96% and 16.37% respectively). Conclusion: Our data demonstrate in the patients who were less than 35 years old, multiple pregnancy rates were significantly increased compared to other groups who aged over 35 years old. In addition benefit of LAH in improving pregnancy rates after IVF or ICSI in women of advanced age (≥35) was shown. PMID:25587254

  1. Post-hatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brandon C.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Botteri, Nicole L.; Lawler, Ashley N.; Mathavan, Ketan K.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first five months post-hatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we employed histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in one-week, one-month, three-month, and five-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS-reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS-reactivity. We observed putative inter-sex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed “medullary rests” resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared to previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we

  2. The relationship between hatching rate and number of embryos of the brood pouch in Littorina saxatilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde-Padín, P.; Carballo, M.; Caballero, A.; Rolán-Alvarez, E.

    2008-10-01

    Littorina saxatilis is an ovoviviparous organism in which shelled embryos can be directly observed in nearly all mature females captured in the wild. This characteristic has been used a number of times as an indirect estimate for fecundity of natural populations. However, there is no experimental corroboration that the number of embryos within a female brood pouch is actually related to the rate of hatching per unit of time, a more realistic estimate of female fecundity. In order to make this corroboration we estimated the correlation between the number of embryos in the brood pouch and the hatching rate of isolated females grown in the laboratory. We also compared the hatching rates of females from two sympatric ecotypes (RB and SU) of this species, which differ significantly in the number of embryos. We found a high agreement between hatching rate and number of embryos, concluding that the latter is a good proxy for fecundity.

  3. Bactericidal effect of several chemicals on hatching eggs inoculated with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeder flocks and commercial hatcheries represent an early contamination point for Salmonella entry into commercial integrated poultry operations. Utilizing effective antimicrobial treatments for hatching eggs is a critical part of reducing the incidence of Salmonella colonized chicks on the farm....

  4. Scanning electron microscopy of egg hatching of Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M H; Orozco, A; Chavez, B; Martinez-Palomo, A

    1992-09-01

    Scanning electron and light microscopic observations showed that egg hatching in Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann is aided by a chisel-shaped spine. This hatching tooth is surrounded by a thin flexible membrane fixed to a groove in the head of the larvae. Increased intracranial pressure may force the spine against the egg shell until a fissure is produced. Further opening of the egg is achieved by movements of the head and the entire body of the larva.

  5. Generation of Collapsed Cross Sections for Hatch 1 Cycles 1-3

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, Brian J

    2012-11-01

    Under NRC JCN V6361, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked to develop and run SCALE/TRITON models for generation of collapsed few-group cross sections and to convert the cross sections to PMAXS format using the GENPMAXS conversion utility for use in PARCS/PATHS simulations of Hatch Unit 1, cycles 1-3. This letter report documents the final models used to produce the Hatch collapsed cross sections.

  6. Heavier chicks at hatch improves marketing body weight by enhancing skeletal muscle growth.

    PubMed

    Sklan, D; Heifetz, S; Halevy, O

    2003-11-01

    This study examined some of the factors connected with the greater marketing weight observed in chicks hatching with higher BW. Examination of chicks hatching from maternal flocks of different ages indicated that BW at hatch increased quadratically and yolk sac weight linearly with age, whereas components of the gastrointestinal tract showed no significant trend. Growth of pectoralis muscles and gastrointestinal tract were compared in chicks hatching at the same weight from maternal flocks of 28 and 64 wk of age and in chicks from the same maternal flock (44 wk old) hatching at different weights. The results indicated that no differences were found among chicks hatching with the same weight from maternal flocks of different ages. In contrast, in chicks from the same maternal flock hatching at different weights the gastrointestinal tract tended to compose a smaller proportion of BW in large chicks, and its growth was not correlated with performance. Liver proportions were greater in heavier chicks. Pectoralis growth and satellite cell numbers and activity were greater in heavier chicks through 5 d posthatch, and pectoralis muscles were heavier at marketing. Examination of some of the growth factors involved suggested that in heavier chicks satellite cells underwent higher proliferation and earlier differentiation during their critical period of activity in the immediate posthatch days. To determine when these differences in activity were established, examination of 15-d embryonic myoblast activity indicated that at this stage activity was already greater in the heavier eggs. This finding suggests that programming of muscle growth may be completed in late embryonic stages. This study suggests that enhanced satellite cell activity is involved in increased growth of chicks hatching with higher BW.

  7. Usefulness of HATCH score in the prediction of new-onset atrial fibrillation for Asians

    PubMed Central

    Suenari, Kazuyoshi; Chao, Tze-Fan; Liu, Chia-Jen; Kihara, Yasuki; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The HATCH score (hypertension <1 point>, age >75 years <1 point>, stroke or transient ischemic attack <2 points>, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease <1 point>, and heart failure <2 points>) was reported to be useful for predicting the progression of atrial fibrillation (AF) from paroxysmal to persistent or permanent AF for patients who participated in the Euro Heart Survey. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether the HATCH score was a useful scheme in predicting new-onset AF. Furthermore, we aimed to use the HATCH scoring system to estimate the individual risk in developing AF for patients with different comorbidities. We used the “Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database.” From January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2001, a total of 670,804 patients older than 20 years old and who had no history of cardiac arrhythmias were enrolled. According to the calculation rule of the HATCH score, 599,780 (score 0), 46,661 (score 1), 12,892 (score 2), 7456 (score 3), 2944 (score 4), 802 (score 5), 202 (score 6), and 67 (score 7) patients were studied and followed for the new onset of AF. During a follow-up of 9.0 ± 2.2 years, there were 9174 (1.4%) patients experiencing new-onset AF. The incidence of AF was 1.5 per 1000 patient-years. The incidence increased from 0.8 per 1000 patient-years for patients with a HATCH score of 0 to 57.3 per 1000 patient-years for those with a HATCH score of 7. After an adjustment for the gender and comorbidities, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of each increment of the HATCH score in predicting AF was 2.059 (2.027–2.093; P < 0.001). The HATCH score was useful in risk estimation and stratification of new-onset AF. PMID:28072697

  8. STS-48 Commander Creighton, in LES, stands at JSC FFT side hatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander John O. Creighton, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES), stands at the side hatch of JSC's full fuselage trainer (FFT). Creighton will enter the FFT shuttle mockup through the side hatch and take his assigned position on the forward flight deck. Creighton, along with the other crewmembers, is participating in a post-landing emergency egress exercise. The FFT is located in the Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A.

  9. Organic and inorganic selenium in Aseel chicken diets: Effect on hatching traits.

    PubMed

    Khan, M T; Mahmud, A; Zahoor, I; Javed, K

    2016-11-11

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary selenium (Se) sources (organic and inorganic Se at 0.30 ppm and basal diet at 0 ppm level of supplemented Se) on hatching traits in four varieties of Aseel chicken, Lakha, Mushki, Peshawari, and Mianwali. In total, 84 adult molted hens (50 wk old), 21 from each variety, were randomly assigned to 12 treatment groups in a 3 (Se diets) × 4 (Aseel varieties) factorial arrangement under a randomized complete block design. Each treatment was replicated 7 times with individual hens in each. Settable egg, fertility, hatch of fertile eggs, hatchability, A-grade chick, and embryonic mortality parameters were evaluated. The results indicated that the birds fed an organic Se supplemented diet had greater (P < 0.05) settable eggs, fertility, hatch of fertile eggs, hatchability, and A-grade chicks and reduced embryonic mortality than those fed inorganic or no Se. Among varieties, Mushki had lower (P < 0.05) fertility, hatch of fertile eggs, hatchability, and A-grade chicks than rest of three varieties. Interaction of Se sources and varieties indicated that dietary organic Se supplementation improved (P < 0.05) hatch of fertile eggs in Peshawari and Mianwali, whereas hatchability only in Peshawari variety and reduced embryonic mortality in Mianwali. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of organic Se could be used to improve hatching traits as well as reduce embryonic mortality in native Aseel chicken.

  10. Mother's Age and Hatching Phenology Strategy of Heterocypris incongruens (Crustacea: Ostracoda) in Unpredictable Environment.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Valeria; Gandolfi, Andrea; Menozzi, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    We report experimental evidence of egg polyphenism in clonal lineages of Heterocypris incongruens from an ephemeral pond on a Mediterranean Island (Lampedusa, Italy). In controlled laboratory conditions, clonal females produced three different kinds of eggs: (i) resting and desiccation-resistant eggs, (ii) nonresting eggs that hatched gradually within 2 month hydroperiod, and (iii) nonresting delayed development eggs that hatched synchronously. Clonal females showed a diversified bet-hedging strategy to spread risk of reproduction in ponds with unpredictable hydroperiod. They adjusted proportion of different egg phenotypes in response to experimental temperature and photoperiod that are proxies for different hydroperiod unpredictability. The proportion of resting eggs is not affected by maternal age at deposition, but mother's age has a key role in defining the development time and the hatching phenology of nonresting eggs. Genetically identical eggs kept at the same controlled laboratory conditions showed a U-shaped distribution of development time. Development time variance decreased with mother's age at deposition. The resulting wedge-shaped relationship between development time and mother's age at deposition may be interpreted by considering mother's age as a proxy for the probability of drought onset. The older the mother, the shorter the latency to drought and the shorter is the time for nonresting eggs to hatch. Considering only the delayed development of eggs that hatch synchronously, development time is inversely related to the mother's age at deposition: this relationship generates the observed hatching peak.

  11. Warming affects hatching time and early season survival of eastern tent caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Mariana; Lill, John T

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is disrupting species interactions by altering the timing of phenological events such as budburst for plants and hatching for insects. We combined field observations with laboratory manipulations to investigate the consequences of climate warming on the phenology and performance of the eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma americanum). We evaluated the effects of warmer winter and spring regimes on caterpillar hatching patterns and starvation endurance, traits likely to be under selection in populations experiencing phenological asynchrony, using individuals from two different populations (Washington, DC, and Roswell, GA). We also quantified the proximate and extended fitness effects of early food deprivation and recorded spring phenology of local caterpillars and their host plants. In addition, we conducted laboratory assays to determine if caterpillars are using plant chemical cues to fine-tune their hatching times. Warmer winter temperatures induced earlier hatching and caterpillars from GA survived starvation for periods that were 30% longer than caterpillars from DC. Warmer spring regimes reduced the starvation endurance of caterpillars overwintering in the wild but not in the laboratory. Early starvation dramatically reduced hatchling survival; however, surviving caterpillars did not show detrimental effects on pupal mass or development time. In the field, hatching preceded budburst in both 2013 and 2014 and the period of optimal foliage quality was 2 weeks shorter in 2013. Hatching time was unaffected by exposure to plant volatiles. Overall, we found that warmer temperatures can trigger late-season asynchrony by accelerating plant phenology and caterpillars from different populations exhibit differential abilities to cope with environmental unreliability.

  12. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Hatch and Survival of Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Goodell, P. B.; Ferris, H.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of soil temperature and moisture on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood was examined in relation to hatching and survival of second-stage juveniles (J2). Nematodes were cultured on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Acala SJ2) under field conditions to provide populations similar to those found in the field in late autumn. Egg masses were placed in a temperature range (9-12 C and 21 C), and hatch was measured over a period equivalent to 20 degree days > 10 C (DD10). Hatch occurred below the reported 18 C activity threshold, was restricted below 12 C, and was inhibited below 10 C. Soil moisture influence on hatch was measured by placing egg masses in Hesperia sandy loam and subjecting them to suction pressures ranging from -1.1 bars to -4 .5 bars. Suction potentials of less than -2 bars reduced hatch and less than -3 bars inhibited hatch. J2 were placed in sandy loam soil with soil moisture near field capacity, and their motility was measured over a period of 500 DD10. In the absence of a host, more than 90% of J2 became nonmotile over this period. PMID:19287616

  13. At 1050 Gallery, Block 16, view of access port down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1050 Gallery, Block 16, view of access port down to top of penstock (this is a service hatch into penstock for turbine-generator unit No. 2), looking north. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  14. 46 CFR 78.17-35 - Hatches and other openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... limiting mean draft which would allow such port lights to be opened at sea. (5) Port lights that are not accessible during navigation. Dead covers on such port lights shall also be secured. (6) Port lights in spaces appropriated alternately to the carriage of cargo and passengers, when cargo is carried....

  15. Optimal dimension design of a hatch cover for lightening a bulk carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Tae-Sub; Roh, Myung-Il

    2015-06-01

    According to the increase of the operating cost and material cost of a ship due to the change of international oil price, a demand for the lightening of the ship weight is being made from various parties such as shipping companies, ship owners, and shipyards. To satisfy such demand, many studies for a light ship are being made. As one of them, an optimal design method of an existing hull structure, that is, a method for lightening the ship weight based on the optimization technique was proposed in this study. For this, we selected a hatch cover of a bulk carrier as an optimization target and formulated an optimization problem in order to determine optimal principal dimensions of the hatch cover for lightening the bulk carrier. Some dimensions representing the shape of the hatch cover were selected as design variables and some design considerations related to the maximum stress, maximum deflection, and geometry of the hatch cover were selected as constraints. In addition, the minimization of the weight of the hatch cover was selected as an objective function. To solve this optimization problem, we developed an optimization program based on the Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) using C++ programming language. To evaluate the applicability of the developed program, it was applied to a problem for finding optimal principal dimensions of the hatch cover of a deadweight 180,000 ton bulk carrier. The result shows that the developed program can decrease the hatch cover's weight by about 8.5%. Thus, this study will be able to contribute to make energy saving and environment-friendly ship in shipyard.

  16. Developmental imaging: the avian embryo hatches to the challenge.

    PubMed

    Kulesa, Paul M; McKinney, Mary C; McLennan, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    The avian embryo provides a multifaceted model to study developmental mechanisms because of its accessibility to microsurgery, fluorescence cell labeling, in vivo imaging, and molecular manipulation. Early two-dimensional planar growth of the avian embryo mimics human development and provides unique access to complex cell migration patterns using light microscopy. Later developmental events continue to permit access to both light and other imaging modalities, making the avian embryo an excellent model for developmental imaging. For example, significant insights into cell and tissue behaviors within the primitive streak, craniofacial region, and cardiovascular and peripheral nervous systems have come from avian embryo studies. In this review, we provide an update to recent advances in embryo and tissue slice culture and imaging, fluorescence cell labeling, and gene profiling. We focus on how technical advances in the chick and quail provide a clearer understanding of how embryonic cell dynamics are beautifully choreographed in space and time to sculpt cells into functioning structures. We summarize how these technical advances help us to better understand basic developmental mechanisms that may lead to clinical research into human birth defects and tissue repair.

  17. Hatching asynchrony vs. foraging efficiency: the response to food availability in specialist vs. generalist tit species.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, R; Bueno-Enciso, J; Sanz, J J

    2016-11-28

    Breeding mistiming is increasingly frequent in several ecosystems in the face of current climate change. Species belonging to higher trophic levels must employ mechanisms to reduce it. One of these mechanisms is hatching asynchrony, with the eggs in a clutch hatching over a period of several days. Some authors have suggested it to be adaptive when food is unpredictable. However, these birds can also suffer associated costs. We tested whether a species with higher foraging efficiency avoid hatching asynchrony compared to its sister species. We studied hatching asynchrony and nestling provisioning in relation to food availability in sympatric populations of blue and great tits. For the first time, we show that sister species respond to food availability with different strategies. Blue tit feeding rates readily responded to the abundance of their main prey, and also reduced the impact of nestling size hierarchy on mean nestling weight, consequently increasing fledging rate. Our results suggest that levels of hatching asynchrony seem to be influenced by species-specific life history traits, as generalist foragers rely less on it. They also highlight the importance of multi-species approaches when studying the response of organisms to environmental unpredictability.

  18. Cold winter temperatures condition the egg-hatching dynamics of a grape disease vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis

    2009-07-01

    The leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus is the vector of a major phytoplasma grapevine disease, Flavescence dorée. The vector’s distribution is in Eastern and Northern Europe, and its population dynamics varies as a function of vineyard latitude. We tested the hypothesis that hatching dynamics are cued by cold temperatures observed in winter. We exposed eggs from a natural population to simulated “cold” and “mild” winters and varied the exposure time at 5 °C from 0 to 63 days. We show that temperature cooling mainly affected the onset of hatching and is negatively correlated to the cold time exposure. The majority of hatchings occurred more quickly in cold rather than in mild winter simulated conditions, but there was no significant difference between the duration of hatching of eggs whatever the cold time exposure. In agreement with the Northern American origin of the vector, the diapause termination and thus the timing regulation of egg hatching require cold winters.

  19. Hatching asynchrony vs. foraging efficiency: the response to food availability in specialist vs. generalist tit species

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, R.; Bueno-Enciso, J.; Sanz, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding mistiming is increasingly frequent in several ecosystems in the face of current climate change. Species belonging to higher trophic levels must employ mechanisms to reduce it. One of these mechanisms is hatching asynchrony, with the eggs in a clutch hatching over a period of several days. Some authors have suggested it to be adaptive when food is unpredictable. However, these birds can also suffer associated costs. We tested whether a species with higher foraging efficiency avoid hatching asynchrony compared to its sister species. We studied hatching asynchrony and nestling provisioning in relation to food availability in sympatric populations of blue and great tits. For the first time, we show that sister species respond to food availability with different strategies. Blue tit feeding rates readily responded to the abundance of their main prey, and also reduced the impact of nestling size hierarchy on mean nestling weight, consequently increasing fledging rate. Our results suggest that levels of hatching asynchrony seem to be influenced by species-specific life history traits, as generalist foragers rely less on it. They also highlight the importance of multi-species approaches when studying the response of organisms to environmental unpredictability. PMID:27892941

  20. Social Support, Depression, Self-Esteem, and Coping Among LGBTQ Adolescents Participating in Hatch Youth.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Schick, Vanessa R; Romijnders, Kim A; Bauldry, Jessica; Butame, Seyram A

    2016-06-23

    Evidence-based interventions that increase social support have the potential to improve the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth. Hatch Youth is a group-level intervention that provides services four nights a week to LGBTQ youth between 13 and 20 years of age. Each Hatch Youth meeting is organized into three 1-hour sections: unstructured social time, consciousness-raising (education), and a youth-led peer support group. Youth attending a Hatch Youth meeting between March and June 2014 (N = 108) completed a cross-sectional survey. Covariate adjusted regression models were used to examine the association between attendance, perceived social support, depressive symptomology, self-esteem, and coping ability. Compared to those who attended Hatch Youth for less than 1 month, participants who attended 1 to 6 months or more than 6 months reported higher social support (β1-6mo. = 0.57 [0.07, 1.07]; β6+mo. = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.14, 0.75], respectively). Increased social support was associated with decreased depressive symptomology (β = -4.84, 95% CI [-6.56, -3.12]), increased self-esteem (β = 0.72, 95% CI [0.38, 1.06]), and improved coping ability (β = 1.00, 95% CI [0.66, 1.35]). Hatch Youth is a promising intervention that has the potential to improve the mental health and reduce risk behavior of LGBTQ youth.

  1. Influence of Inoculum Density, Host, and Low-temperature Period on Delayed Hatch of Meloidogyne javanica Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, S. P.; Pereira, A. C.

    1994-01-01

    Most eggs of M. javanica hatch within several days when incubated in water. Those that do not are said to show delayed hatching. Several experiments were conducted to determine the effect of specific conditions on the percentage of eggs with delayed hatch. Six initial inoculum densities ranging from 100 to 20,000 eggs per pot did not influence egg hatch within a 45-day incubation period. In a 60-day test, the percentage of eggs hatching after more than 20 days was low for egg masses removed from carrot and okra and high for those from pepper and bean. Increasing exposure to cold temperature (8 C) from 7 to 30 days tended to delay hatch. PMID:19279871

  2. Egg Hatch Rate and Nymphal Survival of the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) After Exposure to Insecticide Sprays.

    PubMed

    Hinson, K R; Benson, E P; Zungoli, P A; Bridges, W C; Ellis, B R

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the efficacy of insecticides used against eggs and first-instar nymphs of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Insect eggs are often resistant to insecticides; therefore, information on which products are effective is important. We evaluated the efficacy of four commonly used insecticide sprays applied directly to bed bug eggs. We also evaluated the efficacy of these insecticides to first-instar nymphs exposed to residuals resulting from directly spraying eggs. Temprid SC (beta-cyfluthrin, imidacloprid) was the most effective insecticide at preventing egg hatch (13% hatch rate) for pyrethroid-resistant, field-strain (Jersey City) bed bugs compared with a control (water [99% hatch rate]), Bedlam (MGK-264, sumithrin [84% hatch rate]), Demand CS (lambda-cyhalothrin [91% hatch rate]), and Phantom SC (chlorfenapyr [95% hatch rate]). Demand CS and Temprid SC were most effective at preventing egg hatch (0%) for an insecticide-susceptible (Harold Harlan) strain, followed by Bedlam (28%). Phantom SC produced a hatch rate similar to the control (97% and 96%, respectively). Harold Harlan-strain nymphs showed 100% survival for the control but 0% survival for Bedlam and Phantom SC. Jersey City-strain nymphs showed 100% survival for the control, 99% survival for Bedlam, 0% survival for Demand CS, 4% survival for Phantom SC, and 38% survival for Temprid SC. Demand CS was less effective at preventing hatch (91% hatch rate) of Jersey City-strain nymphs but was the only product to kill all nymphs (0% survival). One of the least effective products for preventing Jersey City-strain egg hatch (Phantom SC, 95% hatch rate) was the second most effective at killing nymphs, leaving only six of 141 alive. These findings indicate that survival of directly sprayed eggs and residually exposed, first-instar nymphs varies by strain, life stage, and product used.

  3. Hatch Integration Testing of a NASA TransHab Derivative Woven Inflatable Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgecombe, John; Valle, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Current options for Lunar habitat architecture include inflatable habitats and airlocks. Inflatable structures can have mass and volume advantages over conventional structures. However, inflatable structures are also perceived to carry additional risk because they are at a lower Technical Readiness Level (TRL) than more conventional metallic structures. The use of inflatable structures for habitation will require large penetrations in the inflatable structure to accommodate hatches and/or windows The Hatch Integration Test is designed to study the structural integrity of an expandable structure with an integrated hatch, and to verify mathematical models of the structure. The TransHab project developed an experimental inflatable module at Johnson Space Center in the 1990's. The TransHab design was originally envisioned for use in Mars Transits but was also studied as a potential habitat for the International Space Station (ISS).

  4. High hatching rates after cryopreservation of hydrated cysts of the brine shrimp A. franciscana.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toru; Arii, Yasuhiro; Hino, Katsuhiko; Sawatani, Ikuo; Tanaka, Midori; Takahashi, Rei; Bando, Toru; Mukai, Kazuhisa; Fukuo, Keisuke

    2011-01-01

    Cysts of Artemia franciscana are known to be extremely tolerant to UV and ionizing radiation, hypoxia, dryness, osmotic pressure, and temperatures. However, when cysts are hydrated, their resistance to extreme environmental conditions is markedly reduced, and they subsequently enter a developmental sequence. The hatching rate of hydrated cysts declined when they were rapidly frozen after a short period of hydration but slow freezing improved hatching rates after 6-h hydration (1.4 g H2O per g dry wt). We observed that trehalose content in hydrated cysts was greatly reduced up to 6-h time. DSC analysis showed different thermal profiles at two cooling rates, suggesting the formation of a minuscule ice crystal inside the cells. High hatching rates can be obtained from highly hydrated cysts at slow cooling rate.

  5. Evaluation of the leakage behavior of pressure-unseating equipment hatches and drywell heads

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, M.B.; Walther, H.P.; Lambert, L.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a recent research program to investigate the leakage behavior of pressure unseating equipment hatches. A total of thirteen tests have been conducted under various conditions to determine the pressure and temperature at which leakage through unseating equipment hatches would occur. A simple analytical model is presented that provides a good estimate of the leakage onset pressure for these tests. Because of the similarity in the sealing mechanism between unseating equipment hatches and drywell heads, the results of this program also provide insight into the leakage behavior of drywell heads. The research activities described herein are a part of the Containment Integrity Programs, which are managed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 16 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Egg laying characteristics, egg weight, embryo development, hatching weight and post-hatch growth in relation to oviposition time of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Akil, R; Zakaria, A H

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine egg laying characteristics and the effects of oviposition time on egg weight, embryo development and post-hatch growth in broiler breeders. In experiment 1, eggs collected for 3 consecutive days on hourly basis between 06:30 and 17:30h were categorized to early, middle and late oviposition times in the clutch. In experiment 2, eggs were incubated to study embryo development, remaining albumen, liver weight, heart weight and the tibia length of embryos at 12, 14, 16 and 18 days of incubation as well as the body weight of hatchlings and chickens at 7, 21 and 42 days of age in relation to oviposition time. About 76% of nest eggs were laid from 06:30 to 11:30h. A similar pattern was observed in floor eggs. Egg weight decreased (P<0.01) with advanced position in the clutch. Generally, oviposition time had no effect on embryo growth parameters. At hatch, body weight of chicks derived from eggs of late oviposition times was less (P<0.01) than that of chicks from eggs produced earlier in the clutch. From 3-week-old onwards, chickens of early oviposition time sustained heavier (P<0.05) weight than chickens of middle oviposition time whereas chickens of late oviposition time obtained a middle weight. Differences in egg weights, body weight at hatch and post-hatch growth due to time of oviposition suggest that oviposition time together with incubation conditions should be considered for obtaining greater uniformity and growth of chickens.

  7. Gonadal development and growth of chickens and turkeys hatched from eggs injected with an aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Burke, W H; Henry, M H

    1999-07-01

    It was the purpose of these experiments to describe gonadal development and posthatching growth of genetic female chickens and turkeys following in ovo injection of the aromatase inhibitor Fadrazole (CGS 16949A) prior to incubation. In ovo injection of Fadrazole (CGS 16949A) resulted in the development of testes-like gonads in the majority of day-old genetic female chickens and turkey poults. Ninety-eight to 99% of these birds have masculine-type male genitalia at 1 d of age. Microscopic examination of the gonads of day-old genetic female chicks hatched from Fadrazole-treated eggs showed the presence of atypical seminiferous tubules in 3 of 18 individuals and the presence of ovarian follicles in 3 of 18 individuals. No germinal elements were seen in 12 individuals. The gonads in the majority (8/11) of day-old female poults from treated eggs showed the presence of atypical seminiferous tubules. Three of 11 individuals had structures characterized as disorganized or degenerate follicles. Between the day of hatch and 6 wk, gonads in an increasing proportion of female chickens from Fadrazole-treated eggs had normal appearing ovarian follicles. A similar trend was seen in the female turkeys between hatch and 12 wk of age. There were no differences in BW of female chickens hatched from Fadrazole-treated eggs and those from control eggs between the day of hatch and 6 wk of age. The pectoral muscle mass and fat pad weights of these birds did not differ. In one experiment, the BW of female turkeys hatched from Fadrazole-treated eggs was significantly greater than that of controls and equal to that of males at 3 and 6 wk of age. Thereafter, both types of females were of equal weight and significantly lighter than males. Fadrazole treatment did not affect pectoral muscle mass of either sex of turkeys.

  8. Laboratory oviposition, fecundity and egg hatching ability of colonized Anopheles albimanus from southwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, J M; Salinas, E; Lopez, J R; del Angel-Cabañas, G; Martinez, L; Bown, D N

    1988-12-01

    Fecundity, oviposition patterns and egg hatching characteristics were studied in two colonies of Anopheles albimanus isolated from the Pacific coast of southern Mexico. Fecundity was inversely proportional to the cage space available to the female and was influenced by the bloodmeal source, feeding method and previous feeding history. The length of the gonotrophic cycle decreased with succeeding experience from a mean 6.6 in the first to 2.6 days for the fifth cycle. Oviposition timing was also dependent on availability of oviposition substrate. Hatching success of eggs increased significantly when the oviposition site was witheld until 48 hr post-bloodmeal.

  9. Variation in incubation periods and egg metabolism in mallards: Intrinsic mechanisms to promote hatch synchrony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCluskie, Margaret C.; Flint, Paul L.; Sedinger, James S.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting incubation time and metabolic rates of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs incubated under constant environmental conditions. Time required to reach the star-pipped stage of hatch varied significantly among females, but not with laying sequence or egg size. Metabolic rate of eggs varied positively with position in the laying sequence and tended to vary among females. Metabolic rate did not vary with egg volume or incubation length. Our results indicate metabolic rate may act as one synchronization mechanism for hatch. The role of maternal effects in development time should be considered in subsequent studies of incubation time in ducks.

  10. STS-48 Pilot Reightler and MS Brown, in LESs, stand at JSC FFT side hatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr (left) and Mission Specialist (MS) Mark N. Brown, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), stand at the side hatch of JSC's full fuselage trainer (FFT). The crewmembers will enter the FFT shuttle mockup through the side hatch and take their assigned descent (landing) positions in the crew cabin. Reightler and Brown, along with the other crewmembers, are participating in a post-landing emergency egress exercise. The FFT is located in the Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A.

  11. Arteriovenous Access

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Jennifer M.; Dipchand, Christine; Oliver, Matthew; Moist, Louise; Yilmaz, Serdar; Lok, Charmaine; Leung, Kelvin; Clark, Edward; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Complications of vascular access lead to morbidity and may reduce quality of life. In this module, we review both infectious and noninfectious arteriovenous access complications including neuropathy, aneurysm, and high-output access. For the challenging patients who have developed many complications and are now nearing their last vascular access, we highlight some potentially novel approaches. PMID:28270919

  12. 76 FR 32188 - Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC's application for...

  13. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS... § 94.6 Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry,...

  14. Effect of the size of zona pellucida opening on hatching in the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) embryo.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Hidetoshi; Motohashi, Hideyuki H; Kumon, Mami; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Okada, Hironori; Okada, Takashi; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2013-11-01

    The use of the common marmoset monkey in biomedical research has increased recently, and further attention has been devoted to this model after the successful production of transgenic marmosets. To extend genetic engineering approaches to widespread biomedical research fields, efficient prolonged in vitro culturing of embryo development is necessary. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the size of the zona pellucida opening on promoting the hatching process in the marmoset embryo. Piezo-microdrilling of a 6-μm opening in eight embryos resulted in four partially hatched embryos and one hatched embryo after 5 days of culture. Piezo-microdrilling a 20-μm opening in 11 embryos resulted in nine partial hatchings and no hatched embryos. Piezo-scraping an 80-μm opening in six embryos resulted in no partially hatched embryos and five hatched embryos. These results suggest that an 80-μm opening, rather than 6-μm or 20-μm openings, is suitable to complete the hatching process in the marmoset embryo.

  15. The effect of calcium hardness on hatching success of channel catfish x blue catfish hybrid catfish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was designed to determine the optimal level of calcium hardness in hatching waters to incubate channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus ' x blue catfish I. furcatus ' hybrid catfish eggs. Hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs was higher (p<0.05) at 75 mg L-1 of calcium hardness (C...

  16. Egg hatching of two locusts, Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria, in response to light and temperature cycles.

    PubMed

    Nishide, Yudai; Tanaka, Seiji; Saeki, Shinjiro

    2015-05-01

    The present study showed that the eggs of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, responded to photoperiod by hatching when placed on sand in the laboratory. S. gregaria mainly hatched during the dark phase and L. migratoria during the light phase. The importance of light as a hatching cue depended on the magnitude of the temperature change during the thermoperiod; photoperiod played a more important role in the control of hatching time in both species when the magnitude of the temperature change was small. In addition, the eggs of the two species that were covered with sand did not respond to photoperiod and hatched during both the light and dark phases, indicating that light did not penetrate through the sand. Because locust eggs are normally laid as egg pods and a foam plug is deposited between the egg mass and the ground surface, we tested a possibility that naturally deposited eggs perceived light through the foam plug. The eggs that were deposited and left undisturbed in the sand hatched during the light and dark phases at similar frequencies. These results suggest that the eggs of both locust species responded to light and controlled their hatching timing accordingly but would not use light as a hatching cue in the field. The evolutionary significance of the ability of eggs to respond to light in these locusts was discussed.

  17. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. 82.8 Section 82.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Disease (END) § 82.8 Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area....

  18. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. 82.8 Section 82.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Disease (END) § 82.8 Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area....

  19. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. 82.8 Section 82.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Disease (END) § 82.8 Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area....

  20. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. 82.8 Section 82.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Disease (END) § 82.8 Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area....

  1. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. 82.8 Section 82.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. (a) Eggs, other than...

  2. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from... Carcasses, meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from regions where exotic Newcastle disease or highly pathogenic...

  3. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from... Carcasses, meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from regions where exotic Newcastle disease or highly pathogenic...

  4. 76 FR 19744 - Final Tropic to Hatch 138 kV Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... Forest Service Final Tropic to Hatch 138 kV Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement and... Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Tropic to Hatch 138 kV Transmission Line Project and a Proposed... Agency publishes this Notice of Availability in the Federal Register. ADDRESSES: Copies of the Tropic...

  5. 76 FR 56791 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Tropic To Hatch (Garkane) 138 kV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Tropic To Hatch (Garkane... (ROD) for the Tropic to Hatch (Garkane) 138 kilovolt (kV) Transmission Line Environmental...

  6. Optimal Divergence-Free Hatch Filter for GNSS Single-Frequency Measurement.

    PubMed

    Park, Byungwoon; Lim, Cheolsoon; Yun, Youngsun; Kim, Euiho; Kee, Changdon

    2017-02-24

    The Hatch filter is a code-smoothing technique that uses the variation of the carrier phase. It can effectively reduce the noise of a pseudo-range with a very simple filter construction, but it occasionally causes an ionosphere-induced error for low-lying satellites. Herein, we propose an optimal single-frequency (SF) divergence-free Hatch filter that uses a satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) message to reduce the ionospheric divergence and applies the optimal smoothing constant for its smoothing window width. According to the data-processing results, the overall performance of the proposed filter is comparable to that of the dual frequency (DF) divergence-free Hatch filter. Moreover, it can reduce the horizontal error of 57 cm to 37 cm and improve the vertical accuracy of the conventional Hatch filter by 25%. Considering that SF receivers dominate the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) market and that most of these receivers include the SBAS function, the filter suggested in this paper is of great value in that it can make the differential GPS (DGPS) performance of the low-cost SF receivers comparable to that of DF receivers.

  7. Effects of calcium and magnesium hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid catfish are exclusively produced by strip spawning of channel catfish females, fertilizing stripped eggs with blue catfish sperm, and hatching the fertilized eggs. As egg development takes outside the fish’s body, water hardness is one abioitic parameter, suggested to have a major effect on ...

  8. Inbreeding coefficient and heterozygosity-fitness correlations in unhatched and hatched song sparrow nestmates.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sabrina S; Sardell, Rebecca J; Reid, Jane M; Bucher, Thomas; Taylor, Nathan G; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F

    2010-10-01

    Heterozygosity-fitness correlations use molecular measures of heterozygosity as proxy estimates of individual inbreeding coefficients (f) to examine relationships between inbreeding and fitness traits. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations partly depend on the assumption that individual heterozygosity and f are strongly and negatively correlated. Although theory predicts that this relationship will be strongest when mean f and variance in f are high, few studies of heterozygosity-fitness correlations include estimates of f based on pedigrees, which allow for more thorough examinations of the relationship between f, heterozygosity and fitness in nature. We examined relationships between pedigree-based estimates of f, multilocus heterozygosity (MLH) and the probability of survival to hatch in song sparrow nestmates. f and MLH were weakly, but significantly negatively correlated. Inbreeding coefficient predicted the probability of survival to hatch. In contrast, MLH did not predict the probability of survival to hatch nor did it account for residual variation in survival to hatch after statistically controlling for the effects of f. These results are consistent with the expectation that heterozygosity-f correlations will be weak when mean and variance in f are low. Our results also provide empirical support for recent simulation studies, which show that variation in MLH among siblings with equal f can be large and may obscure MLH-fitness relationships.

  9. Evaluation of Hyperspectral Imaging and Predictive Modeling to Determine Fertility and Development of Broiler Hatching Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hyperspectral imaging system and a predictive modeling technique was evaluated for determining fertility and early embryo development of broiler chicken hatching eggs. Twenty-four broiler-strain eggs were collected (12 fertile, 12 infertile) for each of 8 replicate trials (n=192) and imaged on Da...

  10. 75 FR 56504 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Rigel Optics, Inc. and Donald Wayne Hatch; Order Denying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Rigel Optics, Inc. and Donald Wayne Hatch; Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Rigel Optics, Inc., 477 South 28th Street..., Related Person. A. Denial of Export Privileges of Rigel Optics, Inc. On May 12, 2009, in the U.S....

  11. To Tell the Truth: The Impact of the Hatch Act on Secondary Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary E.

    The Hatch Act of 1887 established agricultural experiment stations to conduct agricultural research. It also called for the diffusion of agricultural information to the public. Land-grant university presidents and agricultural professors formalized the establishment of an association to improve communications and coordinate activities in regards…

  12. Transmission and genetic diversity of Enterococcus faecalis during hatch of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Christensen, Henrik; Bisgaard, Magne

    2012-11-09

    The normal gastrointestinal flora of poultry includes Enterococcus faecalis. E. faecalis is also associated with first week mortality of chickens, but it is not clear whether this is due to vertical or horizontal transmission. Aims of the present study were to investigate transmission and genetic diversity of E. faecalis during hatching of broiler chicks. When hatching started, 15% of the chicks were colonized with E. faecalis. This colonization was interpreted as vertical transmission and was higher than previously reported. Transmission of E. faecalis from parents older than 42 weeks was five times greater than transmission of E. faecalis from younger parents. Seventy percent of broiler chicks were colonized with E. faecalis within 24 h after hatch started, which was interpreted as horizontal transmission. Twenty-one sequence types (STs) were demonstrated among 322 isolates of E. faecalis obtained from newly hatched chicks representing 11 different broiler parent flocks. Furthermore, three STs (ST59, ST82, ST174) made up 50.6% of the isolates, indicating that these STs have adapted successfully to the avian niche. All STs, except those novel to this study, have previously been associated with lesions in poultry, underlining the importance of controlling these particular STs.

  13. Efficacy of combination chemicals as sanitizers of Salmonella-inoculated broiler hatching eggshells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sanitization of broiler hatching eggs provides an opportunity to reduce the eggshell bacterial load entering hatchery incubators, which can be subsequently carried with the chicks to the growout farm and ultimately into the processing plant. Two experiments evaluated combination chemicals containin...

  14. Optimal Divergence-Free Hatch Filter for GNSS Single-Frequency Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byungwoon; Lim, Cheolsoon; Yun, Youngsun; Kim, Euiho; Kee, Changdon

    2017-01-01

    The Hatch filter is a code-smoothing technique that uses the variation of the carrier phase. It can effectively reduce the noise of a pseudo-range with a very simple filter construction, but it occasionally causes an ionosphere-induced error for low-lying satellites. Herein, we propose an optimal single-frequency (SF) divergence-free Hatch filter that uses a satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) message to reduce the ionospheric divergence and applies the optimal smoothing constant for its smoothing window width. According to the data-processing results, the overall performance of the proposed filter is comparable to that of the dual frequency (DF) divergence-free Hatch filter. Moreover, it can reduce the horizontal error of 57 cm to 37 cm and improve the vertical accuracy of the conventional Hatch filter by 25%. Considering that SF receivers dominate the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) market and that most of these receivers include the SBAS function, the filter suggested in this paper is of great value in that it can make the differential GPS (DGPS) performance of the low-cost SF receivers comparable to that of DF receivers. PMID:28245584

  15. Inflatable O-ring seal would ease closing of hatch cover plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neary, K. J.

    1966-01-01

    Inflatable O-ring seal provides positive sealing means that does not require the manual exertion of a large compressive force during opening or closing of a rotary-type hatch cover plate. The O-ring is deflated during opening and closing and inflated after closure by a gas pressure source.

  16. Factors Affecting Growth of Tengmalm's Owl (Aegolius funereus) Nestlings: Prey Abundance, Sex and Hatching Order.

    PubMed

    Zárybnická, Markéta; Riegert, Jan; Brejšková, Lucie; Šindelář, Jiří; Kouba, Marek; Hanel, Jan; Popelková, Alena; Menclová, Petra; Tomášek, Václav; Šťastný, Karel

    2015-01-01

    In altricial birds, energy supply during growth is a major predictor of the physical condition and survival prospects of fledglings. A number of experimental studies have shown that nestling body mass and wing length can vary with particular extrinsic factors, but between-year observational data on this topic are scarce. Based on a seven-year observational study in a central European Tengmalm's owl population we examine the effect of year, brood size, hatching order, and sex on nestling body mass and wing length, as well as the effect of prey abundance on parameters of growth curve. We found that nestling body mass varied among years, and parameters of growth curve, i.e. growth rate and inflection point in particular, increased with increasing abundance of the owl's main prey (Apodemus mice, Microtus voles), and pooled prey abundance (Apodemus mice, Microtus voles, and Sorex shrews). Furthermore, nestling body mass varied with hatching order and between sexes being larger for females and for the first-hatched brood mates. Brood size had no effect on nestling body mass. Simultaneously, we found no effect of year, brood size, hatching order, or sex on the wing length of nestlings. Our findings suggest that in this temperate owl population, nestling body mass is more sensitive to prey abundance than is wing length. The latter is probably more limited by the physiology of the species.

  17. Unweathered and weathered aviation kerosine: Chemical characterization and effects on hatching success of duck eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Gay, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of weathered aviation kerosine from a pipeline rupture in northern Virginia on mallard egg hatchability. Artificially-incubated mallard eggs were exposed by eggshell application to several amounts of weathered and unweathered aviation kerosine on day 6 of incubation. Measured hatching success of eggs and characterized the kerosine according to 14 aliphatic and 9 aromatic compounds.

  18. Involvement of Neptune in induction of the hatching gland and neural crest in the Xenopus embryo.

    PubMed

    Kurauchi, Takayuki; Izutsu, Yumi; Maéno, Mitsugu

    2010-01-01

    Neptune, a Krüppel-like transcription factor, is expressed in various regions of the developing Xenopus embryo and it has multiple functions in the process of development in various organs. In situ hybridization analysis showed that Neptune is expressed in the boundary region between neural and non-neural tissues at the neurula stage, but little is known about the function of Neptune in this region. Here, we examined the expression and function of Neptune in the neural plate border (NPB) in the Xenopus embryo. Depletion of Neptune protein in developing embryos by using antisense MO caused loss of the hatching gland and otic vesicle as well as malformation of neural crest-derived cranial cartilages and melanocytes. Neptune MO also suppressed the expression of hatching gland and neural crest markers such as he, snail2, sox9 and msx1 at the neurula stage. Subsequent experiments showed that Neptune is necessary and sufficient for the differentiation of hatching gland cells and that it is located downstream of pax3 in the signal regulating the differentiation of these cells. Thus, Neptune is a new member of hatching gland specifier and plays a physiological role in determination and specification of multiple lineages derived from the NPB region.

  19. Application of Removable Coatings and Storage Time on Internal Quality of Broiler Hatching Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research suggests treating hatching eggs with various removable coating formulations prior to extended egg storage resulted in better hatchability than non-coated controls. It is thought that coatings may preserve internal egg quality resulting in higher hatchability. This study involved fo...

  20. Effects of Injected Methylmercury on the Hatching of Common Loon (Gavia immer) Eggs

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the level of in ovo methylmercury (MeHg) exposure that results in detrimental effects on fitness and survival of loon embryos and hatched chicks, we conducted a field study in which we injected eggs with various doses of MeHg on day 4 of incubation. Eggs were collect...

  1. WINTER FLOUNDER PSUEDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS HATCHING SUCCESS AS A FUNCTION OF BURIAL DEPTH IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experiments have shown that viable hatch of winter flounder eggs is reduced when the eggs are buried by as little as one half of one egg diameter (approximately 0.5 mm of sediment). This sensitivity to burial has resulted in seasonal banning of dredging in several north...

  2. Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella recovered from non-sanitized and sanitized broiler hatching eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sanitizing hatching eggs may reduce the chances that a flock will become colonized with Salmonella and reduce the numbers of other microorganisms, such as Enterobacteriaceae, that can depress hatchability. An experiment was conducted to determine if a quaternary-biguanide sanitizer applied as foam ...

  3. Dietary lufenuron reduces egg hatch and influences protein expression in the fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newly emerged virgin adults were fed for 12 days with various concentrations of lufenuron incorporated agar diet until sexual maturation. After maturation, pairing tests were conducted. At 12 days old, eggs were collected and egg production and egg hatch were assessed. The results showed that lufenu...

  4. MicroRNA-276 promotes egg-hatching synchrony by up-regulating brm in locusts

    PubMed Central

    He, Jing; Chen, Qianquan; Wei, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Meiling; Hao, Shuguang; Guo, Xiaojiao; Chen, Dahua; Kang, Le

    2016-01-01

    Developmental synchrony, the basis of uniform swarming, migration, and sexual maturation, is an important strategy for social animals to adapt to variable environments. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying developmental synchrony are largely unexplored. The migratory locust exhibits polyphenism between gregarious and solitarious individuals, with the former displaying more synchronous sexual maturation and migration than the latter. Here, we found that the egg-hatching time of gregarious locusts was more uniform compared with solitarious locusts and that microRNA-276 (miR-276) was expressed significantly higher in both ovaries and eggs of gregarious locusts than in solitarious locusts. Interestingly, inhibiting miR-276 in gregarious females and overexpressing it in solitarious females, respectively, caused more heterochronic and synchronous hatching of progeny eggs. Moreover, miR-276 directly targeted a transcription coactivator gene, brahma (brm), resulting in its up-regulation. Knockdown of brm not only resulted in asynchronous egg hatching in gregarious locusts but also impaired the miR-276–induced synchronous egg hatching in solitarious locusts. Mechanistically, miR-276 mediated brm activation in a manner that depended on the secondary structure of brm, namely, a stem-loop around the binding site of miR-276. Collectively, our results unravel a mechanism by which miR-276 enhances brm expression to promote developmental synchrony and provide insight into regulation of developmental homeostasis and population sustaining that are closely related to biological synchrony. PMID:26729868

  5. STS-44 OV-104's airlock hatch with tennis shoes and Presidential Sports Award

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 airlock hatch is decorated with two pairs of tennis shoes and a Presidential Sports Award Jogging patch (insignia) on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. With the crew having a treadmill-like device onboard for exercise and biomedical testing, tennis shoes were in plentiful stock on the eight-day mission.

  6. Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited.

  7. Maternal manipulation of hatching asynchrony limits sibling cannibalism in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    PubMed

    Schausberger, P; Hoffmann, D

    2008-11-01

    1. Sibling cannibalism is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom but entails a high risk of direct and inclusive fitness loss for the mother and her offspring. Therefore, mechanisms limiting sibling cannibalism are expected to be selected for. One way of maternal manipulation of sibling cannibalism is to influence hatching asynchrony between nearby laid eggs. This has rarely been tested experimentally. 2. We examined the ability of ovipositing females of the cannibalistic predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to influence the occurrence of sibling cannibalism among offspring by manipulating hatching asynchrony of nearby laid eggs. 3. In the first experiment, we assessed the occurrence of sibling cannibalism in relation to the hatching interval (24 h and 48 h) between nearby laid eggs. In the second experiment, we tested whether ovipositing females discriminate sites containing young (24-h old) and old (48-h old) eggs, fresh and old traces (metabolic waste products and possibly pheromones) left by the same female (24 h and 48 h ago), or young eggs plus fresh female traces and old eggs plus old female traces. Both experiments were conducted with and without prey. 4. Without prey, siblings were more likely to cannibalize each other if the hatching interval between nearby laid eggs was short (24 h). Cannibalism occurred less often when senior siblings (protonymphs) experienced a delay in the opportunity to cannibalize junior siblings (larvae). 5. Independent of prey availability, females preferentially added new eggs to sites containing old eggs plus old female traces but did neither distinguish between young and old eggs presented without own traces nor between fresh and old traces presented without eggs. 6. We discuss cue perception and use by P. persimilis females and contrast the outcome of our experiments and theoretical predictions of sibling cannibalism. We conclude that P. persimilis mothers increase hatching asynchrony of nearby laid eggs to prevent

  8. Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

  9. Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Branton, S L

    2014-08-01

    Eggshell color can greatly influence visual appeal of table eggs, and within the United States, table eggs are normally sorted and marked according to eggshell color to maximize consumer appeal. Recently, table egg producers have noted increased incidence of "off-color" or tinted (TT) eggs derived from white egg laying breeder hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the production characteristics and resultant eggshell color of laying hens hatched from different colored eggs. Hy-Line W36 eggs were obtained from a commercial breeder operation and eggshell color was assessed with a colorimeter to separate eggs into groups of tinted (TT) and nontinted (NT) eggs before incubation. Treatment groups were placed into separate hatching trays. At hatching, chicks from each treatment group were individually wing-banded. Pullets were randomly allocated into cages according to treatment groups at 18 wk. Birds were placed into individual cages, with 5 consecutive cages representing a treatment replicate. Each treatment was replicated 24 times for a total of 120 birds per treatment and fed a nutritionally complete layer diet. Production performance was evaluated from 18 to 34 wk of age. Average weekly egg production was calculated. Feed intake, egg weights, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg color were analyzed every 2 wk. Birds were weighed every 4 wk until completion of the study. Birds hatched from TT eggs had significantly increased BW throughout the experimental period. Hen-day egg production was significantly different when compared with the NT treatment at 19 and 20 wk of age. Eggshell color was also found to be significantly different for the NT and TT groups with TT eggs being significantly further from true white. Selection of progeny based on eggshell color may be a criterion for selecting white egg layers as layers hatched from TT eggs resulted in more off-color eggs, which may affect consumer acceptance for buying white table eggs.

  10. Age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system promotes matricidal hatching in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Christopher L; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2013-08-01

    The identification and characterization of age-related degenerative changes is a critical goal because it can elucidate mechanisms of aging biology and contribute to understanding interventions that promote longevity. Here, we document a novel, age-related degenerative change in C. elegans hermaphrodites, an important model system for the genetic analysis of longevity. Matricidal hatching--intra-uterine hatching of progeny that causes maternal death--displayed an age-related increase in frequency and affected ~70% of mated, wild-type hermaphrodites. The timing and incidence of matricidal hatching were largely independent of the levels of early and total progeny production and the duration of male exposure. Thus, matricidal hatching appears to reflect intrinsic age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system rather than use-dependent damage accumulation. Consistent with this model, mutations that extend longevity by causing dietary restriction significantly delayed matricidal hatching, indicating age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system is controlled by nutrient availability. To identify the underlying tissue defect, we analyzed serotonin signaling that triggers vulval muscle contractions. Mated hermaphrodites displayed an age-related decline in the ability to lay eggs in response to exogenous serotonin, indicating that vulval muscles and/or a further downstream function that is necessary for egg laying degenerate in an age-related manner. By characterizing a new, age-related degenerative event displayed by C. elegans hermaphrodites, these studies contribute to understanding a frequent cause of death in mated hermaphrodites and establish a model of age-related reproductive complications that may be relevant to the birthing process in other animals such as humans.

  11. Effects of breeder age and egg weight on morphological changes in the small intestine of chicks during the hatch window.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Izzetoğlu, G T; Aktaş, A

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of breeder age and egg weight on hatching performance and morphological changes in segments of the small intestine of broiler chicks during a 21 h hatch window. 2. Eggs from Ross broiler breeder flocks aged 29 (young) and 48 weeks (old) were classified as light (LE) or heavy (HE) and incubated at the same conditions. At 475 h of incubation, eggs were checked every 3 h to determine time of external pipping and hatching. The first 42 chicks to emerge from each group were weighed and chick length was measured and 14 chicks from each group were sampled to collect residual yolk and intestine segments. The rest of chicks were placed back in the incubator and chick weight and length were measured individually at 9, 15 and 21 h after chicks hatched. At the end of 21 h, 14 chicks from each group were sampled again and the same procedure was followed. 3. The HE chicks pipped and hatched later than LE, regardless of breeder age. From hatch to the end of the hatch window, chick weight, but not yolk-free chick weight, gradually reduced. Relative residual yolk weight of chicks from both egg weights was similar at hatch, however, yolk sac utilisation was higher for LE chicks during the 21 h post-hatch period. At hatch, jejunum and ileum villus development was very similar for HE and LE chicks but greater development was observed for villus area with an increase in the jejunum villus length, width and goblet cell numbers in HE chicks. 4. The longest jejunum villus and the widest duodenum and jejunum villus were obtained for HE chicks from old breeders indicating that HE chicks from old breeders would have a greater surface area for nutrient absorption.

  12. Expression of insulin-like growth factor system genes in liver and brain tissue during embryonic and post-hatch development of the turkey.

    PubMed

    Richards, Mark P; Poch, Stephen M; McMurtry, John P

    2005-05-01

    A molecular cloning strategy employing primer-directed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was devised to sequence 1300 bp of a turkey liver-derived cDNA corresponding to the complete coding region and the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II mRNA transcript (GenBank accession no. ). The turkey IGF-II gene codes for a 187 amino acid precursor protein that includes a signal peptide, the mature IGF-II hormone, and a C-terminal extension peptide comprised of 24, 67 and 96 amino acids, respectively. Turkey IGF-II showed greater than 95% sequence identity at both the nucleotide and amino acid level with chicken IGF-II. Expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF type-I receptor (IGF-IR), and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and -5 genes was quantified relative to an internal 18S rRNA standard by RT-PCR in liver and whole brain tissue on days 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 and 26 of embryonic development, as well as at hatch (H, day 28) and at 3 weeks post-hatching (PH). Expression of liver IGF-I was low throughout embryonic development, but increased more than 8-fold by 3 weeks PH. In contrast, IGF-I was expressed in brain tissue at much higher levels than liver throughout development and this level of expression in brain increased gradually, reaching its highest point at 3 weeks PH. IGF-II was expressed at comparable levels in brain and liver tissue during embryonic development, except for transient increases in liver just prior to hatching (days 24 and 26) and at 3 weeks PH. Expression of IGF-IR declined in brain throughout development reaching its lowest level at 3 weeks PH. In liver, IGF-IR expression was lower than that of brain throughout development. An inverse relationship was observed for the expression of IGF-I and IGF-IR genes in brain, but not in liver, through 3 weeks PH. Expression of the IGFBP-2 gene increased in liver around the time of hatch (days 26-28) and declined by 3 weeks PH, whereas the level of expression of

  13. The effect of hatching time on the bioenergetics of northern pike (Esox lucius) larvae from a single egg batch during the endogenous feeding period.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Awatef; Jaworski, Andrzej; Kamler, Ewa; Gardeur, Jean-Noël; Teletchea, Fabrice; Ayadi, Habib; Fontaine, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Size, caloric value and chemical composition were measured separately in the progeny of two northern pike (Esox lucius) females at 3-day intervals during the endogenous feeding period from hatching to final yolk resorption. Tissue, yolk and entire larvae were analysed separately in three groups of larvae that hatched at different times (between 88 and 106 degree-days post-fertilization). An integrated approach with the Gompertz model was used to compute the yolk conversion efficiency and time to maximum tissue size in early, mid and late hatched larvae. At hatching, unresorbed yolk of early hatched larvae contained more energy (39.20 J) and more protein (0.99 mg) compared to the yolk of larvae that hatched later (38.13 J and 0.92 mg protein for late hatched larvae, p < 0.05). In contrast, a significant reduction in tissue weight (-0.7 mg DW) and protein content (-0.5 mg) was found in early hatched larvae compared to those which hatched later (p < 0.05). Between days 9 and 12 post-hatching (108 and 144 degree-days post-hatching), close to the final yolk resorption, late hatched larvae stopped growing and their tissue began to be resorbed. This tissue resorption time was delayed in early hatched larvae which presented at the end of the experiment a greater tissue weight than late hatched ones. Yolk conversion efficiency in term of energy from hatching to complete yolk resorption stage was significantly higher for early and mid hatched larvae (51%) compared to late hatched ones (44%) (p = 0.004). Furthermore, the time to maximum tissue size was found to be negatively related to hatching time which implies that early hatched larvae take longer time to switch from one developmental stage to the next. The maximum tissue dry weight and energy content were found to be reached at approximately the same age post-fertilization for both early hatched and late hatched larvae, suggesting that the principal steps in a fish's lifespan are better correlated with time of

  14. Does lighting manipulation during incubation affect hatching rhythms and early development of sole?

    PubMed

    Blanco-Vives, B; Aliaga-Guerrero, M; Cañavate, J P; Muñoz-Cueto, J A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2011-05-01

    Light plays a key role in the development of biological rhythms in fish. Previous research on Senegal sole has revealed that both spawning rhythms and larval development are strongly influenced by lighting conditions. However, hatching rhythms and the effect of light during incubation are as yet unexplored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the light spectrum and photoperiod on Solea senegalensis eggs and larvae until day 7 post hatching (dph). To this end, eggs were collected immediately after spawning during the night and exposed to continuous light (LL), continuous darkness (DD), or light-dark (LD) 12L:12D cycles of white light (LD(W)), blue light (LD(B); λ(peak) = 463 nm), or red light (LD(R); λ(peak) = 685 nm). Eggs exposed to LD(B) had the highest hatching rate (94.5% ± 1.9%), whereas LD(R) and DD showed the lowest hatching rate (54.4% ± 3.9% and 48.4% ± 4.2%, respectively). Under LD conditions, the hatching rhythm peaked by the end of the dark phase, but was advanced in LD(B) (zeitgeber time 8 [ZT8]; ZT0 representing the onset of darkness) in relation to LD(W) and LD(R) (ZT11). Under DD conditions, the same rhythm persisted, although with lower amplitude, whereas under LL the hatching rhythm split into two peaks (ZT8 and ZT13). From dph 4 onwards, larvae under LD(B) showed the best growth and quickest development (advanced eye pigmentation, mouth opening, and pectoral fins), whereas larvae under LD(R) and DD had the poorest performance. These results reveal that developmental rhythms at the egg stage are tightly controlled by light characteristics, underlining the importance of reproducing their natural underwater photoenvironment (LD cycles of blue wavelengths) during incubation and early larvae development of fish.

  15. Determination of hatching date for eggs of black-crowned night-herons, snowy egrets and great egrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Pendleton, G.W.; Roach, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Flotation of eggs in water and specific gravity of eggs of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula) and Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus) were evaluated as methods to determine date of hatching. Length of incubation and duration of hatching period were also documented for each species. Although species gravity was a better predictor of hatching date than egg flotation, both techniques were imprecise. The regression between specific gravity and the number of days before hatching differed among clutches, but not among eggs within clutches. Specific gravity of eggs predicted hatching data only to within 3.8 d for Snowy Egrets, adn 4.7 d for Black-crowned Night-Herons and Great Egrets. The mean incubation period was 27.3 d for Great Egrets, 23.7 d for Snowy Egrets and 22.8 d for Black-crowned Night-Herons. For all three species, the A egg (first egg laid) had a longer incubation period than the B or C egg. For all three species, the number of days between hatching of A and B eggs was significantly less (median - 1 d) than between hatching of B and C eggs (median = 2 d).

  16. Asynchronous hatching provides females with a means for increasing male care but incurs a cost by reducing offspring fitness.

    PubMed

    Ford, L E; Smiseth, P T

    2016-02-01

    In species with biparental care, sexual conflict occurs because the benefit of care depends on the total amount of care provided by the two parents while the cost of care depends on each parent's own contribution. Asynchronous hatching may play a role in mediating the resolution of this conflict over parental care. The sexual conflict hypothesis for the evolution of asynchronous hatching suggests that females adjust hatching patterns in order to increase male parental effort relative to female effort. We tested this hypothesis in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides by setting up experimental broods with three different hatching patterns: synchronous, asynchronous and highly asynchronous broods. As predicted, we found that males provided care for longer in asynchronous broods whereas the opposite was true of females. However, we did not find any benefit to females of reducing their duration of care in terms of increased lifespan or reduced mass loss during breeding. We found substantial negative effects of hatching asynchrony on offspring fitness as larval mass was lower and fewer larvae survived to dispersal in highly asynchronous broods compared to synchronous or asynchronous broods. Our results suggest that, even though females can increase male parental effort by hatching their broods more asynchronously, females pay a substantial cost from doing so in terms of reducing offspring growth and survival. Thus, females should be under selection to produce a hatching pattern that provides the best possible trade-off between the benefits of increased male parental effort and the costs due to reduced offspring fitness.

  17. Data-driven batch schuduling

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, John; Denehy, Tim; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi; Livny, Miron; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  18. Interactions between hatch dates, growth rates, and mortality of Age-0 native Rainbow Smelt and nonnative Alewife in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, Donna; Simonin, Paul W.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Pientka, Bernard; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Timing of hatch in fish populations can be critical for first-year survival and, therefore, year-class strength and subsequent species interactions. We compared hatch timing, growth rates, and subsequent mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax and Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, two common open-water fish species of northern North America. In our study site, Lake Champlain, Rainbow Smelt hatched (beginning May 26) almost a month earlier than Alewives (June 20). Abundance in the sampling area was highest in July for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and August for age-0 Alewives. Late-hatching individuals of both species grew faster than those hatching earlier (0.6 mm/d versus 0.4 for Rainbow Smelt; 0.7 mm/d versus 0.6 for Alewives). Mean mortality rate during the first 45 d of life was 3.4%/d for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and was 5.5%/d for age-0 Alewives. Alewife mortality rates did not differ with hatch timing but daily mortality rates of Rainbow Smelt were highest for early-hatching fish. Cannibalism is probably the primary mortality source for age-0 Rainbow Smelt in this lake. Therefore, hatching earlier may not be advantageous because the overlap of adult and age-0 Rainbow Smelt is highest earlier in the season. However, Alewives, first documented in Lake Champlain in 2003, may increase the mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt in the summer, which should favor selection for earlier hatching.

  19. Alterations in the mantle epithelium during transition from hatching gland to adhesive organ of Idiosepius pygmaeus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Cyran, Norbert; Klepal, Waltraud; Städler, Yannick; Schönenberger, Jürg; von Byern, Janek

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial gland systems play an important role in marine molluscs in fabricating lubricants, repellents, fragrances, adhesives or enzymes. In cephalopods the typically single layered epithelium provides a highly dynamic variability and affords a rapid rebuilding of gland cells. While the digestive hatching gland (also named Hoyle organ) is obligatory for most cephalopods, only four genera (Nautilus, Sepia, Euprymna and Idiosepius) produce adhesive secretions by means of glandular cells in an adhesive area on the mantle or tentacles. In Idiosepius this adhesive organ is restricted to the posterior part of the fin region on the dorsal mantle side and well developed in the adult stage. Two gland cell types could be distinguished, which produce different contents of the adhesive. During the embryonic development the same body area is occupied by the temporary hatching gland. The question arises, in which way the hatching gland degrades and is replaced by the adhesive gland. Ultrastructural analyses as well as computer tomography scans were performed to monitor the successive post hatching transformation in the mantle epithelium from hatching gland degradation to the formation of the adhesive organ. According to our investigations the hatching gland cells degrade within about 1 day after hatching by a type of programmed cell death and leave behind a temporary cellular gap in this area. First glandular cells of the adhesive gland arise 7 days after hatching and proceed evenly over the posterior mantle epithelium. In contrast, the accompanying reduction of a part of the dorsal mantle musculature is already established before hatching. The results demonstrate a distinct independence between the two gland systems and illustrate the early development of the adhesive organ as well as the corresponding modifications within the mantle.

  20. Heart rates increase after hatching in two species of Natricine snakes.

    PubMed

    Aubret, Fabien

    2013-11-29

    Experimental studies have shown heart rates to decrease from embryo to hatchling stage in turtles, remain steady in skinks, and increase in birds. However, no snake species has been studied in this regard. I recorded heart rate evolution trajectories from embryo to juvenile stage in 78 eggs from two species of European Natricine snakes. Unexpectedly, snakes behaved more like birds than turtles or lizards: heart rates increased after hatching in both N. maura and N. natrix, respectively by 43.92 ± 22.84% and 35.92 ± 24.52%. Heart rate shift was not related to an abrupt elevation of metabolism per se (snakes that increased their heart rates the most sharply grew the least after birth), but rather due to a number of smaller eggs that experienced lower than normal heart rates throughout the incubation and recovered a normal heart rate post-birth. This finding is discussed in the light of hatching synchrony benefits.

  1. Heart rates increase after hatching in two species of natricine snakes

    PubMed Central

    Aubret, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown heart rates to decrease from embryo to hatchling stage in turtles, remain steady in skinks, and increase in birds. However, no snake species has been studied in this regard. I recorded heart rate evolution trajectories from embryo to juvenile stage in 78 eggs from two species of European Natricine snakes. Unexpectedly, snakes behaved more like birds than turtles or lizards: heart rates increased after hatching in both N. maura and N. natrix, respectively by 43.92 ± 22.84% and 35.92 ± 24.52%. Heart rate shift was not related to an abrupt elevation of metabolism per se (snakes that increased their heart rates the most sharply grew the least after birth), but rather due to a number of smaller eggs that experienced lower than normal heart rates throughout the incubation and recovered a normal heart rate post-birth. This finding is discussed in the light of hatching synchrony benefits. PMID:24287712

  2. Functional development of small intestine of Japanese quail hatched on MIR orbital station.

    PubMed

    Lenhardt, L; Cigankova, V; Zibrin, M; Kocisova, J; Tomkova, I; Sabo, V; Boda, K; Dadasheva, O A; Gurieva, T S; Mozes, S

    2001-06-01

    The effect of microgravity on functional development of the small intestine of Japanese quails incubated for 2-3 d and hatched on the orbital station MIR was examined. After 5 d of space flight duodenal and jejunal alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity of the experimental group was compared with the AP activity in quails of the same age hatched on the Earth (laboratory controls). Short-term microgravity leading to decreased food intake resulted in significant increase of AP activity in both duodenal and jejunal enterocytes (P<0.001) of the experimental quails. The results suggest that increased AP activity probably reflects the delayed functional development of the small intestine as a consequence of inappropriate food intake during non-physiological conditions of space flight.

  3. Effects of Mycoplasma anatis and cold stress on hatching success and growth of mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Thomas, C.B.; Sharp, P.

    1995-01-01

    We inoculated game-farm mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs and 1-day-old birds with Mycoplasma anatis to determine its effect on hatching success and growth rates of ducklings. Inoculations of eggs reduced hatching success, hatchling size, and duckling growth rates, compared to controls. Intratracheal inoculations of 1-day-old birds did not affect growth rates. Hatchlings and 1-day-old ducklings grew much slower for the first 7 to 10 days when raised at 17 to 19 C, compared to controls raised at 30 to 35 C. The effect of cold stress on growth was greater than the effect of M. anatis infection; we found no synergistic effects between cold stress and M. anatis infection.

  4. Influence of Temperature on Multiplication and Egg Hatching of Longidorus africanus

    PubMed Central

    Ploeg, Antoon T.

    1999-01-01

    Longidorus africanus multiplication on tomato was highest at 29 °C. Few nematodes were recovered after 6 weeks at soil temperatures of 35 °C or below 23 °C. The time to egg hatching was shortest and the percentage of eggs hatching was highest at 29 °C. The minimum temperature and the heat sum above this temperature required for egg development were calculated to be 14.3 °C and 94.08 degree-days, respectively. The thermal times required for egg development by L. africanus and L. elongatus were nearly identical. For both species the product of the base temperature and the heat sum was near constant, and at a temperature of 22.3 °C the rates of egg development were equal. PMID:19270878

  5. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  6. An evolutionary insight into the hatching strategies of pipefish and seahorse embryos.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Mari; Nakano, Yuko; Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Inokuchi, Mayu; Yorifuji, Makiko; Okubo, Ryohei; Nagasawa, Tatsuki; Hiroi, Junya; Kono, Tomohiro; Kaneko, Toyoji

    2016-03-01

    Syngnathiform fishes carry their eggs in a brood structure found in males. The brood structure differs from species to species: seahorses carry eggs within enclosed brood pouch, messmate pipefish carry eggs in the semi-brood pouch, and alligator pipefish carry eggs in the egg compartment on abdomen. These egg protection strategies were established during syngnathiform evolution. In the present study, we compared the hatching mode of protected embryos of three species. Electron microscopic observations revealed that alligator pipefish and messmate pipefish egg envelopes were thicker than those of seahorses, suggesting that the seahorse produces a weaker envelope. Furthermore, molecular genetic analysis revealed that these two pipefishes possessed the egg envelope-digesting enzymes, high choriolytic enzyme (HCE), and low choriolytic enzyme (LCE), as do many euteleosts. In seahorses, however, only HCE gene expression was detected. When searching the entire seahorse genome by high-throughput DNA sequencing, we did not find a functional LCE gene and only a trace of the LCE gene exon was found, confirming that the seahorse LCE gene was pseudogenized during evolution. Finally, we estimated the size and number of hatching gland cells expressing hatching enzyme genes by whole-mount in situ hybridization. The seahorse cells were the smallest of the three species, while they had the greatest number. These results suggest that the isolation of eggs from the external environment by paternal bearing might bring the egg envelope thin, and then, the hatching enzyme genes became pseudogenized. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 9999B:XX-XX, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Locomotor behavior of fish hatched from embryos exposed to flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleerekoper, H.

    1978-01-01

    Embryos of Fundulus heteroclitus in various stages of development were exposed to space flight conditions aboard Apollo spacecraft and Cosmos satellites. The objective of the study was to ascertain whether fish hatched from these embryos displayed locomotor behavior different from that of control fish of the same age. An electronic monitoring technique was used to record behavior. Results indicate no change in locomotor behavior in fish on Apollo Spacecraft, but inexplicable significant changes were noted in fish aboard Cosmos Satellites.

  8. Gene expression pattern of glucose transporters in the skeletal muscles of newly hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Saki; Ijiri, Daichi; Kawaguchi, Mana; Nakashima, Kazuki; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-07-01

    The gene expression pattern of the glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT8, and GLUT12) among pectoralis major and minor, biceps femoris, and sartorius muscles from newly hatched chicks was examined. GLUT1 mRNA level was higher in pectoralis major muscle than in the other muscles. Phosphorylated AKT level was also high in the same muscle, suggesting a relationship between AKT and GLUT1 expression.

  9. Cryopreservation of European catfish Silurus glanis sperm: sperm motility, viability, and hatching success of embryos.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Otomar; Rodina, Marek; Flajshans, Martin; Gela, David; Kocour, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to elaborate cryopreservation methods for ex situ conservation of European catfish. The success of sperm cryopreservation was evaluated by post-thaw sperm motility and velocity, percentage of live spermatozoa and fertility (hatching rates) using frozen/thawed sperm. The best hatching rates of 82-86% were obtained with sperm stored for 5 h before freezing in immobilizing solution and frozen with Me2SO in concentrations of 8, 10, and 12%, or with a mixture of 5% Me2SO and 5% propandiole. These results did not significantly differ from the fresh sperm control sample. The percentage of live spermatozoa in frozen/thawed sperm did not correlate with hatching rate or motility of spermatozoa, but was negatively correlated with velocity of spermatozoa (r=-0.47, P=0.05). The percentage motility in frozen/thawed sperm ranged from 8 to 62%, when sperm was stored in immobilizing solution 5h before freezing. The average value in the fresh sperm (control) was 96%. The frozen/thawed sperm motility rate significantly correlated with the hatching rate (r=0.76, P=0.0002), but not with the percentage of live spermatozoa (r=0.16, P=0.52) or the sperm velocity (r=0.07, P=0.79). The velocity of frozen/thawed spermatozoa ranged from 37 to 85 microm/s, whereby methanol concentrations of 7.5 and 10% resulted in highest velocities. Freezing sperm volumes of 1-4 ml did not affect the quality of frozen/thawed sperm.

  10. Cryopreservation of sperm in common carp Cyprinus carpio: sperm motility and hatching success of embryos.

    PubMed

    Linhart, O; Rodina, M; Cosson, J

    2000-11-01

    In this study, fish sperm cryopreservation methods were elaborated upon for ex situ conservation of nine strains of Bohemian common carp. Common carp sperm were diluted in Kurokura medium and chilled to 4 degrees C and dimethyl sulfoxide was added. Cryotubes of sperm with media were then cooled from +4 to -9 degrees C at a rate of 4 degrees C min(-1) and then from -9 to -80 degrees C at a rate of 11 degrees C min(-1), held for 6 min at -80 degrees C, and finally transferred into liquid N(2). The spermatozoa were thawed in a water bath at 35 degrees C for 110 s and checked for fertilization yield, hatching yield of embryos, and larval malformations. Fresh and frozen/thawed sperm were evaluated for the percentage and for the velocity of motile sperm from video frames using image analysis. The percentage and velocity of sperm motility at 15 s after activation of frozen/thawed sperm was significantly lower than that of fresh sperm (nine males). ANOVA showed a significant influence of fresh vs frozen/thawed sperm on fertilization rate (P < 0.0001), but differences in hatching rate and in larval malformation (0-6.8%) were not significant, and different males had a significant influence on fertilization and hatching rate (P < 0.003 and P < 0.007, respectively). Multiple range analysis (LSD) showed significant differences between fresh and frozen/thawed sperm regarding fertilization rate (68 +/- 11 and 56 +/- 10%, respectively) and insignificant differences between fresh and frozen/thawed sperm on the hatching rate (50 +/- 18 and 52 +/- 9%, respectively). The percentage and velocity of fresh sperm motility were correlated, respectively, with the fertilization yield of frozen/thawed sperm at the levels r = 0.51 and r = 0.54.

  11. Effective, appropriate and simple culture, egg hatching and cryopreserving of the nematode Cheilospirura hamulosa.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, S; Ebrahimi, M; Rostami, A; Fallahi, Sh

    2014-01-01

    1. Successful invasion by nematode parasites is associated with several factors including egg hatching at the right time in their hosts. To determine a simple and appropriate medium for culture and egg hatching of the highly pathogenic species of the Acuariidae family, Cheilospirura hamulosa were cultured in three different media. In addition the viability of C. hamulosa eggs was determined after storage in frozen infected gizzards. 2. Eggs removed from the uteri of the female worms in infected gizzards were pooled and washed in distilled water and screened under a stereo dissecting microscope. Eggs were counted and cultured in three different media, nutrient agar, normal saline 0.9% and Bearman, at room temperature. Additionally, 10 infected gizzards were kept at -20°C for 2 and 8 months. 3. After 4-5 d there had been no growth in the nutrient agar medium, whereas 11% of the cultured eggs in the Bearman medium contained larvae 2-3 d after culturing. In 0.9% normal saline medium the two polar knobs appeared on the two poles of the eggs at 2 d post cultivation, and 74% of the eggs contained a larva on the third day. Mature larvae gradually exited from the eggs. 4. Eggs collected from female worms in gizzards frozen at -20°C were cultured in the same three culture media at room temperature. Larvae were visible in the eggs after 2-3 d in the Bearman and 0.9% normal saline media and hatched thereafter. 5. The 0.9% normal saline medium is recommended for egg hatching and cultivation of C. hamulosa due for simplicity, efficacy and cost effectiveness. Moreover, freezing of the infected gizzards at -20°C is proposed for long-term storage of the eggs.

  12. Unweathered and weathered aviation kerosine: chemical characterization and effects on hatching success of duck eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, P.H.; Gay, M.L.

    1982-04-01

    The results of a study of the effects of unweathered and weathered aviation kerosine on the hatchability of mallard duck eggs are reported. Egg hatching succes of the control group was not significantly different from that of any of the groups treated with unweathered or weathered aviation kerosine. These results mean that the eggs of waterfowl are probably not endangered by plumage transfer of small amounts of partially weathered kerosine to the eggs. (JMT)

  13. STS-47 MS Jemison extends side hatch mockup CES pole during JSC training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison extends crew escape system (CES) pole through a side hatch mockup during launch emergency egress (bailout) training in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. MS Jerome Apt (right) looks on. The crewmembers practiced extending the CES pole prior to donning their launch and entry suits (LESs) and conducting the simulation in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT).

  14. Effects of incubation substrates on hatch timing and success of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act in 1994 because several decades of failed spawning had put the population at risk of extinction. Natural spawning is known to occur at several locations in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but there is little natural recruitment. Microhabitat where embryo incubation occurs is known to be an important factor in white sturgeon reproductive success. This study was conducted to address questions regarding the suitability of different substrates as egg attachment and incubation sites for these fish. A comparative laboratory study using six types of incubation substrates—clean river rocks, periphyton- and algae-covered rocks, waterlogged wood, sand, riparian vegetation, and clean glass plates—tested the hypothesis that survival to hatch of white sturgeon eggs differs among incubation substrates. The results showed that sand was unsuitable as an incubation substrate, as the adhesive embryos were easily dislodged. Periphyton- and algae-covered rocks had the lowest hatch success, and all other substrates had similar hatch success.

  15. Embryo malposition as a potential mechanism for mercury-induced hatching failure in bird eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, G.; Ackerman, J.T.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of embryo malpositions and deformities in relation to total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs in San Francisco Bay (CA, USA) during 2005 to 2007. Overall, 11% of embryos were malpositioned in eggs ???18 d of age (n=282) and 2% of embryos were deformed in eggs ???13 d of age (n=470). Considering only those eggs that failed to hatch (n=62), malpositions occurred in 24% of eggs ???18 d of age and deformities occurred in 7% of eggs ???13 d of age. The probability of an embryo being malpositioned increased with egg THg concentrations in Forster's terns, but not in avocets or stilts. The probability of embryo deformity was not related to egg THg concentrations in any species. Using a reduced dataset with both Se and THg concentrations measured in eggs (n=87), we found no interaction between Se and THg on the probability of an embryo being malpositioned or deformed. Results of the present study indicate that embryo malpositions were prevalent in waterbird eggs that failed to hatch and the likelihood of an embryo being malpositioned increased with egg THg concentrations in Forster's terns. We hypothesize that malpositioning of avian embryos may be one reason for mercury-related hatching failure that occurs late in incubation, but further research is needed to elucidate this potential mechanism. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  16. Novaluron causes reduced egg hatch after treating adult codling moths, Cydia pomenella: support for transovarial transfer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Hoon S; Wise, John C; Gökçe, Avhan; Whalon, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of apples throughout the United States. Reliance on broad spectrum organophosphates has been declining with the slated cancellation and has shifted towards narrow spectrum insecticides. Novaluron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, has primarily been used for its ovicidal and larvacidal activities. However, recent studies have demonstrated a transovarial effect after exposure to adults. The effects of novaluron were studied to determine if reduced egg hatch occurs after exposure of different sexes to this compound. Effects of this compound through horizontal transfer were also compared with a topical application to C. pomonella eggs. Results from independent exposure of different sexes to novaluron were different than the control for all three exposure types; male only, female only, and both treated. The horizontal transfer experiment yielded no significant difference while the topical application of novaluron on eggs showed significantly lower egg hatch. Although novaluron has no direct toxicity to adults, the results of this study demonstrate that the delayed lethal activity of this compound reduces hatching of eggs laid by treated adults. Along with the direct ovicidal and larvicidal properties of novaluron, the delayed lethal activity provides an important contribution to the overall control seen in the field.

  17. Immunological development in nestling American kestrels Falco sparverius: post-hatching ontogeny of the antibody response.

    PubMed

    Smits, Judit E G; Bortolotti, Gary R

    2008-12-01

    Avian research involving examination of immune function or testing of immunocompetence in wild birds has been based upon information on Galliforms, (chicken and quail) even though they are precocial, whereas most wild species with which ecologists, biologists and toxicologists work are altricial; blind, naked and completely dependent at hatching. Here we begin to address this gap in knowledge, offering insight into the early, post-hatching, humoral immune response in an altricial bird, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Over two breeding seasons, nestling kestrels were immunized with a non-pathogenic antigen, dinitrophenol keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH), between 3 and 9 days post-hatching and boostered 6 days later. Background levels, primary and secondary immune responses were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The specificity of our laboratory produced rabbit, anti-kestrel antibody was determined using a double immunodiffusion assay. Results showed the rabbit antiserum to have specific anti-kestrel IgG activity. Birds as young as three days old could successfully mount an antibody response, the magnitude of which increased with age at first vaccination. Early immunization did not compromise growth rate, nor did it affect the maximum secondary response. Comparatively, adult kestrels immunized during the same season and following the same protocol, had antibody levels four times higher than those of the nestlings.

  18. Ossification of the femur and tibia of the post-hatching Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Yasser A; Soliman, Soha A; Abdel-Hafez, Enas A

    2013-09-01

    The current study aimed to describe the histological changes of the femur and tibia of the post-hatching quail. Femur and tibia from 1-day- to 6-weeks post-hatching quail were processed for light microscopy. Histological examination revealed that endochondral ossification was a delayed process in the development of femur and tibia preceded by periosteal ossification. Femur and tibia of 1-day-post-hatching quail consisted of growth cartilage enclosed in a tube of periosteal bone collar. The collar extended toward the epiphysis dividing it into articular cartilage proper and lateral articular cartilage. Down to the articular cartilage, there was a physeal growth cartilage, in which the chondrocytes were organized into resting, proliferative and hypertrophic zones. Focal areas of hypertrophic chondrocytes were observed in the epiphysis of the tibia but not of the femur, which acted as a nidus for formation of the secondary ossification centre after in 2-week-posthathcing quail. Primary ossification centre was seen in both femur and tibia after 2 weeks and ossification continued replacing the cartilage until the 6th week when only permanent articular cartilage remained. Cartilage canals were present in both femur and tibia starting from the day 1, but chondrified and completely disappeared after the 6th week. The current study suggests that the periosteal ossification preceded the endochondral ossification and plays an important role in quail long bones development.

  19. Effects of copper exposure on hatching success and early larval survival in marbled salamanders, Ambystoma opacum.

    PubMed

    Soteropoulos, Diana L; Lance, Stacey L; Flynn, R Wesley; Scott, David E

    2014-07-01

    The creation of wetlands, such as urban and industrial ponds, has increased in recent decades, and these wetlands often become enriched in pollutants over time. One metal contaminant trapped in created wetlands is copper (Cu(2+)). Copper concentrations in sediments and overlying water may affect amphibian species that breed in created wetlands. The authors analyzed the Cu concentration in dried sediments from a contaminated wetland and the levels of aqueous Cu released after flooding the sediments with different volumes of water, mimicking low, medium, and high pond-filling events. Eggs and larvae of Ambystoma opacum Gravenhorst, a salamander that lays eggs on the sediments in dry pond beds that hatch on pond-filling, were exposed to a range of Cu concentrations that bracketed potential aqueous Cu levels in created wetlands. Embryo survival varied among clutches, but increased Cu levels did not affect embryo survival. At Cu concentrations of 500 µg/L or greater, however, embryos hatched earlier, and the aquatic larvae died shortly after hatching. Because Cu concentrations in sediments increase over time in created wetlands, even relatively tolerant species such as A. opacum may be affected by Cu levels in the posthatching environment.

  20. Redd dewatering effects on hatching and larval survival of the robust redhorse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisk, J. M.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Heise, R. J.; Sessions, F. W.

    2013-01-01

    Riverine habitats have been altered and fragmented from hydroelectric dams and change spatially and temporally with hydropower flow releases. Hydropeaking flow regimes for electrical power production inundate areas that create temporary suitable habitat for fish that may be rapidly drained. Robust redhorse Moxostoma robustum, an imperiled, rare fish species, uses such temporary habitats to spawn, but when power generation ceases, these areas are dewatered until the next pulse of water is released. We experimentally simulated the effects of dewatering periods on the survival of robust redhorse eggs and larvae in the laboratory. Robust redhorse eggs were placed in gravel in eyeing-hatching jars (three jars per treatment) and subjected to one of four dewatering periods (6, 12, 24 and 48 h), followed by 12 h of inundation for each treatment, and a control treatment was never dewatered. Egg desiccation was observed in some eggs in the 24- and 48-h treatments after one dewatering period. For all treatments except the control, the subsequent dewatering period after eggs hatched was lethal. Larval emergence for the control treatment was observed on day 5 post-hatching and continued until the end of the experiment (day 21). Larval survival was significantly different between the control and all dewatering treatments for individuals in the gravel. These findings support the need for hydropower facilities to set minimum flows to maintain inundation of spawning areas for robust redhorse and other species to reduce dewatering mortality.

  1. Factors Affecting Egg Hatch of Heterodera mediterranea and Differential Responses of Olive Cultivars to Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, P.; Vovlas, N.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of temperature and olive root exudates on Heterodera mediterranea egg hatch and the effects of H. mediterranea on the growth of two olive cultivars (Arbequina and Picual) were investigated. Egg hatch occurred over a temperature range of 10 to 30°C and was optimal at 20 to 25°C. There were no differences in egg hatch between sterile deionized distilled water or root exudate dilutions (undiluted, diluted 1:1, and 1:2) of Arbequina and Picual at 20°C. Heterodera mediterranea reproduced on both olive cultivars in growth chambers at 25°C. Soil and root final nematode populations, as well as total number of cysts per plant and reproduction rate, were significantly higher in Arbequina than in Picual. Shoot dry and root fresh weights as well as increases of shoot height, trunk diameter, and numbers of nodes were significantly suppressed by infection with 10,000 eggs + second-stage juveniles/pot in Arbequina but not in Picual. PMID:19265924

  2. Tracking living decapod larvae: mass staining of eggs with neutral red prior to hatching.

    PubMed

    Øresland, V; Horobin, R W

    2012-04-01

    Mass staining of decapod females carrying eggs, with subsequent identification of hatched larvae in the environment, is a research tool with great potential for field ecologists wishing to track the movements of larvae. For this to be achieved, however, numerous requirements must be met. These include adequate dye solubility, short staining time, dye penetration through different tissues, dye retention within the organism, absence of toxic and behavioral effects, low visibility to predators of stained larvae, no loss of staining owing to preservatives and low cost. The dye, neutral red, appears to meet most of these requirements. This dye was used in aliquots of 0.7 g/770 ml seawater applied to the females of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) and European lobster (Homarus gammarus) for 10 min. This procedure stained lobster eggs and embryos so that hatched larvae could be distinguished easily by fluorescence microscopy from larvae that hatched from unstained eggs. Stained larvae that were preserved in 4% formaldehyde in seawater were still stained after 1 year. Larvae should not come in contact with ethanol, because it extracts the dye rapidly.

  3. Commercially laid eggs vs. discarded hatching eggs: contamination by Salmonella spp.

    PubMed

    Kottwitz, Luciana B M; Leão, Joice Aparecida; Back, Alberto; Rodrigues, Dalia dos P; Magnani, Marciane; de Oliveira, Tereza C R M

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is frequently associated with outbreaks of human salmonellosis, and products of avian origin, such as eggs and chicken meat, are the main vehicles of its transmission. The present study describes the occurrence of different serovars of Salmonella enterica and phagotypes of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs destined for human consumption. Four thousand eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms and one thousand discarded hatching eggs from broiler farms, which were acquired at farmers' markets and informal shops, were analyzed. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 52.0% of the discarded hatching eggs, in which the predominant serovar was Enteritidis (84.6%), and the predominant Salmonella Enteritidis phagotype (PT) was PT7 (26.9%). Salmonella spp. was not isolated from eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms. The antimicrobial resistance profile showed that 23.1% (n = 6) of the SE strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. The results suggest that the consumption of discarded hatching eggs represents an important source of Salmonella transmission to humans.

  4. Commercially laid eggs vs. discarded hatching eggs: contamination by Salmonella spp

    PubMed Central

    Kottwitz, Luciana B.M.; Leão, Joice Aparecida; Back, Alberto; Rodrigues, Dalia dos P.; Magnani, Marciane; de Oliveira, Tereza C.R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is frequently associated with outbreaks of human salmonellosis, and products of avian origin, such as eggs and chicken meat, are the main vehicles of its transmission. The present study describes the occurrence of different serovars of Salmonella enterica and phagotypes of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs destined for human consumption. Four thousand eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms and one thousand discarded hatching eggs from broiler farms, which were acquired at farmers’ markets and informal shops, were analyzed. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 52.0% of the discarded hatching eggs, in which the predominant serovar was Enteritidis (84.6%), and the predominant Salmonella Enteritidis phagotype (PT) was PT7 (26.9%). Salmonella spp. was not isolated from eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms. The antimicrobial resistance profile showed that 23.1% (n = 6) of the SE strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. The results suggest that the consumption of discarded hatching eggs represents an important source of Salmonella transmission to humans. PMID:24294223

  5. Acute and chronic eggshell temperature manipulations during hatching term influence hatchability, broiler performance, and ascites incidence.

    PubMed

    Sozcu, A; Ipek, A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine how a control temperature and acute and chronic high eggshell temperatures during the last three days of incubation, can affect hatchability, chick quality, and organ development on day of hatch as well as broiler performance and ascites incidence in later life. The eggshell temperature manipulations were applied during hatching term (days 19 to 21) as follows: control EST (37.3 to 38.0°C), acute high eggshell temperature manipulations (38.4- to 39.0°C for three hours daily) and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations (38.4 to 39.0°C). The lowest hatchability and the highest cull chick rate were in the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group. Lower chick quality parameters correlated with lower chick weights and heavier residual yolk sac weights that were in the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group depending on hatch time. The live weights on the 1(st) day of the growing period were higher in the control and acute high eggshell temperature manipulations groups than the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group. At 6 wk of age, live weights of broilers were the highest in the control than in the acute and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups. The total mortality was 2.5, 9.2, and 13.3%, the mortality due to ascites was 2.1, 8.3, and 12.9% in the control, acute ,and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups, respectively. The right ventricular/total ventricular ratios for the control, acute and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups were 0.22, 0.28, and 0.30%, respectively. In conclusion, short-term and long-term higher temperatures during the hatching term affect embryo development, incubation results, broiler performance, and ascites incidence. Although the acute high eggshell temperature manipulations did not affect the chick quality parameters at hatch, it negatively affected incubation results and broiler performance

  6. Thyroid and pituitary gland development from hatching through metamorphosis of a teleost flatfish, the Atlantic halibut.

    PubMed

    Einarsdóttir, Ingibjörg Eir; Silva, Nadia; Power, Deborah M; Smáradóttir, Heiddis; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2006-01-01

    Fish larval development, not least the spectacular process of flatfish metamorphosis, appears to be under complex endocrine control, many aspects of which are still not fully elucidated. In order to obtain data on the functional development of two major endocrine glands, the pituitary and the thyroid, during flatfish metamorphosis, histology, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques were applied on larvae of the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), a large, marine flatfish species, from hatching through metamorphosis. The material was obtained from a commercial hatchery. Larval age is defined as day-degrees (D degrees =accumulated daily temperature from hatching). Sporadic thyroid follicles are first detected in larvae at 142 D degrees (27 days post-hatch), prior to the completion of yolk sack absorption. Both the number and activity of the follicles increase markedly after yolk sack absorption and continue to do so during subsequent development. The larval triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) content increases, subsequent to yolk absorption, and coincides with the proliferation of thyroid follicles. A second increase of both T(3) and T(4) occurs around the start of metamorphosis and the T(3) content further increases at the metamorphic climax. Overall, the T(3) content is lower than T(4). The pituitary gland can first be distinguished as a separate organ at the yolk sack stage. During subsequent development, the gland becomes more elongated and differentiates into neurohypophysis (NH), pars distalis (PD) and pars intermedia (PI). The first sporadic endocrine pituitary cells are observed at the yolk sack stage, somatotrophs (growth hormone producing cells) and somatolactotrophs (somatolactin producing cells) are first observed at 121 D degrees (23 days post-hatch), and lactotrophs (prolactin producing cells) at 134 D degrees (25 days post-hatch). Scarce thyrotrophs are evident after detection of the first thyroid follicles (142 D

  7. Determination of hatching date for eggs of black-crowned night-herons, snowy egrets and great egrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Pendleton, G.W.; Roach, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Floatation of eggs in water and specific gravity of eggs of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax ), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula ) and Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus ) were evaluated as methods to determine date of hatching. Although specific gravity was a better predictor of hatching date than egg flotation, both techniques were imprecise. The regression between specific gravity and the number of days before hatching differed among clutches, but not among eggs within clutches. Specific gravity of eggs predicted hatching date only to within 3.8 d for Snowy Egrets, and 4.7 d for Black-crowned Night-Herons and Great Egrets. The mean incubation period was 27.3 d for Great Egrets, 23.7 d for Snowy Egrets and 22.8 d for Black-crowned Night- Herons. For all three species, the A egg (first egg laid) had a longer incubation period than the B or C egg.

  8. Adaptive difference in daily timing of hatch in two locust species, Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria: the effects of thermocycles and phase polyphenism.

    PubMed

    Nishide, Yudai; Tanaka, Seiji; Saeki, Shinjiro

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of temperature and phase polyphenism on egg hatching time in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. The two species exhibited differences and similarities in hatching behavior when exposed to different temperature conditions. In 12-h thermocycles of various temperatures, the S. gregaria eggs hatched during the cryoperiod (low temperature period), whereas L. migratoria eggs hatched during the thermoperiod (high temperature period). The eggs of both species hatched during the species-specific period of the thermoperiod in response to a temperature difference as small as 1 °C. Furthermore, the locusts adjusted hatching time to a new thermal environment that occurred shortly before the expected hatching time. In both species, the hatching of the eggs was synchronized to a specific time of the day, and two hatching peaks separated by approximately 1 day were observed at a constant temperature after the eggs were transferred from thermocycles 3 days before hatching. Eggs laid by gregarious females hatched earlier than those laid by solitarious females in S. gregaria but this difference was not observed in L. migratoria.

  9. Multi-response optimization of Artemia hatching process using split-split-plot design based response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Arun, V V; Saharan, Neelam; Ramasubramanian, V; Babitha Rani, A M; Salin, K R; Sontakke, Ravindra; Haridas, Harsha; Pazhayamadom, Deepak George

    2017-01-16

    A novel method, BBD-SSPD is proposed by the combination of Box-Behnken Design (BBD) and Split-Split Plot Design (SSPD) which would ensure minimum number of experimental runs, leading to economical utilization in multi- factorial experiments. The brine shrimp Artemia was tested to study the combined effects of photoperiod, temperature and salinity, each with three levels, on the hatching percentage and hatching time of their cysts. The BBD was employed to select 13 treatment combinations out of the 27 possible combinations that were grouped in an SSPD arrangement. Multiple responses were optimized simultaneously using Derringer's desirability function. Photoperiod and temperature as well as temperature-salinity interaction were found to significantly affect the hatching percentage of Artemia, while the hatching time was significantly influenced by photoperiod and temperature, and their interaction. The optimum conditions were 23 h photoperiod, 29 °C temperature and 28 ppt salinity resulting in 96.8% hatching in 18.94 h. In order to verify the results obtained from BBD-SSPD experiment, the experiment was repeated preserving the same set up. Results of verification experiment were found to be similar to experiment originally conducted. It is expected that this method would be suitable to optimize the hatching process of animal eggs.

  10. Multi-response optimization of Artemia hatching process using split-split-plot design based response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Arun, V. V.; Saharan, Neelam; Ramasubramanian, V.; Babitha Rani, A. M.; Salin, K. R.; Sontakke, Ravindra; Haridas, Harsha; Pazhayamadom, Deepak George

    2017-01-01

    A novel method, BBD-SSPD is proposed by the combination of Box-Behnken Design (BBD) and Split-Split Plot Design (SSPD) which would ensure minimum number of experimental runs, leading to economical utilization in multi- factorial experiments. The brine shrimp Artemia was tested to study the combined effects of photoperiod, temperature and salinity, each with three levels, on the hatching percentage and hatching time of their cysts. The BBD was employed to select 13 treatment combinations out of the 27 possible combinations that were grouped in an SSPD arrangement. Multiple responses were optimized simultaneously using Derringer’s desirability function. Photoperiod and temperature as well as temperature-salinity interaction were found to significantly affect the hatching percentage of Artemia, while the hatching time was significantly influenced by photoperiod and temperature, and their interaction. The optimum conditions were 23 h photoperiod, 29 °C temperature and 28 ppt salinity resulting in 96.8% hatching in 18.94 h. In order to verify the results obtained from BBD-SSPD experiment, the experiment was repeated preserving the same set up. Results of verification experiment were found to be similar to experiment originally conducted. It is expected that this method would be suitable to optimize the hatching process of animal eggs. PMID:28091611

  11. Multi-response optimization of Artemia hatching process using split-split-plot design based response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun, V. V.; Saharan, Neelam; Ramasubramanian, V.; Babitha Rani, A. M.; Salin, K. R.; Sontakke, Ravindra; Haridas, Harsha; Pazhayamadom, Deepak George

    2017-01-01

    A novel method, BBD-SSPD is proposed by the combination of Box-Behnken Design (BBD) and Split-Split Plot Design (SSPD) which would ensure minimum number of experimental runs, leading to economical utilization in multi- factorial experiments. The brine shrimp Artemia was tested to study the combined effects of photoperiod, temperature and salinity, each with three levels, on the hatching percentage and hatching time of their cysts. The BBD was employed to select 13 treatment combinations out of the 27 possible combinations that were grouped in an SSPD arrangement. Multiple responses were optimized simultaneously using Derringer’s desirability function. Photoperiod and temperature as well as temperature-salinity interaction were found to significantly affect the hatching percentage of Artemia, while the hatching time was significantly influenced by photoperiod and temperature, and their interaction. The optimum conditions were 23 h photoperiod, 29 °C temperature and 28 ppt salinity resulting in 96.8% hatching in 18.94 h. In order to verify the results obtained from BBD-SSPD experiment, the experiment was repeated preserving the same set up. Results of verification experiment were found to be similar to experiment originally conducted. It is expected that this method would be suitable to optimize the hatching process of animal eggs.

  12. Tainted resurrection: metal pollution is linked with reduced hatching and high juvenile mortality in Daphnia egg banks.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, Mary A

    2015-05-01

    Many taxa, from plants to zooplankton, produce long-lasting dormant propagules capable of temporal dispersal. In some cases, propagules can persist for decades or even centuries before emerging from seed and egg banks. Despite impressive longevity, relatively little is known about how the chemical environment experienced before or during dormancy affects the fate and performance of individuals. This study examines the hatching rate and developmental success of Daphnia hatched from diapausing eggs isolated from sediments from four lakes that experienced varying levels of metal contamination. Two hundred seventy-three animals were hatched from lake sediments deposited over the past century. Hatching rate was negatively influenced by metal contamination and sediment age. There was a robust positive relationship between sediment metal concentrations and juvenile mortality in Daphnia hatching from those sediments. The negative effect of metals on Daphnia hatching and juvenile survival may stem from metal bioaccumulation, genetic effects, or reduced maternal investment in diapausing embryos. Regardless of the specific mechanism driving this trend, exposure to metals may impose strong selection on Daphnia diapausing egg banks.

  13. Entrainment of the Circadian Rhythm in Egg Hatching of the Crab Dyspanopeus sayi by Chemical Cues from Ovigerous Females.

    PubMed

    Forward, Richard B; Sanchez, Kevin G; Riley, Paul P

    2016-02-01

    The subtidal crab Dyspanopeus sayi has a circadian rhythm in larval release with a free-running period of 24.1 h. Under constant conditions, eggs hatch primarily in the 4-h interval after the time of sunset. The study tested the new model for entrainment in subtidal crabs, which proposes that the female perceives the environmental cycles and entrains the endogenous rhythm in the embryos. Results verified the model for D. sayi. Hatching by embryos collected from the field when they had not yet developed eye pigments, and were kept in constant conditions attached to their mother, exhibited the circadian hatching rhythm. Attached embryos could also be entrained to a new photoperiod in the laboratory before they developed eye pigments. Further, mature embryos removed from the female hatched rhythmically, indicating that a circadian rhythm resides in the embryos. However, if mature embryos with eye pigments were removed from the female and exposed to a new light-dark cycle, they could not be entrained to the new cycle; rather, they hatched according to the timing of the original light-dark cycle. Nevertheless, detached, mature embryos would entrain to a new light-dark cycle if they were in chemical, but not physical, contact with the female. Thus, the female perceives the light-dark cycle, and uses chemical cues to entrain the circadian rhythm of hatching by the embryos.

  14. Sex Differences in Brain Thyroid Hormone Levels during Early Post-Hatching Development in Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Hayase, Shin; Aoki, Naoya; Takehara, Akihiko; Ishigohoka, Jun; Matsushima, Toshiya; Wada, Kazuhiro; Homma, Koichi J.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are closely linked to the hatching process in precocial birds. Previously, we showed that thyroid hormones in brain had a strong impact on filial imprinting, an early learning behavior in newly hatched chicks; brain 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) peaks around hatching and imprinting training induces additional T3 release, thus, extending the sensitive period for imprinting and enabling subsequent other learning. On the other hand, blood thyroid hormone levels have been reported to increase gradually after hatching in altricial species, but it remains unknown how the brain thyroid hormone levels change during post-hatching development of altricial birds. Here, we determined the changes in serum and brain thyroid hormone levels of a passerine songbird species, the zebra finch using radioimmunoassay. In the serum, we found a gradual increase in thyroid hormone levels during post-hatching development, as well as differences between male and female finches. In the brain, there was clear surge in the hormone levels during development in males and females coinciding with the time of fledging, but the onset of the surge of thyroxine (T4) in males preceded that of females, whereas the onset of the surge of T3 in males succeeded that of females. These findings provide a basis for understanding the functions of thyroid hormones during early development and learning in altricial birds. PMID:28060907

  15. Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Hatching Success as a Function of the Microbial Abundance in Nest Sand at Ostional, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Bézy, Vanessa S.; Valverde, Roldán A.; Plante, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that significant embryo mortality is caused by microbes, while high microbial loads are generated by the decomposition of eggs broken by later nesting turtles. This occurs commonly when nesting density is high, especially during mass nesting events (arribadas). However, no previous research has directly quantified microbial abundance and the associated effects on sea turtle hatching success at a nesting beach. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the microbial abundance in olive ridley sea turtle nest sand affects the hatching success at Ostional, Costa Rica. We applied experimental treatments to alter the microbial abundance within the sand into which nests were relocated. We monitored temperature, oxygen, and organic matter content throughout the incubation period and quantified the microbial abundance within the nest sand using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) molecular analysis. The most successful treatment in increasing hatching success was the removal and replacement of nest sand. We found a negative correlation between hatching success and fungal abundance (fungal 18S rRNA gene copies g-1 nest sand). Of secondary importance in determining hatching success was the abundance of bacteria (bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies g-1 g-1 nest sand). Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that high microbial activity is responsible for the lower hatching success observed at Ostional beach. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism appears to be the deprivation of oxygen and exposure to higher temperatures resulting from microbial decomposition in the nest. PMID:25714355

  16. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  17. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  18. VisPort: Web-Based Access to Community-Specific Visualization Functionality [Shedding New Light on Exploding Stars: Visualization for TeraScale Simulation of Neutrino-Driven Supernovae (Final Technical Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M Pauline

    2007-06-30

    The VisPort visualization portal is an experiment in providing Web-based access to visualization functionality from any place and at any time. VisPort adopts a service-oriented architecture to encapsulate visualization functionality and to support remote access. Users employ browser-based client applications to choose data and services, set parameters, and launch visualization jobs. Visualization products typically images or movies are viewed in the user's standard Web browser. VisPort emphasizes visualization solutions customized for specific application communities. Finally, VisPort relies heavily on XML, and introduces the notion of visualization informatics - the formalization and specialization of information related to the process and products of visualization.

  19. Heart Rate Responses to Unaided Orion Side Hatch Egress in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, Kirk L.; Hwang Emma Y.; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Kelly, Cody; Walker, Thomas; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion capsule as a vehicle for transporting crewmembers to and from the International Space Station (ISS) and for future human space exploration missions. Orion and other commercial vehicles are designed to splash down in the ocean where nominally support personnel will assist crewmembers in egressing the vehicle. However, off-nominal scenarios will require crewmembers to egress the vehicle unaided, deploy survival equipment, and ingress a life raft. PURPOSE: To determine the heart rate (HR) responses to unaided Orion side hatch egress and raft ingress as a part of the NASA Crew Survival Engineering Team's evaluation of the PORT Orion mockup in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL). METHODS: Nineteen test subjects, including four astronauts (N=19, 14 males/5 females, 38.6+/-8.4 y, 174.4+/-9.6 cm, 75.7+/-13.1 kg), completed a graded maximal test on a cycle ergometer to determine VO2peak and HRpeak and were divided into five crews of four members each; one subject served on two crews. Each crew was required to deploy a life raft, egress the Orion vehicle from the side hatch, and ingress the life raft with two 8 kg emergency packs per crew. Each crew performed this activity one to three times; a total of ten full egresses were completed. Subjects wore a suit that was similar in form, mass, and function to the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) including helmet, gloves, boots, supplemental O2 bottles, and a CO2-inflated life preserver (approx.18 kg); subjects began each trial seated supine in the PORT Orion mockup with seat belts and mockup O2 and communication connections and ended each trial with all four crewmembers inside the life raft. RESULTS: VO2peak was 40.8+/-6.8 mL/kg/min (3.1+/-0.7 L/min); HRpeak was 181+/-10 bpm. Total egress time across trials was 5.0+/-1.6 min (range: 2.8-8.0 min); all subjects were able to successfully complete all trials. Average maximum HR at activity start, at the hatch opening, in the water, and in the

  20. Ixodes pacificus Ticks Maintain Embryogenesis and Egg Hatching after Antibiotic Treatment of Rickettsia Endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Kurlovs, Andre H.; Li, Jinze; Cheng, Du; Zhong, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia is a genus of intracellular bacteria that causes a variety of diseases in humans and other mammals and associates with a diverse group of arthropods. Although Rickettsia appears to be common in ticks, most Rickettsia-tick relationships remain generally uncharacterized. The most intimate of these associations is Rickettsia species phylotype G021, a maternally and transstadially transmitted endosymbiont that resides in 100% of I. pacificus in California. We investigated the effects of this Rickettsia phylotype on I. pacificus reproductive fitness using selective antibiotic treatment. Ciprofloxacin was 10-fold more effective than tetracycline in eliminating Rickettsia from I. pacificus, and quantitative PCR results showed that eggs from the ciprofloxacin-treated ticks contained an average of 0.02 Rickettsia per egg cell as opposed to the average of 0.2 in the tetracycline-treated ticks. Ampicillin did not significantly affect the number of Rickettsia per tick cell in adults or eggs compared to the water-injected control ticks. We found no relationship between tick embryogenesis and rickettsial density in engorged I. pacificus females. Tetracycline treatment significantly delayed oviposition of I. pacificus ticks, but the antibiotic’s effect was unlikely related to Rickettsia. We also demonstrated that Rickettsia-free eggs could successfully develop into larvae without any significant decrease in hatching compared to eggs containing Rickettsia. No significant differences in the incubation period, egg hatching rate, and the number of larvae were found between any of the antibiotic-treated groups and the water-injected tick control. We concluded that Rickettsia species phylotype G021 does not have an apparent effect on embryogenesis, oviposition, and egg hatching of I. pacificus. PMID:25105893

  1. The development of the olfactory organs in newly hatched monotremes and neonate marsupials.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Nanette Yvette

    2011-08-01

    Olfactory cues are thought to play a crucial role in the detection of the milk source at birth in mammals. It has been shown that a marsupial, the tammar wallaby, can detect olfactory cues from its mother's pouch at birth. This study investigates whether the main olfactory and accessory olfactory system are similarly well developed in other marsupials and monotremes at birth/hatching as in the tammar. Sections of the head of various marsupial and two monotreme species were investigated by light microscopy. Both olfactory systems were less well developed in the kowari and Eastern quoll. No olfactory or vomeronasal or terminal nerves could be observed; the main olfactory bulb (MOB) had only two layers while no accessory olfactory bulb or ganglion terminale were visible. All other investigated marsupials and monotremes showed further developed olfactory systems with olfactory, vomeronasal and terminal nerves, a three-layered MOB, and in the marsupials a prominent ganglion terminale. The main olfactory system was further developed than the accessory olfactory system in all species investigated. The olfactory systems were the least developed in species in which the mother's birth position removed most of the difficulty in reaching the teat, placing the neonate directly in the pouch. In monotremes they were the furthest developed as Bowman glands were found underlying the main olfactory epithelium. This may reflect the need to locate the milk field each time they drink as they cannot permanently attach to it, unlike therian mammals. While it still needs to be determined how an odour signal could be further processed in the brain, this study suggests that marsupials and monotremes possess well enough developed olfactory systems to be able to detect an odour cue from the mammary area at birth/hatching. It is therefore likely that neonate marsupials and newly hatched monotremes find their way to the milk source using olfactory cues, as has been previously suggested for the

  2. Egg hatching, larval movement and larval survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in desiccating habitats

    PubMed Central

    Koenraadt, Constantianus JM; Paaijmans, Krijn P; Githeko, Andrew K; Knols, Bart GJ; Takken, Willem

    2003-01-01

    Background Although the effects of rainfall on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been studied in great detail, the effects of dry periods on its survival remain less clear. Methods The effects of drying conditions were simulated by creating desiccated habitats, which consisted of trays filled with damp soil. Experiments were performed in these trays to (i) test the ability of An. gambiae sensu stricto eggs to hatch on damp soil and for larvae to reach an artificial breeding site at different distances of the site of hatching and (ii) to record survival of the four larval stages of An. gambiae s.s. when placed on damp soil. Results Eggs of An. gambiae s.s. hatched on damp soil and emerging larvae were capable of covering a distance of up to 10 cm to reach surface water enabling further development. However, proportions of larvae reaching the site decreased rapidly with increasing distance. First, second and third-instar larvae survived on damp soil for an estimated period of 64, 65 and 69 hrs, respectively. Fourth-instar larvae survived significantly longer and we estimated that the maximum survival time was 113 hrs. Conclusion Short-term survival of aquatic stages of An. gambiae on wet soil may be important and adaptive when considering the transient nature of breeding sites of this species in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, the results suggest that, for larval vector control methods to be effective, habitats should remain drained for at least 5 days to kill all larvae (e.g. in rice fields) and habitats that recently dried up should be treated as well, if larvicidal agents are applied. PMID:12919636

  3. RNA interference targeting leucine aminopeptidase blocks hatching of Schistosoma mansoni eggs.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Morales, Maria E; Alrefaei, Yousef N; Cancela, Martín; Castillo, Estela; Dalton, John P; Tort, José F; Brindley, Paul J

    2009-10-01

    Schistosoma mansoni leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is thought to play a central role in hatching of the miracidium from the schistosome egg. We identified two discrete LAPs genes in the S. mansoni genome, and their orthologs in S. japonicum. The similarities in sequence and exon/intron structure of the two genes, LAP1 and LAP2, suggest that they arose by gene duplication and that this occurred before separation of the mansoni and japonicum lineages. The SmLAP1 and SmLAP2 genes have different expression patterns in diverse stages of the cycle; whereas both are equally expressed in the blood dwelling stages (schistosomules and adult), SmLAP2 expression was higher in free living larval (miracidia) and in parasitic intra-snail (sporocysts) stages. We investigated the role of each enzyme in hatching of schistosome eggs and the early stages of schistosome development by RNA interference (RNAi). Using RNAi, we observed marked and specific reduction of mRNAs, along with a loss of exopeptidase activity in soluble parasite extracts against the diagnostic substrate l-leucine-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin hydroxide. Strikingly, knockdown of either SmLAP1 or SmLAP2, or both together, was accompanied by >or=80% inhibition of hatching of schistosome eggs showing that both enzymes are important to the escape of miracidia from the egg. The methods employed here refine the utility of RNAi for functional genomics studies in helminth parasites and confirm these can be used to identify potential drug targets, in this case schistosome aminopeptidases.

  4. Effects of Myracrodruon urundeuva extracts on egg hatching and larval exsheathment of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; de Morais, Selene Maia; Machado, Lyeghyna Karla Andrade; Campello, Claudio Cabral; de Aquino Mesquita, Mayara

    2011-09-01

    The anthelmintic resistance has limited the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants and thus has awakened interest in the study of tanniferous plants as a source of anthelmintics. These experiments were carried out to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of Myracrodruon urundeuva leaf extract (LE) and stem extract (SE) against Haemonchus contortus. An inhibitor of tannins, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP), was used to verify if these metabolites are involved in the anthelmintic activity of the extracts. To evaluate the ovicidal effect, H. contortus eggs were incubated with the extracts (0.31 to 5 mg/mL) for 48 h. In the larval artificial exsheathment assay, third-stage larvae of this nematode were incubated with extracts (0.31 mg/mL) for 3 h and then were exposed to a sodium hypochlorite solution. The exsheathment process was evaluated for 60 min. The results were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis test (P < 0.05). The extracts showed dose-dependent ovicidal effects, although the LE was more effective, inhibiting egg hatching by 97.73% at 1.25 mg/mL, while the SE inhibited hatching by 83.56% at 5 mg/mL. Contact with the extracts blocked the larval exsheathment (P < 0.05). The addition of PVPP confirmed the role of tannins, as there was a substantial reduction in egg hatching and larval exsheathment percentage. These results suggest that M. urundeuva can be used to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants and that the anthelmintic activity of this plant is probably related to tannins; however, in vivo studies should be conducted.

  5. The development of the olfactory organs in newly hatched monotremes and neonate marsupials

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Nanette Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Olfactory cues are thought to play a crucial role in the detection of the milk source at birth in mammals. It has been shown that a marsupial, the tammar wallaby, can detect olfactory cues from its mother's pouch at birth. This study investigates whether the main olfactory and accessory olfactory system are similarly well developed in other marsupials and monotremes at birth/hatching as in the tammar. Sections of the head of various marsupial and two monotreme species were investigated by light microscopy. Both olfactory systems were less well developed in the kowari and Eastern quoll. No olfactory or vomeronasal or terminal nerves could be observed; the main olfactory bulb (MOB) had only two layers while no accessory olfactory bulb or ganglion terminale were visible. All other investigated marsupials and monotremes showed further developed olfactory systems with olfactory, vomeronasal and terminal nerves, a three-layered MOB, and in the marsupials a prominent ganglion terminale. The main olfactory system was further developed than the accessory olfactory system in all species investigated. The olfactory systems were the least developed in species in which the mother's birth position removed most of the difficulty in reaching the teat, placing the neonate directly in the pouch. In monotremes they were the furthest developed as Bowman glands were found underlying the main olfactory epithelium. This may reflect the need to locate the milk field each time they drink as they cannot permanently attach to it, unlike therian mammals. While it still needs to be determined how an odour signal could be further processed in the brain, this study suggests that marsupials and monotremes possess well enough developed olfactory systems to be able to detect an odour cue from the mammary area at birth/hatching. It is therefore likely that neonate marsupials and newly hatched monotremes find their way to the milk source using olfactory cues, as has been previously suggested for the

  6. Composition of Gut Microbiota Influences Resistance of Newly Hatched Chickens to Salmonella Enteritidis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Kubasova, Tereza; Davidova-Gerzova, Lenka; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Sebkova, Alena; Faldynova, Marcela; Rychlik, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Since poultry is a very common source of non-typhoid Salmonella for humans, different interventions aimed at decreasing the prevalence of Salmonella in chickens are understood as an effective measure for decreasing the incidence of human salmonellosis. One such intervention is the use of probiotic or competitive exclusion products. In this study we tested whether microbiota from donor hens of different age will equally protect chickens against Salmonella Enteritidis infection. Newly hatched chickens were therefore orally inoculated with cecal extracts from 1-, 3-, 16-, 28-, and 42-week-old donors and 7 days later, the chickens were infected with S. Enteritidis. The experiment was terminated 4 days later. In the second experiment, groups of newly hatched chickens were inoculated with cecal extracts of 35-week-old hens either on day 1 of life followed by S. Enteritidis infection on day 2 or were infected with S. Enteritidis infection on day 1 followed by therapeutic administration of the cecal extract on day 2 or were inoculated on day 1 of life with a mixture of the cecal extract and S. Enteritidis. This experiment was terminated when the chickens were 5 days old. Both Salmonella culture and chicken gene expression confirmed that inoculation of newly hatched chickens with microbiota from 3-week-old or older chickens protected them against S. Enteritidis challenge. On the other hand, microbiota from 1-week-old donors failed to protect chickens against S. Enteritidis challenge. Microbiota from 35-week-old hens protected chickens even 24 h after administration. However, simultaneous or therapeutic microbiota administration failed to protect chickens against S. Enteritidis infection. Gut microbiota can be used as a preventive measure against S. Enteritidis infection but its composition and early administration is critical for its efficacy. PMID:27379083

  7. Evolutionary Changes in the Developmental Origin of Hatching Gland Cells in Basal Ray-Finned Fishes.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Tatsuki; Kawaguchi, Mari; Yano, Tohru; Sano, Kaori; Okabe, Masataka; Yasumasu, Shigeki

    2016-06-01

    Hatching gland cells (HGCs) originate from different germ layers between frogs and teleosts, although the hatching enzyme genes are orthologous. Teleostei HGCs differentiate in the mesoendodermal cells at the anterior end of the involved hypoblast layer (known as the polster) in late gastrula embryos. Conversely, frog HGCs differentiate in the epidermal cells at the neural plate border in early neurula embryos. To infer the transition in the developmental origin of HGCs, we studied two basal ray-finned fishes, bichir (Polypterus) and sturgeon. We observed expression patterns of their hatching enzyme (HE) and that of three transcription factors that are critical for HGC differentiation: KLF17 is common to both teleosts and frogs; whereas FoxA3 and Pax3 are specific to teleosts and frogs, respectively. We then inferred the transition in the developmental origin of HGCs. In sturgeon, the KLF17, FoxA3, and HE genes were expressed during the tailbud stage in the cell mass at the anterior region of the body axis, a region corresponding to the polster in teleost embryos. In contrast, the bichir was suggested to possess both teleost- and amphibian-type HGCs, i.e. the KLF17 and FoxA3 genes were expressed in the anterior cell mass corresponding to the polster, and the KLF17, Pax3 and HE genes were expressed in dorsal epidermal layer of the head. The change in developmental origin is thought to have occurred during the evolution of basal ray-finned fish, because bichir has two HGCs, while sturgeon only has the teleost-type.

  8. Effects of copper, cadmium, and zinc on the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana).

    PubMed

    Brix, K V; Gerdes, R M; Adams, W J; Grosell, M

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts is surprisingly sensitive to ambient metal concentrations. These studies estimated median effective concentrations (EC50s) of 7, 5, and 28 microg l-1 for Cd, Cu, and Zn, suggesting that the hatching end point for A. franciscana is the most sensitive tested to date for Cd and Zn in saline environments and comparable in sensitivity with the most sensitive tested to date for Cu. Furthermore, these data suggest that brine shrimp are at significant risk from Cu and Zn in Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT, where ambient concentrations as high as 10 and 14 microg l-1, respectively, have been measured. Given that brine shrimp appear to be successfully reproducing in GSL, we hypothesized that these toxicity values were either biased low as a result of an artifact of the test method used or that site-specific water-quality conditions in the lake had decreased metal bioavailability such that brine shrimp could successfully reproduce. To test these hypotheses, we initiated a step-wise series of experiments. First we investigated the effects of pretreatment of brine shrimp cysts with antibiotics on brine shrimp sensitivity to metals because previous investigators as part of their test methods have used antibiotics. Next we considered the effect of ionic composition of the artificial test media on sensitivity. Finally, we evaluated the effects of the site-specific water quality of the GSL on metal bioavailability and toxicity. Results indicate that pretreatment of cysts with antibiotics had no effect on sensitivity. However, we were unable to repeat the previous values for Cd and Zn, obtaining EC50s of 11,859 and 289 microg l-1 for Cd and Zn, respectively. For Cu, however, we estimated an EC50 of 12 microg l-1, so we conducted further testing on the artificial media, adjusting the media composition to better reflect the Ca2+ and HCO3- concentration of normal seawater. This increased the EC50

  9. Vaccination with hatched but non-activated, non-viable oncospheres of Taenia taeniaeformis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, A; Hashimoto, A

    1993-06-01

    The usefulness of hatched but non-activated oncospheres as a candidate vaccine was evaluated using a Taenia taeniaeformis/rat system, since preparation of these oncospheres in vitro is known to be very simple. The findings were: (1) rats vaccinated with non-viable oncospheres became completely resistant to challenge infection; (2) intra-venous injection was the most effective to induce complete resistance; (3) a single oncosphere was sufficient to induce complete resistance in infected rats, whereas approximately 50 and 500 non-viable oncospheres were required to evoke strong and complete resistance, respectively, in vaccinated rats. The usefulness of non-viable oncospheres without adjuvant is discussed.

  10. Dormant Progagule Banks of Cladoceran Communites and Hatching Success from the Sedimentin China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chi; Wang, Shui; Kong, Fan-xiang

    2017-01-01

    The resources of cladoceran communitesin lakes in typical eutrophic shallow lakes in Chinawere investigated. Diapausing eggs of cladocerans were collected from the surface sediment of typical eutrophic shallow lakes and then hatched in the laboratory. The most common and dominant genera were Bosmina sp., Ceriodaphnia sp., Alona sp. and Moina sp. The density of large cladocerans in the hatchlings was lower than the small cladocerans (Bosmina, Ceriodaphnia, Alonaand Moina). The distribution and abundance and species of Daphnia community were significantly influenced by TN and fish community.

  11. STS-65 PLC Hieb at mockup side hatch prepares to egress via an inflated slide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Mission Specialist and Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), sits at the top of the inflated slide at the crew compartment trainer (CCT) side hatch and listens to a crew training staffer's instructions. Hieb practiced post landing emergency escape procedures along with his six STS-65 crewmates. The CCT is located in the Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE. Hieb will join five NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, later this year.

  12. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems: I. Growth traits.

    PubMed

    Boz, M A; Sarica, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigated the effect of incubation type and production system on geese growth traits. 2. A total of 216 geese were either naturally (114) or artificially (102) hatched and reared in intensive or free-range production systems (4 replicates each) until 18 weeks of age. 3. Weights of naturally hatched goslings (NHG) were significantly higher than artificially hatched goslings (AHG) at 2 weeks (644 vs. 536 g); however, weights of AHG were significantly higher than NHG at both 6 weeks (3245 vs. 3010 g) and 18 weeks (5212 vs. 4353 g). 4. AHG had better feed conversion ratios (FCRs) than NHG (6.21 vs. 6.46 at 18 weeks). Feed consumption of naturally hatched geese was found higher in first 4 weeks when compared to artificially hatched geese and artificially hatched geese consumed more feed than naturally hatched geese after 8 weeks. 5. Production system had insignificant effects on feed consumption, FCRs, viability and mutilation rates. 6. Slipped wings were more frequent in NHG than AHG (8.32% vs. 1.68% at 6 weeks; 23.84% vs. 5.12% between 7 and 18 weeks) and in free-range production when compared to intensive production (17.88% vs. 11.08% over the course of the production period). 7. The study results indicate that both artificially and NHG can be reared in free-range production systems without any loss in performance and in deference to animal welfare.

  13. Effect of simultaneous variation in temperature and ammonia concentration on percent fertilization and hatching in Crassostrea ariakensis.

    PubMed

    Hui, Wang; Jiahui, Liu; Hongshuai, Yang; Jin, Liu; Zhigang, Liu

    2014-04-01

    The combined effects of temperature and ammonia concentration on the percent fertilization and percent hatching in Crassostrea ariakensis were examined under laboratory conditions using the central composite design and response surface methodology. The results indicated: (1) The linear effects of temperature and ammonia concentration on the percent fertilization were significant (P<0.05), and the quadratic effects were highly significant (P<0.01). The interactive effect between temperature and ammonia concentration on the percent fertilization was not significant (P>0.05). (2) The linear effect of temperature on the percent hatching was highly significant (P<0.01), and that of ammonia concentration was nonsignificant (P>0.05). The quadratic effects of temperature and ammonia concentration on the percent hatching were highly significant (P<0.01). The interaction on the percent hatching was not significant (P>0.05). Temperature was more important than ammonia in influencing the fertilization and hatching in C. ariakensis. (3) The model equations of the percent fertilization and hatching towards temperature and ammonia concentration were established, with the coefficients of determination R(2)=99.4% and 99.76%, respectively. Through the lack-of-fit test, these models were of great adequacy. The predictive coefficients of determination for the two model equations were as high as 94.6% and 98.03%, respectively, showing that they could be used for practical projection. (4) Via the statistical simultaneous optimization technique, the optimal factor level combination, i.e., 25°C/0.038mgmL(-1), was derived, at which the greatest percent fertilization 95.25% and hatching 83.26% was achieved, with the desirability being 97.81%. Our results may provide advantageous guidelines for the successful reproduction of C. ariakensis.

  14. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  15. Delayed feeding after hatch caused compensatory increases in blood glucose concentration in fed chicks from low but not high body weight lines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoling; Sumners, Lindsay H; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Siegel, Paul B; Zhang, Wei; Cline, Mark

    2014-03-01

    This experiment used 2 lines of chickens that have been selected 54 generations for either low (LWS) or high (HWS) 8-wk BW from the same founder population, sublines (HWR and LWR) in which selection was relaxed in generation 43 in the selected lines, and crosses (HL and LH) made from generation 54 of HWS and LWS. For 8-wk BW, the difference between lines LWS and HWS in generation 54 was approximately 10-fold, whereas for the relaxed contemporary lines they were approximately 7-fold. Three trials were designed to measure developmental, nutritional, and genetic aspects of blood glucose homeostasis during the first 2 wk posthatch. In trial 1, we measured BW, whole blood glucose (BG), and weights (relative to BW) of liver, pancreas, and yolk sac of chicks fed from day of hatch to d 15. In trial 2, we compared those traits in chicks feed-delayed 72 h posthatch and in chicks without feed delay. In trial 3, we evaluated the effect of a 16-h fast on BW and BG on d 3, 8, and 15. There were higher levels of BG in HWS than LWS, and males than females in the fed state. Delayed access to feed for 72 h after hatch was associated with a dramatic reduction in BG. Feeding triggered a compensatory response whereby LWS displayed greater BG but smaller pancreases (% BW; d 15), compared with the controls. There were maternal effects for BW in both fed and fasted states and the reciprocal crosses exhibited heterosis for BG in the fasted state. These results show that chickens selected for high or low BW differ in BG regulation during the early posthatch period.

  16. Effects of injected methylmercury on the hatching of common loon (Gavia immer) eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, Kevin P.; Meyer, Michael W.; Rossmann, Ronald; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Gray, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the level of in ovo methylmercury (MeHg) exposure that results in detrimental effects on fitness and survival of loon embryos and hatched chicks, we conducted a field study in which we injected eggs with various doses of MeHg on day 4 of incubation. Eggs were collected following about 23 days of natural incubation and artificially incubated to observe hatching. Reduced embryo survival was evident in eggs injected at a rate of ≥1.3 μg Hg/g wet-mass. When maternally deposited Hg and injected Hg were considered together, the median lethal concentration of Hg (LC50) was estimated to be 1.78 μg Hg/g wet-mass. Organ mass patterns from eggs of chicks injected at a rate of 2.9 μg Hg/g differed from that of controls and chicks from the 0.5 μg Hg/g treatment, largely related to a negative relation between yolk sac mass and egg mercury concentration. Chicks from eggs in the 2.9 μg Hg/g treatment were also less responsive to a frightening stimulus than controls and chicks from the 0.5 μg Hg/g treatment. We also found that the length of incubation period increased with increasing egg mercury concentration. Tissue Hg concentrations were strongly associated (r2 ≥ 0.80) with egg Hg concentration.

  17. Mercury in wing and tail feathers of hatch-year and adult tidal marsh sparrows.

    PubMed

    Warner, Sarah E; Shriver, W Gregory; Olsen, Brian J; Greenberg, Russell G; Taylor, Robert J

    2012-11-01

    We estimated mercury exposure and bioaccumulation in sparrow feathers to determine variation among age groups, between sparrow species, and between feather types. Results of feather mercury studies in piscivorous birds indicate that mercury concentrations tend to increase with age and differ between feather types; however, data for insectivorous birds are lacking. We estimated mercury exposure of two insectivorous and sympatric tidal marsh sparrows: coastal plain swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens), and seaside sparrow (Ammodramous maritimus). Tidal marshes have favorable conditions for mercury methlyation, thus it is likely that tidal marsh sparrows are exposed to methylmercury. We found no difference in mercury concentrations between males and female birds of both species. Adult swamp sparrow feather mercury concentrations did not differ among adult age groups; therefore, mercury was not found to increase with age in sparrows at the site. Hatch-year birds had significantly greater feather mercury concentrations compared with adult birds for both species. Mercury concentrations in adult seaside sparrows were twice as high as those in adult swamp sparrows suggesting species-specific variation, although concentrations in hatch-year sparrow species did not differ. Mercury concentrations differed between feather types in adults of both species. The first primary feather of both species had at least three times greater mercury concentrations than the outer tail feather possibly reflecting varying depuration rates with feather type.

  18. Meloidogyne hapla in Organic Soil: Effects of Environment on Hatch, Movement and Root Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Wong, T. K.; Mai, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    Using new techniques, hatch and movement of Meloidogyne hapla and nematode invasion o f lettuce roots growing in organic soil were studied under controlled soil conditions of temperature, moisture, O₂ and CO₂. When O₂ levels of 2.7, 5, 10, 21 and 40% with CO₂ maintained at 0.03% were used, O₂ below 21% or at 40% reduced nematode activities compared with those at 21%. When CO₂ levels of 0.03, 0.33, 2.8, 10 and 30% with O₂ maintained at 21% were used, all levels above 0.03% CO₂ resulted in less activity than at 0.03% except for more invasion at 0.33% than at 0.03%. Results suggested M. hapla was tolerant of CO₂ below 10% but adversely affected by 30% CO₂. Effect of O₂ was influenced by the level of CO₂ present. No larvae invaded roots at 3.2% O₂ and 18.6% CO₂ but hatch and movement occurred. Night and day temperatures of 21.1 and 26.7 C were more favorable for movement and invasion than 15.5 and 21.1 C, 26.7 and 32.2 C or 26.7 and 32.2 C. Optimum moisture for movement was 80 cm suction and for invasion was 100 cm. PMID:19319318

  19. Egg-hatching synchrony and larval cannibalism in the dock leaf beetle Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Kutcherov, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    Females of leaf beetles and many other herbivorous insects lay eggs in coherent batches. Hatchlings emerge more or less simultaneously and often prey on their late-hatching clutchmates. It is not certain, however, whether this synchrony of hatching is a mere by-product of cannibalism or whether an additional synchronizing factor exists. The following simple experiment was aimed at determining the causal relationship between cannibalism and simultaneous larval emergence. Egg clutches of the dock leaf beetle Gastrophysa viridula were split into two halves. These halves were either kept as coherent groups in two separate dishes or, alternatively, only one half remained whole, whereas the other one was divided into single eggs, each of which was incubated in a separate dish. Halving of a clutch into coherent groups only slightly disrupted the synchrony of emergence. The consequence of individual isolation was more dramatic. Half-clutches consisting of disconnected solitary eggs required almost twice as much time for complete emergence of all larvae, which was significantly more than cannibalism as a sole synchronizing factor might explain. Moreover, survival rates were the same in coherent half-clutches (in the presence of cannibalism) and among isolated individuals. This group effect and the small contribution of cannibalism suggest the existence of an additional synchronizing factor. Possible mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon are discussed.

  20. Seasonal predator removal relative to hatch rate of duck nests in waterfowl production areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Sovada, M.A.; Shaffer, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    These authors report that hatch rates of duck nests were related to removal of predators from waterfowl production areas. Cost effectiveness of such efforts is questioned. The prairie pothole region (PPR) is the primary breeding ground of several species of North American ducks (Bellrose 1980). Much habitat of breeding ducks in the PPR has been destroyed or degraded by intensive agriculture (e.g., Kiel et al. 1972, Bellrose 1980, Sugden and Beyersbergen 1984, Boyd 1985), resulting in high predation rates on duck nests (Sargeant and Raveling 1992). Because of predation, hatch rate (HR) of duck nests in Waterfowl Production Areas (WPA's) in the PPR is often less than the 15-20% suggested for stability of populations of the 5 most common species of dabbling ducks (e.g., Cowardin et al. 1985, Greenwood 1986, Klett et al. 1988, Greenwood et al. 1990). Managers seek ways to reduce depredations of duck clutches in WPA's, but little information is available concerning effects of predator removal. We evaluated seasonal (spring and early summer) removal of predators from WPA's in Minnesota and North Dakota. Our objectives were to compare HR in uplands of WPA's with and without predators removed and to determine functional aspects of conducting predator removal.

  1. Mouse Driven Window Graphics for Network Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinson, G. J.; And Others

    Computer enhanced teaching of computational mathematics on a network system driving graphics terminals is being redeveloped for a mouse-driven, high resolution, windowed environment of a UNIX work station. Preservation of the features of networked access by heterogeneous terminals is provided by the use of the X Window environment. A dmonstrator…

  2. Effects of egg size, parental quality and hatch-date on growth and survival of Common Tern Sterna hirundo chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, J.M.; Hatch, J.J.; Nisbet, I.C.T.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the relative contributions of egg size, parental quality and hatch-date to growth and survival of second-hatched chicks (those chicks making the greatest contribution to differences in productivity among pairs) by exchanging clutches among nests of Common Terns Sterna hirundo matched for lay-date (range 13 May to 9 June). The mass of a second-laid egg in an exchanged clutch ranged from 17.70 to 23.80 g. Growth and survival were studied during three periods: early (days 0-3), middle (days 3-12) and late (days 12-25). Both egg mass and hatch-date were important predictors of hatchling mass (positive relationships), although there was no seasonal trend in egg mass. During the middle period, hatch-date was a significant predictor of mass gain and survival (inverse relationships). After controlling for hatch-date, other indices of parental quality made only small contributions to chick mass gain and survival. Our results suggest that although breeding early generally leads to greater overall survival of chicks, several important interactions among egg 'quality', parental quality and early laying may affect breeding success under specific conditions. ?? 2006 British Ornithologists' Union.

  3. The effect of the site of laser zona opening on the complete hatching of mouse blastocysts and their cell numbers

    PubMed Central

    Sanmee, Usanee; Piromlertamorn, Waraporn

    2016-01-01

    Objective We studied the effect of the site of laser zona opening on the complete hatching of mouse blastocysts and the cell numbers of the completely hatched blastocysts. Methods Mouse blastocysts were randomly allocated to the inner cell mass (ICM) group (zona opening performed at the site of the ICM, n=125), the trophectoderm (TE) group (zona opening performed opposite to the ICM, n=125) and the control group (no zona opening, n=125). Results The rate of complete hatching of the blastocysts was not significantly different in the ICM and the TE group (84.8% vs 80.8%, respectively; p=0.402), but was significantly lower in the control group (51.2%, p<0.001). The cell numbers in the completely hatched blastocysts were comparable in the control group, the ICM group, and the TE group (69±19.3, 74±15.7, and 71±16.8, respectively; p=0.680). Conclusion These findings indicate that the site of laser zona opening did not influence the rate of complete hatching of mouse blastocysts or their cell numbers. PMID:27689037

  4. Early post-hatching starvation delays p70 S6 kinase activation in the muscle of neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Bigot, Karine; Taouis, Mohammed; Picard, Michel; Tesseraud, Sophie

    2003-12-01

    Chicken muscle ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1) has been recently characterised and its enzymic activity is regulated by the nutritional and hormonal (insulin) status in vivo. The regulation of S6K1 is still unknown in neonatal chicks. The present study aimed to compare the activation of S6K1 in early-feeding (EF) and 48 h-delayed-feeding (DF) chicks from hatching to 4 d of age. During post-hatching starvation, S6K1 activity remained at the basal level measured in the control-hatched chicks. The maximum S6K1 activity was recorded on the first day of feeding with an increase of about 2.5-fold in the EF and DF chicks (P<0.01). S6K1 activity was correlated with plasma insulin level, suggesting a probable insulin-dependent S6K1 activation. The feeding-induced increase in S6K1 activity was related to its Thr389 residue phosphorylation. A similar pattern for protein kinase B phosphorylation was observed, upstream from S6K1. The S6K1 pathway was stimulated to the same extent in the EF and DF chicks, which indicates that post-hatching starvation did not increase S6K1 activation. It is concluded that muscle S6K1 is activated as soon as food is available without improvement in the response of the S6K1 pathway after post-hatching starvation.

  5. Spawning Characteristics and Artificial Hatching of Female Mottled Skate, Beringraja pulchra in the West Coast of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee-Woong; Jo, Yeong-Rok; Kang, Duk-Yong; Jeong, Gyeong-Suk; Jo, Hyun-Su

    2013-01-01

    The gonadsomatic index (GSI) of mottled skate was the highest in April, GSI and HSI showed a reverse phase for its reproductive cycle. The fish had one pair of egg capsules, having 1 to 7 fertilized eggs, and spawned all the year round. When surveying the reproductive characteristics of females over 63 ㎝ in disc width, we found the spawning peak was between April to June, and the appearance ratio of egg capsules was the highest in May (32.1%). The eggs were hatched at 8°C, 13°C, 18°C, water temperature (12.8 to 24.2°C), and the best hatching temperature was 18°C. The number of fish hatched was 4 to 5 fish/egg capsules, and the hatching rate was 100%. The sex ratios of hatching larvae were 45.5% female and 54.5% male. Therefore this study will provide fundamental data and information for artificial reproduction of the mottled skate. PMID:25949140

  6. Chronic playback of boat noise does not impact hatching success or post-hatching larval growth and survival in a cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Radford, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic (man-made) noise has been shown to have a negative impact on the behaviour and physiology of a range of terrestrial and aquatic animals. However, direct assessments of fitness consequences are rare. Here we examine the effect of additional noise on early life stages in the model cichlid fish, Neolamprologus pulcher. Many fishes use and produce sounds, they are crucial elements of aquatic ecosystems, and there is mounting evidence that they are vulnerable to anthropogenic noise; adult N. pulcher have recently been shown to change key behaviours during playback of motor boat noise. Using a split-brood design to eliminate potential genetic effects, we exposed half of the eggs and fry from each clutch to four weeks of playbacks of noise originally recorded from small motor boats with the other half acting as a control (receiving no noise playback). There was no significant effect of additional noise on hatching success or fry survival, length or weight at the end of the exposure period. Although care should be taken not to generalize these findings on a single species from a laboratory study, our data suggest that moderate noise increases do not necessarily have direct negative impacts on early-life survival and growth. Further studies on a range of species in natural conditions are urgently needed to inform conservation efforts and policy decisions about the consequences of anthropogenic noise. PMID:25276507

  7. Sturgeon hatching enzyme and the mechanism of egg envelope digestion: Insight into changes in the mechanism of egg envelope digestion during the evolution of ray-finned fish.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Tatsuki; Kawaguchi, Mari; Sano, Kaori; Yasumasu, Shigeki

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the evolution of the hatching enzyme gene using bester sturgeon (hybrid of Acipencer ruthenus and Huso huso), a basal member of ray-finned fishes. We purified the bester hatching enzyme from hatching liquid, yielding a single band on SDS-PAGE, then isolated its cDNA from embryos by PCR. The sturgeon hatching enzyme consists of an astacin family protease domain and a CUB domain. The CUB domains are present in frog and bird hatching enzymes, but not in teleostei, suggesting that the domain structure of sturgeon hatching enzyme is the tetrapod type. The purified hatching enzyme swelled the egg envelope, and selectively cleaved one of five egg envelope proteins, ZPAX. Xenopus hatching enzyme preferentially digests ZPAX, thus, the egg envelope digestion process is conserved between amphibians and basal ray-finned fish. Teleostei hatching enzymes cleave the repeat sequences at the N-terminal region of ZPB and ZPC, suggesting that the targets of the teleostei hatching enzymes differ from those of amphibians and sturgeons. Such repeat sequences were not found in the N-terminal region of ZPB and ZPC of amphibians and sturgeons. Our results suggest that the change in substrates of the hatching enzymes was accompanied by the mutation of the amino acid sequence of N-terminal regions of ZPB and ZPC. We conclude that the changes in the mechanism of egg envelope digestion, including the change in the domain structure of the hatching enzymes and the switch in substrate, occurred during the evolution of teleostei, likely triggered by the teleost-specific third whole genome duplication. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 720-732, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Hatching success in salamanders and chorus frogs at two sites in Colorado, USA: Effects of acidic deposition and climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Campbell, D.H.; Corn, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    The snowpack in the vicinity of the Mount Zirkel Wilderness Area is among the most acidic in the western United States. We analyzed water chemistry and examined hatching success in tiger salamanders and chorus frogs at ponds there and at nearby Rabbit Ears Pass (Dumont) to determine whether acid deposition affects amphibians or their breeding habitats at these potentially sensitive locations. We found a wide range of acid neutralizing capacity among ponds within sites; the minimum pH recorded during the experiment was 5.4 at one of 12 ponds with all others at pH ??? 5.7. At Dumont, hatching success for chorus frogs was greater in ponds with low acid neutralizing capacity; however, lowest pHs were >5.8. At current levels of acid deposition, weather and pond characteristics are likely more important than acidity in influencing hatching success in amphibian larvae at these sites.

  9. Effect of the presence of trophectoderm vesicles on blastocyst in relation to in vitro hatching, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage rates.

    PubMed

    Araki, Yasuhisa; Matsui, Yuki; Iizumi, Ayaka; Tsuchiya, Syoutarou; Kaneko, Yumi; Sato, Kazufumi; Ozaki, Tomoya; Araki, Yasuyuki; Nishimura, Mitsuru

    2016-10-01

    Trophectoderm vesicles (TVs) are observed in some blastocysts that penetrate cells from the zona pellucida to the outer margin. Therefore, we compared this incidence in relation to hatching, pregnancy, and miscarriage rates between conventional in vitro fertilization (c-IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Vitrified/warmed blastocysts (n = 112) were derived from surplus embryos. The blastocysts were then observed using time-lapse cinematography to resolve the relationship between hatching and implantation. Another study was conducted that comprised 681 embryo transfer cycles in 533 patients who received a single vitrified/warmed blastocyst from our clinic. The incidence of TV was significantly higher in embryos inseminated by ICSI compared with c-IVF [ICSI: 51/56 (91 %); c-IVF: 25/56 (45 %); P < 0.01]. The successful hatching rate was significantly lower in ICSI than in c-IVF [ICSI: 11/56 (20 %); c-IVF: 29/56 (52 %); P < 0.01]. In addition, the hatching rate was significantly lower when TVs were present (14/76; 18 %) than in non-TV embryos (26/36; 72 %) (P < 0.01). In regard to the clinical study results, no significant differences were found between the groups in the pregnancy rate (TV present group: 107/183, 58.5 %; TV absent group: 273/498, 54.8 %) and miscarriage rate (TV present group: 21/107, 19.6 %; TV absent group: 53/273, 19.4 %). In vivo, we hypothesized that hatching and hatched would occur naturally by assisting protease action in the uterus; therefore, these results suggest that the presence of TV has no effect on pregnancy rates in the clinical setting.

  10. Energetic Effects of Pre-hatch Albumen Removal on Embryonic Development and Early Ontogeny in Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Peña-Villalobos, Isaac; Piriz, Gabriela; Palma, Verónica; Sabat, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the yolk and albumen content in bird eggs, and the effects of variations in their relative loads in the phenotype of the birds, have revealed multiple consequences at different levels of biological organization, from biochemical traits to behavior. However, little is known about the effect of albumen variation on energetics performance during development and early ontogeny, despite the fact that variation in energy expenditure may have consequences in terms of fitness for both feral and domestic species. In this work, we evaluated experimentally whether variations in the content of albumen of Gallus gallus eggs could generate differences in metabolic rates during embryonic development. Additionally, we assessed changes in the activity of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase) in skeletal muscles and liver. Finally, we evaluated the success of hatching of these embryos and their metabolic rates (MR) post-hatching. The results revealed a significant reduction in MR in the last fifth of embryonic life, and reduced catabolic activities in the skeletal muscle of chicks hatched from albumen-removed eggs. However, the same group demonstrated an increase in catabolic activity in the liver, suggesting the existence of changes in energy allocation between tissues. Besides, we found a decrease in hatching success in the albumen-removed group, suggesting a negative effect of the lower albumen content on eggs, possibly due to lower catabolic activities in skeletal muscle. We also found a compensatory phenomenon in the first week after hatching, i.e., birds from albumen-removed eggs did not show a decrease in MR either at thermoneutral temperatures or at 10°C, compared to the control group. Collectively, our data suggest that a reduction in albumen may generate a trade-off between tissue metabolic activities, and may explain the differences in metabolic rates and hatching success, supporting the immediate adaptive response (IAR) hypothesis.

  11. Energetic Effects of Pre-hatch Albumen Removal on Embryonic Development and Early Ontogeny in Gallus gallus

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Villalobos, Isaac; Piriz, Gabriela; Palma, Verónica; Sabat, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the yolk and albumen content in bird eggs, and the effects of variations in their relative loads in the phenotype of the birds, have revealed multiple consequences at different levels of biological organization, from biochemical traits to behavior. However, little is known about the effect of albumen variation on energetics performance during development and early ontogeny, despite the fact that variation in energy expenditure may have consequences in terms of fitness for both feral and domestic species. In this work, we evaluated experimentally whether variations in the content of albumen of Gallus gallus eggs could generate differences in metabolic rates during embryonic development. Additionally, we assessed changes in the activity of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase) in skeletal muscles and liver. Finally, we evaluated the success of hatching of these embryos and their metabolic rates (MR) post-hatching. The results revealed a significant reduction in MR in the last fifth of embryonic life, and reduced catabolic activities in the skeletal muscle of chicks hatched from albumen-removed eggs. However, the same group demonstrated an increase in catabolic activity in the liver, suggesting the existence of changes in energy allocation between tissues. Besides, we found a decrease in hatching success in the albumen-removed group, suggesting a negative effect of the lower albumen content on eggs, possibly due to lower catabolic activities in skeletal muscle. We also found a compensatory phenomenon in the first week after hatching, i.e., birds from albumen-removed eggs did not show a decrease in MR either at thermoneutral temperatures or at 10°C, compared to the control group. Collectively, our data suggest that a reduction in albumen may generate a trade-off between tissue metabolic activities, and may explain the differences in metabolic rates and hatching success, supporting the immediate adaptive response (IAR) hypothesis

  12. A re-investigation of the centres of ossification in the avian skeleton at and after hatching.

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, D A

    1980-01-01

    The centres of ossification occurring in the skeleton of the domestic fowl from hatching onwards have been re-investigated in groups of birds from the same hatches, reared under standardised conditions and sampled at intervals from hatching to 182 days. Selected areas have been surveyed in adult birds. The numerous centres which are already present at hatching have been identified. Those first appearing around the time of hatching were for the uncinate processes and the phalanx of digit IV. The centres appearing after hatching were those for metacarpal II, four carpal centres, the orbitosphenoid, rostal and caudal basibranchials, epibranchials, entoglossal, proximal tibial centre, patella and tarsal sesamoid. These have been illustrated and the mean time of appearance and range of time of appearance of each calculated. Some evidence of slight variation in sequence of appearance was detected. The proximal tibial centre was concluded to be the only true secondary centre in the long bones and to correspond to the traction epiphysis of this region in the mammal. In adults, the phalangeal formula of the manus was found usually to be 2:2:1, but occasionally it was reduced to 1:2:1. The only sesamoidean centre found, other than the patella and the tarsal sesamoid, was in the carpal region and was termed the dorsal carpal sesamoid. Some of the many controversies existing in the previous literature have been assessed in the light of the findings of this study. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7429964

  13. The Effects of High-Amplitude Impulsive Noise on Hatching Success: A reanalysis of the Sooty Tern Incident

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    test whether impulsive noise could cause mass hatching failures. We exposed 20 chicken (GaR!uM gaNlu.)O And 20 A(OR cSmix) eggs to explosions of four...longitudinal cracks that had been reported on Dry Tortugas. We also exposed fertile chicken (13) and quail (8) eggs to five similar impulses and...compared hatch rates with those of matched controls. The chicken eggs were exposed on Day 2 of incubation, the most sensitive phase of development; the

  14. Seasonal variations in larval biomass and biochemical composition of brown shrimp, Crangon crangon (Decapoda, Caridea), at hatching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urzúa, Ángel; Anger, Klaus

    2013-06-01

    The "brown shrimp", Crangon crangon (Linnaeus 1758), is a benthic key species in the North Sea ecosystem, supporting an intense commercial fishery. Its reproductive pattern is characterized by a continuous spawning season from mid-winter to early autumn. During this extended period, C. crangon shows significant seasonal variations in egg size and embryonic biomass, which may influence larval quality at hatching. In the present study, we quantified seasonal changes in dry weight (W) and chemical composition (CHN, protein and lipid) of newly hatched larvae of C. crangon. Our data revealed significant variations, with maximum biomass values at the beginning of the hatching season (February-March), a decrease throughout spring (April-May) and a minimum in summer (June-September). While all absolute values of biomass and biochemical constituents per larva showed highly significant differences between months ( P < 0.001), CHN, protein and lipid concentrations (expressed as percentage values of dry weight) showed only marginally significant differences ( P < 0.05). According to generalized additive models (GAM), key variables of embryonic development exerted significant effects on larval condition at hatching: The larval carbon content (C) was positively correlated with embryonic carbon content shortly after egg-laying ( r 2 = 0.60; P < 0.001) and negatively with the average incubation temperature during the period of embryonic development ( r 2 = 0.35; P < 0.001). Additionally, water temperature ( r 2 = 0.57; P < 0.001) and food availability (phytoplankton C; r 2 = 0.39; P < 0.001) at the time of hatching were negatively correlated with larval C content at hatching. In conclusion, "winter larvae" hatching from larger "winter eggs" showed higher initial values of biomass compared to "summer larvae" originating from smaller "summer eggs". This indicates carry-over effects persisting from the embryonic to the larval phase. Since "winter larvae" are more likely exposed to

  15. Successful hatching from eggs carried by females and naturally removed from incubant males in Belostoma spp. water bugs (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Estévez, Ana Lía; de Reyes, Cristina Armúa; Schnack, Juan A

    2006-06-01

    Within Belostomatinae water bug species (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae) it has been hitherto believed that the completion of embryonic development is successful only if eggs are incubated on male hemelytra. Nevertheless, we found egg successful hatching from a back-brooding Belostoma elegans (Mayr) and B. micantulum (Stål) females, as well as from fertilized eggs kicked off from four back-brooder B. elegans males. One "encumbered" B. elongatum Montandon female was also recorded, but eggs did not hatch after she removed them.

  16. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  17. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  18. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  19. Surface-specific flow factors for prediction of friction of cross-hatched surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighton, M.; Rahmani, R.; Rahnejat, H.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a combined numerical and experimental study of generated sliding friction at low sliding speeds and high load intensity, typical of the top compression ring-cylinder liner conjunction at top dead centre in the compression stroke of high performance race engines. Frictional losses in the transition from compression to power stroke represent a significant portion of cyclic cylinder losses. The cylinder liner is cross-hatch honed with non-Gaussian topography, including larger groove features and a fairly smooth plateau roughness. Surface-specific flow factors are derived to closely represent the actual real rough conjunction. The predictions closely agree with the representative reported precision tribometric study of measured friction.

  20. The presence of lysylpyridinoline in the hypertrophic cartilage of newly hatched chicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, M. W.; Martinez, D. A.; Cook, M. E.; Vailas, A. C.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of lysylpyridinoline (LP) as a nonreducible cross-link in appreciable quantities has primarily been limited to the mineralized tissues, bone and dentin. However, the results reported here show that LP is not only present in the hypertrophic cartilage of the tibiotarsus isolated from newly hatched broiler chicks, but it is approx. 4-fold as concentrated as hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP). Bone and articular cartilage surrounding the hypertrophic cartilage do not contain measurable quantities of LP. Purified LP has a fluorescent scan similar to purified HP and literature values, confirming that we indeed were measuring LP. Also, the cartilage lesion produced by immature chondrocytes from birds with tibial dyschondroplasia had LP but the HP:LP ratio was > 1. Thus, the low HP:LP ratio could be a marker for hypertrophic cartilage in avians.

  1. Hurry-up and hatch: selective filial cannibalism of slower developing eggs.

    PubMed

    Klug, Hope; Lindström, Kai

    2008-04-23

    Filial cannibalism (the consumption of one's own offspring) is thought to represent an adaptive strategy in many animals. However, little is known about the details of which offspring are consumed when a parent cannibalizes. Here, we examined patterns of within-brood filial cannibalism in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus). Males spawned sequentially with two females, and we asked whether males cannibalized selectively with regard to egg size or the order in which eggs were received. Males preferentially consumed the larger eggs of the second female they spawned with. Because larger eggs took longer to hatch, and because female 2's eggs were up to 1 day behind those of female 1, such preferential cannibalism might allow males to decrease the time spent caring for the current brood and re-enter the mating pool sooner. More work is needed to understand the fitness consequences of such selective cannibalism.

  2. Immunocytochemical studies of chicken somatotrophs and somatotroph granules before and after hatching.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S; Gibney, J A; Cain, L D; Perez, F M; Scanes, C G

    1993-05-01

    Immunocytochemical methods were used to gain information about the embryonic development of chicken somatotrophs before and after hatching. To localize growth hormone, anterior pituitary sections were incubated with growth-hormone antibody, and then an indirect peroxidase method was used for light microscopy and an immunogold method for electron microscopy. The earliest evidence of embryonic somatotrophs was seen at 12 days. At this stage somatotrophs were sparse (0.2% of parenchymal cells) and their granules were pleomorphic with elongated ovoid and lozenge shapes predominating. Few of the immunogold-labeled somatotroph granules of the embryo were spherical until 15 days after fertilization. At 18 days, most of the granules were spherical (their shape in the adult chicken). During the six days between the 15-day-old embryo and the 1-day-old chick, the number of gold particles per granule section approximately doubled suggesting an increase in growth hormone content of the granules. This rise was the result of increases in the size of the granule sections and in the concentration of gold particles in the sections. During the embryonic period of 12-20 days, somatotrophs were not more than 3.6% of the anterior pituitary cell population. During the following two days, between the 20-day-old embryo and the 1-day-old chick, the percentage of somatotrophs in the pituitary parenchymal cell population rose rapidly from 3.6% to 20.7% and then increased slowly to 24.6% during the period of 1-5 days after hatching.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Reduction in sea lamprey hatching success due to release of sterilized males

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Twohey, Michael B.; Mullett, Katherine M.; Young, Robert J.; Heinrich, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), sterilized by injection with bisazir, were released in Lake Superior tributaries from 1991 to 1996 and exclusively in the St. Marys River (the outflow from Lake Superior to Lake Huron) since 1997 as an alternative to chemical control. To determine effectiveness in reducing reproductive potential through the time of hatch, males were observed on nests and egg viability was determined in nests in selected Lake Superior tributaries and the St. Marys River. The proportions of sterilized males observed on nests were not significantly different than their estimated proportion in the population for all streams and years combined or for the St. Marys River alone. It was concluded that sterilized males survive, appear on the spawning grounds, and nest at near their estimated proportion in the population. There was a significant reduction in egg viability corresponding with release of sterilized males for all streams and years combined or for the St. Marys River alone. In the St. Marys River from 1993 to 2000, the percent reduction in egg viability was significantly correlated with the observed proportion of sterile males on nests. It was further concluded that sterilized males remain sterile through nesting and attract and mate with females. Reduction in reproductive potential in the St. Marys River due to both removal of females by traps and sterile-male-release ranged from 34 to 92% from 1993 to 2001 and averaged 64%. From 1999 to 2001, when the program stabilized, reductions ranged from 71 to 92% and averaged 81%. The current release of sterile males in the St. Marys River effectively reduced reproductive potential through the time of hatch and did so near theoretical levels based on numbers released, estimates of population size, and the assumptions of full sterility and competitiveness.

  4. Rotenone Decreases Hatching Success in Brine Shrimp Embryos by Blocking Development: Implications for Zooplankton Egg Banks

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Evan R.; Neumeyer, Courtney H.; Gunderson, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    While many zooplankton species recover quickly after the treatment of water resources with the piscicide, rotenone, some fail to reach pretreatment population density or, in rare cases, do not reappear at all. The variable impact of rotenone on zooplankton populations could stem from differences in the capacity of species to switch entirely to anaerobic catabolic pathways in the presence of rotenone, which blocks mitochondrial electron transport. Alternatively, variable responses among species could originate from differences in permeability of dormant life-stages to lipophilic chemicals like rotenone. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of rotenone on development, emergence and hatching of zooplankton embryos that lack both the anaerobic capacity to develop in the presence of rotenone and a permeability barrier to prevent the entry of rotenone during dormancy. Post-diapause embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, were employed as a model system, because they are permeable to lipophilic compounds when dechorionated and require aerobic conditions to support development. Early development in this species is also well characterized in the literature. Brine shrimp embryos were exposed to rotenone while development was either slowed by chilling or suspended by anoxia. Development, emergence and hatching were then observed in rotenone-free artificial seawater. The data presented demonstrate that rotenone freely diffuses across the embryonic cuticle in a matter of hours, and prevents development and emergence after brief exposures to ecologically relevant concentrations (0.025–0.5 mg L-1) of the piscicide. Neither the removal of rotenone from the environment, nor the removal of embryonic water with a hypertonic solution, are sufficient to reverse this block on development and emergence. These data indicate that rotenone could impair recruitment from egg banks for species of zooplankton that lack both an embryonic barrier to the entry

  5. A three-dimensional culture system using alginate hydrogel prolongs hatched cattle embryo development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuan; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Gao, Hui; Wu, Yi; Fang, Yuan; Wu, Shuai-Shuai; Li, Ming-Jie; Bai, Jia-Hua; Liu, Yan; Evans, Alexander; Zeng, Shen-Ming

    2015-07-15

    No successful method exists to maintain the three-dimensional architecture of hatched embryos in vitro. Alginate, a linear polysaccharide derived from brown algae, has characteristics that make it an ideal material as a three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix for in vitro cell, tissue, or embryo culture. In this study, alginate hydrogel was used for IVC of posthatched bovine embryos to observe their development under the 3D system. In vitro-fertilized and parthenogenetically activated posthatched bovine blastocysts were cultured in an alginate encapsulation culture system (AECS), an alginate overlay culture system (AOCS), or control culture system. After 18 days of culture, the survival rate of embryos cultured in AECS was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05), and the embryos were expanded and elongated in AECS with the maximal length of 1.125 mm. When the AECS shrinking embryos were taken out of the alginate beads on Day 18 and cultured in the normal culture system, 9.09% of them attached to the bottoms of the plastic wells and grew rapidly, with the largest area of an attached embryo being 66.00 mm(2) on Day 32. The embryos cultured in AOCS developed monovesicular or multivesicular morphologies. Total cell number of the embryos cultured in AECS on Day 19 was significantly higher than that of embryos on Day 8. Additionally, AECS and AOCS supported differentiation of the embryonic cells. Binuclear cells were visible in Day-26 adherent embryos, and the messenger RNA expression patterns of Cdx2 and Oct4 in AOCS-cultured embryos were similar to those in vivo embryos, whereas IFNT and ISG15 messenger RNA were still expressed in Day-26 and Day-32 prolong-cultured embryos. In conclusion, AECS and AOCS did support cell proliferation, elongation, and differentiation of hatched bovine embryos during prolonged IVC. The culture system will be useful to further investigate the molecular mechanisms controlling ruminant embryo elongation and implantation.

  6. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis ...

  7. 49 CFR 231.28 - Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in service after October 1, 1966.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars with roof hatches built... RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.28 Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in... handholds. (Treads of end ladders are end handholds.) Same as specified for § 231.27. (e) Existing box...

  8. 49 CFR 231.28 - Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in service after October 1, 1966.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Box and other house cars with roof hatches built... RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.28 Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in...) inches from left-hand side. (4) Manner of application. Same as specified in § 231.1. (c) Roof...

  9. Fertility and embryo development of broiler hatching eggs evaluated with a hyperspectral imaging and predictive modeling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hyperspectral imaging system and a predictive modeling technique was evaluated for determining fertility and early embryo development of broiler chicken hatching eggs. Twenty-four broiler eggs were collected (12 fertile, 12 infertile) for each of 8 replicate trials (n=192) and imaged on Days 0, 1...

  10. Inside the Hatch Valley: A Study of a Rural New Mexico Community. Resident Instruction Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, J. D.; And Others

    Personnel enrolled in the course Rural Organization and Development at New Mexico State University made an active study of the rural community of Hatch, New Mexico. The results of the study were included in this report, along with some sociological concepts and considerations which may be of use to those in agricultural and extension education. A…

  11. Effects of early neonatal development and delayed feeding immediately post-hatch on the hepatic lipogenic program in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The embryo to neonate transition is a critical period of development that has significant impact on broiler production. During this time important genetic programs governing metabolism and growth are established. The goal of this work was to study the effects of early post-hatch (PH) development and...

  12. Colonization of day-of-hatch broiler chicks with antimicrobial resistant strains of salmonella Heidelberg and Kentucky

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen linked to poultry and poultry products. However, limited research regarding the in vivo interactions of non-host adapted Salmonella serotypes in broiler chicks is available. In order to evaluate the effect of two serotypes on colonization, 600 day-of-hatch ...

  13. Phenological synchrony between Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) hatchings and grapevine bud break: could this explain the insect's expansion?

    PubMed

    Chuche, J; Desvignes, E; Bonnard, O; Thiéry, D

    2015-02-01

    Scaphoideus titanus is the invasive vector of the phytoplasma causing the Flavescence dorée in European vineyards. This epidemic is a serious threat to viticulture that has been increasing for more than 60 years in Europe. We studied the effect of synchrony with the plant phenology and the effect of plant-sap quality on the individual fitness. Thus, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine if insect hatchings were synchronized with grapevine bud break. We used two natural populations: one from a cold winter vineyard and one from a mild winter vineyard. In both cases, egg hatching was synchronized with bud break and leaf appearance. The phloem quality of the young and old leaves as a food source was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the effects on S. titanus growth were evaluated. Phloem composition varied with the grapevine cutting's age but also varied between leaves of different ages from the same plant. The older leaves were less nutritious because they had the highest carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and the lowest content of essential amino acids. Despite diverse phloem qualities, no fitness difference was observed. We found that the synchronization of egg hatchings with bud break is well regulated. However, the nymphs are not affected by the phloem-sap quality, suggesting that S. titanus may accept different food qualities and that egg hatching synchrony could contribute to population expansion in vineyards.

  14. Comparison between rinse and crush-and-rub sampling for aerobic bacteria recovery from broiler hatching eggs after sanitization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared surface and deep eggshell aerobic bacteria recovered by rinse and crush-and-rub sampling methods for commercial hatching eggs after treatment with sanitizers. Eggs were arranged into 5 treatments consisting of No-treatment, Water, and three sanitizers. Sanitizers were Hydrogen ...

  15. Comparison between Rinse and Crush-and-Rub Sampling for Aerobic Bacteria Recovery from Hatching Eggs after Sanitization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared surface and deep eggshell aerobic bacteria recovered by rinse and crush-and-rub sampling methods for commercial hatching eggs after treatments with sanitizers. Eggs were arranged into 5 treatments consisting of three sanitizers, Water, and No-treatment. Sanitizers were Hydrogen...

  16. Effects of egg quality and method of incubation on the hatching success of channel X blue hybrid catfish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg quality of stripped eggs from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and method of incubation of fertilized hybrid catfish eggs on hatching success. Stripped eggs from 17 channel catfish females were evaluated in a 2 x 2 factorial...

  17. Characterization of hatch-size and growth rates of captive and wild-reared brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) chicks.

    PubMed

    Prier, Erica A; Gartrell, Brett D; Potter, Murray A; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; McLennan, John

    2013-01-01

    Avian growth rate patterns represent a trade off between a tissue's functional maturity and its capacity for growth. At the time of hatch, the brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) limb has a high level of maturity in order for the chick to be able to kick its way out of the shell and walk and forage independently from an early age. Growth curves of limb segments, bill length and bodyweight are presented for captive-reared, BNZ Operation Nest Egg™ chicks over a period of 3 months from the point of hatch. Some parameters were slightly larger in the females than in males at time of hatch, including the bill length. Growth in bodyweight began to slow earlier in males than in females. Regressions of limb and bill measurements over time showed linear patterns of growth instead of a sigmoidal curve as seen in other birds, probably due to the short period of observation. Bodyweight and bill length were then compared to these morphometrics in a wild population of kiwi. Captive-reared chicks were found to hatch with shorter bills and to increase in bodyweight at a faster rate than the wild birds. Rapid weight gain has been implicated in developmental limb deformities in other precocial and long-legged birds and should be avoided in captive kiwi.

  18. Effects of catechins and low temperature on embryonic development and hatching in Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mimics of two natural influences, a chemical similar to one present in cyst nematodes and low temperature exposure of nematode eggs, were evaluated for their effects on quantitative and qualitative features of embryonic development and hatching. The polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an ana...

  19. Zebrafish high-throughput screening to study the impact of dissolvable metal oxide nanoparticles on the hatching enzyme, ZHE1.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sijie; Zhao, Yan; Ji, Zhaoxia; Ear, Jason; Chang, Chong Hyun; Zhang, Haiyuan; Low-Kam, Cecile; Yamada, Kristin; Meng, Huan; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Rong; Pokhrel, Suman; Mädler, Lutz; Damoiseaux, Robert; Xia, Tian; Godwin, Hilary A; Lin, Shuo; Nel, André E

    2013-05-27

    The zebrafish is emerging as a model organism for the safety assessment and hazard ranking of engineered nanomaterials. In this Communication, the implementation of a roboticized high-throughput screening (HTS) platform with automated image analysis is demonstrated to assess the impact of dissolvable oxide nanoparticles on embryo hatching. It is further demonstrated that this hatching interference is mechanistically linked to an effect on the metalloprotease, ZHE 1, which is responsible for degradation of the chorionic membrane. The data indicate that 4 of 24 metal oxide nanoparticles (CuO, ZnO, Cr2 O3 , and NiO) could interfere with embryo hatching by a chelator-sensitive mechanism that involves ligation of critical histidines in the ZHE1 center by the shed metal ions. A recombinant ZHE1 enzymatic assay is established to demonstrate that the dialysates from the same materials responsible for hatching interference also inhibit ZHE1 activity in a dose-dependent fashion. A peptide-based BLAST search identifies several additional aquatic species that express enzymes with homologous histidine-based catalytic centers, suggesting that the ZHE1 mechanistic paradigm could be used to predict the toxicity of a large number of oxide nanoparticles that pose a hazard to aquatic species.

  20. Effects of treating broiler breeder hatching eggs with removable coatings at four storage times on hatchability performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After treating hatching eggs with various removable coatings several formulations exhibited better hatchability than non-coated controls when eggs were stored for 1 or 21 d. The current study was designed to determine the interaction of 3 formulas with 4 storage times that approximate conditions fre...

  1. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from... birds, or other birds; importations from regions where exotic Newcastle disease or highly pathogenic... considered to exist. Carcasses, and parts or products of carcasses, of poultry, game birds, or other...

  2. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from... eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from regions where Newcastle disease or... on reports APHIS receives of outbreaks of the disease in commercial birds or poultry from...

  3. Distribution and Characterisation of Goblet Cells in the Large Intestine of Ostriches during the Pre- and Post-Hatch Period.

    PubMed

    Duritis, I; Mugurevics, A

    2016-12-01

    The role of goblet cell secretion, containing mucopolysaccharides, in the formation of a protective barrier of intestinal mucosa and transportation of the intestinal content has been described quite extensively. However, information on the quality composition of mucopolysaccharides and its changes in the intestinal tract of ostrich chicks, especially in the large intestinal segments, is unavailable. In the current study, ostrich embryos/chicks (n = 6/36) of both sexes were used shortly before hatching and during the first months of the post-hatch period. Tissues for histology were taken from the large intestine: the medium segments of the caecum, proximal and distal parts of colon. By using histochemical reactions, the differentiation of goblet cells as well as chemical composition of mucopolysaccharides was carried out. The cells contained acid (AB+), neutral (PAS+) and mixed (AB/PAS+) mucopolysaccharides. The number of goblet cells in the large intestine per unit area of mucosa increased towards the cloaca, and it was the highest in the distal part of the colon. The qualitative goblet cell composition in different large intestinal parts was different in all ages. In the caecum, goblet cells containing acid and mixed mucopolysaccharides dominate post-hatch, whereas in the colon, goblet cells containing acid mucopolysaccharides predominated. The most rapid changes in the qualitative goblet cell composition occur during the first week post-hatch when in all the intestinal segments the proportion of cells containing acid mucopolysaccharides continuously increased.

  4. Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using three sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10, 100, or 1,000 cfu/eggshell of S. Enteritidis...

  5. Factors Affecting Growth of Tengmalm’s Owl (Aegolius funereus) Nestlings: Prey Abundance, Sex and Hatching Order

    PubMed Central

    Zárybnická, Markéta; Riegert, Jan; Brejšková, Lucie; Šindelář, Jiří; Kouba, Marek; Hanel, Jan; Popelková, Alena; Menclová, Petra; Tomášek, Václav; Šťastný, Karel

    2015-01-01

    In altricial birds, energy supply during growth is a major predictor of the physical condition and survival prospects of fledglings. A number of experimental studies have shown that nestling body mass and wing length can vary with particular extrinsic factors, but between-year observational data on this topic are scarce. Based on a seven-year observational study in a central European Tengmalm’s owl population we examine the effect of year, brood size, hatching order, and sex on nestling body mass and wing length, as well as the effect of prey abundance on parameters of growth curve. We found that nestling body mass varied among years, and parameters of growth curve, i.e. growth rate and inflection point in particular, increased with increasing abundance of the owl’s main prey (Apodemus mice, Microtus voles), and pooled prey abundance (Apodemus mice, Microtus voles, and Sorex shrews). Furthermore, nestling body mass varied with hatching order and between sexes being larger for females and for the first-hatched brood mates. Brood size had no effect on nestling body mass. Simultaneously, we found no effect of year, brood size, hatching order, or sex on the wing length of nestlings. Our findings suggest that in this temperate owl population, nestling body mass is more sensitive to prey abundance than is wing length. The latter is probably more limited by the physiology of the species. PMID:26444564

  6. Predicting the timing of first generation egg hatch for the pest redlegged earth mite Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae).

    PubMed

    McDonald, Garrick; Umina, Paul A; Macfadyen, Sarina; Mangano, Peter; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-03-01

    Integrated pest management in Australian winter grain crops is challenging, partly because the timing and severity of pest outbreaks cannot currently be predicted, and this often results in prophylactic applications of broad spectrum pesticides. We developed a simple model to predict the median emergence in autumn of pest populations of the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor, a major field crop and pasture pest in southern Australia. Previous data and observations suggest that rainfall and temperature are critical for post-diapause egg hatch. We evaluated seven models that combined rainfall and temperature thresholds derived using three approaches against previously recorded hatch dates and 2013 field records. The performance of the models varied between Western Australia and south-eastern Australian States. In Western Australia, the key attributes of the best fitting model were more than 5 mm rain followed by mean day temperatures of below 20.5 °C for 10 days. In south-eastern Australia, the most effective model involved a temperature threshold reduced to 16 °C. These regional differences may reflect adaptation of H. destructor in south-eastern Australia to varied and uncertain temperature and rainfall regimes of late summer and autumn, relative to the hot and dry Mediterranean-type climate in Western Australia. Field sampling in 2013 revealed a spread of early hatch dates in isolated patches of habitat, ahead of predicted paddock scale hatchings. These regional models should assist in monitoring and subsequent management of H. destructor at the paddock scale.

  7. In vitro hatching of oncospheres of Taenia taeniaeformis using eggs isolated from fresh, frozen, formalin-fixed and ethanol-fixed segments.

    PubMed

    Negita, T; Ito, A

    1994-09-01

    In order to establish a simple means of handling eggs of taeniid cestodes under non-biohazardous conditions, gravid segments of Taenia taeniaeformis were fixed in ethanol or formalin or were frozen. In vitro hatching of oncospheres was carried out by the 0.5% sodium hypochlorite method using eggs isolated from the nonviable and viable segments. No oncospheres hatched from formalized eggs, whereas almost all oncospheres hatched from all other eggs but the number of oncospheres recovered was highly variable. Oncospheres hatched from eggs isolated from frozen segments were highly fragile. The highest figures for in vitro hatching of oncospheres were recorded when eggs isolated either from segments fixed in 70% ethanol or from viable segments were used.

  8. Hepoxilins and trioxilins in barnacles: an analysis of their potential roles in egg hatching and larval settlement.

    PubMed

    Vogan, Claire L; Maskrey, Ben H; Taylor, Graham W; Henry, Sheelagh; Pace-Asciak, Cecil R; Clare, Anthony S; Rowley, Andrew F

    2003-09-01

    The barnacle life cycle has two key stages at which eicosanoids are believed to be involved in cellular communication pathways, namely the hatching of nauplii and the settlement of cypris larvae. Barnacle egg-hatching activity has previously been reported to reside in a variety of eicosanoids, including 8-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid and a number of tri-hydroxylated polyunsaturated fatty acid derivatives, the trioxilins. The production of the eicosapentaenoic acid metabolite trioxilin A4 (8,11,12-trihydroxy-5,9,14,17-eicosatetraenoic acid) by the barnacles Balanus amphitrite and Elminius modestus was confirmed using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, both linked to mass spectrometry. In addition, both species also generated trioxilin A3 (8,11,12-trihydroxy-5,9,14-eicosatrienoic acid; an arachidonic acid-derived product), 8,11,12-trihydroxy-9,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (a omega3 analogue of trioxilin A3; derived from omega3 arachidonic acid) and 10,13,14-trihydroxy-4,7,11,16,19-docosapentaenoic acid (a docosahexaenoic acid-derived product). In contrast to earlier reports, trioxilin A3 had no E. modestus egg-hatching activity at any of the concentrations tested (10(-9)-10(-6) mol l(-1)). The unstable epoxide precursor hepoxilin A3, however, caused significant levels of hatching at 10(-6) mol l(-1). Furthermore, the stable hepoxilin B3 analogue PBT-3 stimulated hatching at 10(-7) mol l(-1). Neither trioxilin A3, hepoxilin A3 or PBT-3 at 0.25-30 micromol l(-1) served as settlement cues for B. amphitrite cypris larvae.

  9. Hatching Time and Alevin Growth Prior to the Onset of Exogenous Feeding in Farmed, Wild and Hybrid Norwegian Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Monica Favnebøe; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Glover, Kevin Alan

    2014-01-01

    The onset of exogenous feeding, when juveniles emerge from the gravel, is a critical event for salmonids where early emergence and large size provide a competitive advantage in the wild. Studying 131 farmed, hybrid and wild Norwegian Atlantic salmon families, originating from four wild populations and two commercial strains, we investigated whether approximately 10 generations of selection for faster growth has also resulted in increased somatic growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding. In addition, we tested whether relaxed selection in farms has allowed for alterations in hatching time between farmed and wild salmon. Across three cohorts, wild salmon families hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, while hybrid families displayed intermediate hatching times. While the observed differences were small, i.e., 1–15 degree-days (0–3 days, as water temperatures were c. 5–6°C), these data suggest additive genetic variation for hatching time. Alevin length prior to exogenous feeding was positively related to egg size. After removal of egg size effects, no systematic differences in alevin length were observed between the wild and farmed salmon families. While these results indicate additive genetic variation for egg development timing, and wild salmon families consistently hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, these differences were so small they are unlikely to significantly influence early life history competition of farmed and wild salmon in the natural environment. This is especially the case given that the timing of spawning among females can vary by several weeks in some rivers. The general lack of difference in size between farmed and wild alevins, strongly suggest that the documented differences in somatic growth rate between wild and farmed Norwegian Atlantic salmon under hatchery conditions are first detectable after the onset of exogenous feeding. PMID:25438050

  10. Endogenous and exogenous estrogens during embryonic development affect timing of hatch and growth in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Cruze, Lori; Roark, Alison M; Rolland, Gabrielle; Younas, Mona; Stacy, Nicole; Guillette, Louis J

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect length of gestation and body mass and size of offspring. However, the dose, timing, and duration of exposure as well as sex and strain of the experimental animals determine the direction and magnitude of these effects. In this study, we examined the effects of a one-time embryonic exposure to either 17 β-estradiol (E2) or bisphenol A (BPA) on rate of development and growth in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Our results indicate that BPA and E2-treated alligators hatched approximately 1.4 days earlier than vehicle-treated (control) alligators, suggesting that estrogenic chemicals hasten hatching in these animals. We assessed growth rates, growth allometry, and body condition for 21 weeks after hatching and found that BPA-treated alligators grew more quickly shortly after hatching but more slowly thereafter compared to control alligators. Conversely, E2-treated alligators grew more slowly shortly after hatching but more quickly thereafter compared to control alligators. As a result of differences in growth rate, BPA-treated alligators were heavier, longer, and fatter than control alligators at age 5 weeks but were similar in size and leaner than control alligators at age 21 weeks. Biochemical analytes were examined at the end of the 21-week study to assess overall metabolic condition. We found that E2-treated alligators had significantly higher circulating plasma concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides than control alligators while BPA-treated alligators had blood profiles comparable to control alligators. Our results provide important insights into the effects of exogenous estrogens on morphology and metabolism in an oviparous, semi-aquatic reptile.

  11. Egg characteristics and hatch performance of Athens Canadian Random Bred 1955 meat-type chickens and 2013 Cobb 500 broilers.

    PubMed

    Collins, K E; McLendon, B L; Wilson, J L

    2014-09-01

    Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB) chickens, a 1955 meat-type control strain, were incubated with the 2013 Cobb 500 broiler to determine differences in egg composition, conductance values, incubation duration, hatch performance, and yolk utilization. Unincubated ACRB eggs had greater percentage solids than Cobb 500 eggs. The ACRB eggs had a greater solid portion as yolk, whereas the Cobb 500 devoted more solid percentage to albumen. Percentage shell was not different between the strains, but ACRB eggs had 2.7% greater percentage moisture loss after 18 d of incubation than Cobb 500 eggs. Conductance, conductance constant, and conductance standardized to a 100 g egg weight basis were all higher for ACRB eggs than Cobb 500 eggs at 12 and 18 d of incubation. The Cobb 500 chicks hatched 6 h earlier than ACRB chicks. The Cobb 500 incubation duration was 498 h, and the ACRB incubation duration was 504 h. There was no difference between the strains for percentage infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, hatchability, or salable chicks. The ACRB chicks hatched with a smaller dried residual yolk sac as a percentage of chick weight compared with the Cobb 500. Both strains had an average relative yolk-free chick weight of 61% of average initial egg weight. Thus the Cobb 500 eggs had decreased gas exchange across the eggshell, which may have contributed to the earlier hatch and decreased yolk utilization. Modern Cobb 500 broiler embryonic metabolism appears to have either become more dependent on albumen rather than yolk or has become more efficient with yolk reserves during development. Broiler hatch performance does not appear to have changed over the past 58 yr.

  12. The histological observations on the large intestine of the goose (Anser anser) during the pre- and post-hatching periods.

    PubMed

    Líman, Narin; Aslan, Sahin; Gülmez, Nurhayat

    2002-08-01

    The development of the cecum and colon in the goose was investigated during the period from the 15th to 28th day of the incubation and from 1 to 30 days of age after hatching by light microscopy. By day 15 of the incubation, in the cecum and colon, the lumen was surrounded by pseudostratified epithelium. The previllous ridges appeared at 15th and 17th days of the incubation in the colon and ceca, respectively. At the base of previllous ridges, the epithelium changed into a simple prismathic epithelium at 15th and 17th days of the incubation in the colon and cecum, respectively. The villi appeared at the 21st days of the incubation. The crypts and goblet cells appeared on the first day after hatching. In the pre-hatching period, the lamina muscularis mucosa was present only in the colon. The submucosa consisted of loosely aggregated connective tissue in the pre-hatching period. In the post-hatching period, it consisted of a very thin layer of connective tissue. Its presence was only obvious where the cells of the submucosal nerve plexus or occasional large blood vessels considerably increased its thickness. The nerve plexus corresponding to the Auerbach's plexus of the mammalian intestine and submucosal nerve plexus appeared by 15th days of the incubation. From the 15th to 28th day of incubation, the tunica muscularis consisted of circular smooth muscle cells in the ceca. On the 28th day of the incubation a thinner longitudinal muscle layer added to the circular muscle layer. In the colon there was an outer longitudinal and a thicker circular muscle layer.

  13. Hatching time and alevin growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding in farmed, wild and hybrid Norwegian Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Solberg, Monica Favnebøe; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Glover, Kevin Alan

    2014-01-01

    The onset of exogenous feeding, when juveniles emerge from the gravel, is a critical event for salmonids where early emergence and large size provide a competitive advantage in the wild. Studying 131 farmed, hybrid and wild Norwegian Atlantic salmon families, originating from four wild populations and two commercial strains, we investigated whether approximately 10 generations of selection for faster growth has also resulted in increased somatic growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding. In addition, we tested whether relaxed selection in farms has allowed for alterations in hatching time between farmed and wild salmon. Across three cohorts, wild salmon families hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, while hybrid families displayed intermediate hatching times. While the observed differences were small, i.e., 1-15 degree-days (0-3 days, as water temperatures were c. 5-6°C), these data suggest additive genetic variation for hatching time. Alevin length prior to exogenous feeding was positively related to egg size. After removal of egg size effects, no systematic differences in alevin length were observed between the wild and farmed salmon families. While these results indicate additive genetic variation for egg development timing, and wild salmon families consistently hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, these differences were so small they are unlikely to significantly influence early life history competition of farmed and wild salmon in the natural environment. This is especially the case given that the timing of spawning among females can vary by several weeks in some rivers. The general lack of difference in size between farmed and wild alevins, strongly suggest that the documented differences in somatic growth rate between wild and farmed Norwegian Atlantic salmon under hatchery conditions are first detectable after the onset of exogenous feeding.

  14. Effects of maternal dietary EPA and DHA supplementation and breeder age on embryonic and post-hatch performance of broiler offspring: age and n-3 pufa affect embryonic and post-hatch performance.

    PubMed

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Wang, Y; Franssens, L; Willems, E; Ampe, B; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2015-04-01

    Breeder age and nutrition are amongst the most important factors affecting progeny growth and development. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of n-3 fatty acid (FA), with special emphasis on the ratio of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6 n-3) acid, provided to the diet of ageing broiler breeder hens at different ratios, on the incubation parameters and the performance of the offspring. Four hundred and eighty Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed one of four different diets (120/treatment), with an equal fat content. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FAs (CON). Blends of fish oil were used to enrich the three other diets in n-3 FA and to obtain different EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1 (EPA=DHA), 1/2 (DHA) or 2/1 (EPA). Every 5 weeks, incubation parameters were assessed. Every 15 weeks, offspring was reared until slaughter age on a standard diet. Breeder age affected almost all incubation and post-hatch parameters, whereas n-3 FA treatment only lowered egg weight (p < 0.0001) and consequently hatched chick weight (p < 0.0001). Supplementation of EPA resulted in a higher proportional liver weight (p = 0.0219) at hatch, a lower body weight up to 28 days post-hatch (p = 0.0418), a lower daily weight gain (p = 0.0498) and a higher feed conversion ratio (p = 0.0395) during the starter period (p = 0.0498), resulting in a higher overall offspring feed conversion ratio (p = 0.0317) compared to the control diet. DHA supplementation, on the other hand, resulted in a lower residual yolk weight (p = 0.0220) and a higher overall offspring mortality (p = 0.0125). In conclusion, supplementation of n-3 FA could not counter the adverse effect of breeder flock age, but did not harm incubation or improve post-hatch performance, either. EPA and DHA affected offspring development differently during early post-hatch life.

  15. Trace metal concentrations in post-hatching cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and consequences of dissolved zinc exposure.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Caplat, Christelle; Lehodey, Jean-Paul; Milinkovitch, Thomas; Koueta, Noussithé; Cosson, Richard Philippe; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the changes of 13 trace metal and metalloid concentrations (i.e. Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, Zn) and their subcellular fractionation in juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis reared in controlled conditions between hatching and 2 months post-hatching. In parallel, metallothionein concentrations were determined. Our results highlighted contrasting changes of studied metals. Indeed, As and Fe concentrations measured in hatchlings suggested a maternal transfer of these elements in cuttlefish. The non-essential elements Ag and Cd presented the highest accumulation during our study, correlated with the digestive gland maturation. During the 6 first weeks of study, soluble fractions of most of essential trace metals (i.e. Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Se, Zn) slowly increased consistently with the progressive needs of cuttlefish metabolism during this period. In order to determine for the first time in a cephalopod how metal concentrations and their subcellular distributions are impacted when the animals are trace metal-exposed, we studied previously described parameters in juveniles exposed to dissolved Zn at environmental (i.e. 50 μg l(-1)) and sublethal (i.e. 200 μg l(-1)) levels. Moreover, oxidative stress (i.e. glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation (LPO)) was assessed in digestive gland and gills after 1 and 2 months exposures. Our results highlighted no or low ability of this stage of life to regulate dissolved Zn accumulation during the studied period, consistently with high sensitivity of this organism. Notably, Zn exposures caused a concentration-dependent Mn depletion in juvenile cuttlefish, and an increase of soluble fraction of Ag, Cd, Cu without accumulation modifications, suggesting substitution of these elements (i.e. Mn, Ag, Cd, Cu) by Zn. In parallel, metallothionein concentrations decreased in individuals most exposed to Zn. Finally, no

  16. Effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival and hatching of strongyle eggs in faecal samples.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mita E; Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig M; Mejer, Helena

    2016-02-15

    Strongyle eggs of helminths of livestock usually hatch within a few hours or days after deposition with faeces. This poses a problem when faecal sampling is performed in the field. As oxygen is needed for embryonic development, it is recommended to reduce air supply during transport and refrigerate. The present study therefore investigated the combined effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival of strongyle eggs and their subsequent ability to hatch and develop into L3. Fresh faecal samples were collected from calves infected with Cooperia oncophora, pigs infected with Oesophagostomum dentatum, and horses infected with Strongylus vulgaris and cyathostomins. The samples were allocated into four treatments: vacuum packing and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 V and 20 V); normal packing in plastic gloves closed with a loose knot and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 N and 20 N). The number of eggs per gram faeces (EPG) was estimated every fourth day until day 28 post set up (p.s.) by a concentration McMaster-method. Larval cultures were prepared on day 0, 12 and 28 p.s. and the larval yield determined. For C. oncophora, the EPG was significantly higher in vacuum packed samples after 28 days as compared to normal storage, regardless of temperature. However, O. dentatum EPG was significantly higher in samples kept at 5 °C as compared to 20 °C, irrespective of packing. For the horse strongyles, vacuum packed samples at 5 °C had a significantly higher EPG compared to the other treatments after 28 days. The highest larval yield of O. dentatum and horse strongyles were obtained from fresh faecal samples, however, if storage is necessary prior to setting up larval cultures O. dentatum should be kept at room temperature (aerobic or anaerobic). However, horse strongyle coprocultures should ideally be set up on the day of collection to ensure maximum yield. Eggs of C. oncophora should be kept vacuum packed at room temperature for the highest larval yield.

  17. Temperature during the last week of incubation. I. Effects on hatching pattern and broiler chicken embryonic organ development.

    PubMed

    Maatjens, C M; van Roovert-Reijrink, I A M; Engel, B; van der Pol, C W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the effects of an eggshell temperature (EST) of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, and 38.9°C applied from d of incubation (E) 15, E17, and E19 on hatching pattern and embryonic organ development. A total of 2,850 first-grade eggs of a 43-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flock were incubated at an EST of 37.8°C until E15. From E15, E17, or E19 onward, eggs were incubated at an EST of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, or 38.9°C. Moment of internal pipping (IP), external pipping (EP), and hatch was determined, and organ development was measured at E15, E17, E19, IP, EP, and hatch. A lower EST extended incubation duration compared to a higher EST. The lower incubation duration was mainly caused by the extended time until IP, whereas time between IP and hatch hardly varied between treatments. Relative heart weight was affected by EST already from 2 d after the start of EST treatment on E15, and effects became more pronounced at longer exposure time to various EST treatments. At hatch, the largest difference in relative heart weight was found between an EST of 35.6 and 38.9°C started at E15 (Δ=64.4%). From E17 onward, EST affected yolk-free body mass (YFBM) and relative stomach weight, where a lower EST resulted in a lower YFBM and relative stomach weight before IP and a higher YFBM and relative stomach weight after IP. From E19 onward, a lower EST resulted in a higher relative liver and spleen weight regardless of start time of treatment. Yolk weight and relative intestine weight were not affected by EST before and at E19, but a higher EST resulted in a higher yolk weight and lower relative intestine weight from IP onward. Based on the higher YFBM and higher relative organ growth found at hatch, we concluded that an EST lower than 37.8°C from E15 onward appears to be beneficial for optimal embryo development.

  18. Nest-site selection and hatching success of waterbirds in coastal Virginia: some results of habitat manipulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, R.A.; Erwin, R.M.; Portera, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Rising sea levels in the mid-Atlantic region pose a long-term threat to marshes and their avian inhabitants. The Gull-billed Tern (Sterna nilotica), Common Tern (S. hirundo), Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), and American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus), species of concern in Virginia, nest on low shelly perimeters of salt marsh islands on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Marsh shellpiles are free of mammalian predators, but subject to frequent floods that reduce reproductive success. In an attempt to examine nest-site selection, enhance habitat, and improve hatching success, small (2 ? 2 m) plots on five island shellpiles were experimentally elevated, and nest-site selection and hatching success were monitored from 1 May to 1 August, 2002. In addition, location, elevation, and nesting performance of all other nests in the colonies were also monitored. No species selected the elevated experimental plots preferentially over adjacent control plots at any of the sites. When all nests were considered, Common Tern nests were located significantly lower than were random point elevations at two sites, as they tended to concentrate on low-lying wrack. At two other sites, however, Common Tern nests were significantly higher than were random points. Gull-billed Terns and American Oystercatchers showed a weak preference for higher elevations on bare shell at most sites. Hatching success was not improved on elevated plots, despite the protection they provided from flooding. Because of a 7 June flood, when 47% of all nests flooded, hatching success for all species was low. Nest elevation had the strongest impact on a nest's probability of hatching, followed by nest-initiation date. Predation rates were high at small colonies, and Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) depredated 90% of early Gull-billed Tern nests at one shellpile. The importance of nest elevation and flooding on hatching success demonstrates the potential for management of certain waterbird nesting sites

  19. Quasisteady turbulence driven by runaway electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Muschietti, L.; Appert, K.; Vaclavik, J.

    1982-07-01

    The evolution of the turbulence driven by runaway electrons has been followed by means of a computer code based on the quasilinear equations. The evolution is not characterized by periodic relaxations as claimed in previous works but ends in a quasisteady turbulent, yet very persistent state, accessible from different initial conditions. This discrepancy is clarified as being due to the excessive stiffness of the moment equations used to demonstrate the relaxations. Moreover, a theory is developed to interpret the quasisteady state found.

  20. In vitro detection of benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus: egg hatch test versus larval development test.

    PubMed

    Várady, M; Cudeková, P; Corba, J

    2007-10-21

    The present study was designed to compare the egg hatch test (EHT) and the larval development test (LDT) as in vitro tools for detection of benzimidazole (BZ) resistance in Haemonchus contortus, a nematode parasite of small ruminants. Comparisons were made during a course of infection and changes in both EHT and LDT were monitored to measure the correlation between resistance and susceptibility in different parasite stages (eggs and larvae). In addition, mixed doses of known numbers of susceptible and BZ-resistant H. contortus eggs were used to assess the sensitivity of LDT for the detection of low levels of resistance. The degree of resistance for each test was expressed as resistance factor (RF). The LDT showed a greater ability to distinguish between four susceptible and four resistant isolates of H. contortus with higher resistance factors compared to the EHT. For the EHT the RF by using ED(50) criterion ranged from 3.2 to 13.3 and from 7.4 to 25.2 by using LC(99). For LDT the resistant isolates were 4.3-63.1 times more tolerant than the susceptible isolates using the ED(50) criterion and 91.1-1411.0 times more tolerant using the LC(99) criterion. The LDT was also able to clearly indicate the presence of low level (4%) of resistant larvae amongst a susceptible background population.

  1. Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthase Reduces Blastocyst Hatching through Regulation of the AKT Pathway in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Cui, Xiang-Shun

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is an enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of long-chain fatty acids. During oncogenesis, FASN plays a role in growth and survival rather than acting within the energy storage pathways. Here, the function of FASN during early embryonic development was studied using its specific inhibitor, C75. We found that the presence of the inhibitor reduced blastocyst hatching. FASN inhibition decreased Cpt1 expression, leading to a reduction in mitochondria numbers and ATP content. This inhibition of FASN resulted in the down-regulation of the AKT pathway, thereby triggering apoptosis through the activation of the p53 pathway. Activation of the apoptotic pathway also leads to increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species and autophagy. In addition, the FASN inhibitor impaired cell proliferation, a parameter of blastocyst quality for outgrowth. The level of OCT4, an important factor in embryonic development, decreased after treatment with the FASN inhibitor. These results show that FASN exerts an effect on early embryonic development by regulating both fatty acid oxidation and the AKT pathway in pigs. PMID:28107461

  2. Egg mass in an asynchronously hatching parrot: does variation offset constraints imposed by laying order?

    PubMed

    Budden, Amber E; Beissinger, Steven R

    2005-06-01

    Life history theory predicts phenotypic trade-offs between the number and quality of offspring produced. Intraspecific variation in egg mass is common in birds and increased egg size can have positive effects on offspring fitness. However, evidence of a trade-off with clutch size is limited. We analyzed variation in mass of 5,743 Green-rumped parrotlet (Forpus passerinus) eggs laid over 15 years to evaluate the potential for facultative adjustment of egg mass and factors governing variation. Heavier eggs had an increased probability of both hatching and fledging but egg mass did not affect postfledging recruitment. Offspring egg mass differed between populations and the potential for seasonal adjustment to egg mass may be related to environmental factors such as seed density. Egg mass was moderately heritable (h2 = 0.42) which accounts for some of the individual variation detected, and these results are likely attributable to strong maternal effects. We found an effect of female age on egg mass, but no effects of previous reproductive experience. Finally, egg mass was strongly governed by position within the laying sequence, independent of clutch size, and such adjustment may facilitate brood reduction under some conditions in this highly asynchronous species.

  3. Histogenesis of the stomach of the pre-hatching quail: a light microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Soha A; Ahmed, Yasser A; Abdelsabour-Khalaf, Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    The current study conducted a careful description of the histological events during the embryonic development of quail stomach. Daily histological specimens from the quail stomach from day 4 to day 17 post incubation were examined by light microscopy. The primitive gut tube of the embryonic quail appeared at day 4 post incubation. The gut tube consisted of an endodermal epithelium of pseudostratified type, surrounded by splanchnic mesenchyme. The prospective glandular epithelium invaginated at day 5 in the proventriculus and gradually developed to prospective proventricular glands. The muscular coat became distinguished at day 7 and day 8 in the proventriculus and gizzard, respectively. Transformation into simple columnar epithelium occurred in both proventriculus and the gizzard at day 12. The gizzard epithelium gave rise to tubular invaginations also at day 12. Canalization of the gizzard tubular glands was recognized at day 14. By day 15, the proventricular surface epithelium invaginated in a concentric manner around a central cavity to form immature secretory units that contained inactive oxyntico-peptic cells. The mucosal folding in the gizzard appeared at day 15 to form plicae and sulci. The wall of the proventriculus and gizzard at day 17 acquired histological features of post-hatching birds.

  4. From stillness to motion: 80 years after the first description of Taenia solium oncosphere hatching

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a considered public health problem in many underdeveloped and developing countries. Because of the enormous increase in international tourism and migration, NCC nowadays is also found in some developed countries. Our group was the first to demonstrate that tapeworm carriers in the household are the main risk factor for acquiring cysticercosis in humans and pigs, since the disease results from the ingestion of microscopic tapeworm eggs. Findings We had the opportunity to film the liberation of the embryo from the oncospheral membrane after the hatching of the egg, which is the activation process required for intestinal wall invasion by the onchosphere. Yoshino (J Formosa Med Ass 32:139-142, 1933) described with great detail in diagrams and photographs this process eighty years ago after he infected himself with three living cysticerci in order to study the life cycle of Taenia solium. Other authors further described this process. Nevertheless it has never been filmed before. The purpose of this paper is to shift from stillness to motion since we can now show for the first time a movie of an activated oncosphere and its release from the oncospheral membrane. Conclusion Oncospheral activation is the requisite for T. solium embryos to invade the intestinal mucosa and develop into cysticerci. This process has been amply described but here it is shown for the first time in motion; thus it may be of interest for readers of the journal and useful for educational purposes towards the control of NCC. PMID:24433262

  5. Dislocation gliding and cross-hatch morphology formation in AIII-BV epitaxial heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalskiy, V. A. Vergeles, P. S.; Eremenko, V. G.; Fokin, D. A.

    2014-12-08

    An approach for understanding the origin of cross-hatch pattern (CHP) on the surface of lattice mismatched GaMnAs/InGaAs samples grown on GaAs (001) substrates is developed. It is argued that the motion of threading dislocations in the (111) slip planes during the relaxation of InGaAs buffer layer is more complicated process and its features are similar to the ones of dislocation half-loops gliding in plastically deformed crystals. The heterostructures were characterized by atomic force microscopy and electron beam induced current (EBIC). Detailed EBIC experiments revealed contrast features, which cannot be accounted for by the electrical activity of misfit dislocations at the buffer/substrate interface. We attribute these features to specific extended defects (EDs) generated by moving threading dislocations in the partially relaxed InGaAs layers. We believe that the core topology, surface reconstruction, and elastic strains from these EDs accommodated in slip planes play an important role in the CHP formation. The study of such electrically active EDs will allow further understanding of degradation and changes in characteristics of quantum devices based on strained heterostructures.

  6. Characterizing the information content of a newly hatched chick's first visual object representation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N

    2015-03-01

    How does object recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, I examined the information content of the first visual object representation built by newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus). In their first week of life, chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object rotating around a single axis. In their second week of life, I tested whether subjects had encoded information about the identity and viewpoint of the virtual object. The results showed that chicks built object representations that contained both object identity information and view-specific information. However, there was a trade-off between these two types of information: subjects who were more sensitive to identity information were less sensitive to view-specific information, and vice versa. This pattern of results is predicted by iterative, hierarchically organized visual processing machinery, the machinery that supports object recognition in adult primates. More generally, this study shows that invariant object recognition is a core cognitive ability that can be operational at the onset of visual object experience.

  7. Cardiac and vascular disease prior to hatching in chick embryos incubated at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Camm, E J; Tuckett, J D; Weerakkody, R A; Kane, A D; Shelley, A M; Wooding, F B P; Quy, M; Giussani, D A

    2010-02-01

    The partial contributions of reductions in fetal nutrition and oxygenation to slow fetal growth and a developmental origin of cardiovascular disease remain unclear. By combining high altitude with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of high-altitude hypoxia on growth. This study isolated the direct effects of high-altitude hypoxia on cardiovascular development. Fertilized eggs from sea-level or high-altitude hens were incubated at sea level or high altitude. Fertilized eggs from sea-level hens were also incubated at high altitude with oxygen supplementation. High altitude promoted embryonic growth restriction, cardiomegaly and aortic wall thickening, effects which could be prevented by incubating eggs from high-altitude hens at sea level or by incubating eggs from sea-level hens at high altitude with oxygen supplementation. Embryos from high-altitude hens showed reduced effects of altitude incubation on growth restriction but not on cardiovascular remodeling. The data show that: (1) high-altitude hypoxia promotes embryonic cardiac and vascular disease already evident prior to hatching and that this is associated with growth restriction; (2) the effects can be prevented by increased oxygenation; and (3) the effects are different in embryos from sea-level or high-altitude hens.

  8. Femtosecond scalpel-optical tweezers: efficient tool for assisted hatching and trophectoderm biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnikov, D. S.; Ilina, I. V.; Khramova, Yu V.; Filatov, M. A.; Semenova, M. L.

    2016-08-01

    Ultrashort laser pulses have enabled highly precise and delicate processing of biological specimens. We present the results of using femtosecond (fs) laser pulses for dissection of zona pellucida (ZP) in mouse embryos during assisted hatching procedure and for trophectoderm biopsy as well. We studied the effects of application of fs laser radiation in the infrared (1028 nm) and visible (514 nm) wavelength ranges. Laser irradiation parameters were optimized so as not to compromise the viability of the treated embryos. Embryo biopsy was carried out in late-stage mouse preimplantation embryos. Femtosecond laser pulses were applied to detach the desired amount of trophectoderm cells from the blastocyst, while the optical tweezers trapped the cells and moved them out of the embryo. The parameters of laser radiation were optimized so as to efficiently perform embryo biopsy and preserve the viability of the treated embryos. The thermal effects can be significantly lower when fs lasers are used as compared to CW or long-pulse lasers. It is crucial when dealing with living cells or organisms.

  9. Post-hatch heat warms adult beaks: irreversible physiological plasticity in Japanese quail

    PubMed Central

    Burness, Gary; Huard, Jacqueline R.; Malcolm, Emily; Tattersall, Glenn J.

    2013-01-01

    Across taxa, the early rearing environment contributes to adult morphological and physiological variation. For example, in birds, environmental temperature plays a key role in shaping bill size and clinal trends across latitudinal/thermal gradients. Such patterns support the role of the bill as a thermal window and in thermal balance. It remains unknown whether bill size and thermal function are reversibly plastic. We raised Japanese quail in warm (30°C) or cold (15°C) environments and then at a common intermediate temperature. We predicted that birds raised in cold temperatures would develop smaller bills than warm-reared individuals, and that regulation of blood flow to the bill in response to changing temperatures would parallel the bill's role in thermal balance. Cold-reared birds developed shorter bills, although bill size exhibited ‘catch-up’ growth once adults were placed at a common temperature. Despite having lived in a common thermal environment as adults, individuals that were initially reared in the warmth had higher bill surface temperatures than cold-reared individuals, particularly under cold conditions. This suggests that blood vessel density and/or the control over blood flow in the bill retained a memory of early thermal ontogeny. We conclude that post-hatch temperature reversibly affects adult bill morphology but irreversibly influences the thermal physiological role of bills and may play an underappreciated role in avian energetics. PMID:23884093

  10. Face recognition in newly hatched chicks at the onset of vision.

    PubMed

    Wood, Samantha M W; Wood, Justin N

    2015-04-01

    How does face recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, we used an automated controlled-rearing method with a newborn animal model: the domestic chick (Gallus gallus). This automated method allowed us to examine chicks' face recognition abilities at the onset of both face experience and object experience. In the first week of life, newly hatched chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained no objects other than a single virtual human face. In the second week of life, we used an automated forced-choice testing procedure to examine whether chicks could distinguish that familiar face from a variety of unfamiliar faces. Chicks successfully distinguished the familiar face from most of the unfamiliar faces-for example, chicks were sensitive to changes in the face's age, gender, and orientation (upright vs. inverted). Thus, chicks can build an accurate representation of the first face they see in their life. These results show that the initial state of face recognition is surprisingly powerful: Newborn visual systems can begin encoding and recognizing faces at the onset of vision.

  11. An insight into the heat and mass transfer mechanisms of eggshells hatching broiler chicks and its effects to the hatcher environment.

    PubMed

    Romanini, C E B; Exadaktylos, V; Hong, S W; Tong, Q; McGonnell, I; Demmers, T G M; Bergoug, H; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Roulston, N; Verhelst, R; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D

    2015-02-01

    Thermodynamic study of incubated eggs is an important component in the optimisation of incubation processes. However, research on the interaction of heat and moisture transfer mechanisms in eggs is rather limited and does not focus on the hatching stage of incubation. During hatch, both the recently hatched chick and the broken eggshell add extra heat and moisture contents to the hatcher environment. In this study, we have proposed a novel way to estimate thermodynamically the amount of water evaporated from a broken eggshell during hatch. The hypothesis of this study considers that previously reported drops in eggshell temperature during hatching of chicks is the result remaining water content evaporating from the eggshell, released on the inner membrane by the recently hatched wet chick, just before hatch. To reproduce this process, water was sprayed on eggshells to mimic the water-fluid from the wet body of a chick. For each sample of eggshell, the shell geometry and weight, surface area and eggshell temperature were measured. Water evaporation losses and convection coefficient were calculated using a novel model approach considering the simultaneous heat and mass transfer profiles in an eggshell. The calculated average convective coefficient was 23.9 ± 7.5 W/m(2) °C, similar to previously reported coefficients in literature as a function of 0.5-1m/s air speed range. Comparison between measured and calculated values for the water evaporation showed 68% probability accuracy, associated to the use of an experimentally derived single heat transfer coefficient. The results support our proposed modelling approach of heat and mass transfer mechanisms. Furthermore, by estimating the amount of evaporated water in an eggshell post-hatch, air humidity levels inside the hatcher can be optimised to ensure wet chicks dry properly while not dehydrating early hatching chicks.

  12. Effect of nesting environment on incubation temperature and hatching success of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) in an urban lake of Southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-Luna, Marco A; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea G; Aguirre-León, Gustavo; González-Ramón, Mariana Del C; Rangel-Mendoza, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Incubation temperature is an important aspect in terms of biological performance among crocodiles, and several controlled experiments have demonstrated a significant relationship between incubation temperature, success in hatching and survival of hatchlings. However, a few studies have tested these relationships in the wild. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of nest characteristics and environment (hatch year, nest basal area and height, clutch size, distance to shore line, and vegetation cover), to incubation temperature and hatching success among Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii). The study was carried out during the nesting seasons of Morelet's crocodile, from 2007 to 2009 in the Laguna de Las Ilusiones, an urban lake located in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico. We physically characterized 18 nests and inserted a temperature data logger in each nest chamber. At the end of the nesting season and prior to hatching, we recovered the crocodile eggs and data loggers and calculated hatching success, under laboratory conditions. We related the environmental variables of the nest with the mean and fluctuation (standard deviation) of nest temperature, using linear models. We also related the environmental variables affecting the nest, to mean nest temperature and fluctuation in incubation temperature and to hatching success, using linear models. Although we found differences in incubation temperature between nests, mean incubation temperature did not differ between years, but there were differences in nest thermal fluctuation between years. The mean incubation temperature for 11 nests (61.1%) was lower than the suggested Female-Male pivotal temperature (producing 50% of each sex) for this species, and all hatchlings obtained were males. There were no differences in clutch size between years, but hatching success varied. Our study indicates that hatching success depends on certain environmental variables and nest conditions to which the

  13. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems - II: slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Boz, M A; Sarıca, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigates the slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range production systems. 2. The study was conducted with 114 naturally hatched and 102 artificially hatched geese. From each replicate of the intensive and free-range systems, one female and one male goose were slaughtered at the ages of 14, 16 and 18 weeks (a total of 32 geese per slaughter week). 3. Artificially hatched geese had higher slaughter weights (5280 vs. 4404 g), carcass weights (3520 vs. 2863), dressing percentages (66.6-65.2% vs. 65.0-63.6%) and carcass part, feather and edible inner organ weights. The ratio of both edible inner organs and abdominal fat was higher in naturally hatched geese. Breast meat L*, a* and pH values and thigh meat dry matter values were higher in artificially hatched geese, whereas thigh meat b* and pH values were higher in naturally hatched geese. 4. Intensively reared geese had higher slaughter weights (4900 vs. 4783 g), carcass weights (3253 vs. 3130 g) and abdominal fat weights (280 vs. 250 g), as well as higher dressing percentages (66.3-64.9% vs. 65.3-63.9%). Breast meat b* and thigh meat L* values were higher in the intensive system, while breast and thigh pH values, dripping loss and cooking loss were higher in the free-range system. Water-holding capacity was higher in the intensive system. 5. In conclusion, artificially hatched, intensively reared geese had the highest slaughter weights; however, both artificially and naturally hatched geese raised in a free-range system reached acceptable slaughter weights and can thus be recommended for use with this type of production system.

  14. Effect of temperature and salinity on egg hatching and description of the life cycle of Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) infecting barramundi, Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    Brazenor, Alexander K; Hutson, Kate S

    2013-10-01

    The parasite Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) is a major threat to the sustained mariculture of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Perciformes: Latidae). We investigated the effect of water temperature and salinity on egg hatching success of L. latis and describe the life cycle for the first time. Wild and sea-caged L. calcarifer examined in tropical north Australia exhibited similar parasite prevalence (range: 80-100%) and mean parasite intensity (range: 3-6), whereas land-based maricultured fish were not infected. Hatching success and time to first and last hatch was determined for a range of water temperature (22, 30, 32 and 34°C) and salinity (0, 11, 22, 35 and 40‰) combinations representing current and predicted climate conditions. There was a significant interaction between water temperature and salinity on the hatching success of L. latis nauplii. Eggs hatched in all temperature treatments, with the greatest hatching success at 30°C and 32°C (98 and 92% success, respectively) in 35‰. Hatching did not occur at 0‰ and was severely reduced at 11‰ (1.6% success). Hatching began within 6h at all water temperatures with >95% of eggs hatched within 30h at 30, 32 and 34°C and within 60h at 22°C. Adult parasites differed from the original description by the presence of the parabasal flagellum, small setae on the legs and caudal rami and minor incongruences regarding morphological measurements. The life cycle of L. latis includes three free living stages and five parasitic stages. Although L. latis exhibits broad environmental tolerance, freshwater can be used as an effective management strategy to break the life cycle in aquaculture.

  15. l-Leucine acts as a potential agent in reducing body temperature at hatching and affords thermotolerance in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Han, Guofeng; Yang, Hui; Bahry, Mohammad A; Tran, Phuong V; Do, Phong H; Ikeda, Hiromi; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S

    2017-02-01

    Thermal manipulation (TM) of incubation temperature causes metabolic alterations and contributes to improving thermotolerance in chicks post hatching. However, there has been no report on amino acid metabolism during TM and the part it plays in thermotolerance. In this study, we therefore first analyzed free amino acid concentrations in the embryonic brain and liver during TM (38.6°C, 6h/d during embryonic day (ED) 10 to ED 18). It was found that leucine (Leu), phenylalanine and lysine were significantly decreased in the embryonic brain and liver. We then chose l-Leu and other branched-chain amino acids (l-isoleucine (L-Ile) and l-valine (l-Val)) for in ovo injection on ED 7 to reveal their roles in thermoregulation, growth, food intake and thermotolerance in chicks. It was found that in ovo injection of l-Leu, but not of l-Ileu or l-Val, caused a significant decline in body temperature at hatching and increased food intake and body weight gain in broiler chicks. Interestingly, in ovo injection of l-Leu resulted in the acquisition of thermotolerance under high ambient temperature (35±1°C for 180min) in comparison with the control thermoneutral temperature (28±1°C for 180min). These results indicate that the free amino acid concentrations during embryogenesis were altered by TM. l-Leu administration in eggs caused a reduction in body temperature at hatching, and afforded thermotolerance in heat-exposed young chicks, further suggesting that l-Leu may be one of the key metabolic factors involved in controlling body temperature in embryos, as well as in producing thermotolerance after hatching.

  16. Pregnancy achieved by transfer of thawed day 3 embryos that had been frozen after assisted hatching: a case report.

    PubMed

    Haydardedeoğlu, Bülent; Kılıçdağ, Esra Bulgan; Bağış, Tayfun

    2010-01-01

    Assisted Hatching (AH) is performed to increase implantation rates in assisted reproductive techniques, especially recurrent implantation failure and older age group. AH can be performed to four different techniques as laser, mechanical, enzymatic, chemical methods. In the literature, there is limited data about embryo freezing after AH. Herein, a successful pregnancy, which was achieved by transfer of thawed 3rd day embryos that had been frozen after AH, is presented.

  17. Effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, J.; Jin, F.; Wang, J.; Zheng, N.; Cong, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The potential effects of elevated CO2 level and reduced carbonate saturation state in marine environment on fishes and other non-calcified organisms are still poorly known. In present study, we investigated the effects of ocean acidification on embryogenesis and organogenesis of newly hatched larvae of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) after 21 d exposure of eggs to different artificially acidified seawater (pH 7.6 and 7.2, respectively), and compared with those in control group (pH 8.2). Results showed that CO2-driven seawater acidification (pH 7.6 and 7.2) had no detectable effect on hatching time, hatching rate, and heart rate of embryos. However, the deformity rate of larvae in pH 7.2 treatment was significantly higher than that in control treatment. The left and right sagitta areas did not differ significantly from each other in each treatment. However, the mean sagitta area of larvae in pH 7.6 treatment was significantly smaller than that in the control (p = 0.024). These results suggest that although marine medaka might be more tolerant of elevated CO2 than some other fishes, the effect of elevated CO2 level on the calcification of otolith is likely to be the most susceptibly physiological process of pH regulation in early life stage of marine medaka.

  18. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, K.M.

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26{degree}C and downshifted 30-26-30{degree}C) and females (constant 30{degree}C and upshifted 26-30-26{degree}C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26{degree}C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30{degree}C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26{degree}C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30{degree}C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25{degree}C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30{degree}C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  19. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, K.M.

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26[degree]C and downshifted 30-26-30[degree]C) and females (constant 30[degree]C and upshifted 26-30-26[degree]C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26[degree]C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30[degree]C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26[degree]C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30[degree]C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25[degree]C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30[degree]C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  20. Lipid-rich bovine serum albumin improves the viability and hatching ability of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Chie; SAKAGUCHI, Yosuke; HOSHI, Hiroyoshi; YOSHIOKA, Koji

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lipid-rich bovine serum albumin (LR-BSA) on the development of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro were examined. Addition of 0.5 to 5 mg/ml LR-BSA to porcine blastocyst medium (PBM) from Day 5 (Day 0 = in vitro fertilization) significantly increased the hatching rates of blastocysts on Day 7 and the total cell numbers in Day-7 blastocysts. When Day-5 blastocysts were cultured with PBM alone, PBM containing LR-BSA, recombinant human serum albumin or fatty acid-free BSA, addition of LR-BSA significantly enhanced hatching rates and the cell number in blastocysts that survived compared with other treatments. The diameter, ATP content and numbers of both inner cell mass and total cells in Day-6 and Day-7 blastocysts cultured with PBM containing LR-BSA were significantly higher than in blastocysts cultured with PBM alone, whereas LR-BSA had no effect on mitochondrial membrane potential. The mRNA levels of enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism and β-oxidation (ACSL1, ACSL3, CPT1, CPT2 and KAT) in Day-7 blastocysts were significantly upregulated by the addition of LR-BSA. The results indicated that LR-BSA enhanced hatching ability and quality of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro, as determined by ATP content, blastocyst diameter and expression levels of the specific genes, suggesting that the stimulatory effects of LR-BSA arise from lipids bound to albumin. PMID:26582048

  1. Lipid-rich bovine serum albumin improves the viability and hatching ability of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chie; Sakaguchi, Yosuke; Hoshi, Hiroyoshi; Yoshioka, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The effects of lipid-rich bovine serum albumin (LR-BSA) on the development of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro were examined. Addition of 0.5 to 5 mg/ml LR-BSA to porcine blastocyst medium (PBM) from Day 5 (Day 0 = in vitro fertilization) significantly increased the hatching rates of blastocysts on Day 7 and the total cell numbers in Day-7 blastocysts. When Day-5 blastocysts were cultured with PBM alone, PBM containing LR-BSA, recombinant human serum albumin or fatty acid-free BSA, addition of LR-BSA significantly enhanced hatching rates and the cell number in blastocysts that survived compared with other treatments. The diameter, ATP content and numbers of both inner cell mass and total cells in Day-6 and Day-7 blastocysts cultured with PBM containing LR-BSA were significantly higher than in blastocysts cultured with PBM alone, whereas LR-BSA had no effect on mitochondrial membrane potential. The mRNA levels of enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism and β-oxidation (ACSL1, ACSL3, CPT1, CPT2 and KAT) in Day-7 blastocysts were significantly upregulated by the addition of LR-BSA. The results indicated that LR-BSA enhanced hatching ability and quality of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro, as determined by ATP content, blastocyst diameter and expression levels of the specific genes, suggesting that the stimulatory effects of LR-BSA arise from lipids bound to albumin.

  2. Hatching, growth, ion accumulation, and skeletal ossification of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) alevins in acidic soft waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steingraeber, M.T.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Brook trout eyed eggs and subsequent alevins were exposed to pH 5.0, 6.5, and 7.0 in soft reconstituted water and to pH 8.2 in hard well water for up to 72 d. Hatching was delayed and hatching success reduced (p K+ > Cl- during yolk absorption and early exogenous feeding. Whole-body monovalent ion concentrations were reduced for short periods during yolk absorption in alevins exposed to pH 6.5 and throughout most of the experiment for those exposed to pH 5.0. Whole-body Mg2+ concentrations were not affected by treatment pH and remained near their median hatch level throughout the exposure. The whole-body concentration of Ca2+ was reduced in fish exposed to pH 5.0, particularly near the end of the experiment. Calcium accumulation in fish was influenced by the interaction of pH and time at pH 5.0 but not at the other pH levels. Alevins exposed to pH 5.0 experienced delayed ossification of skeletal structures associated with feeding, respiration, and locomotion that usually persisted for up to 10 d. The detection of skeletal abnormalities early in life might aid in identifying fish populations at risk in acidified waters.

  3. [Effects of 3 insecticide formulations in the removal and hatching of oothecae of Blatella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)].

    PubMed

    Montada, D; Guerrero, J A

    1996-01-01

    Different insecticide formulations used for the control of German Cockroach, Blatella germanica (L.) were studied to know their effects on the gravid females of this species. The insecticides assayed were baygon 20% EC, diazinon 60 EC, and licon 2.5% EC. Exposure to each insecticide showed an effect on the oothecal drop (p < 0.001). Gravid females treated with baygon had the highest percent of oothecae detached (71%); whereas diazinon caused the lowest percent (33.5%). Doses of baygon, diazinon, and icon used showed that among the oothecas detached hatching occurred only in 19.01%; 34.2% and 39.11%, respectively. Of the oothecas retained by treated females, the lowest hatching percent was produced by baygon (13.79%) compared with diazinon and icon insecticides, which presented the highest hatching percentages with 39.84 and 47.82, respectively. Therefore, the effects of insecticides on females bearing oothecas may be considered at the time of selecting an insecticide to control the German cockroach.

  4. Hatching, dispersal, and bathymetric distribution of age-0 wild lake trout at the Gull Island Shoal complex, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Selgeby, James H.; Saylor, James H.; Miller, Gerald S.; Foster, Neal R.

    1995-01-01

    We studied age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) associated with spawning and nursery areas of the Gull Island Shoal complex in western Lake Superior. Post-emergent age-0 lake trout were captured on rocky spawning substrate with a 3-m beam trawl and at the nursery area with a bottom trawl from June to September 1990 and June to August 1991. Catch data suggested that age-0 lake trout move distances of 7–11 km to the nursery area over a 3-month period. Water currents, measured at Gull Island Shoal, may be a part of the transport mechanism. Examination of daily-growth increments on the sagittae and back-calculation from the date of capture revealed that most fish hatched between 6 June and 19 July in 1990 and between 30 April and 30 May in 1991. The duration of the hatch was 100 days in 1990 and 120 days in 1991, and the estimated incubation period is about 7 months for lake trout eggs at this site. Similar hatch-date distributions of age-0 captured on different sampling dates suggested that natural mortality was low.

  5. Transcriptomic changes throughout post-hatch development in Gallus gallus pituitary

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Susan J; Schmidt, Carl J

    2016-01-01

    The pituitary gland is a neuroendocrine organ that works closely with the hypothalamus to affect multiple processes within the body including the stress response, metabolism, growth and immune function. Relative tissue expression (rEx) is a transcriptome analysis method that compares the genes expressed in a particular tissue to the genes expressed in all other tissues with available data. Using rEx, the aim of this study was to identify genes that are uniquely or more abundantly expressed in the pituitary when compared to all other collected chicken tissues. We applied rEx to define genes enriched in the chicken pituitaries at days 21, 22 and 42 post-hatch. rEx analysis identified 25 genes shared between all time points, 295 genes shared between days 21 and 22 and 407 genes unique to day 42. The 25 genes shared by all time points are involved in morphogenesis and general nervous tissue development. The 295 shared genes between days 21 and 22 are involved in neurogenesis and nervous system development and differentiation. The 407 unique day 42 genes are involved in pituitary development, endocrine system development and other hormonally related gene ontology terms. Overall, rEx analysis indicates a focus on nervous system/tissue development at days 21 and 22. By day 42, in addition to nervous tissue development, there is expression of genes involved in the endocrine system, possibly for maturation and preparation for reproduction. This study defines the transcriptome of the chicken pituitary gland and aids in understanding the expressed genes critical to its function and maturation. PMID:27856505

  6. Arkansas Technology Access Program. Think People...Think Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanBiervliet, Alan; And Others

    This document consists of a grant proposal describing the planned Arkansas Technology Access Program. The purpose of the program is to create and support a consumer-responsive, statewide system for enabling Arkansans with disabilities to access needed technologies. The goals of the program are to: (1) develop an on-going consumer-driven technology…

  7. Laser-Driven Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

  8. Regional development of alpha-methyl-D-glucoside transport in the small intestine of chick embryos and newly-hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Esteban, S; Moreno, M; Mestre, I; Planas, J M; Tur, J A

    1991-12-01

    A regional study of the intestinal hexose transport shows the role played by duodenum, jejunum and ileum during the chick perinatal development. From at least two days before hatching the three regions of small intestine accumulate alpha-Méthyl-D-Glucose (alpha-MG) by mediated transport mechanisms, and phloridzin inhibit about 90% of the uptakes. This ability reaches the maximal level at 1 day after hatch in the three regions. Before hatching the jejunum shows higher transport levels than the observed values in the duodenum and ileum, but the three regions show similar values at 1 day after hatch. In the following days, the alpha-MG transport ability is strongly reduced in the duodenum, slightly reduced in the jejunum and maintained in the ileum until at least 7 day-old chicks.

  9. The effects of temperature change on the hatching success and larval survival of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu.

    PubMed

    Landsman, S J; Gingerich, A J; Philipp, D P; Suski, C D

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the effects of abrupt temperature change on the hatching success and larval survival of eggs, yolk-sac larvae (YSL) and larvae above nest (LAN), for both largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu were quantified. Temperature had a significant effect on hatching success and time to 50% mortality, with large heat shocks causing accelerated mortality. The temperature changes shown to influence survival of all life stages, however, were beyond what is typically experienced in the wild. Micropterus salmoides had greater egg hatching success rates and increased survival rates at YSL and LAN stages, relative to M. dolomieu. Additionally, egg hatching success and survival of LAN varied across nests within the study. These findings suggest that temperature alone may not account for variations in year-class strength and may emphasize the need for protection of the nest-guarding male Micropterus spp. to ensure recruitment.

  10. Circum-arctic comparison of the hatching season of polar cod Boreogadus saida: A test of the freshwater winter refuge hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Caroline; Fortier, Louis

    2011-07-01

    The hypothesis that salt-related differences in winter sea surface temperature dictate regional differences in the hatching season of polar cod Boreogadus saida is tested by contrasting hatch-date frequency distributions among six oceanographic regions of the Arctic Ocean characterized by different freshwater input. Consistent with the hypothesis, hatching started as early as January and extended to July in seas receiving large river discharge (Laptev/East Siberian Seas, Hudson Bay, and Beaufort Sea). By contrast, hatching was restricted to April-July in regions with little freshwater input (Canadian Archipelago, North Baffin Bay, and Northeast Water). Length (weight) in late-summer (14 August) varied from <10 mm (<0.01 g) in July hatchers to 50 mm (0.91 g) in January hatchers. An earlier ice break-up, more frequent winter polynyas, a warmer surface layer, and increased river discharge linked to climate warming could enhance the survival of juvenile 0+ polar cod by enabling a larger fraction of the annual cohort to hatch earlier and reach a larger size before the fall migration to the deep overwintering grounds. A further test of the hypothesis would require the verification that the early winter hatching of polar cod actually occurs in the thermal refuge provided by under-ice river plumes.

  11. Ivermectin acts as a posteclosion nymphicide by reducing blood feeding of human head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae) that hatched from treated eggs.

    PubMed

    Strycharz, Joseph P; Berge, Noah M; Alves, Anna-Maria; Clark, J Marshall

    2011-11-01

    The 0.5% ivermectin topical cream formulation was not directly ovicidal to treated eggs of head lice, as hatchability was not decreased. Nevertheless, the percent of hatched lice from treated eggs that took a blood meal significantly decreased (80-95%) compared with lice that hatched from untreated eggs and all treated lice died within 48 h of hatching, including those that fed. Dilutions of ivermectin formulation of 0.15 and 0.2 microg/ml, which were topically applied to 0-8 d old eggs, were not lethal to lice at 24 h posteclosion. However, 9 and 16% less lice fed when hatched from these treated eggs, respectively. Total [3H] inulin ingested by untreated first instars significantly increased over a 48 h feeding interval but was significantly less in instars that hatched from eggs receiving the 0.15 (36% less) and 0.2 (55% less) microg/ml ivermectin treatments compared with placebo. The reduced feeding that occurred after the 0.15 and 0.2 microg/ml ivermectin treatments occurred in the absence of mortality and suggests a unique mode of action of ivermectin on feeding that is separate from the mode of action of ivermectin leading to mortality. Failure of hatched instars to take a blood meal after egg treatments with formulated ivermectin is likely responsible for its action as a posteclosion nymphicide.

  12. Optimization of a vitrification protocol for hatched blastocysts from the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Herrid, M; Billah, M; Malo, C; Skidmore, J A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to modify and optimize a vitrification protocol (open pulled straw) that was originally designed for human oocytes and embryos, to make it suitable for the cryopreservation of camel hatched blastocysts. The original open pulled straw protocol was a complex process with 15-minute exposure of oocytes/embryos in 7.5% ethylene glycol (EG) and 7.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) for equilibration, and cooling in 16% EG + 16% Me2SO + 1 M sucrose. Recognizing a need to better control the cryoprotectant (CPA) concentrations, while avoiding toxicity to the embryos, the effects on the survival rate and developmental potential of camel embryos in vitro were investigated using two different methods of loading the CPAs into the embryos (stepwise and semicontinuous increase in concentration), two different loading temperature/time (room temperature ∼24 °C/15 min and body 37 °C/3 min), and the replacement of Me2SO with EG alone or in combination with glycerol (Gly). A total of 145 in vivo-derived embryos were subjected to these processes, and after warming their morphological quality and integrity, and re-expansion was assessed after 0, 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of culture. Exposure of embryos in a stepwise method was more beneficial to the survival of embryos than was the semicontinuous process, and loading of CPAs at 37 °C with a short exposure time (3 minutes) resulted in an outcome comparable to the original processing at room temperature with a longer exposure time (15 minutes). The replacement of the Me2SO + EG mixture with EG only or a combination of EG + Gly in the vitrification medium significantly improved the outcome of all these evaluation criteria (P < 0.05). The modified protocol of loading EG at 37 °C for 3 minutes has increased the embryo survival of the original protocol from 67% to 91% and the developmental rate from 57% to 83% at 5-day culture. These results were comparable to or better than those reported in human or other

  13. Research pilot John Griffith leaning out of the hatch on the X-1 #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    In this photo, NACA research pilot John Griffith is leaning out the hatch of the X-1 #2. Surrounding him (left to right) are Dick Payne, Eddie Edwards, and maintenance chief Clyde Bailey. John Griffith became a research pilot at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics's Muroc Flight Test Unit in August of 1949, shortly before the NACA unit became the High-Speed Flight Research Station (now, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California). He flew the early experimental airplanes-the X-1, X-4, and D-558-1 and -2-flying the X-1 nine times, the X-4 three times, the D-558-1 fifteen times, and the D-558-2 nine times. He reached his top speed in the X-1 on 26 May 1950 when he achieved a speed of Mach 1.20. He was the first NACA pilot to fly the X-4. He left the NACA in 1950 to fly for Chance Vought in the F7U Cutlass. He then flew for United Airlines and for Westinghouse, where he became the Chief Engineering Test Pilot. He went on to work for the Federal Aviation Administration, assisting in the development of a supersonic transport before funding for that project ended. He then returned to United Airlines and worked as a flight instructor. John grew up in Homewood, Illinois, and attended Thornton Township Junior College in Harvey, Illinois, where he graduated as valedictorian in pre-engineering. He entered the Army Air Corps in November 1941, serving in the South Pacific during the Second World War that started soon after he joined. In 1942 and 1943 he flew 189 missions in the P-40 in New Guinea and was awarded two Distinguished Flying Crosses and four air medals. In October 1946, he left the service and studied aeronautical engineering at Purdue University, graduating with honors. He then joined the NACA at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio (today's Glenn Research Center), where he participated in ramjet testing and icing research until moving to Muroc. Following his distinguished career, he retired to Penn Valley

  14. Hatching Babies and Stork Deliveries: Risk and Regulation in the Construction of Children's Sexual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Cristyn; Robinson, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    Children's access to sexual knowledge has always been considered "risky" and controversial due to the fraught relationship between childhood and sexuality. Based on focus groups with children and their parents, the authors explore the relationship between risk and regulation associated with providing children with accurate knowledge about…

  15. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... returned to your body. Usually the access is put in your arm but it can also go ... A surgeon will put the access in. There are 3 types of access. Fistula: The surgeon joins an artery and vein under the ...

  16. Adsorption characteristics of nano-TiO2 onto zebrafish embryos and its impacts on egg hatching.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yu-Jen; Su, Chia-Chi; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Dong, Cheng-Di; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Huang, C P

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs) uptake may fundamentally alter physicochemical effects of engineered NPs on aquatic organisms, thereby yielding different ecotoxicology assessment results. The adsorption behavior of nano-TiO2 (P-25) on zebrafish embryos in Holtfreter's medium (pH 7.2, I ∼ 7.2 × 10(-2) M) and the presence of sodium alginate (100 mg/L) as dispersant was investigated. Zebrafish embryos (total 100) were exposed to nano-TiO2 at different concentrations (e.g., 0, 10, 20, 60, 120 mg/L) in batch-mode assay. The adsorption capacity of nano-TiO2 on fish eggs was determined by measuring the Ti concentration on the egg surface using ICP-OES analysis. Results showed that the adsorption capacity increased rapidly in the first hour, and then declined to reach equilibrium in 8 h. The adsorption characteristics was visualized as a three-step process of rapid initial layer formation, followed by break-up of aggregates and finally rearrangement of floc structures; the maximum adsorption capacity was the sum of an inner rigid layers of aggregates of 0.81-0.84 μg-TiO2/#-egg and an outer softly flocculated layers of 1.01 μg-TiO2/#-egg. The Gibbs free energy was 543.29-551.26 and 100.75 kJ/mol, respectively, for the inner-layer and the outer-layer aggregates. Adsorption capacity at 0.5-1.0 μg-TiO2/#-egg promoted egg hatching; but hatching was inhibited at higher adsorption capacity. Results clearly showed that the configuration of TiO2 aggregates could impact the hatching efficiency of zebrafish embryos.

  17. Evaluation of minimally invasive indices for predicting ascites susceptibility in three successive hatches of broilers exposed to cool temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Wing, T; Kirby, Y K; Forman, M F; Marson, N; Tackett, C D; Ruiz-Feria, C A

    1998-10-01

    Broilers from three consecutive hatches were exposed to cool temperatures to amplify the incidence of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites). The largest apparently healthy individuals on Day 42 were evaluated using minimally invasive diagnostic indices [percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen, hematocrit (HCT), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) Lead II, body weight), then they were subjected to the ongoing pressures of fast growth and cool temperatures to determine which of these indices are predictive of the subsequent onset of PHS. Approximately 20% of the males and females evaluated on Day 42 subsequently developed PHS by Day 51. When data for all hatches were pooled and broilers that subsequently developed ascites were compared with those that did not (nonascitic), body weights, heart rates, and percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen were lower on Day 42 for ascitic than for nonascitic males, and HCT was higher in ascitic males and females than in nonascitic males and females, respectively. Comparisons of the ECG Lead II wave amplitudes for all hatches pooled indicated that RS-wave amplitude was larger in ascitic than in nonascitic males, and that S-wave amplitude was more negative in ascitic males and females than in nonascitic males and females. Necropsies conducted on Day 51 revealed higher right:total ventricular weight ratios in ascitic than in nonascitic broilers, whereas normalizing the left ventricle plus septum weight for differences in body weight generated similar values for ascitic and nonascitic males and females, respectively. These results support a primary role for pulmonary hypertension but not cardiomyopathy in the pathogenesis of ascites triggered by cool temperatures. Values obtained for minimally invasive diagnostic indices on Day 42 also establish predictive thresholds that can be used to evaluate the PHS susceptibility of large and apparently healthy male and female broilers.

  18. Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S.; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Background The knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). Conclusions/Significance The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties

  19. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. ...

  20. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... use requirements for Critical Access Hospitals related to Electronic Health Records (EHRs)? Critical Access Hospital (CAH) are eligible for Electronic Health Record (EHR) incentive payments and can receive ...

  1. Hatching success and pesticide exposures in amphibians living in agricultural habitats of the South Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada (2004-2006).

    PubMed

    Bishop, Christine A; Ashpole, Sara L; Edwards, A Michelle; van Aggelen, Graham; Elliott, John E

    2010-07-01

    In 2004 to 2006, in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada, we measured pesticides, water chemistry, and hatching success of Great Basin spadefoot (Spea intermontana), Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla), Western toad (Bufo boreas), and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris). Predator-proof cages containing Gosner Stage 4 eggs were placed in ponds in nonagricultural reference sites in conventionally sprayed and organic orchards. Seventeen pesticides were detected in ponds in sprayed orchards but occurred at low concentrations (ng/L) except for diazinon (1,410 ng/L). Chloride, sulfate, conductivity, nitrate, and phosphorus showed significant differences among sites. Spadefoot mean hatching success ranged from 0 to 92% among sprayed orchards, whereas the range was 48 to 98.6% among organic orchards and 51 to 95.5% among reference sites. Mean hatching success for Pacific treefrog was 22.1 to 76.1% among sprayed orchards, whereas the range was 83.4 to 97.1% among reference sites. Although sample sizes were small and replication was low, we found that trends in hatching success of eggs of Western toad and Columbia spotted frogs were consistent with the other species. Variables that correlated negatively with amphibian hatching success included 12 pesticides and seven water chemistry parameters. However, stepwise regression found that, in 2005, atrazine accounted for 79% of the variation in spadefoot hatching success and, in 2006, atrazine, total nitrate, and chlorpyrifos accounted for 80%. For Pacific treefrog there were no significant correlations with pesticide concentrations; rather, hatching success correlated with water chemistry parameters. The present study also emphasizes the variability in species sensitivity and importance of incorporating water chemistry into the interpretation of water quality for amphibians.

  2. Egg laying pattern, egg weight, body weight at hatch, and sex ratio bias relative to oviposition time of young-and mid-age broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, A H; Omar, O H

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine oviposition pattern and the effect of oviposition time on egg weight, body weight at hatch, and sex ratio of hatched chickens. In Experiment 1, eggs were collected from young and mid-age broiler flocks for 6 consecutive days at hourly intervals between 0400 and 2000h. In Experiment 2, eggs were categorized to represent eggs where oviposition occurred early, middle and late in the clutch (later in the day). These eggs were incubated to determine body weight at hatch and sex ratio of hatched chickens relative to oviposition time. Time of oviposition was affected by age. For the young flock, the percentage of ovipositions occurring before the 1100h was 79%. In contrast to the young flock, the percentage of ovipositions occurring before the 1100h in the mid-age flock was less (68%; P<0.01). Furthermore, for the mid-age flock, the percentage of ovipositions occurring from 1200 to 1700h was greater (P<0.01) at 32% in comparison to that of the younger flock at 21%. Egg weights when oviposition occurred earlier in the day were greater (P<0.01) than when oviposition occurred in the middle and later in the clutch (later in the day). Similarly, body weight at hatch of chicks from eggs where oviposition occurred earlier in the day was heavier than when oviposition occurred in the middle and later in the clutch (later in the day).With hatching of the eggs from hens when ovipositions occurred earlier in the day, there was a female sex bias. Differences in egg weights, body weight at hatch, and sex ratio due to time of oviposition suggest that oviposition time together with incubation conditions should be considered for obtaining greater uniformity and growth of chickens.

  3. The Driven Spinning Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosu, Ioan; Featonby, David

    2016-01-01

    This driven top is quite a novelty and can, with some trials, be made using the principles outlined here. This new top has many applications in developing both understanding and skills and these are detailed in the article. Depending on reader's available time and motivation they may feel an urge to make one themselves, or simply invest a few…

  4. Electrically Driven Prosthetic Elbow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The invention relates to an improved electrically driven prosthetic elbow wherein the elbow is capable of being rigidly locked into place in any...desired position, and upon driving the arm to the fully extended position, the elbow is automatically unlocked.

  5. Argument-Driven Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Victor; Grooms, Jonathon; Walker, Joi

    2009-01-01

    Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) is an instructional model that enables science teachers to transform a traditional laboratory activity into a short integrated instructional unit. To illustrate how the ADI instructional model works, this article describes an ADI lesson developed for a 10th-grade chemistry class. This example lesson was designed to…

  6. Second-sound generation in superfluids: Critically driven porous loudspeakers

    SciTech Connect

    Grabinski, M.; Liu, M.

    1985-08-01

    The function of a porous loudspeaker or oscillating superleak transducer driven hard enough to generate critical velocity in its pores, is investigated theoretically. Two distinct regions of critical behavior with a number of experimentally accessible phenomena are predicted and summarized in a graphic exposition. In addition, the recently found discrepancy between theory and experiment is resolved.

  7. A Theory of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribot, Jesse C.; Peluso, Nancy Lee

    2003-01-01

    The term "access" is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as "the "ability" to derive benefits from things," broadening from property's classical definition as…

  8. Vitamin E and selenium in broiler breeder diets: Effect on live performance, hatching process, and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Urso, U R A; Dahlke, F; Maiorka, A; Bueno, I J M; Schneider, A F; Surek, D; Rocha, C

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different dietary vitamin E levels and different selenium sources on the productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders. In total 640 females and 64 males between 22 and 52 weeks old were studied. A completely randomized experimental design in factorial arrangement, with 4 treatments of 8 replicates with 20 females and 2 males each, was applied. Treatments consisted of 2 vitamin E levels (30 and 120 mg/kg) and two selenium sources (sodium selenite and zinc-L-selenomethionine). Egg production (rate of lay and eggs per breeder), egg characteristics (egg, yolk, eggshell, and albumen weights), fertility, incubation responses (egg weight loss during incubation, hatchability, and hatching window), and hatchling characteristics (weight and yield) were evaluated. There was no influence of dietary vitamin E levels or selenium sources on egg production (P > 0.05). Mature breeders (47 weeks old) fed zinc-L-selenomethionine and 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed produced heavier eggs and albumen. Hatchability of the eggs of breeders fed 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed was higher than breeders fed 30 mg vitamin at 29 wks. The dietary inclusion of organic selenium also promoted heavier hatchling weight until egg production peak (33 wk), but did not influence hatchling quality or hatching window. It was concluded that the dietary supplementation of zinc-L-selenomethione and vitamin E (120 mg/kg feed) could be used to improve egg characteristics and incubation response.

  9. Longer patents for increased generic competition in the US. The Waxman-Hatch Act after one decade.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, H; Vernon, J

    1996-01-01

    The 1984 Waxman-Hatch Act had two main objectives. Title I was designed to promote price competition by establishing an abbreviated new drug application (ANDA) process for generic market entry. Title II was designed to encourage drug innovation by restoring some of the patent life lost during the lengthy FDA regulatory process. In this paper, we consider whether these twin objectives have been realised during the first decade of the Act's existence. First, we investigate the pattern of generic and brand name prices and market shares for the major products whose patents expired between 1984 and 1993. A regression model indicates that generic competition has been intensifying significantly in recent periods. Major brand name products now typically lose more than half their market share within the first year after patent expiration. In addition, we examine changes in patent protection for new chemical entities introduced over the period 1984 to 1993. For 1991 to 1993 new drug introductions, the average effective patent life was 11.8 years with 2.3 years resulting from Waxman-Hatch extensions. In the final section of the paper, we consider how the US law compares with that in Europe and discuss possible legislative improvements in the 1984 Act.

  10. High Incubation Temperature and Threonine Dietary Level Improve Ileum Response Against Post-Hatch Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculation in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Heraldo Bezerra; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Guerra, Ricardo Romão; Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of both embryonic thermal manipulation and dietary threonine level on the response of broilers inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in the cecal contents, intestinal morphology, mucin and heat shock protein 70 gene expression, body weight and weight gain. Thermal manipulation was used from 11 days of incubation until hatch, defining three treatments: standard (37.7°C), continuous high temperature (38.7°C) and continuous low temperature (36.7°C). After hatch, chicks were distributed according to a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement (three temperatures and two threonine levels and one sham-inoculated control). At two days of age, all chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, except for the sham-inoculated control group. There was no interaction between the factors on any analyses. High temperature during incubation was able to reduce colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in the first days, reducing both Salmonella counts and the number of positive birds. It also increased mucin expression and decreased Hsp70 expression compared with other inoculated groups. High temperature during incubation and high threonine level act independently to reduce the negative effects associated to Salmonella Enteritidis infection on intestinal morphology and performance, with results similar to sham-inoculated birds. The findings open new perspectives for practical strategies towards the pre-harvest Salmonella control in the poultry industry. PMID:26131553

  11. Influence of an Angular Hatching Exposure Strategy on the Surface Roughness During Picosecond Laser Ablation of Hard Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Christian; Manderla, Jannik; Hallmann, Sina; Emmelmann, Claus

    Innovative chip breakers for cutting tools made of very hard materials require laser ablation and demand a high quality regarding the manufactured surface. When processing materials such as polycrystalline cubic boron-nitride or tungsten carbide the surface roughness by laser ablation reaches Sa = 1,0-2,9 μm compared to Sa = 0,42 μm achieved by grinding. Therefore in the presented research the influence of the hatching exposure strategy on surface roughness during picosecond laser ablation of tungsten carbide is examined. The areal, layerwise ablation process is separated into its elements which are represented by intersection zones between single and multiple laser vectors. Thus two mechanisms of roughness formation are identified and described by model functions. Further the mechanisms are transferred to areal ablation in which surface roughness decreases due to improved hatching angles compared to a commonly used one of φ= 0°/90°. With this approach the roughness is reduced by approximately factor 2,0-3,5 to Sa = 0,82 μm. In conclusion guidelines are derived which present favorable settings for high quality laser ablation processes.

  12. Effect of assisted hatching on pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Da; Yang, Da-Lei; An, Jing; Jiao, Jiao; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Wu, Qi-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that assisted hatching (AH) techniques may improve clinical pregnancy rates, particularly in poor prognosis patients; however, there still remains considerable uncertainty. We conducted a meta-analysis to verify the effect of AH on pregnancy outcomes. We searched for related studies published in PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane library databases from start dates to October 10, 2015. Totally, 36 randomized controlled trials with 6459 participants were included. Summary odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for whether by AH or not were estimated. We found a significant increase in clinical pregnancy (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.00–1.36, I2 = 48.3%) and multiple pregnancy rates (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.11–2.01, I2 = 44.0%) with AH when compared to the control. Numerous subgroup analyses stratified by hatching method, conception mode, extent of AH, embryos transfer status, and previous failure history were also carried out. Interestingly, significant results of clinical pregnancy as well as multiple pregnancy rates were observed among women who received intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and who received AH which the zona were completely removed. In summary, this meta-analysis supports that AH was associated with an increased chance of achieving clinical pregnancy and multiple pregnancy. Whether AH significantly changes live birth and miscarriage rates needs further investigations. PMID:27503701

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated in newly-hatched chickens and effect of amoxicillin treatment during their growth.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Belenguer, Ana; Doménech, Eva; Villagrá, Arantxa; Fenollar, Alejandro; Ferrús, Maria Antonia

    2016-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in food animals is the major determinant for the propagation of resistant bacteria in the animal reservoir. However, other factors may also play a part, and in particular vertical spread between the generations has been suggested to be an important transmission pathway. The objective of this paper was to determine the resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from newly-hatched chickens as well as to study the antibiotic pressure effect when amoxicillin was administered during their growing period. With this aim, meconium from 22 one-day-old Ross chickens was analysed. In addition, during their growth period, amoxicillin treatments at days 7, 21 and 35 were carried out. Results showed a high number of E. coli-resistant strains were isolated from the treated one-day-old chickens, and were the highest for β-lactams group, followed by quinolone and tetracyclines. After treatment with amoxicillin, the highest percentage of resistances were detected for this antibiotic compared to the others analysed, with significant differences in resistance percentages between control and treated broilers detected in relation to ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Differences in resistances to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid between control and treated animals were not observed and there was lack of resistance for amikacin and ceftriaxone. These results suggest the possibility of vertical transmission of resistant strains to newly-hatched chicks from parent flocks, and seem to indicate that the treatment with amoxicillin increased the resistance of E. coli to other antibiotics.

  14. Post-hatching growth and development of the pectoral and pelvic limbs in the black noddy, Anous minutus.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Michael B

    2008-06-01

    The black tern (Anous minutus) uses a semi-precocial growth strategy. Terrestrial locomotor capacity occurs soon after hatching, but pectoral limb development is delayed and flight is not possible until about post-hatching day 50. A growth series (hatchlings to fledglings) was used to explore how limb musculoskeletal development varied with body mass. In the pelvic limb, bone lengths scaled isometrically or with negative allometry. Gastrocnemius muscle mass and the failure load and stiffness of the tibiotarsus scaled isometrically. In the pectoral limb, pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscle masses increased with strong positive allometry that was mirrored by increases in wing bone strength and stiffness. Bending strength (sigma(ult)) and modulus (E) remained fairly constant throughout development to fledging for all limb bones. The moment of inertia (I) scaled with negative allometry for the tibiotarsus and with strong positive allometry in the wing bones. Differences in sigma(ult) and E of the tibiotarsus between pre-fledged chicks and adults was due, primarily, to increases in bone density rather than increases in the moment of inertia of the skeletal elements, whereas sigma(ult) of wing bones was a function of increases in both bone density and I. Early development of functional pelvic limbs in tree-nesting birds is relatively unusual, and presumably reflects a familial trait that does not appear to compromise breeding success in this species.

  15. Effect of incubating egg exposure to magnetic field on the biophysical blood properties of newly-hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ghannam Magdy; Mohamed, Shafey Tarek; Abd-Alaah, Aly Amany; Kassem, Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar; Suliman, Al-Ayed Mohammed

    2015-09-01

    Due to widespread of human exposure to electromagnetic fields, there has been increasing public concern about the potential health risks from low-frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF-EMF. The magnetic fields (MFs) affects functions of the living organisms, such as DNA synthesis and ion transportation through the cell membranes. In the present work, the effects of short-term exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) prior to incubation were investigated on the biophysical blood properties of chicks hatched from layer-type breeder eggs. The eggs were exposed to a MF of 0.75 mT at 50 Hz for 20, 40 and 60 min before incubation. This study was performed by measuring the dielectric relaxation of hemoglobin (Hb) molecules and the membrane solubility of red blood cells (RBCs) using the non-ionic detergent octylglucoside. Exposure of the eggs to a MF increased the conductivity of the Hb molecules. The pronounced increase in the conductivity of the exposed eggs might be attributed to an increase in the surface charge of the Hb macromolecules, resulted from the formation of highly active molecular species. This speculation can be supported by the increase in the relaxation time of the exposed groups. The solubilization process of the RBC membrane indicates a loss in the mobility of RBCs in the blood of hatching chicks.

  16. Persistent organic pollutant levels in eggs of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) point to a decrease in hatching success.

    PubMed

    De Andrés, Eva; Gómara, Belén; González-Paredes, Daniel; Ruiz-Martín, José; Marco, Adolfo

    2016-03-01

    Sea turtles are susceptible to environmental pollution, since many harmful effects have been reported for different chemicals over the last two decades. In this context, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are of particular concern due to their endocrine-disrupting nature. The aims of this study were to provide additional baseline data on PCB and PBDE concentrations in eggs of Dermochelys coriacea; and to investigate whether any of the congeners could compromise reproductive success in this species. A total of 18 nests from different females were studied during the nesting season of 2008 at Reserva Pacuare Beach, in the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. Reproductive parameters (viability, fertility and hatching rates) were calculated for all nests and hatchling morphometrics were successfully measured in 8 of them. Two to three fresh eggs per nest were taken for contaminant study. Different congeners of POPs were purified and identified using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to an ion trap detector (GC-ITD MS/MS), as described below. Mean ± SD concentrations were calculated for POP congeners within each nest and clustering was also evaluated. Correlations were performed searching for potential relationships with reproductive parameters. POP levels were similar to those reported in French-Guiana populations and slightly lower than those associated to Florida populations. Sum of PBDEs showed a negative correlation to the hatching success, suggesting potential harmful effects of these contaminants on the reproduction of leatherbacks.

  17. Myth busting? Effects of embryo positioning and egg turning on hatching success in the water snake Natrix maura.

    PubMed

    Aubret, Fabien; Blanvillain, Gaëlle; Kok, Philippe J R

    2015-08-21

    It is a common belief that reptile eggs should not be turned after oviposition once the embryo has attached itself to the inner membrane of the shell as it might kill developing embryos. Here, we used 338 eggs from 32 clutches of the water snake Natrix maura to (1) thoroughly describe natural clutch arrangement, (2) experimentally assess the effects of natural embryo positioning and (3) egg turning on embryo metabolism, hatching success, and hatchling phenotype. Clutches contained, on average, 59% of embryos located at the top, 28% at the bottom, and 14% on a side of the egg. Larger females laid larger clutches with higher proportion of top located embryos. Top embryos displayed higher metabolic rates (heart rates), shorter incubation time, and produced lighter and shorter snakes than bottom embryos. Egg turning did not significantly influence egg development, hatching success or hatchling phenotypes. However, post-birth mortality was significantly higher in turned (37.5%) compared to unturned (4.5%) embryos, providing support to the common belief that eggs should not be moved from their natural position.

  18. High Incubation Temperature and Threonine Dietary Level Improve Ileum Response Against Post-Hatch Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculation in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    de Barros Moreira Filho, Alexandre Lemos; de Oliveira, Celso José Bruno; de Oliveira, Heraldo Bezerra; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Guerra, Ricardo Romão; Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo; Givisiez, Patricia Emília Naves

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of both embryonic thermal manipulation and dietary threonine level on the response of broilers inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in the cecal contents, intestinal morphology, mucin and heat shock protein 70 gene expression, body weight and weight gain. Thermal manipulation was used from 11 days of incubation until hatch, defining three treatments: standard (37.7°C), continuous high temperature (38.7°C) and continuous low temperature (36.7°C). After hatch, chicks were distributed according to a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement (three temperatures and two threonine levels and one sham-inoculated control). At two days of age, all chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, except for the sham-inoculated control group. There was no interaction between the factors on any analyses. High temperature during incubation was able to reduce colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in the first days, reducing both Salmonella counts and the number of positive birds. It also increased mucin expression and decreased Hsp70 expression compared with other inoculated groups. High temperature during incubation and high threonine level act independently to reduce the negative effects associated to Salmonella Enteritidis infection on intestinal morphology and performance, with results similar to sham-inoculated birds. The findings open new perspectives for practical strategies towards the pre-harvest Salmonella control in the poultry industry.

  19. Myth busting? Effects of embryo positioning and egg turning on hatching success in the water snake Natrix maura

    PubMed Central

    Aubret, Fabien; Blanvillain, Gaëlle; Kok, Philippe J. R.

    2015-01-01

    It is a common belief that reptile eggs should not be turned after oviposition once the embryo has attached itself to the inner membrane of the shell as it might kill developing embryos. Here, we used 338 eggs from 32 clutches of the water snake Natrix maura to (1) thoroughly describe natural clutch arrangement, (2) experimentally assess the effects of natural embryo positioning and (3) egg turning on embryo metabolism, hatching success, and hatchling phenotype. Clutches contained, on average, 59% of embryos located at the top, 28% at the bottom, and 14% on a side of the egg. Larger females laid larger clutches with higher proportion of top located embryos. Top embryos displayed higher metabolic rates (heart rates), shorter incubation time, and produced lighter and shorter snakes than bottom embryos. Egg turning did not significantly influence egg development, hatching success or hatchling phenotypes. However, post-birth mortality was significantly higher in turned (37.5%) compared to unturned (4.5%) embryos, providing support to the common belief that eggs should not be moved from their natural position. PMID:26294250

  20. High atmospheric temperatures and ‘ambient incubation’ drive embryonic development and lead to earlier hatching in a passerine bird

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Simon C.; Mainwaring, Mark C.; Sorato, Enrico; Beckmann, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Tropical and subtropical species typically experience relatively high atmospheric temperatures during reproduction, and are subject to climate-related challenges that are largely unexplored, relative to more extensive work conducted in temperate regions. We studied the effects of high atmospheric and nest temperatures during reproduction in the zebra finch. We characterized the temperature within nests in a subtropical population of this species in relation to atmospheric temperature. Temperatures within nests frequently exceeded the level at which embryo’s develop optimally, even in the absence of parental incubation. We experimentally manipulated internal nest temperature to demonstrate that an average difference of 6°C in the nest temperature during the laying period reduced hatching time by an average of 3% of the total incubation time, owing to ‘ambient incubation’. Given the avian constraint of laying a single egg per day, the first eggs of a clutch are subject to prolonged effects of nest temperature relative to later laid eggs, potentially increasing hatching asynchrony. While birds may ameliorate the negative effects of ambient incubation on embryonic development by varying the location and design of their nests, high atmospheric temperatures are likely to constitute an important selective force on avian reproductive behaviour and physiology in subtropical and tropical regions, particularly in the light of predicted climate change that in many areas is leading to a higher frequency of hot days during the periods when birds breed. PMID:26998315

  1. Maternal thyroid hormones enhance hatching success but decrease nestling body mass in the rock pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) - triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) - are essential for embryonic development in vertebrates. All vertebrate embryos are exposed to THs from maternal origin. As maternal TH levels are known to be essential to embryonic development, the natural variation of maternal THs probably represents a pathway of maternal effects that can modify offspring phenotype. However, potential fitness consequences of variation of maternal TH exposure within the normal physiological range and without confounding effects of the mother have never been experimentally investigated. We experimentally manipulated the levels of yolk T3 and T4 within the physiological range in a species in which the embryo develops outside the mother's body, the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) eggs. Making use of the natural difference of yolk testosterone between the two eggs of pigeon clutches, we were also able to investigate the potential interaction between THs and testosterone. Elevated yolk TH levels enhanced embryonic development and hatching success, and reduced body mass but not tarsus length between day 14 and fledging. The yolk hormones increased plasma T4 concentrations in females but reduced it in males, in line with the effect on metabolic rate at hatching. Plasma concentrations of T3 and testosterone were not significantly affected. The effects of treatment did not differ between eggs with high or low testosterone levels. Our data indicate that natural variation in maternal yolk TH levels affects offspring phenotype and embryonic survival, potentially influencing maternal and chick fitness.

  2. From facultative to obligatory parental care: Interspecific variation in offspring dependency on post-hatching care in burying beetles

    PubMed Central

    Capodeanu-Nägler, Alexandra; Keppner, Eva M.; Vogel, Heiko; Ayasse, Manfred; Eggert, Anne-Katrin; Sakaluk, Scott K.; Steiger, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the evolution of parental care have focused primarily on the costs and benefits of parental care and the life-history attributes that favour it. However, once care evolves, offspring in some taxa appear to become increasingly dependent on their parents. Although offspring dependency is a central theme in family life, the evolutionary dynamics leading to it are not fully understood. Beetles of the genus Nicrophorus are well known for their elaborate biparental care, including provisioning of their young. By manipulating the occurrence of pre- or post-hatching care, we show that the offspring of three burying beetle species, N. orbicollis, N. pustulatus, and N. vespilloides, show striking variation in their reliance on parental care. Our results demonstrate that this variation within one genus arises through a differential dependency of larvae on parental feeding, but not on pre-hatching care. In N. pustulatus, larvae appear to be nutritionally independent of their parents, but in N. orbicollis, larvae do not survive in the absence of parental feeding. We consider evolutionary scenarios by which nutritional dependency may have evolved, highlighting the role of brood size regulation via infanticide in this genus. PMID:27378180

  3. Mothers under stress? Hatching sex ratio in relation to maternal baseline corticosterone in the common tern (Sterna hirundo).

    PubMed

    Riechert, Juliane; Chastel, Olivier; Becker, Peter H

    2013-09-01

    Sex ratio of progeny should be balanced if costs and benefits of rearing sons and daughters are equal. However, shifts in sex ratio have been demonstrated across bird species and it was suggested that females are able to adjust the primary sex ratio. One possible mechanism is the glucocorticoid corticosterone which rises under stressful conditions and can be deposited into egg yolk by mothers. We analysed primary sex ratio of common terns Sterna hirundo from 2006 to 2008 and related it to maternal baseline corticosterone level, laying date and year. Therefore, we took 101 blood samples of 71 breeding females via blood sucking bugs, a method with negligible stress for the birds. Sex ratio did not differ from parity in any of the analysed years, which were characterized by poor food availability and breeding success. Only within 1 year there was a tendency for more females in the last hatched chick. Neither corticosterone level nor laying date or year showed an influence on hatching sex ratio. The negative result concerning primary sex ratio and maternal baseline corticosterone level might suggest conditions to be good enough for mothers to prevent them from depositing high levels of corticosterone into eggs.

  4. Use of DNA strand damage (Comet assay) and embryo hatching effects to assess contaminant exposure in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.F.; Steinert, S.A.; Nakayama, K.; Oshima, Y.

    1999-07-01

    After fertilization, blue crab eggs are embedded in a sponge which is attached to the female abdomen during embryo development. Embryos after 9 stages in the egg sac hatch into a swimming zoea stage (stage 10). The authors have developed a bioassay where embryo development is monitored in culture plates with and without toxicants in the water. Toxicant effects are based on determining the percentage of embryos which hatch to zoea. Hatching EC{sub 50} (toxicant concentration at which 50% of the embryos fail to hatch) for a number of pesticides, organometallics and metals were determined. The test takes from 2 to 6 days depending on the embryo stage selected for the study. In addition to embryo development effects the prevalence of DNA single-strand breaks in individual embryo cells were determined using the single cell gel electrophoresis method (Comet assay). A good correlation between DNA strand breakage and embryo defects was found after exposure to genotoxic contaminants. Thus, the bioassay linking DNA damage to embryo hatching effects is rapid, sensitive and mechanistically relevant.

  5. Effect of L-carnitine on in vitro developmental rate, the zona pellucida and hatching of blastocysts and their cell numbers in mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Khanmohammadi, Nasrin; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Safari, Manouchehr; Sameni, Hamid Reza; Yousefi, Behpour; Jafari, Behnaz; Zarbakhsh, Sam

    2016-01-01

    L-carnitine (LC) is an antioxidant with the ability to promote the growth in vitro embryo. Objective: The goal was to evaluate the effect of LC on some indicators of embryo development and blastocyst quality including zona pellucid (ZP) thickness, the hatching of blastocysts and their cell numbers. Materials and Methods: Mouse embryos were randomly divided into five groups and incubated with different concentrations of LC (I; 0, II; 0.5, III; 1, IV; 2 and V; 4 mg/ml) from 2-cell to hatched blastocyst. The percentage of blastocysts and hatched blastocysts was calculated. Blastocysts ZP thickness was measured and the number of blastocyst cells was counted using Hoechst and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Results: The results showed concentration of 0.5 mg/ml of LC had an antioxidant effect as in this group, the percentage of blastocysts and hatched blactocysts (p=0.01), the ZP thickness (p=0.00) and the number of blastocyst inner cell mass were significantly more favorable than the control group (p=0.03); and concentration of 4 mg/ml of LC had a toxic effect on embryo development and blastocyst quality (p=0.00). Conclusion: The results suggest that LC may increase the number of blastocyst cells, which probably helps to expand the blastocyst and thinning of the ZP thickness and, therefore, creating a successful hatching for implantation. PMID:27921089

  6. Comparative analysis of hatching rates and clutch sizes of Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) eggs collected on- and off-farm in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Khosa, Patricia; Imbayarwo-Chikosi, Venancio Edward; Hamandishe, Vimbai

    2012-04-01

    The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is a large aquatic reptile predominant in the tropics in Africa and Zimbabwe in particular. Clutch sizes and hatching rates of Nile crocodile eggs collected from the wild and on-farm in Lowveld, Highveld and Kariba regions of Zimbabwe were evaluated. A total of 274 egg records for the period 2000 to 2008 from 39 farms were collected from the Crocodile Farmers Association of Zimbabwe. The effect of source of eggs was analysed using the non-parametric one way analysis of variance procedure of SAS Version 9.1.3. Wilcoxon signed rank test for independent samples was used to compare the mean hatching rates and clutch sizes for eggs collected from the different sources by region. The degree of association between clutch sizes and the hatching rates by source and region was determined using the Spearman's rank correlation test. Source of eggs had no effect (P > 0.05) on hatching rates in all the regions but significantly influenced (P < 0.05) clutch sizes in Lowveld and Kariba. In these regions, clutch sizes in the wild were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those on-farm. Correlation estimates between clutch size and hatching rates were weak and non-significant (P > 0.05) for the different sources of eggs in all regions. Full utilization of the wild resource would reduce challenges relating to shortage of captive breeders and high cost of rearing breeders and hence increase productivity.

  7. Assessment of the efficacy of Artemia sp (Crustacea) cysts chorion as barrier to chlorpyrifos (organophosphorus pesticide) exposure. Effect on hatching and survival.

    PubMed

    Varó, I; Amat, F; Navarro, J C; Barreda, M; Pitarch, E; Serrano, R

    2006-07-31

    In order to reveal the efficacy of the Artemia cysts chorion as barrier to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos, whole and decapsulated cysts have been exposed to 10 mg L(-1) chlorpyrifos in sea water during hydration and hatching phase, separately. The concentration of chlorpyrifos in capsulated and decapsulated cysts after exposure has been determined in order to elucidate the efficacy of chorion as protection to the embryo. The results obtained demonstrate the ability of the cysts chorion to obstruct the pass of chlorpyrifos molecules through this protection structure. Thus, the concentration of chlorpyrifos in exposed decapsulated cysts is higher than in exposed whole cysts. Moreover, after removing the chorion of exposed cysts, the concentration of chlorpyrifos in the embryo was lower than that of cysts exposed, what would demonstrate the retention of chlorpyrifos molecules by the shell. Hatching was not severely affected by exposure to the insecticide whereas survival at 44 h of the nauplii exposed to chlorpyrifos was significantly different from the controls. Survival of nauplii hatched from exposed decapsulated cysts was higher than that from those hatched from exposed whole cysts, probably because of the lower vitality of the latter, due to depletion of energy reserves during hatching.

  8. Cold Season Mortality Under Natural Conditions and Subsequent Hatching Response of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Eggs in a Subtropical City of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Javier Orlando; Fischer, Sylvia; Zalazar, Laura; Stein, Marina

    2015-09-01

    In temperate and subtropical regions, populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) survive unfavorable winter conditions in the egg stage. Knowing their survival rates can be of great interest for the health authorities in charge of control activities. In this study, we analyzed the mortality of Ae. aegypti eggs exposed to the cold season as well as their hatching patterns under laboratory conditions in the city of Resistencia, Chaco, Argentina. The mortality rate was 48.6%. No statistically significant differences were observed in the mortality of eggs exposed at different sites. Hatching response differed significantly among the successive postexposure immersions, with the highest proportion of hatched eggs during the first immersion. These results show that the mortality rate of Ae. aegypti eggs exposed to the cold season in a subtropical city of Argentina was higher than those from temperate climate region. The additional mortality of eggs in our study might be related to fungal development (an unexpected event), which was not observed in research in temperate climate. The hatching pattern observed in this study ensures a rapid increase of the population at the beginning of the favorable breeding season, but it also maintains a batch with delayed hatching eggs, posing a risk for the community.

  9. Laser driven radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, M.D.; Sefcik, J.; Cowan, T.

    1997-12-20

    Intense laser (> 1021 W/cm{sup 3}) driven hard x-ray sources offer a new alternative to conventional electron accelerator Bremsstrahlung sources. These laser driven sources offer considerable simplicity in design and potential cost advantage for multiple axis views. High spatial and temporal resolution is achievable as a result of the very small source size (<100 um) and short-duration of the laser pulse. We have begun a series of experiments with the Petawatt laser at LLNL to determine the photon flux achievable with these sources and assess their potential for Stewardship applications. Additionally, we are developing a conceptual design and cost estimate of a multi-pulse, multi-axis (up to five) radiographic facility utilizing the Contained Firing Facility at site 300 and existing laser hardware.

  10. Electrically driven optical antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Johannes; Kullock, René; Prangsma, Jord; Emmerling, Monika; Kamp, Martin; Hecht, Bert

    2015-09-01

    Unlike radiowave antennas, so far optical nanoantennas cannot be fed by electrical generators. Instead, they are driven by light or indirectly via excited discrete states in active materials in their vicinity. Here we demonstrate the direct electrical driving of an in-plane optical antenna by the broadband quantum-shot noise of electrons tunnelling across its feed gap. The spectrum of the emitted photons is determined by the antenna geometry and can be tuned via the applied voltage. Moreover, the direction and polarization of the light emission are controlled by the antenna resonance, which also improves the external quantum efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. The one-material planar design offers facile integration of electrical and optical circuits and thus represents a new paradigm for interfacing electrons and photons at the nanometre scale, for example for on-chip wireless communication and highly configurable electrically driven subwavelength photon sources.

  11. Sparsity driven ultrasound imaginga)

    PubMed Central

    Tuysuzoglu, Ahmet; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Cleveland, Robin O.; C¸etin, Müjdat; Karl, W. Clem

    2012-01-01

    An image formation framework for ultrasound imaging from synthetic transducer arrays based on sparsity-driven regularization functionals using single-frequency Fourier domain data is proposed. The framework involves the use of a physics-based forward model of the ultrasound observation process, the formulation of image formation as the solution of an associated optimization problem, and the solution of that problem through efficient numerical algorithms. The sparsity-driven, model-based approach estimates a complex-valued reflectivity field and preserves physical features in the scene while suppressing spurious artifacts. It also provides robust reconstructions in the case of sparse and reduced observation apertures. The effectiveness of the proposed imaging strategy is demonstrated using experimental data. PMID:22352501

  12. Estimation of daily age and timing of hatching of exotic Asian swamp eels Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793) in a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Lafleur, C.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date of the exotic Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) captured from a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA. The eels were sampled using leaf litter traps (N = 140) from 17 July to 28 August 2008. The captured (N = 15) Asian swamp eels ranged in total length from 4.9 cm to 12.2 cm, and were estimated to be from 21 to 51 days old (N = 13), and hatched from 13 June to 7 August 2008. Assuming linear growth, these individuals grew an average rate of 0.2 cm per day. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first time otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date for M. albus, which can be useful for understanding the ecology of this species in the wild.

  13. Why are hatching and emergence success low? Mercury and selenium concentrations in nesting leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) and their young in Florida.

    PubMed

    Perrault, Justin; Wyneken, Jeanette; Thompson, Larry J; Johnson, Chris; Miller, Debra L

    2011-08-01

    Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) have low hatching and emergence success compared to other sea turtle species. Postmortem examinations of hatchlings showed degeneration of heart and skeletal muscle that was similar to that found in other neonates with selenium deficient mothers. Selenium deficiency can result from elevated concentrations of bodily mercury. Ingested mercury is detoxified by the liver through mercury-selenium compound formation. In animals persistently exposed to mercury, the liver's ability to detoxify this element may decrease, especially if dietary selenium is insufficient. We measured mercury and selenium concentrations in nesting female leatherbacks and their hatchlings from Florida and compared the levels to hatching and emergence success. Both liver selenium and the liver selenium-to-mercury ratio positively correlated with leatherback hatching and emergence success. This study provides the first evidence for the roles of mercury and selenium in explaining low reproductive success in a globally imperiled species, the leatherback sea turtle.

  14. Estimation of daily age and timing of hatching of exotic Asian swamp eels Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793) in a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, J.M.; Lafleur, C.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date of the exotic Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) captured from a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA. The eels were sampled using leaf litter traps (N=140) from 17 July to 28 August 2008. The captured (N=15) Asian swamp eels ranged in total length from 4.9cm to 12.2cm, and were estimated to be from 21 to 51days old (N=13), and hatched from 13 June to 7 August 2008. Assuming linear growth, these individuals grew an average rate of 0.2cm per day. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first time otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date for M. albus, which can be useful for understanding the ecology of this species in the wild. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  16. Gas-driven microturbine

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.; McWhorter, P.J.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Miller, W.M.

    1996-06-27

    This paper describes an invention which relates to microtechnology and the fabrication process for developing microelectrical systems. It describes a means for fabricating a gas-driven microturbine capable of providing autonomous propulsion in which the rapidly moving gases are directed through a micromachined turbine to power devices by direct linkage or turbo-electric generators components in a domain ranging from tenths of micrometers to thousands of micrometers.

  17. Driven superconducting quantum circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasunobu

    2014-03-01

    Driven nonlinear quantum systems show rich phenomena in various fields of physics. Among them, superconducting quantum circuits have very attractive features such as well-controlled quantum states with design flexibility, strong nonlinearity of Josephson junctions, strong coupling to electromagnetic driving fields, little internal dissipation, and tailored coupling to the electromagnetic environment. We have investigated properties and functionalities of driven superconducting quantum circuits. A transmon qubit coupled to a transmission line shows nearly perfect spatial mode matching between the incident and scattered microwave field in the 1D mode. Dressed states under a driving field are studied there and also in a semi-infinite 1D mode terminated by a resonator containing a flux qubit. An effective Λ-type three-level system is realized under an appropriate driving condition. It allows ``impedance-matched'' perfect absorption of incident probe photons and down conversion into another frequency mode. Finally, the weak signal from the qubit is read out using a Josephson parametric amplifier/oscillator which is another nonlinear circuit driven by a strong pump field. This work was partly supported by the Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST), Project for Developing Innovation Systems of MEXT, MEXT KAKENHI ``Quantum Cybernetics,'' and the NICT Commissioned Research.

  18. Water-driven micromotors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Pei, Allen; Wang, Joseph

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate the first example of a water-driven bubble-propelled micromotor that eliminates the requirement for the common hydrogen peroxide fuel. The new water-driven Janus micromotor is composed of a partially coated Al-Ga binary alloy microsphere prepared via microcontact mixing of aluminum microparticles and liquid gallium. The ejection of hydrogen bubbles from the exposed Al-Ga alloy hemisphere side, upon its contact with water, provides a powerful directional propulsion thrust. Such spontaneous generation of hydrogen bubbles reflects the rapid reaction between the aluminum alloy and water. The resulting water-driven spherical motors can move at remarkable speeds of 3 mm s(-1) (i.e., 150 body length s(-1)), while exerting large forces exceeding 500 pN. Factors influencing the efficiency of the aluminum-water reaction and the resulting propulsion behavior and motor lifetime, including the ionic strength and environmental pH, are investigated. The resulting water-propelled Al-Ga/Ti motors move efficiently in different biological media (e.g., human serum) and hold considerable promise for diverse biomedical or industrial applications.

  19. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  20. Egg Hatching and Survival of Immature Stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Under Natural Temperature Conditions During the Cold Season in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    De Majo, María Sol; Montini, Pedro; Fischer, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    In temperate regions, the seasonal dynamics of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is mainly influenced by temperature. It is assumed that, during the winter season, the population remains as eggs and that the development and population growth of surviving eggs begin during the following spring. The aim of the current study was to assess egg hatching of Ae. aegypti during the winter in Buenos Aires city (Argentina), and analyze the survival of immature stages. The experiments consisted of immersing eggs and studying the development of immature stages of cohorts from June and September under natural temperature conditions. The proportion of hatched eggs was compared between weeks of immersion and related to environmental variables. Survival was compared among cohorts and the development rate was related to the mean temperature during development. The results showed that, with few exceptions, egg hatching was over 45% during the winter period. The proportion of hatched eggs was positively associated with immersion temperature, pre-immersion temperature and photoperiod. The immature stages completed the development during the cold season, with a trend toward increased survival of late-hatching cohorts. Survival was 30% at 13.2 °C and above 90% at 20 °C, whereas the development time at low temperatures was 49.4 d at 13.2 °C and 17.7 d at 20 °C. The high hatching and survival compared with other studies suggest that the local population might be adapting to winter conditions. The anticipated emergence of adults would be adaptive if they are able to reproduce successfully in the early spring.

  1. Spatial occurrence and hatch of field eggs of the tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Notostraca: Triopsidae), a potential biological control agent of immature mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Su, Tianyun; Mulla, Mir S

    2002-06-01

    The tadpole shrimp (TPS), Triops newberryi (Packard) (Notostraca: Triopsidae) is a potential biological control agent for immature mosquitoes breeding in ephemeral habitats. The occurrence of TPS eggs in soil and their hatch were investigated in 11 flood-irrigated date gardens in the Coachella Valley of southern California in 1999. Each garden was sampled several times after the rows were recently irrigated. All these date gardens harbored from very few to a large number of eggs in the soil. Overall, the average density of total eggs on ranches with clay loam soil was significantly higher than that on ranches with silt loam soil. The average densities of total eggs were significantly lower on the ranches that were disked compared to those on the ranches that were undisked before sampling. Two types of eggs were found and designated as "fresh" (yellowish to brownish) and "old" (blackish) eggs. This is the first time that these dimorphic eggs have been reported. The density of fresh eggs was lower than that of old eggs in most soil samples. The date gardens with high egg densities were sampled for determination of vertical occurrence, where soil was sampled up to 38.5 cm deep. Fresh eggs were recovered from soil in depths up to 25.6 cm, but the densities progressively declined with depth. The old eggs, however, were recovered from all soil depths studied, and there was no obvious relationship between soil depth and their density. This pattern of vertical occurrence of TPS eggs is the result of frequent disking for weed control and fruit harvest. Hatch of TPS eggs in surface soil samples ranged from 0 to 7.2 per 100 g dried soil. Hatch of viable eggs had an inverse relationship with soil depth. No TPS hatched out from the soil samples taken deeper than 15.4 cm. Fresh and old eggs distinguished by color were subjected to hatching tests. Fresh eggs exhibited high hatch, with hatching rates of 35.5-45.0% and 40.2-60.3% for the 1st and 1st plus the 2nd hydrations

  2. Effects of transgenic sterilization constructs and their repressor compounds on hatch, developmental rate and early survival of electroporated channel catfish embryos and fry.

    PubMed

    Su, Baofeng; Shang, Mei; Li, Chao; Perera, Dayan A; Pinkert, Carl A; Irwin, Michael H; Peatman, Eric; Grewe, Peter; Patil, Jawahar G; Dunham, Rex A

    2015-04-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) embryos were electroporated with sterilization constructs targeting primordial germ cell proteins or with buffer. Some embryos then were treated with repressor compounds, cadmium chloride, copper sulfate, sodium chloride or doxycycline, to prevent expression of the transgene constructs. Promoters included channel catfish nanos and vasa, salmon transferrin (TF), modified yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae copper transport protein (MCTR) and zebrafish racemase (RM). Knock-down systems were the Tet-off (nanos and vasa constructs), MCTR, RM and TF systems. Knock-down genes included shRNAi targeting 5' nanos (N1), 3' nanos (N2) or dead end (DND), or double-stranded nanos RNA (dsRNA) for overexpression of nanos mRNA. These constructs previously were demonstrated to knock down nanos, vasa and dead end, with the repressors having variable success. Exogenous DNA affected percentage hatch (% hatch), as all 14 constructs, except for the TF dsRNA, TF N1 (T), RM DND (C), vasa DND (C), vasa N1 (C) and vasa N2 (C), had lower % hatch than the control electroporated with buffer. The MCTR and RM DND (T) constructs resulted in delayed hatch, and the vasa and nanos constructs had minimal effects on time of hatch (P < 0.05). Cadmium chloride appeared to counteract the slow development caused by the TF constructs in two TF treatments (P < 0.05). The 4 ppt sodium chloride treatment for the RM system decreased % hatch (P < 0.05) and slowed development. In the case of nanos constructs, doxycycline greatly delayed hatch (P < 0.05). Adverse effects of the transgenes and repressors continued for several treatments for the first 6 days after hatch, but only in a few treatments during the next 10 days. Repressors and gene expression impacted the yield of putative transgenic channel catfish fry, and need to be considered and accounted for in the hatchery phase of producing transgenically sterilized catfish fry and their fertile counterparts. This fry output

  3. MicroXRF tomographic visualization of zinc and iron in the zebrafish embryo at the onset of the hatching period

    SciTech Connect

    Bourassa, Daisy; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Vogt, Stefan; Shin, Chong Hyun; Fahrni, Christoph J.

    2016-01-01

    Transition metals such as zinc, copper, and iron play key roles in cellular proliferation, cell differentiation, growth, and development. Over the past decade, advances in synchrotron X-ray fluorescence instrumentation presented new opportunities for the three-dimensional mapping of trace metal distributions within intact specimens. Taking advantage of microXRF tomography, we visualized the 3D distribution of zinc and iron in a zebrafish embryo at the onset of the hatching period. The reconstructed volumetric data revealed distinct differences in the elemental distributions, with zinc predominantly localized to the yolk and yolk extension, and iron to various regions of the brain as well as the myotome extending along the dorsal side of the embryo. The data set complements an earlier tomographic study of an embryo at the pharyngula stage (24 hpf), thus offering new insights into the trace metal distribution at key stages of embryonic development.

  4. Effect of water hardness and dissolved-solid concentration on hatching success and egg size in bighead carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is an Asian species that has been introduced to the United States and is regarded as a highly undesirable invader. Soft water has been said to cause the bursting of Asian carp eggs and thus has been suggested as a factor that would limit the spread of this species. To evaluate this, we subjected fertilized eggs of bighead carp to waters with a wide range of hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations. Hatching rate and egg size were not significantly affected by the different water qualities. These results, combined with the low hardness (28–84 mg/L) of the Yangtze River (the primary natal habitat of Hypophthalmichthys spp.), suggest that managers and those performing risk assessments for the establishment of Hypophthalmichthys spp. should be cautious about treating low hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations as limiting factors.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of ZHE1, a hatching enzyme from the zebrafish Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Akitoshi; Nagata, Koji; Sano, Kaori; Yasumasu, Shigeki; Kubota, Keiko; Ohtsuka, Jun; Iuchi, Ichiro; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    The hatching enzyme of the zebrafish, ZHE1 (29.3 kDa), is a zinc metallo­protease that catalyzes digestion of the egg envelope (chorion). ZHE1 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. Two diffraction data sets with resolution ranges 50.0–1.80 and 50.0–1.14 Å were independently collected from two crystals and were merged to give a highly complete data set over the full resolution range 50.0–1.14 Å. The space group was assigned as primitive orthorhombic P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 32.9, b = 62.5, c = 87.4 Å. The crystal contained one ZHE1 molecule in the asymmetric unit. PMID:19851011

  6. Adult and hatch-year blackpoll warblers exhibit radically different regional-scale movements during post-fledging dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    Using a broad-scale automated telemetry array, we explored post-fledging movements of blackpoll warblers breeding in Atlantic Canada. We sought to determine the full spatial scale of post-fledging dispersal, to assess support for three hypotheses for regional-scale post-fledging movement, and to determine whether learning influenced movement during this period. We demonstrated that both young and adults moved over distances more than 200 km prior to initiating migration. Adults moved southwest, crossing the Gulf of Maine (GOM), consistent with the commencement of migration hypothesis. Hatch-year birds exhibited less directional movements constrained geographically by the GOM. Their movements were most consistent with exploration hypotheses—that young birds develop a regional-scale map to aid in habitat selection, natal dispersal and subsequent migrations. PMID:26631243

  7. Primary vascular access.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, C P

    2006-05-01

    Primary vascular access is usually achievable by a distal autogenous arterio-venous fistula (AVF). This article describes the approach to vascular access planning, the usual surgical options and the factors affecting patency.

  8. Intermittent thermal manipulations of broiler embryos during late incubation and their immediate effect on the embryonic development and hatching process.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, H; Li, Y; Willems, E; Franssens, L; Wang, Y; Decuypere, E; Everaert, N

    2011-06-01

    Intermittent high (+3°C) and low (-3°C) temperature treatments for 4 h on embryonic day (E) 16, E17, and E18 showed differential effects on embryonic metabolism, without influencing embryonic growth or hatchability. Embryos in the high-temperature group shifted to a more anaerobic metabolism, as indicated by a lower partial pressure of O(2) and a higher partial pressure of CO(2) in the air cell, lower blood pH, and higher lactic acid production. Three hours after the end of the high-temperature treatment, a decrease in metabolism was observed, as indicated by the lower partial pressure of CO(2) and higher partial pressure of O(2) in the air cell and increased plasma triglyceride levels. The embryos in the low-temperature group responded by temporarily slowing down their metabolism, especially the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, as indicated by altered air cell gases, a higher relative yolk weight, higher plasma triglyceride level, and higher liver glycogen level. Three hours after the end of the temperature treatment, the metabolism of embryos in the low-temperature treatment had increased to the level of the control temperature group. However, for both temperature treatments, during the hatching process, all the shortages and excesses created were restored to control levels, which would explain the lack of change in embryo growth and hatchability and the slight delay in the hatching process. These mild consequences of the intermittent temperature treatment indicate that the different metabolic shifts made by the embryos seem to be efficient in overcoming the challenges of the intermittent high- or low-temperature treatment during late incubation.

  9. Influence of post hatch dietary supplementation of fat on performance, carcass cuts and biochemical profile in Ven Cobb broiler

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Komal Prasad; Gendley, M. K.; Tiwari, S. P.; Sahu, Tarini; Naik, Surendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of post hatch dietary fat supplementation on performance of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 day-old Ven Cobb broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups of 30 chicks in each (three replicates of 10 birds/treatment). The trial lasted for 35 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Four types of diet were formulated for 1st week: T1, T2, T3 and T4 contained control diet with no added fat, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% fat, respectively. After 1st week post-hatch period chicks were fed ad libitum with the normal basal diet as per Bureau of Indian Standard recommendations till completion of the experiment (8-35 days). Results: Significantly higher (p<0.05) body weight and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) was recorded in birds fed 5% dietary fat at the end of the experiment whereas, feed intake was not significantly affected. Significantly (p<0.05) higher dressed weight was observed due to 5% fat supplementation than other groups whereas, it was not significant for other carcass cuts. No significant differences were observed in moisture, protein and lipid content of breast and thigh muscle of broiler due to supplemented fat whereas, 2.5% dietary fat significantly (p<0.05) increase the serum HI titer on day 28th. In biochemical profile, higher serum albumin (g/dl) was recorded due to 5% fat supplementation whereas other biochemical components did not show any significance difference among treatments. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of fat in broilers diet improves the overall FCR, dressing percentage and gain more body weight. PMID:27047070

  10. Thermal and maternal environments shape the value of early hatching in a natural population of a strongly cannibalistic freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Thilo; Bekkevold, Dorte; Pohlmeier, Stefan; Wolter, Christian; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Hatching early in the season is often assumed to elevate fitness, particularly in cannibalistic fish in which size-dependent predation mortality is a major selective force. While the importance of the thermal environment for the growth of fish is undisputed, the relevance of maternal effects for offspring growth in the wild is largely unknown. Otoliths of 366 age-0 pike (Esox lucius L.) were sampled in a natural lake over three seasons. All offspring were assigned to more than 330 potential mothers using 16 informative microsatellites. We found temperature and past maternal environment (as represented by juvenile growth rate), but not female total length, to jointly contribute to explain within- and among-season size variation in juvenile pike. While there was no statistical evidence for maternal effects on offspring growth rate, fast female juvenile growth positively correlated with the offspring length in early summer. One mechanism could be related to fast-growing females spawning somewhat earlier in the season. However, the more likely mechanism emerging in our study was that fast-growing females could have been in better condition prior to spawning, in turn possibly producing higher numbers of high-quality eggs. Our study is among the few to reveal carry-over effects related to past maternal environments on offspring performance in a naturally reproducing fish stock. At the same time, our study underscores recent arguments that size-dependent maternal effects may not be expressed in the wild and that early hatching does not generally produce size advantages in light of stochastically varying temperature conditions.

  11. Influence of mate preference and laying order on maternal allocation in a monogamous parrot species with extreme hatching asynchrony.

    PubMed

    Lahaye, Stefanie E P; Eens, Marcel; Iserbyt, Arne; Groothuis, Ton G G; de Vries, Bonnie; Müller, Wendt; Pinxten, Rianne

    2015-05-01

    It is well established that in many avian species, prenatal maternal resource allocation varies both between and within clutches and may affect offspring fitness. Differential allocation of maternal resources, in terms of egg weight and yolk composition, may therefore allow the female to adjust brood reduction and to fine-tune reproductive investment in accordance with the expected fitness returns. The adaptive value of such maternal resource allocation is thought to be context-dependent as well as species-specific. We investigated the effects of female preference for her mate on the allocation of prenatal maternal resources in the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus, a monogamous species of parrot that shows an extreme hatching asynchrony. We assessed mate preferences in a two-way preference test and allowed females two breeding rounds: one with the preferred and one with the non-preferred partner. We found no effect of preference on either latency to lay or clutch size, but females mated with the preferred partner laid eggs that contained significantly more yolk. Their eggs also contained significantly more androstenedione but not testosterone. Our results suggest that in this species, female preference may influence maternal resource allocation, and that the functional roles of each androgen in the yolk should be considered separately. In addition, we found a significant effect of laying order on egg and yolk weight as well as on yolk testosterone and androstenedione levels. These measures, however, did not change linearly with the laying order and render it unlikely that female budgerigars compensate for the extreme hatching asynchrony by adjusting within-clutch allocation of prenatal maternal resources.

  12. Seeding experiments demonstrate poor performance of the hatching test for detecting small numbers of Schistosoma mansoni eggs in feces.

    PubMed

    Borges, Dieli Souza; de Souza, Juliana Schilling; Romanzini, Juliano; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Parasitological methods for the evaluation of schistosomiasis tend to be limited when parasitic burdens are low, which is a major characteristic of low intensity transmission areas. While the hatching test (HT) method has been considered to be "very sensitive", reports of its capacity to detect low numbers of eggs remain scarce in the published literature. Our main hypothesis is that HT has limitations and cannot be recommended for diagnosing light infections or as a control of cure. Hence, this study aims to describe the performance of HT in detail, with respect to seeding experiments for egg numbers in the range of 4 to 24 eggs per gram (epg) of feces. Different numbers of eggs of Schistosoma mansoni were seeded in normal human feces. The first set of experiments evaluated the amount of feces (higher than 0.5 g prevented hatching), the proximity of the light source (50 cm was preferred), and the observation time required for the detection of miracidia (more than 3h did not add to sensitivity). HT was subsequently performed with 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, and 2 eggs in 0.5 g of feces. The final set of experiments was performed to analyze the initial filtration step, in which surgical gauze versus a 500 μm nylon mesh was compared and demonstrated losses of eggs that occurred with washing and gauze (better with nylon) sieving steps. The proposed method was found to produce 100% positivity for up to 12 epg, with a sharp decrease to 33% for 8 epg and less. In conclusion, HT is not recommended for diagnosing intestinal schistosomiasis in populations with light infections, considering the complexity of the procedure and its lack of effectiveness with fecal amounts higher than 0.5 g even at optimized conditions.

  13. Comparative evaluation of air cell and eggshell temperature measurement methodologies used in broiler hatching eggs during late incubation.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Zhai, W; Gerard, P D

    2012-07-01

    The current study was conducted to compare and contrast the uses of 2 devices (temperature transponder or infrared thermometer) and their locations (inner air cell membrane or outer eggshell surface) in Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs. The air cells of 14 embryonated and 10 nonembryonated eggs were implanted with temperature transponders on d 13.5 of incubation. Likewise, for these same eggs, eggshell surface temperature was detected with the use of transponders and an infrared thermometer. Temperatures were recorded every 12 h between 14.5 and 18 d of incubation, and graphs and corresponding regression values were used to track the temperatures over these time periods. The temperature readings using all methods in embryonated and nonembryonated eggs were positively correlated. In nonembryonated eggs, temperatures in the air cell and on the eggshell surface using transponders were higher than those on the eggshell surface using an infrared thermometer. Mean air cell temperature readings of embryonated eggs using transponders were higher than those of the eggshell, as determined with the use of transponders or an infrared thermometer. Furthermore, the differences in air cell temperature using transponders and eggshell temperature using an infrared thermometer in embryonated eggs increased with embryonic age. These readings confirmed increased embryo heat production during the incubational period examined. It was further concluded that when compared with actual embryo body temperatures determined in previous studies, the use of transponders in the air cells of broiler hatching eggs detected a higher and closer temperature than eggshell surface temperature. It is suggested that the air cell transponders in embryonated eggs circumvented the confounding effects of the thermal barrier properties of the eggshell and the flow of air across its surface.

  14. Effects of in ovo injection of organic trace minerals and post-hatch holding time on broiler performance and bone characteristics.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T F B; Bertechini, A G; Bricka, R M; Hester, P Y; Kim, E J; Gerard, P D; Peebles, E D

    2015-11-01

    Effects of the in ovo injection of organic Mn, Zn, and Cu in association with post-hatch (POH) feed and water restriction on the performance and physical-chemical bone parameters of male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were examined. On 17 d of incubation, a total of 1,872 eggs were subjected to in ovo injection using a commercial multi-egg injector. Treatments (TRT) includingd non-injected and diluent-injected controls. The respective Zn, Mn, and Cu levels (mg/mL) added to the diluent of the low (LMD) and high mineral (HMD) TRT groups were 0.181, 0.087, and 0.010, and 0.544, 0.260, and 0.030, respectively. The 4 TRT groups were then sub-divided into 2 POH holding time (HT) groups, with 15 birds randomly allocated to each of 6 replicate pens in each of the 8 groups. The first HT group (0HT) had immediate access to water and feed, and the second HT group (24HT) contained birds that were kept in transport baskets for 24 h before being released. Performance was determined and selected birds were subsequently necropsied and their tibiae extracted for analysis. In comparison to birds from 24HT group, those in the 0HT group had a higher BW gain and feed intake, and a lower FCR through 21 d POH. The percentage of bone ash of the birds belonging to the HMD group was higher than all other TRT on d 1 POH and was higher than the non-injection control group on d 21 POH. On d 1, the LMD and HMD groups had higher tibial Mn concentrations than those of the control groups. On d 7, bones from the HMD group had a higher concentration of Mn than did the non-injected control group, and likewise, on d 21 POH, had a higher concentration of Zn than did the control groups. In conclusion, a 24HT negatively affected the performance of the birds during the first 2 wk POH; however, the LMD and HMD TRT had a positive influence on bone mineralization.

  15. System Driven Workarounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda; Wichner, David; Jakey, Abegael Marie

    2013-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), participating carriers, and labor organizations. It is designed to improve the National Airspace System by collecting and studying reports detailing unsafe conditions and events in the aviation industry. Employees are able to report safety issues or concerns with confidentiality and without fear of discipline. Safety reports highlighting system driven workarounds for the aviation community highlight the human workaround for the complex aviation system.

  16. Electrostatically Driven Nanoballoon Actuator.

    PubMed

    Barzegar, Hamid Reza; Yan, Aiming; Coh, Sinisa; Gracia-Espino, Eduardo; Dunn, Gabriel; Wågberg, Thomas; Louie, Steven G; Cohen, Marvin L; Zettl, Alex

    2016-11-09

    We demonstrate an inflatable nanoballoon actuator based on geometrical transitions between the inflated (cylindrical) and collapsed (flattened) forms of a carbon nanotube. In situ transmission electron microscopy experiments employing a nanoelectromechanical manipulator show that a collapsed carbon nanotube can be reinflated by electrically charging the nanotube, thus realizing an electrostatically driven nanoballoon actuator. We find that the tube actuator can be reliably cycled with only modest control voltages (few volts) with no apparent wear or fatigue. A complementary theoretical analysis identifies critical parameters for nanotube nanoballoon actuation.

  17. Information-Driven Inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, Mark D; Whitaker, J Michael; Lockwood, Dunbar

    2010-01-01

    New uranium enrichment capacity is being built worldwide in response to perceived shortfalls in future supply. To meet increasing safeguards responsibilities with limited resources, the nonproliferation community is exploring next-generation concepts to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of safeguards, such as advanced technologies to enable unattended monitoring of nuclear material. These include attribute measurement technologies, data authentication tools, and transmission and security methods. However, there are several conceptual issues with how such data would be used to improve the ability of a safeguards inspectorate such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to reach better safeguards conclusions regarding the activities of a State. The IAEA is pursuing the implementation of information-driven safeguards, whereby all available sources of information are used to make the application of safeguards more effective and efficient. Data from continuous, unattended monitoring systems can be used to optimize on-site inspection scheduling and activities at declared facilities, resulting in fewer, better inspections. Such information-driven inspections are the logical evolution of inspection planning - making use of all available information to enhance scheduled and randomized inspections. Data collection and analysis approaches for unattended monitoring systems can be designed to protect sensitive information while enabling information-driven inspections. A number of such inspections within a predetermined range could reduce inspection frequency while providing an equal or greater level of deterrence against illicit activity, all while meeting operator and technology holder requirements and reducing inspector and operator burden. Three options for using unattended monitoring data to determine an information-driven inspection schedule are to (1) send all unattended monitoring data off-site, which will require advances in data analysis techniques to

  18. Breeder age affects small intestine development of broiler chicks with immediate or delayed access to feed.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, K Z; Edens, F W

    2012-01-01

    1. The relationship between breeder age and chick gastrointestinal tract development to 21 days of age, as influenced by immediate or delayed access to feed, was examined in three consecutive trials. 2. Ross 708 chicks, derived from breeder flocks at 31 (young), 40 (middle) and 63 (old) weeks of age were placed randomly into either a control group with immediate access to feed and water, or a 48 h feed delayed (FD) group with free access to water. 3. FD negatively affected body weight (BW) of chicks derived from young and old flocks through the first and second weeks of age, respectively. Chicks from the older flock absorbed more yolk in the first 48 h with no FD effect. When feed was made available, chicks from the FD group showed a large increase in small intestine weight relative to BW, surpassing (P < 0·05) the control groups across all breeder flock ages. 4. Morphological measurements in all intestinal sections had higher values in chicks derived from the middle age breeder flock. FD to newly hatched chicks from the young breeder flock shortened villi (P < 0·01), decreased crypt depth and villus surface area (P < 0·001) in the duodenum through the first week post hatch. 5. Crypt depths were maximised between 7 and 14 d post-hatch in chicks from young and old breeder flocks, but crypt depths in chicks from the middle aged flocks continued to deepen. 6. The increased crypt depth may augment the number of enterocytes available for villus growth, and facilitate longer villi and greater villus surface area, in chicks from the middle age flocks. Intestinal morphological variation was associated with breeder flock age, which accounted for differential growth in chicks derived from young, middle, and old aged breeder flocks.

  19. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  20. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…