Science.gov

Sample records for access high quality

  1. Inequality in Preschool Quality? Community-Level Disparities in Access to High-Quality Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Daphna; Galdo, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, unequal access to high-quality preschool has emerged as a growing public policy concern. Because of data limitations, it is notoriously difficult to measure disparities in access to early learning opportunities across communities and particularly challenging to quantify gaps in access to "high-quality" programs. Research…

  2. Access, Participation, and Supports: The Defining Features of High-Quality Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buysse, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes current knowledge about early childhood inclusion, summarizing research and the DEC/NAEYC joint position statement on inclusion. The article also describes effective or promising educational practices that promote access, participation, and supports--the defining features of high-quality inclusion. Future efforts to improve…

  3. Public library computer training for older adults to access high-quality Internet health information.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Bugg, Julie M

    2009-09-01

    An innovative experiment to develop and evaluate a public library computer training program to teach older adults to access and use high-quality Internet health information involved a productive collaboration among public libraries, the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and a Library and Information Science (LIS) academic program at a state university. One hundred and thirty-one older adults aged 54-89 participated in the study between September 2007 and July 2008. Key findings include: a) participants had overwhelmingly positive perceptions of the training program; b) after learning about two NIH websites (http://nihseniorhealth.gov and http://medlineplus.gov) from the training, many participants started using these online resources to find high quality health and medical information and, further, to guide their decision-making regarding a health- or medically-related matter; and c) computer anxiety significantly decreased (p < .001) while computer interest and efficacy significantly increased (p = .001 and p < .001, respectively) from pre- to post-training, suggesting statistically significant improvements in computer attitudes between pre- and post-training. The findings have implications for public libraries, LIS academic programs, and other organizations interested in providing similar programs in their communities.

  4. Cyberinfrastructure for Online Access to High-Quality Data: Advances and Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, C.

    2010-12-01

    Advanced cyberinfrastructure capabilities are enabling end-to-end management of data flows in observing system networks and online access to very large data archives. We provide an overview of several projects in earth and environmental sciences that have developed and deployed cyberinfrastructure for collecting and organizing field observations and remote sensing data, to make them available to a community of users. The data cyberinfrastructure framework should cover the range from data acquisition, quality control, data archiving, discovery, access, integration, and modeling. Using examples from different earth and environmental science cyberinfrastructure efforts, we will describe the state of the art in data cyberinfrastructure and future directions and challenges. The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network (http://teamnetwork.org), which is a network of forested sites—currently consisting of 15 sites, and growing—distributed across Central America, South America, Africa, and Asia. Each site implements a standardized set of data collection protocols, all under the control of a common cyberinfrastructure. The data are available via a portal from a central site, but with appropriate access controls. The TEAM Network is run by Conservation International, in partnership with the Wildlife Conservation Society, Smithsonian Institute, and the Missouri Botanical Gardens, and is funded by the Moore Foundation. The EarthScope Data Portal (portal.earthscope.org) implements a virtual metadata catalog and a data cart to provides a means for simultaneously exploring EarthScope's various instrument networks, as well as seamlessly downloading data from multiple stations and instrument types. The prototype of the US Geoinformatics Information Network (US GIN) project is implementing a federated catalog, using the Catalog Services for Web (CSW) standard. The NSF-funded Opentopography.org—a spinoff of the GEON project, www.geongrid.org—provides online

  5. FACILITATING ADVANCED URBAN METEOROLOGY AND AIR QUALITY MODELING CAPABILITIES WITH HIGH RESOLUTION URBAN DATABASE AND ACCESS PORTAL TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information of urban morphological features at high resolution is needed to properly model and characterize the meteorological and air quality fields in urban areas. We describe a new project called National Urban Database with Access Portal Tool, (NUDAPT) that addresses this nee...

  6. Does Access to High Quality Early Education Vary by State Policy Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Maia C.; Morris, Pamela A.; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that attending high quality, formal early childhood education (ECE) is associated with stronger cognitive and social-emotional skills, especially for low-income children. Yet at current funding levels, federally-funded programs like Head Start cannot serve all eligible children. Thus, state-level policies governing the…

  7. Structuring Opportunity after Entry: Who Has Access to High Quality Instruction during College?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roksa, Josipa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: When inequality of opportunity is discussed in higher education, it typically pertains to access to college. Ample research has examined sociodemographic inequalities in transition to higher education and enrollment in particular types of institutions. Although providing valuable insights, social stratification research does…

  8. Access to High Quality Early Care and Education: Readiness and Opportunity Gaps in America. CEELO Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nores, Milagros; Barnett, W. Steven

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of research establishes that high quality preschool education can enhance cognitive and social development with long-term benefits for later success in school, the economy, and society more broadly. Such programs have been found to have particularly large benefits for children who are economically disadvantaged. Such children…

  9. Testing the Digital Divide: Does Access to High-Quality Use of Technology in Schools Affect Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talley, Gregory Keith

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between access, use of technology and student achievement in public middle schools in Maryland. The objective of this study was to determine whether a digital divide (differences in access and utilization of technology based on student characteristics of race, socioeconomic status, and gender) exists among…

  10. Legislation should support optimal breastfeeding practices and access to low-cost, high-quality complementary foods: Indonesia provides a case study.

    PubMed

    Soekarjo, Damayanti; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2011-10-01

    It is important to support women to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months and continue breastfeeding for 24 months and beyond. It is also necessary to provide the poor with access to affordable ways to improve the quality of complementary foods. Currently, many countries do not have the legal and policy environment necessary to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Legislative and policy changes are also necessary for introducing complementary food supplements, allowing them to be marketed to those who need them, and ensuring that marketing remains appropriate and in full compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. This paper aims to illustrate the above with examples from Indonesia and to identify legislative requirements for supporting breastfeeding and enabling appropriate access to high-quality complementary food supplements for children 6-24 months of age. Requirements include improved information, training, monitoring and enforcement systems for the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes; implementation and monitoring of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative; establishment of a registration category for complementary food supplements to enhance availability of high-quality, low-cost fortified products to help improve young child feeding; clear identification and marketing of these products as complementary food supplements for 6-24-month-olds so as to promote proper use and not interfere with breastfeeding. PMID:21929639

  11. Creating a safe, high-quality healthcare system for all: meeting the needs of limited English proficient populations; Comment on "Patient safety and healthcare quality: the case for language access".

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Joseph R; Tan-McGrory, Aswita

    2014-02-01

    The article by Cheri Wilson, "Patient Safety and Healthcare Quality: The Case for Language Access", highlights the challenges of providing Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) to patients with Limited English Proficiency (LEP). As the US pursues high-value, high-performance healthcare, our ability to meet the needs of our most vulnerable will determine whether we succeed or fail in the long run. With the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), this is more important than ever before, as it is estimated that the newly insured are more likely to be minority and less likely to speak English than their currently insured counterparts. As such, we must create a safe, high-quality healthcare system for all, especially in this time of incredible healthcare transformation and unprecedented diversity. Improving Patient Safety Systems for Patients With Limited English Proficiency: A Guide for Hospitals provides a blueprint for achieving this goal, and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) is taking action. PMID:24639984

  12. Selecting the optimal geoid computational method based on tests done in regions with access to high quality GNSS/leveling data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, D.; Omang, O. C.; Lysaker, D. I.

    2008-12-01

    At the Norwegian Mapping and Cadastre Authority development of Height Reference Surface Models have been ongoing for more than a decade. Utilizing an iterative approach new models are generated by adjusting the previous model to GNSS/leveling data in areas where improvements are needed. The initial model used in the adjustment procedure is the currently best available geoid model. The derived models allow GNSS users to determine heights in the National Height System better than 2 cm for most parts of Noway. Comparison with GNSS/leveling data has showed the importance of having access to high quality GNSS/leveling data in order to validate the computed geoid models and to intercompare different geoid computation methods. These data will assist in deciding which method to use when computing new geoid models. This is of particular importance for areas where no adjustment data are available like marine areas. A reliable estimate of the mean dynamic topography from satellite altimetry requires a high precision geoid model.

  13. High School Student Information Access and Engineering Design Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Developing solutions to engineering design problems requires access to information. Research has shown that appropriately accessing and using information in the design process improves solution quality. This quasi-experimental study provides two groups of high school students with a design problem in a three hour design experience. One group has…

  14. The Impact Factor: Implications of Open Access on Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grozanick, Sara E.

    2010-01-01

    There has been debate about the extent to which open access affects the quality of scholarly work. At the same time, researchers have begun to look for ways to evaluate the quality of open access publications. Dating back to the growth of citation indexes during the 1960s and 1970s, citation analysis--examining citation statistics--has since been…

  15. [Treatment adherence, access and AIDS assistance quality in Brazil. ].

    PubMed

    Nemes, Maria Inês Batistella; Castanheira, Elen Rose Lodeiro; Helena, Ernani Tiaraju de Santa; Melchior, Regina; Caraciolo, Joselita Magalhães; Basso, Cáritas Relva; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E; Alencar, Tatianna Meireles Dantas de; Ferraz, Dulce Aurélia de Souza

    2009-01-01

    The patient adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a crucial matter to AIDS treatment effectiveness and its' impact. This article aims to discuss the association between adherence and quality of health service providing care to people living with AIDS (PLWA), highlighting quality of the services as a central point to adherence and access. It is based on results of our previous studies about the health care to PLWA in Brazil. Our studies point out that the groups of patients who are followed-up in health services providing care for less than 100 patients presented greater estimated risk of non-adherence than services following more than 500 patients. Also, smaller health services showed greater estimated risk to be ranged in the worst quality of services groups. This is related to the low complexity of smaller health care services, such as: lack of minimum human resources and material structures, poor organization on work process, medical-centered care and poor technical management. New studies in adherence and quality of services are needed. Nevertheless, the existent findings have already pointed out the need to review the current distribution of AIDS care services as well as to make the quality of services more homogenous thorough the country. These are high priorities in order to keep acceptable levels of adherence to HAART in Brazil.

  16. Joint Access Control Based on Access Ratio and Resource Utilization for High-Speed Railway Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuzhe; Ai, Bo

    2015-05-01

    The fast development of high-speed rails makes people's life more and more convenient. However, provisioning of quality of service of multimedia applications for users on the high-speed train is a critical task for wireless communications. Therefore, new solutions are desirable to be found to address this kind of problem. Current researches mainly focus on providing seamless broadband wireless access for high-speed mobile terminals. In this paper, an algorithm to calculate the optimal resource reservation fraction of handovers is proposed. A joint access control scheme for high-speed railway communication handover scenario is proposed. Metrics of access ratio and resource utilization ratio are considered jointly in the analysis and the performance evaluation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm and the scheme improve quality of service compared with other conventional schemes.

  17. Distance Education: Access, Quality, Cautions, and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Paul Jay

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the impact of widely distributed learning opportunities now accessible through distance education must take into account the re-imposition of values and motives long associated with traditional education. The expectations of new higher education consumers should be tempered by institutional acknowledgement of pre-existing value…

  18. Quality Improvement Strategies and Best Practices in Critical Access Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Michelle M.; Moscovice, Ira

    2004-01-01

    Critical access hospitals (CAHs) face many challenges in implementing quality improvement (QI) initiatives, which include limited resources, low volume of patients, small staffs, and inadequate information technology. A primary goal of the Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Program is to improve the quality of care provided by CAHs. This article…

  19. Century High School: Better Than Accessible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Century High School, Rochester, MN.

    A 6-minute videotape shows ways that one newly-built high school (Century High School, Rochester, MN) accommodates the needs of people with disabilities. Various building and room designs are detailed showing both poor and good design provisions. The accessibility and usefulness of the auditorium control room, emergency exits, elevators, science…

  20. Accessing Quality Online Health Information: What Is the Solution?

    PubMed

    Boyer, Célia

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the adult population in both Europe and North America have access to the internet. Over 70% state that they have used the internet to look for health information and the majority started their search at a search engine. Given that search engines list sites according to popularity and not quality, it is imperative that users have a means of discerning trustworthy and honest information from non-reliable health information. The HONcode, a set of eight quality guidelines, ensures access to standardized trustworthy health information which can be used as a tool to guide consumers. PMID:27332317

  1. Regulatory framework for access to safe, effective quality medicines.

    PubMed

    Rägo, Lembit; Sillo, Hiiti; 't Hoen, Ellen; Zweygarth, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Medicines of uncertain quality, safety and efficacy can be worse than no treatment at all. It is the responsibility of national medicines regulatory authorities to protect patients from harm. Yet, there are great disparities in regulatory capacity globally, preventing large populations from accessing the benefits of advances in the pharmaceutical field. This article describes the main regulatory functions and how they are applied to assure the quality, safety and efficacy of different types of medicines in different environments. It gives examples of initiatives that have increased access to good quality medicines worldwide and - more importantly - are laying the groundwork for collaborative approaches aiming to ensure that pharmaceutical products meet the same, stringent quality standards in all parts of the world. PMID:25310085

  2. A Quality of Context-Aware Approach to Access Control in Pervasive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toninelli, Alessandra; Corradi, Antonio; Montanari, Rebecca

    The widespread diffusion of wireless-enabled portable devices creates novel opportunities for users to share resources anywhere and anytime, but makes access control a crucial issue. User/device mobility and heterogeneity, together with network topology and conditions variability, complicate access control and call for novel solutions to dynamically adapt access decisions to the different operating conditions. Several research efforts have emerged in recent years that propose to exploit context-awareness to control access to resources based on context visibility and changes. Context-based access control requires, however, to take into account the quality of context information used to drive access decisions (QoC). Quality of context has in fact a profound impact on the correct behavior of any context-aware access control framework. Using context information with insufficient quality might increase the risk of incorrect access control decisions, thus leading to dangerous security breaches in resource sharing. In this paper we propose a QoC-aware approach to access control for anywhere, anytime resource sharing. The paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of the Proteus policy framework, which combines two design guidelines to enable dynamic adaptation of policies depending on context changes: context-awareness with QoC guarantees and semantic technologies to allow high-level description of context/policy specification and reasoning about context/policies.

  3. Faculty Work and the Cost/Quality/Access Collision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingle, James R.

    This report examines the issue of faculty workload within the context of rising educational costs and educational demand and its impact on quality and access. Research on the questions of how hard faculty work, what they do with that working time, and especially how much time is spent in the classroom is discussed. Faculty workload studies are…

  4. Information-Seeking in Family Day Care: Access, Quality and Personal Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corr, L.; Davis, E.; Cook, K.; Mackinnon, A.; Sims, M.; Herrman, H.

    2014-01-01

    Family day-care (FDC) educators work autonomously to provide care and education for children of mixed ages, backgrounds and abilities. To meet the demands and opportunities of their work and regulatory requirements, educators need access to context-relevant and high quality information. No previous research has examined how and where these workers…

  5. The Role of Boards in College Access Programs: Creating and Maintaining Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis, University of Southern California, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Access programs are facing increased scrutiny. Not all programs are equally effective. In an environment in which resources are short, funders increasingly require criteria that enable them to make informed decisions about program quality. As elaborated in this report , one role of a high performance board is to help develop benchmarks of…

  6. 38 CFR 17.508 - Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to quality...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Confidentiality of Healthcare Quality Assurance Review Records § 17.508 Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency. (a) Access...

  7. 38 CFR 17.508 - Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Access to quality...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Confidentiality of Healthcare Quality Assurance Review Records § 17.508 Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency. (a) Access...

  8. 38 CFR 17.508 - Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access to quality...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Confidentiality of Healthcare Quality Assurance Review Records § 17.508 Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency. (a) Access...

  9. 38 CFR 17.508 - Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Access to quality...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Confidentiality of Healthcare Quality Assurance Review Records § 17.508 Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency. (a) Access...

  10. 38 CFR 17.508 - Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Access to quality...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Confidentiality of Healthcare Quality Assurance Review Records § 17.508 Access to quality assurance records and documents within the agency. (a) Access...

  11. Recommendations for mass spectrometry data quality metrics for open access data (corollary to the Amsterdam Principles).

    PubMed

    Kinsinger, Christopher R; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H; Bradshaw, Ralph; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L; Omenn, Gilbert S; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L; Simpson, Richard J; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D; Stein, Stephen E; Tabb, David L; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R; Rodriguez, Henry

    2011-12-01

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the United States National Cancer Institute convened the "International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics" in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the research community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed up on two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: 1) an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and 2) standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in the Journal of Proteome Research, Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, Proteomics, and Proteomics Clinical Applications as a public service to the research community. The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals.

  12. Recommendations for mass spectrometry data quality metrics for open access data (corollary to the Amsterdam Principles).

    PubMed

    Kinsinger, Christopher R; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H; Bradshaw, Ralph; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L; Omenn, Gilbert S; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L; Simpson, Richard J; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D; Stein, Stephen E; Tabb, David L; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R; Rodriguez, Henry

    2012-02-01

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened the "International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics" in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the research community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed up on two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: (1) an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and (2) standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in the Journal of Proteome Research, Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, Proteomics, and Proteomics Clinical Applications as a public service to the research community. The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals.

  13. Recommendations for mass spectrometry data quality metrics for open access data (corollary to the Amsterdam principles).

    PubMed

    Kinsinger, Christopher R; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H; Bradshaw, Ralph; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L; Omenn, Gilbert S; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L; Simpson, Richard J; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D; Stein, Stephen E; Tabb, David L; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R; Rodriguez, Henry

    2011-12-01

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened the "International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics" in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the research community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed up on two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: (i) an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and (ii) standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in Proteomics, Proteomics Clinical Applications, Journal of Proteome Research, and Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, as a public service to the research community. The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals.

  14. Recommendations for mass spectrometry data quality metrics for open access data (corollary to the Amsterdam principles).

    PubMed

    Kinsinger, Christopher R; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H; Bradshaw, Ralph; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L; Omenn, Gilbert S; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L; Simpson, Richard J; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D; Stein, Stephen E; Tabb, David L; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R; Rodriguez, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened the "International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics" in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the research community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed upon two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: (i) an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and (ii) standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in Proteomics, Proteomics Clinical Applications, Journal of Proteome Research, and Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, as a public service to the research community. The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals.

  15. Recent Advances in Point-of-Access Water Quality Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Velusamy, V.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Clean water is one of our most valuable natural resources. In addition to providing safe drinking water it assures functional ecosystems that support fisheries and recreation. Human population growth and its associated increased demands on water pose risks to maintaining acceptable water quality. It is vital to assess source waters and the aquatic systems that receive inputs from industrial waste and sewage treatment plants, storm water systems, and runoff from urban and agricultural lands. Rapid and confident assessments of aquatic resources form the basis for sound environmental management. Current methods engaged in tracing the presence of various bacteria in water employ bulky laboratory equipment and are time consuming. Thus, real-time water quality monitoring is essential for National and International Health and Safety. Environmental water monitoring includes measurements of physical characteristics (e.g. pH, temperature, conductivity), chemical parameters (e.g. oxygen, alkalinity, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds), and abundance of certain biological taxa. Monitoring could also include assays of biological activity such as alkaline phosphatase, tests for toxins such as microcystins and direct measurements of pollutants such as heavy metals or hydrocarbons. Real time detection can significantly reduce the level of damage and also the cost to remedy the problem. This paper presents overview of state-of-the-art methods and devices used for point-of-access water quality monitoring and suggest further developments in this area.

  16. Ensuring High Quality Research Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Bob

    This paper discusses ensuring high quality research services that meet client needs, based on experiences at the Research and Information Services of the Ontario Legislative Library (Canada). The first section is an introduction that provides an overview of the Research and Information Services and summarizes factors related to quality control.…

  17. ARM User Survey Report: Data Access, Quality, and Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, JH; Roeder, LR; Sivaraman, C

    2012-06-28

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to determine how users of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Data Archive interact with the more than 2000 available types of datastreams. The survey also gathered information about data discovery and data quality. The Market and Competitive Analysis group at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory worked with web administrators to develop a landing page from which users could access the survey. A survey invitation was sent by ARM via email to about 6100 users on February 22, 2012. The invitation was also posted on the ARM website and Facebook page. Reminders were sent via e-mail and posted on Facebook while the survey was open, February 22-March 23, 2012.

  18. How To Promote Data Quality And Access? Publish It!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. J.; Pfeiffenberger, H.

    2011-12-01

    Started during IPY 2007-2008, the Earth System Science Data journal (Copernicus) has now 'tested the waters' of earth system data publishing for approximately 2 years with some success. The journal has published more than 30 data sets, of remarkable breadth and variety, all under a Creative Commons Attribution license. Users can now find well-described, quality-controlled and freely accessible data on soils, permafrost, sediment transport, ice sheets, surface radiation, ocean-atmosphere fluxes, ocean chemistry, gravity fields, and combined radar and web cam observations of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption plume. Several of the data sets derive specifically from IPY or from polar regions, but a large portion, including a substantial special issue on ocean carbon, cover broad temporal and geographic domains; the contributors themselves come from leading science institutions around the world. ESSD has attracted the particular interest of international research teams, particularly those who, as in the case of ocean carbon data, have spent many years gathering, collating and calibrating global data sets under long-term named programs, but who lack within those programs the mechanisms to distribute those data sets widely outside their specialist teams and to ensure proper citation credit for those remarkable collaborative data processing efforts. An in-progress special issue on global ocean plankton function types, again representing years of international data collaboration, provides a further example of ESSD utility to large research programs. We anticipate an interesting test case of parallel special issues with companion science journals - data sets in ESSD to accompany science publications in a prominent research journal. We see the ESSD practices and products as useful steps to increase quality of and access to important data sets.

  19. Increasing access to quality health care for the poor: Community perceptions on quality care in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kiguli, Julie; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Okui, Olico; Mutebi, Aloysius; Macgregor, Hayley; Pariyo, George William

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the community's perspectives and perceptions on quality of health care delivery in two Uganda districts. The paper addresses community concerns on service quality. It focuses on the poor because they are a vulnerable group and often bear a huge burden of disease. Community views were solicited and obtained using eight focus group discussions, six in-depth and 12 key informant interviews. User perceptions and definitions of the quality of health services depended on a number of variables related to technical competence, accessibility to services, interpersonal relations and presence of adequate drugs, supplies, staff, and facility amenities. Results indicate that service delivery to the poor in the general population is perceived to be of low quality. The factors that were mentioned as affecting the quality of services delivered were inadequate trained health workers, shortage of essential drugs, poor attitude of the health workers, and long distances to health facilities. This paper argues that there should be an improvement in the quality of health services with particular attention being paid to the poor. Despite wide focus on improvement of the existing infrastructure and donor funding, there is still low satisfaction with health services and poor perceived accessibility. PMID:19936148

  20. Wider Access to High-Tech World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaine, Chris

    2001-01-01

    The Southcote IT [Information Technology] Experience is an initiative in Reading, England, designed to widen access to learning opportunities and technology for all age groups. Free modular training courses, informal learning, and intense local marketing have proven to be effective practices. (SK)

  1. Open-access colonoscopy in Ontario: Associated factors and quality

    PubMed Central

    Hadlock, Shane; Rabeneck, Linda; Paszat, Lawrence F; Sutradhar, Rinku; Wilton, Andrew S; Tinmouth, Jill

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Open-access (OA) colonoscopy may increase efficiency and decrease wait times; however, because the patient is seen for the first time at the endoscopy appointment, previous processes, such as information about the procedure, preparation and appropriate triage, may be suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with OA colonoscopy and to determine the relationship between OA colonoscopy and an important quality measure, incomplete colonoscopy. METHODS: A population-based analysis of all adult outpatients undergoing a first-time colonoscopy between 1997 and 2007 in Ontario was performed. Colonoscopy was considered to be OA if there were no visits in the preceding five years with the physician performing the colonoscopy. Using logistic regression, patient, physician and institution factors associated with OA colonoscopy were identified. Using propensity score matching, the relationship between OA colonoscopy and incomplete colonoscopy in 2006 was examined. RESULTS: A total of 1,079,259 colonoscopies were performed. Of these, 14% were OA in 1997 compared with 26% in 2007. Patients 50 to 69 years of age, those from higher-income neighbourhoods and those with less comorbidity were more likely to undergo OA colonoscopy. The odds of receiving OA colonoscopy were six times greater in a nonhospital clinic compared with a community hospital. Colonoscopy was more likely to be complete if the procedure was OA (OR 1.3 [95% CI 1.2 to 1.4]; P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of OA colonoscopy have increased substantially since 1997. Institution type was most strongly associated with OA colonoscopy. Colonoscopy completeness, a recognized quality indicator, does not appear to be compromised by OA colonoscopy. PMID:23781517

  2. The Genome Sequence DataBase (GSDB): improving data quality and data access.

    PubMed Central

    Harger, C; Skupski, M; Bingham, J; Farmer, A; Hoisie, S; Hraber, P; Kiphart, D; Krakowski, L; McLeod, M; Schwertfeger, J; Seluja, G; Siepel, A; Singh, G; Stamper, D; Steadman, P; Thayer, N; Thompson, R; Wargo, P; Waugh, M; Zhuang, J J; Schad, P A

    1998-01-01

    In 1997 the primary focus of the Genome Sequence DataBase (GSDB; www. ncgr.org/gsdb ) located at the National Center for Genome Resources was to improve data quality and accessibility. Efforts to increase the quality of data within the database included two major projects; one to identify and remove all vector contamination from sequences in the database and one to create premier sequence sets (including both alignments and discontiguous sequences). Data accessibility was improved during the course of the last year in several ways. First, a graphical database sequence viewer was made available to researchers. Second, an update process was implemented for the web-based query tool, Maestro. Third, a web-based tool, Excerpt, was developed to retrieve selected regions of any sequence in the database. And lastly, a GSDB flatfile that contains annotation unique to GSDB (e.g., sequence analysis and alignment data) was developed. Additionally, the GSDB web site provides a tool for the detection of matrix attachment regions (MARs), which can be used to identify regions of high coding potential. The ultimate goal of this work is to make GSDB a more useful resource for genomic comparison studies and gene level studies by improving data quality and by providing data access capabilities that are consistent with the needs of both types of studies. PMID:9399793

  3. Managing Both Quality and Access at Higher Educational Institutions in Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julien Sealey, Beverley

    2011-01-01

    This paper will focus on the island of Tobago and indicate what practical solutions are best suited for administrators to manage quality and access at higher educational institutions on the island. The key areas to managing quality identified are the inclusiveness of a quality plan, administrators desire to see quality as an institutional culture…

  4. [Accession to the PIC/S and pharmaceutical quality system in Japan].

    PubMed

    Katori, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    In March, 2012, Japan made the application for membership of the Pharmaceutical Inspection convention and Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation scheme (PIC/S) which is an international body of a GMP inspection. The globalization of pharmaceutical manufacturing and sales has been a driving force behind the decision to become a PIC/S member. For the application for membership, Japan's GMP inspectorate needs to fulfill PIC/S requirements, for example, the inspection organization has to have a quality system as a global standard. One of the other requirements is that the GMP inspectorate can access Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCL) having high analytical skills and also have a quality system based on ISO 17025. I would like to describe the process to make up a quality system in the National Institute of Health Sciences and also the circumstances around the PIC/S application in Japan.

  5. [Accession to the PIC/S and pharmaceutical quality system in Japan].

    PubMed

    Katori, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    In March, 2012, Japan made the application for membership of the Pharmaceutical Inspection convention and Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation scheme (PIC/S) which is an international body of a GMP inspection. The globalization of pharmaceutical manufacturing and sales has been a driving force behind the decision to become a PIC/S member. For the application for membership, Japan's GMP inspectorate needs to fulfill PIC/S requirements, for example, the inspection organization has to have a quality system as a global standard. One of the other requirements is that the GMP inspectorate can access Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCL) having high analytical skills and also have a quality system based on ISO 17025. I would like to describe the process to make up a quality system in the National Institute of Health Sciences and also the circumstances around the PIC/S application in Japan. PMID:25707200

  6. Improving application of data quality information in accessing and using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, E. M.; Huang, T.; Xing, Z.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Chin, T. M.; Alarcon, C.

    2014-12-01

    A recurring demand in working with satellite-based earth science data records is the need to apply data quality information. Such quality information is often contained within the data files as an array of "flags", but can also be represented by more complex quality descriptions such as combinations of bit flags, or even other ancillary variables indicating thresholds to be applied to the geophysical variable of interest. For example, with Level 2 granules from the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) project up to 6 independent variables can be used to screen the sea surface temperature measurements on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Quality screening of Level 3 data from the upcoming Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) instrument can be become even more complex, involving 26 unique bit states or conditions a user can screen for. The application of quality information is often a laborious process until the user understands the implications of all the flags and bit conditions, and requires iterative approaches using custom software. In addition, most visualization packages do not understand how to apply quality information. The Virtual Quality Screening Service, a recently funded 2013 NASA ACCESS project, aims to address these issues and concerns. The project will develop an infrastructure to expose, apply, and extract quality screening information, building off known and proven NASA components for data extraction and subset-by-value, implementations of Map Reduce workflows, data discovery, ontologies and exposure to the user of granule-based quality information. Further sharing of results through well defined URLs and visualization capabilities will also be described. The presentation will focus on overall description of the technologies and informatics principals employed by the project, and recent results and infrastructure status. Examples of implementations of the end-to-end web service for quality screening with GHRSST and SMAP granules will be

  7. The Water Quality Portal: a single point of access for water quality data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreft, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) overseen by the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC). It was launched in April of 2012 as a single point of access for discrete water quality samples stored in the USGS NWIS and EPA STORET systems. Since launch thousands of users have visited the Water Quality Portal to download billions of results that are pertinent to their interests. Numerous tools have also been developed that use WQP web services as a source of data for further analysis. Since the launch of the Portal, the WQP development team at the USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics has worked with USGS and EPA stakeholders as well as the wider user community to add significant new features to the WQP. WQP users can now directly plot sites of interest on a web map based on any of the 164 WQP query parameters, and then download data of interest directly from that map. In addition, the WQP has expanded beyond just serving out NWIS and STORET data, and provides data from the US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service STEWARDS system, the USGS BioData system and is working with others to bring in additional data. Finally, the WQP is linked to another NWQMC-supported project, the National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), so WQP users can easily find the method behind the data that they are using. Future work is focused on incorporating additional biological data from the USGS BioData system, broadening the scope of discrete water quality sample types from STORET, and developing approaches to make the data in the WQP more visible and usable. The WQP team is also exploring ways to further integrate with other systems, such as those operated the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and other federal agencies to facilitate the overarching goal of improving access to water quality data for all users.

  8. High-speed random access laser tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.C.; Busch, G.E.; Hewitt, C.J.; Remelius, D.K.; Shimada, T.; Strauss, C.E.; Wilson, C.W.; Zaugg, T.J.

    1999-04-01

    We have developed a technique for laser tuning at rates of 100 kHz or more using a pair of acousto-optic modulators. In addition to all-electronic wavelength control, the same modulators also can provide electronically variable {ital Q}-switching, cavity length and power stabilization, chirp and linewidth control, and variable output coupling, all at rates far beyond what is possible with conventional mechanically tuned components. Tuning rates of 70 kHz have been demonstrated on a radio-frequency-pumped CO{sub 2} laser, with random access to over 50 laser lines spanning a 17{percent} range in wavelength and with wavelength discrimination better than 1 part in 1000. A compact tuner and {ital Q}-switch has been deployed in a 5{endash}10-kHz pulsed lidar system. The modulators each operate at a fixed Bragg angle, with the acoustic frequency determining the selected wavelength. This arrangement doubles the wavelength resolution without introducing an undesirable frequency shift. {copyright} 1999 Optical Society of America

  9. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, Clifford B.

    1993-01-01

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  10. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  11. Achieving sustainability, quality and access: lessons from the world's largest revolving drug fund in Khartoum.

    PubMed

    Witter, S

    2007-01-01

    Ensuring a reliable and affordable supply of essential drugs to health facilities is one of the main challenges facing developing countries. This paper describes the revolving drug fund in Khartoum, which was set up in 1989 to improve access to high quality drugs across the State. An evaluation in 2004 showed that the fund has successfully managed a number of threats to its financial sustainability and has expanded its network of facilities, its range of products and its financial assets. It now supplies essential drugs to 3 million out of the 5 million population of Khartoum each year, at prices between 40% and 100% less than alternative sources. However, results illustrated the tension between achieving an efficient cost-recovery system and access for the poorest.

  12. Dilemma of Access and Provision of Quality Basic Education in Central Region, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amakyi, Michael; Ampah-Mensah, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    A survey research was conducted to find out if reported improvements in access to education in Ghana are reflected in comparable improvements in delivery of quality education. The study examined theoretical constructs on adequacy and quality assurance in education to ascertain the state of quality provision in education, and whether there is a…

  13. Quality Matters[TM] Accessibility Survey: Institutional Practices and Policies for Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Barbara A.; King, Denise K.

    2011-01-01

    Quality Matters (QM) is a professional organization that offers a faculty-centered, peer review process to certify the quality of online and blended courses. The purpose of this white paper is to share the results of a Quality Matters accessibility benchmarking study administered to 84 subscriber institutions. The primary goal of the survey was to…

  14. Transportation Accessibility and Quality of Life for the Urban Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belnap, Judith A.

    The barriers to physical mobility of the elderly are explained in this study which concentrated on spatial-temporal accessibility, and the use of mass transit to urban services and resources. The first area of concern dealt with the amount and extent of free time available to the elderly who are perceived as having large blocks of descretionary…

  15. Matching Students to Opportunity: Expanding College Choice, Access, and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P., Ed.; Howell, Jessica S., Ed.; Sattin-Bajaj, Carolyn, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    "Matching Students to Opportunity" expands on the discussion of a critical issue in college access and success: the match between prospective students and the colleges in which they enroll. Research indicates that ensuring a good match significantly increases a student's chance of graduating. The contributors to this volume argue that…

  16. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended. PMID:25307764

  17. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  18. Canadian experiences in telehealth: equalizing access to quality care.

    PubMed

    Jennett, P A; Person, V L; Watson, M; Watanabe, M

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Conference "TExpo'98: Interactive Health" focused on four telehealth themes: community needs, Canadian experiences, industry perspectives, and access/security/interoperability issues. Health and socioeconomic needs have been the driving force behind telehealth initiatives; telelearning is one of the major Canadian initiatives. To encourage Canadian telehealth initiatives, the federal government is building a national health infrastructure. One element in this framework is concerned with empowering the public, strengthening health care services, and ensuring accountability. Technological advancements and innovative partnerships among health communities, government, users, professional bodies, and industry are critical to continued growth. Key issues including access, evaluation, implementation, privacy, confidentiality, security, and interoperability are of universal concern to participants. Research that examines the benefits and costs of telehealth is needed.

  19. Recommendations for mass spectrometry data quality metrics for open access data(corollary to the Amsterdam principles)

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsinger, Christopher R.; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark S.; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H.; Bradshaw, Ralph A.; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W.; Deutsch, Eric W.; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William S.; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L.; Simpson, Richard J.; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D.; Stein, Stephen E.; Tabb, David L.; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R.; Rodriguez, Henry

    2011-12-01

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened the 'International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics' in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the search community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed upon two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: (i)an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and (ii)standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in Proteomics, Proteomics Clinical Applications, Journal of Proteome Research, and Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, as a public service to the research community.The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals.

  20. Variation in cooking and eating quality traits in Japanese rice germplasm accessions.

    PubMed

    Hori, Kiyosumi; Suzuki, Keitaro; Iijima, Ken; Ebana, Kaworu

    2016-03-01

    The eating quality of cooked rice is important and determines its market price and consumer acceptance. To comprehensively describe the variation of eating quality in 183 rice germplasm accessions, we evaluated 33 eating-quality traits including amylose and protein contents, pasting properties of rice flour, and texture of cooked rice grains. All eating-quality traits varied widely in the germplasm accessions. Principal-components analysis (PCA) revealed that allelic differences in the Wx gene explained the largest proportion of phenotypic variation of the eating-quality traits. In 146 accessions of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice, PCA revealed that protein content and surface texture of the cooked rice grains significantly explained phenotypic variations of the eating-quality traits. An allelic difference based on simple sequence repeats, which was located near a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3, was associated with differences in the eating quality of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice. These results suggest that eating quality is controlled by genetic factors, including the Wx gene and the QTL on chromosome 3, in Japanese rice accessions. These genetic factors have been consciously selected for eating quality during rice breeding programs in Japan. PMID:27162502

  1. Variation in cooking and eating quality traits in Japanese rice germplasm accessions

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Kiyosumi; Suzuki, Keitaro; Iijima, Ken; Ebana, Kaworu

    2016-01-01

    The eating quality of cooked rice is important and determines its market price and consumer acceptance. To comprehensively describe the variation of eating quality in 183 rice germplasm accessions, we evaluated 33 eating-quality traits including amylose and protein contents, pasting properties of rice flour, and texture of cooked rice grains. All eating-quality traits varied widely in the germplasm accessions. Principal-components analysis (PCA) revealed that allelic differences in the Wx gene explained the largest proportion of phenotypic variation of the eating-quality traits. In 146 accessions of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice, PCA revealed that protein content and surface texture of the cooked rice grains significantly explained phenotypic variations of the eating-quality traits. An allelic difference based on simple sequence repeats, which was located near a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3, was associated with differences in the eating quality of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice. These results suggest that eating quality is controlled by genetic factors, including the Wx gene and the QTL on chromosome 3, in Japanese rice accessions. These genetic factors have been consciously selected for eating quality during rice breeding programs in Japan. PMID:27162502

  2. Access and Barriers to Immunization in West Bengal, India: Quality Matters

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arijita

    2013-01-01

    While many studies attempted to evaluate performance of immunization programmes in developing countries by full coverage, there is a growing awareness about the limitations of such evaluation, irrespective of the overall quality of performance. Availability of human resources, equipment, supporting drugs, and training of personnel are considered to be crucial indicators of the quality of immunization programme. Also, maintenance of time schedule has been considered crucial in the context of the quality of immunization. In addition to overall coverage of vaccination, the coverage of immunization given at right time (month-specific) is to be considered with utmost importance. In this paper, District Level Household and Facility Survey-3 (DLHS-3) 2007-2008 data have been used in exploring the quality of immunization in terms of month-specific vaccine coverage and barriers to access inWest Bengal, India. In West Bengal, the month-specific coverage stands badly below 20% but the simple non-month-specific coverage is as high as 75%. Among the demand-side factors, birthplace of the child and religion of the household heads came out as significant predictors while, from the supply-side, availability of male health workers and equipment at the subcentres, were the important determinants for month-specific vaccine coverage. Hence, there should be a vigorous attempt to make more focused planning, keeping in mind the nature of the barriers, for improvement of the month-specific coverage in West Bengal. PMID:24592593

  3. The Advantages of ISDN for High-Speed Remote Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Mark; Hauf, Al

    1997-01-01

    Explains why ISDN (integrated services digital network) is the most practical solution for high-speed remote access, including reliability, cost, flexibility, scaleability, standards, and manageability. Other data transmission options are discussed, including asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL), high-speed digital subscriber lines (HDSL),…

  4. Hearing Parents' and Carers' Voices: Experiences of Accessing Quality Long Day Care in Northern Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Nonie; Tinning, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores parents' and carers' experiences of accessing quality long day care in northern regional Australia. The data was gathered in 2009, after the collapse of ABC Developmental Learning Centres (herein referred to as ABC Learning) and before the implementation of the "National Quality Framework," and provides a snapshot of…

  5. Overcoming Exclusion through Quality Schooling. Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 65

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govinda, R.; Bandyopadhyay, Madhumita

    2011-01-01

    In the era of globalisation, provision of quality education is increasingly gaining importance across the world. Like elsewhere, it has already been realised in India that equal attention is needed simultaneously on access, equity and quality to achieve the goal of universalisation of elementary education. It has also been experienced that…

  6. Ready, Set, Grow: Illinois Preschool. A Framework for Universal Access to Quality Preschool in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Margie

    The Illinois Governor's Task Force on Universal Access to Preschool is part of a broad-based effort to increase the quality of life for all children in Illinois. This report presents the action plan developed by this task force and calls for the creation of Illinois Preschool, a program giving all Illinois families quality preschool options for 3-…

  7. Does Accelerating Access to Higher Education Lower Its Quality? The Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitman, Tim; Koshy, Paul; Phillimore, John

    2015-01-01

    In the pursuit of mass higher education, fears are often expressed that the quality of higher education suffers as access is increased. This quantitative study considers three proxies of educational quality: (1) prior academic achievement of the student, (2) attrition and retention rates and (3) progression rates, to establish whether educational…

  8. Access to orphan drugs despite poor quality of clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Alain G; Van Wilder, Philippe B

    2011-01-01

    AIM We analysed the Belgian reimbursement decisions of orphan drugs as compared with those of innovative drugs for more common but equally severe diseases, with special emphasis on the quality of clinical evidence. METHODS Using the National Health Insurance Agency administrative database, we evaluated all submitted orphan drug files between 2002 and 2007. A quality analysis of the clinical evidence in the orphan reimbursement files was performed. The evaluation reports of the French ‘Haute Autorité de Santé’, including the five-point scale parameter ‘Service Médical Rendu (SMR), were examined to compare disease severity. Chi-squared tests (at P < 0.05 significance level) were used to compare the outcome of the reimbursement decisions between orphan and non-orphan innovative medicines. RESULTS Twenty-five files of orphan drugs and 117 files of non-orphan drugs were evaluated. Twenty-two of 25 (88%) submissions of orphan drugs were granted reimbursement as opposed to 74 of the 117 (63%) non-orphan innovative medicines (P = 0.02). Only 52% of the 25 orphan drug files included a randomized controlled trial as opposed to 84% in a random control sample of 25 non-orphan innovative submissions (P < 0.01). The duration of drug exposure was in most cases far too short in relation to the natural history of the disease. CONCLUSIONS Orphan drug designation predicts reimbursement despite poor quality of clinical evidence. The evidence gap at market authorization should be reduced by post-marketing programmes, in which the centralized regulatory and the local reimbursement authorities collaborate in an efficient way across the European Union member states. PMID:21395641

  9. Potential access to primary health care: what does the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement data show?

    PubMed Central

    Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Fronteira, Inês Santos Estevinho; Coêlho, Ardigleusa Alves; Martiniano, Claudia Santos; Brandão, Isabel Cristina Araújo; Yamamura, Mellina; Maroto, Renata Melo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the influence of contextual indicators on the performance of municipalities regarding potential access to primary health care in Brazil and to discuss the contribution from nurses working on this access. Method: a multicenter descriptive study based on secondary data from External Evaluation of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, with the participation of 17,202 primary care teams. The chi-square test of proportions was used to verify differences between the municipalities stratified based on size of the coverage area, supply, coordination, and integration; when necessary, the chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher's exact test were employed. For the population variable, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. Results: the majority of participants were nurses (n=15.876; 92,3%). Statistically significant differences were observed between the municipalities in terms of territory (p=0.0000), availability (p=0.0000), coordination of care (p=0.0000), integration (p=0.0000) and supply (p=0.0000), verifying that the municipalities that make up area 6 tend to have better performance in these dimensions. Conclusion: areas 4,5 and 6 performed better in every analyzed dimension, and the nurse had a leading role in the potential to access primary health care in Brazil. PMID:26959332

  10. High Drama Marks Hearing over Free Access to Published Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A life-and-death battle is going on over public access to federally financed research--life for taxpayers and many scientists, and death for publishers. Or so each side claims. That battle, whose outcome will affect many university researchers, kicked into high gear on Capitol Hill on September 11, as the combatants debated the merits of a bill…

  11. High speed OFDM-CDMA optical access network.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Wang, Q; Zhou, L; Fang, L; Wonfor, A; Penty, R V; White, I H

    2016-04-15

    We demonstrate the feasibility of a 16 × 3.75 Gb/s (60 Gb/s aggregate) Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-code division multiple access passive optical network for next-generation access applications. 3.75 Gb/s PON channel transmission over 25 km single-mode fiber shows 0.1 dB dispersion and 0.9 dB crosstalk penalties. Advantages of the system include high capacity, enhanced spectral efficiency, coding gain, and networking functions such as increased security and single-wavelength operation.

  12. Inequities in Physics Access and Enrollment in Urban High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2008-10-01

    Despite reports to the contrary, the availability of physics as a course for secondary students is not equitably distributed throughout the U.S. While some schools provide physics access for all, a more common scenario is limited availability to select students. This is particularly true in urban districts, where this study examined access to and availability of high school physics. New York City's secondary schools were surveyed to determine where physics was offered and how many students were enrolled. Statistics were performed to compare differences between physics and non-physics schools. Additionally, organizational factors were examined that relate to physics availability, such as the magnet school configuration, the AP Physics and conceptual physics options, and science curricular sequence. Overall, it was determined that physics availability is limited in NYC schools, a serious inequity that disproportionately affects students of color and poor children. Strategies for improving access and enrollment will be discussed.

  13. Why do we observe a limited impact of primary care access measures on clinical quality indicators?

    PubMed

    Chung, Sukyung; Panattoni, Laura; Hung, Dorothy; Johns, Nicole; Trujillo, Laurel; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the effects of enhanced primary care access and continuity on clinical quality in a large, multipayer, multispecialty ambulatory care organization with fee-for-service provider incentives. The difference-in-differences estimates indicate that access to own primary care physician is a statistically significant predictor of improved clinical quality, although the effect size is small such that clinical significance may be negligible. Reduced time for own primary care physician appointment and increased enrollment in electronic personal health record are positive predictors of chronic disease management processes and preventive screening but are inconsistently associated with clinical outcomes. Challenges in identifying relationships between access and quality outcomes in a real-world setting are also discussed. PMID:24594563

  14. Access to high cost medicines in Australia: ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lu, Christine Y; Macneill, Paul; Williams, Ken; Day, Ric

    2008-05-19

    Access to "high cost medicines" through Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) is tightly regulated. It is inherently difficult to apply any criteria-based system of control in a way that provides a fair balance between efficient use of limited resources for community needs and equitable individual access to care. We suggest, in relation to very high cost medicines, that the present arrangements be re-considered in order to overcome potential inequities. The biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis are used as an example by which to discuss the ethical issues associated with the current scheme. Consideration of ethical aspects of the PBS and similar programs is important in order to achieve the fairest outcomes for individual patients, as well as for the community.

  15. Improving the Quality of and Access to HIV Rapid Testing in the Caribbean Region: Program Implementation, Outcomes, and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Alemnji, George; Guevara, Giselle; Parris, Keith; Kalou, Mireille; Behel, Stephanie; Parekh, Bharat; Nkengasong, John; Albalak, Rachel

    2016-09-01

    In 2008, HIV rapid testing (HIV RT) was only minimally used in the Caribbean region. Collaboration with countries and international partners since then has resulted in greater availability and use of HIV RT services. Surveys were conducted in 2012 and 2014 among 11 selected Caribbean countries to inform stakeholders of progress made since 2008 and to identify strategies to further improve access and uptake of high-quality HIV RT in community- and facility-based settings in support of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. Key accomplishments during this period include (1) presence of in-country national HIV RT algorithms, (2) use of the dried tube specimen (DTS) as an external quality assessment (EQA) program, (3) use of standardized logbooks for data collection and monitoring, and (4) use of oral fluid for HIV RT, particularly for key population surveys. Although progress has been made since 2008 to increase access and improve the quality of HIV RT among countries in the Caribbean, some work remains to be done. This includes the development of new policies and implementation of existing ones, task shifting, quality and access to testing, testing strategies, and integration of HIV RT into HIV Testing Services.

  16. High speed infrared optical wireless for home access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Dominic C.

    2013-12-01

    The availability of high-bandwidth internet connections to home gateways will place increasing demands on the home access network that provides connections to computers and other devices. In this paper the use of infrared optical wireless to provide connections to user appliances and terminals is discussed. The design and implementation of two demonstration systems operating at hundreds of Mbit/s and above are detailed. Future challenges are also discussed.

  17. Excellence through High-Quality Individualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Richard W.; Klingstedt, Joe Lars

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a strategy employing challenge, functionalism, high-order learning, and originality to achieve high-quality individualization in course work. Asserts that individualized instruction better prepares students to solve problems, make decisions, and produce original ideas. (MM)

  18. Educational Access Is Educational Quality: Indigenous Parents' Perceptions of Schooling in Rural Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishihara-Brito, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings and implications of a qualitative study conducted in Guatemala, which focused on rural, indigenous parents' perceptions of their children's schooling and educational quality. For these parents, the simple fact that their children had improved access to school signifies a satisfactory educational…

  19. A Correlational Analysis: Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Quality of Care in Critical Access Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Arshia A.

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the compulsion to improve the evident paucity in quality of care, especially in critical access hospitals in the United States, policy makers, healthcare providers, and administrators have taken the advise of researchers suggesting the integration of technology in healthcare. The Electronic Health Record (EHR) System composed of multiple…

  20. Improving Access to Needed Health Care Improves Low-Income Children's Quality of Life: Research Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seid, Michael. Varni, James W.; Cummings, Leslie; Schonlau, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    This research brief describes an examination of the effect of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) on children's access to needed health services and on their quality of life. The analysis focused on a sample of California families who had recently enrolled in that state's SCHIP. The study found that, after enrollment, children…

  1. Ensuring Access with Quality to California's Community Colleges. National Center Report #04-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Gerald C.; Jones, Dennis P.; McGuinness, Aims C., Jr.; Timar, Allene

    2004-01-01

    This report finds that enrollment growth pressures, fee increases, and recent budget cuts in the California Community Colleges are having significant detrimental effects on student access and program quality. The report also provides recommendations for creating improvements that build from the state policy context and from existing promising…

  2. DELIVERING TIMELY WATER QUALITY INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY. THE LAKE ACCESS-MINNEAPOLIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a summary of the near-real-time water quality-monitoring project conducted by a consortium of interested parties in the greater Minneapolis area. It was funded by an EPA program known as EMPACT (Environmental Monitoring, Public Access, and Community Tracking). In 1...

  3. High Access and Low Use of Technologies in High School Classrooms: Explaining an Apparent Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Larry; Kirkpatrick, Heather; Peck, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Examined assumptions about access to technology and use by teachers in two high schools in California's Silicon Valley. Observations and interviews with 21 teachers and 26 students show that access to equipment and software seldom led to widespread teacher use and student use. When teachers did use technology, they were likely to sustain, rather…

  4. Interactive effects of carbon footprint information and its accessibility on value and subjective qualities of food products.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Kamada, Akiko; Masuda, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Masako; Goto, Sho-ichi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Cai, Dongsheng; Oka, Takashi; Dan, Ippeita

    2010-10-01

    We aimed to explore the interactive effects of the accessibility of information and the degree of carbon footprint score on consumers' value judgments of food products. Participants (n=151, undergraduate students in Japan) rated their maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for four food products varying in information accessibility (active-search or read-only conditions) and in carbon footprint values (low, middle, high, or non-display) provided. We also assessed further effects of information accessibly and carbon footprint value on other product attributes utilizing the subjective estimation of taste, quality, healthiness, and environmental friendliness. Results of the experiment demonstrated an interactive effect of information accessibility and the degree of carbon emission on consumer valuation of carbon footprint-labeled food. The carbon footprint value had a stronger impact on participants' WTP in the active-search condition than in the read-only condition. Similar to WTP, the results of the subjective ratings for product qualities also exhibited an interactive effect of the two factors on the rating of environmental friendliness for products. These results imply that the perceived environmental friendliness inferable from a carbon footprint label contributes to creating value for a food product.

  5. The impact of cattle access on ecological water quality in streams: Examples from agricultural catchments within Ireland.

    PubMed

    Conroy, E; Turner, J N; Rymszewicz, A; O'Sullivan, J J; Bruen, M; Lawler, D; Lally, H; Kelly-Quinn, M

    2016-03-15

    Unrestricted cattle access to rivers and streams represent a potentially significant localised pressure on freshwater systems. However there is no consensus in the literature on the occurrence and extent of impact and limited research has examined the effects on aquatic biota in the humid temperate environment examined in the present study. Furthermore, this is one of the first times that research consider the potential for cattle access impacts in streams of varying water quality in Northern Europe. We investigated the effects of cattle access on macroinvertebrate communities and deposited fine sediment levels, in four rivers of high/good and four rivers of moderate water quality status which drain, low gradient, calcareous grassland catchments in Ireland. We assessed the temporal variability in macroinvertebrates communities across two seasons, spring and autumn. Site specific impacts were evident which appeared to be influenced by water quality status and season. All four high/good water status rivers revealed significant downstream changes in community structure and at least two univariate metrics (total richness and EPT richness together with taxon, E and EPT abundance). Two of the four moderate water status rivers showed significant changes in community structure, abundance and richness metrics and functional feeding groups driven in the main by downstream increases in collectors/gatherers, shredders and burrowing taxa. These two moderate water status rivers had high or prolonged livestock activity. In view of these findings, the potential for some of these sites to achieve at least high/good water quality status, as set out in the EU Water Framework Directive, may be compromised. The results presented highlight the need for additional research to further define the site specific factors and livestock management practices, under different discharge conditions, that increase the risk of impact on aquatic ecology due to these cattle-river interactions.

  6. The impact of cattle access on ecological water quality in streams: Examples from agricultural catchments within Ireland.

    PubMed

    Conroy, E; Turner, J N; Rymszewicz, A; O'Sullivan, J J; Bruen, M; Lawler, D; Lally, H; Kelly-Quinn, M

    2016-03-15

    Unrestricted cattle access to rivers and streams represent a potentially significant localised pressure on freshwater systems. However there is no consensus in the literature on the occurrence and extent of impact and limited research has examined the effects on aquatic biota in the humid temperate environment examined in the present study. Furthermore, this is one of the first times that research consider the potential for cattle access impacts in streams of varying water quality in Northern Europe. We investigated the effects of cattle access on macroinvertebrate communities and deposited fine sediment levels, in four rivers of high/good and four rivers of moderate water quality status which drain, low gradient, calcareous grassland catchments in Ireland. We assessed the temporal variability in macroinvertebrates communities across two seasons, spring and autumn. Site specific impacts were evident which appeared to be influenced by water quality status and season. All four high/good water status rivers revealed significant downstream changes in community structure and at least two univariate metrics (total richness and EPT richness together with taxon, E and EPT abundance). Two of the four moderate water status rivers showed significant changes in community structure, abundance and richness metrics and functional feeding groups driven in the main by downstream increases in collectors/gatherers, shredders and burrowing taxa. These two moderate water status rivers had high or prolonged livestock activity. In view of these findings, the potential for some of these sites to achieve at least high/good water quality status, as set out in the EU Water Framework Directive, may be compromised. The results presented highlight the need for additional research to further define the site specific factors and livestock management practices, under different discharge conditions, that increase the risk of impact on aquatic ecology due to these cattle-river interactions. PMID

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities in the access to and quality of health care services

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Thumé, Elaine; Tomasi, Elaine; Duro, Suele Manjourany Silva; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the inequalities in access, utilization, and quality of health care services according to the socioeconomic status. METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study evaluated 2,927 individuals aged ≥ 20 years living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and the following outcomes were evaluated: lack of access to health services, utilization of services, waiting period (in days) for assistance, and waiting time (in hours) in lines. We used Poisson regression for the crude and adjusted analyses. RESULTS The lack of access to health services was reported by 6.5% of the individuals who sought health care. The prevalence of use of health care services in the 30 days prior to the interview was 29.3%. Of these, 26.4% waited five days or more to receive care and 32.1% waited at least an hour in lines. Approximately 50.0% of the health care services were funded through the Unified Health System. The use of health care services was similar across socioeconomic groups. The lack of access to health care services and waiting time in lines were higher among individuals of lower economic status, even after adjusting for health care needs. The waiting period to receive care was higher among those with higher socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS Although no differences were observed in the use of health care services across socioeconomic groups, inequalities were evident in the access to and quality of these services. PMID:26039400

  8. Integrated, nonvolatile, high-speed analog random access memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention provides an integrated, non-volatile, high-speed random access memory. A magnetically switchable ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic layer is sandwiched between an electrical conductor which provides the ability to magnetize the magnetically switchable layer and a magneto resistive or Hall effect material which allows sensing the magnetic field which emanates from the magnetization of the magnetically switchable layer. By using this integrated three-layer form, the writing process, which is controlled by the conductor, is separated from the storage medium in the magnetic layer and from the readback process which is controlled by the magnetoresistive layer. A circuit for implementing the memory in CMOS or the like is disclosed.

  9. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Mars Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMars server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Mars images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of Mars. The OnMars server is an implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server. Unlike other Mars Internet map servers that provide Martian data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMars WMS server supports encoding of data in Mars-specific coordinate systems. The OnMars server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Martian image and elevation data, including an 8-meter-per-pixel uncontrolled mosaic of most of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) image collection, which is not available elsewhere. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. The OnMars server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  10. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Lunar Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMoon server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Lunar images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of the Moon. The OnMoon server implements the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server protocol and supports Moon-specific extensions. Unlike other Internet map servers that provide Lunar data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMoon server supports encoding of data in Moon-specific coordinate systems. The OnMoon server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Lunar image and elevation data. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF) or the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. Full-precision spectral arithmetic processing is also available, by use of a custom SLD extension. This server can dynamically add shaded relief based on the Lunar elevation to any image layer. This server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  11. Strategic purchasing reform in Estonia: Reducing inequalities in access while improving care concentration and quality.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Triin; Habicht, Jarno; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2015-08-01

    As of 2014, the Estonian Health Insurance Fund has adopted new purchasing procedures and criteria, which it now has started to implement in specialist care. Main changes include (1) redefined access criteria based on population need rather than historical supply, which aim to achieve more equal access of providers and specialties; (2) stricter definition and use of optimal workload criteria to increase the concentration of specialist care (3) better consideration of patient movement; and (4) an increased emphasis on quality to foster quality improvement. The new criteria were first used in the contract cycle that started in 2014 and resulted in fewer contracted providers for a similar volume of care compared to the previous contract cycle. This implies that provision of specialized care has become concentrated at fewer providers. It is too early to draw firm conclusions on the impact on care quality or on actors, but the process has sparked debate on the role of selective contracting and the role of public and private providers in Estonian health care. Lastly, the Estonian experience may hold important lessons for other countries looking to overcome inequalities in access while concentrating care and improving care quality.

  12. Strategic purchasing reform in Estonia: Reducing inequalities in access while improving care concentration and quality.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Triin; Habicht, Jarno; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2015-08-01

    As of 2014, the Estonian Health Insurance Fund has adopted new purchasing procedures and criteria, which it now has started to implement in specialist care. Main changes include (1) redefined access criteria based on population need rather than historical supply, which aim to achieve more equal access of providers and specialties; (2) stricter definition and use of optimal workload criteria to increase the concentration of specialist care (3) better consideration of patient movement; and (4) an increased emphasis on quality to foster quality improvement. The new criteria were first used in the contract cycle that started in 2014 and resulted in fewer contracted providers for a similar volume of care compared to the previous contract cycle. This implies that provision of specialized care has become concentrated at fewer providers. It is too early to draw firm conclusions on the impact on care quality or on actors, but the process has sparked debate on the role of selective contracting and the role of public and private providers in Estonian health care. Lastly, the Estonian experience may hold important lessons for other countries looking to overcome inequalities in access while concentrating care and improving care quality. PMID:26149322

  13. From Access to Success: An Integrated Approach to Quality Higher Education Informed by Social Inclusion Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidley, Jennifer M.; Hampson, Gary P.; Wheeler, Leone; Bereded-Samuel, Elleni

    2010-01-01

    Equitable access, success and quality in higher education are examined from a variety of ideological perspectives. "Quality" is positioned as a complex generic concept while "access" and "success" are identified as key concepts in the social inclusion domain, supplemented by the concept of "participation." The topic is approached through an…

  14. The Quality and Accessibility of Primary School Music Education: Provision, Perceptions and Hopes in Six Non-Metropolitan Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardcastle, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The National Review of School Music Education has systematically documented the variations in quality and accessibility of school music education in Australia. Rural and remote schools were found to be particularly vulnerable to relatively poorer quality and accessibility. These findings were not new; they echoed similar observations made by…

  15. Assuring quality in high-consequence engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, Marcey L.; Kolb, Rachel R.

    2014-03-01

    In high-consequence engineering organizations, such as Sandia, quality assurance may be heavily dependent on staff competency. Competency-dependent quality assurance models are at risk when the environment changes, as it has with increasing attrition rates, budget and schedule cuts, and competing program priorities. Risks in Sandia's competency-dependent culture can be mitigated through changes to hiring, training, and customer engagement approaches to manage people, partners, and products. Sandia's technical quality engineering organization has been able to mitigate corporate-level risks by driving changes that benefit all departments, and in doing so has assured Sandia's commitment to excellence in high-consequence engineering and national service.

  16. Informal economic activities of public health workers in Uganda: implications for quality and accessibility of care.

    PubMed

    McPake, B; Asiimwe, D; Mwesigye, F; Ofumbi, M; Ortenblad, L; Streefland, P; Turinde, A

    1999-10-01

    This paper reports the results of a study in Uganda of the 'informal' economic activities of health workers, defined as those which earn incomes but fall outside official duties and earnings. The study was carried out in 10 sub-hospital health facilities of varying size and intended role and used a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods. The paper focuses on those activities which are carried out inside public health facilities and which directly affect quality and accessibility of care. The main strategies in this category were the leakage of drug supply, the informal charging of patients and the mismanagement of revenues raised from the formal charging of patients. Few of the drugs supplied to health units were prescribed and issued in those sites. Most health workers who have the opportunity to do so, levy informal charges. Where formal charges are collected, high levels of leakage occur both at the point of collection and at higher levels of the system. The implications of this situation for the quality and accessibility of services in public health facilities were assessed. Utilisation levels are less than those expected of the smallest rural units and this workload is managed by a handful of the expected staff complement who are available for a fraction of the working week. Even given these few patients, drugs available after leakage were sufficient to cover less than half of those attending in most facilities. Evidence on staff motivation was mixed and better motivation was associated with better performance only in a minority of units. Informal charging was associated with better performance regarding hours worked by health workers and utilisation rates. Drug leakage was associated with worse performance with respect to both of these and unsurprisingly, with drug availability. Short term strategies to effect marginal performance improvements may focus on the substitution of strategies based inside health units (such as informal charging) for those

  17. Teaching Surgical Procedures with Movies: Tips for High-quality Video Clips

    PubMed Central

    Jacquemart, Mathieu; Bouletreau, Pierre; Breton, Pierre; Mojallal, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Video must now be considered as a precious tool for learning surgery. However, the medium does present production challenges, and currently, quality movies are not always accessible. We developed a series of 7 surgical videos and made them available on a publicly accessible internet website. Our videos have been viewed by thousands of people worldwide. High-quality educational movies must respect strategic and technical points to be reliable. PMID:27757342

  18. Are high-quality mates always attractive?

    PubMed Central

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Verhulst, Simon; Fawcett, Tim W

    2010-01-01

    Sexual selection theory posits that females should choose mates in a way that maximizes their reproductive success. But what exactly is the optimal choice? Most empirical research is based on the assumption that females seek a male of the highest possible quality (in terms of the genes or resources he can provide), and hence show directional preferences for indicators of male quality. This implies that attractiveness and quality should be highly correlated. However, females frequently differ in what they find attractive. New theoretical and empirical insights provide mounting evidence that a female’s own quality biases her judgement of male attractiveness, such that male quality and attractiveness do not always coincide. A recent experiment in songbirds demonstrated for the first time that manipulation of female condition can lead to divergent female preferences, with low-quality females actively preferring low-quality males over high-quality males. This result is in line with theory on state-dependent mate choice and is reminiscent of assortative mating preferences in humans. Here we discuss the implications of this work for the study of mate preferences. PMID:20714411

  19. Parents' experience of support in Sweden: its availability, accessibility, and quality.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Herawati I; Broberg, Malin; Starke, Mikaela

    2013-06-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six parents of children with intellectual disabilities, in the Western region of Sweden. The aim of the study was to explore and to gain a deeper understanding of parents' experiences of received support for them and their children with intellectual disabilities. We focused particularly on their experiences of the availability, accessibility, and the quality of services. Parents in this study were unsure about what the diagnosis meant specifically for their child as well as for their whole family. Moreover, the parents experienced great difficulty in obtaining information about available services, which resulted in feelings of helplessness to some. Parents also reported that although services are available, they were not easily accessible. Lastly, parents felt that the quality of care and support were to some extent inadequate, as no attention was paid by professionals to their actual needs or wishes. PMID:23644952

  20. Traditional and emerging forms of dental practice. Cost, accessibility, and quality factors.

    PubMed Central

    Rovin, S; Nash, J

    1982-01-01

    The traditional and predominant manner of delivering dental care is through a fee-for-service, private practice system. A number of alternative dental care delivery systems have emerged and are being tested, and others are just emerging. These systems include department store practices, hospital dental services, health maintenance organizations, the independent practice of dental hygiene, and denturism. Although it is too soon to draw final conclusions about the efficacy and effectiveness of these systems, we examine them for their potential to compete with and change the way dental care is currently delivered. Using the parameters of cost, accessibility, and quality, we compare these systems to traditional dental practice. Some of these emerging forms clearly have the potential to complete favorably with traditional practice. Other seem less likely to alter the existing system substantially. The system which can best control costs, increase accessibility, and enhance quality will gain the competitive edge. PMID:7091453

  1. High-Performance Secure Database Access Technologies for HEP Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Vranicar; John Weicher

    2006-04-17

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN Laboratory will become the largest scientific instrument in the world when it starts operations in 2007. Large Scale Analysis Computer Systems (computational grids) are required to extract rare signals of new physics from petabytes of LHC detector data. In addition to file-based event data, LHC data processing applications require access to large amounts of data in relational databases: detector conditions, calibrations, etc. U.S. high energy physicists demand efficient performance of grid computing applications in LHC physics research where world-wide remote participation is vital to their success. To empower physicists with data-intensive analysis capabilities a whole hyperinfrastructure of distributed databases cross-cuts a multi-tier hierarchy of computational grids. The crosscutting allows separation of concerns across both the global environment of a federation of computational grids and the local environment of a physicist’s computer used for analysis. Very few efforts are on-going in the area of database and grid integration research. Most of these are outside of the U.S. and rely on traditional approaches to secure database access via an extraneous security layer separate from the database system core, preventing efficient data transfers. Our findings are shared by the Database Access and Integration Services Working Group of the Global Grid Forum, who states that "Research and development activities relating to the Grid have generally focused on applications where data is stored in files. However, in many scientific and commercial domains, database management systems have a central role in data storage, access, organization, authorization, etc, for numerous applications.” There is a clear opportunity for a technological breakthrough, requiring innovative steps to provide high-performance secure database access technologies for grid computing. We believe that an innovative database architecture where the

  2. Effects of physician joint ventures on health care costs, access, and quality: exploring some issues.

    PubMed

    Ahern, M; Scott, E

    1992-01-01

    Increasingly, physicians are joint-venturing with health care businesses such as physical therapy centers, diagnostic imaging centers, ambulatory surgical centers, and other services. Simultaneously, outpatient costs have been rising. Theoretical and empirical evidence, including results of an exploratory survey of experts, indicate that these two events are linked. Specifically, joint ventures between referring physicians and health care businesses often appear to increase costs, increase utilization, reduce quality of care, and reduce access.

  3. Highball: A high speed, reserved-access, wide area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, David L.; Boncelet, Charles G.; Elias, John G.; Schragger, Paul A.; Jackson, Alden W.

    1990-01-01

    A network architecture called Highball and a preliminary design for a prototype, wide-area data network designed to operate at speeds of 1 Gbps and beyond are described. It is intended for applications requiring high speed burst transmissions where some latency between requesting a transmission and granting the request can be anticipated and tolerated. Examples include real-time video and disk-disk transfers, national filestore access, remote sensing, and similar applications. The network nodes include an intelligent crossbar switch, but have no buffering capabilities; thus, data must be queued at the end nodes. There are no restrictions on the network topology, link speeds, or end-end protocols. The end system, nodes, and links can operate at any speed up to the limits imposed by the physical facilities. An overview of an initial design approach is presented and is intended as a benchmark upon which a detailed design can be developed. It describes the network architecture and proposed access protocols, as well as functional descriptions of the hardware and software components that could be used in a prototype implementation. It concludes with a discussion of additional issues to be resolved in continuing stages of this project.

  4. Peer Review Quality and Transparency of the Peer-Review Process in Open Access and Subscription Journals

    PubMed Central

    Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent controversies highlighting substandard peer review in Open Access (OA) and traditional (subscription) journals have increased the need for authors, funders, publishers, and institutions to assure quality of peer-review in academic journals. I propose that transparency of the peer-review process may be seen as an indicator of the quality of peer-review, and develop and validate a tool enabling different stakeholders to assess transparency of the peer-review process. Methods and Findings Based on editorial guidelines and best practices, I developed a 14-item tool to rate transparency of the peer-review process on the basis of journals’ websites. In Study 1, a random sample of 231 authors of papers in 92 subscription journals in different fields rated transparency of the journals that published their work. Authors’ ratings of the transparency were positively associated with quality of the peer-review process but unrelated to journal’s impact factors. In Study 2, 20 experts on OA publishing assessed the transparency of established (non-OA) journals, OA journals categorized as being published by potential predatory publishers, and journals from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). Results show high reliability across items (α = .91) and sufficient reliability across raters. Ratings differentiated the three types of journals well. In Study 3, academic librarians rated a random sample of 140 DOAJ journals and another 54 journals that had received a hoax paper written by Bohannon to test peer-review quality. Journals with higher transparency ratings were less likely to accept the flawed paper and showed higher impact as measured by the h5 index from Google Scholar. Conclusions The tool to assess transparency of the peer-review process at academic journals shows promising reliability and validity. The transparency of the peer-review process can be seen as an indicator of peer-review quality allowing the tool to be used to predict academic

  5. Conscious knowledge of learning: accessing learning strategies in a final year high school biology class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, Lindsey; Gunstone, Richard

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative case study investigation of the knowledge and use of learning strategies by 16 students in a final year high school biology class to expand their conscious knowledge of learning. Students were provided with opportunities to engage in purposeful inquiry into the biological, social and ethical aspects of cancer. A constructivist approach was implemented to access prior content and procedural knowledge in various ways. Students were encouraged to develop evaluation of their learning skills independently through activities that promoted metacognition. Those students who planned and monitored their work produced essays of higher quality. The value and difficulties of promoting metacognitive approaches in this context are discussed, as well as the idea that metacognitive processes are difficult to research, because they have to be conscious in order to be identified by the learner, thereby making them accessible to the researcher.

  6. High-quality Health Information Provision for Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hong-Sheng; Ma, Jing-Jian; Li, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: High-quality information provision can allow stroke patients to effectively participate in healthcare decision-making, better manage the stroke, and make a good recovery. In this study, we reviewed information needs of stroke patients, methods for providing information to patients, and considerations needed by the information providers. Data Sources: The literature concerning or including information provision for patients with stroke in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015. Study Selection: We included all the relevant articles on information provision for stroke patients in English, with no limitation of study design. Results: Stroke is a major public health concern worldwide. High-quality and effective health information provision plays an essential role in helping patients to actively take part in decision-making and healthcare, and empowering them to effectively self-manage their long-standing chronic conditions. Different methods for providing information to patients have their relative merits and suitability, and as a result, the effective strategies taken by health professionals may include providing high-quality information, meeting patients’ individual needs, using suitable methods in providing information, and maintaining active involvement of patients. Conclusions: It is suggested that to enable stroke patients to access high-quality health information, greater efforts need to be made to ensure patients to receive accurate and current evidence-based information which meets their individual needs. Health professionals should use suitable information delivery methods, and actively involve stroke patients in information provision. PMID:27569241

  7. Non-volatile, high density, high speed, Micromagnet-Hall effect Random Access Memory (MHRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin C.; Katti, Romney R.; Stadler, Henry L.

    1991-01-01

    The micromagnetic Hall effect random access memory (MHRAM) has the potential of replacing ROMs, EPROMs, EEPROMs, and SRAMs because of its ability to achieve non-volatility, radiation hardness, high density, and fast access times, simultaneously. Information is stored magnetically in small magnetic elements (micromagnets), allowing unlimited data retention time, unlimited numbers of rewrite cycles, and inherent radiation hardness and SEU immunity, making the MHRAM suitable for ground based as well as spaceflight applications. The MHRAM device design is not affected by areal property fluctuations in the micromagnet, so high operating margins and high yield can be achieved in large scale integrated circuit (IC) fabrication. The MHRAM has short access times (less than 100 nsec). Write access time is short because on-chip transistors are used to gate current quickly, and magnetization reversal in the micromagnet can occur in a matter of a few nanoseconds. Read access time is short because the high electron mobility sensor (InAs or InSb) produces a large signal voltage in response to the fringing magnetic field from the micromagnet. High storage density is achieved since a unit cell consists only of two transistors and one micromagnet Hall effect element. By comparison, a DRAM unit cell has one transistor and one capacitor, and a SRAM unit cell has six transistors.

  8. Providing high-quality care in primary care settings

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Geneau, Robert; Grande, Claudio Del; Denis, Jean-Louis; Hudon, Éveline; Haggerty, Jeannie L.; Bonin, Lucie; Duplain, Réjean; Goudreau, Johanne; Hogg, William

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To gain a deeper understanding of how primary care (PC) practices belonging to different models manage resources to provide high-quality care. Design Multiple-case study embedded in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 37 practices. Setting Three regions of Quebec. Participants Health care professionals and staff of 5 PC practices. Methods Five cases showing above-average results on quality-of-care indicators were purposefully selected to contrast on region, practice size, and PC model. Data were collected using an organizational questionnaire; the Team Climate Inventory, which was completed by health care professionals and staff; and 33 individual interviews. Detailed case histories were written and thematic analysis was performed. Main findings The core common feature of these practices was their ongoing effort to make trade-offs to deliver services that met their vision of high-quality care. These compromises involved the same 3 areas, but to varying degrees depending on clinic characteristics: developing a shared vision of high-quality care; aligning resource use with that vision; and balancing professional aspirations and population needs. The leadership of the physician lead was crucial. The external environment was perceived as a source of pressure and dilemmas rather than as a source of support in these matters. Conclusion Irrespective of their models, PC practices’ pursuit of high-quality care is based on a vision in which accessibility is a key component, balanced by appropriate management of available resources and of external environment expectations. Current PC reforms often create tensions rather than support PC practices in their pursuit of high-quality care. PMID:24829023

  9. Ensuring Equal Access to High-Quality Education. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    This brochure describes the activities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in the U.S. Department of Education. The OCR is a law-enforcement agency charged with upholding the federal civil-rights laws that prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, disability, and age in programs and activities that receive federal…

  10. Ensuring Equal Access to High-Quality Education. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in the U.S. Department of Education (Department) is a law enforcement agency charged with enforcing federal civil rights laws to ensure that educational institutions receiving federal financial assistance do not engage in discriminatory conduct. OCR enforces the federal civil rights laws that prohibit…

  11. Quality of Recovery Evaluation of the Protection Schemes for Fiber-Wireless Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Minglei; Chai, Zhicheng; Le, Zichun

    2016-03-01

    With the rapid development of fiber-wireless (FiWi) access network, the protection schemes have got more and more attention due to the risk of huge data loss when failures occur. However, there are few studies on the performance evaluation of the FiWi protection schemes by the unified evaluation criterion. In this paper, quality of recovery (QoR) method was adopted to evaluate the performance of three typical protection schemes (MPMC scheme, OBOF scheme and RPMF scheme) against the segment-level failure in FiWi access network. The QoR models of the three schemes were derived in terms of availability, quality of backup path, recovery time and redundancy. To compare the performance of the three protection schemes comprehensively, five different classes of network services such as emergency service, prioritized elastic service, conversational service, etc. were utilized by means of assigning different QoR weights. Simulation results showed that, for the most service cases, RPMF scheme was proved to be the best solution to enhance the survivability when planning the FiWi access network.

  12. South Africa: Distance Higher Education Policies for Access, Social Equity, Quality, and Social and Economic Responsiveness in a Context of the Diversity of Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badat, Saleem

    2005-01-01

    The principal concern of this paper is the implication of the increasing diversity of higher education provision in South Africa for equity of access and opportunity for historically disadvantaged social groups, high-quality provision, and social and economic responsiveness in distance higher education. This diversity is signalled by a variety of…

  13. Are migrants health policies aimed at improving access to quality healthcare? An analysis of Spanish policies.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, María Luisa; Terraza-Núñez, Rebeca; S-Hernández, Silvia; Vargas, Ingrid; Bosch, Lola; González, Andrea; Pequeño, Sandra; Cantos, Raquel; Martínez, Juan Ignacio; López, Luís Andrés

    2013-12-01

    Although until April 2012, all Spanish citizens regardless of their origin, residence status and work situation were entitled to health care, available evidence suggested inadequate access for immigrants. Following the Aday and Andersen model, we conducted an analysis of policy elements that affect immigrants' access to health care in Spain, based on documentary analysis of national policies and selected regional policies related to migrant health care. Selected documents were (a) laws and plans in force at the time containing migrant health policies and (b) evaluations. The analysis included policy principles, objectives, strategies and evaluations. Results show that the national and regional policies analyzed are based on the principle that health care is a right granted to immigrants by law. These policies include strategies to facilitate access to health care, reducing barriers for entry to the system, for example simplifying requirements and raising awareness, but mostly they address the necessary qualities for services to be able to attend to a more diverse population, such as the adaptation of resources and programs, or improved communication and training. However, limited planning was identified in terms of their implementation, necessary resources and evaluation. In conclusion, the policies address relevant barriers of access for migrants and signal improvements in the health system's responsiveness, but reinforcement is required in order for them to be effectively implemented. PMID:23850165

  14. Characteristics of High-Quality Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jason E.; Gulek, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of high-quality teachers who used a structured mathematics program for teaching, namely the Math Achievement Program (MAP[superscript 2]D), which demonstrated significant gains on student achievement as measured by California's Standards Test (CST) in mathematics. Specifically, the…

  15. High Tech and Library Access for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roatch, Mary A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes tools that enable people with disabilities to access print information, including optical character recognition, synthetic voice output, other input devices, Braille access devices, large print displays, television and video, TDD (Telecommunications Devices for the Deaf), and Telebraille. Use of technology by libraries to meet mandates…

  16. Air Quality uFIND: User-oriented Tool Set for Air Quality Data Discovery and Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoijarvi, K.; Robinson, E. M.; Husar, R. B.; Falke, S. R.; Schultz, M. G.; Keating, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    Historically, there have been major impediments to seamless and effective data usage encountered by both data providers and users. Over the last five years, the international Air Quality (AQ) Community has worked through forums such as the Group on Earth Observations AQ Community of Practice, the ESIP AQ Working Group, and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution to converge on data format standards (e.g., netCDF), data access standards (e.g., Open Geospatial Consortium Web Coverage Services), metadata standards (e.g., ISO 19115), as well as other conventions (e.g., CF Naming Convention) in order to build an Air Quality Data Network. The centerpiece of the AQ Data Network is the web service-based tool set: user-oriented Filtering and Identification of Networked Data. The purpose of uFIND is to provide rich and powerful facilities for the user to: a) discover and choose a desired dataset by navigation through the multi-dimensional metadata space using faceted search, b) seamlessly access and browse datasets, and c) use uFINDs facilities as a web service for mashups with other AQ applications and portals. In a user-centric information system such as uFIND, the user experience is improved by metadata that includes the general fields for discovery as well as community-specific metadata to narrow the search beyond space, time and generic keyword searches. However, even with the community-specific additions, the ISO 19115 records were formed in compliance with the standard, so that other standards-based search interface could leverage this additional information. To identify the fields necessary for metadata discovery we started with the ISO 19115 Core Metadata fields and fields that were needed for a Catalog Service for the Web (CSW) Record. This fulfilled two goals - one to create valid ISO 19115 records and the other to be able to retrieve the records through a Catalog Service for the Web query. Beyond the required set of fields, the AQ Community added

  17. A High Throughput Medium Access Control Implementation Based on IEEE 802.11e Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min Li; Lee, Jin; Setiawan, Hendra; Ochi, Hiroshi; Park, Sin-Chong

    With the growing demand for high-performance multimedia applications over wireless channels, we need to develop a Medium Access Control (MAC) system that supports high throughput and quality of service enhancements. This paper presents the standard analysis, design architecture and design issues leading to the implementation of an IEEE 802.11e based MAC system that supports MAC throughput of over 100Mbps. In order to meet the MAC layer timing constraints, a hardware/software co-design approach is adopted. The proposed MAC architecture is implemented on the Xilinx Virtex-II Pro Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (XC2VP70-5FF1704C) prototype, and connected to a host computer through an external Universal Serial Bus (USB) interface. The total FPGA resource utilization is 11, 508 out of 33, 088 (34%) available slices. The measured MAC throughput is 100.7Mbps and 109.2Mbps for voice and video access categories, transmitted at a data rate of 260Mbps based on IEEE 802.11n Physical Layer (PHY), using the contention-based hybrid coordination function channel access mechanism.

  18. Access to and quality of health and social care for rare diseases: patients' and caregivers' experiences.

    PubMed

    Kodra, Y; Morosini, P R; Petrigliano, R; Agazio, E; Salerno, P; Taruscio, D

    2007-01-01

    People suffering from rare diseases, independently of the condition, often experience the same problems in receiving adequate health and social care. It is not clear how these problems differ in severity among different diseases and in different countries and how they change in time. In the framework of the NEPHIRD (Network of Public Health Institutions on Rare Diseases), a European project, funded by DG-SANCO (EU Commission), an effort was made to develop a simple but comprehensive tool to show patients' and/or caregivers' opinions about the quality and accessibility of health and social services. The self-filled questionnaire asks how often patients or caregivers had both negative and positive experiences about the quality and accessibility of health and social services and their opinion on their improvement, on 5-level scales. A pilot survey was carried out in several European Countries among members of Myasthenia Gravis, Neurofibromatosis, Prader Willi and Rett Syndrome volunteers' associations. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed using Stata and Epi Info 2000. In total, 302 questionnaires were completed in France, Italy, Romania, Spain, Turkey and United Kingdom during 2004-05. In general, respondents thought that health care accessibility was worse than quality, and that social care and legal provisions were worse than health care, with some differences among countries. For all diseases, and for both patients and caregivers, the most frequent reported positive experiences were health professionals' kindness and readiness to help (all medians ranged from 3 to 5). As for the efforts for improvement made by public services in the last three years, the opinions were generally favourable. This study has several limitations. However the assessment tool that has been developed has some innovative and interesting features and may be considered a useful attempt to compare patients' and caregivers' experiences for a range of different diseases

  19. High-quality remote interactive imaging in the operating theatre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimstead, Ian J.; Avis, Nick J.; Evans, Peter L.; Bocca, Alan

    2009-02-01

    We present a high-quality display system that enables the remote access within an operating theatre of high-end medical imaging and surgical planning software. Currently, surgeons often use printouts from such software for reference during surgery; our system enables surgeons to access and review patient data in a sterile environment, viewing real-time renderings of MRI & CT data as required. Once calibrated, our system displays shades of grey in Operating Room lighting conditions (removing any gamma correction artefacts). Our system does not require any expensive display hardware, is unobtrusive to the remote workstation and works with any application without requiring additional software licenses. To extend the native 256 levels of grey supported by a standard LCD monitor, we have used the concept of "PseudoGrey" where slightly off-white shades of grey are used to extend the intensity range from 256 to 1,785 shades of grey. Remote access is facilitated by a customized version of UltraVNC, which corrects remote shades of grey for display in the Operating Room. The system is successfully deployed at Morriston Hospital, Swansea, UK, and is in daily use during Maxillofacial surgery. More formal user trials and quantitative assessments are being planned for the future.

  20. 42 CFR 457.495 - State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... appropriateness of care provided under the plan, including how the State will assure: (a) Access to well-baby care... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care. 457.495 Section 457.495 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  1. 42 CFR 457.495 - State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... appropriateness of care provided under the plan, including how the State will assure: (a) Access to well-baby care... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care. 457.495 Section 457.495 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  2. 42 CFR 457.495 - State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... appropriateness of care provided under the plan, including how the State will assure: (a) Access to well-baby care... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care. 457.495 Section 457.495 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  3. 42 CFR 457.495 - State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... appropriateness of care provided under the plan, including how the State will assure: (a) Access to well-baby care... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care. 457.495 Section 457.495 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  4. 42 CFR 457.495 - State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriateness of care provided under the plan, including how the State will assure: (a) Access to well-baby care... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State assurance of access to care and procedures to assure quality and appropriateness of care. 457.495 Section 457.495 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  5. Remote Access Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Erin

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Remote Access Astronomy Project, a computerized optical telescope and dial-in data distribution system that places high-quality images and image processing techniques into computer workstations in junior and high school classrooms. (PR)

  6. Modelling high data rate communication network access protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S.; Foudriat, E. C.; Paterra, Frank; Maly, Kurt J.; Overstreet, C. Michael

    1990-01-01

    Modeling of high data rate communication systems is different from the low data rate systems. Three simulations were built during the development phase of Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN) modeling. The first was a model using SIMCRIPT based upon the determination and processing of each event at each node. The second simulation was developed in C based upon isolating the distinct object that can be identified as the ring, the message, the node, and the set of critical events. The third model further identified the basic network functionality by creating a single object, the node which includes the set of critical events which occur at the node. The ring structure is implicit in the node structure. This model was also built in C. Each model is discussed and their features compared. It should be stated that the language used was mainly selected by the model developer because of his past familiarity. Further the models were not built with the intent to compare either structure or language but because the complexity of the problem and initial results contained obvious errors, so alternative models were built to isolate, determine, and correct programming and modeling errors. The CSMA/RN protocol is discussed in sufficient detail to understand modeling complexities. Each model is described along with its features and problems. The models are compared and concluding observations and remarks are presented.

  7. Image size invariant visual cryptography for general access structures subject to display quality constraints.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kai-Hui; Chiu, Pei-Ling

    2013-10-01

    Conventional visual cryptography (VC) suffers from a pixel-expansion problem, or an uncontrollable display quality problem for recovered images, and lacks a general approach to construct visual secret sharing schemes for general access structures. We propose a general and systematic approach to address these issues without sophisticated codebook design. This approach can be used for binary secret images in non-computer-aided decryption environments. To avoid pixel expansion, we design a set of column vectors to encrypt secret pixels rather than using the conventional VC-based approach. We begin by formulating a mathematic model for the VC construction problem to find the column vectors for the optimal VC construction, after which we develop a simulated-annealing-based algorithm to solve the problem. The experimental results show that the display quality of the recovered image is superior to that of previous papers.

  8. [From library to clinical decision support systems: access of general practitioner to quality information].

    PubMed

    Fauquert, B

    2012-09-01

    Since 2003, the following tools have been implemented in Belgium for improving the access of general practioners to the EBM literature: the Digital Library for Health and the evidence-linker of the CEBAM, the portal EBMPracticeNet.be and the multidimensional electronic clinical decision support EBMeDS. The aim of this article is to show the progress achieved in the information dissemination toward the belgian general practioners, particularly the access from the electronic health record. From the literature published these last years, the opportunities cited by the users are for using EBM and the strong willingness for using these literature access in the future; the limits are the medical data coding, the irrelevance of the search results, the alerts fatigue induced by EBMeDS. The achievements done and planned for the new EBMPracticeNet guidelines portal and the EBMeDS system are explained in the aim of informing belgian healthcare professionals. These projects are claiming for lauching a participatory process in the production and dissemination of EBM information. The discussion is focused on the belgian healthcare system advantages, the solutions for a reasonable implementation of these projects and for increasing the place of an evidence-based information in the healthcare decision process. Finally the input of these projects to the continuing medical education and to the healthcare quality are discussed, in a context of multifactorial interaction healthcare design (complexity design).

  9. Technical requirements of spirometers in the strategy for guaranteeing the access to quality spirometry.

    PubMed

    Salas, Tomàs; Rubies, Carles; Gallego, Carlos; Muñoz, Pilar; Burgos, Felip; Escarrabill, Joan

    2011-09-01

    Access to quality spirometry is an essential objective in order to be able to minimize the underdiagnosis of respiratory diseases, especially in those that are most frequent, such as COPD and asthma. This objective can be reached in the short term, but it requires the simultaneous integration of different strategies: training of the health-care professionals who perform spirometry, definition of standards for the transmission of the information, technical requirements for acquiring apparatuses and the correct interpretation of the results. This present study shows the use of standards for the electronic exchange of clinical information. In order to normalize the treatment of the data related with spirometry and to enable the exchange of information, we have used the standard CDA R2 (Clinical Document Architecture, Release 2) of HL7 (Health Level Seven), version 3. HL7 is a product by HL7 International, a non-profit organization that deals in the production of standards in the health-care setting in order to facilitate interoperability. Furthermore, defining these standards is essential for ensuring that they are adopted by spirometer manufacturers. Be means of this process, the base is set for facilitating access to spirometry at the health-care level, while at the same time it is a fundamental technical element for designing quality control programs of the explorations.

  10. Technical requirements of spirometers in the strategy for guaranteeing the access to quality spirometry.

    PubMed

    Salas, Tomàs; Rubies, Carles; Gallego, Carlos; Muñoz, Pilar; Burgos, Felip; Escarrabill, Joan

    2011-09-01

    Access to quality spirometry is an essential objective in order to be able to minimize the underdiagnosis of respiratory diseases, especially in those that are most frequent, such as COPD and asthma. This objective can be reached in the short term, but it requires the simultaneous integration of different strategies: training of the health-care professionals who perform spirometry, definition of standards for the transmission of the information, technical requirements for acquiring apparatuses and the correct interpretation of the results. This present study shows the use of standards for the electronic exchange of clinical information. In order to normalize the treatment of the data related with spirometry and to enable the exchange of information, we have used the standard CDA R2 (Clinical Document Architecture, Release 2) of HL7 (Health Level Seven), version 3. HL7 is a product by HL7 International, a non-profit organization that deals in the production of standards in the health-care setting in order to facilitate interoperability. Furthermore, defining these standards is essential for ensuring that they are adopted by spirometer manufacturers. Be means of this process, the base is set for facilitating access to spirometry at the health-care level, while at the same time it is a fundamental technical element for designing quality control programs of the explorations. PMID:21821333

  11. Association of Initial Hemodialysis Vascular Access with Patient-Reported Health Status and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Wasse, Haimanot; Kutner, Nancy; Zhang, Rebecca; Huang, Yijian

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the recommended form of vascular access for patients with ESRD, its impact on patient perception of health status, quality of life (QOL), or satisfaction is unknown. Design, setting, participants, and measurements This study compared patient-reported health status and QOL scores and vascular access type among a national random sample of 1563 patients at dialysis initiation and day 60 of ESRD during 1996 to 1997. Patients were stratified into five categories: AVF at first dialysis and day 60 of ESRD, arteriovenous graft (AVG) at first dialysis and day 60, central venous catheter (CVC) at first dialysis and AVF at day 60, CVC at first dialysis and AVG at day 60, and CVC at first dialysis and day 60. Results Ten percent (n = 154) of patients had an AVF, 21% (n = 326) had an AVG, and 69% (n = 1083) had a CVC at dialysis initiation; those who were most likely to use an AVF were white and male. After statistical adjustment, patients with persistent AVF use reported greater physical activity and energy, better emotional and social well-being, fewer symptoms, less effect of dialysis and burden of kidney disease, and better sleep compared with patients with persistent CVC use, whereas measures such as cognitive and sexual function did not differ by access type. Conclusions Compared with persistent CVC use, early persistent AVF use is associated with the perception of improved health status and QOL among patients with ESRD. Future longitudinal studies may help to clarify further the association between QOL and vascular access. PMID:17699486

  12. Decreased sleep quality in high myopia children.

    PubMed

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Torii, Hidemasa; Tsubota, Kazuo; Negishi, Kazuno

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep quality in myopic children and adults. This cross sectional study surveyed 486 participants aged from 10 to 59 years with refractive errors using a questionnaire containing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Children (< 20 years) in the high myopia group exhibited the poorest PSQI scores (P < 0.01), while the adults showed no such correlations. Subscales of PSQI and HADS in children disclosed that the high myopia groups had the shortest sleep duration (P < 0.01), worst subjective sleep scores (P < 0.001), and latest bedtime (P < 0.05). Regression analyses in children significantly correlated myopic errors with PSQI (P < 0.05), sleep duration (P < 0.01), and bedtime (P < 0.01). Sleep efficacy (P < 0.05) and daytime dysfunction (P < 0.05) were significantly better in contact-lens users compared to the respective non-user groups across all participants. In conclusion, sleep quality in children was significantly correlated with myopic error, with the high myopia group worst affected. PMID:27650408

  13. Decreased sleep quality in high myopia children

    PubMed Central

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Torii, Hidemasa; Tsubota, Kazuo; Negishi, Kazuno

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep quality in myopic children and adults. This cross sectional study surveyed 486 participants aged from 10 to 59 years with refractive errors using a questionnaire containing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Children (< 20 years) in the high myopia group exhibited the poorest PSQI scores (P < 0.01), while the adults showed no such correlations. Subscales of PSQI and HADS in children disclosed that the high myopia groups had the shortest sleep duration (P < 0.01), worst subjective sleep scores (P < 0.001), and latest bedtime (P < 0.05). Regression analyses in children significantly correlated myopic errors with PSQI (P < 0.05), sleep duration (P < 0.01), and bedtime (P < 0.01). Sleep efficacy (P < 0.05) and daytime dysfunction (P < 0.05) were significantly better in contact-lens users compared to the respective non-user groups across all participants. In conclusion, sleep quality in children was significantly correlated with myopic error, with the high myopia group worst affected. PMID:27650408

  14. Porous Au-Ag Nanospheres with High-Density and Highly Accessible Hotspots for SERS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Bai, Yaocai; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Zhongbo; Fan, Qikui; Zheng, Haoquan; Yin, Yadong; Gao, Chuanbo

    2016-06-01

    Colloidal plasmonic metal nanoparticles have enabled surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for a variety of analytical applications. While great efforts have been made to create hotspots for amplifying Raman signals, it remains a great challenge to ensure their high density and accessibility for improved sensitivity of the analysis. Here we report a dealloying process for the fabrication of porous Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles containing abundant inherent hotspots, which were encased in ultrathin hollow silica shells so that the need of conventional organic capping ligands for stabilization is eliminated, producing colloidal plasmonic nanoparticles with clean surface and thus high accessibility of the hotspots. As a result, these novel nanostructures show excellent SERS activity with an enhancement factor of ∼1.3 × 10(7) on a single particle basis (off-resonant condition), promising high applicability in many SERS-based analytical and biomedical applications. PMID:27192436

  15. High quality factor indium oxide mechanical microresonators

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolomé, Javier Cremades, Ana; Piqueras, Javier

    2015-11-09

    The mechanical resonance behavior of as-grown In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microrods has been studied in this work by in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) electrically induced mechanical oscillations. Indium oxide microrods grown by a vapor–solid method are naturally clamped to an aluminum oxide ceramic substrate, showing a high quality factor due to reduced energy losses during mechanical vibrations. Quality factors of more than 10{sup 5} and minimum detectable forces of the order of 10{sup −16} N/Hz{sup 1/2} demonstrate their potential as mechanical microresonators for real applications. Measurements at low-vacuum using the SEM environmental operation mode were performed to study the effect of extrinsic damping on the resonators behavior. The damping coefficient has been determined as a function of pressure.

  16. Gene Wiki Reviews-Raising the quality and accessibility of information about the human genome.

    PubMed

    Tsueng, Ginger; Good, Benjamin M; Ping, Peipei; Golemis, Erica; Hanukoglu, Israel; van Wijnen, Andre J; Su, Andrew I

    2016-11-01

    Wikipedia and other openly available resources are increasingly becoming commonly used sources of information not just among the lay public but even in academic circles including undergraduate students and postgraduate trainees. To enhance the quality of the Wikipedia articles, in 2013, we initiated the Gene Wiki Reviews on genes and proteins as a series of invited reviews that stipulated editing the corresponding Wikipedia article(s) that would be also subject to peer-review. Thus, while the review article serves as an authoritative snapshot of the field, the "living article" can continue to evolve with the crowdsourcing model of Wikipedia. After publication of over 50 articles, we surveyed the authors to assess the impact of the project. The author survey results revealed that the Gene Wiki project is achieving its major objectives to increase the involvement of scientists in authoring Wikipedia articles and to enhance the quantity and quality of the information about genes and their protein products. Thus, the dual publication model introduced in the Gene Wiki Reviews series represents a valuable innovation in scientific publishing and biomedical knowledge management. We invite experts on specific genes to contact the editors to take part in this project to enhance the quality and accessibility of information about the human genome. PMID:27150585

  17. Gene Wiki Reviews-Raising the quality and accessibility of information about the human genome.

    PubMed

    Tsueng, Ginger; Good, Benjamin M; Ping, Peipei; Golemis, Erica; Hanukoglu, Israel; van Wijnen, Andre J; Su, Andrew I

    2016-11-01

    Wikipedia and other openly available resources are increasingly becoming commonly used sources of information not just among the lay public but even in academic circles including undergraduate students and postgraduate trainees. To enhance the quality of the Wikipedia articles, in 2013, we initiated the Gene Wiki Reviews on genes and proteins as a series of invited reviews that stipulated editing the corresponding Wikipedia article(s) that would be also subject to peer-review. Thus, while the review article serves as an authoritative snapshot of the field, the "living article" can continue to evolve with the crowdsourcing model of Wikipedia. After publication of over 50 articles, we surveyed the authors to assess the impact of the project. The author survey results revealed that the Gene Wiki project is achieving its major objectives to increase the involvement of scientists in authoring Wikipedia articles and to enhance the quantity and quality of the information about genes and their protein products. Thus, the dual publication model introduced in the Gene Wiki Reviews series represents a valuable innovation in scientific publishing and biomedical knowledge management. We invite experts on specific genes to contact the editors to take part in this project to enhance the quality and accessibility of information about the human genome.

  18. Accessibility and Quality of Online Cancer-Related Clinical Trial Information for Naïve Searchers.

    PubMed

    Abel, Gregory A; Cronin, Angel M; Earles, Kristofer; Gray, Stacy W

    2015-10-01

    Although the Internet may help to increase cancer patients' awareness of clinical trials, little is known about the accessibility and quality of online clinical trial information. We simulated the experience of a naïve cancer patient without clinical trial knowledge by searching three popular search engines for treatment information for breast, lung, and prostate cancer, and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Two coders independently evaluated website content for accessibility and quality. We screened 120 websites and identified 40 unique sites for analysis. Overall, 85% [95% confidence interval (CI), 70%-94%] of sites mentioned clinical trials on the landing page and 68% (51%-81%) included links to specific trials. Overall readability was poor. Approximately half of websites (36%-68%) included information on the potential benefits and risks of clinical trials and 40% provided information about when the site had been updated (25%-57%). Among sites with links to specific clinical trials, only 44% (25%-65%) provided an interactive interface that would allow patients to customize search results; breast (100%) and prostate (50%) sites were more interactive than lung (25%) and MDS (14%; P = 0.007). Although cancer clinical trial information is widely available on the Internet, its quality is highly variable. Given the fact that many emerging cancer therapeutics are personalized based on disease or genomic characteristics, interactive web-based interfaces could serve as powerful vehicles to help patients locate appropriate clinical trials. Without enhanced efforts to ensure greater interactivity of cancer treatment websites, patient awareness of relevant clinical trials may remain low. PMID:26265204

  19. Quality Assessment of Studies Published in Open Access and Subscription Journals: Results of a Systematic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pastorino, Roberta; Milovanovic, Sonja; Stojanovic, Jovana; Efremov, Ljupcho; Amore, Rosarita; Boccia, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Along with the proliferation of Open Access (OA) publishing, the interest for comparing the scientific quality of studies published in OA journals versus subscription journals has also increased. With our study we aimed to compare the methodological quality and the quality of reporting of primary epidemiological studies and systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in OA and non-OA journals. Methods In order to identify the studies to appraise, we listed all OA and non-OA journals which published in 2013 at least one primary epidemiologic study (case-control or cohort study design), and at least one systematic review or meta-analysis in the field of oncology. For the appraisal, we picked up the first studies published in 2013 with case-control or cohort study design from OA journals (Group A; n = 12), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group B; n = 26); the first systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in 2013 from OA journals (Group C; n = 15), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group D; n = 32). We evaluated the methodological quality of studies by assessing the compliance of case-control and cohort studies to Newcastle and Ottawa Scale (NOS) scale, and the compliance of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scale. The quality of reporting was assessed considering the adherence of case-control and cohort studies to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist, and the adherence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) checklist. Results Among case-control and cohort studies published in OA and non-OA journals, we did not observe significant differences in the median value of NOS score (Group A: 7 (IQR 7–8) versus Group B: 8 (7–9); p = 0.5) and in the adherence to STROBE checklist (Group A, 75% versus Group B, 80%; p = 0.1). The

  20. Standardized quality assurance forms for organ transplantations with multilingual support, open access and UMLS coding.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Julian; Sünninghausen, Sarah Schulze; Dugas, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) is a key factor to evaluate success of organ transplantations. In Germany QA documentation is progressively developed and enforced by law. Our objective is to share QA models from Germany in a standardized format within a form repository for world-wide reuse and exchange. Original QA forms were converted into standardized study forms according to the Operational Data Model (ODM) and shared for open access in an international forms repository. Form elements were translated into English and semantically enriched with Concept Unique Identifiers from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) based on medical expert decision. All forms are available on the web as multilingual ODM documents. UMLS concept coverage analysis indicates 92% coverage with few but critically important definition gaps. New content and infrastructure for harmonized documentation forms is provided in the domain of organ transplantations enabling world-wide reuse and exchange. PMID:26063252

  1. Financing American Indian health care: impacts and options for improving access and quality.

    PubMed

    Langwell, Kathryn; Anagnopoulos, Cheryl; Ryan, Frank; Melson, Jacob; Iron Rope, Sandor

    2009-10-01

    (1) Indian Health Service (HIS) per patient funding is less than half of national per capita health spending, and declined further between 2003 and 2006. (2) Under-funding of the IHS system has led to explicit rationing of services to American Indian and Alaska Native patients, with many specialized services provided only for "life or limb threatening" conditions. (3) IHS patients report experiencing access barriers and rate the quality of care process substantially lower than do Medicaid beneficiaries, but most indicate they prefer to use IHS for their health care. (4) Options to increase the funding for American Indian and Alaska Native health care exist, but would impose higher costs on federal and state budgets and are unlikely to be feasible in the current economic environment. However, IHS might be able to make certain organizational changes that would increase efficiency and its ability to extend existing funding to cover more services. PMID:19847975

  2. Changes in perceptions of quality of, and access to, services among clients of a fractional franchise network in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Agha, Sohail; Gage, Anastasia; Balal, Asma

    2007-05-01

    With declining levels of international donor funding for financing reproductive health programmes, developing country governments and international donors are looking towards private sector strategies to expand the supply of quality reproductive health services. One of the challenges of a health franchise is to improve the quality of services provided by independent private practitioners. Private providers are more likely to abide by the quality standards set by a franchiser if they see a financial benefit resulting from franchise participation. This study was conducted to measure whether (a) there were improvements in perceived quality of care and perceived access to health facilities once these facilities became part of a franchise and (b) improvements in perceived quality and perceived access were associated with increased client loyalty to franchised clinics. Franchisees were given basic reproductive health training for seven days and services marketing training for two days. Exit interviews were conducted with male and female clients at health facilities. A pre-test measurement was taken in April 2001, prior to the start of project activities. A post-test measurement was taken in February/March 2002, about 9 months after the pre-test. Multilevel regression analysis, which takes the hierarchical structure of the data into account, was used for the analysis. After taking provider-level variation into account and controlling for client characteristics, the analyses showed significant improvements in perceived quality of care and perceived access to services. Private provider participation in a franchise network helps improve client perceptions of quality of, and access to, services. Improvements in client perceptions of quality and access contribute to increased client loyalty to franchised clinics. Once increased client loyalty translates into higher client volumes, providers are likely to see the benefits of franchise participation. In turn, this should lead to

  3. A guide to highly effective quality programs.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, John; Fifer, Joe

    2010-01-01

    To dramatically improve quality while decreasing costs, hospitals should: ensure all executives are vocal and visible supporters of quality improvement; focus the board of directors on quality as a strategic priority; strategically target quality resources to improve care for the majority of patients; use the finance system as the foundation for automated quality reporting; form a strong alliance between the CFO and chief quality officer, with each playing a leadership role in the quality program; rely on a well-executed quality program to improve efficiency and decrease the cost of care. PMID:20088475

  4. The IEO Data Center Management System: Tools for quality control, analysis and access marine data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Antonia; Garcia, Maria Jesus; Nikouline, Andrei

    2010-05-01

    Since 1994 the Data Centre of the Spanish Oceanographic Institute develops system for archiving and quality control of oceanographic data. The work started in the frame of the European Marine Science & Technology Programme (MAST) when a consortium of several Mediterranean Data Centres began to work on the MEDATLAS project. Along the years, old software modules for MS DOS were rewritten, improved and migrated to Windows environment. Oceanographic data quality control includes now not only vertical profiles (mainly CTD and bottles observations) but also time series of currents and sea level observations. New powerful routines for analysis and for graphic visualization were added. Data presented originally in ASCII format were organized recently in an open source MySQL database. Nowadays, the IEO, as part of SeaDataNet Infrastructure, has designed and developed a new information system, consistent with the ISO 19115 and SeaDataNet standards, in order to manage the large and diverse marine data and information originated in Spain by different sources, and to interoperate with SeaDataNet. The system works with data stored in ASCII files (MEDATLAS, ODV) as well as data stored within the relational database. The components of the system are: 1.MEDATLAS Format and Quality Control - QCDAMAR: Quality Control of Marine Data. Main set of tools for working with data presented as text files. Includes extended quality control (searching for duplicated cruises and profiles, checking date, position, ship velocity, constant profiles, spikes, density inversion, sounding, acceptable data, impossible regional values,...) and input/output filters. - QCMareas: A set of procedures for the quality control of tide gauge data according to standard international Sea Level Observing System. These procedures include checking for unexpected anomalies in the time series, interpolation, filtering, computation of basic statistics and residuals. 2. DAMAR: A relational data base (MySql) designed to

  5. Urban farmers' markets: accessibility, offerings, and produce variety, quality, and price compared to nearby stores.

    PubMed

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar; Frias, Rafael; Schechter, Clyde B

    2015-07-01

    Most food-environment research has focused narrowly on select stores and restaurants. There has been comparatively less attention to non-storefront food sources like farmers' markets (FMs), particularly in urban communities. The objective of the present study was to assess FMs' potential contribution to an urban food environment in terms of specific foods offered, and compare FM accessibility as well as produce variety, quality, and price to that of nearby stores. Investigators conducted a detailed cross-sectional assessment of all FMs in Bronx County, NY, and of the nearest store(s) selling produce within a half-mile walking distance (up to two stores per FM). The study included 26 FMs and 44 stores. Investigators assessed accessibility (locations of FMs and stores relative to each other, and hours of operation for each), variety (the number and type of all food items offered at FMs and all fresh produce items offered at stores), quality (where produce items were grown and if they were organic), and price (including any sales prices or promotional discounts). Analyses included frequencies, proportions, and variable distributions, as well as mixed-effect regressions, paired t-tests, and signed rank tests to compare FMs to stores. Geographic information systems (GIS) allowed for mapping of FM and store locations and determining street-network distances between them. The mean distance between FMs and the nearest store selling fresh produce was 0.15 miles (range 0.02-0.36 miles). FMs were open substantially fewer months, days, and hours than stores. FMs offered 26.4 fewer fresh produce items on average than stores (p values <0.02). FM produce items were more frequently local and organic, but often tended toward less-common/more-exotic and heirloom varieties. FMs were more expensive on average (p values <0.001 for pairwise comparisons to stores) - even for more-commonplace and "conventional" produce - especially when discounts or sales prices were considered. Fully, 32

  6. Urban Farmers' Markets: accessibility, offerings, and produce variety, quality, and price compared to nearby stores

    PubMed Central

    Maroko, Andrew; Sanon, Omar; Frias, Rafael; Schechter, Clyde B.

    2015-01-01

    Most food-environment research has focused narrowly on select stores and restaurants. There has been comparatively less attention to non-storefront food sources like farmers' markets (FMs), particularly in urban communities. The objective of the present study was to assess FMs' potential contribution to an urban food environment in terms of specific foods offered, and compare FM accessibility as well as produce variety, quality, and price to that of nearby stores. Investigators conducted a detailed cross-sectional assessment of all FMs in Bronx County, NY, and of the nearest store(s) selling produce within a half-mile walking distance (up to two stores per FM). The study included 26 FMs and 44 stores. Investigators assessed accessibility (locations of FMs and stores relative to each other, and hours of operation for each), variety (the number and type of all food items offered at FMs and all fresh produce items offered at stores), quality (where produce items were grown and if they were organic), and price (including any sales prices or promotional discounts). Analyses included frequencies, proportions, and variable distributions, as well as mixed-effect regressions, paired t-tests, and signed rank tests to compare FMs to stores. Geographic information systems (GIS) allowed for mapping of FM and store locations and determining street-network distances between them. The mean distance between FMs and the nearest store selling fresh produce was 0.15 miles (range 0.02-0.36 miles). FMs were open substantially fewer months, days, and hours than stores. FMs offered 26.4 fewer fresh produce items on average than stores (p values <0.02). FM produce items were more frequently local and organic, but often tended towards less-common/more-exotic and heirloom varieties. FMs were more expensive on average (p values <0.001 for pairwise comparisons to stores)—even for more-commonplace and “conventional” produce—especially when discounts or sales prices were considered

  7. Urban farmers' markets: accessibility, offerings, and produce variety, quality, and price compared to nearby stores.

    PubMed

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar; Frias, Rafael; Schechter, Clyde B

    2015-07-01

    Most food-environment research has focused narrowly on select stores and restaurants. There has been comparatively less attention to non-storefront food sources like farmers' markets (FMs), particularly in urban communities. The objective of the present study was to assess FMs' potential contribution to an urban food environment in terms of specific foods offered, and compare FM accessibility as well as produce variety, quality, and price to that of nearby stores. Investigators conducted a detailed cross-sectional assessment of all FMs in Bronx County, NY, and of the nearest store(s) selling produce within a half-mile walking distance (up to two stores per FM). The study included 26 FMs and 44 stores. Investigators assessed accessibility (locations of FMs and stores relative to each other, and hours of operation for each), variety (the number and type of all food items offered at FMs and all fresh produce items offered at stores), quality (where produce items were grown and if they were organic), and price (including any sales prices or promotional discounts). Analyses included frequencies, proportions, and variable distributions, as well as mixed-effect regressions, paired t-tests, and signed rank tests to compare FMs to stores. Geographic information systems (GIS) allowed for mapping of FM and store locations and determining street-network distances between them. The mean distance between FMs and the nearest store selling fresh produce was 0.15 miles (range 0.02-0.36 miles). FMs were open substantially fewer months, days, and hours than stores. FMs offered 26.4 fewer fresh produce items on average than stores (p values <0.02). FM produce items were more frequently local and organic, but often tended toward less-common/more-exotic and heirloom varieties. FMs were more expensive on average (p values <0.001 for pairwise comparisons to stores) - even for more-commonplace and "conventional" produce - especially when discounts or sales prices were considered. Fully, 32

  8. An economical route to high quality lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Andre, J.P.; Hahn, S.K.; Kwon, S.H.; Min, W.

    1996-12-01

    The current rends in the automotive and industrial markets toward more efficient engines, longer drain intervals, and lower emissions all contribute to placing increasingly stringent performance requirements on lubricants. The demand for higher quality synthetic and non-conventional basestocks is expected to grow at a much faster rate than that of conventional lube basestocks to meet these higher performance standards. Yukong Limited has developed a novel technology (the Yukong UCO Lube Process) for the economic production of high quality, high-viscosity-index lube basestocks from a fuels hydrocracker unconverted oil stream. A pilot plant based on this process has been producing oils for testing purposes since May 1994. A commercial facility designed to produce 3,500 BPD of VHVI lube basestocks cane on-stream at Yukong`s Ulsan refinery in October 1995. The Badger Technology Center of Raytheon Engineers and Constructors assisted Yukong during the development of the technology and prepared the basic process design package for the commercial facility. This paper presents process aspects of the technology and comparative data on investment and operating costs. Yukong lube basestock product properties and performance data are compared to basestocks produced by conventional means and by lube hydrocracking.

  9. Geographic Access to High Capability Severe Acute Respiratory Failure Centers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, David J.; Angus, Derek C.; Seymour, Christopher W.; Yealy, Donald M.; Carr, Brendan G.; Kurland, Kristen; Boujoukos, Arthur; Kahn, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Optimal care of adults with severe acute respiratory failure requires specific resources and expertise. We sought to measure geographic access to these centers in the United States. Design Cross-sectional analysis of geographic access to high capability severe acute respiratory failure centers in the United States. We defined high capability centers using two criteria: (1) provision of adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), based on either 2008–2013 Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reporting or provision of ECMO to 2010 Medicare beneficiaries; or (2) high annual hospital mechanical ventilation volume, based 2010 Medicare claims. Setting Nonfederal acute care hospitals in the United States. Measurements and Main Results We defined geographic access as the percentage of the state, region and national population with either direct or hospital-transferred access within one or two hours by air or ground transport. Of 4,822 acute care hospitals, 148 hospitals met our ECMO criteria and 447 hospitals met our mechanical ventilation criteria. Geographic access varied substantially across states and regions in the United States, depending on center criteria. Without interhospital transfer, an estimated 58.5% of the national adult population had geographic access to hospitals performing ECMO and 79.0% had geographic access to hospitals performing a high annual volume of mechanical ventilation. With interhospital transfer and under ideal circumstances, an estimated 96.4% of the national adult population had geographic access to hospitals performing ECMO and 98.6% had geographic access to hospitals performing a high annual volume of mechanical ventilation. However, this degree of geographic access required substantial interhospital transfer of patients, including up to two hours by air. Conclusions Geographic access to high capability severe acute respiratory failure centers varies widely across states and regions in the United States. Adequate

  10. New developments in high pressure x-ray spectroscopy beamline at High Pressure Collaborative Access Team

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Y. M. Chow, P.; Boman, G.; Bai, L. G.; Rod, E.; Bommannavar, A.; Kenney-Benson, C.; Sinogeikin, S.; Shen, G. Y.

    2015-07-15

    The 16 ID-D (Insertion Device - D station) beamline of the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source is dedicated to high pressure research using X-ray spectroscopy techniques typically integrated with diamond anvil cells. The beamline provides X-rays of 4.5-37 keV, and current available techniques include X-ray emission spectroscopy, inelastic X-ray scattering, and nuclear resonant scattering. The recent developments include a canted undulator upgrade, 17-element analyzer array for inelastic X-ray scattering, and an emission spectrometer using a polycapillary half-lens. Recent development projects and future prospects are also discussed.

  11. A Spectrum Access Based on Quality of Service (QoS) in Cognitive Radio Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Linbo; Wang, Hua; Gao, Chuangen

    2016-01-01

    The quality of service (QoS) is important issue for cognitive radio networks. In the cognitive radio system, the licensed users, also called primary users (PUs), are authorized to utilize the wireless spectrum, while unlicensed users, also called secondary users (SUs), are not authorized to use the wireless spectrum. SUs access the wireless spectrum opportunistically when the spectrum is idle. While SUs use an idle channel, the instance that PUs come back makes SUs terminate their communications and leave the current channel. Therefore, quality of service (QoS) is difficult to be ensured for SUs. In this paper, we first propose an analysis model to obtain QoS for cognitive radio networks such as blocking probability, completed traffic and termination probability of SUs. When the primary users use the channels frequently, QoS of SUs is difficult to be ensured, especially the termination probability. Then, we propose a channel reservation scheme to improve QoS of SUs. The scheme makes the terminated SUs move to the reserved channels and keep on communications. Simulation results show that our scheme can improve QoS of SUs especially the termination probability with a little cost of blocking probability in dynamic environment. PMID:27171196

  12. A Spectrum Access Based on Quality of Service (QoS) in Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Linbo; Wang, Hua; Gao, Chuangen

    2016-01-01

    The quality of service (QoS) is important issue for cognitive radio networks. In the cognitive radio system, the licensed users, also called primary users (PUs), are authorized to utilize the wireless spectrum, while unlicensed users, also called secondary users (SUs), are not authorized to use the wireless spectrum. SUs access the wireless spectrum opportunistically when the spectrum is idle. While SUs use an idle channel, the instance that PUs come back makes SUs terminate their communications and leave the current channel. Therefore, quality of service (QoS) is difficult to be ensured for SUs. In this paper, we first propose an analysis model to obtain QoS for cognitive radio networks such as blocking probability, completed traffic and termination probability of SUs. When the primary users use the channels frequently, QoS of SUs is difficult to be ensured, especially the termination probability. Then, we propose a channel reservation scheme to improve QoS of SUs. The scheme makes the terminated SUs move to the reserved channels and keep on communications. Simulation results show that our scheme can improve QoS of SUs especially the termination probability with a little cost of blocking probability in dynamic environment. PMID:27171196

  13. Drinking water insecurity: water quality and access in coastal south-western Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Benneyworth, Laura; Gilligan, Jonathan; Ayers, John C; Goodbred, Steven; George, Gregory; Carrico, Amanda; Karim, Md Rezaul; Akter, Farjana; Fry, David; Donato, Katherine; Piya, Bhumika

    2016-01-01

    National drinking water assessments for Bangladesh do not reflect local variability, or temporal differences. This paper reports on the findings of an interdisciplinary investigation of drinking water insecurity in a rural coastal south-western Bangladesh. Drinking water quality is assessed by comparison of locally measured concentrations to national levels and water quality criteria; resident's access to potable water and their perceptions are based on local social surveys. Residents in the study area use groundwater far less than the national average; salinity and local rainwater scarcity necessitates the use of multiple water sources throughout the year. Groundwater concentrations of arsenic and specific conductivity (SpC) were greater than surface water (pond) concentrations; there was no statistically significant seasonal difference in mean concentrations in groundwater, but there was for ponds, with arsenic higher in the dry season. Average arsenic concentrations in local water drinking were 2-4 times times the national average. All of the local groundwater samples exceeded the Bangladesh guidance for SpC, although the majority of residents surveyed did not perceive their water as having a 'bad' or 'salty' taste. PMID:27277537

  14. Drinking water insecurity: water quality and access in coastal south-western Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Benneyworth, Laura; Gilligan, Jonathan; Ayers, John C; Goodbred, Steven; George, Gregory; Carrico, Amanda; Karim, Md Rezaul; Akter, Farjana; Fry, David; Donato, Katherine; Piya, Bhumika

    2016-01-01

    National drinking water assessments for Bangladesh do not reflect local variability, or temporal differences. This paper reports on the findings of an interdisciplinary investigation of drinking water insecurity in a rural coastal south-western Bangladesh. Drinking water quality is assessed by comparison of locally measured concentrations to national levels and water quality criteria; resident's access to potable water and their perceptions are based on local social surveys. Residents in the study area use groundwater far less than the national average; salinity and local rainwater scarcity necessitates the use of multiple water sources throughout the year. Groundwater concentrations of arsenic and specific conductivity (SpC) were greater than surface water (pond) concentrations; there was no statistically significant seasonal difference in mean concentrations in groundwater, but there was for ponds, with arsenic higher in the dry season. Average arsenic concentrations in local water drinking were 2-4 times times the national average. All of the local groundwater samples exceeded the Bangladesh guidance for SpC, although the majority of residents surveyed did not perceive their water as having a 'bad' or 'salty' taste.

  15. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  16. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  17. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  18. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  19. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  20. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  1. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  2. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  3. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  4. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  5. Path Not Found: Disparities in Access to Computer Science Courses in California High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Alexis; McAlear, Frieda; Scott, Allison

    2015-01-01

    "Path Not Found: Disparities in Access to Computer Science Courses in California High Schools" exposes one of the foundational causes of underrepresentation in computing: disparities in access to computer science courses in California's public high schools. This report provides new, detailed data on these disparities by student body…

  6. Health care quality, access, cost, workforce, and surgical education: the ultimate perfect storm.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Marshall Z

    2012-01-01

    The discussions on health care reform over the past two years have focused on cost containment while trying to maintain quality of care. Focusing on just cost and quality unfortunately does not address other very important factors that impact on our health care delivery system. Availability of a well-trained workforce, maintaining the sophisticated medical/surgical education system, and ultimately access to quality care by the public are critical to maintaining and enhancing our health care delivery system. Unfortunately, all five of these components are under at risk. Thus, we have evolving the ultimate perfect storm affecting our health care delivery system. Although not ideal and given the uniqueness of our population and their expectations, our current delivery system is excellent compared to other countries. However, the cost of our current system is rising at an alarming rate. Currently, health care consumes 17% of our gross domestic product. If our system is not revised this will continue to rise and by 2025 it will consume 48%. The dilemma, given the current state of our overall economy and rising debt, is how to address this major problem. Unfortunately, the Affordable Care Act, which is now law, does not address most of the issues and the cost was initially grossly under estimated. Furthermore, the law does not address the issues of workforce, maintaining our medical education system or ultimately, access. A major revision of our system will be necessary to truly create a system that protects and enhances all five of the components of our health care delivery system. To effectively accomplish this will require addressing those issues that lead to wasteful spending and diversion of our health care dollars to profit instead of care. Improved and efficient delivery systems that reduce complications, reduction of duplication of tertiary and quaternary programs or services within the same markets (i.e. regionalization of care), health insurance reform, and

  7. Soaring Systems: High Flyers All Have Equitable Funding, Shared Curriculum, and Quality Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Now more than ever, high-quality education for all is a public good that is essential for the good of the public. As the fate of individuals and nations is increasingly interdependent, the quest for access to an equitable, empowering education for all people has become a critical issue for the American nation as a whole. No society can thrive in a…

  8. Advancing High-Quality Preschool Inclusion: A Discussion and Recommendations for the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Smith, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been achieved regarding the research and laws supporting preschool inclusion, access to inclusive preschool environments remains intangible for many children with disabilities in the United States. The purpose of this article is to discuss current challenges and solutions to high-quality preschool inclusion. We…

  9. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  10. Quality assurance and high count rate

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    A high count rate can distort the expected linear relation between the charge spectrum generated in a semiconductor gamma-ray detector and that recorded in the pulse-height analyzer. The busy time of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is accurately compensated for in commercial analyzers by extending the live counting time. As fast successive-approximation ADCs have become more generally used (note that 10{mu}s fixed digitizing time for 8192 channels is equivalent to an 800-MHz Wilkinson ADC), the resolution times of the other components in the counting system have become relatively more important limitations of the throughput of the total system and also more important sources of nonlinearity, which lead to biased measurements. A loss-free counting technique (LFC) has been developed which gives an undistorted spectrum and zero dead time so that decay equations can be solved. Tests of an LFC system have shown that, with systematic calibration, the system can give stable values in practice for a reference spectrum up to at least 100 kHz. To obtain higher quality data with confidence, quality control test are needed.

  11. High Image Quality Laser Color Printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Kimitoshi; Morimoto, Yoshinori

    1989-07-01

    A laser color printer has been developed to depict continuous tone color images on a photographic color film or color paper with high resolution and fidelity. We have used three lasers, He-Cd (441.6 nm), Ar4+ (514.5 nm), and He-Ne (632.8 nm) for blue, green, and red exposures. We have employed a drum scanner for two dimensional scanning. The maximum resolution of our system is 40 c/mm (80 lines/mm) and the accuracy of density reproduction is within 1.0 when measured in color difference, where most observers can not distinguish the difference. The scanning artifacts and noise are diminished to a visually negligible level. The image quality of output images compares well to that of actual color photographs, and is suitable for photographic image simulations.

  12. Method for synthesis of high quality graphene

    DOEpatents

    Lanzara, Alessandra; Schmid, Andreas K.; Yu, Xiaozhu; Hwang, Choonkyu; Kohl, Annemarie; Jozwiak, Chris M.

    2012-03-27

    A method is described herein for the providing of high quality graphene layers on silicon carbide wafers in a thermal process. With two wafers facing each other in close proximity, in a first vacuum heating stage, while maintained at a vacuum of around 10.sup.-6 Torr, the wafer temperature is raised to about 1500.degree. C., whereby silicon evaporates from the wafer leaving a carbon rich surface, the evaporated silicon trapped in the gap between the wafers, such that the higher vapor pressure of silicon above each of the wafers suppresses further silicon evaporation. As the temperature of the wafers is raised to about 1530.degree. C. or more, the carbon atoms self assemble themselves into graphene.

  13. Better access, quality, and cost for clinically complex veterans with home-based primary care.

    PubMed

    Edes, Thomas; Kinosian, Bruce; Vuckovic, Nancy H; Nichols, Linda Olivia; Becker, Margaret Mary; Hossain, Monir

    2014-10-01

    In successfully reducing healthcare expenditures, patient goals must be met and savings differentiated from cost shifting. Although the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Home Based Primary Care (HBPC) program for chronically ill individuals has resulted in cost reduction for the VA, it is unknown whether cost reduction results from restricting services or shifting costs to Medicare and whether HBPC meets patient goals. Cost projection using a hierarchical condition category (HCC) model adapted to the VA was used to determine VA plus Medicare projected costs for 9,425 newly enrolled HBPC recipients. Projected annual costs were compared with observed annualized costs before and during HBPC. To assess patient perspectives of care, 31 veterans and caregivers were interviewed from three representative programs. During HBPC, Medicare costs were 10.8% lower than projected, VA plus Medicare costs were 11.7% lower than projected, and combined hospitalizations were 25.5% lower than during the period without HBPC. Patients reported high satisfaction with HBPC team access, education, and continuity of care, which they felt contributed to fewer exacerbations, emergency visits, and hospitalizations. HBPC improves access while reducing hospitalizations and total cost. Medicare is currently testing the HBPC approach through the Independence at Home demonstration. PMID:25333529

  14. Interprofessional collaborative model for medication therapy management (MTM) services to improve health care access and quality for underserved populations.

    PubMed

    Truong, Hoai-An; Groves, C Nicole; Congdon, Heather Brennan; Botchway, Rosemary; Dang, Diem-Thanh Tanya; Clark, Nancy Ripp; Zarfeshan, Faramarz

    2012-08-01

    As part of the Health Resources and Services Administration Patient Safety and Clinical Pharmacy Services Collaborative (PSPC), an interprofessional model with medication therapy management documentation and outcomes tracking tools (MTM-DOTT) is established to improve health care access and quality for underserved populations. Despite limitations, there have been positive outcomes and national recognitions.

  15. How Do Members of Different Stakeholder Groups Balance Concerns for Increasing Access with Improving Quality in the Tanzania Education System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telli, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how education stakeholders in Tanzania express and balance their priorities, perspectives, and concerns regarding the expansion of education access on the one hand, and improving quality of education on the other, as a means to enhance educational achievement. The study also explores how each group of…

  16. Designing to Promote Access, Quality, and Student Support in an Advanced Certificate Programme for Rural Teachers in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresen, Jill W.; Hendrikz, Johan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the re-design of the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE) programme, which is offered by the University of Pretoria through distance education (DE) to teachers in rural South Africa. In 2007, a team re-designed the programme with the goal of promoting access, quality, and student support. The team included an independent…

  17. Social Capital for College: Network Composition and Access to Selective Institutions among Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Lori Diane; Bregman, Allyson; Andrade, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between networks that provide high school students with "social capital for college" (SCFC) and their access to selective institutions. It also explores the link between racial disparities in access to selective colleges and the composition of students' SCFC networks. Findings indicate that while…

  18. Evaluation on the Occupational Information Access System as Used at Churchill High School. A Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinlay, Bruce; Adams, Daniel

    The Occupational Information Access System (OIAS) improves the accessibility of occupational labor market information for career planning. Its operation at Churchill High School is evaluated from several angels: the likes and dislikes of users; the effect of OIAS on users' knowledge of occupational information and on their career plans; why other…

  19. Private-Sector Social Franchising to Accelerate Family Planning Access, Choice, and Quality: Results From Marie Stopes International

    PubMed Central

    Munroe, Erik; Hayes, Brendan; Taft, Julia

    2015-01-01

    .0), with 46.1% (95% CI = 40.9, 51.2) of them reporting having never previously used family planning at all. Analysis of age and poverty levels of clients indicate mixed results in bridging equity gaps: 57.4% of clients lived on under US$2.50/day in 2013 (95% CI = 54.9, 60.0) and 26.1% were 15–24 years old (95% CI = 23.8, 28.4), but only 15.1% lived on less than $1.25/day (95% CI = 13.8, 16.4) and 5.0% were 15–19 years old (95% CI = 3.9, 6.1). The services provided via social franchising are estimated to avert 4,958,000 unintended pregnancies and 7,150 maternal deaths. Conclusion: Social franchising through the existing private sector has the ability to rapidly scale-up access to high-quality family planning services, including LARCs, for the general population as well as young women and the poor, providing a promising model to help achieve the global FP2020 goal. PMID:26085018

  20. Electronic doors to education: study of high school website accessibility in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Klein, David; Myhill, William; Hansen, Linda; Asby, Gary; Michaelson, Susan; Blanck, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and Sections 504 and 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, prohibit discrimination against people with disabilities in all aspects of daily life, including education, work, and access to places of public accommodations. Increasingly, these antidiscrimination laws are used by persons with disabilities to ensure equal access to e-commerce, and to private and public Internet websites. To help assess the impact of the anti-discrimination mandate for educational communities, this study examined 157 website home pages of Iowa public high schools (52% of high schools in Iowa) in terms of their electronic accessibility for persons with disabilities. We predicted that accessibility problems would limit students and others in obtaining information from the web pages as well as limiting ability to navigate to other web pages. Findings show that although many web pages examined included information in accessible formats, none of the home pages met World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards for accessibility. The most frequent accessibility problem was lack of alternative text (ALT tags) for graphics. Technical sophistication built into pages was found to reduce accessibility. Implications are discussed for schools and educational institutions, and for laws, policies, and procedures on website accessibility. PMID:12579616

  1. Electronic doors to education: study of high school website accessibility in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Klein, David; Myhill, William; Hansen, Linda; Asby, Gary; Michaelson, Susan; Blanck, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and Sections 504 and 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, prohibit discrimination against people with disabilities in all aspects of daily life, including education, work, and access to places of public accommodations. Increasingly, these antidiscrimination laws are used by persons with disabilities to ensure equal access to e-commerce, and to private and public Internet websites. To help assess the impact of the anti-discrimination mandate for educational communities, this study examined 157 website home pages of Iowa public high schools (52% of high schools in Iowa) in terms of their electronic accessibility for persons with disabilities. We predicted that accessibility problems would limit students and others in obtaining information from the web pages as well as limiting ability to navigate to other web pages. Findings show that although many web pages examined included information in accessible formats, none of the home pages met World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards for accessibility. The most frequent accessibility problem was lack of alternative text (ALT tags) for graphics. Technical sophistication built into pages was found to reduce accessibility. Implications are discussed for schools and educational institutions, and for laws, policies, and procedures on website accessibility.

  2. High speed magneto-resistive random access memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A high speed read MRAM memory element is configured from a sandwich of magnetizable, ferromagnetic film surrounding a magneto-resistive film which may be ferromagnetic or not. One outer ferromagnetic film has a higher coercive force than the other and therefore remains magnetized in one sense while the other may be switched in sense by a switching magnetic field. The magneto-resistive film is therefore sensitive to the amplitude of the resultant field between the outer ferromagnetic films and may be constructed of a high resistivity, high magneto-resistive material capable of higher sensing currents. This permits higher read voltages and therefore faster read operations. Alternate embodiments with perpendicular anisotropy, and in-plane anisotropy are shown, including an embodiment which uses high permeability guides to direct the closing flux path through the magneto-resistive material. High density, high speed, radiation hard, memory matrices may be constructed from these memory elements.

  3. Access to Arts beyond High School: Issues of Demand and Availability in American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Edward C.

    2006-01-01

    Students' interests in and access to disciplinary study in the arts have increased dramatically over the past fifteen years. This is due in large part to steady growth in K-12 arts programming during the 1990s, when policymakers came to view arts instruction as part of an effective response to concerns about the quality of America's schools. Arts…

  4. Linguistic acculturation and perceptions of quality, access, and discrimination in health care among Latinos in the United States.

    PubMed

    Becerra, David; Androff, David; Messing, Jill T; Castillo, Jason; Cimino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between acculturation and Latinos' perceptions of health care treatment quality, discrimination, and access to health information. The results of this study indicated that participants who had lower levels of acculturation perceived: 1) greater discrimination in health care treatment; 2) a lower quality of health care treatment; 3) less confidence filling out health related forms; and 4) greater challenges understanding written information about their medical conditions. Participants who identified as immigrants also perceived that their poor quality of medical care was due to their inability to pay and to their race/ethnicity.

  5. Payment mechanisms and the composition of physician practices: balancing cost-containment, access, and quality of care.

    PubMed

    Barham, Victoria; Milliken, Olga

    2015-07-01

    We take explicit account of the way in which the supply of physicians and patients in the economy affects the design of physician remuneration schemes, highlighting the three-way trade-off between quality of care, access, and cost. Both physicians and patients are heterogeneous. Physicians choose both the number of patients and the quality of care to provide to their patients. When determining physician payment rates, the principal must ensure access to care for all patients. When physicians can adjust the number of patients seen, there is no incentive to over-treat. In contrast, altruistic physicians always quality stint: they prefer to add an additional patient, rather than to increase the quality of service provided. A mixed payment mechanism does not increase the quality of service provided with respect to capitation. Offering a menu of compensation schemes may constitute a cost-effective strategy for inducing physicians to choose a given overall caseload but may also generate difficulties with access to care for frail patients. PMID:24990110

  6. California hospital networks are narrower in Marketplace than in commercial plans, but access and quality are similar.

    PubMed

    Haeder, Simon F; Weimer, David L; Mukamel, Dana B

    2015-05-01

    Do insurance plans offered through the Marketplace implemented by the State of California under the Affordable Care Act restrict consumers' access to hospitals relative to plans offered on the commercial market? And are the hospitals included in Marketplace networks of lower quality compared to those included in the commercial plans? To answer these questions, we analyzed differences in hospital networks across similar plan types offered both in the Marketplace and commercially, by region and insurer. We found that the common belief that Marketplace plans have narrower networks than their commercial counterparts appears empirically valid. However, there does not appear to be a substantive difference in geographic access as measured by the percentage of people residing in at least one hospital market area. More surprisingly, depending on the measure of hospital quality employed, the Marketplace plans have networks with comparable or even higher average quality than the networks of their commercial counterparts.

  7. Accessing the population of high-redshift Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Ghisellini, G.; Mereghetti, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.; Osborne, J. P.; O'Brien, P.; Tanvir, N.; Willingale, D.; Amati, L.; Basa, S.; Bernardini, M. G.; Burlon, D.; Covino, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; Frontera, F.; Götz, D.; Melandri, A.; Nava, L.; Piro, L.; Vergani, S. D.

    2015-04-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are a powerful probe of the high-redshift Universe. We present a tool to estimate the detection rate of high-z GRBs by a generic detector with defined energy band and sensitivity. We base this on a population model that reproduces the observed properties of GRBs detected by Swift, Fermi and CGRO in the hard X-ray and γ-ray bands. We provide the expected cumulative distributions of the flux and fluence of simulated GRBs in different energy bands. We show that scintillator detectors, operating at relatively high energies (e.g. tens of keV to the MeV), can detect only the most luminous GRBs at high redshifts due to the link between the peak spectral energy and the luminosity (Epeak-Liso) of GRBs. We show that the best strategy for catching the largest number of high-z bursts is to go softer (e.g. in the soft X-ray band) but with a very high sensitivity. For instance, an imaging soft X-ray detector operating in the 0.2-5 keV energy band reaching a sensitivity, corresponding to a fluence, of ˜10-8 erg cm-2 is expected to detect ≈40 GRBs yr-1 sr-1 at z ≥ 5 (≈3 GRBs yr-1 sr-1 at z ≥ 10). Once high-z GRBs are detected the principal issue is to secure their redshift. To this aim we estimate their NIR afterglow flux at relatively early times and evaluate the effectiveness of following them up and construct usable samples of events with any forthcoming GRB mission dedicated to explore the high-z Universe.

  8. Screening of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) Accessions for High Salt Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Rafii, M. Y.; Abdul Hamid, Azizah

    2014-01-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an herbaceous leafy vegetable crop, comparatively more salt-tolerant than any other vegetables with high antioxidants, minerals, and vitamins. Salt-tolerant crop variety development is of importance due to inadequate cultivable land and escalating salinity together with population pressure. In this view a total of 25 purslane accessions were initially selected from 45 collected purslane accessions based on better growth performance and subjected to 5 different salinity levels, that is, 0.0, 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, and 40.0 dS m−1 NaCl. Plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers, and dry matter contents in salt treated purslane accessions were significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) and the enormity of reduction increased with increasing salinity stress. Based on dry matter yield reduction, among all 25 purslane accessions 2 accessions were graded as tolerant (Ac7 and Ac9), 6 accessions were moderately tolerant (Ac3, Ac5, Ac6, Ac10, Ac11, and Ac12), 5 accessions were moderately susceptible (Ac1, Ac2, Ac4, Ac8, and Ac13), and the remaining 12 accessions were susceptible to salinity stress and discarded from further study. The selected 13 purslane accessions could assist in the identification of superior genes for salt tolerance in purslane for improving its productivity and sustainable agricultural production. PMID:25003141

  9. Access and Quality of HIV-Related Point-of-Care Diagnostic Testing in Global Health Programs.

    PubMed

    Fonjungo, Peter N; Boeras, Debrah I; Zeh, Clement; Alexander, Heather; Parekh, Bharat S; Nkengasong, John N

    2016-02-01

    Access to point-of-care testing (POCT) improves patient care, especially in resource-limited settings where laboratory infrastructure is poor and the bulk of the population lives in rural settings. However, because of challenges in rolling out the technology and weak quality assurance measures, the promise of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related POCT in resource-limited settings has not been fully exploited to improve patient care and impact public health. Because of these challenges, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), in partnership with other organizations, recently launched the Diagnostics Access Initiative. Expanding HIV programs, including the "test and treat" strategies and the newly established UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, will require increased access to reliable and accurate POCT results. In this review, we examine various components that could improve access and uptake of quality-assured POC tests to ensure coverage and public health impact. These components include evaluation, policy, regulation, and innovative approaches to strengthen the quality of POCT. PMID:26423384

  10. Integrating Quality into the Textile and Apparel High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Deborah J. C.; Kadolph, Sara J.; Cosbey, Sarah; Hillery, Julie; Haar, Sherry; Day, Marla; Keiser, Sandra; Brandes, Kendra

    2001-01-01

    Explains the importance of quality assurance in high school textiles and apparel instruction. Describes educational activities that integrate quality assurance concepts (teamwork, continuous improvement, customer focus, and empowerment). (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

  11. JAXA protein crystallization in space: ongoing improvements for growing high-quality crystals.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sachiko; Ohta, Kazunori; Furubayashi, Naoki; Yan, Bin; Koga, Misako; Wada, Yoshio; Yamada, Mitsugu; Inaka, Koji; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tomoyuki; Kamigaichi, Shigeki

    2013-11-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) started a high-quality protein crystal growth project, now called JAXA PCG, on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2002. Using the counter-diffusion technique, 14 sessions of experiments have been performed as of 2012 with 580 proteins crystallized in total. Over the course of these experiments, a user-friendly interface framework for high accessibility has been constructed and crystallization techniques improved; devices to maximize the use of the microgravity environment have been designed, resulting in some high-resolution crystal growth. If crystallization conditions were carefully fixed in ground-based experiments, high-quality protein crystals grew in microgravity in many experiments on the ISS, especially when a highly homogeneous protein sample and a viscous crystallization solution were employed. In this article, the current status of JAXA PCG is discussed, and a rational approach to high-quality protein crystal growth in microgravity based on numerical analyses is explained.

  12. JAXA protein crystallization in space: ongoing improvements for growing high-quality crystals.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sachiko; Ohta, Kazunori; Furubayashi, Naoki; Yan, Bin; Koga, Misako; Wada, Yoshio; Yamada, Mitsugu; Inaka, Koji; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tomoyuki; Kamigaichi, Shigeki

    2013-11-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) started a high-quality protein crystal growth project, now called JAXA PCG, on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2002. Using the counter-diffusion technique, 14 sessions of experiments have been performed as of 2012 with 580 proteins crystallized in total. Over the course of these experiments, a user-friendly interface framework for high accessibility has been constructed and crystallization techniques improved; devices to maximize the use of the microgravity environment have been designed, resulting in some high-resolution crystal growth. If crystallization conditions were carefully fixed in ground-based experiments, high-quality protein crystals grew in microgravity in many experiments on the ISS, especially when a highly homogeneous protein sample and a viscous crystallization solution were employed. In this article, the current status of JAXA PCG is discussed, and a rational approach to high-quality protein crystal growth in microgravity based on numerical analyses is explained. PMID:24121350

  13. Family Background and Access to "High Status" Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John

    2013-01-01

    Economic inequality is high and rising in a number of developed countries, including in the United Kingdom and the United States. There are growing concerns that this may have negative implications for equality of opportunity, and the extent to which social disadvantage is transmitted across generations. It is widely believed that providing…

  14. Water Quality vs. Sanitation Accessibility: What is the most effective intervention point for preventing cholera in Dhaka, Bangladesh?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, M. S.; Gute, D.; Faruque, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Every year, 3 to 5 million individuals contract cholera, an acute diarrheal infection that is caused by the ingestion of food or water containing the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. Because cholera is a waterborne disease, it can be transmitted quickly in environments with inadequate water and sanitation systems where infected waste can easily pollute drinking water. Today, Bangladesh continues to struggle with endemic cholera. Donor organizations address water and sanitation via localized initiatives, including the installation of community water collection sites (i.e. tubewells; water-boiling points; etc.). At this small-scale level, water quality and sanitation accessibility can be improved independently of one another, and when resources are limited, donors must invest in the most effective disease prevention options. This study used laboratory-confirmed cholera incidence data (2000-2009) collected by the International Centre of Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh at their on-site hospital to compare the efficacy of interventions addressing water quality versus sanitation accessibility in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data regarding use of sanitary latrines and boiling of drinking water were extracted from sequential patient interviews conducted at the Dhaka facility and used as surrogate variables for sanitation accessibility and water quality respectively. Our analysis indicates that boiling water is 10 times more effective at preventing cholera than the use of a sanitary latrine. This finding suggests that regulating water quality is perhaps more critical to cholera prevention than increasing sanitation accessibility in an urban environment like that of Dhaka. At present, WaterAid - one of Bangladesh's most significant water and sanitation donor organizations - invests the majority of its budget on improving sanitation accessibility. The World Health Organization and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals also prioritize sanitation accessibility. However, in

  15. Access, Cost and Quality: Tensions in the Development of Primary Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerset, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Throughout Kenya's history, tensions between two goals have characterised the educational policy debate: first, the expansion of access; second, the containment of costs. During the colonial period, cost-containment predominated, leading to severe restrictions on access and massive unmet social demand. Then, during post-Independence years,…

  16. Analysis of high-quality modes in open chaotic microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, W.; Yamilov, A.; Cao, H.

    2005-08-15

    We present a numerical study of the high-quality modes in two-dimensional dielectric stadium microcavities. Although the classical ray mechanics is fully chaotic in a stadium billiard, all of the high-quality modes show a 'strong scar' around unstable periodic orbits. When the deformation (ratio of the length of the straight segments over the diameter of the half circles) is small, the high-quality modes correspond to whispering-gallery-type trajectories and their quality factors decrease monotonically with increasing deformation. At large deformation, each high-quality mode is associated with multiple unstable periodic orbits. Its quality factor changes nonmonotonically with the deformation, and there exists an optimal deformation for each mode at which its quality factor reaches a local maximum. This unusual behavior is attributed to the interference of waves propagating along different constituent orbits that could minimize light leakage out of the cavity.

  17. Accessibility versus quality of care plus retention: the formula for service delivery in Australian opioid replacement therapy?

    PubMed

    Harlow, Warren; Roman, Marian W; Happell, Brenda; Browne, Graeme

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how Australian Opioid Replacement Therapy (ORT) policy influences access to ORT treatment, including the resources required for implementation. In doing so, we also compare the accessibility of ORT treatment in Australia (AU) with ORT in the United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US). A review of government data and policy that influence service delivery was undertaken. When comparing across AU, the UK, and the US, we found several differences. To improve access to treatment in Australia more general practitioners need to provide ORT. Additionally, criteria for quality care, a centralised intake system, a national ORT treatment outcome measure, and a shift towards a recovery focus are recommended.

  18. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown. In

  19. The Chinese pharmaceutical market at the crossroads: pro-competition solutions to improve access, quality and affordability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese pharmaceutical market is large in absolute size (the second largest in Asia), but it faces similar problems to those that plague other developing countries, such as a lack of adequate patent protection, low pharmaceutical spending per capita, but high pharmaceutical expenditure as a proportion of total medical spending, and a lack of health insurance coverage. In this article, the pros and cons of two pro-competition policy proposals for China are explored. The first proposal is to follow the E5 guideline of the International Conference on Harmonisation and waive unnecessary local clinical trials for global new drugs that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration or the European Medicines Agency (except for drugs for which there is a real possibility of there being ethnic differences in patient responses). The second proposal is to tighten the standards for generic drugs and approve only bioequivalent ones. While the first proposal encourages price competition between similar compounds in the same therapeutic class, the second proposal enhances generic competition for off-patent drugs. Working together, these two proposals would improve access to and the quality and affordability of pharmaceuticals in China.

  20. Generation of high-quality petawatt pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Mourou, G; Bado, Philippe

    1991-01-01

    CPA sources need a front-end capable of generating very short seed pulses. To meet this requirement, present CPA sources rely on actively modelocked solid-state oscillators used in conjunction with non-linear fiber stages. This approach generates pulses with a residual frequency chirp, resulting in a limited peak-to-background intensity contrast ratio. The availability of an oscillator capable of producing directly (i.e. without fiber stage) picosecond or sub-picosecond pulses would significantly improve the quality of CPA sources. We have pursued different approaches to replace the standard modelocked oscillator front-end. In an initial phase, we investigated the possible use of Additive Pulse Modelocking (APM) color-center lasers as oscillators for CPA Nd:glass sources. Lately we have developed a Ti:Sapphire modelocked oscillator operating in the one-micron range. In order to generate pulses with very high peak to background contrast ratio, we have built a non-linear coupled-cavity oscillator generating 200-fs pulses. This color-center laser operates in the 1.5--1.6 micron range. A diagram of the oscillator is shown in Fig. 1. The laser is pumped with a modelocked Nd:YAG source. Both KCl and NaCl crystals were tested as gain media. NaCl was found to have a larger tuning range and to generate a higher average power (up to 150 mW). When synchronously mode-locked, the color-center generates pulses in the 10--20 ps range. Once interferometrically coupled to non-linear external-cavity, this oscillator produces very short pulses (85 to 260 fs). This oscillator was first operated with a 2 mm birefringent plate. 85 fs, near transform-limited pulses were generated at 1.54 micron. As the laser was tuned to longer wavelength, the pulse duration increased, as well as the bandwidth-duration product. With a 4 mm birefringent plate, 125 fs, transform-limited pulses were generated over the full tuning range.

  1. An Assessment of Female Prisoners’ Perception of the Accessibility of Quality Healthcare: A Survey in the Kumasi Central Prisons, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Sarpong, AA; Otupiri, E; Yeboah-Awudzi, K; Osei-Yeboah, J; Berchie, GO; Ephraim, RKD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accessibility of quality healthcare across the globe has generated a lot of attention among public health practitioners. Aim: This study explored the background characteristics of female prisoners and how it influences their assessment of the quality of accessible healthcare in the Kumasi Female Prison. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Female section of the Kumasi Central Prisons from June to December 2011. We used pretested questionnaires to obtain quantitative data from all 39 inmates of the female Prisons. An in-depth interview was used to obtain qualitative data from the prison healthcare giver. Data were analyzed with Epi Info Version 3.5.1, (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), Excel, and Graph Pad Prism version 5.00 for Windows (Graph Pad software, San Diego California USA, www.graphpad.com). Results: Using a 12-point scale inventory questionnaire, inmates with no formal education gave the highest mean health provision assessment score (6.0) whereas those with tertiary education gave the lowest (4.5). Females serving prison sentences gave the highest mean health assessment score whereas remand prisoners gave the lowest. Single females’ mean health assessment score was 5.7 whereas that of married inmates was 4.9. Unemployed inmates scored 5.8, informal 5.4 while civil servants scored 5.0. Conclusion: Access to quality healthcare was poor and demographic characteristics, marital status, educational background, and occupation influenced inmates’ perceptions of accessibility to quality healthcare. Inmates should be encouraged to be proactive in seeking healthcare irrespective of their background characteristics. PMID:26097759

  2. Access to Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery under Pay for Performance: Evidence from the Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Arnold M.; Joynt, Karen E.; Jha, Ashish K.; Orav, E. John

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Pay for Performance (P4P) has become common, many worry that P4P will lead providers to avoid offering surgical procedures to the sickest patients out of concern that poor outcomes will lead to financial penalties. Methods and Results We used Medicare data to compare change in rates of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) between 2002–03 and 2008–09 among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) admitted to 126 hospitals participating in Medicare’s Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration P4P program (HQID) with patients in 848 control hospitals participating in public reporting alone. We examined rates for all AMI patients and those in the top decile of predicted mortality based on demographics, medical comorbidities and AMI characteristics. We identified 91,393 patients admitted for AMI in Premier hospitals and 502,536 Medicare patients admitted for AMI in control hospitals. CABG rates for AMI patients in Premier decreased from 13.6% in 2002–03 to 10.4% in 2008–09; there was a comparable decrease in non-Premier hospitals (13.6% to 10.6%, p-value for comparison of changes between Premier and non-Premier of 0.67). CABG rates for high-risk patients in Premier decreased from 8.4% in FY 2002–3 to 8.2% in 2008–9. Patterns were similar in non-Premier hospitals (8.4% to 8.3%, p-value for comparison of changes between Premier and non-Premier, 0.82). Conclusions Our results show no evidence of a deleterious impact of P4P on access to CABG for high-risk patients with AMI. These results should be reassuring to those concerned about the potential negative impact of P4P on high-risk patients. PMID:25160840

  3. An access control model with high security for distributed workflow and real-time application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ruo-Fei; Wang, Hou-Xiang

    2007-11-01

    The traditional mandatory access control policy (MAC) is regarded as a policy with strict regulation and poor flexibility. The security policy of MAC is so compelling that few information systems would adopt it at the cost of facility, except some particular cases with high security requirement as military or government application. However, with the increasing requirement for flexibility, even some access control systems in military application have switched to role-based access control (RBAC) which is well known as flexible. Though RBAC can meet the demands for flexibility but it is weak in dynamic authorization and consequently can not fit well in the workflow management systems. The task-role-based access control (T-RBAC) is then introduced to solve the problem. It combines both the advantages of RBAC and task-based access control (TBAC) which uses task to manage permissions dynamically. To satisfy the requirement of system which is distributed, well defined with workflow process and critically for time accuracy, this paper will analyze the spirit of MAC, introduce it into the improved T&RBAC model which is based on T-RBAC. At last, a conceptual task-role-based access control model with high security for distributed workflow and real-time application (A_T&RBAC) is built, and its performance is simply analyzed.

  4. 36 CFR 910.31 - High architectural quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High architectural quality... architectural quality. Development must maintain a uniformly high standard of architecture, representative of the best contemporary design and planning concepts. Great care and sensitivity must be shown in...

  5. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes. Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Del Bianco, M.; Taggart, J.; Sikora, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  6. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes: Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Del Bianco, M.; Taggart, J.; Sikora, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) Teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  7. Assessing Impacts on Unplanned Hospitalisations of Care Quality and Access Using a Structural Equation Method: With a Case Study of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Congdon, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enhanced quality of care and improved access are central to effective primary care management of long term conditions. However, research evidence is inconclusive in establishing a link between quality of primary care, or access, and adverse outcomes, such as unplanned hospitalisation. Methods: This paper proposes a structural equation model for quality and access as latent variables affecting adverse outcomes, such as unplanned hospitalisations. In a case study application, quality of care (QOC) is defined in relation to diabetes, and the aim is to assess impacts of care quality and access on unplanned hospital admissions for diabetes, while allowing also for socio-economic deprivation, diabetes morbidity, and supply effects. The study involves 90 general practitioner (GP) practices in two London Clinical Commissioning Groups, using clinical quality of care indicators, and patient survey data on perceived access. Results: As a single predictor, quality of care has a significant negative impact on emergency admissions, and this significant effect remains when socio-economic deprivation and morbidity are allowed. In a full structural equation model including access, the probability that QOC negatively impacts on unplanned admissions exceeds 0.9. Furthermore, poor access is linked to deprivation, diminished QOC, and larger list sizes. Conclusions: Using a Bayesian inference methodology, the evidence from the analysis is weighted towards negative impacts of higher primary care quality and improved access on unplanned admissions. The methodology of the paper is potentially applicable to other long term conditions, and relevant when care quality and access cannot be measured directly and are better regarded as latent variables. PMID:27598184

  8. Effective multidisciplinary working: the key to high-quality care.

    PubMed

    Ndoro, Samuel

    This article explores multidisciplinary team working, inter-disciplinary, trans-disciplinary and effective collaborative practice in order to provide high-quality patient care. It discusses different views on collaboration, some of the issues around cross-discipline and multi-agency working and concerns around promoting 'high-quality' care. It also discusses the importance of evidence-based practice in multidisciplinary teams. Issues around good-quality care, clinical governance and the audit cycle in MDTs are addressed. The article highlights the importance of the 6Cs (care, compassion, competence, communication, courage and commitment) in MDTs if quality care is to be achieved. The article also explores advantages and limitations of multidisciplinary team working, trans-disciplinary working and inter-professional working in developing and delivering high-quality patient-centred care. Further research is needed on how clinical audits can help to improve how MDTs function in order improve the quality of service provided to clients.

  9. Free open access medical education can help rural clinicians deliver 'quality care, out there'.

    PubMed

    Leeuwenburg, Tim J; Parker, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Rural clinicians require expertise across a broad range of specialties, presenting difficulty in maintaining currency of knowledge and application of best practice. Free open access medical education is a new paradigm in continuing professional education. Use of the internet and social media allows a globally accessible crowd-sourced adjunct, providing inline (contextual) and offline (asynchronous) content to augment traditional educational principles and the availability of relevant resources for life-long learning. This markedly reduces knowledge translation (the delay from inception of a new idea to bedside implementation) and allows rural clinicians to further expertise by engaging in discussion of cutting edge concepts with peers worldwide. PMID:26278340

  10. Direct Versus Diffusive Access of High-Energy Solar Protons Into the High-Latitude Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouznetsov, Alexei; Knudsen, David; Spanswick, Emma; Donovan, Eric

    During solar proton events (SPEs), large fluxes of energetic protons spreading throughout the interplanetary medium (IPM)have access to the upper polar atmosphere where they play important roles in physical and chemical processes. We examine the relation between SPEs as detected through ionospheric absorption measured by the NORSTAR riometer network on one hand, and the proton fluxes measured outside the magnetosphere by the SOHO satellite on the other. We find a high correlation between SOHO fluxes and absorptions in some type of events (those having insignificant electron precipitation and background radio noise) and at given time intervals (within tens of hours following times of maximum flux ) but not others. By using a numerical simulation of high-energy proton propagation through the earth's magnetosphere we show that the flux of SPE particles reaching the upper atmosphere depends strongly on the angular distribution of the source population outside of the magnetosphere. Early in SP events, protons follow solar magnetic field lines and their distributions tend to be highly anisotropic(1), and the strong angular dependence decreases the correlation between IPM fluxes and polar cap absorption. As individual events evolve, flux angular distributions of IPM protons tend to be more isotropic(1) due to encounters with randomly distributed fields of magnetic clouds in the interplanetary medium (obtained closed solution of non-steady-state diffusion equation in P1-approximation allows us to estimate the dynamics of angular modulation). It is only when this diffusive isotropization occurs that we see strong correlations (correlation coefficients of up to 0.98) between IPM fluxes observed at SOHO and the polar cap absorptions observed by the NORSTAR riometers. We aim to use these observations to construct and validate a realistic transport model that will map proton fluxes originating outside the magnetosphere to those incident on the upper atmosphere, and vice versa

  11. Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were…

  12. Access, Quality, and Opportunity: A Case Study of Zambia Open Community Schools (ZOCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwalimu, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Community schools and other approaches to Alternative Primary Education or APE have increased access to primary education for underserved populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America as a major goal of the Education for All (EFA) movement. In Zambia, a country where an estimated 20 percent of the basic education enrollment now attends community…

  13. Enhancing Access to and Quality of Basic Education through Head Teachers' Leadership Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oni, J. O.; Jegede, A. A.; Osisami, R. A.; Illo, C. O.; Lawal, R. O.; Fabinu, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Basic education is the fundamental requirement for idiosyncratic and societal development. The individual child needs to have access to it and acquire it qualitatively. The sum total of all the knowledge attitude, skills and competences that the Nigerian child today acquires have been declared to be on the decline. Every stakeholder: teacher,…

  14. Child Care for Low-Income Children with Disabilities: Access, Quality, and Parental Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Shavaun; Kisker, Ellen E.; Peterson, Carla A.; Carta, Judith J.; Jeon, Hyun-Joo

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, this study analyzed the similarities and differences of variables associated with child care services for low-income families with young children with disabilities and low-income families with typically developing children. Four major variables were analyzed: access to child…

  15. Improving Access To, Quality, and the Effectiveness of Digital Tutoring in K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Patricia; Good, Annalee; Heinrich, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable variation in how providers of digital education describe what they do, their services, how students access services, and what is delivered, complicating efforts to accurately assess its impact. We examine program characteristics of digital tutoring providers using rich, longitudinal observational and interview data and then…

  16. The Quality of Urban Environments: Mapping Variation in Access to Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, Karen; Exeter, Daniel; Field, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between community infrastructure and health through the development of the Community Resource Accessibility Index (CRAI) research tool.This area-based index of community services, facilities, and amenities enables comparisons between opportunity structures in the local environment and residents' health and wellbeing. It…

  17. Boiler for generating high quality vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, V. H.; Marto, P. J.; Joslyn, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Boiler supplies vapor for use in turbines by imparting a high angular velocity to the liquid annulus in heated rotating drum. Drum boiler provides a sharp interface between boiling liquid and vapor, thereby, inhibiting the formation of unwanted liquid droplets.

  18. Total quality management: A management philosophy for providing high quality construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, Paul D.

    Total Quality Management (TQM) is not a new concept. Only recently (within the past ten years or so) have American companies started to realize the potential of TQM as a means of ensuring high quality products and services. With this realization has come implementation in manufacturing and service companies. A commercial construction company, like any other business, must provide a top quality finished product to its customer if it intends to stay in business. TQM is one way to work to that end. This report explores the quality problems facing my fictitious construction company, which I believe are fairly typical among the commercial construction industry, existing management methods, and the TQM method to ensure top quality production. It will be shown why I believe TQM or a variation thereof is the best method for controlling the quality of products and service during the construction process. Under the philosophy of TQM, we build quality into the finished product.

  19. Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case

    SciTech Connect

    Drake Kirkham; Amy Powell; Lucas Rich

    2011-02-01

    Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case Drake Kirkham1, Amy Powell2, Lucas Rich3 1Quality Manager, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625 M/S 6122, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6122 2Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory 3Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory Contact: Voice: (208) 533-7550 Email: Drake.Kirkham@inl.gov Abstract. The Radioisotope Power Systems Program of the Idaho National Laboratory makes an empirical case for a highly integrated Quality Assurance function pertaining to the preparation, assembly, testing, storage and transportation of 238Pu fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Case data represents multiple campaigns including the Pluto/New Horizons mission, the Mars Science Laboratory mission in progress, and other related projects. Traditional Quality Assurance models would attempt to reduce cost by minimizing the role of dedicated Quality Assurance personnel in favor of either functional tasking or peer-based implementations. Highly integrated Quality Assurance adds value by placing trained quality inspectors on the production floor side-by-side with nuclear facility operators to enhance team dynamics, reduce inspection wait time, and provide for immediate, independent feedback. Value is also added by maintaining dedicated Quality Engineers to provide for rapid identification and resolution of corrective action, enhanced and expedited supply chain interfaces, improved bonded storage capabilities, and technical resources for requirements management including data package development and Certificates of Inspection. A broad examination of cost-benefit indicates highly integrated Quality Assurance can reduce cost through the mitigation of risk and reducing administrative burden thereby allowing engineers to be engineers, nuclear operators to be nuclear operators, and the cross-functional team to operate more efficiently. Applicability of this case

  20. Process for selecting NEAMS applications for access to Idaho National Laboratory high performance computing resources

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Pernice

    2010-09-01

    INL has agreed to provide participants in the Nuclear Energy Advanced Mod- eling and Simulation (NEAMS) program with access to its high performance computing (HPC) resources under sponsorship of the Enabling Computational Technologies (ECT) program element. This report documents the process used to select applications and the software stack in place at INL.

  1. Outsourcing a High Speed Internet Access Project: An Information Technology Class Case Study in Three Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Richard G.; Carper, William B.; McCool, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In early 2004, the Hilton Hotels Corporation (HHC) required that all of its hotels (both owned and franchised) install high-speed Internet access (HSIA) in all of their rooms by June 2004. This case focuses on how one of its franchise properties located on the northern gulf coast of Florida (the Hilton Sandestin Beach Golf Resort &…

  2. Oak Park and River Forest High School Random Access Information Center; A PACE Program. Report II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Park - River Forest High School, Oak Park, IL.

    The specifications, planning, and initial development phases of the Random Access Center at the Oak Park and River Forest High School in Oak Park, Illinois, are described with particular attention to the ways that the five functional specifications and the five-part program rationale were implemented in the system design. Specifications, set out…

  3. Accessing Services for Youth with Emotional Disturbances in and after High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary M.; Wei, Xin; Thornton, S. Patrick; Valdes, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to examine the rates at which youth with emotional disturbances received services during and up to 8 years after high school. Parents' efforts to obtain services, information sources accessed, problems encountered, and the perceived sufficiency of services to meet youths' needs…

  4. Information Literacy Skills Training: A Factor in Student Satisfaction with Access to High Demand Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrett, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    In a survey of Business and Government, Law and Information Sciences students carried out at the University of Canberra, results showed that in-curricula information literacy skills training had a greater impact on students' satisfaction with access to high demand material than the purchase of additional copies of books. This paper will discuss…

  5. 42 CFR 417.106 - Quality assurance program; Availability, accessibility, and continuity of basic and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations: Services § 417.106 Quality assurance program... the following conditions: (1) Stresses health outcomes to the extent consistent with the state of...

  6. 42 CFR 417.106 - Quality assurance program; Availability, accessibility, and continuity of basic and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations: Services § 417.106 Quality assurance program... the following conditions: (1) Stresses health outcomes to the extent consistent with the state of...

  7. 42 CFR 417.106 - Quality assurance program; Availability, accessibility, and continuity of basic and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations: Services § 417.106 Quality assurance program... the following conditions: (1) Stresses health outcomes to the extent consistent with the state of...

  8. Can high quality cane be delivered to the mill economically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cane quality is becoming increasingly important to the Louisiana sugarcane industry, with some processors offering premiums for high quality cane. Using a Cameco® 3500, we tested ground speeds of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 mph and fan speeds of 650, 850, and 1050 rpm. Ground speed had no effect on can...

  9. Efficient, quality-assured data capture in operational research through innovative use of open-access technology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A M V; Naik, B; Guddemane, D K; Bhat, P; Wilson, N; Sreenivas, A N; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2013-03-21

    Ensuring quality of data during electronic data capture has been one of the most neglected components of operational research. Multicentre studies are also challenged with issues about logistics of travel, training, supervision, monitoring and troubleshooting support. Allocating resources to these issues can pose a significant bottleneck for operational research in resource-limited settings. In this article, we describe an innovative and efficient way of coordinating data capture in multicentre operational research using a combination of three open access technologies-EpiData for data capture, Dropbox for sharing files and TeamViewer for providing remote support.

  10. High quality transparent conducting oxide thin films

    DOEpatents

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Duenow, Joel N.; Barnes, Teresa; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2012-08-28

    A transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film comprising: a TCO layer, and dopants selected from the elements consisting of Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tantalum, Niobium, Antimony, Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium, wherein the elements are n-type dopants; and wherein the transparent conducting oxide is characterized by an improved electron mobility of about 42 cm.sup.2/V-sec while simultaneously maintaining a high carrier density of .about.4.4e.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3.

  11. Fabrication of high quality ferromagnetic Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weides, M.; Tillmann, K.; Kohlstedt, H.

    2006-05-01

    We present ferromagnetic Nb/Al2O3/Ni60Cu40/Nb Josephson junctions (SIFS) with an ultrathin Al2O3 tunnel barrier. The junction fabrication was optimized regarding junction insulation and homogeneity of current transport. Using ion-beam-etching and anodic oxidation we defined and insulated the junction mesas. The additional 2 nm thin Cu-layer below the ferromagnetic NiCu (SINFS) lowered interface roughness and ensured very homogeneous current transport. A high yield of junctional devices with jc spreads less than 2% was obtained.

  12. Perspectives on open access high resolution digital elevation models to produce global flood hazard layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Christopher; Smith, Andrew; Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeffrey; Trigg, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Global flood hazard models have recently become a reality thanks to the release of open access global digital elevation models, the development of simplified and highly efficient flow algorithms, and the steady increase in computational power. In this commentary we argue that although the availability of open access global terrain data has been critical in enabling the development of such models, the relatively poor resolution and precision of these data now limit significantly our ability to estimate flood inundation and risk for the majority of the planet's surface. The difficulty of deriving an accurate 'bare-earth' terrain model due to the interaction of vegetation and urban structures with the satellite-based remote sensors means that global terrain data are often poorest in the areas where people, property (and thus vulnerability) are most concentrated. Furthermore, the current generation of open access global terrain models are over a decade old and many large floodplains, particularly those in developing countries, have undergone significant change in this time. There is therefore a pressing need for a new generation of high resolution and high vertical precision open access global digital elevation models to allow significantly improved global flood hazard models to be developed.

  13. Why India should become a global leader in high-quality, affordable TB diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Small, Peter

    2012-05-01

    The scale up of DOTS in India is one of the greatest public health accomplishments, and yet undiagnosed and poorly managed TB continues to fuel the epidemic such that India continues to have the highest number of TB cases in the world. Recognizing these challenges, the Government of India has set an ambitious goal of providing universal access to quality diagnosis and treatment for all TB patients in the country. Innovative tools and delivery systems in both the public and private sectors are essential for reaching this goal. Fortunately, India has the potential to solve its TB problem with "home-grown" solutions. Just as Indian pharmaceutical companies revolutionized access to high-quality, affordable AIDS drugs through generic production, Indian diagnostic companies could also become the world's hub for high-quality generic diagnostics. In the long term, India has the potential to lead the world in developing innovative TB diagnostics. For this to happen, Indian industry must move from the import and imitation approach to genuine innovation in both product development as well as delivery. This must be supported by permissive policies and enhanced funding by the Indian government and the private sector. Strict regulation of diagnostics, increased attention to quality assurance in laboratories, and greater engagement of the private health care providers are also needed to effectively deliver innovative products and approaches. PMID:22771602

  14. High Adherence Is Necessary to Realize Health Gains from Water Quality Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joe; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Safe drinking water is critical for health. Household water treatment (HWT) has been recommended for improving access to potable water where existing sources are unsafe. Reports of low adherence to HWT may limit the usefulness of this approach, however. Methods and Findings We constructed a quantitative microbial risk model to predict gains in health attributable to water quality interventions based on a range of assumptions about pre-treatment water quality; treatment effectiveness in reducing bacteria, viruses, and protozoan parasites; adherence to treatment interventions; volume of water consumed per person per day; and other variables. According to mean estimates, greater than 500 DALYs may be averted per 100,000 person-years with increased access to safe water, assuming moderately poor pre-treatment water quality that is a source of risk and high treatment adherence (>90% of water consumed is treated). A decline in adherence from 100% to 90% reduces predicted health gains by up to 96%, with sharpest declines when pre-treatment water quality is of higher risk. Conclusions Results suggest that high adherence is essential in order to realize potential health gains from HWT. PMID:22586491

  15. Contribution of Neighborhood Income and Access to Quality Physical Activity Resources to Physical Activity in Ethnic Minority Women Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Soltero, Erica G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To create and test an index to indicate both availability and quality of physical activity (PA) resources (PARs), to examine associations between access to quality PARs and changes in PA, and to determine whether this association differed in lower- and higher-income neighborhoods. Design Longitudinal, 6-month intervention. Setting. Houston and Austin, Texas. Subjects African-American and Hispanic or Latina women. Measures Women (N = 410) completed a questionnaire and accelerometry to measure PA. Neighborhoods (N = 163) were classified as lower- or higher-income by median household income at the census-tract level. PARs were audited using the PARA (physical activity resource assessment). Access to quality PARs was determined by a composite index (QPAR) of features, amenities, and incivilities. Analysis Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine changes in PA by (1) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and QPAR (lower/higher) groups, and (2) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and number of PARs (lower/higher) groups, adjusting for ethnicity, household income, and body mass index. Results Women in neighborhoods with lower QPAR scores had small increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 327.8 metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-min/wk) and decreases in accelerometer PA (M = −3.4 min/d), compared to those with higher QPAR scores who had larger increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 709.8 MET-min/wk) and increased accelerometer PA (M = 3.9 min/d). There was a significant interaction between changes in leisure-time PA, QPAR score, and number of PARs (p =.049). Women with both more PARs and higher QPAR scores reported greater increases in leisure-time PA than women with fewer PARs and lower QPAR scores. Conclusion Access to higher-quality PARs can help increase or maintain PA over time regardless of neighborhood income. PAR quality is a separate and distinct, important determinant of PA in ethnic minority women. PMID:24524382

  16. Management of data quality of high level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    Over the past 10 years, the Hanford Site has been transitioning from nuclear materials production to Site cleanup operations. High-level waste characterization at the Hanford Site provides data to support present waste processing operations, tank safety programs, and future waste disposal programs. Quality elements in the high-level waste characterization program will be presented by following a sample through the data quality objective, sampling, laboratory analysis and data review process. Transition from production to cleanup has resulted in changes in quality systems and program; the changes, as well as other issues in these quality programs, will be described. Laboratory assessment through quality control and performance evaluation programs will be described, and data assessments in the laboratory and final reporting in the tank characterization reports will be discussed.

  17. Mobile Access to ClinicalConnect: A User Feedback Survey on Usability, Productivity, and Quality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background ClinicalConnect, a federated clinical viewer for South West Ontario, Canada, launched a mobile interface in June 2012. Objective The aim of the study was to assess usability of the mobile interface and the perceived impact on productivity of health care providers and quality of healthcare delivery. Methods A survey was conducted using the System Usability Scale (SUS) and questionnaires designed to measure productivity and quality based on Canada Health Infoway's Benefits Evaluation framework. Results The mean SUS score was 67 based on 77 responses. The mean scores for productivity and quality were 3.37 (N=74) and 3.62 (N=71), respectively, on a 5-point Likert scale where 3 was neutral. Conclusions Users perceived the mobile interface of ClinicalConnect as useful but were neutral about the ease of use. PMID:25877226

  18. Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were consistently tied to HDI; the availability of formal and informal learning materials little less so. Gross domestic product (GDP) tended to show a stronger independent relation with housing quality and material resources than life expectancy and education. Formal learning resources were independently related to the GDP and education indices, and informal learning resources were not independently related to any constituent indices of the overall HDI. PMID:22277008

  19. Making GRADE accessible: a proposal for graphic display of evidence quality assessments.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid S; Borowiack, Ewa; Roos, Carolien; Kowalska, Monika; Zapalska, Anna; Mol, Ben W; Mignini, Luciano; Meads, Catherine; Walczak, Jacek

    2011-06-01

    When generating guidelines, quality of evidence is frequently reported in tabulated form capturing several domains, for example, study design, risk of bias and heterogeneity. Increasingly, this is done using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. As assimilating large amount of tabulated data across several comparisons and outcomes spread over many pages (sometimes hundreds) is not easy, there is a need to present evidence summaries in a more effective way. A graphic display plotting the several domains used in evidence grading on equiangular spokes starting from the same point, the data length of each spoke proportional to the magnitude of the quality, succinctly captures tabulated information. These plots allow easy identification of deficiencies, outliers and similarities in evidence quality for individual and multiple comparisons and outcomes, paving the way for their routine use alongside tabulated information.

  20. An open-access database of grape harvest dates for climate research: data description and quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daux, V.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Yiou, P.; Chuine, I.; Garnier, E.; Ladurie, E. Le Roy; Mestre, O.; Tardaguila, J.

    2012-09-01

    We present an open-access dataset of grape harvest dates (GHD) series that has been compiled from international, French and Spanish literature and from unpublished documentary sources from public organizations and from wine-growers. As of June 2011, this GHD dataset comprises 380 series mainly from France (93% of the data) as well as series from Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Luxemburg. The series have variable length (from 1 to 479 data, mean length of 45 data) and contain gaps of variable sizes (mean ratio of observations/series length of 0.74). The longest and most complete ones are from Burgundy, Switzerland, Southern Rhône valley, Jura and Ile-de-France. The most ancient harvest date of the dataset is in 1354 in Burgundy. The GHD series were grouped into 27 regions according to their location, to geomorphological and geological criteria, and to past and present grape varieties. The GHD regional composite series (GHD-RCS) were calculated and compared pairwise to assess their reliability assuming that series close to one another are highly correlated. Most of the pairwise correlations are significant (p-value < 0.001) and strong (mean pairwise correlation coefficient of 0.58). As expected, the correlations tend to be higher when the vineyards are closer. The highest correlation (R = 0.91) is obtained between the High Loire Valley and the Ile-de-France GHD-RCS. The strong dependence of the vine cycle on temperature and, therefore, the strong link between the harvest dates and the temperature of the growing season was also used to test the quality of the GHD series. The strongest correlations are obtained between the GHD-RCS and the temperature series of the nearest weather stations. Moreover, the GHD-RCS/temperature correlation maps show spatial patterns similar to temperature correlation maps. The stability of the correlations over time is explored. The most striking feature is their generalised deterioration at the late 19th-early 20th century. The possible

  1. Pakistan's Primary Education Quality Improvement Program: Local Partners Work with Rural Communities to Support High Quality Education for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afridi, Zahid A.

    2006-01-01

    This document describes the contributions made by the Primary Education Quality Improvement Program (1996-1999) to the broad goals of improved access, equity, and quality in girls' primary education in Pakistan. In Balochistan, the largest but least developed province of Pakistan, an innovative approach to educational development was successfully…

  2. Multi-core fiber technology for highly reliable optical network in access areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Ken-ichi; Lee, Yong; Nomoto, Etsuko; Arimoto, Hideo; Sugawara, Toshiki

    2015-03-01

    A failure recovery system utilizing a multi-core fiber (MCF) link with field programmable gate array-based optical switch units was developed to achieve high capacity and highly reliable optical networks in access areas. We describe the novel MCF link based on a multi-ring structure and a protection scheme to prevent link failures. Fan-in/ -out devices and connectors are also presented to demonstrate the development status of the MCF connection technology for the link. We demonstrated path recovery by switching operation within a sufficiently short time, which is required by ITU-T. The selection of a protecting path as a failure working path was also optimized as the minimum passage of units for low loss transmission. The results we obtained indicate that our proposed link has potential for the network design of highly reliable network topologies in access areas such as data centers, systems in business areas, and fiber to the home systems in residential areas.

  3. Structural impediments to condom access in a High HIV/STI-risk area.

    PubMed

    Rizkalla, Christine; Bauman, Laurie J; Avner, Jeffrey R

    2010-01-01

    As embarrassment is a known obstacle to condom acquisition, selling condoms from physically inaccessible places that require personnel assistance constitutes a barrier to access. This study investigates the extent of this barrier in the Bronx, a high HIV/STI prevalence county of New York. 75 of 320 listed Bronx pharmacies were sampled via computer randomization. Investigators coded condom placement and physical accessibility within these pharmacies and 140 surrounding stores. 91% of sites sold condoms. In 82%, condoms could not be accessed without assistance. Condoms were physically inaccessible in venues most encountered in the community: grocery stores versus pharmacies (OR=15; 95% CI, 5-48), independent versus chain pharmacies (OR=32; 95% CI, 6-235). They were physically inaccessible more in the lowest SES/highest HIV prevalence areas versus the highest SES/lowest HIV prevalence areas (OR = 4.3, 95% CI, 1.1-17). Findings can inform efforts to increase accessibility of condoms, distribute condoms in alternative settings, and prompt similar investigations in other high-risk communities.

  4. Expanding Access and Quality in Uganda: The Challenges of Building a Plane while Flying It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutright, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Uganda is among many nations in sub-Saharan Africa that are trying simultaneously to expand higher education opportunities and to enhance the quality of higher-education offerings. These are particularly challenging goals in resource-rich environments and are even more difficulty in environments of more limited resources to include funding,…

  5. Strategic Priorities for Improving Access to Quality Education in the Kurdistan Region--Iraq. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernez, Georges; Culbertson, Shelly; Constant, Louay

    2014-01-01

    The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) began an ambitious reform of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI's) kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) education system beginning in 2007 in an effort to modernize the curriculum, upgrade school facilities, and raise the quality of instruction. In 2010, RAND was asked to conduct a one-year study to assess…

  6. 42 CFR 417.106 - Quality assurance program; Availability, accessibility, and continuity of basic and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Qualified Health Maintenance Organizations: Services § 417.106 Quality assurance program; Availability... following conditions: (1) Stresses health outcomes to the extent consistent with the state of the art....

  7. Tackling Student Literacy and Numeracy Underpreparedness in Ontario Colleges: Access, Quality and Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziwak, Kasia

    2014-01-01

    As more students enter postsecondary education without the numeracy and literacy skills necessary for success, Ontario colleges are facing a challenge. While enrolment-based funding drives the colleges to seek growth to ensure financial stability, the quality assurance mechanism leads them to divert millions of dollars from their operating budgets…

  8. Process quality of diabetes care under favorable access to healthcare: a 2-year longitudinal study using claims data in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Tomio, Jun; Sugiyama, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the process quality of diabetes care provided to patients under universal health insurance coverage. Research design and methods Using claim data for 570 363 beneficiaries aged 20–69 years who were covered by Health Insurance Societies between April 2010 and March 2012, we identified patients with type 2 diabetes who made follow-up visits at least every 3 months in the first year (subject-identification year). We assessed patient adherence to follow-up visits in the second year (quality-reporting year), calculated the proportion of patients that completed routine examinations for glycemic control and complications, and evaluated associations between characteristics of patients and quality indicators using multivariable logistic regression models. Results We identified 12 909 patients with diabetes; in the subject-identification year, 1415 (11.0%) had prescriptions for insulin injections, 6049 (46.9%) had prescriptions for oral antihyperglycemic agents, and 5445 (42.2%) had no diabetes-related prescriptions. Among patients using medication, 474 (6.4%) dropped out in the quality-reporting year. The adjusted percentages of quality indicators among patients using oral antihyperglycemic agents were 95.8% for glycated hemoglobin, 35.6% for eye examinations, 15.4% for urine microalbumin excretion, and 90.6% for serum lipids; the percentages among patients taking insulin were the same or higher. Annual testing for glycated hemoglobin was less frequent in patients aged 40–49 years than in patients aged 60–69 years (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.91). Fewer men than women (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.64), and fewer patients aged 40–49 years than those aged 60–69 years (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.50 to 0.63) tended to complete routine eye examinations. Conclusions Screening for retinopathy and nephropathy was less frequent than required despite favorable conditions for access to healthcare in Japan. Suboptimal quality of care appeared to

  9. Process quality of diabetes care under favorable access to healthcare: a 2-year longitudinal study using claims data in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Tomio, Jun; Sugiyama, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the process quality of diabetes care provided to patients under universal health insurance coverage. Research design and methods Using claim data for 570 363 beneficiaries aged 20–69 years who were covered by Health Insurance Societies between April 2010 and March 2012, we identified patients with type 2 diabetes who made follow-up visits at least every 3 months in the first year (subject-identification year). We assessed patient adherence to follow-up visits in the second year (quality-reporting year), calculated the proportion of patients that completed routine examinations for glycemic control and complications, and evaluated associations between characteristics of patients and quality indicators using multivariable logistic regression models. Results We identified 12 909 patients with diabetes; in the subject-identification year, 1415 (11.0%) had prescriptions for insulin injections, 6049 (46.9%) had prescriptions for oral antihyperglycemic agents, and 5445 (42.2%) had no diabetes-related prescriptions. Among patients using medication, 474 (6.4%) dropped out in the quality-reporting year. The adjusted percentages of quality indicators among patients using oral antihyperglycemic agents were 95.8% for glycated hemoglobin, 35.6% for eye examinations, 15.4% for urine microalbumin excretion, and 90.6% for serum lipids; the percentages among patients taking insulin were the same or higher. Annual testing for glycated hemoglobin was less frequent in patients aged 40–49 years than in patients aged 60–69 years (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.91). Fewer men than women (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.64), and fewer patients aged 40–49 years than those aged 60–69 years (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.50 to 0.63) tended to complete routine eye examinations. Conclusions Screening for retinopathy and nephropathy was less frequent than required despite favorable conditions for access to healthcare in Japan. Suboptimal quality of care appeared to

  10. High quality factor, fully switchable terahertz superconducting metasurface

    SciTech Connect

    Scalari, G. Maissen, C.; Faist, J.; Cibella, S.; Leoni, R.

    2014-12-29

    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q = 54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with high Q and the use of inductive elements with a high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

  11. Concrete Waste Recycling Process for High Quality Aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Fujii, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-15

    Large amount of concrete waste generates during nuclear power plant (NPP) dismantling. Non-contaminated concrete waste is assumed to be disposed in a landfill site, but that will not be the solution especially in the future, because of decreasing tendency of the site availability and natural resources. Concerning concrete recycling, demand for roadbeds and backfill tends to be less than the amount of dismantled concrete generated in a single rural site, and conventional recycled aggregate is limited of its use to non-structural concrete, because of its inferior quality to ordinary natural aggregate. Therefore, it is vital to develop high quality recycled aggregate for general uses of dismantled concrete. If recycled aggregate is available for high structural concrete, the dismantling concrete is recyclable as aggregate for industry including nuclear field. Authors developed techniques on high quality aggregate reclamation for large amount of concrete generated during NPP decommissioning. Concrete of NPP buildings has good features for recycling aggregate; large quantity of high quality aggregate from same origin, record keeping of the aggregate origin, and little impurities in dismantled concrete such as wood and plastics. The target of recycled aggregate in this development is to meet the quality criteria for NPP concrete as prescribed in JASS 5N 'Specification for Nuclear Power Facility Reinforced Concrete' and JASS 5 'Specification for Reinforced Concrete Work'. The target of recycled aggregate concrete is to be comparable performance with ordinary aggregate concrete. The high quality recycled aggregate production techniques are assumed to apply for recycling for large amount of non-contaminated concrete. These techniques can also be applied for slightly contaminated concrete dismantled from radiological control area (RCA), together with free release survey. In conclusion: a technology on dismantled concrete recycling for high quality aggregate was developed

  12. Retrieval practice enhances the accessibility but not the quality of memory.

    PubMed

    Sutterer, David W; Awh, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that retrieval from long-term memory (LTM) can enhance subsequent memory performance, a phenomenon labeled the retrieval practice effect. However, the almost exclusive reliance on categorical stimuli in this literature leaves open a basic question about the nature of this improvement in memory performance. It has not yet been determined whether retrieval practice improves the probability of successful memory retrieval or the quality of the retrieved representation. To answer this question, we conducted three experiments using a mixture modeling approach (Zhang & Luck, 2008) that provides a measure of both the probability of recall and the quality of the recalled memories. Subjects attempted to memorize the color of 400 unique shapes. After every 10 images were presented, subjects either recalled the last 10 colors (the retrieval practice condition) by clicking on a color wheel with each shape as a retrieval cue or they participated in a control condition that involved no further presentations (Experiment 1) or restudy of the 10 shape/color associations (Experiments 2 and 3). Performance in a subsequent delayed recall test revealed a robust retrieval practice effect. Subjects recalled a significantly higher proportion of items that they had previously retrieved relative to items that were untested or that they had restudied. Interestingly, retrieval practice did not elicit any improvement in the precision of the retrieved memories. The same empirical pattern also was observed following delays of greater than 24 hours. Thus, retrieval practice increases the probability of successful memory retrieval but does not improve memory quality.

  13. High-throughput small molecule screen identifies inhibitors of aberrant chromatin accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Pattenden, Samantha G.; Simon, Jeremy M.; Wali, Aminah; Jayakody, Chatura N.; Troutman, Jacob; McFadden, Andrew W.; Wooten, Joshua; Wood, Cameron C.; Frye, Stephen V.; Janzen, William P.; Davis, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in chromatin-modifying proteins and transcription factors are commonly associated with a wide variety of cancers. Through gain- or loss-of-function, these mutations may result in characteristic alterations of accessible chromatin, indicative of shifts in the landscape of regulatory elements genome-wide. The identification of compounds that reverse a specific chromatin signature could lead to chemical probes or potential therapies. To explore whether chromatin accessibility could serve as a platform for small molecule screening, we adapted formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE), a chemical method to enrich for nucleosome-depleted genomic regions, as a high-throughput, automated assay. After demonstrating the validity and robustness of this approach, we applied this method to screen an epigenetically targeted small molecule library by evaluating regions of aberrant nucleosome depletion mediated by EWSR1-FLI1, the chimeric transcription factor critical for the bone and soft tissue tumor Ewing sarcoma. As a class, histone deacetylase inhibitors were greatly overrepresented among active compounds. These compounds resulted in diminished accessibility at targeted sites by disrupting transcription of EWSR1-FLI1. Capitalizing on precise differences in chromatin accessibility for drug discovery efforts offers significant advantages because it does not depend on the a priori selection of a single molecular target and may detect novel biologically relevant pathways. PMID:26929321

  14. Realization of high quality production schedules: Structuring quality factors via iteration of user specification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an architecture for realizing high quality production schedules. Although quality is one of the most important aspects of production scheduling, it is difficult, even for a user, to specify precisely. However, it is also true that the decision as to whether a scheduler is good or bad can only be made by the user. This paper proposes the following: (1) the quality of a schedule can be represented in the form of quality factors, i.e. constraints and objectives of the domain, and their structure; (2) quality factors and their structure can be used for decision making at local decision points during the scheduling process; and (3) that they can be defined via iteration of user specification processes.

  15. A Procedure for High Resolution Satellite Imagery Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Mattia; De Vendictis, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Data products generated from High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) are routinely evaluated during the so-called in-orbit test period, in order to verify if their quality fits the desired features and, if necessary, to obtain the image correction parameters to be used at the ground processing center. Nevertheless, it is often useful to have tools to evaluate image quality also at the final user level. Image quality is defined by some parameters, such as the radiometric resolution and its accuracy, represented by the noise level, and the geometric resolution and sharpness, described by the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). This paper proposes a procedure to evaluate these image quality parameters; the procedure was implemented in a suitable software and tested on high resolution imagery acquired by the QuickBird, WorldView-1 and Cartosat-1 satellites. PMID:22412312

  16. A High Speed Mobile Courier Data Access System That Processes Database Queries in Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatsheni, Barnabas Ndlovu; Mabizela, Zwelakhe

    A secure high-speed query processing mobile courier data access (MCDA) system for a Courier Company has been developed. This system uses the wireless networks in combination with wired networks for updating a live database at the courier centre in real-time by an offsite worker (the Courier). The system is protected by VPN based on IPsec. There is no system that we know of to date that performs the task for the courier as proposed in this paper.

  17. Quality of life and the high-dependency unit.

    PubMed

    Brooks, N

    2000-02-01

    This study was designed to identify and measure the patients' perspective of the concept quality of life within the context of a high-dependency unit (HDU). Data were collected in two phases. In phase one, 55 patients were interviewed, which resulted in the concept clarification of quality of life as: physical, social, psychological and family/friends. In phase two, 51 patients undertook quality-of-life assessment using validated instruments the Quality of Life Index (Ferrans & Powers 1985) and the Global Quality of Life Scale (Hyland & Sodergren 1997). Post-HDU patients demonstrated improvements upon pre-admission scores in both instruments (the social domain in the quality of life index being the exception), although this only reached statistical significance P<0.05 in the overall index score and within the domains of health and family. When exploring variables of age and severity of illness (Apache 2 score, Knaus et al. 1980) it was the people who were older and physiologically compromised to an increased extent (P<0.05) who demonstrated higher levels of satisfaction with their resulting quality of life. This study has been successful in providing patients with an opportunity to participate more actively in service evaluation and has identified the need for future evaluation of HDUs to move beyond physiological measures, to incorporate the impact that illness leading to admission to an HDU has upon the patients' ability to function and their resulting quality of life. PMID:10790712

  18. Developing Visions of High-Quality Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munter, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces an interview-based instrument that was created for the purposes of characterizing the visions of high-quality mathematics instruction of teachers, principals, mathematics coaches, and district leaders and tracking changes in those visions over time. The instrument models trajectories of perceptions of high-quality…

  19. Process to Continuously Melt, Refine and Cast High Quality Steel

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct research and development targeted at designing a revolutionary steelmaking process. This process will deliver high quality steel from scrap to the casting mold in one continuous process and will be safer, more productive, and less capital intensive to build and operate than conventional steelmaking. The new process will produce higher quality steel faster than traditional batch processes while consuming less energy and other resources.

  20. The potential exploitation of research participants in high income countries who lack access to health care.

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Rid, Annette; Emanuel, Ezekiel; Wendler, David

    2016-05-01

    There are millions of individuals living in North America and the European Union who lack access to healthcare services. When these individuals participate in research, they are at increased risk of being exposed to the risks and burdens of clinical trials without realizing the benefits that result from them. The mechanisms that have been proposed to ensure that research participants in low- and middle-income countries are not exploited are unlikely to protect participants in high-income countries. The present manuscript argues that one way to address concerns about exploitation in high-income countries would be to require sponsors to provide targeted benefits such as medical treatment during the trial, or the study drug after the trial. The latter could be achieved through extension studies, expanded access programs, or named-patient programs. Sponsors also might provide non-medical benefits, such as education or social support. Ethical and regulatory guidance should be revised to ensure that research participants in high-income countries who lack access to healthcare services receive sufficient benefits.

  1. High security chaotic multiple access scheme for visible light communication systems with advanced encryption standard interleaving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Junchao; Zhang, Lin; Li, Diyang; Liu, Xingcheng

    2016-06-01

    Chaotic sequences can be applied to realize multiple user access and improve the system security for a visible light communication (VLC) system. However, since the map patterns of chaotic sequences are usually well known, eavesdroppers can possibly derive the key parameters of chaotic sequences and subsequently retrieve the information. We design an advanced encryption standard (AES) interleaving aided multiple user access scheme to enhance the security of a chaotic code division multiple access-based visible light communication (C-CDMA-VLC) system. We propose to spread the information with chaotic sequences, and then the spread information is interleaved by an AES algorithm and transmitted over VLC channels. Since the computation complexity of performing inverse operations to deinterleave the information is high, the eavesdroppers in a high speed VLC system cannot retrieve the information in real time; thus, the system security will be enhanced. Moreover, we build a mathematical model for the AES-aided VLC system and derive the theoretical information leakage to analyze the system security. The simulations are performed over VLC channels, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness and high security of our presented AES interleaving aided chaotic CDMA-VLC system.

  2. Quality of service on high-speed data networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Ezio; Antonelli, Ferruccio

    1995-02-01

    Since the beginning of this century the issue of `quality' has been gaining increasing importance in a number of fields of human activities. For telecommunication services, too, the quality perceived by customers has been taken into account early on as an issue of strategic importance. Whilst for telephony the Quality of Service (QoS) has been already investigated and identified in terms of parameters and related test methodology, the situation for high speed data services (i.e. CBDS/SMDS, Frame Relay, etc.), provided by means of high speed network based on Asynchronous Transfer Moe (ATM) or Metropolitan Area Network technologies, can still be considered `under study'. There is a death of experience not only in terms of measurement instruments and procedures, but also in terms of knowledge of the relationship between the QoS provided at a network level and the quality perceived by the user on his or her terminal. The complexity of the equipment involved in setting up an end-to-end solution based on high speed data communications makes the problems of knowledge and supply of quality very hard to solve. Starting from the experience gained in carrying out high- speed network field trials based on Metropolitan Area Networks and, more recently, on ATM technology, the paper mainly deals with the problem of defining, measuring and then offering a specific QoS. First, the issue of what the user expects from the `high-speed network' is addressed. This analysis is carried out trying to gather what is peculiar to high-speed data communications from the user standpoint. Next, the focus is on how to cope with the requirements due to users' expectations, while carefully considering the basic principles of quality. Finally, a solution is proposed, starting from the experience gained from high speed networks installed in Italy.

  3. Improving efficiency or impairing access? Health care consolidation and quality of care: Evidence from emergency hospital closures in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Avdic, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Recent health care consolidation trends raise the important policy question whether improved emergency medical services and enhanced productivity can offset adverse quality effects from decreased access. This paper empirically analyzes how geographical distance from an emergency hospital affects the probability of surviving an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), accounting for health-based spatial sorting and data limitations on out-of-hospital mortality. Exploiting policy-induced variation in hospital distance derived from emergency hospital closures and detailed Swedish mortality data over two decades, results show a drastically decreasing probability of surviving an AMI as residential distance from a hospital increases one year after a closure occurred. The effect disappears in subsequent years, however, suggesting that involved agents quickly adapted to the new environment. PMID:27060525

  4. The effect of a Lean quality improvement implementation program on surgical pathology specimen accessioning and gross preparation error frequency.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maxwell L; Wilkerson, Trent; Grzybicki, Dana M; Raab, Stephen S

    2012-09-01

    Few reports have documented the effectiveness of Lean quality improvement in changing anatomic pathology patient safety. We used Lean methods of education; hoshin kanri goal setting and culture change; kaizen events; observation of work activities, hand-offs, and pathways; A3-problem solving, metric development, and measurement; and frontline work redesign in the accessioning and gross examination areas of an anatomic pathology laboratory. We compared the pre- and post-Lean implementation proportion of near-miss events and changes made in specific work processes. In the implementation phase, we documented 29 individual A3-root cause analyses. The pre- and postimplementation proportions of process- and operator-dependent near-miss events were 5.5 and 1.8 (P < .002) and 0.6 and 0.6, respectively. We conclude that through culture change and implementation of specific work process changes, Lean implementation may improve pathology patient safety.

  5. Global Access to Safe Water: Accounting for Water Quality and the Resulting Impact on MDG Progress

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Kyle; LoBuglio, Joe; Bartram, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) drinking water target relies on classification of water sources as “improved” or “unimproved” as an indicator for water safety. We adjust the current Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) estimate by accounting for microbial water quality and sanitary risk using the only-nationally representative water quality data currently available, that from the WHO and UNICEF “Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality”. A principal components analysis (PCA) of national environmental and development indicators was used to create models that predicted, for most countries, the proportions of piped and of other-improved water supplies that are faecally contaminated; and of these sources, the proportions that lack basic sanitary protection against contamination. We estimate that 1.8 billion people (28% of the global population) used unsafe water in 2010. The 2010 JMP estimate is that 783 million people (11%) use unimproved sources. Our estimates revise the 1990 baseline from 23% to 37%, and the target from 12% to 18%, resulting in a shortfall of 10% of the global population towards the MDG target in 2010. In contrast, using the indicator “use of an improved source” suggests that the MDG target for drinking-water has already been achieved. We estimate that an additional 1.2 billion (18%) use water from sources or systems with significant sanitary risks. While our estimate is imprecise, the magnitude of the estimate and the health and development implications suggest that greater attention is needed to better understand and manage drinking water safety. PMID:22690170

  6. Promoting Access to Quality Child Care: Critical Steps in Conducting Market Rate Surveys and Establishing Rate Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoney, Louise

    This report is designed to help policymakers, child care providers, and advocates establish child care rate support policies that support high quality in the context of government-subsidized, privately-provided child care. It also provides advice on the development and interpretation of market rate surveys of local child care fees. Part 1…

  7. Nursing's response to the crisis of access, costs, and quality in health care.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, C

    1993-09-01

    Changes now taking place in the structure of health care delivery in the United States from regulatory models controlled by physicians to competitive models driven by traditional market forces of cost and quality are beginning to open opportunities for innovative nursing practice models. This article reports on the cost-effectiveness of a community nursing center for persons living with HIV/AIDS. The potential cost impact of the nursing center is significant because of the nurses' ability to forestall hospital admissions and readmissions, decrease prolonged lengths of stay, provide medically supportive outpatient treatments, care for clients at a low cost per client per year, attract professional and nonprofessional volunteer services and donations, and increase job satisfaction, thus reducing costly nurse turnover. The 1991 to 1992 costs of HIV/AIDS health care in the United States were used to estimate conservatively that the center has saved more than $700,000 in 1991 and over $1 million in 1992 in hospital charges for HIV/AIDS care. A rationale for the cost savings estimates is supplied by results of quantitative and qualitative evaluation research projects conducted at the center. Finally, implications of this analysis for future directions in nursing practice and education are discussed.

  8. Water quality laboratories in Colombia: a GIS-based study of urban and rural accessibility.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jim; Liu, Jing; Bain, Robert; Perez, Andrea; Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie; Gundry, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify sample transportation times associated with mandated microbiological monitoring of drinking-water in Colombia. World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality recommend that samples spend no more than 6h between collection and analysis in a laboratory. Census data were used to estimate the minimum number of operational and surveillance samples required from piped water supplies under national regulations. Drive-times were then computed from each supply system to the nearest accredited laboratory and translated into sample holding times based on likely daily monitoring patterns. Of 62,502 surveillance samples required annually, 5694 (9.1%) were found to be more than 6 h from the nearest of 278 accredited laboratories. 612 samples (1.0%) were more than 24 hours' drive from the nearest accredited laboratory, the maximum sample holding time recommended by the World Health Organization. An estimated 30% of required rural samples would have to be stored for more than 6 h before reaching a laboratory. The analysis demonstrates the difficulty of undertaking microbiological monitoring in rural areas and small towns from a fixed laboratory network. Our GIS-based approach could be adapted to optimise monitoring strategies and support planning of testing and transportation infra-structure development. It could also be used to estimate sample transport and holding times in other countries.

  9. Water quality laboratories in Colombia: a GIS-based study of urban and rural accessibility.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jim; Liu, Jing; Bain, Robert; Perez, Andrea; Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie; Gundry, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify sample transportation times associated with mandated microbiological monitoring of drinking-water in Colombia. World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality recommend that samples spend no more than 6h between collection and analysis in a laboratory. Census data were used to estimate the minimum number of operational and surveillance samples required from piped water supplies under national regulations. Drive-times were then computed from each supply system to the nearest accredited laboratory and translated into sample holding times based on likely daily monitoring patterns. Of 62,502 surveillance samples required annually, 5694 (9.1%) were found to be more than 6 h from the nearest of 278 accredited laboratories. 612 samples (1.0%) were more than 24 hours' drive from the nearest accredited laboratory, the maximum sample holding time recommended by the World Health Organization. An estimated 30% of required rural samples would have to be stored for more than 6 h before reaching a laboratory. The analysis demonstrates the difficulty of undertaking microbiological monitoring in rural areas and small towns from a fixed laboratory network. Our GIS-based approach could be adapted to optimise monitoring strategies and support planning of testing and transportation infra-structure development. It could also be used to estimate sample transport and holding times in other countries. PMID:24747256

  10. Intercollegiate Athletics in Canada and the United States: Differences in Access, Quality, and Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Natalie M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that both the Canadian and American intercollegiate athletic leagues are highly competitive, there are significant differences between the two intercollegiate athletic systems, which may produce different experiences for student-athletes enrolled in each system. The differences between the two systems are related to the…

  11. Assuring Quality and Access in Advanced Practice Nursing: A Challenge to Nurse Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundinger, Mary O.; Cook, Sarah Sheets; Lenz, Elizabeth R.; Piacentini, Karen; Auerhahn, Carolyn; Smith, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    Advanced practice nurses are assuming increasingly accountable roles in primary health care. A doctor of nursing practice degree would signify the high level of competency they achieve. Columbia University's training model is an example of the preparation needed for this level of professional practice. (SK)

  12. Hitting Home: Quality, Cost, and Access Challenges Confronting Higher Education Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reindl, Travis

    2007-01-01

    A recent study by the Bureau of Labor Statistics indicates that high-skill jobs that require advanced learning will make up almost half of all job growth in the United States by 2014. Present trends indicate that there will be a dearth of adequately educated workers to fill these new jobs: as a result of changing demographics, rising costs and…

  13. Protein and quality analyses of accessions from the USDA soybean germplasm collection for tofu production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food-grade soybeans with large seed size, uniformity, clear hilum, and high 11S/7S ratio are favored by the food industry for making tofu. In order to search for soybean lines with desirable characteristics for making foods, twenty-two soybean lines were selected from the USDA-Soybean Germplasm Coll...

  14. Increasing the Impact of High-Resolution Lidar Topography Through Online Data Access and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2013-12-01

    Topography data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the Earth's surface and overlying vegetation. These data, collected from satellite, airborne, tripod, or mobile-mounted scanners have emerged as a fundamental tool for research on topics including earthquake hazards, hillslope processes, and cyrosphere change. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded OpenTopography (OT) Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is a web-based system designed to democratize access to earth science-oriented lidar topography data. OT provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including the point cloud and associated geospatial-processing tools for customized analysis. The point cloud data are co-located with on-demand processing tools to generate digital elevation models, and derived products and visualizations which allow users to quickly access data in a format appropriate for their scientific application. The OT system is built using a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that leverages cyberinfrastructure resources at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California San Diego to allow users, regardless of expertise, to access these massive lidar datasets and derived raster data products for use in research and teaching. OT hosts over 600 billion lidar returns covering more than 120,000 km2. These data are provided by a variety of partners under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding with OT. Partners include national facilities such as the NSF-funded National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping (NCALM), as well as non-governmental organizations and local, state, and federal agencies. OT has become a hub for high-resolution topography resources. Datasets hosted by other organizations, as well as lidar-specific software, can be registered into the OT catalog, providing users a 'one-stop shop' for such information. OT is also a partner on the NASA Lidar Access System (NLAS

  15. High-density magnetoresistive random access memory operating at ultralow voltage at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jia-Mian; Li, Zheng; Chen, Long-Qing; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The main bottlenecks limiting the practical applications of current magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) technology are its low storage density and high writing energy consumption. Although a number of proposals have been reported for voltage-controlled memory device in recent years, none of them simultaneously satisfy the important device attributes: high storage capacity, low power consumption and room temperature operation. Here we present, using phase-field simulations, a simple and new pathway towards high-performance MRAMs that display significant improvements over existing MRAM technologies or proposed concepts. The proposed nanoscale MRAM device simultaneously exhibits ultrahigh storage capacity of up to 88 Gb inch−2, ultralow power dissipation as low as 0.16 fJ per bit and room temperature high-speed operation below 10 ns. PMID:22109527

  16. Designing High Quality Research in Special Education: Group Experimental Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Russell; Lloyd, John Wills; Baker, Scott

    This paper, a result of a series of meetings of researchers, discusses critical issues related to the conduct of high-quality intervention research in special education using experimental and quasi-experimental designs that compare outcomes for different groups of students. It stresses the need to balance design components that satisfy laboratory…

  17. Novel, high-quality surface plasmon resonance microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Thariani, Rahber; Yager, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance microscope capable of high-quality speckle-free imaging has been designed that uses a laser as a source. An inexpensive acoustic transducer is used to reduce speckle and other image artifacts arising from the use of illumination from an inexpensive laser pointer. The microscope is described and operation of the system demonstrated.

  18. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOEpatents

    Strongin, Myron; Ruckman, Mark; Strongin, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate.

  19. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOEpatents

    Strongin, M.; Ruckman, M.; Strongin, D.

    1994-04-26

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate. 4 figures.

  20. Access to Academic Curriculum in Australian Secondary Schools: A Case Study of a Highly Marketised Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Laura B.; Southwell, Leonie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how access to academic curriculum differs between secondary schools in Australia, a country whose education system is marked by high levels of choice, privatisation and competition. Equitable access to academic curriculum is important for both individual students and their families as well as the larger society. Previous…

  1. Highly qualified does not equal high quality: A study of urban stakeholders' perceptions of quality in science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Rommel Joseph

    By employing qualitative methods, this study sought to determine the perceptions that urban stakeholders hold about what characteristics should distinguish a high school science teacher whom they would consider to demonstrate high quality in science teaching. A maximum variation sample of six science teachers, three school administrators, six parents and six students from a large urban public school district were interviewed using semi-structured, in-depth interview techniques. From these data, a list of observable characteristics which urban stakeholders hold as evidence of high quality in science teaching was generated. Observational techniques were utilized to determine the extent to which six urban high school science teachers, who meet the NCLB Act criteria for being "highly qualified", actually possessed the characteristics which these stakeholders hold as evidence of high quality in science teaching. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data set. The findings suggest that urban stakeholders perceive that a high school science teacher who demonstrates high quality in science teaching should be knowledgeable about their subject matter, their student population, and should be resourceful; should possess an academic background in science and professional experience in science teaching; should exhibit professionalism, a passion for science and teaching, and a dedication to teaching and student learning; should be skillful in planning and preparing science lessons and in organizing the classroom, in presenting the subject matter to students, in conducting a variety of hands-on activities, and in managing a classroom; and should assess whether students complete class goals and objectives, and provide feedback about grades for students promptly. The findings further reveal that some of the urban high school science teachers who were deemed to be "highly qualified", as defined by the NCLB Act, engaged in practices that threatened quality in science

  2. Catalytic enantioselective protoboration of disubstituted allenes. Access to alkenylboron compounds in high enantiomeric purity.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hwanjong; Jung, Byunghyuck; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2014-09-01

    Proto-boryl additions to 1,1-disubstituted allenes in the presence of 1.0-5.0 mol % of chiral NHC-Cu complexes, B2(pin)2, and t-BuOH proceed to afford alkenyl-B(pin) products in up to 98% yield, >98:2 site selectivity, and 98:2 er. The enantiomerically enriched alkenylboron products can be converted to otherwise difficult-to-access alkenyl bromides, methyl ketones or carboxylic acids. What's more, the corresponding boronic acids may be used in highly stereoselective NHC-Cu-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions. PMID:25153792

  3. Can the existence of highly accessible concrete representations explain savant skills? Some insights from synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Murray, A Louise

    2010-06-01

    The present review argues that the reification of abstract concepts provides a psychological mediating mechanism for calendar and lightning calculation and possibly even all savant skills. The argument, which draws heavily on the synaesthesia literature has two main strands. First, there is anecdotal evidence for the presence and utilisation of highly accessible concrete representations of abstract concepts in savants. Second, synaesthetes who possess these structures experience cognitive benefits in the same domain. The present review concludes that the putative mechanism discussed here is plausible and has some empirical support, however, is in need of further testing. A number of ways in which to proceed in this task are suggested.

  4. Detection of High Quality Rainfall Data to Improve Flood Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, T. C.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-12-01

    European flood management systems require reliable rainfall statistics, e.g. the Intensity-duration-Frequency curves for shorter and shorter durations and for a larger and larger range of return periods. Preliminary studies showed that the number of floods depends on the quality of available data, e.g. the time resolution quality. These facts suggest that a particular attention should be paid to the rainfall data quality in order to adequately investigate flood risk aiming to achieve flood resilience. The potential consequences of changes in measuring and recording techniques have been somewhat discussed in the literature with respect to a possible introduction of artificial inhomogeneities in time series. In this direction, we developed a first version of a SERQUAL procedure to automatically detect the effective time resolution of highly mixed data. We show that most of the rainfall time series have a lower recording frequency than that is assumed. This question is particularly important for operational hydrology, because an error on the effective recording high frequency introduces biases in the corresponding statistics. It is therefore essential to quantify the quality of the rainfall time series before their use. Due to the fact that the multiple scales and possible scaling behaviour of hydrological data are particularly important for many applications, including flood resilience research, this paper first investigates the sensitivity of the scaling estimates and methods to the deficit of short duration rainfall data, and consequently propose a few simple criteria for a reliable evaluation of the data quality. The SERQUAL procedure enable us to extract high quality sub-series from longer time series that will be much more reliable to calibrate and/or validate short duration quantiles and hydrological models.

  5. Compact pulley-type microring resonator with high quality factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Dong-Po; Lu, Jyun-Hong; Chen, Chii-Chang; Lee, Chien-Chieh; Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2014-11-01

    A pulley-type microring resonator with ultra-small dimensions and ultra-high quality factor on a silicon-on-insulator wafer is fabricated and characterized. Simulation results show that the bending loss of the pulley-type microring resonator can be diminished by wrapping the curved waveguide around the microring, and that the energy loss from the output port can be decreased by tuning the width of the bus waveguide to achieve destructive interference. A quality factor of 1.73 × 105 is obtained in this experiment. The compact size of the pulley-type microring resonator with low bending loss is suitable for an integrated optical circuit.

  6. High Quality Factor Mechanical Resonators Based on WSe2 Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Morell, Nicolas; Reserbat-Plantey, Antoine; Tsioutsios, Ioannis; Schädler, Kevin G; Dubin, François; Koppens, Frank H L; Bachtold, Adrian

    2016-08-10

    Suspended monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are membranes that combine ultralow mass and exceptional optical properties, making them intriguing materials for opto-mechanical applications. However, the low measured quality factor of TMD resonators has been a roadblock so far. Here, we report an ultrasensitive optical readout of monolayer TMD resonators that allows us to reveal their mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. We find that the quality factor of monolayer WSe2 resonators greatly increases below room temperature, reaching values as high as 1.6 × 10(4) at liquid nitrogen temperature and 4.7 × 10(4) at liquid helium temperature. This surpasses the quality factor of monolayer graphene resonators with similar surface areas. Upon cooling the resonator, the resonant frequency increases significantly due to the thermal contraction of the WSe2 lattice. These measurements allow us to experimentally study the thermal expansion coefficient of WSe2 monolayers for the first time. High Q-factors are also found in resonators based on MoS2 and MoSe2 monolayers. The high quality-factor found in this work opens new possibilities for coupling mechanical vibrational states to two-dimensional excitons, valley pseudospins, and single quantum emitters and for quantum opto-mechanical experiments based on the Casimir interaction. PMID:27459399

  7. High Quality Factor Mechanical Resonators Based on WSe2 Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Suspended monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are membranes that combine ultralow mass and exceptional optical properties, making them intriguing materials for opto-mechanical applications. However, the low measured quality factor of TMD resonators has been a roadblock so far. Here, we report an ultrasensitive optical readout of monolayer TMD resonators that allows us to reveal their mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. We find that the quality factor of monolayer WSe2 resonators greatly increases below room temperature, reaching values as high as 1.6 × 104 at liquid nitrogen temperature and 4.7 × 104 at liquid helium temperature. This surpasses the quality factor of monolayer graphene resonators with similar surface areas. Upon cooling the resonator, the resonant frequency increases significantly due to the thermal contraction of the WSe2 lattice. These measurements allow us to experimentally study the thermal expansion coefficient of WSe2 monolayers for the first time. High Q-factors are also found in resonators based on MoS2 and MoSe2 monolayers. The high quality-factor found in this work opens new possibilities for coupling mechanical vibrational states to two-dimensional excitons, valley pseudospins, and single quantum emitters and for quantum opto-mechanical experiments based on the Casimir interaction. PMID:27459399

  8. The development of an optically accessible, high-power combustion test rig.

    PubMed

    Slabaugh, Carson D; Pratt, Andrew C; Lucht, Robert P; Meyer, Scott E; Benjamin, Michael; Lyle, Kent; Kelsey, Mark

    2014-03-01

    This work summarizes the development of a gas turbine combustion experiment which will allow advanced optical measurements to be made at realistic engine conditions. Facility requirements are addressed, including instrumentation and control needs for remote operation when working with high energy flows. The methodology employed in the design of the optically accessible combustion chamber is elucidated, including window considerations and thermal management of the experimental hardware under extremely high heat loads. Experimental uncertainties are also quantified. The stable operation of the experiment is validated using multiple techniques and the boundary conditions are verified. The successful prediction of operating conditions by the design analysis is documented and preliminary data are shown to demonstrate the capability of the experiment to produce high-fidelity datasets for advanced combustion research. PMID:24689618

  9. Design Strategies for Optically-Accessible, High-Temperature, High-Pressure Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

    2000-02-01

    The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

  10. Design strategies for optically-accessible, high-temperature, high-pressure reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

    2000-02-01

    The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

  11. A carrier sensed multiple access protocol for high data base rate ring networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Overstreet, C. Michael; Khanna, S.; Paterra, Frank

    1990-01-01

    The results of the study of a simple but effective media access protocol for high data rate networks are presented. The protocol is based on the fact that at high data rates networks can contain multiple messages simultaneously over their span, and that in a ring, nodes used to detect the presence of a message arriving from the immediate upstream neighbor. When an incoming signal is detected, the node must either abort or truncate a message it is presently sending. Thus, the protocol with local carrier sensing and multiple access is designated CSMA/RN. The performance of CSMA/RN with TTattempt and truncate is studied using analytic and simulation models. Three performance factors, wait or access time, service time and response or end-to-end travel time are presented. The service time is basically a function of the network rate, it changes by a factor of 1 between no load and full load. Wait time, which is zero for no load, remains small for load factors up to 70 percent of full load. Response time, which adds travel time while on the network to wait and service time, is mainly a function of network length, especially for longer distance networks. Simulation results are shown for CSMA/RN where messages are removed at the destination. A wide range of local and metropolitan area network parameters including variations in message size, network length, and node count are studied. Finally, a scaling factor based upon the ratio of message to network length demonstrates that the results, and hence, the CSMA/RN protocol, are applicable to wide area networks.

  12. Weld quality evaluation using a high temperature SQUID array

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D. D.; Espy, M. A.; Kraus, Robert H., Jr.; Matlachov, A. N.; Lamb, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary data for evaluating weld quality using high temperature SQUIDS. The SQUIDS are integrated into an instrument known as the SQUID Array Microscope, or SAMi. The array consists of ll SQUIDs evenly distributed over an 8.25 mm baseline. Welds are detected using SAMi by using an on board coil to induce eddy currents in a conducting sample and measuring the resulting magnetic fields. The concept is that the induced magnetic fields will differ in parts of varying weld quality. The data presented here was collected from three stainless steel parts using SAMi. Each part was either solid, included a good weld, or included a bad weld. The induced magnetic field's magnitude and phase relative to the induction signal were measured. For each sample considered, both the magnitude and phase data were measurably different than the other two samples. These results indicate that it is possible to use SAMi to evaluate weld quality.

  13. Variation of unsaturated fatty acids in soybean sprout of high oleic acid accessions.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Krishna Hari; Jung, Ki-Hwal; Chae, Jong-Hyun; Shannon, J Grover; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Oleic acid and oleic acid rich foods may have beneficial health effects in humans. Soybeans with high oleic acid (around 80% in seed oil) have been developed. Soybean sprouts are an important vegetable in Korea, Japan and China. The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids, in sprouts from soybeans with normal and high oleic acid concentration. Twelve soybean accessions with six high oleic acid lines, three parents of high oleic acid lines, and three checks with normal and high oleic acid concentration were used in this study. The unsaturated fatty acid concentration in sprouts from each genotype was similar to the concentration in the ungerminated seed. The oleic acid concentration in the sprouts of high oleic acid lines (up to 80%) was still high (>70%) compared to the ungerminated seed. Thus, high oleic soybean varieties developed for sprout production could add valuable health benefits to sprouts and the individuals who consume this vegetable.

  14. Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy for injection drug users: adherence, resistance, and death.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, David; Celentano, David D

    2006-04-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) continue to comprise a major risk group for HIV infection throughout the world and represent the focal population for HIV epidemics in Asia and Eastern Europe/Russia. HIV prevention programs have ranged from HIV testing and counseling, education, behavioral and network interventions, drug abuse treatment, bleach disinfection of needles, needle exchange and expanded syringe access, as well as reducing transition to injection and primary substance abuse prevention. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996, dramatic clinical improvements have been seen. In addition, the treatment's impact on reducing HIV viral load (and therefore transmission by all routes) provides a stronger rationale for an expansion of the focus on prevention to emphasize early identification and treatment of HIV infected individuals. However, treatment of IDUs has many challenges including adherence, resistance and relapse to high risk behaviors, all of which impact issues of access and ultimately effectiveness of potent antiretroviral treatment. A major current challenge in addressing the HIV epidemic revolves around an appropriate approach to HIV treatment for IDUs.

  15. High-quality-factor photonic crystal ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zeng, Cheng; Li, Danping; Gao, Ge; Huang, Zengzhi; Yu, Jinzhong; Xia, Jinsong

    2014-03-01

    A design for enhancing the quality (Q) factor of a photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) is introduced. The highest Q factor based on simulations is 121,000. The analysis of momentum space distributions of the electric field profile for PCRR resonance shows that a high Q factor of a PCRR is attributed to the reduction of tangential k-vector component inside the leaky region. A high Q factor of 75,200 is experimentally demonstrated for a modified PCRR on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The high-Q-factor PCRR demonstrated here will be beneficial for channel drop filters, lasers, sensors, and other applications. PMID:24690727

  16. High-Quality Ion Beam Generation in Laser Plasma Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Toshihiro; Takano, Masahiro; Izumiyzma, Takeshi; Barada, Daisuke; Kawata, Shigeo; Gu, Yan Jun; Kong, Qing; Xiao Wang, Ping; Ma, Yan Yun; Wang, Wei Min

    We focus on a control of generation of high-quality ion beam. In this study, near-critical density plasmas are employed and are illuminated by high intensity short laser pulses; we have successfully generated high-energy ions by multiple-stages acceleration. We performed particle-in-cell simulations in this paper. Near-critical density plasmas are employed at the proton source and also in the post acceleration. A beam bunching method is also proposed to control the ion beam length.

  17. High-quality DNA from fingernails for genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Preuner, Sandra; Danzer, Martin; Pröll, Johannes; Pötschger, Ulrike; Lawitschka, Anita; Gabriel, Christian; Lion, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The availability of high-quality germline DNA is an important prerequisite for a variety of genetic analyses. We have shown previously that fingernail clippings provide an optimal source of autologous, constitutional DNA for PCR-based applications. However, most existing protocols for nucleic acid purification from nails do not provide sufficiently high yields of pure and intact DNA for more demanding downstream analyses such as next generation sequencing (NGS). We have extensively tested and systematically modified a number of different protocols for DNA purification from nail material to optimize the yield and quality. The integrity of DNA was determined by PCR amplification of short (<300 bp), mid-range (>400 bp), and long-range (>2 kb) sequences using different target genes. Among the methods tested, the Prepfiler Forensic DNA Extraction kit was identified as the most appropriate approach to isolation of high-quality DNA from nail clippings. A standardized input of 20 mg nail material (1 to 10 pieces of fingernail clippings) yielded a mean of 1 μg DNA (range, 0.5 to 2.3 μg). Subsequent PCR-analysis revealed efficient amplifiability of short and mid-range targets in 93% and 90%, and long-range fragments in 60% of the samples tested. The adequacy for next generation sequencing applications was demonstrated by successful high-resolution HLA-typing in ten transplant recipients. Hence, the protocol presented facilitates the exploitation of fingernail material even for demanding genomic analyses both in research and diagnostics.

  18. Expanding access to high-cost medicines through the E2 access program in Thailand: effects on utilisation, health outcomes and cost using an interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Lu, Christine Y; Dhippayom, Teerapon; Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-01-01

    Objective In 2008, the Thai government introduced the ‘high-cost medicines E2 access program’ as a part of the National List of Essential Medicines to increase patient access to medicines, improve clinical outcomes and make medicines more affordable. Our objective was to examine whether the ‘high-cost medicines E2 access program’ achieved its goals. Design Interrupted time-series design study. Setting 3 tertiary hospitals in different regions of Thailand, January 2006 to December 2012. Participants Patients with target acute and chronic disease diagnoses who newly met E2 program criteria for selected study medicines. Intervention High-cost medicines E2 access program. Main outcomes measures Level and trend changes over time in the proportions of eligible patients who received the indicated E2 medicines and who improved clinically, as well as in costs of treatment. Results A total of 2024 patients were included in utilisation analyses and 1375 patients with selected acute diseases contributed to analyses of clinical outcome. After 1 year of the E2 program implementation, the percentage of eligible patients receiving the indicated E2 program medicines increased significantly (relative change 12.7% (95% CI 4.4% to 21.0%), especially among those insured by the government's universal coverage scheme (relative change 19.9% (95% CI 9.5% to 30.5%)). The increase in the proportion of clinically improved patients with acute conditions was not significant (relative change 6.2% (95% CI −1.9% to 15.1%)). Quarterly healthcare costs per patient dropped significantly (relative change −13.5% (95% CI −26.9% to −1.7%)). Conclusions In the study hospitals, the E2 access program seems to have facilitated patient access to specialty medicines, may have contributed to improved health outcomes, and decreased treatment costs. Routine monitoring is needed to assess effects of expanding the programme, including effects on quality of care and financial sustainability. PMID

  19. A high-throughput, high-quality plant genomic DNA extraction protocol.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Li, J; Cong, X H; Duan, Y B; Li, L; Wei, P C; Lu, X Z; Yang, J B

    2013-01-01

    The isolation of high-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) is a crucial technique in plant molecular biology. The quality of gDNA determines the reliability of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. In this paper, we reported a high-quality gDNA extraction protocol optimized for real-time PCR in a variety of plant species. Performed in a 96-well block, our protocol provides high throughput. Without the need for phenol-chloroform and liquid nitrogen or dry ice, our protocol is safer and more cost-efficient than traditional DNA extraction methods. The method takes 10 mg leaf tissue to yield 5-10 µg high-quality gDNA. Spectral measurement and electrophoresis were used to demonstrate gDNA purity. The extracted DNA was qualified in a restriction enzyme digestion assay and conventional PCR. The real-time PCR amplification was sufficiently sensitive to detect gDNA at very low concentrations (3 pg/µL). The standard curve of gDNA dilutions from our phenol-chloroform-free protocol showed better linearity (R(2) = 0.9967) than the phenol-chloroform protocol (R(2) = 0.9876). The results indicate that the gDNA was of high quality and fit for real-time PCR. This safe, high-throughput plant gDNA extraction protocol could be used to isolate high-quality gDNA for real-time PCR and other downstream molecular applications. PMID:24222228

  20. Volume server: A scalable high speed and high capacity magnetic tape archive architecture with concurrent multi-host access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybczynski, Fred

    1993-01-01

    A major challenge facing data processing centers today is data management. This includes the storage of large volumes of data and access to it. Current media storage for large data volumes is typically off line and frequently off site in warehouses. Access to data archived in this fashion can be subject to long delays, errors in media selection and retrieval, and even loss of data through misplacement or damage to the media. Similarly, designers responsible for architecting systems capable of continuous high-speed recording of large volumes of digital data are faced with the challenge of identifying technologies and configurations that meet their requirements. Past approaches have tended to evaluate the combination of the fastest tape recorders with the highest capacity tape media and then to compromise technology selection as a consequence of cost. This paper discusses an architecture that addresses both of these challenges and proposes a cost effective solution based on robots, high speed helical scan tape drives, and large-capacity media.

  1. Access to Services, Quality of Care, and Family Impact for Children with Autism, Other Developmental Disabilities, and Other Mental Health Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; St Peter, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined perceived access to services, quality of care, and family impact reported by caregivers of children aged 3-17 years with autism spectrum disorders, as compared to caregivers of children with other developmental disabilities and other mental health conditions. The 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with…

  2. Things aren't getting better. Experts at federal hearing say healthcare costs, quality and access haven't improved much, if at all, since managed care.

    PubMed

    Fong, Tony

    2003-03-01

    Nearly a decade after managed care was supposed to revolutionize the healthcare industry, Americans have enjoyed little to no improvement in healthcare costs, quality or access, experts testified at a federal hearing last week. The hearing, arranged by the U.S. Justice Department and the Federal Trade Commission, was the first in a series of meetings.

  3. Access and Quality in Education in Resettlement Schools: The Case Study of Zvivingwi Secondary School in Gutu District, Masvingo Province in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenjekwa, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    In Zimbabwe, the discourse on access and quality in education has been a raging one since the colonial days of bottlenecks and outright discrimination against black Zimbabweans in education. The doors to education were declared open to all at independence in 1980 with the new Zimbabwe government's enunciated policy of education for all. It is an…

  4. High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy quality assurance: a practical guide

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, DA

    2006-01-01

    The widespread adoption of high dose rate brachytherapy with its inherent dangers necessitates adoption of appropriate quality assurance measures to minimize risks to both patients and medical staff. This paper is aimed at assisting someone who is establishing a new program or revising one already in place into adhere to the recently issued Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USA) regulations and the guidelines from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. PMID:21614233

  5. High quality fuel gas from biomass pyrolysis with calcium oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baofeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Sun, Laizhi; Si, Hongyu; Chen, Guanyi

    2014-03-01

    The removal of CO2 and tar in fuel gas produced by biomass thermal conversion has aroused more attention due to their adverse effects on the subsequent fuel gas application. High quality fuel gas production from sawdust pyrolysis with CaO was studied in this paper. The results of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) experiments indicate that the mass ratio of CaO to sawdust (Ca/S) remarkably affects the behavior of sawdust pyrolysis. On the basis of Py-GC/MS results, one system of a moving bed pyrolyzer coupled with a fluid bed combustor has been developed to produce high quality fuel gas. The lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel gas was above 16MJ/Nm(3) and the content of tar was under 50mg/Nm(3), which is suitable for gas turbine application to generate electricity and heat. Therefore, this technology may be a promising route to achieve high quality fuel gas for biomass utilization.

  6. High quality fuel gas from biomass pyrolysis with calcium oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baofeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Sun, Laizhi; Si, Hongyu; Chen, Guanyi

    2014-03-01

    The removal of CO2 and tar in fuel gas produced by biomass thermal conversion has aroused more attention due to their adverse effects on the subsequent fuel gas application. High quality fuel gas production from sawdust pyrolysis with CaO was studied in this paper. The results of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) experiments indicate that the mass ratio of CaO to sawdust (Ca/S) remarkably affects the behavior of sawdust pyrolysis. On the basis of Py-GC/MS results, one system of a moving bed pyrolyzer coupled with a fluid bed combustor has been developed to produce high quality fuel gas. The lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel gas was above 16MJ/Nm(3) and the content of tar was under 50mg/Nm(3), which is suitable for gas turbine application to generate electricity and heat. Therefore, this technology may be a promising route to achieve high quality fuel gas for biomass utilization. PMID:24486940

  7. OpenTopography: Enabling Online Access to High-Resolution Lidar Topography Data and Processing Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Baru, Chaitan; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution topography data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the Earth's surface and overlying vegetation. These data, collected from airborne, tripod, or mobile-mounted scanners have emerged as a fundamental tool for research on topics ranging from earthquake hazards to hillslope processes. Lidar data provide a digital representation of the earth's surface at a resolution sufficient to appropriately capture the processes that contribute to landscape evolution. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded OpenTopography Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is a web-based system designed to democratize access to earth science-oriented lidar topography data. OpenTopography provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including the raw point cloud and associated geospatial-processing tools for customized analysis. The point cloud data are co-located with on-demand processing tools to generate digital elevation models, and derived products and visualizations which allow users to quickly access data in a format appropriate for their scientific application. The OpenTopography system is built using a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that leverages cyberinfrastructure resources at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California San Diego to allow users, regardless of expertise level, to access these massive lidar datasets and derived products for use in research and teaching. OpenTopography hosts over 500 billion lidar returns covering 85,000 km2. These data are all in the public domain and are provided by a variety of partners under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding with OpenTopography. Partners include national facilities such as the NSF-funded National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping (NCALM), as well as non-governmental organizations and local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography has become a hub for high-resolution topography

  8. Accessing groundwater quality in lower part of Nagapattinam district, Southern India: using hydrogeochemistry and GIS interpolation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Vasudevan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Bagyaraj, M.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this present study was to evaluate groundwater quality in the lower part of Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu, Southern India. A detailed geochemical study of groundwater region is described, and the origin of the chemical composition of groundwater has been qualitatively evaluated, using observations over a period of two seasons premonsoon (June) and monsoon (November) in the year of 2010. To attempt this goal, samples were analysed for various physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, salinity, Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3 - and SO4 2-. The abundance of major cations concentration in groundwater is as Na > Ca > Mg > K, while that of anions is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. The Piper trilinear diagram indicates Ca-Cl2 facies, and according to USSL diagram, most of the sample exhibits high salinity hazard (C3S1) type in both seasons. It indicates that high salinity (C3) and low sodium (S1) are moderately suitable for irrigation purposes. Gibbs boomerang exhibits most of the samples mainly controlled by evaporation and weathering process sector in both seasons. Irrigation status of the groundwater samples indicates that it was moderately suitable for agricultural purpose. ArcGIS 9.3 software was used for the generation of various thematic maps and the final groundwater quality map. An interpolation technique inverse distance weighting was used to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters. The final map classified the ground quality in the study area. The results of this research show that the development of the management strategies for the aquifer system is vitally necessary.

  9. Genetic and Chemical Profiling of Gymnema sylvestre Accessions from Central India: Its Implication for Quality Control and Therapeutic Potential of Plant

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Singh, Seema; Bharati, Kumar Avinash; Jyotsana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gymnema sylvestre, a vulnerable plant species, is mentioned in Indian Pharmacopeia as an antidiabetic drug Objective: Study of genetic and chemical diversity and its implications in accessions of G. sylvestre Materials and Methods: Fourteen accessions of G. sylvestre collected from Central India and assessment of their genetic and chemical diversity were carried out using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) fingerprinting methods Results: Among the screened 40 ISSR primers, 15 were found polymorphic and collectively produced nine unique accession-specific bands. The maximum and minimum numbers of amplicones were noted for ISSR-15 and ISSR-11, respectively. The ISSR -11 and ISSR-13 revealed 100% polymorphism. HPLC chromatograms showed that accessions possess the secondary metabolites of mid-polarity with considerable variability. Unknown peaks with retention time 2.63, 3.41, 23.83, 24.50, and 44.67 were found universal type. Comparative hierarchical clustering analysis based on foresaid fingerprints indicates that both techniques have equal potential to discriminate accessions according to percentage gymnemic acid in their leaf tissue. Second approach was noted more efficiently for separation of accessions according to their agro-climatic/collection site Conclusion: Highly polymorphic ISSRs could be utilized as molecular probes for further selection of high gymnemic acid yielding accessions. Observed accession specific bands may be used as a descriptor for plant accessions protection and converted into sequence tagged sites markers. Identified five universal type peaks could be helpful in identification of G. sylvestre-based various herbal preparations. SUMMARY Nine accession specific unique bandsFive marker peaks for G. sylvestre.Suitability of genetic and chemical fingerprinting Abbreviations used: HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, ISSR: Inter Simple Sequence Repeats, CTAB: Cetyl

  10. PMG: online generation of high-quality molecular pictures and storyboarded animations.

    PubMed

    Autin, Ludovic; Tufféry, Pierre

    2007-07-01

    The Protein Movie Generator (PMG) is an online service able to generate high-quality pictures and animations for which one can then define simple storyboards. The PMG can therefore efficiently illustrate concepts such as molecular motion or formation/dissociation of complexes. Emphasis is put on the simplicity of animation generation. Rendering is achieved using Dino coupled to POV-Ray. In order to produce highly informative images, the PMG includes capabilities of using different molecular representations at the same time to highlight particular molecular features. Moreover, sophisticated rendering concepts including scene definition, as well as modeling light and materials are available. The PMG accepts Protein Data Bank (PDB) files as input, which may include series of models or molecular dynamics trajectories and produces images or movies under various formats. PMG can be accessed at http://bioserv.rpbs.jussieu.fr/PMG.html.

  11. High-throughput Protein Purification and Quality Assessment for Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngchang; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Eschenfeldt, William H.; Li, Hui; Maltseva, Natalia; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Gu, Minyi; Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Wu, Ruiying; An, Hao; Chhor, Gekleng; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate goal of structural biology is to understand the structural basis of proteins in cellular processes. In structural biology, the most critical issue is the availability of high-quality samples. “Structural biology-grade” proteins must be generated in the quantity and quality suitable for structure determination using X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The purification procedures must reproducibly yield homogeneous proteins or their derivatives containing marker atom(s) in milligram quantities. The choice of protein purification and handling procedures plays a critical role in obtaining high-quality protein samples. With structural genomics emphasizing a genome-based approach in understanding protein structure and function, a number of unique structures covering most of the protein folding space have been determined and new technologies with high efficiency have been developed. At the Midwest Center for Structural Genomics (MCSG), we have developed semi-automated protocols for high-throughput parallel protein expression and purification. A protein, expressed as a fusion with a cleavable affinity tag, is purified in two consecutive immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) steps: (i) the first step is an IMAC coupled with buffer-exchange, or size exclusion chromatography (IMAC-I), followed by the cleavage of the affinity tag using the highly specific Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease; [1] the second step is IMAC and buffer exchange (IMAC-II) to remove the cleaved tag and tagged TEV protease. These protocols have been implemented on multidimensional chromatography workstations and, as we have shown, many proteins can be successfully produced in large-scale. All methods and protocols used for purification, some developed by MCSG, others adopted and integrated into the MCSG purification pipeline and more recently the Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) purification pipeline, are

  12. HTSstation: A Web Application and Open-Access Libraries for High-Throughput Sequencing Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    David, Fabrice P. A.; Delafontaine, Julien; Carat, Solenne; Ross, Frederick J.; Lefebvre, Gregory; Jarosz, Yohan; Sinclair, Lucas; Noordermeer, Daan; Rougemont, Jacques; Leleu, Marion

    2014-01-01

    The HTSstation analysis portal is a suite of simple web forms coupled to modular analysis pipelines for various applications of High-Throughput Sequencing including ChIP-seq, RNA-seq, 4C-seq and re-sequencing. HTSstation offers biologists the possibility to rapidly investigate their HTS data using an intuitive web application with heuristically pre-defined parameters. A number of open-source software components have been implemented and can be used to build, configure and run HTS analysis pipelines reactively. Besides, our programming framework empowers developers with the possibility to design their own workflows and integrate additional third-party software. The HTSstation web application is accessible at http://htsstation.epfl.ch. PMID:24475057

  13. Solvent and lipid accessibility prediction as a basis for model quality assessment in soluble and membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Phatak, Mukta; Adamczak, Rafał; Cao, Baoqiang; Wagner, Michael; Meller, Jarosław

    2011-09-01

    On-going efforts to improve protein structure prediction stimulate the development of scoring functions and methods for model quality assessment (MQA) that can be used to rank and select the best protein models for further refinement. In this work, sequence-based prediction of relative solvent accessibility (RSA) is employed as a basis for a simple MQA method for soluble proteins, and subsequently extended to the much less explored case of (alpha-helical) membrane proteins. In analogy to soluble proteins, the level of exposure to the lipid of amino acid residues in transmembrane (TM) domains is captured in terms of the relative lipid accessibility (RLA), which is predicted from sequence using low-complexity Support Vector Regression models. On an independent set of 23 TM proteins, the new SVR-based predictor yields correlation coefficient (CC) of 0.56 between the predicted and observed RLA profiles, as opposed to CC of 0.13 for a baseline predictor that utilizes TMLIP2H empirical lipophilicity scale (with standard deviations of about 0.15). A simple MQA approach is then defined by ranking models of membrane proteins in terms of consistency between predicted and observed RLA profiles, as a measure of similarity to the native structure. The new method does not require a set of decoy models to optimize parameters, circumventing current limitations in this regard. Several different sets of models, including those generated by fragment based folding simulations, and decoys obtained by swapping TM helices to mimic errors in template based assignment, are used to assess the new approach. Predicted RLA profiles can be used to successfully discriminate near native models from non-native decoys in most cases, significantly improving the separation of correct and incorrectly folded models compared to a simple baseline approach that utilizes TMLIP2H. As suggested by the robust performance of a simple MQA method for soluble proteins that utilizes more accurate RSA predictions

  14. MATISSE a web-based tool to access, visualize and analyze high resolution minor bodies observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinzi, Angelo; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo; Giommi, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    In the recent years planetary exploration missions acquired data from minor bodies (i.e., dwarf planets, asteroid and comets) at a detail level never reached before. Since these objects often present very irregular shapes (as in the case of the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko target of the ESA Rosetta mission) "classical" bidimensional projections of observations are difficult to understand. With the aim of providing the scientific community a tool to access, visualize and analyze data in a new way, ASI Science Data Center started to develop MATISSE (Multi-purposed Advanced Tool for the Instruments for the Solar System Exploration - http://tools.asdc.asi.it/matisse.jsp) in late 2012. This tool allows 3D web-based visualization of data acquired by planetary exploration missions: the output could either be the straightforward projection of the selected observation over the shape model of the target body or the visualization of a high-order product (average/mosaic, difference, ratio, RGB) computed directly online with MATISSE. Standard outputs of the tool also comprise downloadable files to be used with GIS software (GeoTIFF and ENVI format) and 3D very high-resolution files to be viewed by means of the free software Paraview. During this period the first and most frequent exploitation of the tool has been related to visualization of data acquired by VIRTIS-M instruments onboard Rosetta observing the comet 67P. The success of this task, well represented by the good number of published works that used images made with MATISSE confirmed the need of a different approach to correctly visualize data coming from irregular shaped bodies. In the next future the datasets available to MATISSE are planned to be extended, starting from the addition of VIR-Dawn observations of both Vesta and Ceres and also using standard protocols to access data stored in external repositories, such as NASA ODE and Planetary VO.

  15. Efficient high-quality volume rendering of SPH data.

    PubMed

    Fraedrich, Roland; Auer, Stefan; Westermann, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    High quality volume rendering of SPH data requires a complex order-dependent resampling of particle quantities along the view rays. In this paper we present an efficient approach to perform this task using a novel view-space discretization of the simulation domain. Our method draws upon recent work on GPU-based particle voxelization for the efficient resampling of particles into uniform grids. We propose a new technique that leverages a perspective grid to adaptively discretize the view-volume, giving rise to a continuous level-of-detail sampling structure and reducing memory requirements compared to a uniform grid. In combination with a level-of-detail representation of the particle set, the perspective grid allows effectively reducing the amount of primitives to be processed at run-time. We demonstrate the quality and performance of our method for the rendering of fluid and gas dynamics SPH simulations consisting of many millions of particles.

  16. Strategies for High-Quality Nutrition Therapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Waitzberg, Dan L; Correia, Maria Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Strategies for improving nutrition therapy (NT) are of utmost importance in any healthcare system. The identification and treatment of malnourished patients improves clinical outcome and reduces the length of hospital length of stay and the associated costs. In particular, federal policy regulating the use of NT in Brazil and reimbursement of enteral nutrition (EN) treatment were 2 powerful mechanisms that stimulated the development of nutrition care. Basic and clinical research have also contributed to best practices in NT, thereby highlighting the need for nutrition therapy teams, quality indicators, and nutrition education for the delivery of high-quality NT. It is clear that the availability of training and continuing education programs in clinical nutrition is key to improving nutrition awareness and care, as well as patient outcome. On the basis of our experience, we recommend the Brazilian model as a strategy for improving nutrition care, with appropriate and necessary adaptations made to accommodate different settings.

  17. Bust economics: foragers choose high quality habitats in lean times.

    PubMed

    Bleicher, Sonny S; Dickman, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    In environments where food resources are spatially variable and temporarily impoverished, consumers that encounter habitat patches with different food density should focus their foraging initially where food density is highest before they move to patches where food density is lower. Increasing missed opportunity costs should drive individuals progressively to patches with lower food density as resources in the initially high food density patches deplete. To test these expectations, we assessed the foraging decisions of two species of dasyurid marsupials (dunnarts: Sminthopsis hirtipes and S. youngsoni) during a deep drought, or bust period, in the Simpson Desert of central Australia. Dunnarts were allowed access to three patches containing different food densities using an interview chamber experiment. Both species exhibited clear preference for the high density over the lower food density patches as measured in total harvested resources. Similarly, when measuring the proportion of resources harvested within the patches, we observed a marginal preference for patches with initially high densities. Models analyzing behavioral choices at the population level found no differences in behavior between the two species, but models analyzing choices at the individual level uncovered some variation. We conclude that dunnarts can distinguish between habitat patches with different densities of food and preferentially exploit the most valuable. As our observations were made during bust conditions, experiments should be repeated during boom times to assess the foraging economics of dunnarts when environmental resources are high. PMID:26839751

  18. Bust economics: foragers choose high quality habitats in lean times

    PubMed Central

    Dickman, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    In environments where food resources are spatially variable and temporarily impoverished, consumers that encounter habitat patches with different food density should focus their foraging initially where food density is highest before they move to patches where food density is lower. Increasing missed opportunity costs should drive individuals progressively to patches with lower food density as resources in the initially high food density patches deplete. To test these expectations, we assessed the foraging decisions of two species of dasyurid marsupials (dunnarts: Sminthopsis hirtipes and S. youngsoni) during a deep drought, or bust period, in the Simpson Desert of central Australia. Dunnarts were allowed access to three patches containing different food densities using an interview chamber experiment. Both species exhibited clear preference for the high density over the lower food density patches as measured in total harvested resources. Similarly, when measuring the proportion of resources harvested within the patches, we observed a marginal preference for patches with initially high densities. Models analyzing behavioral choices at the population level found no differences in behavior between the two species, but models analyzing choices at the individual level uncovered some variation. We conclude that dunnarts can distinguish between habitat patches with different densities of food and preferentially exploit the most valuable. As our observations were made during bust conditions, experiments should be repeated during boom times to assess the foraging economics of dunnarts when environmental resources are high. PMID:26839751

  19. 1997 to Present: Quality and Versatile Access to the Deep Biosphere with Coupled Advanced CORKs and Fluid Pumping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowen, J. P.; Lin, H.; Jungbluth, S.; Hsieh, C.; Rappe, M.; Glazer, B. T.; Matzinger, M.; Becker, K.; Fisher, A. T.; Amend, J. P.; Johnson, H. P.

    2011-12-01

    In 1997, a simple 'BioColumn' sampler was coupled to the CORK observatory at borehole 1026B to sample fluid chemistry, biomass and microbial community diversity (16S rRNA). The results demonstrated that the 65oC fluids from the 3.5 My old sediment-buried ocean basement support a diverse Bacteria and Archaea community (Cowen et al. 2003, Science 299, 120-123). The large bore of the overpressured CORK body provided high unassisted flow rates through the BioColumn, but possessed the disadvantage of the unknown extent to which the basement fluids were altered by the chemically and biologically (e.g., biofilm community) reactive surface of CORK's steel pipe. Subsequently, new generations of CORKs have incorporated less reactive materials in the CORK body, the use of stainless steel or inert PVDF (Teflon-like) 0.5" ID fluid delivery lines (FDL) running continuously from basement depths to accessible ports at the seafloor, and multiple FDLs from distinct depth horizons within basement. Simultaneously, we have developed increasingly capable fluid sensor and sampling systems for both real-time (Mobile Pumping and Sampling System-MPSS) and long-term autonomous applications (GeoMICROBE sleds). Both incorporate strong efficient pumps to overcome the drag inherent in the 0.5" or smaller bore FDL, multiple sensors (e.g., flow rate, temperature, O2, pH and redox-voltametry chemistry), versatile multi-port large volume fluid collection and/or in situ filtration systems, integrating computer controller/software and non-contaminating (inert) plumbing. These combined developments now provide unparalleled opportunities for access to large volumes of pristine basement samples for geochemical and microbial ecology studies. The MPSS and GeoMICROBE will be described. The multi-year results of organic geochemical and microbial community studies from recent studies at CORK observatories (boreholes 1301A, 1362A 1362B) on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank will be summarized.

  20. High Quality Down Lighting Luminaire with 73% Overall System Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Harrison; Steven C. Allen; Joseph Bernier; Robert Harrison

    2010-08-31

    This report summarizes work to develop a high flux, high efficiency LED-based downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-08NT01582. A new high power LED and electronic driver were developed for these downlights. The LED achieved 100 lumens per watt efficacy and 1700 lumen flux output at a correlated color temperature of 3500K. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.99, and total harmonic distortion <10%. Two styles of downlights using the LED and driver were shown to exceed the project targets for steady-state luminous efficacy and flux of 70 lumens per watt and 1300 lumens, respectively. Compared to similar existing downlights using compact fluorescent or LED sources, these downlights had much higher efficacy at nearly the same luminous flux.

  1. Teacher Resilience in High-Poverty Schools: How Do High-Quality Teachers Become Resilient?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Kate Mansi

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to understand how high-quality teachers who began their career through Teach For America (TFA) became resilient while teaching in challenging, high-poverty schools. A secondary purpose of this study was to ascertain how, if at all, the teaching experiences of TFA teachers who stayed in the profession differed…

  2. High Quality Acquisition of Surface Electromyography - Conditioning Circuit Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Khan, Sheroz; Nurashikin, Anis; Haider, Samnan; Larbani, Sofiane; Arshad, Atika; Tasnim, Rumana

    2013-12-01

    The acquisition of Surface Electromyography (SEMG) signals is used for many applications including the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases, and prosthesis control. The diagnostic quality of the SEMG signal is highly dependent on the conditioning circuit of the SEMG acquisition system. This paper presents the design of an SEMG conditioning circuit that can guarantee to collect high quality signal with high SNR such that it is immune to environmental noise. The conditioning circuit consists of four stages; consisting of an instrumentation amplifier that is used with a gain of around 250; 4th order band pass filter in the 20-500Hz frequency range as the two initial stages. The third stage is an amplifier with adjustable gain using a variable resistance; the gain could be changed from 1000 to 50000. In the final stage the signal is translated to meet the input requirements of data acquisition device or the ADC. Acquisition of accurate signals allows it to be analyzed for extracting the required characteristic features for medical and clinical applications. According to the experimental results, the value of SNR for collected signal is 52.4 dB which is higher than the commercial system, the power spectrum density (PSD) graph is also presented and it shows that the filter has eliminated the noise below 20 Hz.

  3. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-16

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  5. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  6. Novel technique for high-quality microstructuring with excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Stephan; Geiger, Manfred

    2000-06-01

    Laser micromachining has become increasingly established in many microsystem applications during the past years. These new fields occasion higher demands on the quality of micromachiend devices combined with high resolution and working velocity. Due to the disadvantages of conventional excimer laser processing, a novel technique is required to meet these demands. The main problems of conventional excimer laser machining are the redeposition of ablated material on the irradiated work piece and the formation of a strong melting phase especially for metals. These difficulties greatly reduce the applicability of excimer laser material processing for manufacturing microsystems technology components. By applying a thin water film to the substrate surface, the redeposition of ablated material can be completely avoided, which results in a better quality of the microstructures. Usage of a water film, however, has proved to lead to a marked reduction of the ablation rate for the examined materials - ceramics and stainless steel. Therefore, one of the objectives of future research will be to raise the ablation rate in order to render excimer laser processing more interesting economically. Adding alcoholic additives, among others, has improved the wetting of the liquid films on the surface. The effect of the modified chemical composition of the liquid on ablation rate and structure quality for various materials is presented here.

  7. Extraction of high quality DNA from bloodstains using diatoms.

    PubMed

    Günther, S; Herold, J; Patzelt, D

    1995-01-01

    A simple method is described for the extraction of high quality DNA for PCR amplification. The DNA was extracted by using Chelex-100 ion exchange resin or a special cell lysis buffer containing proteinase K. For further purification the DNA was bound to silica in the presence of a chaotrophic agent. Hence it is possible to unlimitedly wash the bound DNA and inhibitory substances are removed. By using diatoms as a source of silicates, this method is very economical and can therefore be used as a routine method.

  8. Publishing high-quality climate data on the semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Andrew; Haller, Armin; Lefort, Laurent; Taylor, Kerry

    2013-04-01

    The effort over more than a decade to establish the semantic web [Berners-Lee et. al., 2001] has received a major boost in recent years through the Open Government movement. Governments around the world are seeking technical solutions to enable more open and transparent access to Public Sector Information (PSI) they hold. Existing technical protocols and data standards tend to be domain specific, and so limit the ability to publish and integrate data across domains (health, environment, statistics, education, etc.). The web provides a domain-neutral platform for information publishing, and has proven itself beyond expectations for publishing and linking human-readable electronic documents. Extending the web pattern to data (often called Web 3.0) offers enormous potential. The semantic web applies the basic web principles to data [Berners-Lee, 2006]: using URIs as identifiers (for data objects and real-world 'things', instead of documents) making the URIs actionable by providing useful information via HTTP using a common exchange standard (serialised RDF for data instead of HTML for documents) establishing typed links between information objects to enable linking and integration Leading examples of 'linked data' for publishing PSI may be found in both the UK (http://data.gov.uk/linked-data) and US (http://www.data.gov/page/semantic-web). The Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) is Australia's national meteorological agency, and has a new mandate to establish a national environmental information infrastructure (under the National Plan for Environmental Information, NPEI [BoM, 2012a]). While the initial approach is based on the existing best practice Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) architecture, linked-data is being explored as a technological alternative that shows great promise for the future. We report here the first trial of government linked-data in Australia under data.gov.au. In this initial pilot study, we have taken BoM's new high-quality reference surface

  9. High-quality Italian rice cultivars: chemical indices of ageing and aroma quality.

    PubMed

    Griglione, Alessandra; Liberto, Erica; Cordero, Chiara; Bressanello, Davide; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo; Sgorbini, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    The volatile fractions of six Italian high-quality rice cultivars were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS to define fingerprinting and identify chemical markers and/or indices of ageing and aroma quality. In particular, four non-aromatic (Carnaroli, Carnise, Cerere and Antares) and two aromatic (Apollo and Venere) rices, harvested in 2010 and 2011, were monitored over 12months. Twenty-five aroma components were considered and, despite considerable inter-annual variability, some of them showed similar trends over time, including 2-(E)-octenal as a marker of ageing for all cultivars, and heptanal, octanal and 2-ethyl hexanol as cultivar-specific indicators. The area ratios 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline/1-octen-3-ol, for Venere, and 3-methyl-1-butanol/2-methyl-1-butanol, for Apollo, were also found to act as ageing indices. Additional information on release of key-aroma compounds was also obtained from quantitation and its dependence on grain shape and chemical composition. Heptanal/1-octen-3-ol and heptanal/octanal ratios were also defined as characterising the aroma quality indices of the six Italian rice cultivars investigated.

  10. Roadmap for Teacher Access to Student-Level Longitudinal Data: Key Focus Areas to Ensure Quality Implementation. Data for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Teachers have access to information about the students in their classrooms each year, but schools and districts often cannot provide teachers with longitudinal data (or data linked over time). Given resource constraints in schools and districts, states are best positioned to ensure that teachers have secure access to their students' longitudinal…

  11. A Low Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, V.; Mead, M. I.; Popoola, O. A.; Baron, R. P.; Saffell, J.; Stewart, G.; Kaye, P.; Jones, R.

    2012-12-01

    ) resolution data over a 12 month period with data transmitted back to a server every 2 hours. In this paper we present the data capture and storage, data accessibility, data mining and visualisation techniques applied to the measurements of the SNAQ Heathrow high density sensor network, the preliminary results of which provide an insight into the potential use of such networks in characterising air quality, emissions and validating dispersion models on local scales. We also present a web based interface developed for the sensor network that allows users to access archived data and assess meteorological conditions, atmospheric dispersion, pollutant levels and emission rates.

  12. Confronting the "Acid Test": Educators' Perspectives on Expanding Access to Advanced Placement at a Diverse Florida High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, M. Lance; Shircliffe, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines educators' perspectives on accountability mandates designed to expand access to the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP) classes to traditionally underserved students at a diverse suburban high school in Florida, Palm Crest High School. Consistent with Elmore (1979), district and site-based administrators focused on the…

  13. Vapor-transport growth of high optical quality WSe{sub 2} monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Genevieve; Wu, Sanfeng; Rivera, Pasqual; Finney, Joseph; Nguyen, Paul; Cobden, David H.; Xu, Xiaodong

    2014-10-01

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are atomically thin direct-gap semiconductors that show a variety of novel electronic and optical properties with an optically accessible valley degree of freedom. While they are ideal materials for developing optical-driven valleytronics, the restrictions of exfoliated samples have limited exploration of their potential. Here, we present a physical vapor transport growth method for triangular WSe{sub 2} sheets of up to 30 μm in edge length on insulating SiO{sub 2} substrates. Characterization using atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy reveals that they are uniform, monolayer crystals. Low temperature photoluminescence shows well resolved and electrically tunable excitonic features similar to those in exfoliated samples, with substantial valley polarization and valley coherence. The monolayers grown using this method are therefore of high enough optical quality for routine use in the investigation of optoelectronics and valleytronics.

  14. "High" Achievers? Cannabis Access and Student Performance. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1340

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marie, Olivier; Zölitz, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how legal cannabis access affects student performance. Identification comes from an exceptional policy introduced in the city of Maastricht which discriminated legal access based on individuals' nationality. We apply a difference-in-difference approach using administrative panel data on over 54,000 course grades of local…

  15. Absence of socioeconomic inequalities in access to good-quality breast cancer treatment within a population-wide screening programme in Turin (Italy).

    PubMed

    Zengarini, Nicolás; Ponti, Antonio; Tomatis, Mariano; Casella, Denise; Giordano, Livia; Mano, Maria P; Segnan, Nereo; Whitehead, Margaret; Costa, Giuseppe; Spadea, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Several studies suggest that population-based breast cancer screening programmes might help reduce social inequalities in breast cancer survival both by increasing early diagnosis and by improving access to effective treatments. To start disentangling the two effects, we evaluated social inequalities in quality of treatment of screen-detected breast cancer in the city of Turin (Italy). Combining data from the Audit System on Quality of Breast Cancer Treatment and the Turin Longitudinal Study, we analysed 2700 cases in the screening target age class 50-69 diagnosed in the period 1995-2008. We selected 10 indicators of the pathway of care, relative to timeliness and appropriateness of diagnosis and treatment, and three indicators of socioeconomic position: education, occupational status and housing characteristics. For each indicator of care, relative risks of failure were estimated by robust Poisson regression models, controlling for calendar period of diagnosis, size of tumour and activity volume of the surgery units. The principal predictor of failure of the good care indicators was the calendar period of diagnosis, with a general improvement with time in the quality of diagnosis and treatment, followed by size of the tumour and volume of activity. Socioeconomic indicators show only a marginal independent effect on timeliness indicators. The observed associations of quality indicators with socioeconomic characteristics are lower than expected, suggesting a possible role of the screening programme in reducing disparities in the access to good-quality treatments thanks to its capability to enter screen-detected women into a protected pathway of care.

  16. Automated Theorem Proving in High-Quality Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The amount and complexity of software developed during the last few years has increased tremendously. In particular, programs are being used more and more in embedded systems (from car-brakes to plant-control). Many of these applications are safety-relevant, i.e. a malfunction of hardware or software can cause severe damage or loss. Tremendous risks are typically present in the area of aviation, (nuclear) power plants or (chemical) plant control. Here, even small problems can lead to thousands of casualties and huge financial losses. Large financial risks also exist when computer systems are used in the area of telecommunication (telephone, electronic commerce) or space exploration. Computer applications in this area are not only subject to safety considerations, but also security issues are important. All these systems must be designed and developed to guarantee high quality with respect to safety and security. Even in an industrial setting which is (or at least should be) aware of the high requirements in Software Engineering, many incidents occur. For example, the Warshaw Airbus crash, was caused by an incomplete requirements specification. Uncontrolled reuse of an Ariane 4 software module was the reason for the Ariane 5 disaster. Some recent incidents in the telecommunication area, like illegal "cloning" of smart-cards of D2GSM handies, or the extraction of (secret) passwords from German T-online users show that also in this area serious flaws can happen. Due to the inherent complexity of computer systems, most authors claim that only a rigorous application of formal methods in all stages of the software life cycle can ensure high quality of the software and lead to real safe and secure systems. In this paper, we will have a look, in how far automated theorem proving can contribute to a more widespread application of formal methods and their tools, and what automated theorem provers (ATPs) must provide in order to be useful.

  17. Fairness problems at the media access level for high-speed networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maly, Kurt J.; Zhang, L.; Game, David

    1990-01-01

    Most lower speed (approx. 10 Mbps) local area networks use adaptive or random access protocols like Ethernet. Others at higher speed use demand assignment like token or slotted rings. These include Cambridge ring and electronic token ring systems. Fairness issues in representatives of such protocols are discussed. In particular, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) was selected as a demand access protocol using tokens, Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN) a random access protocol, and Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB) a demand access protocol using reservations. Fairness at the media access level was the focus, i.e., attaining access or being excessively delayed when a message is queued to be sent as a function of network location. Within that framework, the essential fairness of FDDI was observed along with severe fairness problems in DQDB and some problems for CSMA/RN. Several modifications were investigated and their ameliorative effect is shown. Finally, a unified presentation which allows comparisons of the three protocols' fairness when normalized to their capacity is given.

  18. Environmental Quality Assessment of Built Areas with High Vacancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Neale, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Around the world, many urban areas are challenged by vacant and abandoned residential and business property. High vacancy areas have often been associated with increasing public safety problems and declining property values and subsequent tax base. High vacancy can lead to visible signs of city decline and significant barriers to the revitalization of cities. Addressing the problem of vacancy requires knowledge of vacancy patterns and their possible contributing factors. In this study, we evaluated the ten year (2005-2015) urban environmental changes for some high vacancy areas. Social and economic variables derived from U.S. census data such as non-white population, employment rate, housing price, and environmental variables derived from National Land Cover Data such as land cover and impervious area, were used as the basis for analysis. Correlation analysis and principle components analysis were performed at the Census Block Group level. Three components were identified and interpreted as economic status, urbanness, and greenness. A synthetic Urban Environmental Quality (UEQ) index was developed by integrating the three principle components according to their weights. Comparisons of the UEQ indices between the 2005 and 2015 in the increasingly high vacancy area provided useful information for investigating the possible associations between social, economic, and environmental factors, and the vacancy status. This study could provide useful information for understanding the complex issues leading to vacancy and facilitating future rehabilitation of vacant urban area.

  19. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236

  20. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236

  1. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-11-10

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  2. High-quality electron beams from a helical inverse free-electron laser accelerator.

    PubMed

    Duris, J; Musumeci, P; Babzien, M; Fedurin, M; Kusche, K; Li, R K; Moody, J; Pogorelsky, I; Polyanskiy, M; Rosenzweig, J B; Sakai, Y; Swinson, C; Threlkeld, E; Williams, O; Yakimenko, V

    2014-09-15

    Compact, table-top sized accelerators are key to improving access to high-quality beams for use in industry, medicine and academic research. Among laser-based accelerating schemes, the inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) enjoys unique advantages. By using an undulator magnetic field in combination with a laser, GeV m(-1) gradients may be sustained over metre-scale distances using laser intensities several orders of magnitude less than those used in laser wake-field accelerators. Here we show for the first time the capture and high-gradient acceleration of monoenergetic electron beams from a helical IFEL. Using a modest intensity (~10(13) W cm(-2)) laser pulse and strongly tapered 0.5 m long undulator, we demonstrate >100 MV m(-1) accelerating gradient, >50 MeV energy gain and excellent output beam quality. Our results pave the way towards compact, tunable GeV IFEL accelerators for applications such as driving soft X-ray free-electron lasers and producing γ-rays by inverse Compton scattering.

  3. Facilitating high quality student practice in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Molly

    2001-07-01

    "Practice makes perfect, but only if you do it right." Typical physics students practice extensively through the large quantities of homework they do. But research in introductory physics instruction shows that despite this practice, students often do not learn much in introductory physics. Students often do not focus their practice on the skills (such as concept interpretation, and generating a physical representation of a problem) that they need in order to solve physics problems flexibly and reliably. They often focus their practice instead on simply getting an answer. By omitting practice of important skills, it is likely that those skills will not be learned. This paper identifies communication difficulties between students and between students and instructors as important sources of barriers to achieving high-quality student practice. Some strategies to address communication difficulties in the context of small group in-class problem solving are proposed. A classroom peer-collaborative structure, Supervised Practice, that implements these strategies is described, and the impact of the classroom design on the quality of student practice is investigated.

  4. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    DOE PAGES

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a givenmore » level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.« less

  5. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a given level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.

  6. Determination of saffron quality by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Valle García-Rodríguez, M; Serrano-Díaz, Jéssica; Tarantilis, Petros A; López-Córcoles, Horacio; Carmona, Manuel; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2014-08-13

    The aim of this work was to propose a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for determining the three main compounds responsible for determining the quality of saffron (crocetin esters, picrocrocin, and safranal) by preparing an aqueous extract according to the ISO 3632 standard to solve the difficulty that this standard has for aroma and taste determination by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Toward this aim, laboratory-isolated picrocrocin, a safranal standard with a purity of ≥ 88%, trans-crocetin di(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (trans-4-GG) and trans-crocetin (β-D-glucosyl)-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (trans-3-Gg) standards, both with a purity of ≥ 99%, and 50 different saffron spice samples from Italy, Iran, Greece, and Spain were used in the intralaboratory validation of the HPLC method. The analytical method proposed was adequate in terms of linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, and accuracy for determining the three foremost parameters that define the quality of saffron using only a saffron solution prepared according to the ISO 3632 standard.

  7. Education For All, The Quality Imperative and the Problem of Pedagogy. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This monograph critically examines the emerging discourse on quality associated with Education for All (EFA). It contends that EFA discourse has moved from a welcome and vital commitment to quality to its measurement without adequate consideration of what "quality" entails, particularly in the vital domain of pedagogy. Meanwhile, the demand for…

  8. Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Monk, David H

    2007-01-01

    In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes in rural schools are relatively small, and teachers tend to report satisfaction with their work environments and relatively few problems with discipline. But teacher turnover is often high, and hiring can be difficult. Monk observes that rural schools have a below-average share of highly trained teachers. Compensation in rural schools tends to be low, perhaps because of a lower fiscal capacity in rural areas, thus complicating efforts to attract and retain teachers. Several student characteristics, including relatively large shares of students with special needs and with limited English skills and lower shares of students attending college, can also make it difficult to recruit and retain high-quality teachers. Other challenges include meeting the needs of highly mobile children of low-income migrant farm workers. With respect to public policy, Monk asserts a need to focus on a subcategory of what might be called hard-to-staff rural schools rather than to develop a blanket set of policies for all rural schools. In particular, he recommends a focus on such indicators as low teacher qualifications, teaching in fields far removed from the area of training, difficulty in hiring, high turnover, a lack of diversity among teachers in the school, and the presence of migrant farm workers' children. Successful efforts to stimulate economic growth in these areas would be highly beneficial. He also calls attention to the potential for modern telecommunication and computing technologies to offset some of the drawbacks associated with teaching

  9. High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Peng; Anderson, John D.; Leitner, Michael; Rheingans, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals. Methods The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008–2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation. Results The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing. Conclusions There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally

  10. High-frequency and high-quality silicon carbide optomechanical microresonators

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiyuan; Lee, Jonathan Y.; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) exhibits excellent material properties attractive for broad applications. We demonstrate the first SiC optomechanical microresonators that integrate high mechanical frequency, high mechanical quality, and high optical quality into a single device. The radial-breathing mechanical mode has a mechanical frequency up to 1.69 GHz with a mechanical Q around 5500 in atmosphere, which corresponds to a fm · Qm product as high as 9.47 × 1012 Hz. The strong optomechanical coupling allows us to efficiently excite and probe the coherent mechanical oscillation by optical waves. The demonstrated devices, in combination with the superior thermal property, chemical inertness, and defect characteristics of SiC, show great potential for applications in metrology, sensing, and quantum photonics, particularly in harsh environments that are challenging for other device platforms. PMID:26585637

  11. High-frequency and high-quality silicon carbide optomechanical microresonators.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiyuan; Lee, Jonathan Y; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) exhibits excellent material properties attractive for broad applications. We demonstrate the first SiC optomechanical microresonators that integrate high mechanical frequency, high mechanical quality, and high optical quality into a single device. The radial-breathing mechanical mode has a mechanical frequency up to 1.69 GHz with a mechanical Q around 5500 in atmosphere, which corresponds to a fm · Qm product as high as 9.47 × 10(12) Hz. The strong optomechanical coupling allows us to efficiently excite and probe the coherent mechanical oscillation by optical waves. The demonstrated devices, in combination with the superior thermal property, chemical inertness, and defect characteristics of SiC, show great potential for applications in metrology, sensing, and quantum photonics, particularly in harsh environments that are challenging for other device platforms. PMID:26585637

  12. Novel Circuitry Configuration with Paired-Cell Erase Operation for High-Density 90-nm Embedded Resistive Random Access Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yoshihiro; Tsunoda, Koji; Aoki, Masaki; Sugiyama, Yoshihiro

    2009-04-01

    We propose a novel circuitry configuration for high-density 90-nm embedded resistive random access memory (ReRAM). The memory cells are operated at 2 V, and a small memory cell size of 6F2 consisting of a 1.2-V standard transistor and a resistive junction (1T-1R) is designed, where F is the feature size. The unique circuitry configuration is that each pair of source-lines connects to each source-line selective gate. Therefore, erasing is done by a pair of cells in turn in the whole sector, while the reading or programming is done by a random accessing operation. We simulated the ReRAM circuit for read and write operations with SPICE. As a result, we found that 5-ns high-speed read access was obtained in the 256-word lines (WLs) × 256-bit lines (BLs) and that the SET/RESET operation was stable.

  13. Production of High-Quality Digital Facsimiles of Rare Books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashimura, Masaaki

    The process of digitizing a rare book, which itself is an object of academic and cultural value, involves acquiring digital images from all of its pages; this set of images is called a digital facsimile. Each image in a digital facsimile should be of high quality and authenticity in order to serve for advanced studies. This is also important from the perspective of preservation reformatting of rare books as cultural property. The HUMI Project of Keio University has established a method of photographing pages of rare books for the purpose of producing facsimiles by developing various devices and methodologies such as the special book cradle. This article will present the photographing method developed by the HUMI Project. It will also outline the procedure of creating digital facsimiles from the data acquired by the photographing of rare books.

  14. (Collection of high quality acoustical records for honeybees)

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, H.T.; Buchanan, M.E.

    1987-02-19

    High quality acoustical data records were collected for both European and Africanized honeybees under various field conditions. This data base was needed for more rigorous evaluation of a honeybee identification technique previously developed by the travelers from preliminary data sets. Laboratory-grade recording equipment was used to record sounds made by honeybees in and near their nests and during foraging flights. Recordings were obtained from European and Africanized honeybees in the same general environment. Preliminary analyses of the acoustical data base clearly support the general identification algorithm: Africanized honeybee noise has significantly higher frequency content than does European honeybee noise. As this algorithm is refined, it may result in the development of a simple field-portable device for identifying subspecies of honeybees. Further, the honeybee's acoustical signals appear to be correlated with specific colony conditions. Understanding these variations may have enormous benefit for entomologists and for the beekeeping industry.

  15. High quality optically polished aluminum mirror and process for producing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, III, James J. (Inventor); Zaniewski, John J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new technical advancement in the field of precision aluminum optics permits high quality optical polishing of aluminum monolith, which, in the field of optics, offers numerous benefits because of its machinability, lightweight, and low cost. This invention combines diamond turning and conventional polishing along with india ink, a newly adopted material, for the polishing to accomplish a significant improvement in surface precision of aluminum monolith for optical purposes. This invention guarantees the precise optical polishing of typical bare aluminum monolith to surface roughness of less than about 30 angstroms rms and preferably about 5 angstroms rms while maintaining a surface figure accuracy in terms of surface figure error of not more than one-fifteenth of wave peak-to-valley.

  16. High quality optically polished aluminum mirror and process for producing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, III, James J. (Inventor); Zaniewski, John J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A new technical advancement in the field of precision aluminum optics permits high quality optical polishing of aluminum monolith, which, in the field of optics, offers numerous benefits because of its machinability, lightweight, and low cost. This invention combines diamond turning and conventional polishing along with india ink, a newly adopted material, for the polishing to accomplish a significant improvement in surface precision of aluminum monolith for optical purposes. This invention guarantees the precise optical polishing of typical bare aluminum monolith to surface roughness of less than about 30 angstroms rms and preferably about 5 angstroms rms while maintaining a surface figure accuracy in terms of surface figure error of not more than one-fifteenth of wave peak-to-valley.

  17. Sequential interactive evolution for finding high-quality topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avigad, Gideon; Salomon, Shaul; Knopf, George

    2015-10-01

    Finding a diverse set of high-quality (HQ) topologies for a single-objective optimization problem using an evolutionary computation algorithm can be difficult without a reliable measure that adequately describes the dissimilarity between competing topologies. In this article, a new approach for enhancing diversity among HQ topologies for engineering design applications is proposed. The technique initially selects one HQ solution and then searches for alternative HQ solutions by performing an optimization of the original objective and its dissimilarity with respect to the previously found solution. The proposed multi-objective optimization approach interactively amalgamates user articulated preferences with an evolutionary search so as sequentially to produce a set of diverse HQ solutions to a single-objective problem. For enhancing diversity, a new measure is suggested and an approach to reducing its computational time is studied and implemented. To illustrate the technique, a series of studies involving different topologies represented as bitmaps is presented.

  18. High Quality Visual Hull Reconstruction by Delaunay Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Gavrilova, Marina L.

    In this paper, we employ Delaunay triangulation techniques to reconstruct high quality visual hulls. From a set of calibrated images, the algorithm first computes a sparse set of initial points with a dandelion model and builds a Delaunay triangulation restricted to the visual hull surface. It then iteratively refines the triangulation by inserting new sampling points, which are the intersections between the visual hull surface and the Voronoi edges dual to the triangulation's facets, until certain criteria are satisfied. The intersections are computed by cutting line segments with the visual hull, which is then converted to the problem of intersecting a line segment with polygonal contours in 2D. A barrel-grid structure is developed to quickly pick out possibly intersecting contour segments and thus accelerate the process of intersecting in 2D. Our algorithm is robust, fast, fully adaptive, and it produces precise and smooth mesh models composed of well-shaped triangles.

  19. Evaluation of hybrid treatments to produce high quality reuse water.

    PubMed

    Luiz, D B; Silva, G S; Vaz, E A C; José, H J; Moreira, R F P M

    2011-01-01

    Four tertiary hybrid treatments to produce high quality reused water, fulfilling Brazilian drinking water regulations, from a slaughterhouse's secondary treated effluent were evaluated. The pilot plant with a capacity of 500 L h(-1) was set up and consisted of these stages: pre-filtration system (cartridge filter 50 micron, activated carbon filter, cartridge filter 10 micron), oxidation (H2O2) or second filtration (ceramic filter, UF) followed by UV radiation (90 L h(-1)). The best combination was T4: pre-filtration followed by H2O2 addition and UV radiation (AOP H2O2/UV). Disinfection kinetics by T4 followed pseudo first-order kinetics: k(T4) = 0.00943 s(-1) or 0.00101 cm2 mJ(-1). Three different zones (A, B, C) were observed in the UV254 degradation kinetics (pseudo-first order kinetics): k' decreased over time (k'(A) > k'(B) > k'(C)).

  20. High-quality EuO thin films the easy way via topotactic transformation

    DOE PAGES

    Mairoser, Thomas; Mundy, Julia A.; Melville, Alexander; Hodash, Daniel; Cueva, Paul; Held, Rainer; Glavic, Artur; Schubert, Jürgen; Muller, David A.; Schlom, Darrell G.; et al

    2015-07-16

    Epitaxy is widely employed to create highly oriented crystalline films. A less appreciated, but nonetheless powerful means of creating such films is via topotactic transformation, in which a chemical reaction transforms a single crystal of one phase into a single crystal of a different phase, which inherits its orientation from the original crystal. Topotactic reactions may be applied to epitactic films to substitute, add or remove ions to yield epitactic films of different phases. Here we exploit a topotactic reduction reaction to provide a non-ultra-high vacuum (UHV) means of growing highly oriented single crystalline thin films of the easily over-oxidizedmore » half-metallic semiconductor europium monoxide (EuO) with a perfection rivalling that of the best films of the same material grown by molecular-beam epitaxy or UHV pulsed-laser deposition. Lastly, as the technique only requires high-vacuum deposition equipment, it has the potential to drastically improve the accessibility of high-quality single crystalline films of EuO as well as other difficult-to-synthesize compounds.« less

  1. High-quality EuO thin films the easy way via topotactic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Mairoser, Thomas; Mundy, Julia A.; Melville, Alexander; Hodash, Daniel; Cueva, Paul; Held, Rainer; Glavic, Artur; Schubert, Jürgen; Muller, David A.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Schmehl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Epitaxy is widely employed to create highly oriented crystalline films. A less appreciated, but nonetheless powerful means of creating such films is via topotactic transformation, in which a chemical reaction transforms a single crystal of one phase into a single crystal of a different phase, which inherits its orientation from the original crystal. Topotactic reactions may be applied to epitactic films to substitute, add or remove ions to yield epitactic films of different phases. Here we exploit a topotactic reduction reaction to provide a non-ultra-high vacuum (UHV) means of growing highly oriented single crystalline thin films of the easily over-oxidized half-metallic semiconductor europium monoxide (EuO) with a perfection rivalling that of the best films of the same material grown by molecular-beam epitaxy or UHV pulsed-laser deposition. As the technique only requires high-vacuum deposition equipment, it has the potential to drastically improve the accessibility of high-quality single crystalline films of EuO as well as other difficult-to-synthesize compounds. PMID:26177710

  2. High-quality EuO thin films the easy way via topotactic transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Mairoser, Thomas; Mundy, Julia A.; Melville, Alexander; Hodash, Daniel; Cueva, Paul; Held, Rainer; Glavic, Artur; Schubert, Jürgen; Muller, David A.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Schmehl, Andreas

    2015-07-16

    Epitaxy is widely employed to create highly oriented crystalline films. A less appreciated, but nonetheless powerful means of creating such films is via topotactic transformation, in which a chemical reaction transforms a single crystal of one phase into a single crystal of a different phase, which inherits its orientation from the original crystal. Topotactic reactions may be applied to epitactic films to substitute, add or remove ions to yield epitactic films of different phases. Here we exploit a topotactic reduction reaction to provide a non-ultra-high vacuum (UHV) means of growing highly oriented single crystalline thin films of the easily over-oxidized half-metallic semiconductor europium monoxide (EuO) with a perfection rivalling that of the best films of the same material grown by molecular-beam epitaxy or UHV pulsed-laser deposition. Lastly, as the technique only requires high-vacuum deposition equipment, it has the potential to drastically improve the accessibility of high-quality single crystalline films of EuO as well as other difficult-to-synthesize compounds.

  3. High power, high beam quality solid state lasers for materials processing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Hermann, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The Laser Science and Technology Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing solid state lasers with high average power and high beam quality. Specific systems include a laser to generate 10 to 14 {angstrom} x-rays for proximity print lithography, a 400 mJ, 500 Hz laser for 130 {angstrom} projection lithography and unique systems for speckle imaging, laser radars and medical treatments.

  4. Solvent-free enzymatic production of high quality cetyl esters.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Arnaldos, Mar; Máximo-Martín, María Fuensanta; Montiel-Morte, María Claudia; Ortega-Requena, Salvadora; Gómez-Gómez, Elisa; Bastida-Rodríguez, Josefa

    2016-04-01

    A solvent-free biocatalytic process for the synthesis of high quality cetyl laurate, myristate, palmitate and stearate has been optimized. This enzymatic procedure follows the fundamental principles of the Green Chemistry and lead to sustainable products, which can be labeled as natural and conform to the principal requirements for its use in high value-added goods. The four esters selected are the main components of spermaceti, a mixture of waxes very appreciated in cosmetic and pharmacy because of its physical properties and emolliency, which was formerly extracted from the head of the sperm whales. In this paper, the influence of the amount of biocatalyst, the commercially available Novozym(®) 435, and the temperature were studied in an open-air batch reactor before carrying out the synthesis in a high performance vacuum reactor with dry nitrogen input to shift the equilibrium towards product formation. Under optimal conditions, conversion was higher than 98.5 %. The characterization of the enzymatic cetyl esters puts in evidence that these are ultra-pure compounds, which have similar properties to the ones obtained through the conventional industrial processes with the extra benefit of being environmentally friendly. PMID:26801670

  5. Multi-technique analysis of high quality HPHT diamond crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lorenzo, C.; Araújo, D.; González-Mañas, M.; Martín, J.; Navas, J.; Alcántara, R.; Villar, M. P.; Bagriantsev, D.

    2012-08-01

    Fabrication of high quality diamond either for gemmological or for technological applications, is still a challenge. The control of impurity incorporation for doping or to modify the crystal colour should be still improved. The present contribution reports availability of nearly defect free HPHT (high pressure high temperature) diamond in terms of dislocations and point defects. Cathodoluminescence (CL) transitions related to point defects or dislocations (A-band) are not observed and only some individual dislocations are revealed by X-ray topography (topo-X). CL spectra are dominated by the excitonic-related transistions and the boron incorporation, estimated from the phonon-replica relative intensities, is around 1016 cm-3 that corroborate the values estimated by FTIR. Such amount of B gives a pale blue colour to the diamond sintetized monocrystal. The latter crystals are grown at the Instituto de Monocristales S.L. for jewellery applications, but their use for semiconducting applications is also envisaged after the highlights of the present study.

  6. Resource Adequacy, Equity, and the Right to Learn: Access to High-Quality Teachers in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoeppel, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Using school-level descriptive data, this study examined the distribution of teachers in the Commonwealth of Kentucky in an attempt to build on previous research concerning the equity of the finance system in the state. Rather than focusing on revenue from the perspective of horizontal equity, this study used human resource data to examine the…

  7. Differences in Food Environment Perceptions and Spatial Attributes of Food Shopping between Residents of Low and High Food Access Areas

    PubMed Central

    Sohi, Inderbir; Bell, Bethany A.; Liu, Jihong; Battersby, Sarah E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore potential differences in food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions between residents living in areas with low and high food access. Design A cross-sectional telephone survey to assess food shopping behaviors and perceptions. Data from an eight-county food environment field census used to define the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) healthier food retail tract and USDA ERS (United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service) food desert measure. Participants 968 residents in eight South Carolina counties. Main Outcome Measures Residents’ food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions. Analysis Linear and logistic regression. Results Compared to residents in high food access areas, residents in low food access areas traveled further to their primary food store (USDA ERS: 8.8 vs. 7.1 miles, p=0.03; CDC: 9.2 vs. 6.1 miles, p<0.001), accumulated more total shopping miles per week; CDC 28.0 vs. 15.4 miles, p<0.001) and showed differences in perceived healthy food availability (p<0.001) and shopping access (p<0.001). Conclusions and Implications These findings lend support to ongoing community and policy interventions aimed at reducing food access disparities. PMID:24560861

  8. Criteria for High Quality Biology Teaching: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasci, Guntay

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the process under which biology lessons are taught in terms of teaching quality criteria (TQC). Teaching quality is defined as the properties of efficient teaching and is considered to be the criteria used to measure teaching quality both in general and specific to a field. The data were collected through classroom…

  9. Water Quality in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason J.; McMahon, Peter B.; Dennehy, Kevin; Qi, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999-2004 assessment of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings for principal and other aquifers and major river basins across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, regional, State, and national issues. Conditions in the aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as drinking-water quality, the effects of agricultural practices on water quality, source-water protection, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of ground water in areas near where they live and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the region and the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the High Plains aquifer summarized in this report are discussed in greater detail in other reports that can be accessed in Appendix 1 of http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1749/. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa). This report accompanies the detailed and technical report of water-quality conditions in the High Plains aquifer 'Water-quality assessment of the High Plains aquifer, 1999-2004' (http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1749/)

  10. Which Combination of High Quality Infant-Toddler and Preschool Care Best Promotes School Readiness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah L.; Ruzek, Erik A.; Dang, Tran T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to test the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 1 (H1): Everything else the same, high quality infant-toddler care will increase children's cognitive scores immediately (i.e. at 24 months of age). However, without subsequent high quality preschool, children with high quality infant-toddler care will not have higher cognitive and…

  11. Gender Issues in Internet Access and Favourite Internet Activities among Greek High School Pupils inside and outside School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastergiou, Marina; Solomonidou, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates gender differences in Internet use by Greek high school pupils within school and out of school environments. A sample of 340 pupils (170 boys and 170 girls), aged 12-16 years, completed a written questionnaire on their attainability, location, frequency and purposes of Internet access. The data analysis showed that more…

  12. Redefining Accessibility on High-Stakes Tests for Postsecondary College Students with Learning Disabilities in an Era of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Manju; Gregg, Noel

    2008-01-01

    Unprecedented increases in the use of technologies throughout postsecondary education and the workplace are redefining traditional concepts of accessibility during testing for college students with learning disabilities. High stakes testing practices are under pressure to change. The challenge for professionals is to ensure that tests are designed…

  13. Accessing Stem-Focused Education: Factors That Contribute to the Opportunity to Attend Stem High Schools across the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers-Chapman, M. Felicity

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, policy makers, researchers, and educators have focused on the preparation of individuals in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields. One popular policy lever is STEM-focused high schools. The purpose of this study is to identify which student populations have access to STEM secondary schools. By comparing…

  14. High School Teachers' Perspectives on Supporting Students with Visual Impairments toward Higher Education: Access, Barriers, and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Maureen; Curtis, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study presented here was to understand the experiences of teachers in assisting students with visual impairments in making the transition to higher education. The teachers reported barriers in high school that affect students' access to and success in higher education. Furthermore, institutions of higher education provided…

  15. Accessible high performance computing solutions for near real-time image processing for time critical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielski, Conrad; Lemoine, Guido; Syryczynski, Jacek

    2009-09-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) hardware solutions such as grid computing and General Processing on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) are now accessible to users with general computing needs. Grid computing infrastructures in the form of computing clusters or blades are becoming common place and GPGPU solutions that leverage the processing power of the video card are quickly being integrated into personal workstations. Our interest in these HPC technologies stems from the need to produce near real-time maps from a combination of pre- and post-event satellite imagery in support of post-disaster management. Faster processing provides a twofold gain in this situation: 1. critical information can be provided faster and 2. more elaborate automated processing can be performed prior to providing the critical information. In our particular case, we test the use of the PANTEX index which is based on analysis of image textural measures extracted using anisotropic, rotation-invariant GLCM statistics. The use of this index, applied in a moving window, has been shown to successfully identify built-up areas in remotely sensed imagery. Built-up index image masks are important input to the structuring of damage assessment interpretation because they help optimise the workload. The performance of computing the PANTEX workflow is compared on two different HPC hardware architectures: (1) a blade server with 4 blades, each having dual quad-core CPUs and (2) a CUDA enabled GPU workstation. The reference platform is a dual CPU-quad core workstation and the PANTEX workflow total computing time is measured. Furthermore, as part of a qualitative evaluation, the differences in setting up and configuring various hardware solutions and the related software coding effort is presented.

  16. Effect of high pressure-high temperature process on meat product quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duranton, Frédérique; Marée, Elvire; Simonin, Hélène; Chéret, Romuald; de Lamballerie, Marie

    2011-03-01

    High pressure/high temperature (HPHT) processing is an innovative way to sterilize food and has been proposed as an alternative to conventional retorting. By using elevated temperatures and adiabatic compression, it allows the inactivation of vegetative microorganisms and pathogen spores. Even though the microbial inactivation has been widely studied, the effect of such process on sensorial attributes of food products, especially meat products, remains rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using HPHT process (500 MPa/115 °C) instead of conventional retorting to stabilize Toulouse sausages while retaining high organoleptic quality. The measurements of texture, color, water-holding capacity and microbial stability were investigated. It was possible to manufacture stable products at 500 MPa/115 °C/30 min. However, in these conditions, no improvement of the quality was found compared with conventional retorting.

  17. The Challenge of Increasing Access and Improving Quality: An Analysis of Universal Primary Education Interventions in Kenya and Tanzania since the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifuna, Daniel N.

    2007-11-01

    This article shows how interventions to provide Universal Primary Education (UPE) from the 1970s into the twenty-first century affected efforts to improve the quality of primary education in Kenya and Tanzania. While the interventions have made significant differences in the lives of many communities by increasing access to education of children who would have been denied schooling, quality indicators (including attrition and completion rates and examination scores) have stagnated at best or declined. Efforts to ensure and maintain quality in primary education in the two countries are reported to face serious challenges, including mainly inadequate funding to ensure the provision of essential teaching and learning materials, appropriate infrastructure as well as a sufficient number of competent teachers.

  18. Low-quality birds do not display high-quality signals: The cysteine-pheomelanin mechanism of honesty

    PubMed Central

    Galván, Ismael; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that make that the costs of producing high-quality signals are unaffordable to low-quality signalers are a current issue in animal communication. The size of the melanin-based bib of male house sparrows Passer domesticus honestly signals quality. We induced the development of new bibs while treating males with buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), a substance that depletes the levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and the amino acid cysteine, two elements that switch melanogenesis from eumelanin to pheomelanin. Final bib size is negatively related to pheomelanin levels in the bib feathers. BSO reduced cysteine and GSH levels in all birds, but improved phenotypes (bibs larger than controls) were only expressed by high-quality birds (BSO birds with largest bibs initially). Negative associations between final bib size and cysteine levels in erythrocytes, and between pheomelanin and cysteine levels, were observed in high-quality birds only. These findings suggest that a mechanism uncoupling pheomelanin and cysteine levels may have evolved in low-quality birds to avoid producing bibs of size not corresponding to their quality and greater relative costs. Indeed, greater oxidative stress in cells was not observed in low-quality birds. This may represent the first mechanism maintaining signal honesty without producing greater relative costs on low-quality signalers. PMID:25330349

  19. The IRIS DMC: Perspectives on Real-Time Data Management and Open Access From a Large Seismological Archive: Challenges, Tools, and Quality Assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, R. B.

    2007-05-01

    The IRIS Data Management Center, located in Seattle, WA, is the largest openly accessible geophysical archive in the world, and has a unique perspective on data management and operational practices that gets the most out of your network. Networks scale broad domains in time and space, from finite needs to monitor bridges and dams to national and international networks like the GSN and the FDSN that establish a baseline for global monitoring and research, the requirements that go into creating a well-tuned DMC archive treat these the same, building a collaborative network of networks that generations of users rely on and adds value to the data. Funded by the National Science Foundation through the Division of Earth Sciences, IRIS is operated through member universities and in cooperation with the USGS, and the DMS facility is a bridge between a globally distributed collaboration of seismic networks and an equally distributed network of users that demand a high standard for data quality, completeness, and ease of access. I will describe the role that a perpetual archive has in the life cycle of data, and how hosting real-time data performs a dual role of being a hub for continuous data from approximately 59 real-time networks, and distributing these (along with other data from the 40-year library of available time-series data) to researchers, while simultaneously providing shared data back to networks in real- time that benefits monitoring activities. I will describe aspects of our quality-assurance framework that are both passively and actively performed on 1100 seismic stations, generating over 6,000 channels of regularly sampled data arriving daily, that data providers can use as aids in operating their network, and users can likewise use when requesting suitable data for research purposes. The goal of the DMC is to eliminate bottlenecks in data discovery and shortening the steps leading to analysis. This includes many challenges, including keeping metadata

  20. Telemedicine for access to quality care on medical practice and continuing medical education in a global arena.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Azhar; Merrell, Ronald C

    2005-01-01

    Health care practices continue to evolve with technological advances integrating computer applications and patient information management into telemedicine systems. Telemedicine can be broadly defined as the use of information technology to provide patient care and share clinical information from one geographic location to another. Telemedicine can lower costs and increase access to health care, especially for those who live in remote or underserved areas. The mechanism of telemedicine raises some difficult legal and regulatory issues as well since technology provides remote diagnosis and treatment across state lines resulting in unclear definitions for liability coverage. Physician licensing becomes an issue because telemedicine facilitates consultations without respect to state or national borders. With the increased access to current information and resources, continuing medical education becomes more feasible with synchronous or asynchronous access to educational content. The challenge in implementation of these unique educational tools is the inclusion for standards of practice and appropriate regulatory mechanisms to cover the audiences.

  1. High-Quality Seismic Observations of Sonic Booms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurman, G.; Haering, E. A.; Price, M.

    2011-12-01

    The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on Earthquake Warning Systems in order to prevent such systems from experiencing false alarms due to sonic booms. The airspace above the Antelope Valley, California includes the High Altitude Supersonic Corridor and the Black Mountain Supersonic Corridor. These corridors are among the few places in the US where supersonic flight is permitted, and sonic booms are commonplace in the Antelope Valley. One result of this project is a rich dataset of high-quality accelerometer records of sonic booms which can shed light on the interaction between these atmospheric phenomena and the solid earth. Nearly 100 sonic booms were recorded with low-noise triaxial MEMS accelerometers recording 1000 samples per second. The sonic booms had peak overpressures ranging up to approximately 10 psf and were recorded in three flight series in 2010 and 2011. Each boom was recorded with up to four accelerometers in various array configurations up to 100 meter baseline lengths, both in the built environment and the free field. All sonic booms were also recorded by nearby microphones. We present the results of the project in terms of the potential for sonic-boom-induced false alarms in Earthquake Warning Systems, and highlight some of the interesting features of the dataset.

  2. A Novel Process to Synthesize High-Quality Ferrovanadium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue-Dong; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, high-quality ferrovanadium nitride, which has a relative high nitrogen content and a low carbon content, has been prepared by roasting the mixture of vanadium pentoxide, carbon, and ferric oxide under N2 atmosphere in the temperature range from 1673 K to 1873 K (1400 °C to 1600 °C). The effects of carbon addition, reaction temperature, and heat treatment process were discussed. It was found that the carbon addition had a great effect on the nitrogen content and residual carbon, and the optimum carbon content was established to obtain the maximum nitrogen content and low carbon content. The reaction temperature in the range from 1673 K to 1873 K (1400 °C to 1600 °C) has a smaller effect on the final nitrogen content, and it also affects the degree of agglomeration of particles, which were observed by scanning electron microscope. From the results of thermodynamic calculation, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), it was deduced that the reaction sequence of V2O5 with N2 from 1673 K to 1873 K (1400 °C to 1600 °C) was V2O5 → VO2 → V2O3 → V(N, C, O) → V(N, C). There is a little solid solubility of carbon in the final product VN.

  3. High-Quality Seismic Observations of Sonic Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on Earthquake Warning Systems in order to prevent such systems from experiencing false alarms due to sonic booms. The airspace above the Antelope Valley, California includes the High Altitude Supersonic Corridor and the Black Mountain Supersonic Corridor. These corridors are among the few places in the US where supersonic flight is permitted, and sonic booms are commonplace in the Antelope Valley. One result of this project is a rich dataset of high-quality accelerometer records of sonic booms which can shed light on the interaction between these atmospheric phenomena and the solid earth. Nearly 100 sonic booms were recorded with low-noise triaxial MEMS accelerometers recording 1000 samples per second. The sonic booms had peak overpressures ranging up to approximately 10 psf and were recorded in three flight series in 2010 and 2011. Each boom was recorded with up to four accelerometers in various array configurations up to 100 meter baseline lengths, both in the built environment and the free field. All sonic booms were also recorded by nearby microphones. We present the results of the project in terms of the potential for sonic-boom-induced false alarms in Earthquake Warning Systems, and highlight some of the interesting features of the dataset.

  4. A highly efficient SDRAM controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Junzheng

    2016-03-01

    A highly efficient Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads is proposed in this paper. Based on the Principle of Locality, command First In First Out (FIFO) and address range detector are designed within this controller to accelerate its responses to discrete read requests, which dramatically improves the average Effective Bus Utilization Ratio (EBUR) of SDRAM. Our controller is finally verified by driving the Micron 256-Mb SDRAM MT48LC16M16A2. Successful simulation and verification results show that our controller exhibits much higher EBUR than do most existing designs in case of discrete reads.

  5. Health disparities: A barrier to high-quality care

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, C. Daniel; Blatt, Lisa; Gbarayor, Confidence M.; Yang, Hui-Wen Keri; Baquet, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Disparities in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer among the sexes and racial groups and possible interventions are discussed. Summary The ongoing process to identify and reduce health disparities has engaged numerous federal agencies as they monitor the nation’s progress toward policy-driven and health-related objectives. Cardiovascular disease disproportionately affects minority groups and is the leading cause of death among women in the United States, and both groups receive suboptimal care for the disease. Disparities in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in African Americans, women, patients with less than a high school education, and the elderly have been found. Many minority groups continue to suffer disproportionately from cancer. Racial disparities also exist in cancer screening and treatment. Minorities are underrepresented in clinical trials for multiple reasons, many of which may be related to cultural beliefs. At all levels of coinsurance, the poor are less likely to seek preventive care. Adherence to national screening and treatment guidelines, clinical trial recruitment and participation, addressing language and geographic barriers, and increasing access to insurance are part of the coordinated efforts required to reduce health disparities. Because pharmacists influence patients’ health status directly through pharmaceutical care and indirectly by engaging patients in their treatment, it is essential for pharmacists to be able to provide culturally competent care. Conclusion Despite significant efforts over the past several years, health disparities continue to exist, particularly among minority groups. Interventions aimed at eliminating these disparities should include ensuring cultural competence among health care providers and improving health literacy among patients. PMID:16141106

  6. Fabrication of Silica Ultra High Quality Factor Microresonators

    PubMed Central

    Maker, Ashley J.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Whispering gallery resonant cavities confine light in circular orbits at their periphery.1-2 The photon storage lifetime in the cavity, quantified by the quality factor (Q) of the cavity, can be in excess of 500ns for cavities with Q factors above 100 million. As a result of their low material losses, silica microcavities have demonstrated some of the longest photon lifetimes to date1-2. Since a portion of the circulating light extends outside the resonator, these devices can also be used to probe the surroundings. This interaction has enabled numerous experiments in biology, such as single molecule biodetection and antibody-antigen kinetics, as well as discoveries in other fields, such as development of ultra-low-threshold microlasers, characterization of thin films, and cavity quantum electrodynamics studies.3-7 The two primary silica resonant cavity geometries are the microsphere and the microtoroid. Both devices rely on a carbon dioxide laser reflow step to achieve their ultra-high-Q factors (Q>100 million).1-2,8-9 However, there are several notable differences between the two structures. Silica microspheres are free-standing, supported by a single optical fiber, whereas silica microtoroids can be fabricated on a silicon wafer in large arrays using a combination of lithography and etching steps. These differences influence which device is optimal for a given experiment. Here, we present detailed fabrication protocols for both types of resonant cavities. While the fabrication of microsphere resonant cavities is fairly straightforward, the fabrication of microtoroid resonant cavities requires additional specialized equipment and facilities (cleanroom). Therefore, this additional requirement may also influence which device is selected for a given experiment. Introduction An optical resonator efficiently confines light at specific wavelengths, known as the resonant wavelengths of the device. 1-2 The common figure of merit for these optical resonators is the quality

  7. High youth access to movies that contain smoking in Europe compared with the USA

    PubMed Central

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Sargent, James D; Karlsdóttir, Sólveig; Jónsson, Stefán Hrafn; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Poelen, Evelien A P; Scholte, Ron; Florek, Ewa; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on evidence that exposure to smoking in movies is associated with adolescent smoking, the WHO has called on countries to assign a rating that restricts youth access to such movies. Objective To evaluate youth access to movies that portray smoking in European countries and compare with that in the USA. Methods The authors identified the most commercially successful movies screened in six European countries (Germany, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and UK) and the USA between 2004 and 2009. The authors coded the 464 movies that were screened in both Europe and the USA according to whether or not they portrayed smoking. Results 87% of the movies were ‘youth’ rated in Europe (ratings board classification as suitable for those younger than 16 years) compared to only 67% in the USA (suitable for those younger than 17 years). Smoking was portrayed in 319 (69%) movies. 85% of the movies that portrayed smoking were ‘youth’ rated in Europe compared with only 59% in the USA (p<0.001). Conclusions Tobacco imagery is still common in popular films shown in European countries and the USA. None of the seven countries examined followed the WHO recommendations on restricting youth access to movies that portray smoking. Compared to the USA, European youths have access to substantially more movies in general, and this gives them access to more movies that portray smoking in particular. PMID:22184208

  8. Secure Communications in High Speed Fiber Optical Networks Using Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Han, I; Bond, S; Welty, R; Du, Y; Yoo, S; Reinhardt, C; Behymer, E; Sperry, V; Kobayashi, N

    2004-02-12

    This project is focused on the development of advanced components and system technologies for secure data transmission on high-speed fiber optic data systems. This work capitalizes on (1) a strong relationship with outstanding faculty at the University of California-Davis who are experts in high speed fiber-optic networks, (2) the realization that code division multiple access (CDMA) is emerging as a bandwidth enhancing technique for fiber optic networks, (3) the realization that CDMA of sufficient complexity forms the basis for almost unbreakable one-time key transmissions, (4) our concepts for superior components for implementing CDMA, (5) our expertise in semiconductor device processing and (6) our Center for Nano and Microtechnology, which is where the majority of the experimental work was done. Here we present a novel device concept, which will push the limits of current technology, and will simultaneously solve system implementation issues by investigating new state-of-the-art fiber technologies. This will enable the development of secure communication systems for the transmission and reception of messages on deployed commercial fiber optic networks, through the CDMA phase encoding of broad bandwidth pulses. CDMA technology has been developed as a multiplexing technology, much like wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) or time division multiplexing (TDM), to increase the potential number of users on a given communication link. A novel application of the techniques created for CDMA is to generate secure communication through physical layer encoding. Physical layer encoding devices are developed which utilize semiconductor waveguides with fast carrier response times to phase encode spectral components of a secure signal. Current commercial technology, most commonly a spatial light modulator, allows phase codes to be changed at rates of only 10's of Hertz ({approx}25ms response). The use of fast (picosecond to nanosecond) carrier dynamics of semiconductors, as

  9. Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools

    PubMed Central

    Adachi-Mejia, A.M.; Longacre, M.R.; Skatrud-Mickelson, M.; Li, Z.; Purvis, L.A.; Titus, L.J.; Beach, M.L.; Dalton, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location – urban, town or rural – and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Methods Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Results Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. Conclusions High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. PMID:23498924

  10. Equitable Access to Educational Resources: An Investigation of the Distribution of Teacher Quality across Secondary Schools in South Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study examined secondary schools across a south Florida school district to determine the relationship between school characteristics and measures of teacher quality with the aim of ascertaining the equitable distribution of the educational resource, teacher quality. Data regarding student population, staff climate survey…

  11. Access to What? Creating a Composite Measure of Educational Quantity and Educational Quality for 11 African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaull, Nicholas; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to create a composite statistic of educational quantity and educational quality by combining household data (Demographic and Health Survey) on grade completion and survey data (Southern and Eastern African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality) on cognitive outcomes for 11 African countries: Kenya, Lesotho,…

  12. Low-Skill Workers' Access to Quality Green Jobs. Perspectives on Low-Income Working Families. Brief 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Karin; Stanczyk, Alexandra; Eyster; Lauren

    2010-01-01

    This brief discusses strategies for improving access to green jobs among those with low skill levels, particularly jobs that can help improve workers' economic standing and better support their families. In order to understand where green jobs for low-skill individuals can be found, the first section provides an overview of green industries and…

  13. Which Methods Are Best Suited to the Production of High-Quality Research in Geography Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butt, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Researchers in geography education have access to a wide range of research methods, spanning the quantitative-qualitative continuum. However, the choice of which methods to employ in one's research has a direct impact on the subsequent quality of the research findings and should therefore be carefully considered. This paper briefly explores the…

  14. Systems and processes that ensure high quality care.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Sally; Westmore, Kathryn

    2012-10-01

    This is the second in a series of articles examining the components of good corporate governance. It considers how the structures and processes for quality governance can affect an organisation's ability to be assured about the quality of care. Complex information systems and procedures can lead to poor quality care, but sound structures and processes alone are insufficient to ensure good governance, and behavioural factors play a significant part in making sure that staff are enabled to provide good quality care. The next article in this series looks at how the information reporting of an organisation can affect its governance. PMID:23252087

  15. Systems and processes that ensure high quality care.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Sally; Westmore, Kathryn

    2012-10-01

    This is the second in a series of articles examining the components of good corporate governance. It considers how the structures and processes for quality governance can affect an organisation's ability to be assured about the quality of care. Complex information systems and procedures can lead to poor quality care, but sound structures and processes alone are insufficient to ensure good governance, and behavioural factors play a significant part in making sure that staff are enabled to provide good quality care. The next article in this series looks at how the information reporting of an organisation can affect its governance.

  16. Access to High School Arts Education: Why Student Participation Matters as Much as Course Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Kathleen; Singh, Priyanka; Klopfenstein, Kristin; Henry, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    There is renewed interest in the role of arts education in the curriculum of U.S. public schools not only because of the intrinsic value of the arts and its believed impact on achievement, but because cultivating creativity is thought to promote innovation and fuel economic growth. Still, we know little about basic access to arts education. Using…

  17. A simple, effective media access protocol system for integrated, high data rate networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, K.; Overstreet, C. M.; Khanna, S.; Zhang, L.

    1992-01-01

    The operation and performance of a dual media access protocol for integrated, gigabit networks are described. Unlike other dual protocols, each protocol supports a different class of traffic. The Carrier Sensed Multiple Access-Ring Network (CSMA/RN) protocol and the Circulating Reservation Packet (CRP) protocol support asynchronous and synchronous traffic, respectively. The two protocols operate with minimal impact upon each other. Performance information demonstrates that they support a complete range of integrated traffic loads, do not require call setup/termination or a special node for synchronous traffic control, and provide effective pre-use and recovery. The CRP also provides guaranteed access and fairness control for the asynchronous system. The paper demonstrates that the CSMA-CRP system fulfills many of the requirements for gigabit LAN-MAN networks most effectively and simply. To accomplish this, CSMA-CRP features are compared against similar ring and bus systems, such as Cambridge Fast Ring, Metaring, Cyclic Reservation Multiple Access, and Distributed Dual Queue Data Bus (DQDB).

  18. Effectiveness of Vocational High Schools in Students' Access to and Persistence in Postsecondary Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farías, Mauricio; Sevilla, María Paola

    2015-01-01

    Vocational education is increasingly seen as a viable path to higher education and not simply a direct route to the labor market. This paper studies the relationship between the secondary school track attended by Chilean students (vocational or academic) and their subsequent outcomes in access to and persistence in postsecondary vocational…

  19. Tunable high quality factor in two multimode plasmonic stubs waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiquan; Li, Hongjian; Zhan, Shiping; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Mingfei

    2016-04-01

    We numerically investigate the optical characteristics of a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide side-coupled with two identical multimode stub resonators. Double plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) peaks with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) and high quality factor (Q-factor) can be observed in this structure. The Q-factors of PIT peaks in two stub resonators system are larger than those in single stub resonator system. A multimode coupled-radiation oscillator theory (MC-ROT), which is derived from ROT, is proposed to analyze the spectral response in the multimode system for the first time. The analytical results are confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results. We can also find that the Q-factors of the two PIT peaks have an opposite evolution tendency with the change of the stubs parameters and the maximum can reach to 427. These results may provide some applications for ultrasensitive sensors, switches and efficient filters.

  20. Tunable high quality factor in two multimode plasmonic stubs waveguide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiquan; Li, Hongjian; Zhan, Shiping; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Mingfei

    2016-04-14

    We numerically investigate the optical characteristics of a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide side-coupled with two identical multimode stub resonators. Double plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) peaks with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) and high quality factor (Q-factor) can be observed in this structure. The Q-factors of PIT peaks in two stub resonators system are larger than those in single stub resonator system. A multimode coupled-radiation oscillator theory (MC-ROT), which is derived from ROT, is proposed to analyze the spectral response in the multimode system for the first time. The analytical results are confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results. We can also find that the Q-factors of the two PIT peaks have an opposite evolution tendency with the change of the stubs parameters and the maximum can reach to 427. These results may provide some applications for ultrasensitive sensors, switches and efficient filters.

  1. Quality Factor for the Hadronic Calorimeter in High Luminosity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seixas, J. M.; ATLAS Tile Calorimeter System

    2015-05-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS experiment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and has about 10,000 eletronic channels. An Optimal Filter (OF) has been used to estimate the energy sampled by the calorimeter and applies a Quality Factor (QF) for signal acceptance. An approach using Matched Filter (MF) has also been pursued. In order to cope with the luminosity rising foreseen for LHC operation upgrade, different algorithms have been developed. Currently, the OF measurement for signal acceptance is implemented through a chi-square test. At a low luminosity scenario, such QF measurement has been used as a way to describe how the acquired signal is compatible to the pulse shape pattern. However, at high-luminosity conditions, due to pile up, this QF acceptance is no longer possible when OF is employed, and the QF becomes a measurement to indicate whether the reconstructed signal suffers or not from pile up. Methods are being developed in order to recover the superimposed information, and the QF may be used again as signal acceptance criterion. In this work, a new QF measurement is introduced. It is based on divergence statistics, which measures the similarity of probability density functions.

  2. High quality factor platinum silicide microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szypryt, P.; Mazin, B. A.; Ulbricht, G.; Bumble, B.; Meeker, S. R.; Bockstiegel, C.; Walter, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the development of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) using platinum silicide as the sensor material. MKIDs are an emerging superconducting detector technology, capable of measuring the arrival times of single photons to better than two microseconds and their energies to around ten percent. Previously, MKIDs have been fabricated using either sub-stoichiometric titanium nitride or aluminum, but TiN suffers from the spatial inhomogeneities in the superconducting critical temperature and Al has a low kinetic inductance fraction, causing low detector sensitivity. To address these issues, we have instead fabricated the PtSi microresonators with the superconducting critical temperatures of 944 ± 12 mK and high internal quality factors ( Q i ≳ 10 6 ). These devices show typical quasiparticle lifetimes of τ q p ≈ 30 - 40 μ s and spectral resolution, R = λ / Δ λ , of 8 at 406.6 nm. We compare PtSi MKIDs to those fabricated with TiN and detail the substantial advantages that PtSi MKIDs have to offer.

  3. Characterization of non equilibrium effects on high quality critical flows

    SciTech Connect

    Camelo, E.; Lemonnier, H.; Ochterbeck, J.

    1995-09-01

    The appropriate design of various pieces of safety equipment such as relief systems, relies on the accurate description of critical flow phenomena. Most of the systems of industrial interest are willing to be described by one-dimensional area-averaged models and a large fraction of them involves multi-component high gas quality flows. Within these circumstances, the flow is very likely to be of an annular dispersed nature and its description by two-fluid models requires various closure relations. Among the most sensitive closures, there is the interfacial area and the liquid entrained fraction. The critical flowrate depends tremendously on the accurate description of the non equilibrium which results from the correctness of the closure equations. In this study, two-component flows are emphasized and non equilibrium results mainly form the differences in the phase velocities. It is therefore of the utmost importance to have reliable data to characterize non equilibrium phenomena and to assess the validity of the closure models. A comprehensive description of air-water nozzle flows, with emphasis on the effect of the nozzle geometry, has been undertaken and some of the results are presented here which helps understanding the overall flow dynamics. Besides the critical flowrate, the presented material includes pressure profiles, droplet size and velocity, liquid film flowrate and liquid film thickness.

  4. Tunable high quality factor in two multimode plasmonic stubs waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiquan; Li, Hongjian; Zhan, Shiping; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Mingfei

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate the optical characteristics of a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide side-coupled with two identical multimode stub resonators. Double plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) peaks with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) and high quality factor (Q-factor) can be observed in this structure. The Q-factors of PIT peaks in two stub resonators system are larger than those in single stub resonator system. A multimode coupled-radiation oscillator theory (MC-ROT), which is derived from ROT, is proposed to analyze the spectral response in the multimode system for the first time. The analytical results are confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results. We can also find that the Q-factors of the two PIT peaks have an opposite evolution tendency with the change of the stubs parameters and the maximum can reach to 427. These results may provide some applications for ultrasensitive sensors, switches and efficient filters. PMID:27075935

  5. Student Empowerment. The Influence of High Computer Access on Student Empowerment (An Exploratory Study of the Nashville ACOT Site). ACOT Report #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Charles W.

    This study identifies classroom conditions that affect student empowerment and examines the relationship between student empowerment and high computer access (HCA). The study involved observation in two fourth grade classrooms--one week in an ACOT classroom (with high computer access), and one week in a non-ACOT classroom (without high computer…

  6. Absence of socioeconomic inequalities in access to good-quality breast cancer treatment within a population-wide screening programme in Turin (Italy).

    PubMed

    Zengarini, Nicolás; Ponti, Antonio; Tomatis, Mariano; Casella, Denise; Giordano, Livia; Mano, Maria P; Segnan, Nereo; Whitehead, Margaret; Costa, Giuseppe; Spadea, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Several studies suggest that population-based breast cancer screening programmes might help reduce social inequalities in breast cancer survival both by increasing early diagnosis and by improving access to effective treatments. To start disentangling the two effects, we evaluated social inequalities in quality of treatment of screen-detected breast cancer in the city of Turin (Italy). Combining data from the Audit System on Quality of Breast Cancer Treatment and the Turin Longitudinal Study, we analysed 2700 cases in the screening target age class 50-69 diagnosed in the period 1995-2008. We selected 10 indicators of the pathway of care, relative to timeliness and appropriateness of diagnosis and treatment, and three indicators of socioeconomic position: education, occupational status and housing characteristics. For each indicator of care, relative risks of failure were estimated by robust Poisson regression models, controlling for calendar period of diagnosis, size of tumour and activity volume of the surgery units. The principal predictor of failure of the good care indicators was the calendar period of diagnosis, with a general improvement with time in the quality of diagnosis and treatment, followed by size of the tumour and volume of activity. Socioeconomic indicators show only a marginal independent effect on timeliness indicators. The observed associations of quality indicators with socioeconomic characteristics are lower than expected, suggesting a possible role of the screening programme in reducing disparities in the access to good-quality treatments thanks to its capability to enter screen-detected women into a protected pathway of care. PMID:26999379

  7. The Affordable Care Act and the Burden of High Cost Sharing and Utilization Management Restrictions on Access to HIV Medications for People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Hank, Yasamean

    2016-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to be a critical public health issue in the United States, where an estimated 1.2 million individuals live with HIV infection. Viral suppression is one of the primary public health goals for People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). A crucial component of this goal involves adequate access to health care, specifically anti-retroviral HIV medications. The enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 raised hopes for millions of PLWHA without access to health care coverage. High cost-sharing requirements enacted by health plans place a financial burden on PLWHA who need ongoing access to these life-saving medications. Plighted with poverty, Detroit, Michigan, is a center of attention for examining the financial burden of HIV medications on PLWHA under the new health plans. From November 2014 to January 2015, monthly out-of-pocket costs and medication utilization requirements for 31 HIV medications were examined for the top 12 insurance carriers offering Qualified Health Plans on Michigan's Health Insurance Marketplace Exchange. The percentage of medications requiring quantity limits and prior authorization were calculated. The average monthly out-of-pocket cost per person ranged from $12 to $667 per medication. Three insurance carriers placed all 31 HIV medications on the highest cost-sharing tier, charging 50% coinsurance. High out-of-pocket costs and medication utilization restrictions discourage PLWHA from enrolling in health plans and threaten interrupted medication adherence, drug resistance, and increased risk of viral transmission. Health plans inflicting high costs and medication restrictions violate provisions of the ACA and undermine health care quality for PLWHA. (Population Health Management 2016;19:272-278). PMID:26565514

  8. Quality Assurance Roadmap for High Performance Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    2008-10-05

    This report outlines the approach to quality assurance in the construction process for new residential construction, including seven process steps from the assessment of current construction practice, through design and documentation changes, to training and quality control for on-site personnel.

  9. 36 CFR 910.31 - High architectural quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE... the best contemporary design and planning concepts. Great care and sensitivity must be shown in the... provisions for pedestrian and vehicular access. Special design considerations for each coordinated...

  10. 36 CFR 910.31 - High architectural quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE... the best contemporary design and planning concepts. Great care and sensitivity must be shown in the... provisions for pedestrian and vehicular access. Special design considerations for each coordinated...

  11. 36 CFR 910.31 - High architectural quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE... the best contemporary design and planning concepts. Great care and sensitivity must be shown in the... provisions for pedestrian and vehicular access. Special design considerations for each coordinated...

  12. Access to prenatal care: inequalities in a region with high maternal mortality in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Katrini Guidolini; Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro Dos; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich

    2016-05-01

    Aim This article aims to evaluate access to prenatal care according to the dimensions of availability, affordability and acceptability in the SUS microregion of southeastern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in 2012-2013 that selected 742 postpartum women in seven hospitals in the region chosen for the research. The information was collected, processed and submitted to the chi-square test and the nonparametric Spearman's test, with p-values less than 5% (p < 0.05). Results Although the SUS constitutionally guarantees universal access to health care, there are still inequalities between pregnant women from rural and urban areas in terms of the availability of health care and among families earning up to minimum wage and more than one minimum wage per month in terms of affordability; however, the acceptability of health care was equal, regardless of the modality of the health services. Conclusion The location, transport resources and financing of health services should be reorganised, and the training of health professionals should be enhanced to provide more equitable health care access to pregnant women. PMID:27166912

  13. Experience from the 1st Year running a Massive High Quality Videoconferencing Service for the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Joao; Baron, Thomas; Bompastor, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    In the last few years, we have witnessed an explosion of visual collaboration initiatives in the industry. Several advances in video services and also in their underlying infrastructure are currently improving the way people collaborate globally. These advances are creating new usage paradigms: any device in any network can be used to collaborate, in most cases with an overall high quality. To keep apace with this technology progression, the CERN IT Department launched a service based on the Vidyo product. This new service architecture introduces Adaptive Video Layering, which dynamically optimizes the video for each endpoint by leveraging the H.264 Scalable Video Coding (SVC)-based compression technology. It combines intelligent AV routing techniques with the flexibility of H.264 SVC video compression, in order to achieve resilient video collaboration over the Internet, 3G and WiFi. We present an overview of the results that have been achieved after this major change. In particular, the first year of operation of the CERN Vidyo service will be described in terms of performance and scale: The service became part of the daily activity of the LHC collaborations, reaching a monthly usage of more than 3200 meetings with a peak of 750 simultaneous connections. We also present some key features such as the integration with CERN Indico. LHC users can now join a Vidyo meeting either from their personal computer or a CERN videoconference room simply from an Indico event page, with the ease of a single click. The roadmap for future improvements, service extensions and core infrastructure tendencies such as cloud based services and virtualization of system components will also be discussed. Vidyo's strengths allowed us to build a universal service (it is accessible from PCs, but also videoconference rooms, traditional phones, tablets and smartphones), developed with 3 key ideas in mind: ease of use, full integration and high quality.

  14. Expanding Access to Care and Improving Quality in the Mid-Atlantic States Safety-Net Clinics: Kaiser Permanente’s Community Ambassador Program

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Jared Lane K; Bradley, Jacqueline J; Eissler, Sarah R; LoBrano, Marcia; Rubin, Mindy R; Gay, Maritha; Horberg, Michael A; Loftus, Bernadette C

    2015-01-01

    Context: As part of its longstanding commitment to improve the health of the communities it serves, Kaiser Permanente (KP) established the Community Ambassador Program (CAP) in the Mid-Atlantic States Region. The CAP places KP-employed nurse practitioners, midwives, and physician assistants to work in the safety-net clinics and to share best practices through a long-term community collaboration. Objective: To share the early experiences of the CAP and describe the initial results of the program’s impact on the safety-net clinics. Methods: We conducted an evaluation of 18 safety-net clinics that participated in the CAP in 2012 to determine the program’s early impact in expanding access to care, increasing the capacity of safety-net providers, and improving the quality of care on evidence-based measures in the year following program implementation. The safety-net clinics are comprised of federally qualified health centers, free clinics, and other community-based organizations. The clinics were asked to respond to questions regarding their evidence-based practices promoted by KP and on primary care-related utilization. Results: The Community Ambassadors provided an estimated 32,249 encounters to 11,988 patients. Performance by the Community Ambassadors was at or near 90% for 2 adult quality measures (weight screening and tobacco use assessment). For breast cancer screenings, however, performance among the Community Ambassadors was much lower (48%). Conclusion: The CAP demonstrated some early success in expanding access and improving quality of care on several key measures for certain subpopulations. Despite these achievements, opportunities remain for quality improvement, expanded capacity, and enhanced data reporting infrastructure. PMID:25785638

  15. Molecular beam deposition of high quality silicon oxide dielectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Naresh; Johnson, J. E.; Osenbach, J. W.; Liang, W. C.; Feldman, L. C.; Tsang, W. T.; Krautter, H. W.; Passlack, M.; Hull, R.; Swaminathan, V.

    1995-03-01

    We report a method for depositing clean, uniform and stable SiO x dielectric films with high control and reproducibility. The technique uses a molecular or chemical beam epitaxy system (MBE or CBE). The technique offers many advantages over the conventional methods such as load lock facility, accurate determination of the flux, low background contamination, in-situ process monitoring tools, and heating, rotation and tilting of the substrate. Rutherford backscattering (RBS) shows that the films deposited without oxygen are stoichiometric, 50% oxygen and 50% Si, irrespective of the deposition rate or temperature. Such SiO films have a resistivity of ≥10 13 Ω · cm and a nominal refractive index of 2 at 632.8 nm. The refractive index can be reduced by introducing a controlled amount of oxygen into the chamber to result in SiO x ( x = 1-2) films. The SiO films have uniform density and composition, and are free from voids, or any inclusions of different crystalline or amorphous phases. These SiO films are easy to pattern and their erosion rate is slower than that of SiO 2 deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). During 192 h soak in 99°C deionized (DI) water, no moisture absorption was observed in SiO films deposited at a rate of 2 Å/s. Even in films deposited at 11 Å/s, the moisture content after 192 h soak in 99°C DI water was about one third the moisture content of an as-deposited typical PECVD SiO 2 film, indicating that the SiO films are highly resistant to moisture absorption and the film quality improves with reducing deposition rate. The insulating, mechanical and optical properties of SiO x films make them suitable for many applications such as surface passivation, mask for processing and facet coating of lasers. The process can be easily integrated with MBE/CBE which would greatly simplify and improve the III-V semiconductor processing. It may also be possible to deposit such dielectric films by CBE using gaseous compound sources.

  16. The digital divide at an urban community health center: implications for quality improvement and health care access.

    PubMed

    Denizard-Thompson, Nancy M; Feiereisel, Kirsten B; Stevens, Sheila F; Miller, David P; Wofford, James L

    2011-06-01

    Health care policy encourages better electronic connectivity between patient and the office practice. However, whether patients are able to partner with the practice in using communication technologies is not known. We sought to determine (1) the proportion of clinic patients who use internet and cell phone text messaging technologies, (2) the level of patient interest in using these technologies for the purpose of managing clinical appointments and patient education. Consecutive adult patients, clinicians and staff at an urban community health center were surveyed during a one-week period in order to estimate the frequency of technology use by patients. A total of 308 survey cards were collected during the designated week (response rate of 85% (308/362). One-third (34.0%, 105) of surveyed patients used the internet and text messaging daily or weekly, while nearly two-thirds (59.7%, 182) never used these technologies. There were no racial or gender differences in the proportion of patients who used the internet daily or weekly. In contrast, African-Americans used text messaging more often than whites (28.2 vs. 21.4%, P < .05), and females more than males (30.8 vs. 18.5%, P < .05). Younger patients (>50) used the internet and text messaging more often than older patients (50.6 vs. 16.6%, 44.3 vs. 7.3%, respectively). Despite the low use of both technologies, patient's interest in managing clinic appointments was high (40.3% for the Internet and 56.8% for text messaging). Clinicians and staff estimated patient's daily/weekly use of internet and cellphone messaging at 40.3% (± 22.0), and 56.8% (± 25.7), respectively. Most patients at this urban community health center reported never using the internet or cell phone text messaging. Clinicians overestimated technology use by patients. Planning for clinic infrastructure, quality improvement, and patient education should include assessment of technology use patterns by patients. PMID:21086028

  17. Consumers' expected quality and intention to purchase high quality pork meat.

    PubMed

    Papanagiotou, P; Tzimitra-Kalogianni, I; Melfou, K

    2013-03-01

    Expected quality is believed to be one of the most important factors that influence consumers' intention to purchase food. The present study seeks to explore the concept of pork meat expected quality and compare it with self-stated consumer intention to purchase pork meat. The aim is attempted by means of a field research conducted in Greece, following a conjoint analytic procedure. Results show that quality expectations comply with intention to buy pork, in many aspects. However, several differences have been identified. More specifically, country of origin and marbling appear to be more important for respondents' purchase decisions than they are for their quality evaluations, while the opposite appears to be true for price. Finally, socio-demographic factors such as gender, level of education, place of purchase and consumption habits seem to influence perceptions. PMID:23273449

  18. Explaining high health care spending in the United States: an international comparison of supply, utilization, prices, and quality.

    PubMed

    Squires, David A

    2012-05-01

    This analysis uses data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and other sources to compare health care spending, supply, utilization, prices, and quality in 13 industrialized countries: Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The U.S. spends far more on health care than any other country. However this high spending cannot be attributed to higher income, an older population, or greater supply or utilization of hospitals and doctors. Instead, the findings suggest the higher spending is more likely due to higher prices and perhaps more readily accessible technology and greater obesity. Health care quality in the U.S. varies and is not notably superior to the far less expensive systems in the other study countries. Of the countries studied, Japan has the lowest health spending, which it achieves primarily through aggressive price regulation. PMID:22582452

  19. Explaining high health care spending in the United States: an international comparison of supply, utilization, prices, and quality.

    PubMed

    Squires, David A

    2012-05-01

    This analysis uses data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and other sources to compare health care spending, supply, utilization, prices, and quality in 13 industrialized countries: Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The U.S. spends far more on health care than any other country. However this high spending cannot be attributed to higher income, an older population, or greater supply or utilization of hospitals and doctors. Instead, the findings suggest the higher spending is more likely due to higher prices and perhaps more readily accessible technology and greater obesity. Health care quality in the U.S. varies and is not notably superior to the far less expensive systems in the other study countries. Of the countries studied, Japan has the lowest health spending, which it achieves primarily through aggressive price regulation. PMID:22619775

  20. Explaining high health care spending in the United States: an international comparison of supply, utilization, prices, and quality.

    PubMed

    Squires, David A

    2012-05-01

    This analysis uses data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and other sources to compare health care spending, supply, utilization, prices, and quality in 13 industrialized countries: Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The U.S. spends far more on health care than any other country. However this high spending cannot be attributed to higher income, an older population, or greater supply or utilization of hospitals and doctors. Instead, the findings suggest the higher spending is more likely due to higher prices and perhaps more readily accessible technology and greater obesity. Health care quality in the U.S. varies and is not notably superior to the far less expensive systems in the other study countries. Of the countries studied, Japan has the lowest health spending, which it achieves primarily through aggressive price regulation.

  1. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY): impact of an eye health education program on patient knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Lindsay A; Huisingh, Carrie E; McGwin, Gerald; Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Bregantini, Mary; Patel, Nita; Saaddine, Jinan; Crews, John E; Girkin, Christopher A; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of the education program of the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY) telemedicine program on at-risk patients’ knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care as well as to assess patient satisfaction with EQUALITY. Patients and methods New or existing patients presenting for a comprehensive eye exam (CEE) at one of two retail-based primary eye clinics were enrolled based on ≥1 of the following at-risk criteria for glaucoma: African Americans ≥40 years of age, Whites ≥50 years of age, diabetes, family history of glaucoma, and/or preexisting diagnosis of glaucoma. A total of 651 patients were enrolled. A questionnaire was administered prior to the patients’ CEE and prior to the patients receiving any of the evidence-based eye health education program; a follow-up questionnaire was administered 2–4 weeks later by phone. Baseline and follow-up patient responses regarding knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care were compared using McNemar’s test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of patient-level characteristics with improvement in knowledge and attitudes. Overall patient satisfaction was summarized. Results At follow-up, all patient responses in the knowledge and attitude domains significantly improved from baseline (P≤0.01 for all questions). Those who were unemployed (odds ratio =0.63, 95% confidence interval =0.42–0.95, P=0.026) or had lower education (odds ratio =0.55, 95% confidence interval =0.29–1.02, P=0.058) were less likely to improve their knowledge after adjusting for age, sex, race, and prior glaucoma diagnosis. This association was attenuated after further adjustment for other patient-level characteristics. Ninety-eight percent (n=501) of patients reported being likely to have a CEE within the next 2 years, whereas 63% (n=326) had a CEE in the previous 2 years. Patient satisfaction with EQUALITY was high (99

  2. [Accessibility and quality of Italian health and social services: the experiences of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and of their relatives].

    PubMed

    Kodra, Y; Salerno, P; Agazio, E; Mirabella, F; Taruscio, D

    2007-01-01

    Opinions of patients and relatives about their experiences with health and social services were assessed in a pilot study. The study was carried out in collaboration with two patients' Associations of Neurofibromatosis, "Neurofibromatosi--Onlus" and "LINFA--Onlus". An ad-hoc questionnaire was developed by the Italian National Centre of Rare Diseases and was sent to the Responsibles of the two aforementioned patients' Associations. The Responsibles distributed the questionnaire to their members by mail. The questionnaire investigated, using 5-level Likert scales, the following topics: quality and accessibility of health services (diagnostic exams, pharmacological therapies, rehabilitation, psychological support), quality and accessibility of social services (school, vocational training, health information, information on legal matters and rights). Finally, the questionnaire investigated also opinions about improvements of public health and social services in the last three years. Overall, 79 out 144 questionnaires were filled by patients or their relatives. The most frequent negative experiences concerned vocational training and both health and legal information. The most frequent positive opinions were reported for the human relationships with health professionals. This pilot study seems to point out a promising way to investigate systematically opinions of patients suffering from rare diseases and their relatives.

  3. Access to services, quality of care, and family impact for children with autism, other developmental disabilities, and other mental health conditions.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; St Peter, Claire

    2014-10-01

    This cross-sectional study examined perceived access to services, quality of care, and family impact reported by caregivers of children aged 3-17 years with autism spectrum disorders, as compared to caregivers of children with other developmental disabilities and other mental health conditions. The 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs was utilized to examine the association between child's special needs condition and three outcomes (N = 18,136): access to services (difficulty using services, difficulty getting referrals, lack of source of care, and inadequate insurance coverage), quality of care (lack of care coordination, lack of shared decision making, and no routine screening), and family impact (financial, employment, and time-related burden). Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to compare caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorders to caregivers of children with developmental disabilities (cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, developmental delay, or intellectual disability), mental health conditions (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, behavioral/conduct problems, or depression), or both developmental disabilities and mental health conditions. Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorders were significantly more likely to report difficulty using services, lack of source of care, inadequate insurance coverage, lack of shared decision making and care coordination, and adverse family impact as compared to caregivers of children with developmental disabilities, mental health conditions, or both.

  4. Access and utilisation of healthcare services in rural Tanzania: A comparison of public and non-public facilities using quality, equity, and trust dimensions.

    PubMed

    Shayo, Elizabeth H; Senkoro, Kesheni P; Momburi, Romanus; Olsen, Øystein E; Byskov, Jens; Makundi, Emmanuel A; Kamuzora, Peter; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the access and utilisation of health services in public and non-public health facilities in terms of quality, equity and trust in the Mbarali district, Tanzania. Interviews, focus group discussions, and informal discussions were used to generate data. Of the 1836 respondents, 1157 and 679 respondents sought healthcare services on their last visit at public or non-public health facilities, respectively. While 45.5% rated the quality of services to be good in both types of facilities, reported medicine shortages were more pronounced among those who visited public rather than non-public health facilities (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.4, 2.1). Respondents who visited public facilities were 4.9 times less likely than those who visited non-public facilities to emphasise the influence of cost in accessing and utilising health care (OR = 4.9, CI 3.9-6.1). A significant difference was also found in the provider-client relationship satisfaction level between non-public (89.1%) and public facilities (74.7%) (OR = 2.8, CI: 1.5-5.0), indicating a level of lower trust in the later. Revised strategies are needed to ensure availability of medicines in public facilities, which are used by the majority of the population, while strengthening private-public partnerships to harmonise healthcare costs.

  5. Gains in Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Walch, Joe

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the teacher workforce in the United States is of considerable concern to education stakeholders and policymakers. Numerous studies show that student academic success depends in no small part on access to high-quality teachers. Many pundits point to the fact that in the United States, teachers tend not to be drawn from the top of the…

  6. High throughput electrospinning of high-quality nanofibers via an aluminum disk spinneret

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guokuo

    In this work, a simple and efficient needleless high throughput electrospinning process using an aluminum disk spinneret with 24 holes is described. Electrospun mats produced by this setup consisted of fine fibers (nano-sized) of the highest quality while the productivity (yield) was many times that obtained from conventional single-needle electrospinning. The goal was to produce scaled-up amounts of the same or better quality nanofibers under variable concentration, voltage, and the working distance than those produced with the single needle lab setting. The fiber mats produced were either polymer or ceramic (such as molybdenum trioxide nanofibers). Through experimentation the optimum process conditions were defined to be: 24 kilovolt, a distance to collector of 15cm. More diluted solutions resulted in smaller diameter fibers. Comparing the morphologies of the nanofibers of MoO3 produced by both the traditional and the high throughput set up it was found that they were very similar. Moreover, the nanofibers production rate is nearly 10 times than that of traditional needle electrospinning. Thus, the high throughput process has the potential to become an industrial nanomanufacturing process and the materials processed by it may be used as filtration devices, in tissue engineering, and as sensors.

  7. Newton in the Big Apple: Issues of equity in physics access and enrollment in New York City public high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Angela Marian

    High school physics is a gateway course for post-secondary study in science, medicine, and engineering, as well as an essential component in the formation of students' scientific literacy. However, physics is widely considered appropriate only for an academic elite. The existence of policies that restrict science opportunities for secondary students results in diminished outcomes in terms of scientific proficiency. Although the national trend in physics enrollment has shown an increase in recent years, the rate of participation is much lower for students in urban schools. This study examines the availability of physics in New York City, and whether access is related to organizational and school-level variables. The statistical distribution of physics students throughout the city is compiled and analyzed. High schools that successfully offer physics are compared with those that do not. Other factors are explored to determine their relationship to physics access, such as the presence of science magnet schools, the availability of Advanced Placement Physics and Non-Regents Physics, the science curricular sequence, and teacher certification. The results show that physics is not widely available to students in New York City, with 55% of high schools simply not offering the subject. Only 27% of schools with fewer than 600 students offer physics. The science magnet schools enroll a significant proportion of physics students when compared with larger, economically depressed neighborhood schools. The causes of these disparities are complex, and the implications serious for those students who do not have equal access to physics. The implications of these findings are important. By highlighting descriptive variables, as well as statistical evidence of systemic discrimination and inequities, urban districts may formulate effective models for the promotion of physics study. School policies and structures need to target better rates of physics participation among all students

  8. Analyzing Accessibility Dimension of Urban Quality of Life: Where Urban Designers Face Duality between Subjective and Objective Reading of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotfi, Sedigheh; Koohsari, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    The subject of urban quality of life and the promotion of its concept in particular, has always been the central focus of urban designers. This term is a multi-conceptual and dimensions. However most of the scholars have agreed that the concept consisted from two main dimensions; objective and subjective which these two approaches are used for its…

  9. Results for Learning Report 2012: Fostering Evidence-Based Dialogue to Monitor Access and Quality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortese, Lauren; Crouch, Luis; Pinto, Nancy; Salgado, Vania; Schmidt, Caroline; Soman, Kouassi; Thiam, Mamadou; Chaluda, Ania; Omoeva, Carina

    2012-01-01

    The Global Partnership for Education (GPE) works with low-income countries around the world to help them provide basic education of good quality to all of their children. Countries develop education sector plans that set clear targets and commitments; their partners including donors, multilateral agencies, civil society and the private sector…

  10. High throughput tools to access images from clinical archives for research.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Shawn N; Herrick, Christopher; Wang, Yanbing; Wang, Taowei David; Sack, Darren; Andriole, Katherine P; Wei, Jesse; Reynolds, Nathaniel; Plesniak, Wendy; Rosen, Bruce R; Pieper, Steven; Gollub, Randy L

    2015-04-01

    Historically, medical images collected in the course of clinical care have been difficult to access for secondary research studies. While there is a tremendous potential value in the large volume of studies contained in clinical image archives, Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) are designed to optimize clinical operations and workflow. Search capabilities in PACS are basic, limiting their use for population studies, and duplication of archives for research is costly. To address this need, we augment the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) open source software, providing investigators with the tools necessary to query and integrate medical record and clinical research data. Over 100 healthcare institutions have installed this suite of software tools that allows investigators to search medical record metadata including images for specific types of patients. In this report, we describe a new Medical Imaging Informatics Bench to Bedside (mi2b2) module ( www.mi2b2.org ), available now as an open source addition to the i2b2 software platform that allows medical imaging examinations collected during routine clinical care to be made available to translational investigators directly from their institution's clinical PACS for research and educational use in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Omnibus Rule. Access governance within the mi2b2 module is customizable per institution and PACS minimizing impact on clinical systems. Currently in active use at our institutions, this new technology has already been used to facilitate access to thousands of clinical MRI brain studies representing specific patient phenotypes for use in research. PMID:25316195

  11. Challenges in access to health services and its impact on quality of life: a randomised population-based survey within Turkish speaking immigrants in London

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim There are a significant number of Turkish speaking immigrants living in London. Their special health issues including women's health, mental health, and alcohol and smoking habits has been assessed. The aim of this study was to explore the ongoing challenges in access to health care services and its impact on Quality of Life of immigrants. Material and methods This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted between March and August 2010 with Turkish immigrants (n = 416) living in London. Of these, 308 (74%) were Turkish and 108 (26%) were Turkish Cypriots. All healthy or unhealthy adults of 17-65 years of age were enrolled. A structured questionnaire with 44 items in five subcategories and 26-items WHOQOL BREF were used. Results Mean duration of stay for Turkish Cypriots (26.9 ± 13.9 years) was significantly longer than Turkish immigrants (13.3 ± 7.5) (p < 0.001). Turkish immigrants (n = 108, 36.5%) need interpretation more often when using health services than Turkish Cypriots (n = 16, 15%) (p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses suggested significant effects of older age, non-homeownership, low socioeconomic class, poor access to health services, being ill, poor community integration and being obese on physical well-being and also significant effects of low income and poor community integration on perceived overall Quality of Life (WHOQOL) of the participants. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate how the health and well-being of members of the Turkish speaking community living in London are affected by social aspects of their lives. Providing culturally competent care and interpretation services and advocacy may improve the accessibility of the health care. PMID:22280521

  12. Quality of life and cosmetic result of single-port access endoscopic thyroidectomy via axillary approach in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian-kang; Ma, Ling; Song, Wen-hua; Lu, Bang-yu; Huang, Yu-bin; Dong, Hui-ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Endoscopic thyroidectomy for minimally invasive thyroid surgery has been widely applied in the past decade. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of single-port access transaxillary totally endoscopic thyroidectomy on the postoperative outcomes and functional parameters, including quality of life and cosmetic result in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Patients and methods Seventy-five patients with PTC who underwent endoscopic thyroidectomy via a single-port access transaxillary approach were included (experimental group). A total of 123 patients with PTC who were subjected to conventional open total thyroidectomy served as the control group. The health-related quality of life and cosmetic and satisfaction outcomes were assessed postoperatively. Results The mean operation time was significantly increased in the experimental group. The physiological functions and social functions in the two groups were remarkably augmented after 6 months of surgery. However, there was no significant difference in the scores of speech and taste between the two groups at the indicated time of 1 month and 6 months. In addition, the scores for appearance, satisfaction with appearance, role-physical, bodily pain, and general health in the experimental group were better than those in the control group at 1 month and 6 months after surgery. Conclusion The single-port access transaxillary totally endoscopic thyroidectomy is safe and feasible for the treatment of patients with PTC. The subjects who underwent this technique have a good perception of their general state of health and are likely to participate in social activities. It is worthy of being clinically used for patients with PTC. PMID:27445496

  13. ESSD: Real World Issues and Challenges of High-Quality Data Publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffenberger, Hans; Carlson, David

    2013-04-01

    The Copernicus data publication journal Earth System Science Data (ESSD) represents an important and unique (and by no means final!) step forward in the larger world of data publication. Working with authors, reviewers, editors and data centres, ESSD has successfully produced many high-quality data publications across a wide variety of scientific disciplines, for individual data sets, multiple data sets as the product of scientific consortia and in special issues coordinated with other science journals. The ESSD success also exposes issues and challenges for present and future data publication, particularly around the topic and implementation of persistent identifiers. • As ESSD encourages redundant data sets across multiple data centres for access and archive purposes, how will DOIs be employed to accurately point to those distributed or replicated data? How can authenticity and integrity be verified? • How can or should object identifiers be employed in pointing from raw to quality-controlled and finally derived data processing levels; how can we designate or distinguish among these, particularly as those terms vary substantially among, for example, geophysical and ecological communities? Likewise, how to distinguish an auto-generated data product (e.g a species identification from GBIF) from a high-effort expertly reviewed data product (e.g. an ESSD publication)? • For a growing number of ESSD data publications with expected annual or periodic revisions and updates, how should data journals' and the repositories' use of persistent identifiers best record the subsequent versions, extensions or corrections? • As published data sets become a valued part of high profile science, with attendant deadlines, announcements and publicity, do the various DOI policies and minting practices among cooperating publishers, data centres and journals represent a help or a hindrance? These questions evolve directly from increasing interest in and activity by ESSD and, as

  14. Near-Earth Asteroids Accessible to Human Exploration with High-Power Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landau, Damon; Strange, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The diverse physical and orbital characteristics of near-Earth asteroids provide progressive stepping stones on a flexible path to Mars. Beginning with cislunar exploration capability, the variety of accessible targets steadily increases as technology is developed for eventual missions to Mars. Noting the potential for solar electric propulsion to dramatically reduce launch mass for Mars exploration, we apply this technology to expand the range of candidate asteroid missions. A robust and efficient exploration program emerges where a potential mission is available once per year (on average) with technology levels that span cis-lunar to Mars-orbital capabilities.

  15. Modular plant recovers high quality fuel from slurry pond

    SciTech Connect

    Batanian, D.C.; Terry, R.L.; Watters, L.A.

    1999-07-01

    fine coal recovery plant can recover an average of 100 tons per hour of high quality coal suitable for use as feedstock to the pellet plants operated at this site.

  16. Building High-Performing and Improving Education Systems: Quality Assurance and Accountability. Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring, evaluation, and quality assurance in their various forms are seen as being one of the foundation stones of high-quality education systems. De Grauwe, writing about "school supervision" in four African countries in 2001, linked the decline in the quality of basic education to the cut in resources for supervision and support.…

  17. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  18. The Physician Quality Improvement Initiative: Engaging Physicians in Quality Improvement, Patient Safety, Accountability and their Provision of High-Quality Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Wentlandt, Kirsten; Degendorfer, Niki; Clarke, Cathy; Panet, Hayley; Worthington, Jim; McLean, Richard F; Chan, Charlie K N

    2016-01-01

    University Health Network has been working to become a high-reliability organization, with a focus on safe, quality patient care. In response, the Medical Affairs Department has implemented several strategic initiatives to drive accountability, quality improvement and engagement with our physician population. One of these initiatives, the Physician Quality Improvement Initiative (PQII) is a physician-led project designed to provide active medical staff, in collaboration with their physician department chiefs, a comprehensive approach to focused and practical quality improvement in their practice. In this document, we outline the project, including its implementation strategy, logic model and outcomes, and provide discussion on how it fits into UHN's global strategy to provide safe, quality patient care. PMID:27009706

  19. The high price of "free" trade: U.S. trade agreements and access to medicines.

    PubMed

    Lopert, Ruth; Gleeson, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    The United States' pursuit of increasingly TRIPS-Plus levels of intellectual property protection for medicines in bilateral and regional trade agreements is well recognized. Less so, however, are U.S. efforts through these agreements to influence and constrain the pharmaceutical coverage programs of its trading partners. Although arguably unsuccessful in the Australia- U.S. Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA), the U.S. nevertheless succeeded in its bilateral FTA with South Korea (KORUS) in establishing prescriptive provisions pertaining to the operation of coverage and reimbursement programs for medicines and medical devices, which have the potential to adversely impact future access in that country. More recently, draft texts leaked from the current Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations show that U.S. objectives include not only AUSFTA-Plus and KORUS-Plus IP provisions but also ambitious inroads into the domestic health programs of its TPPA partners. This highlights the apparent conflict between trade goals - pursued through multilateral legal instruments to promote economic "health"- and public health objectives, such as the development of treatments for neglected diseases, the pursuit of efficiency and equity in priority setting, and the procurement of medicines at prices that reflect their therapeutic value and facilitate affordable access. PMID:23581666

  20. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  1. In pursuit of high-value healthcare: the case for improving quality and achieving equity in a time of healthcare transformation.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and current efforts in payment reform signal the beginning of a significant transformation for the US healthcare system. As we embark on this transformation, disparities have emerged as the hallmark of low-value healthcare--care that does not meet quality standards, is inefficient, and is usually of high cost. A new set of structures is being developed to facilitate increased access to care that is cost-effective and high in quality--otherwise known as high-value healthcare. Addressing disparities and achieving equity are the perfect target areas for recouping value, and doing so will pave the way for high-value healthcare. As healthcare leaders make difficult choices, they should consider the realities of healthcare equity. First, racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare persist and are a clear sign of poor-quality, low-value healthcare. Second, the root causes of these disparities are complex, but a well-developed set of evidence-based approaches is available to help leaders address healthcare inequity. Third, evidence suggests that being inattentive to the root causes of disparities adversely affects efficiency and an organization's bottom line. Finally, if healthcare organizations are progressive, thoughtful, and prepared for success in such an environment, a new healthcare system that offers accessible, high-value, equitable, culturally competent, and high-quality care to all is well within reach. PMID:25291891

  2. In pursuit of high-value healthcare: the case for improving quality and achieving equity in a time of healthcare transformation.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and current efforts in payment reform signal the beginning of a significant transformation for the US healthcare system. As we embark on this transformation, disparities have emerged as the hallmark of low-value healthcare--care that does not meet quality standards, is inefficient, and is usually of high cost. A new set of structures is being developed to facilitate increased access to care that is cost-effective and high in quality--otherwise known as high-value healthcare. Addressing disparities and achieving equity are the perfect target areas for recouping value, and doing so will pave the way for high-value healthcare. As healthcare leaders make difficult choices, they should consider the realities of healthcare equity. First, racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare persist and are a clear sign of poor-quality, low-value healthcare. Second, the root causes of these disparities are complex, but a well-developed set of evidence-based approaches is available to help leaders address healthcare inequity. Third, evidence suggests that being inattentive to the root causes of disparities adversely affects efficiency and an organization's bottom line. Finally, if healthcare organizations are progressive, thoughtful, and prepared for success in such an environment, a new healthcare system that offers accessible, high-value, equitable, culturally competent, and high-quality care to all is well within reach.

  3. Quality of health care: the responsibility of health care professionals in delivering high quality services.

    PubMed

    Giangrande, A

    1998-11-01

    According to a recent definition, quality of care consists of the degree to which health services increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge; a definition that introduces both requirements of outcomes and the appropriateness of the process used. Clearly many different figures are interested in quality assessment initiatives in the health care field and these include patients, administrators and doctors each having different perspective. Doctors obviously pay greater attention to technical quality and results, giving greater emphasis to the health of the individual patient, tending to give priority to technical excellence and interaction between patient and doctor. Although the perspective of health care professionals is widely acknowledged to be important and useful, other perspectives on quality have been emphasised in recent years. The most important of these is the recognition that care must be responsive to the preferences and values of the consumers of health care services. In complete harmony with one's own professional commitment, the attention to the perspectives of patients must give physician the chance to identify methods of measuring and verifying quality which take account of the expectations of the many groups with an interest in improving the functioning of the health system. A global approach in the health field is needed the more specialization advances. The quality of medicine lies in its capacity to integrate what science says is appropriate and to be recommended, what can be reconciled with human rights and the self determination of the patient and what can be achieved by optimising available resources. In this complex context, the doctor could take on both the role of the person who decides on the use of resources and the one of social mediator. PMID:9894749

  4. Innovation in Business Education: Developing a High Quality Online MBA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, C. William; Toma, Alfred G.; Yallapragada, RamMohan R.

    2015-01-01

    Online degree programs were probably pioneered by for-profit universities such as University of Phoenix. Many online degree programs were initially considered low quality academic programs compared to traditional programs. Therefore, many public and private universities were slow to adopt the online programs. However, gradually more and more…

  5. Oligosaccharide Side Chains of Glycoproteins that Remain in the High-Mannose Form Are Not Accessible to Glycosidases 1

    PubMed Central

    Faye, Loïc; Johnson, Kenneth D.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1986-01-01

    Glycoproteins present in the soluble and organelle fractions of developing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cotyledons were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, affinoblotting, fractionation on immobilized concanavalin A (ConA), and digestion of the oligosaccharide side chains with specific glycosidases before and after protein denaturation. These studies led to the following observations. (a) Bean cotyledons contain a large variety of glycoproteins that bind to ConA. Binding to ConA can be eliminated by prior digestion of denatured proteins with α-mannosidase or endoglycosidase H, indicating that binding to ConA is mediated by high-mannose oligosaccharide side chains. (b) Bean cotyledons contain a large variety of fucosylated glycoproteins which bind to ConA. Because fucose-containing oligosaccharide side chains do not bind to ConA, such proteins must have both high-mannose and modified oligosaccharides. (c) For all the glycoproteins examined except one, the high-mannose oligosaccharides on the undenatured proteins are accessible to ConA and partially accessible to jack bean α-mannosidase. (d) Treatment of the native proteins with α-mannosidase removes only 1 or 2 mannose residues from the high-mannose oligosaccharides. Similar treatments of sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured or pronase-digested glycoproteins removes all α-mannose residues. The results support the following conclusions: certain side chains remain unmodified as high-mannose oligosaccharides even though the proteins to which they are attached pass through the Golgi apparatus, where other oligosaccharide chains are modified. The chains remain unmodified because they are not accessible to processing enzymes such as the Golgilocalized α-mannosidase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16664775

  6. [Co/Ni]-CoFeB hybrid free layer stack materials for high density magnetic random access memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, E.; Swerts, J.; Couet, S.; Mertens, S.; Tomczak, Y.; Lin, T.; Spampinato, V.; Franquet, A.; Van Elshocht, S.; Kar, G.; Furnemont, A.; De Boeck, J.

    2016-03-01

    Alternative free layer materials with high perpendicular anisotropy are researched to provide spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory stacks' sufficient thermal stability at critical dimensions of 20 nm and below. We demonstrate a high tunnel magetoresistance (TMR) MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction stack with a hybrid free layer design made of a [Co/Ni] multilayer and CoFeB. The seed material on which the [Co/Ni] multilayer is deposited determines its switching characteristics. When deposited on a Pt seed layer, soft magnetic switching behavior with high squareness is obtained. When deposited on a NiCr seed, the perpendicular anisotropy remains high, but the squareness is low and coercivity exceeds 1000 Oe. Interdiffusion of the seed material with the [Co/Ni] multilayers is found to be responsible for the different switching characteristics. In optimized stacks, a TMR of 165% and low resistance-area (RA) product of 7.0 Ω μm2 are attained for free layers with an effective perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy of 1.25 erg/cm2, which suggests that the hybrid free layer materials may be a viable candidate for high density magnetic random access memory applications.

  7. Water Quality: A Field-Based Quality Testing Program for Middle Schools and High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    This manual contains background information, lesson ideas, procedures, data collection and reporting forms, suggestions for interpreting results, and extension activities to complement a water quality field testing program. Information on testing water temperature, water pH, dissolved oxygen content, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrates, total…

  8. Manufacturable High-Density 8 Mbit One Transistor-One Capacitor Embedded Ferroelectric Random Access Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayakumar, K. R.; Moise, T. S.; Summerfelt, S. R.; Boku, K.; Remack, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Arendt, M.; Shinn, G.; Eliason, J.; Bailey, R.; Staubs, P.

    2008-04-01

    Enhanced yield and reliability through process improvements, leading to a manufacturable process for a full-bit functional 8 Mbit one transitor-one capacitor (1T-1C) embedded ferroelectric random access memory (eFRAM) fabricated within a low-leakage 130 nm, 5 lm Cu/fluorosilicate glass (FSG) interconnect complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) logic process, are described. Higher signal margins are further enabled by the single-bit substitution methodology that replaces bits at the low-end of the original distribution with redundant elements. Retention tests on wafers with signal margins above a threshold value for screen show no bit fails for bakes extending up to 1000 h, suggesting retention lifetimes of more than 10 years at 85 °C. Using the qualified process reported in this paper, commercial products are being routinely produced in our fabrication facilities.

  9. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height

  10. Numerical determination of injector design for high beam quality

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.K.

    1985-10-15

    The performance of a free electron laser strongly depends on the electron beam quality or brightness. The electron beam is transported into the free electron laser after it has been accelerated to the desired energy. Typically the maximum beam brightness produced by an accelerator is constrained by the beam brightness deliverd by the accelerator injector. Thus it is important to design the accelerator injector to yield the required electron beam brightness. The DPC (Darwin Particle Code) computer code has been written to numerically model accelerator injectors. DPC solves for the transport of a beam from emission through acceleration up to the full energy of the injector. The relativistic force equation is solved to determine particle orbits. Field equations are solved for self consistent electric and magnetic fields in the Darwin approximation. DPC has been used to investigate the beam quality consequences of A-K gap, accelerating stress, electrode configuration and axial magnetic field profile.

  11. Diabetes care quality is highly correlated with patient panel characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Steffani; O’Malley, Jean P.; Gold, Rachel; Heintzman, John; Likumahuwa, Sonja; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health care reimbursement is increasingly based on quality. Little is known about how clinic-level patient characteristics affect quality performance, particularly in community health centers (CHCs). Methods Using electronic health record data for 4,019 diabetic patients from 23 CHC primary care clinics in the OCHIN practice-based research network, we calculated correlations between a clinic’s patient panel characteristics and delivery rates of diabetes preventive services in 2007. Using regression models, we estimated the proportion of clinic variability in clinics’ preventive services rates associated with the variability in the clinics’ patient panel characteristics. We also explored whether clinics’ performance rates were affected by how patient panel denominators were defined. Results Clinic rates of glycosylated hemoglobin testing, influenza immunizations, and lipid screening were positively associated with the percentage of patients with continuous health insurance coverage, and negatively associated with the percentage uninsured. Microalbumin screening rates were positively associated with the percentage of racial minorities in a clinic’s panel. Associations remained consistent with different panel denominators. Conclusions Clinic variability in delivery rates of preventive services correlates with differences in clinics’ patient panel characteristics, particularly the percentage of patients with continuous insurance coverage. Quality scores that do not account for these differences could create disincentives to diabetes care for vulnerable patients. PMID:24204063

  12. Meat quality of slow- and fast-growing chicken genotypes fed low-nutrient or standard diets and raised indoors or with outdoor access.

    PubMed

    Fanatico, A C; Pillai, P B; Emmert, J L; Owens, C M

    2007-10-01

    Consumer interest in free-range and organic poultry is growing. Two concurrent experiments were conducted to assess 1) the impact of alternative genotype and production system and 2) the impact of genotype and diet on meat quality of chickens for specialty markets. Specifically, a slow-growing genotype (slow) and a fast-growing genotype (fast) were raised for 91 and 63 d (females), respectively, or 84 and 56 d in the case of the second trial (males). In each trial, the slow birds were placed before the fast birds to achieve a similar final BW at processing. Each genotype was assigned to 4 pens of 20 birds each and raised in indoor floor pens in a conventional poultry research facility; each genotype was also assigned to 4 floor pens in a small facility with outdoor access. A low-nutrient diet was used, formulated for a slower rate of production. Birds were commercially processed and deboned at 4 h postmortem. In the second trial, the diets compared were a conventional diet that met NRC requirements or the low-nutrient diet, and all birds were raised indoors. There was an interaction between genotype and production system for the color (b*; P < 0.05). The meat and skin of the slow birds became more yellow when the birds had outdoor access; however, this did not occur when the fast birds had outdoor access. The breast meat of the slow birds had more protein and alpha-tocopherol (P < 0.05) than the fast birds and half the amount of fat (P < 0.05). In addition, the meat of the outdoor birds had more protein than the indoor birds (P < 0.05). The slow birds had poorer water-holding capacity but were more tender than the fast birds (P < 0.05). The type of diet had little impact on meat quality. These data indicate that meat quality differences exist between genotypes with different growth rates and raised in alternative production systems.

  13. Open access to high-level data and analysis tools in the CMS experiment at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, A.; Colling, D.; Huffman, A.; Lassila-Perini, K.; McCauley, T.; Rao, A.; Rodriguez-Marrero, A.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment, in recognition of its commitment to data preservation and open access as well as to education and outreach, has made its first public release of high-level data under the CC0 waiver: up to half of the proton-proton collision data (by volume) at 7 TeV from 2010 in CMS Analysis Object Data format. CMS has prepared, in collaboration with CERN and the other LHC experiments, an open-data web portal based on Invenio. The portal provides access to CMS public data as well as to analysis tools and documentation for the public. The tools include an event display and histogram application that run in the browser. In addition a virtual machine containing a CMS software environment along with XRootD access to the data is available. Within the virtual machine the public can analyse CMS data; example code is provided. We describe the accompanying tools and documentation and discuss the first experiences of data use.

  14. Open access to high-level data and analysis tools in the CMS experiment at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, A.; Colling, D.; Huffman, A.; Lassila-Perini, K.; McCauley, T.; Rao, A.; Rodriguez-Marrero, A.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.

    2015-12-23

    The CMS experiment, in recognition of its commitment to data preservation and open access as well as to education and outreach, has made its first public release of high-level data under the CC0 waiver: up to half of the proton-proton collision data (by volume) at 7 TeV from 2010 in CMS Analysis Object Data format. CMS has prepared, in collaboration with CERN and the other LHC experiments, an open-data web portal based on Invenio. The portal provides access to CMS public data as well as to analysis tools and documentation for the public. The tools include an event display and histogram application that run in the browser. In addition a virtual machine containing a CMS software environment along with XRootD access to the data is available. Within the virtual machine the public can analyse CMS data, example code is provided. As a result, we describe the accompanying tools and documentation and discuss the first experiences of data use.

  15. Open access to high-level data and analysis tools in the CMS experiment at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Calderon, A.; Colling, D.; Huffman, A.; Lassila-Perini, K.; McCauley, T.; Rao, A.; Rodriguez-Marrero, A.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.

    2015-12-23

    The CMS experiment, in recognition of its commitment to data preservation and open access as well as to education and outreach, has made its first public release of high-level data under the CC0 waiver: up to half of the proton-proton collision data (by volume) at 7 TeV from 2010 in CMS Analysis Object Data format. CMS has prepared, in collaboration with CERN and the other LHC experiments, an open-data web portal based on Invenio. The portal provides access to CMS public data as well as to analysis tools and documentation for the public. The tools include an event display andmore » histogram application that run in the browser. In addition a virtual machine containing a CMS software environment along with XRootD access to the data is available. Within the virtual machine the public can analyse CMS data, example code is provided. As a result, we describe the accompanying tools and documentation and discuss the first experiences of data use.« less

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of…

  17. Access to HIV/AIDS care: a systematic review of socio-cultural determinants in low and high income countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of socio-cultural factors in influencing access to HIV/AIDS treatment, care and support is increasingly recognized by researchers, international donors and policy makers. Although many of them have been identified through qualitative studies, the evidence gathered by quantitative studies has not been systematically analysed. To fill this knowledge gap, we did a systematic review of quantitative studies comparing surveys done in high and low income countries to assess the extent to which socio-cultural determinants of access, identified through qualitative studies, have been addressed in epidemiological survey studies. Methods Ten electronic databases were searched (Cinahl, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, IBSS, JSTOR, MedLine, Psyinfo, Psyindex and Cochrane). Two independent reviewers selected eligible publications based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was used to synthesize data comparing studies between low and high income countries. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the final review, 21 (62%) done in high income countries and 13 (38%) in low income countries. In low income settings, epidemiological research on access to HIV/AIDS services focused on socio-economic and health system factors while in high income countries the focus was on medical and psychosocial factors. These differences depict the perceived different barriers in the two regions. Common factors between the two regions were also found to affect HIV testing, including stigma, high risk sexual behaviours such as multiple sexual partners and not using condoms, and alcohol abuse. On the other hand, having experienced previous illness or other health conditions and good family communication was associated with adherence to ART uptake. Due to insufficient consistent data, a meta-analysis was only possible on adherence to treatment. Conclusions This review offers evidence of the current challenges for interdisciplinary work in epidemiology and public health

  18. High Fidelity System Modeling for High Quality Image Reconstruction in Clinical CT

    PubMed Central

    Do, Synho; Karl, William Clem; Singh, Sarabjeet; Kalra, Mannudeep; Brady, Tom; Shin, Ellie; Pien, Homer

    2014-01-01

    Today, while many researchers focus on the improvement of the regularization term in IR algorithms, they pay less concern to the improvement of the fidelity term. In this paper, we hypothesize that improving the fidelity term will further improve IR image quality in low-dose scanning, which typically causes more noise. The purpose of this paper is to systematically test and examine the role of high-fidelity system models using raw data in the performance of iterative image reconstruction approach minimizing energy functional. We first isolated the fidelity term and analyzed the importance of using focal spot area modeling, flying focal spot location modeling, and active detector area modeling as opposed to just flying focal spot motion. We then compared images using different permutations of all three factors. Next, we tested the ability of the fidelity terms to retain signals upon application of the regularization term with all three factors. We then compared the differences between images generated by the proposed method and Filtered-Back-Projection. Lastly, we compared images of low-dose in vivo data using Filtered-Back-Projection, Iterative Reconstruction in Image Space, and the proposed method using raw data. The initial comparison of difference maps of images constructed showed that the focal spot area model and the active detector area model also have significant impacts on the quality of images produced. Upon application of the regularization term, images generated using all three factors were able to substantially decrease model mismatch error, artifacts, and noise. When the images generated by the proposed method were tested, conspicuity greatly increased, noise standard deviation decreased by 90% in homogeneous regions, and resolution also greatly improved. In conclusion, the improvement of the fidelity term to model clinical scanners is essential to generating higher quality images in low-dose imaging. PMID:25390888

  19. Water Quality Data at High Time and Space Resolution in the Field : Expanding Spectrophotometer Capabilities with Arduino Driven Autosamplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birgand, F.; Maxwell, B.; Aveni-Deforge, K.; Etheridge, R.

    2014-12-01

    Availability of continuous hydrological data (e.g. flow rates, rainfall, etc.) for over a century has shaped our current understanding of the hydrological cycle. Until now, there has been no equivalence for water quality. Optics based systems now open the possibility to obtain data at a temporal resolution in par with that commonly used in quantitative hydrology (e.g. 15 min - 1 hr). We show that absorbance measured in the field using spectrophotometers can be statistically correlated with light- and none- absorbing constituents in the water. Water quality rating curves for 6-12 parameters can be derived as such using a single spectrophotometer, opening access to continuous water quality data for many parameters at a time. We then show that attaching such probe in the field with multiplexed pumping systems driven by Arduinos can expand the high temporal resolution capabilities to space as our systems can sample up to 12 different water sources located within 15 m of the water quality probe.

  20. A Tripartite Perspective of Social Capital and Its Access by High School Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewry, Julie A.; Burge, Penny L.; Driscoll, Lisa G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to document and analyze students' experiences with dropping out of high school, using a social capital framework. Examining the stories of high school dropouts provided valuable information related to the root causes of dropout behaviors. The context of this study was a high school in an urban school…

  1. Financial sustainability versus access and quality in a challenged health system: an examination of the capitation policy debate in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Atuoye, Kilian Nasung; Vercillo, Siera; Antabe, Roger; Galaa, Sylvester Zackaria; Luginaah, Isaac

    2016-11-01

    Policy makers in low and middle-income countries are frequently confronted with challenges of increasing health access for poor populations in a sustainable manner. After several years of trying out different health financing mechanisms, health insurance has recently emerged as a pro-poor health financing policy. Capitation, a fixed fee periodically paid to health service providers for anticipated services, is one of the payment policies in health insurance. This article examines claims and counter-claims made by coalitions and individual stakeholders in a capitation payment policy debate within Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme. Using content analysis of public and parliamentary proceedings, we situate the debate within policy making and health insurance literature. We found that the ongoing capitation payment debate stems from challenges in implementation of earlier health insurance claims payment systems, which reflect broader systemic challenges facing the health insurance scheme in Ghana. The study illustrates the extent to which various sub-systems in the policy debate advance arguments to legitimize their claims about the contested capitation payment system. In addition, we found that the health of poor communities, women and children are being used as surrogates for political and individual arguments in the policy debate. The article recommends a more holistic and participatory approach through persuasion and negotiation to join interests and core evidence together in the capitation policy making in Ghana and elsewhere with similar contexts. PMID:27178747

  2. Financial sustainability versus access and quality in a challenged health system: an examination of the capitation policy debate in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Atuoye, Kilian Nasung; Vercillo, Siera; Antabe, Roger; Galaa, Sylvester Zackaria; Luginaah, Isaac

    2016-11-01

    Policy makers in low and middle-income countries are frequently confronted with challenges of increasing health access for poor populations in a sustainable manner. After several years of trying out different health financing mechanisms, health insurance has recently emerged as a pro-poor health financing policy. Capitation, a fixed fee periodically paid to health service providers for anticipated services, is one of the payment policies in health insurance. This article examines claims and counter-claims made by coalitions and individual stakeholders in a capitation payment policy debate within Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme. Using content analysis of public and parliamentary proceedings, we situate the debate within policy making and health insurance literature. We found that the ongoing capitation payment debate stems from challenges in implementation of earlier health insurance claims payment systems, which reflect broader systemic challenges facing the health insurance scheme in Ghana. The study illustrates the extent to which various sub-systems in the policy debate advance arguments to legitimize their claims about the contested capitation payment system. In addition, we found that the health of poor communities, women and children are being used as surrogates for political and individual arguments in the policy debate. The article recommends a more holistic and participatory approach through persuasion and negotiation to join interests and core evidence together in the capitation policy making in Ghana and elsewhere with similar contexts.

  3. Roadmap for High School Feedback Reports: Key Focus Areas to Ensure Quality Implementation. Data for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    High school feedback reports let school and district leaders know where their students go after graduation and how well they are prepared for college and beyond. This roadmap discusses the seven key focus areas the Data Quality Campaign (DQC) recommends states work on to ensure quality implementation of high school feedback reports.

  4. NOAA Operational Model Archive Distribution System (NOMADS): High Availability Applications for Reliable Real Time Access to Operational Model Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, J. C.; Wang, J.

    2009-12-01

    To reduce the impact of natural hazards and environmental changes, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide first alert and a preferred partner for environmental prediction services, and represents a critical national resource to operational and research communities affected by climate, weather and water. NOMADS is now delivering high availability services as part of NOAA’s official real time data dissemination at its Web Operations Center (WOC) server. The WOC is a web service used by organizational units in and outside NOAA, and acts as a data repository where public information can be posted to a secure and scalable content server. A goal is to foster collaborations among the research and education communities, value added retailers, and public access for science and development efforts aimed at advancing modeling and GEO-related tasks. The user (client) executes what is efficient to execute on the client and the server efficiently provides format independent access services. Client applications can execute on the server, if it is desired, but the same program can be executed on the client side with no loss of efficiency. In this way this paradigm lends itself to aggregation servers that act as servers of servers listing, searching catalogs of holdings, data mining, and updating information from the metadata descriptions that enable collections of data in disparate places to be simultaneously accessed, with results processed on servers and clients to produce a needed answer. The services used to access the operational model data output are the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), implemented with the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) Data Server (GDS), and applications for slicing, dicing and area sub-setting the large matrix of real time model data holdings. This approach insures an efficient use of computer resources because users transmit/receive only the data necessary for their tasks including

  5. Advancing Access to New Technology for Sustained High Resolution Observations of Plankton: From Bloom Dynamics to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosik, H. M.; Olson, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    The combination of ocean observatory infrastructure and automated submersible flow cytometry can provide unprecedented capability for sustained high resolution time series of plankton, including taxa that are harmful or early indicators of ecosystem response to environmental change. Over the past decade, we have developed the FlowCytobot series of instruments that exemplify this capability. FlowCytobot and Imaging FlowCytobot use a combination of laser-based scattering and fluorescence measurements and video imaging of individual particles to enumerate and characterize cells ranging from picocyanobacteria to large chaining-forming diatoms. The process of developing these complex instruments was streamlined by access to the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO), a cabled facility on the New England Shelf, where real time two-way communications and access to shore power expedited cycles of instrument evaluation and design refinement. Repeated deployments at MVCO, typically 6 months in duration, have produced multi-year high resolution (hourly to daily) time series that are providing new insights into dynamics of community structure such as blooms, seasonality, and possibly even trends linked to regional climate change. The high temporal resolution observations of single cell properties make it possible not only to characterize taxonomic composition and size structure, but also to quantify taxon-specific growth rates. To meet the challenge of broadening access to this enabling technology, we have taken a two-step approach. First, we are partnering with a few scientific collaborators interested in using the instruments in different environments and to address different applications, notably the detection and characterization of harmful algal bloom events. Collaboration at this stage ensured that these first users outside the developers' lab had access to technical know-how required for successful outcomes; it also provided additional feedback that could be

  6. Measurement system with high accuracy for laser beam quality.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yi; Zeng, Ciling; Xie, Peiyuan; Jiang, Qingshan; Liang, Ke; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming

    2015-05-20

    Presently, most of the laser beam quality measurement system collimates the optical path manually with low efficiency and low repeatability. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a new collimated method to improve the reliability and accuracy of the measurement results. The system accuracy controlled the position of the mirror to change laser beam propagation direction, which can realize the beam perpendicularly incident to the photosurface of camera. The experiment results show that the proposed system has good repeatability and the measuring deviation of M2 factor is less than 0.6%.

  7. One step high quality poly(dimethylsiloxane)-hydrocarbon plastics bonding.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bi-Yi; Yan, Xiao-Na; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, one-step air plasma treatment is successfully used for poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS)-plastic chip bonding. The technique is green, cheap, and requires no other reagent other than air. Hydrocarbon plastics: polystyrene (PS), cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), and polypropylene (PP) have all been successfully bonded to PDMS irreversibly. The corresponding compressed air resistances are measured to be around 500 kPa for PDMS-PS, PDMS-COC, and PDMS-PP hybrid chips. The bondings are also of good quality even after storage under different temperatures and subject to solutions from acid to base.

  8. High-quality healthcare workplaces: a vision and action plan.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Graham S

    2002-01-01

    Looking into a future marked by intense competition for talent, growing numbers of employers are striving to create "workplaces of choice." Yet, despite the consensus that health human resources are a vital piece of the healthcare reform puzzle, few health service organizations have developed comprehensive strategies to address work environment issues. The cumulative impact of years of cost-cutting, downsizing and restructuring have left Canada's healthcare workforce demoralized, overworked and coping with working conditions that diminish both the quality of working life and organizational performance. PMID:12357573

  9. Measurement system with high accuracy for laser beam quality.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yi; Zeng, Ciling; Xie, Peiyuan; Jiang, Qingshan; Liang, Ke; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming

    2015-05-20

    Presently, most of the laser beam quality measurement system collimates the optical path manually with low efficiency and low repeatability. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a new collimated method to improve the reliability and accuracy of the measurement results. The system accuracy controlled the position of the mirror to change laser beam propagation direction, which can realize the beam perpendicularly incident to the photosurface of camera. The experiment results show that the proposed system has good repeatability and the measuring deviation of M2 factor is less than 0.6%. PMID:26192526

  10. Applications of optical sensors for high-frequency water-quality monitoring and research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellerin, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The recent commercial availability of in-situ optical sensors, together with new techniques for data collection and analysis, provides the opportunity to monitor a wide range of water-quality constituents over time scales during which environmental conditions actually change. Traditional approaches for data collection (daily to monthly discrete samples) are often limited by high sample collection, processing, and analytical costs, difficult site access, and logistical challenges, particularly for long-term sampling at a large number of sites. Optical sensors that continuously measure constituents in the environment by absorbance or fluorescence properties (Figure 1) have had a long history of use in oceanography for measuring highly resolved concentrations and fluxes of organic matter, nutrients, and algal material. However, much of the work using commercially-available optical sensors in rivers and streams has taken place in only the last few years. Figure 1. [NOT SHOWN] Optical sensor technology is now sufficiently developed to warrant broader application for research and monitoring in coastal and freshwater systems, and the United States Geological Survey (a U.S. science agency) is now using these sensors in a variety of research and monitoring programs to better understand water quality in-situ and in real-time. Examples are numerous and range from the applications of nitrate sensors for calculating loads to estuaries susceptible to hypoxia (Pellerin et al., 2014) to the use of fluorometers to estimate methymercury fluxes (Bergamaschi et al., 2011) and disinfection byproduct formation (Carpenter et al., 2013). Transmitting these data in real-time provides information that can be used for early trend detection, help identify monitoring gaps critical for water management, and provide science-based decision support across a range of issues related to water quality, freshwater ecosystems, and human health. Despite the value of these sensors, collecting data that

  11. A framework for the development and implementation of an advanced practice role for physiotherapists that improves access and quality of care for patients.

    PubMed

    Robarts, Susan; Kennedy, Deborah; MacLeod, Anne Marie; Findlay, Helen; Gollish, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    A new model of care has been implemented at the Sunnybrook Holland Orthopaedic and Arthritic Centre that expands the role of physiotherapists to improve access and quality of care for patients requiring hip and knee replacement surgery. An advanced practice physiotherapist (APP) role was created to support both referral management and post-operative care to reduce surgeon workload and better streamline services. This article describes our nine-step framework for implementing an APP role and can be used as a template for other organizations evolving similar roles. The framework was adapted from the participatory, evidence-based, patient-focused process for the development of an advanced practice nurse role. Key steps include (1) obtaining stakeholder consensus, (2) identifying barriers and facilitators and (3) developing the necessary administrative and training supports as well as clinical protocols and an evaluation framework. Approaching change in a series of small steps (plan-do-study-act [PDSA] methodology) alongside existing processes has facilitated buy-in and role acceptance. The early and continued involvement of decision-makers within the organization has been paramount to successful implementation. In addition, patient input has been central to the evolution of the role, with patient satisfaction a key indicator. The new role and model of care reconfigures traditional roles and introduces a team approach that results in timely access to care for patients. Benefits include an improved assessment process, enhanced education across the care continuum and improved coordination and delivery of services.

  12. High Quality Factor Metallodielectric Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xindi; Shi, Lei; Han, Dezhuan; Zi, Jian; Braun, Paul V.

    2010-05-11

    A 2D polystyrene colloidal crystal self-assembled on a flat gold surface supports multiple photonic and plasmonic propagating resonance modes. For both classes of modes, the quality factors can exceed 100, higher than the quality factor of surface plasmons (SP) at a polymer–gold interface. The spatial energy distribution of those resonance modes are carefully studied by measuring the optical response of the hybrid plasmonic–photonic crystal after coating with dielectric materials under different coating profiles. Computer simulations with results closely matching those of experiments provide a clear picture of the field distribution of each resonance mode. For the SP modes, there is strong confinement of electromagnetic energy near the metal surface, while for optical modes, the field is confined inside the spherical particles, far away from the metal. Coating of dielectric material on the crystal results in a large shift in optical features. A surface sensor based on the hybrid plasmonic–photonic crystal is proposed, and it is shown to have atomic layer sensitivity. An example of ethanol vapor sensing based on physisorption of ethanol onto the sensor surface is demonstrated.

  13. Completing Algebra II in High School: Does It Increase College Access and Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeongeun; Kim, Jiyun; DesJardins, Stephen L.; McCall, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    Noting the benefits of mathematics in students' future educational attainment and labor market success, there is considerable interest in high school requirements in terms of course-taking in mathematics at the national, state, and school district level. Previous research indicates that taking advanced math courses in high school leads to positive…

  14. Achieve Scholarship Spending on Expanding Access to Rigorous High School Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Office of Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Legislature enacted the Achieve Scholarship program, which provides a $1,200 scholarship to high school graduates who took rigorous courses in high school and met certain income and other eligibility criteria. In deliberations about this new program, concerns were expressed that certain rigorous courses like Advanced Placement,…

  15. The high cost of low quality in R D (research and development)

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.V.

    1990-10-01

    The principles of quality assurance and quality control yield high payoffs when applied to research activities. Researchers are usually highly motivated individuals who earnestly desire to produce excellent results. The nature of research and the temperament of researchers are such that considerable freedom and latitude are usually required so that the creative processes are not impeded. These are approaches that can be used in applying quality assurance and control that researchers will accept and use when they see the payoff. Some examples are given, with particular emphasis on quality cost systems applied to measurement processes in R D. 14 refs.

  16. [Combining microcredit, microinsurance, and the provision of health care can improve access to quality care in urban areas of Africa: Results of an experiment in the Bandalungwa health zone in Kinshasa, the Congo].

    PubMed

    Manzambi Kuwekita, J; Gosset, C; Guillaume, M; Balula Semutsari, M-P; Tshiama Kabongo, E; Bruyere, O; Reginster, J-Y

    2015-01-01

    This study, based on a survey conducted in 2008, examines how combining microcredit, microinsurance, and health care provision can improve access to quality care in the health zone of Bandalungwa, in Kinshasa. The bivariate analysis showed a significant association between increased purchasing power and earnings (p = 0.001), between earnings and savings (p = 0.000), and between health insurance and improved access to health care. These results show that 68.8% of borrowers reported an increase in their purchasing power, of whom 82% reported profits. Those with savings were 24.7 times more likely to purchase health insurance than those without; and 72% of those who regularly made health insurance payments improved their access to care. Combining microcredit, health microinsurance, and health care can improve access to quality health care at lower cost. This suggests that health insurance could usefully be integrated into the primary health-care system. PMID:26643890

  17. Latino Access to Preschool Stalls after Earlier Gains: Certain to Harden Achievement Gaps, Erode Workforce Quality. New Journalism on Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce; Kim, Anthony Y.

    2011-01-01

    It has been known that quality preschool can boost children's early literacy and social agility, skills valued highly by employers. The returns to preschool appear to be stronger for Latino children, especially those from non-English speaking families, compared with other populations. But newly available data reveal that preschool enrollment…

  18. High-Quality Preschool Programs Found to Improve Adult Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, David

    1996-01-01

    The longitudinal High Scope/Perry Preschool Study of 123 African Americans in poverty and at high risk of school failure interviewed 95% of participants at age 27. Profiles indicate that participants had fewer criminal arrests, higher earnings and property wealth, and greater commitment to marriage than nonparticipants, suggesting significant…

  19. High quality Gaussian basis sets for fourth-row atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Faegri, Knut, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Energy optimized Gaussian basis sets of triple-zeta quality for the atoms Rb-Xe have been derived. Two series of basis sets are developed: (24s 16p 10d) and (26s 16p 10d) sets which were expanded to 13d and 19p functions as the 4d and 5p shells become occupied. For the atoms lighter than Cd, the (24s 16p 10d) sets with triple-zeta valence distributions are higher in energy than the corresponding double-zeta distribution. To ensure a triple-zeta distribution and a global energy minimum, the (26s 16p 10d) sets were derived. Total atomic energies from the largest basis sets are between 198 and 284 (mu)E(sub H) above the numerical Hartree-Fock energies.

  20. High quality exchange rotations in spin qubits using symmetric gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Malinowski, F. K.; Nissen, P. D.; Marcus, C. M.; Kuemmeth, F.; Barnes, E.; Gardner, G. C.; Fallahi, S.; Manfra, M. J.

    We present results on a singlet-triplet qubit implemented in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure and we show that exchange oscillations can be realized either by tilting the double well potential, the conventional method, or by symmetrically lowering the barrier, as originally suggested by Loss and DiVincenzo. The two methods are compared here. We find that lowering the barrier between dots has much less relative exchange noise compared to tilting the potential. Since exchange rotations are sensitive to electrical noise and relatively insensitive to nuclear noise, this yields significantly enhanced free induction decay times and quality factors. Our results are comparable to those reported recently in silicon quantum dot devices, obtained using similar techniques. Support through IARPA-MQCO, LPS-MPO-CMTC, Army Research Office, and the Danish National Research Foundation is acknowledged.

  1. Designing high-quality interactive multimedia learning modules.

    PubMed

    Huang, Camillan

    2005-01-01

    Modern research has broadened scientific knowledge and revealed the interdisciplinary nature of the sciences. For today's students, this advance translates to learning a more diverse range of concepts, usually in less time, and without supporting resources. Students can benefit from technology-enhanced learning supplements that unify concepts and are delivered on-demand over the Internet. Such supplements, like imaging informatics databases, serve as innovative references for biomedical information, but could improve their interaction interfaces to support learning. With information from these digital datasets, multimedia learning tools can be designed to transform learning into an active process where students can visualize relationships over time, interact with dynamic content, and immediately test their knowledge. This approach bridges knowledge gaps, fosters conceptual understanding, and builds problem-solving and critical thinking skills-all essential components to informatics training for science and medicine. Additional benefits include cost-free access and ease of dissemination over the Internet or CD-ROM. However, current methods for the design of multimedia learning modules are not standardized and lack strong instructional design. Pressure from administrators at the top and students from the bottom are pushing faculty to use modern technology to address the learning needs and expectations of contemporary students. Yet, faculty lack adequate support and training to adopt this new approach. So how can faculty learn to create educational multimedia materials for their students? This paper provides guidelines on best practices in educational multimedia design, derived from the Virtual Labs Project at Stanford University. The development of a multimedia module consists of five phases: (1) understand the learning problem and the users needs; (2) design the content to harness the enabling technologies; (3) build multimedia materials with web style standards and

  2. Designing high-quality interactive multimedia learning modules.

    PubMed

    Huang, Camillan

    2005-01-01

    Modern research has broadened scientific knowledge and revealed the interdisciplinary nature of the sciences. For today's students, this advance translates to learning a more diverse range of concepts, usually in less time, and without supporting resources. Students can benefit from technology-enhanced learning supplements that unify concepts and are delivered on-demand over the Internet. Such supplements, like imaging informatics databases, serve as innovative references for biomedical information, but could improve their interaction interfaces to support learning. With information from these digital datasets, multimedia learning tools can be designed to transform learning into an active process where students can visualize relationships over time, interact with dynamic content, and immediately test their knowledge. This approach bridges knowledge gaps, fosters conceptual understanding, and builds problem-solving and critical thinking skills-all essential components to informatics training for science and medicine. Additional benefits include cost-free access and ease of dissemination over the Internet or CD-ROM. However, current methods for the design of multimedia learning modules are not standardized and lack strong instructional design. Pressure from administrators at the top and students from the bottom are pushing faculty to use modern technology to address the learning needs and expectations of contemporary students. Yet, faculty lack adequate support and training to adopt this new approach. So how can faculty learn to create educational multimedia materials for their students? This paper provides guidelines on best practices in educational multimedia design, derived from the Virtual Labs Project at Stanford University. The development of a multimedia module consists of five phases: (1) understand the learning problem and the users needs; (2) design the content to harness the enabling technologies; (3) build multimedia materials with web style standards and

  3. Modulation of high quality factors in rolled-up microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yangfu; Li, Shilong; Mei, Yongfeng

    2016-09-01

    We systematically investigate the evolution of resonant modes in a rolled-up microcavity as the overlap length between structural notches increases, which presents a modulation behavior for high Q factors. The resonant modes in the rolled-up microcavity display a deterministic mode chirality, which is well correlated to the Q factor. We derive a two-mode non-Hermitian Hamiltonian to clarify these unusual findings. It reveals that strong resonant interactions of scattered waves between the structural notches are responsible for the high mode chirality (thus high Q factor) and its modulation behavior in rolled-up microcavities.

  4. Cost-effective multi-camera array for high quality video with very high dynamic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keinert, Joachim; Wetzel, Marcus; Schöberl, Michael; Schäfer, Peter; Zilly, Frederik; Bätz, Michel; Fößel, Siegfried; Kaup, André

    2014-03-01

    Temporal bracketing can create images with higher dynamic range than the underlying sensor. Unfortunately, moving objects cause disturbing artifacts. Moreover, the combination with high frame rates is almost unachiev­ able since a single video frame requires multiple sensor readouts. The combination of multiple synchronized side-by-side cameras equipped with different attenuation filters promises a remedy, since all exposures can be performed at the same time with the same duration using the playout video frame rate. However, a disparity correction is needed to compensate the spatial displacement of the cameras. Unfortunately, the requirements for a high quality disparity correction contradict the goal to increase dynamic range. When using two cameras, disparity correction needs objects to be properly exposed in both cameras. In contrast, a dynamic range in­crease needs the cameras to capture different luminance ranges. As this contradiction has not been addressed in literature so far, this paper proposes a novel solution based on a three camera setup. It enables accurate de­ termination of the disparities and an increase of the dynamic range by nearly a factor of two while still limiting costs. Compared to a two camera solution, the mean opinion score (MOS) is improved by 13.47 units in average for the Middleburry images.

  5. High-quality lossy compression: current and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Steven W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concerned with current and future trends in the lossy compression of real sources such as imagery, video, speech and music. We put all lossy compression schemes into common framework where each can be characterized in terms of three well-defined advantages: cell shape, region shape and memory advantages. We concentrate on image compression and discuss how new entropy constrained trellis-based compressors achieve cell- shape, region-shape and memory gain resulting in high fidelity and high compression.

  6. Natural variation in Brachypodium disctachyon: Deep Sequencing of Highly Diverse Natural Accessions (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Sean

    2013-03-01

    Sean Gordon of the USDA on "Natural variation in Brachypodium disctachyon: Deep Sequencing of Highly Diverse Natural Accessions" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  7. Access to mental health services and psychotropic drug use in refugees and asylum seekers hosted in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Nosè, M; Turrini, G; Barbui, C

    2015-10-01

    In the populations of refugees and asylum seekers hosted in high-income countries, access to mental health care and psychotropic drugs, is a major challenge. A recent Swedish cross-sectional register study has explored this phenomenon in a national cohort of 43 403 young refugees and their families from Iraq, Iran, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Afghanistan. This register study found lower rates of dispensed psychotropic drugs among recently settled refugees, as compared with Swedish-born residents, with an increase in the use with duration of residence. In this commentary, the results of this survey are discussed in view of their global policy implications for high-income countries hosting populations of refugees and asylum seekers. PMID:26145734

  8. Radical covalent organic frameworks: a general strategy to immobilize open-accessible polyradicals for high-performance capacitive energy storage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Xu, Hong; Chen, Xiong; Wu, Dingcai; Wu, Yang; Liu, Hao; Gu, Cheng; Fu, Ruowen; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-06-01

    Ordered π-columns and open nanochannels found in covalent organic frameworks (COFs) could render them able to store electric energy. However, the synthetic difficulty in achieving redox-active skeletons has thus far restricted their potential for energy storage. A general strategy is presented for converting a conventional COF into an outstanding platform for energy storage through post-synthetic functionalization with organic radicals. The radical frameworks with openly accessible polyradicals immobilized on the pore walls undergo rapid and reversible redox reactions, leading to capacitive energy storage with high capacitance, high-rate kinetics, and robust cycle stability. The results suggest that channel-wall functional engineering with redox-active species will be a facile and versatile strategy to explore COFs for energy storage.

  9. Clitoria ternatea L. as a Potential High Quality Forage Legume.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Matheus Lima Corrêa; Vieira, Ricardo Augusto Mendonça; Rocha, Norberto Silva; Araujo, Raphael Pavesi; Glória, Leonardo Siqueira; Fernandes, Alberto Magno; de Lacerda, Paulo Drude; Júnior, Antonio Gesualdi

    2014-02-01

    Samples of Clitoria ternatea L. (Cunhã) were harvested at 35, 50, 70, and 90 d after a uniformity harvest in a field study designed as a completely randomized design with a total of 18 experimental plots. The dry matter yield of the whole plant was separated quantitatively into leaves, stems, and pods at each harvesting age. Chemical analyses and in vitro gas production kinetics were performed to assess the quality of the plant parts. Yields, chemical composition, and estimates of gas production parameters were analyzed by fitting a mixed statistical model with two types of covariance structures as follows: variance components and an unrestricted structure with heterogeneous variances. Fast and slow gas yielding pools were detected for both leaves and stems, but only a single pool was detected for pods. The homoscedasticity assumption was more likely for all variables, except for some parameters of the gas production kinetics of leaves and stems. There was no presence of typical pods at 35 and 50 d. In the leaves, the fibrous fractions were affected, whereas the non-fibrous fractions were unaffected by the harvesting age. The harvesting age affected the majority of the chemical constituents and gas kinetic parameters related to the stems. The leaves of this legume were the least affected part by the aging process. PMID:25049940

  10. Clitoria ternatea L. as a Potential High Quality Forage Legume

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Matheus Lima Corrêa; Vieira, Ricardo Augusto Mendonça; Rocha, Norberto Silva; Araujo, Raphael Pavesi; Glória, Leonardo Siqueira; Fernandes, Alberto Magno; de Lacerda, Paulo Drude; Júnior, Antonio Gesualdi

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Clitoria ternatea L. (Cunhã) were harvested at 35, 50, 70, and 90 d after a uniformity harvest in a field study designed as a completely randomized design with a total of 18 experimental plots. The dry matter yield of the whole plant was separated quantitatively into leaves, stems, and pods at each harvesting age. Chemical analyses and in vitro gas production kinetics were performed to assess the quality of the plant parts. Yields, chemical composition, and estimates of gas production parameters were analyzed by fitting a mixed statistical model with two types of covariance structures as follows: variance components and an unrestricted structure with heterogeneous variances. Fast and slow gas yielding pools were detected for both leaves and stems, but only a single pool was detected for pods. The homoscedasticity assumption was more likely for all variables, except for some parameters of the gas production kinetics of leaves and stems. There was no presence of typical pods at 35 and 50 d. In the leaves, the fibrous fractions were affected, whereas the non-fibrous fractions were unaffected by the harvesting age. The harvesting age affected the majority of the chemical constituents and gas kinetic parameters related to the stems. The leaves of this legume were the least affected part by the aging process. PMID:25049940

  11. Access to Excellence: Assignment to Honors English Classes in the Transition from Middle to High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamoran, Adam

    A study examined the processes and criteria of assignment to honors English classes in the context of the transition from middle to high school. Five midwestern school districts--four public school districts and one Catholic diocese--participated in the study. Data consisted of interviews with school staff, school records, and student survey…

  12. U.S. EPA High-Field NMR Facility with Remote Accessibility

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s High-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Research Facility housed in Athens, GA has two Varian 600 MHz NMR spectrometers used for conducting sophisticated experiments in environmental science. Off-site users can ship their samples and perform their NMR experiments remotely fr...

  13. Financial Needs and Access to Aid among Chinese Vocational High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Po

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed 586 students from nine vocational high schools in three provinces in China. It found a substantial gap between the demand for and the supply of government financial aid. Moreover, correct student aid information and aid application was not equally distributed among various student groups. A financial aid application made a…

  14. Bounded Aspirations: Rural, African American High School Students and College Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Darris R.; Clayton, Ashley B.; Conzelmann, Johnathan G.; Baynes, Patti; Umbach, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores the career and educational aspirations, college choice process, and college barriers and opportunities of 26 rural, African American high school students. Data included interviews with 26 students and 11 school staff members. Findings suggest that the students' rural context shapes aspirations. In addition,…

  15. Making Presentation Software Accessible to High School Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Mary Beth; Giangreco, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    As students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities transition from inclusive elementary and middle schools to high schools, they deserve similar opportunities for inclusive educational experiences at this next level--namely to participate in general education classes and other activities (e.g., co-curricular) with their classmates…

  16. The Accessibility of Academic Vocabulary to Spanish Speaking High School Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.; Medina, Luis A.; Martinez, Norma A.; Veleta, Lorena G.

    2013-01-01

    One recommendation for better preparing English language learners (ELLs) for scientific fields is to capitalize on Spanish speakers' knowledge of cognates. However, little is known about the presence of cognates in high school biology content. This study examined the linguistic basis of 968 terms co-occurring in at least one of four textbooks…

  17. Access: Net Prices, Affordability, and Equity at a Highly Selective College. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catherine B.; Winston, Gordon C.

    All of the financial aid decisions at Williams College (Williamstown, Massachusetts) for the past 14 years--nearly 14,000 of them--were reviewed to see how much students actually paid for tuition, room, board, and fees to go to that highly selective and expensive school, their net prices. Williams practices need-blind admission with full…

  18. Improving College Access: A Review of Research on the Role of High School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, Mary E. M.; Rawls, Anita; Barry, Carol

    2012-01-01

    High school counselors potentially hold a key position to help increase the number of U.S. students receiving post-secondary degrees, particularly to address inequalities that prevent certain students from successfully transitioning to college. Using the model of student success (Perna & Thomas, 2008), this study reviewed the literature to…

  19. Enhancing the Accessibility of High School Science Tests: A Multistate Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Dickenson, Tammiee S.; Bennett, Heather L.; Morgan, Grant B.; Gilmore, Joanna A.; Beddow, Peter A.; Swaffield, Suzanne; Turner, Linda; Herrera, Bill; Turner, Charlene; Palmer, Porter W.

    2012-01-01

    This study was inspired by the final regulations for the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) indicating that each state has the option to develop a new assessment for students whose disabilities have kept them from obtaining proficiency. Sets of high school science achievement items were enhanced for the new test. A 3-by-2, within subjects,…

  20. SCALED SIMULATION DESIGN OF HIGH QUALITY LASER WAKEFIELD ACCELERATOR STAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Leemans, W.P.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Cowan, B.; Nieter, C.; Paul, K.; Cary, J.R.

    2009-05-04

    Design of efficient, high gradient laser driven wakefield accelerator (LWFA) stages using explicit particle-incell simulations with physical parameters scaled by plasma density is presented. LWFAs produce few percent energy spread electron bunches at 0.1-1 GeV with high accelerating gradients. Design tools are now required to predict and improve performance and efficiency of future LWFA stages. Scaling physical parameters extends the reach of explicit simulations to address applications including 10 GeV stages and stages for radiation sources, and accurately resolves deep laser depletion to evaluate efficient stages.