Science.gov

Sample records for access large amounts

  1. Making large amounts of meteorological plots easily accessible to users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy-Thepaut, Sylvie; Siemen, Stephan; Sahin, Cihan; Raoult, Baudouin

    2015-04-01

    The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is an international organisation providing its member organisations with forecasts in the medium time range of 3 to 15 days, and some longer-range forecasts for up to a year ahead, with varying degrees of detail. As part of its mission, ECMWF generates an increasing number of forecast data products for its users. To support the work of forecasters and researchers and to let them make best use of ECMWF forecasts, the Centre also provides tools and interfaces to visualise their products. This allows users to make use of and explore forecasts without having to transfer large amounts of raw data. This is especially true for products based on ECMWF's 50 member ensemble forecast, where some specific processing and visualisation are applied to extract information. Every day, thousands of raw data are being pushed to the ECMWF's interactive web charts application called ecCharts, and thousands of products are processed and pushed to ECMWF's institutional web site ecCharts provides a highly interactive application to display and manipulate recent numerical forecasts to forecasters in national weather services and ECMWF's commercial customers. With ecCharts forecasters are able to explore ECMWF's medium-range forecasts in far greater detail than has previously been possible on the web, and this as soon as the forecast becomes available. All ecCharts's products are also available through a machine-to-machine web map service based on the OGC Web Map Service (WMS) standard. ECMWF institutional web site provides access to a large number of graphical products. It was entirely redesigned last year. It now shares the same infrastructure as ECMWF's ecCharts, and can benefit of some ecCharts functionalities, for example the dashboard. The dashboard initially developed for ecCharts allows users to organise their own collection of products depending on their work flow, and is being further developed. In its first

  2. Cataloguing Large Amounts of Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrate, E.; O'Connor, A. S.; Hulslander, D.; Farr, B.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing users face the challenge of managing hundreds, even thousands of scenes. These images are normally stored as files organized in a folder structure. Unless there are clearly defined rules about the organization of the directories and file naming conventions, users inevitably find it very difficult to find particular images. "Katalog" is a free satellite image cataloguing tool developed to solve this problem. It can crawl a particular folder structure in search of the satellite images, extracting both metadata, footprints, and thumbnails. This information is then searchable by a number of variables (e.g. name, sensor, geographic location, date, description, and so on) allowing users to quickly find scenes in their imagery libraries, discovering and rediscovering data they didn't even know they had. "Katalog" works as an extension to the ENVI software package, taking advantage of the large collection of satellite image readers that ENVI provides. Generated thumbnails and footprints are also compatible with other applications like Google Earth, Picasa, and Esri ArcGIS.

  3. Knowledge discovery: Extracting usable information from large amounts of data

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.

    1998-12-31

    The threat of nuclear weapons proliferation is a problem of world wide concern. Safeguards are the key to nuclear nonproliferation and data is the key to safeguards. The safeguards community has access to a huge and steadily growing volume of data. The advantages of this data rich environment are obvious, there is a great deal of information which can be utilized. The challenge is to effectively apply proven and developing technologies to find and extract usable information from that data. That information must then be assessed and evaluated to produce the knowledge needed for crucial decision making. Efficient and effective analysis of safeguards data will depend on utilizing technologies to interpret the large, heterogeneous data sets that are available from diverse sources. With an order-of-magnitude increase in the amount of data from a wide variety of technical, textual, and historical sources there is a vital need to apply advanced computer technologies to support all-source analysis. There are techniques of data warehousing, data mining, and data analysis that can provide analysts with tools that will expedite their extracting useable information from the huge amounts of data to which they have access. Computerized tools can aid analysts by integrating heterogeneous data, evaluating diverse data streams, automating retrieval of database information, prioritizing inputs, reconciling conflicting data, doing preliminary interpretations, discovering patterns or trends in data, and automating some of the simpler prescreening tasks that are time consuming and tedious. Thus knowledge discovery technologies can provide a foundation of support for the analyst. Rather than spending time sifting through often irrelevant information, analysts could use their specialized skills in a focused, productive fashion. This would allow them to make their analytical judgments with more confidence and spend more of their time doing what they do best.

  4. Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis for Purification of Large Amounts of RNA.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Mélanie; Masquida, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) constitutes a powerful technique for the efficient purification of RNA molecules dedicated to applications that require high purity levels. PAGE allows for the fractionation of RNA obtained from cell extracts, chemical or enzymatic synthesis, or modification experiments. Native or denaturing conditions can be chosen for analytical or preparative-scale separations and the nucleotide resolution can be tuned by changing the percentage and reticulation of the gel material. In this protocol, we focus on the preparation of milligram-scale amounts of ~200 nucleotides (nt) RNA molecules that were used in subsequent crystallization experiments. PMID:26227037

  5. Expert system shell to reason on large amounts of data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giuffrida, Gionanni

    1994-01-01

    The current data base management systems (DBMS's) do not provide a sophisticated environment to develop rule based expert systems applications. Some of the new DBMS's come with some sort of rule mechanism; these are active and deductive database systems. However, both of these are not featured enough to support full implementation based on rules. On the other hand, current expert system shells do not provide any link with external databases. That is, all the data are kept in the system working memory. Such working memory is maintained in main memory. For some applications the reduced size of the available working memory could represent a constraint for the development. Typically these are applications which require reasoning on huge amounts of data. All these data do not fit into the computer main memory. Moreover, in some cases these data can be already available in some database systems and continuously updated while the expert system is running. This paper proposes an architecture which employs knowledge discovering techniques to reduce the amount of data to be stored in the main memory; in this architecture a standard DBMS is coupled with a rule-based language. The data are stored into the DBMS. An interface between the two systems is responsible for inducing knowledge from the set of relations. Such induced knowledge is then transferred to the rule-based language working memory.

  6. Determination of small and large amounts of fluorine in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Ingram, B.; Cuttitta, F.

    1955-01-01

    Gelatinous silica and aluminum ions retard the distillation of fluorine in the Willard and Winter distillation method. A generally applicable, simple method for the determination of fluorine in rocks containing aluminum or silicon or both as major constituents was desired. In the procedure developed, the sample is fused with a mixture of sodium carbonate and zinc oxide, leached with water, and filtered. The residue is granular and retains nearly all of the silica. The fluorine in the filtrate is distilled directly from a perchloric acid-phosphoric acid mixture. Phosphoric acid permits the quantitative distillation of fluorine in the presence of much aluminum at the usual distillation temperature and without the collection of large volumes of distillate. The fluorine is determined either by microtitration with thorium nitrate or colorimetrically with thoron. The procedure is rapid and has yielded excellent results on silicate rocks and on samples from the aluminum phosphate (leached) zone of the Florida phosphate deposits.

  7. Percutaneous Large Arterial Access Closure Techniques.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Charles J; Gandhi, Ripal T; Vatakencherry, Geogy; Baumann, Frederic; Benenati, James F

    2015-06-01

    Endovascular repair has replaced open surgical repair as the standard of care for treatment of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms in appropriately selected patients owing to its decreased morbidity and length of stay and excellent clinical outcomes. Similarly, there is a progressive trend toward total percutaneous repair of the femoral artery using percutaneous suture-mediated closure devices over open surgical repair due to decreased complications and procedure time. This article describes the techniques of closure for large-bore vascular access most commonly used in endovascular treatment of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms, but could similarly be applied to any procedure requiring large-bore arterial access, such as transcatheter aortic valve replacement. PMID:26070624

  8. Comparison Analysis among Large Amount of SNS Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toriumi, Fujio; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Suwa, Hirohiko; Okada, Isamu; Izumi, Kiyoshi; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    In recent years, application of Social Networking Services (SNS) and Blogs are growing as new communication tools on the Internet. Several large-scale SNS sites are prospering; meanwhile, many sites with relatively small scale are offering services. Such small-scale SNSs realize small-group isolated type of communication while neither mixi nor MySpace can do that. However, the studies on SNS are almost about particular large-scale SNSs and cannot analyze whether their results apply for general features or for special characteristics on the SNSs. From the point of view of comparison analysis on SNS, comparison with just several types of those cannot reach a statistically significant level. We analyze many SNS sites with the aim of classifying them by using some approaches. Our paper classifies 50,000 sites for small-scale SNSs and gives their features from the points of network structure, patterns of communication, and growth rate of SNS. The result of analysis for network structure shows that many SNS sites have small-world attribute with short path lengths and high coefficients of their cluster. Distribution of degrees of the SNS sites is close to power law. This result indicates the small-scale SNS sites raise the percentage of users with many friends than mixi. According to the analysis of their coefficients of assortativity, those SNS sites have negative values of assortativity, and that means users with high degree tend to connect users with small degree. Next, we analyze the patterns of user communication. A friend network of SNS is explicit while users' communication behaviors are defined as an implicit network. What kind of relationships do these networks have? To address this question, we obtain some characteristics of users' communication structure and activation patterns of users on the SNS sites. By using new indexes, friend aggregation rate and friend coverage rate, we show that SNS sites with high value of friend coverage rate activate diary postings

  9. Analytics to Better Interpret and Use Large Amounts of Heterogeneous Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, T. J.; Baskin, W. E.; Rinsland, P. L.

    2014-12-01

    Data scientists at NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) are seasoned software application developers who have worked with the creation, archival, and distribution of large datasets (multiple terabytes and larger). In order for ASDC data scientists to effectively implement the most efficient processes for cataloging and organizing data access applications, they must be intimately familiar with data contained in the datasets with which they are working. Key technologies that are critical components to the background of ASDC data scientists include: large RBMSs (relational database management systems) and NoSQL databases; web services; service-oriented architectures; structured and unstructured data access; as well as processing algorithms. However, as prices of data storage and processing decrease, sources of data increase, and technologies advance - granting more people to access to data at real or near-real time - data scientists are being pressured to accelerate their ability to identify and analyze vast amounts of data. With existing tools this is becoming exceedingly more challenging to accomplish. For example, NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) alone grew from having just over 4PBs of data in 2009 to nearly 6PBs of data in 2011. This amount then increased to roughly10PBs of data in 2013. With data from at least ten new missions to be added to the ESDIS holdings by 2017, the current volume will continue to grow exponentially and drive the need to be able to analyze more data even faster. Though there are many highly efficient, off-the-shelf analytics tools available, these tools mainly cater towards business data, which is predominantly unstructured. Inadvertently, there are very few known analytics tools that interface well to archived Earth science data, which is predominantly heterogeneous and structured. This presentation will identify use cases for data analytics from an Earth science perspective in order to begin to identify

  10. Optimal access to large databases via networks

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, J.K.; Fellows, R.L.; Phifer, D. Carrick, M.R.; Tarlton, N.

    1997-10-01

    A CRADA with Stephens Engineering was undertaken in order to transfer knowledge and experience about access to information in large text databases, with results of queries and searches provided using the multimedia capabilities of the World Wide Web. Data access is optimized by the use of intelligent agents. Technology Logic Diagram documents published for the DOE facilities in Oak Ridge (K-25, X-10, Y-12) were chosen for this effort because of the large number of technologies identified, described, evaluated, and ranked for possible use in the environmental remediation of these facilities. Fast, convenient access to this information is difficult because of the volume and complexity of the data. WAIS software used to provide full-text, field-based search capability can also be used, through the development of an appropriate hierarchy of menus, to provide tabular summaries of technologies satisfying a wide range of criteria. The menu hierarchy can also be used to regenerate dynamically many of the tables that appeared in the original hardcopy publications, all from a single text database of the technology descriptions. Use of the Web environment permits linking many of the Technology Logic Diagram references to on-line versions of these publications, particularly the DOE Orders and related directives providing the legal requirements that were the basis for undertaking the Technology Logic Diagram studies in the first place.

  11. A simple biosynthetic pathway for large product generation from small substrate amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Marko; Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2012-10-01

    A recently emerging discipline of synthetic biology has the aim of constructing new biosynthetic pathways with useful biological functions. A major application of these pathways is generating a large amount of the desired product. However, toxicity due to the possible presence of toxic precursors is one of the main problems for such production. We consider here the problem of generating a large amount of product from a potentially toxic substrate. To address this, we propose a simple biosynthetic pathway, which can be induced in order to produce a large number of the product molecules, by keeping the substrate amount at low levels. Surprisingly, we show that the large product generation crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of the substrate molecules. We derive an optimal induction strategy, which allows as much as three orders of magnitude increase in the product amount through biologically realistic parameter values. We point to a recently discovered bacterial immune system (CRISPR/Cas in E. coli) as a putative example of the pathway analysed here. We also argue that the scheme proposed here can be used not only as a stand-alone pathway, but also as a strategy to produce a large amount of the desired molecules with small perturbations of endogenous biosynthetic pathways.

  12. Determining empirical thresholds for "definitely large" amounts of food for defining binge-eating episodes.

    PubMed

    Forney, K Jean; Holland, Lauren A; Joiner, Thomas E; Keel, Pamela K

    2015-01-01

    Binge episodes involve "definitely large" amounts of food, yet limited data exist regarding the upper limits of food consumption in non-binge eating episodes. Study 1 examined the concurrent validity of a self-report measure developed to measure "usual" food consumption. Results support good concurrent validity for most items across response versions. Study 2 identified the upper limits of normal food consumption (i.e., 85(th) percentile of participants' largest reported usual servings). Thresholds differed across types of foods, and men reported higher thresholds than women for several foods. Type of food and gender should be considered when assessing for "definitely large" amounts of food. PMID:24983483

  13. BCH codes for large IC random-access memory systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S.; Costello, D. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In this report some shortened BCH codes for possible applications to large IC random-access memory systems are presented. These codes are given by their parity-check matrices. Encoding and decoding of these codes are discussed.

  14. New Specimen Access Device for the Large Space Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzarini, P.; Ratti, F.

    2004-08-01

    The Large Space Simulator (LSS) is used to simulate in- orbit environmental conditions for spacecraft (S/C) testing. The LSS is intended to be a flexible facility: it can accommodate test articles that can differ significantly in shape and weight and carry various instruments. To improve the accessibility to the S/C inside the LSS chamber a new Specimen Access Device (SAD) has been procured. The SAD provides immediate and easy access to the S/C, thus reducing the amount of time necessary for the installations of set-ups in the LSS. The SAD has been designed as bridge crane carrying a basket to move the operator into the LSS. Such a crane moves on parallel rails on the top floor of the LSS building. The SAD is composed by three subsystems: the main bridge, the trolley that moves along the main bridge and the telescopic mast. A trade off analysis has been carried out for what concerns the telescopic mast design. The choice between friction pads vs rollers, to couple the different sections of the mast, has been evaluated. The resulting design makes use of a four sections square mast, with rollers driven deployment. This design has been chosen for the higher stiffness of the mast, due to the limited number of sections, and because it reduces radically the risk of contamination related to a solution based on sliding bushings. Analyses have been performed to assess the mechanical behaviour both in static and in dynamic conditions. In particular the telescopic mast has been studied in detail to optimise its stiffness and to check the safety margins in the various operational conditions. To increase the safety of the operations an anticollision system has been implemented by positioning on the basket two kind of sensors, ultrasonic and contact ones. All the translations are regulated by inverters with acceleration and deceleration ramps controlled by a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). An absolute encoder is installed on each motor to provide the actual position of the

  15. Study on Properties of Environment-friendly Concrete Containing Large Amount of Industrial by-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, H.; Maruoka, M.; Sadayama, C.; Nemoto, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Yamaji, M.

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to reduce CO2 discharged from the cement and concrete industries by effective use of industrial by-products, such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, and so on. In this paper, the properties of concrete containing large amount of industrial by-products and very small amount of alkaline activator including cement or sludge from ready mixed concrete plant are analyzed. As the result, it was confirmed that concretes containing large amount of industrial by-products can achieve sufficient compressive strength. However, these concretes showed poor frost resistance. It was thought that the reason was coarsening of air void system and this caused their poor frost resistance. Therefore, in order to micronize the air void system and improve frost resistance, the combination of air entraining agent and antifoaming agent was applied. By this method, it was confirmed that the frost resistance of some these concrete improved. In this study, other properties of these concretes, such as fresh properties and other durability were evaluated and it was confirmed that these concretes show sufficient properties.

  16. Presentation of a large amount of moving objects in a virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Huanzhuo; Gong, Jianya; Ye, Jing

    2004-05-01

    It needs a lot of consideration to manage the presentation of a large amount of moving objects in virtual environment. Motion state model (MSM) is used to represent the motion of objects and 2n tree is used to index the motion data stored in database or files. To minimize the necessary memory occupation for static models, cache with LRU or FIFO refreshing is introduced. DCT and wavelet work well with different playback speeds of motion presentation because they can filter low frequencies from motion data and adjust the filter according to playback speed. Since large amount of data are continuously retrieved, calculated, used for displaying, and then discarded, multithreading technology is naturally employed though single thread with carefully arranged data retrieval also works well when the number of objects is not very big. With multithreading, the level of concurrence should be placed at data retrieval, where waiting may occur, rather than at calculating or displaying, and synchronization should be carefully arranged to make sure that different threads can collaborate well. Collision detection is not needed when playing with history data and sampled current data; however, it is necessary for spatial state prediction. When the current state is presented, either predicting-adjusting method or late updating method could be used according to the users' preference.

  17. Large-area Overhead Manipulator for Access of Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-axis, cable-driven manipulators have evolved over many years providing large area suspended platform access, programmability, relatively rigid and flexibly-positioned platform control and full six degree of freedom (DOF) manipulation of sensors and tools. We describe innovations for a new six...

  18. Geo-reCAPTCHA: Crowdsourcing large amounts of geographic information from earth observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillen, Florian; Höfle, Bernhard

    2015-08-01

    The reCAPTCHA concept provides a large amount of valuable information for various applications. First, it provides security, e.g., for a form on a website, by means of a test that only a human could solve. Second, the effort of the user for this test is used to generate additional information, e.g., digitization of books or identification of house numbers. In this work, we present a concept for adapting the reCAPTCHA idea to create user-generated geographic information from earth observation data, and the requirements during the conception and implementation are depicted in detail. Furthermore, the essential parts of a Geo-reCAPTCHA system are described, and afterwards transferred, to a prototype implementation. An empirical user study is conducted to investigate the Geo-reCAPTCHA approach, assessing time and quality of the resulting geographic information. Our results show that a Geo-reCAPTCHA can be solved by the users of our study on building digitization in a short amount of time (19.2 s on average) with an overall average accuracy of the digitizations of 82.2%. In conclusion, Geo-reCAPTCHA has the potential to be a reasonable alternative to the typical reCAPTCHA, and to become a new data-rich channel of crowdsourced geographic information.

  19. Evaluation of Flush-Mounted, S-Duct Inlets with Large Amounts of Boundary Layer Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Morehouse, Melissa B.

    2003-01-01

    A new high Reynolds number test capability for boundary layer ingesting inlets has been developed for the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Using this new capability, an experimental investigation of four S-duct inlet configurations with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion (nominal boundary layer thickness of about 40% of inlet height) was conducted at realistic operating conditions (high subsonic Mach numbers and full-scale Reynolds numbers). The objectives of this investigation were to 1) provide a database for CFD tool validation on boundary layer ingesting inlets operating at realistic conditions and 2) provide a baseline inlet for future inlet flow-control studies. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.83, Reynolds numbers (based on duct exit diameter) from 5.1 million to a full-scale value of 13.9 million, and inlet mass-flow ratios from 0.39 to 1.58 depending on Mach number. Results of this investigation indicate that inlet pressure recovery generally decreased and inlet distortion generally increased with increasing Mach number. Except at low Mach numbers, increasing inlet mass-flow increased pressure recovery and increased distortion. Increasing the amount of boundary layer ingestion (by decreasing inlet throat height) or ingesting a boundary layer with a distorted (adverse) profile decreased pressure recovery and increased distortion. Finally, increasing Reynolds number had almost no effect on inlet distortion but increased inlet recovery by about one-half percent at a Mach number near cruise.

  20. Evaluation of Flush-Mounted, S-Duct Inlets With Large Amounts of Boundary Layer Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Morehouse, Melissa B.

    2003-01-01

    A new high Reynolds number test capability for boundary layer ingesting inlets has been developed for the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Using this new capability, an experimental investigation of four S-duct inlet configurations with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion (nominal boundary layer thickness of about 40% of inlet height) was conducted at realistic operating conditions (high subsonic Mach numbers and full-scale Reynolds numbers). The objectives of this investigation were to 1) develop a new high Reynolds number, boundary-layer ingesting inlet test capability, 2) evaluate the performance of several boundary layer ingesting S-duct inlets, 3) provide a database for CFD tool validation, and 4) provide a baseline inlet for future inlet flow-control studies. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.83, Reynolds numbers (based on duct exit diameter) from 5.1 million to a fullscale value of 13.9 million, and inlet mass-flow ratios from 0.39 to 1.58 depending on Mach number. Results of this investigation indicate that inlet pressure recovery generally decreased and inlet distortion generally increased with increasing Mach number. Except at low Mach numbers, increasing inlet mass-flow increased pressure recovery and increased distortion. Increasing the amount of boundary layer ingestion (by decreasing inlet throat height and increasing inlet throat width) or ingesting a boundary layer with a distorted profile decreased pressure recovery and increased distortion. Finally, increasing Reynolds number had almost no effect on inlet distortion but increased inlet recovery by about one-half percent at a Mach number near cruise.

  1. Large optical 3D MEMS switches in access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madamopoulos, Nicholas; Kaman, Volkan; Yuan, Shifu; Jerphagnon, Olivier; Helkey, Roger; Bowers, John E.

    2007-09-01

    Interest is high among residential customers and businesses for advanced, broadband services such as fast Internet access, electronic commerce, video-on-demand, digital broadcasting, teleconferencing and telemedicine. In order to satisfy such growing demand of end-customers, access technologies such as fiber-to-the-home/building (FTTH/B) are increasingly being deployed. Carriers can reduce maintenance costs, minimize technology obsolescence and introduce new services easily by reducing active elements in the fiber access network. However, having a passive optical network (PON) also introduces operational and maintenance challenges. Increased diagnostic monitoring capability of the network becomes a necessity as more and more fibers are provisioned to deliver services to the end-customers. This paper demonstrates the clear advantages that large 3D optical MEMS switches offer in solving these access network problems. The advantages in preventative maintenance, remote monitoring, test and diagnostic capability are highlighted. The low optical insertion loss for all switch optical connections of the switch enables the monitoring, grooming and serving of a large number of PON lines and customers. Furthermore, the 3D MEMS switch is transparent to optical wavelengths and data formats, thus making it easy to incorporate future upgrades, such higher bit rates or DWDM overlay to a PON.

  2. How to extract clinically useful information from large amount of dialysis related stored data.

    PubMed

    Vito, Domenico; Casagrande, Giustina; Bianchi, Camilla; Costantino, Maria L

    2015-08-01

    The basic storage infrastructure used to gather data from the technological evolution also in the healthcare field was leading to the storing into public or private repository of even higher quantities of data related to patients and their pathological evolution. Big data techniques are spreading also in medical research. By these techniques is possible extract information from complex heterogeneous sources, realizing longitudinal studies focused to correlate the patient status with biometric parameters. In our work we develop a common data infrastructure involving 4 clinical dialysis centers between Lombardy and Switzerland. The common platform has been build to store large amount of clinical data related to 716 dialysis session of 70 patient. The platform is made up by a combination of a MySQL(®) database (Dialysis Database) and a MATLAB-based mining library (Dialysis MATlib). A statistical analysis of these data has been performed on the data gathered. These analyses led to the development of two clinical indexes, representing an example of transformation of big data into clinical information. PMID:26737858

  3. Biological soil crusts emit large amounts of NO and HONO affecting the nitrogen cycle in drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamm, Alexandra; Wu, Dianming; Ruckteschler, Nina; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Steinkamp, Jörg; Meusel, Hannah; Elbert, Wolfgang; Behrendt, Thomas; Sörgel, Matthias; Cheng, Yafang; Crutzen, Paul J.; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    Dryland systems currently cover ˜40% of the world's land surface and are still expanding as a consequence of human impact and global change. In contrast to that, information on their role in global biochemical processes is limited, probably induced by the presumption that their sparse vegetation cover plays a negligible role in global balances. However, spaces between the sparse shrubs are not bare, but soils are mostly covered by biological soil crusts (biocrusts). These biocrust communities belong to the oldest life forms, resulting from an assembly between soil particles and cyanobacteria, lichens, bryophytes, and algae plus heterotrophic organisms in varying proportions. Depending on the dominating organism group, cyanobacteria-, lichen-, and bryophyte-dominated biocrusts are distinguished. Besides their ability to restrict soil erosion they fix atmospheric carbon and nitrogen, and by doing this they serve as a nutrient source in strongly depleted dryland ecosystems. In this study we show that a fraction of the nitrogen fixed by biocrusts is metabolized and subsequently returned to the atmosphere in the form of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous acid (HONO). These gases affect the radical formation and oxidizing capacity within the troposphere, thus being of particular interest to atmospheric chemistry. Laboratory measurements using dynamic chamber systems showed that dark cyanobacteria-dominated crusts emitted the largest amounts of NO and HONO, being ˜20 times higher than trace gas fluxes of nearby bare soil. We showed that these nitrogen emissions have a biogenic origin, as emissions of formerly strongly emitting samples almost completely ceased after sterilization. By combining laboratory, field, and satellite measurement data we made a best estimate of global annual emissions amounting to ˜1.1 Tg of NO-N and ˜0.6 Tg of HONO-N from biocrusts. This sum of 1.7 Tg of reactive nitrogen emissions equals ˜20% of the soil release under natural vegetation according

  4. Biological soil crusts emit large amounts of NO and HONO affecting the nitrogen cycle in drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamm, Alexandra; Wu, Dianming; Ruckteschler, Nina; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Steinkamp, Jörg; Meusel, Hannah; Elbert, Wolfgang; Behrendt, Thomas; Sörgel, Matthias; Cheng, Yafang; Crutzen, Paul J.; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    Dryland systems currently cover ˜40% of the worl&dacute;s land surface and are still expanding as a consequence of human impact and global change. In contrast to that, information on their role in global biochemical processes is limited, probably induced by the presumption that their sparse vegetation cover plays a negligible role in global balances. However, spaces between the sparse shrubs are not bare, but soils are mostly covered by biological soil crusts (biocrusts). These biocrust communities belong to the oldest life forms, resulting from an assembly between soil particles and cyanobacteria, lichens, bryophytes, and algae plus heterotrophic organisms in varying proportions. Depending on the dominating organism group, cyanobacteria-, lichen-, and bryophyte-dominated biocrusts are distinguished. Besides their ability to restrict soil erosion they fix atmospheric carbon and nitrogen, and by doing this they serve as a nutrient source in strongly depleted dryland ecosystems. In this study we show that a fraction of the nitrogen fixed by biocrusts is metabolized and subsequently returned to the atmosphere in the form of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous acid (HONO). These gases affect the radical formation and oxidizing capacity within the troposphere, thus being of particular interest to atmospheric chemistry. Laboratory measurements using dynamic chamber systems showed that dark cyanobacteria-dominated crusts emitted the largest amounts of NO and HONO, being ˜20 times higher than trace gas fluxes of nearby bare soil. We showed that these nitrogen emissions have a biogenic origin, as emissions of formerly strongly emitting samples almost completely ceased after sterilization. By combining laboratory, field, and satellite measurement data we made a best estimate of global annual emissions amounting to ˜1.1 Tg of NO-N and ˜0.6 Tg of HONO-N from biocrusts. This sum of 1.7 Tg of reactive nitrogen emissions equals ˜20% of the soil release under natural vegetation

  5. Access control and privacy in large distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiner, B. M.; Bishop, M.

    1986-01-01

    Large scale distributed systems consists of workstations, mainframe computers, supercomputers and other types of servers, all connected by a computer network. These systems are being used in a variety of applications including the support of collaborative scientific research. In such an environment, issues of access control and privacy arise. Access control is required for several reasons, including the protection of sensitive resources and cost control. Privacy is also required for similar reasons, including the protection of a researcher's proprietary results. A possible architecture for integrating available computer and communications security technologies into a system that meet these requirements is described. This architecture is meant as a starting point for discussion, rather that the final answer.

  6. Vascular access complications in endovascular procedures with large sheaths.

    PubMed

    Lejay, Anne; Caspar, Thibault; Ohana, Mickaël; Delay, Charline; Girsowicz, Elie; Ohlmann, P; Thaveau, Fabien; Geny, Bernard; Georg, Yannick; Chakfe, Nabil

    2016-04-01

    Endovascular procedures, such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), and endovascular abdominal aortic repair (EVAR) have been established as promising less invasive therapeutic options. However, despite continuous advances and device improvements, the use of large-sheaths still remains an important challenge, since significant coexisting arterial disease may be encountered in patients undergoing such procedures. Identification of coexisting arterial diseases by optimal preoperative imaging assessment is essential to anticipate these difficulties and avoid the complications by using adequate access options. Should a vascular complication such as iliac rupture occur, vascular interventionists must be aware of salvage procedures to control and treat major complications, such as maintaining wire access across the rupture for occlusion balloon placement and vessel control, while disruption is addressed either through an endovascular or an open approach. The aims of this review are to describe how to prevent vascular complications by optimal preoperative imaging assessment, to detail intraoperative options available for addressing difficult access issues and to discuss how to manage intraoperative major vascular complications. PMID:26603161

  7. Unified Access Architecture for Large-Scale Scientific Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, Risav

    2014-05-01

    Data-intensive sciences have to deploy diverse large scale database technologies for data analytics as scientists have now been dealing with much larger volume than ever before. While array databases have bridged many gaps between the needs of data-intensive research fields and DBMS technologies (Zhang 2011), invocation of other big data tools accompanying these databases is still manual and separate the database management's interface. We identify this as an architectural challenge that will increasingly complicate the user's work flow owing to the growing number of useful but isolated and niche database tools. Such use of data analysis tools in effect leaves the burden on the user's end to synchronize the results from other data manipulation analysis tools with the database management system. To this end, we propose a unified access interface for using big data tools within large scale scientific array database using the database queries themselves to embed foreign routines belonging to the big data tools. Such an invocation of foreign data manipulation routines inside a query into a database can be made possible through a user-defined function (UDF). UDFs that allow such levels of freedom as to call modules from another language and interface back and forth between the query body and the side-loaded functions would be needed for this purpose. For the purpose of this research we attempt coupling of four widely used tools Hadoop (hadoop1), Matlab (matlab1), R (r1) and ScaLAPACK (scalapack1) with UDF feature of rasdaman (Baumann 98), an array-based data manager, for investigating this concept. The native array data model used by an array-based data manager provides compact data storage and high performance operations on ordered data such as spatial data, temporal data, and matrix-based data for linear algebra operations (scidbusr1). Performances issues arising due to coupling of tools with different paradigms, niche functionalities, separate processes and output

  8. Behavioral responses of cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus) to large amounts of coarse woody debris.

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkleman, Travis M.

    2004-08-01

    Hinkleman, Travis M. 2004. MS Thesis. Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina. 62 pp. Coarse woody debris (CWD) is any log, snag, or downed branch >10 cm in diameter. As a major structural feature of forest ecosystems, CWD serves as an important habitat component for a variety of organisms. Rodents frequently use CWD for travel routes and daytime refugia. Although rodents are known to use CWD extensively and selectively, the use and selection of CWD by rodents may vary according to the abundance of CWD. The purpose of this project was to determine the effect of CWD abundance on the habitat use patterns of a common terrestrial rodent, the cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus). I tracked cotton mice with fluorescent pigments and radiotelemetry in 6 plots, situated in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands, with manipulated levels of woody debris. Treatment plots had 6x the amount of woody debris as control plots. I determined log use and movement patterns from the paths produced by powder-tracking, and I identified daytime refugia by radio-tracking. Travel along logs was almost exclusively associated with the surface of logs (91%). The proportion of a movement path associated with logs was not the best predictor of path complexity; rather, the sex of the individual was the only significant indicator of relative displacement (i.e., males moved farther from the point of release than females) and vegetation cover was the only significant predictor of mean turning angle (i.e., increasing vegetation cover yielded more convoluted paths). Mice used logs to a greater extent on treatment plots (23.7%) than mice on control plots (4.8%). Mice on treatment plots used logs with less decay, less ground contact, and more bark than logs used by mice on control plots. Differences in log use patterns were largely a result of the attributes of available logs, but mice used logs selectively on treatment plots. Refuges were highly associated with woody debris, including refuges in rotting

  9. Multi-resonant compact nanoaperture with accessible large nearfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Arif E.; Turkmen, Mustafa; Aksu, Serap; Etezadi, Dordaneh; Altug, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    We present a compact and multi-resonant aperture system supporting large local electromagnetic fields, which is highly advantageous for applications demanding high signal-to-noise ratio. The system is composed of subwavelength H-shaped apertures with extended arms fabricated through thin metal films on a free-standing dielectric membranes. Through finite-difference time-domain calculations, we numerically investigate the multi-resonant spectral nature of the compact system in detail, which is associated with the individual optical response of the constituting aperture elements. In order to realize the aperture systems working in the spectral region of interest, we introduce a fine-tuning mechanism of the optical responses through geometrical device parameters. Furthermore, we present a circuit analog of the system demonstrating the impedance characteristics of the plasmonic modes supported by the aperture arrays. The highly accessible large electromagnetic fields extending over a large volume improve the sensitivity of the nanostructured platform to the surface conditions by enhancing the overlap between biomolecules in the vicinity and the local optical fields. We also experimentally demonstrate this highly advantageous field generation capability through large absorption signal enhancements in the surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy of protein bilayers.

  10. Effect of large amounts of dihydroxyacetone in the diet of rats.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapira, J.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments in which dihydroxyacetone (DHA) was used as nutrient for growing rats have not fulfilled the expectation that DHA could be used as a significant portion of the diet. Any attempt to treat major cerebral damage by prolonged administration of DHA is strongly contraindicated. For this reason, regenerated formose mixtures containing appreciable amounts of DHA will not be suitable as a significant portion of the diet for the crews of long-duration space missions.

  11. ACCESS computer program for the synthesis of large structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleury, C.; Ramanathan, R. K.; Salama, M.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The structural-synthesis computer code ACCESS-3, originally limited to the optimization of relatively simple problems involving truss, membrane, and shear panel elements, has been restructured to make it applicable to structures with a larger number of degrees-of-freedom, design variables, and constraints. The modifications made allow the use of six degrees-of-freedom per node and permit the out-of-core solution of large matrix equations encountered at the analysis stage. Also, finite elements which permit pure bending as well as combined bending and membrane (axial) behavior have been added to satisfy the need for a more comprehensive set of elements. Like its predecessor, the new version of the program combines the approximation concepts with primal or dual formulations to provide an efficient optimization tool.

  12. The ATLAS Eventindex: an event catalogue for experiments collecting large amounts of data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberis, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Dimitrov, G.; Favareto, A.; Fernández Casaní, Á.; González de la Hoz, S.; Hřivnáč, J.; Malon, D.; Nowak, M.; Salt Cairols, J.; Sánchez, J.; Sorokoletov, R.; Zhang, Q.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    Modern scientific experiments collect vast amounts of data that must be catalogued to meet multiple use cases and search criteria. In particular, high-energy physics experiments currently in operation produce several billion events per year. A database with the references to the files including each event in every stage of processing is necessary in order to retrieve the selected events from data storage systems. The ATLAS EventIndex project is studying the best way to store the necessary information using modern data storage technologies (Hadoop, HBase etc.) that allow saving in memory key-value pairs and select the best tools to support this application from the point of view of performance, robustness and ease of use. This paper describes the initial design and performance tests and the project evolution towards deployment and operation during 2014.

  13. Generation of a large amount of energetic electrons in complex-structure bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiancai; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wen, Meng; Ji, Liangliang; Wang, Wenpeng; Yu, Yahong; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2010-02-01

    By means of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we found that when the focus size of a laser pulse is much larger than the plasma wavelength and when the laser power is hundreds of times larger than the critical power required for relativistic self-focusing, a large complex bubble is formed. The transversal size of the bubble depends on the laser spot size. Owing to the large bubble size, a bunch of electrons with the total charge in the range of a few tens of nano-Coulombs is trapped and accelerated in the bubble. When the plasma density is 2×1019 cm-3, the charge of the energetic electron bunch with energy above 5 MeV exceeds 45 nC with a laser spot size of 60 μm. Electrons continuously self-injected into such a complex bubble serve as an effective source of high-charge electron bunches.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Rheinheimera sp. F8, a Biofilm-Forming Strain Which Produces Large Amounts of Extracellular DNA

    PubMed Central

    Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Rheinheimera sp. strain F8 is a biofilm-forming gammaproteobacterium that has been found to produce large amounts of filamentous extracellular DNA. Here, we announce the de novo assembly of its genome. It is estimated to be 4,464,511 bp in length, with 3,970 protein-coding sequences and 92 RNA-coding sequences. PMID:26966195

  15. Large amounts of extinct Al-26 in interstellar grains from the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinner, E.; Amari, S.; Anders, E.; Lewis, R.

    1991-01-01

    It is reported here that interstellar graphite and SiC grains recovered from the Murchison CM2 chondritic meteorite have large abundances of Mg-26 from the decay of extinct Al-26. The deduced initial Al-26/Al-27 ratios range up to 0.06 in graphite and 0.2 in SiC. This is 1200 to 4000 times the maximum values found in refractory inclusions in primitive meteorites. All proposed stellar sources of carbonaceous dust also produced Al-26, but the highest Al-26/Al-27 ratios found in these grains seem to rule out Wolf-Rayet stars and supernovae. The aluminum abundance correlates with that of nitrogen, suggesting that the aluminum condensed as aluminum nitride.

  16. 18O depletion in monsoon rain relates to large scale organized convection rather than the amount of rainfall.

    PubMed

    Lekshmy, P R; Midhun, M; Ramesh, R; Jani, R A

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic variations in rainfall proxies such as tree rings and cave calcites from South and East Asia have been used to reconstruct past monsoon variability, mainly through the amount effect: the observed (18)O depletion of rain with increasing amount, manifested as a negative correlation of the monthly amount of tropical rain with its δ(18)O, both measured at the same station. This relation exhibits a significant spatial variability, and at some sites (especially North-East and peninsular India), the rainfall proxies are not interpretable by this effect. We show here that relatively higher (18)O-depletion in monsoon rain is not related necessarily to its amount, but rather, to large scale organized convection. Presenting δ(18)O analyses of ~654 samples of daily rain collected during summer 2012 across 9 stations in Kerala, southern India, we demonstrate that although the cross correlations between the amounts of rainfall in different stations is insignificant, the δ(18)O values of rain exhibit highly coherent variations (significant at P = 0.05). Significantly more (18)O-depletion in the rain is caused by clouds only during events with a large spatial extent of clouds observable over in the south eastern Arabian Sea. PMID:25012535

  17. Extensive Recombination Due to Heteroduplexes Generates Large Amounts of Artificial Gene Fragments during PCR

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Song, Hongshuo; Liu, Donglai; Zuo, Tao; Lu, Fengmin; Zhuang, Hui; Gao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Artificial recombinants can be generated during PCR when more than two genetically distinct templates coexist in a single PCR reaction. These recombinant amplicons can lead to the false interpretation of genetic diversity and incorrect identification of biological phenotypes that do not exist in vivo. We investigated how recombination between 2 or 35 genetically distinct HIV-1 genomes was affected by different PCR conditions using the parallel allele-specific sequencing (PASS) assay and the next generation sequencing method. In a standard PCR condition, about 40% of amplicons in a PCR reaction were recombinants. The high recombination frequency could be significantly reduced if the number of amplicons in a PCR reaction was below a threshold of 1013–1014 using low thermal cycles, fewer input templates, and longer extension time. Heteroduplexes (each DNA strand from a distinct template) were present at a large proportion in the PCR products when more thermal cycles, more templates, and shorter extension time were used. Importantly, the majority of recombinants were identified in heteroduplexes, indicating that the recombinants were mainly generated through heteroduplexes. Since prematurely terminated extension fragments can form heteroduplexes by annealing to different templates during PCR amplification, recombination has a better chance to occur with samples containing different genomes when the number of amplicons accumulate over the threshold. New technologies are warranted to accurately characterize complex quasispecies gene populations. PMID:25211143

  18. A Case of Special Complication following a Large Amount of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Injected into the Epicranial Aponeurosis: Leukocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Rong, Li; Lan, Shi-Jie; Shao, Ying; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Duo

    2015-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) has been used as an injectable filler for soft tissue augmentation of different body parts, such as the face, breasts, and penis. However, this is the first report of leukocytopenia after injection of a large amount of PAAG in the epicranial aponeurosis. After receiving PAAG injection for craniofacial contouring, the female patient described herein experienced recurrent swelling, temporal pain (particularly with changes in ambient temperature and facial expression), and ultimately leukocytopenia due to widespread migration of the injected PAAG. We removed most of the PAAG from the affected tissues and the leukocytopenia disappeared 1 year after the operation. Based on this case, we hypothesize that injection of a large amount of PAAG into tissues that have ample blood supply, such as the epicranial aponeurosis, may induce leukocytopenia. PMID:26576158

  19. A Case of Special Complication following a Large Amount of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Injected into the Epicranial Aponeurosis: Leukocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Li; Lan, Shi-Jie; Shao, Ying; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Duo

    2015-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) has been used as an injectable filler for soft tissue augmentation of different body parts, such as the face, breasts, and penis. However, this is the first report of leukocytopenia after injection of a large amount of PAAG in the epicranial aponeurosis. After receiving PAAG injection for craniofacial contouring, the female patient described herein experienced recurrent swelling, temporal pain (particularly with changes in ambient temperature and facial expression), and ultimately leukocytopenia due to widespread migration of the injected PAAG. We removed most of the PAAG from the affected tissues and the leukocytopenia disappeared 1 year after the operation. Based on this case, we hypothesize that injection of a large amount of PAAG into tissues that have ample blood supply, such as the epicranial aponeurosis, may induce leukocytopenia. PMID:26576158

  20. Lower hybrid accessibility in a large, hot reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Dziubek, R.A.; Harvey, R.W.; Hokin, S.A.; Uchimoto, E.

    1995-11-01

    Accessibility and damping of the slow wave in a reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma is investigated theoretically, using projected Reversed Field Experiment (RFX) plasma parameters. By numerically solving the hot plasma dispersion relation, regions of propagation are found and the possibility of mode conversion is analyzed. If the parallel index of refraction of the wave is chosen judiciously at the edge of the plasma, the slow wave is accessible to a target region located just inside the reversal surface without mode conversion. Landau damping is also optimized in this region. A representative fast electron population is then added in order to determine its effect on accessibility and damping. The presence of these electrons, whose parameters were estimated by extrapolation of Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) data, does not affect the accessibility of the wave. However, the initial phase velocity of the wave needs to be increased somewhat in order to maintain optimal damping in the target zone.

  1. Modification of commercial NaY zeolite to give high water diffusivity and adsorb a large amount of water.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masahiro; Kimura, Michisato; Sugino, Mao; Horikawa, Toshihide; Nakagawa, Keizo; Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2015-10-01

    By using NaY zeolites as desiccant materials, commercial NaY zeolite was alkali treated with 1 M NaOH aqueous solution and then Mg(2+) ion-exchanged by 0.5 M Mg(NO3)2 aqueous solution. Alkali treatment (AT) of NaY zeolite removed silicon atoms selectivity from the framework of Y-type zeolite and enhanced water diffusivity of Y-type zeolite. On the other hand, Mg(2+) ion-exchange of NaY zeolite increased the amount of water adsorbed. Prepared Y-AT-Mg zeolite had both water adsorption velocity and a large difference of water adsorbed amount between adsorption at 30 °C and desorption at 100 °C. PMID:26072446

  2. Implementing Accessible Workstations in a Large Diverse University Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christierson, Eric; Marota, Cindy; Radwan, Neveen; Wydeven, Julie

    This paper describes how San Jose State University installed adaptive and accessible computer workstations for students with disabilities. It begins by discussing factors crucial to the installation of such workstations, including the importance of understanding legal and budgetary constraints, applying standards which meet diverse disability…

  3. Precisions Measurement for the Grasp of Welding Deformation amount of Time Series for Large-Scale Industrial Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, R.; Hamada, K.; Hirata, N.; Tamura, R.; Nishi, N.

    2015-05-01

    As well as the BIM of quality management in the construction industry, demand for quality management of the manufacturing process of the member is higher in shipbuilding field. The time series of three-dimensional deformation of the each process, and are accurately be grasped strongly demanded. In this study, we focused on the shipbuilding field, will be examined three-dimensional measurement method. The shipyard, since a large equipment and components are intricately arranged in a limited space, the installation of the measuring equipment and the target is limited. There is also the element to be measured is moved in each process, the establishment of the reference point for time series comparison is necessary to devise. In this paper will be discussed method for measuring the welding deformation in time series by using a total station. In particular, by using a plurality of measurement data obtained from this approach and evaluated the amount of deformation of each process.

  4. Impacts of Large Amounts of Wind Power on Design and Operation of Power Systems; Results of IEA Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, B.; Ela, E.; Holttinen, H.; Meibom, P.; Orths, A.; O'Malley, M.; Ummels, B. C.; Tande, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez, E.; Smith, J. C.

    2008-06-01

    There are a multitude of studies completed and ongoing related to the cost of wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. An international forum for exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been formed under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Wind Energy. IEA WIND R&D Task 25 on “Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power” produced a state-of-the-art report in October 2007, where the most relevant wind-power grid integration studies were analyzed, especially regarding methodologies and input data. This paper summarizes the results from 18 case studies, with discussion on differences in methodology as well as issues that have been identified to impact the cost of wind integration.

  5. High Reynolds Number Investigation of a Flush Mounted, S-Duct Inlet With Large Amounts of Boundary Layer Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Allan, Brian G.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a flush-mounted, S-duct inlet with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion has been conducted at Reynolds numbers up to full scale. The study was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. In addition, a supplemental computational study on one of the inlet configurations was conducted using the Navier-Stokes flow solver, OVERFLOW. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.83, Reynolds numbers (based on aerodynamic interface plane diameter) from 5.1 million to 13.9 million (full-scale value), and inlet mass-flow ratios from 0.29 to 1.22, depending on Mach number. Results of the study indicated that increasing Mach number, increasing boundary layer thickness (relative to inlet height) or ingesting a boundary layer with a distorted profile decreased inlet performance. At Mach numbers above 0.4, increasing inlet airflow increased inlet pressure recovery but also increased distortion. Finally, inlet distortion was found to be relatively insensitive to Reynolds number, but pressure recovery increased slightly with increasing Reynolds number.This CD-ROM supplement contains inlet data including: Boundary layer data, Duct static pressure data, performance-AIP (fan face) data, Photos, Tunnel wall P-PTO data and definitions.

  6. High Reynolds Number Investigation of a Flush-Mounted, S-Duct Inlet With Large Amounts of Boundary Layer Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Allan, Brian G.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a flush-mounted, S-duct inlet with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion has been conducted at Reynolds numbers up to full scale. The study was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. In addition, a supplemental computational study on one of the inlet configurations was conducted using the Navier-Stokes flow solver, OVERFLOW. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.83, Reynolds numbers (based on aerodynamic interface plane diameter) from 5.1 million to 13.9 million (full-scale value), and inlet mass-flow ratios from 0.29 to 1.22, depending on Mach number. Results of the study indicated that increasing Mach number, increasing boundary layer thickness (relative to inlet height) or ingesting a boundary layer with a distorted profile decreased inlet performance. At Mach numbers above 0.4, increasing inlet airflow increased inlet pressure recovery but also increased distortion. Finally, inlet distortion was found to be relatively insensitive to Reynolds number, but pressure recovery increased slightly with increasing Reynolds number.

  7. The Tropical Rain Forest Information Center: how earth scientists can access and use massive amounts of data and products using internet-based geospatial information systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skole, D. L.; Chomentowski, W.; Samek, J.; Oscar, C.; Batzli, S.; Barber, C.; Sayers, A.; Cochrane, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Tropical Rain Forest Information Center (TRFIC) is a NASA-funded data center focusing on data and information services for the global change community and applications for national resources management in tropical countries. It is part of a multi-institutional federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), an on-going prototyping effort to explore new ways to manage earth science data and information in a highly distributed architecture. The TRFIC is both an analytical facility and an data provider. This paper reviews the development of the ESIP approach and provides a view to new modes of information access for future NASA earth science programs and missions with science-centered analysis and data access occurring at the same facility. The paper provides an overview of the data and information services provided by TRFIC, its technology developments including open web-based geographic information systems, and science products it creates and provides. The technology developments focus on new ways to bring the scientist to the data with internet based analysis tools. These technologies are also making it possible fro almost anyone, anywhere in the world to gain access to massive amounts of remote sensing data, primarily from Landsat, and perform custom analyses suited to their own research and applications. The paper will also describe some of the recent activities of the TRFIC to support national and international science and applications projects including the Global Observation of Forest Cover program, the FAO Forest Resources Assessment Program and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

  8. Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/accessibility.html MedlinePlus Accessibility To use the sharing features on this page, ... Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs ...

  9. Single-port access versus conventional multi-port access total laparoscopic hysterectomy for very large uterus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinhwa; Kim, Sunghoon; Nam, Eun Ji; Hwang, Sun Mi; Kim, Young Tae

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the surgical outcomes of single-port access (SPA) and conventional multi-port access total laparoscopic hysterectomies (TLH) among patients with very large uteri (500 g or more). Methods Fifty consecutive patients who received TLH for large uterine myomas and/or adenomyoses weighing 500 g or more between February 2009 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. SPA and conventional TLH were each performed in 25 patients. Surgical outcomes, including operation time, estimated blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin change, postoperative hospital stay, postoperative pain, and perioperative complications, were compared between the two groups. Results There were no significant demographic differences between the two groups. All operations were completed laparoscopically with no conversion to laparotomy. Total operation time, uterus weight, estimated blood loss, and postoperative hemoglobin change did not significantly differ between the two groups. Postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter for the SPA-TLH group compared to that of the conventional TLH group (median [range], 3 [2.0-6.0] vs. 4 [3-7] days; P=0.004]. There were no inter-group differences in postoperative pain at 6, 24, and 72 hours after surgery. There was only one complicated case in each group. Conclusion SPA-TLH in patients with large uteri weighing 500 g or more is as feasible as conventional TLH. SPA-TLH is associated with shorter hospital stays compared to that of conventional TLH. PMID:26023674

  10. Surgical approaches to vascular access for large-caliber devices in preclinical research models.

    PubMed

    Barka, Noah; Rakow, Nancy; Lentz, Linnea; Kopcak, Michael; Wika, Kent; Menk, Ana; Green, Mike

    2010-07-01

    Percutaneous vascular access options in preclinical models are often smaller than the relevant structures in humans or undersized for early-prototype research devices. Here we describe the surgical approaches and results for surgical vascular access sites in preclinical swine and sheep models. Fourteen adult miniature swine underwent successful 18-French vascular access by means of thoracotomy to the brachiocephalic artery. In addition, 11 swine and 10 sheep underwent successful 22-French vascular access by means of retroperitoneal laparotomy to the abdominal aorta. The relevancy of approach angles and vessel tortuosity should be considered when selecting appropriate preclinical models and techniques. The techniques described are effective for delivery of large-caliber devices in preclinical testing. PMID:20819395

  11. 49 CFR 37.185 - Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed-route systems of large operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed....185 Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed-route systems of large operators. Each large... percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are readily accessible to...

  12. A System for Low-Cost Access to Very Large Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalpakis, K.; Riggs, M.; Pasad, M.; Puttagunta, V.; Behnke, J.

    Many new and some old astronomical catalogs contain data for very large numbers of objects. To conduct their studies, researchers must have rapid access to those catalogs. At the same time, the monetary cost of achieving fast access should not come at the expense of resources that would be better used to support the actual scientific studies. We demonstrate how to achieve fast access to data on a low cost desktop for a very large catalog using the Informix Object-Relational database system. We report on experimental results from the development of a solution for efficiently indexing the USNO-A2.0 catalog, which has approximately 500 million objects. The solution offers significant performance improvements over some existing methods. We also describe an extension of Informix that enables users to apply their IDL scripts to data stored in Informix using SQL. This extension brings the powerful data-analysis and visualization capabilities of IDL within Informix.

  13. SN 2010mb: Direct evidence for a supernova interacting with a large amount of hydrogen-free circumstellar material

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Rabinak, Itay; Yaron, Ofer; Arcavi, Iair; Ofek, Eran O.; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Gnat, Orly; Modjaz, Maryam; Sullivan, Mark; Bildsten, Lars; Poznanski, Dovi; Bloom, Joshua S.; Nugent, Peter E.; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Perley, Daniel; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Quimby, Robert; Xu, Dong

    2014-04-10

    We present our observations of SN 2010mb, a Type Ic supernova (SN) lacking spectroscopic signatures of H and He. SN 2010mb has a slowly declining light curve (LC) (∼600 days) that cannot be powered by {sup 56}Ni/{sup 56}Co radioactivity, the common energy source for Type Ic SNe. We detect signatures of interaction with hydrogen-free circumstellar material including a blue quasi-continuum and, uniquely, narrow oxygen emission lines that require high densities (∼10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}). From the observed spectra and LC, we estimate that the amount of material involved in the interaction was ∼3 M {sub ☉}. Our observations are in agreement with models of pulsational pair-instability SNe described in the literature.

  14. The effect of access time on online quiz performance in large biology lecture courses.

    PubMed

    Metz, Anneke M

    2008-05-01

    To better understand the dynamics of online student test taking, including the likelihood of cheating by large numbers of students, we examined test-taking patterns and outcomes of weekly online quizzes in two large undergraduate biology lecture courses. Students taking a quiz late in a 1-3-day quiz access period performed 10-15% worse on quizzes than the students who completed the quiz early. Quiz access time was also negatively correlated with performance in other course components and course grades. These patterns suggest that academic dishonesty was not a determinant in unsupervised online quiz performance. Students generally completed quizzes in late afternoon or evening hours, but students who completed quizzes between midnight and 8 a.m. had significantly lower quiz grades than their peers. In addition, upper-division students were more likely to characterize weekly online quizzes as more helpful for their learning than the lower-division students. PMID:21591191

  15. Secure Access Control and Large Scale Robust Representation for Online Multimedia Event Detection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changyu; Li, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    We developed an online multimedia event detection (MED) system. However, there are a secure access control issue and a large scale robust representation issue when we want to integrate traditional event detection algorithms into the online environment. For the first issue, we proposed a tree proxy-based and service-oriented access control (TPSAC) model based on the traditional role based access control model. Verification experiments were conducted on the CloudSim simulation platform, and the results showed that the TPSAC model is suitable for the access control of dynamic online environments. For the second issue, inspired by the object-bank scene descriptor, we proposed a 1000-object-bank (1000OBK) event descriptor. Feature vectors of the 1000OBK were extracted from response pyramids of 1000 generic object detectors which were trained on standard annotated image datasets, such as the ImageNet dataset. A spatial bag of words tiling approach was then adopted to encode these feature vectors for bridging the gap between the objects and events. Furthermore, we performed experiments in the context of event classification on the challenging TRECVID MED 2012 dataset, and the results showed that the robust 1000OBK event descriptor outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:25147840

  16. [A case of acute ethanol intoxication with remarkable hyperglycemia by "ume-shu", a Japanese apricot liquor made with a large amount of sugar].

    PubMed

    Sugano, Takayuki; Kojima, Naoki; Kaneko, Susumu; Ishida, Junro; Terada, Taizo; Inagawa, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasusei

    2002-07-01

    A 19-year-old woman ingested 2.2 L of "umeshu", a Japanese apricot liquor made with a large amount of sugar. She was unconscious and in shock. The estimated blood ethanol concentration was 607 mg/dl, and the blood glucose level was 576 mg/dl. Because her respiration and circulation was highly suppressed, blood purification was indicated. Continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) was performed instead of hemodialysis because her hemodynamics was unstable. After CHDF was instituted, her blood glucose level reduced to normal range, and her consciousness became alert. CHDF was effective in eliminating ethanol and stabilizing her hemodynamics within an early stage. Though acute ethanol intoxication is known to inhibit glucogenesis, leading to hypoglycemia, marked hyperglycemia was seen in this case. Ingestion of a large amount of glucose-rich liquor and being in shock seemed to be the causes of hyperglycemia. PMID:12415871

  17. Experimental demonstration of large capacity WSDM optical access network with multicore fibers and advanced modulation formats.

    PubMed

    Li, Borui; Feng, Zhenhua; Tang, Ming; Xu, Zhilin; Fu, Songnian; Wu, Qiong; Deng, Lei; Tong, Weijun; Liu, Shuang; Shum, Perry Ping

    2015-05-01

    Towards the next generation optical access network supporting large capacity data transmission to enormous number of users covering a wider area, we proposed a hybrid wavelength-space division multiplexing (WSDM) optical access network architecture utilizing multicore fibers with advanced modulation formats. As a proof of concept, we experimentally demonstrated a WSDM optical access network with duplex transmission using our developed and fabricated multicore (7-core) fibers with 58.7km distance. As a cost-effective modulation scheme for access network, the optical OFDM-QPSK signal has been intensity modulated on the downstream transmission in the optical line terminal (OLT) and it was directly detected in the optical network unit (ONU) after MCF transmission. 10 wavelengths with 25GHz channel spacing from an optical comb generator are employed and each wavelength is loaded with 5Gb/s OFDM-QPSK signal. After amplification, power splitting, and fan-in multiplexer, 10-wavelength downstream signal was injected into six outer layer cores simultaneously and the aggregation downstream capacity reaches 300 Gb/s. -16 dBm sensitivity has been achieved for 3.8 × 10-3 bit error ratio (BER) with 7% Forward Error Correction (FEC) limit for all wavelengths in every core. Upstream signal from ONU side has also been generated and the bidirectional transmission in the same core causes negligible performance degradation to the downstream signal. As a universal platform for wired/wireless data access, our proposed architecture provides additional dimension for high speed mobile signal transmission and we hence demonstrated an upstream delivery of 20Gb/s per wavelength with QPSK modulation formats using the inner core of MCF emulating a mobile backhaul service. The IQ modulated data was coherently detected in the OLT side. -19 dBm sensitivity has been achieved under the FEC limit and more than 18 dB power budget is guaranteed. PMID:25969194

  18. Characterizing parallel file-access patterns on a large-scale multiprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purakayastha, Apratim; Ellis, Carla Schlatter; Kotz, David; Nieuwejaar, Nils; Best, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Rapid increases in the computational speeds of multiprocessors have not been matched by corresponding performance enhancements in the I/O subsystem. To satisfy the large and growing I/O requirements of some parallel scientific applications, we need parallel file systems that can provide high-bandwidth and high-volume data transfer between the I/O subsystem and thousands of processors. Design of such high-performance parallel file systems depends on a thorough grasp of the expected workload. So far there have been no comprehensive usage studies of multiprocessor file systems. Our CHARISMA project intends to fill this void. The first results from our study involve an iPSC/860 at NASA Ames. This paper presents results from a different platform, the CM-5 at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications. The CHARISMA studies are unique because we collect information about every individual read and write request and about the entire mix of applications running on the machines. The results of our trace analysis lead to recommendations for parallel file system design. First the file system should support efficient concurrent access to many files, and I/O requests from many jobs under varying load conditions. Second, it must efficiently manage large files kept open for long periods. Third, it should expect to see small requests predominantly sequential access patterns, application-wide synchronous access, no concurrent file-sharing between jobs appreciable byte and block sharing between processes within jobs, and strong interprocess locality. Finally, the trace data suggest that node-level write caches and collective I/O request interfaces may be useful in certain environments.

  19. OMERO and Bio-Formats 5: flexible access to large bioimaging datasets at scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Josh; Linkert, Melissa; Blackburn, Colin; Carroll, Mark; Ferguson, Richard K.; Flynn, Helen; Gillen, Kenneth; Leigh, Roger; Li, Simon; Lindner, Dominik; Moore, William J.; Patterson, Andrew J.; Pindelski, Blazej; Ramalingam, Balaji; Rozbicki, Emil; Tarkowska, Aleksandra; Walczysko, Petr; Allan, Chris; Burel, Jean-Marie; Swedlow, Jason

    2015-03-01

    The Open Microscopy Environment (OME) has built and released Bio-Formats, a Java-based proprietary file format conversion tool and OMERO, an enterprise data management platform under open source licenses. In this report, we describe new versions of Bio-Formats and OMERO that are specifically designed to support large, multi-gigabyte or terabyte scale datasets that are routinely collected across most domains of biological and biomedical research. Bio- Formats reads image data directly from native proprietary formats, bypassing the need for conversion into a standard format. It implements the concept of a file set, a container that defines the contents of multi-dimensional data comprised of many files. OMERO uses Bio-Formats to read files natively, and provides a flexible access mechanism that supports several different storage and access strategies. These new capabilities of OMERO and Bio-Formats make them especially useful for use in imaging applications like digital pathology, high content screening and light sheet microscopy that create routinely large datasets that must be managed and analyzed.

  20. Vitamin D metabolism in pregnant rabbits: differences between the maternal and fetal response to administration of large amounts of vitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Kubota, M; Ohno, J; Shiina, Y; Suda, T

    1982-06-01

    Maternal and fetal metabolism of vitamin D was examined in term pregnant rabbits fed a normal diet and in those supplemented with a large amount of vitamin D3. Term pregnant rabbits (27--30 days of gestation) fed the normal diet showed lower levels of plasma calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (250HD3), and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25-(OH)2D3] and higher plasma 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1 alpha, 25-(OH)2D3] levels than age-matched nonpregnant female rabbits. Kidney homogenates from pregnant rabbits produced mainly 1 alpha 25-(OH)2D3, while those from nonpregnant animals produced 24,25-(OH)2D3 primarily. Plasma concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were significantly higher in fetuses than in mothers. Plasma levels of 250HD3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3 in fetuses were almost identical to those in mothers, whereas 1 alpha,25-(OH)2D3 levels in plasma were significantly higher in mothers than in their fetuses. A daily administration of 650 nmol vitamin D3 for 3 days to term pregnant rabbits caused a significant increase in calcium, phosphorus, 25OHD3, and 24,25-(OH)2D3 in maternal plasma, and in 25OHD3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3, but not calcium and phosphorus in fetal plasma. Treatment with large amounts of vitamin D3 also induced a marked suppression of 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity and a concomitant increase of 24-hydroxylase activity in the maternal but not in the fetal kidney. Plasma concentrations of 1 alpha,25-(OH)2D3 were not affected by treatment with large amounts of vitamin D3 in either the fetuses or the mothers. These results clearly indicate that the renal 25OHD3 metabolism in the fetus is regulated independently of that in the mother. PMID:6280980

  1. A Guide to Selecting Large Print/Enhanced Image Computer Access Hardware/Software for Persons with Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, J. C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Large print/enhanced image computer access products for low-vision individuals are reviewed. The products ("DP-11/Plus,""Large Print DOS,""Lyon Large Print,""PC Lens,""Vista/Vista 2," and "ZoomText") work interactively with most application programs and DOS in IBM environments. Features evaluated include: documentation, set-up, hardware/software…

  2. Ultra trace analysis of PAHs by designing simple injection of large amounts of analytes through the sample reconcentration on SPME fiber after magnetic solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Nader; Mehdinia, Ali; Esfandiarnejad, Reyhaneh; Jabbari, Ali

    2016-01-15

    A simple solventless injection method was introduced based on the using of a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for injection of large amounts of the analytes extracted by the magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) procedure. The resulted extract from MSPE procedure was loaded on a G-coated SPME fiber, and then the fiber was injected into the gas chromatography (GC) injection port. This method combines the advantages of exhaustive extraction property of MSPE and the solvent-less injection of SPME to improve the sensitivity of the analysis. In addition, the analytes were re-concentrated prior to inject into the gas chromatography (GC) inlet because of the organic solvent removing from the remaining extract of MSPE technique. Injection of the large amounts of analytes was made possible by using the introduced procedure. Fourteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with different volatility were used as model compounds to investigate the method performance for volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The introduced method resulted in the higher enhancement factors (5097-59376), lower detection limits (0.29-3.3pgmL(-1)), and higher sensitivity for the semi-volatile compounds compared with the conventional direct injection method. PMID:26592576

  3. Facilitating access to information in large documents with an intelligent hypertext system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Nathalie

    1993-01-01

    Retrieving specific information from large amounts of documentation is not an easy task. It could be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context could be automatically supplied to the user. As a first step towards this goal, we have developed an intelligent hypertext system called CID (Computer Integrated Documentation) and tested it on the Space Station Freedom requirement documents. The CID system enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework and includes an intelligent context-sensitive indexing and retrieval mechanism. This mechanism utilizes on-line user information requirements and relevance feedback either to reinforce current indexing in case of success or to generate new knowledge in case of failure. This allows the CID system to provide helpful responses, based on previous usage of the documentation, and to improve its performance over time.

  4. Mass spectrometry of oligopeptides in the presence of large amounts of alkali halides using desorption/ionization induced by neutral cluster impact.

    PubMed

    Portz, André; Baur, Markus; Gebhardt, Christoph R; Dürr, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Oligopeptides in the presence of large amounts of salt were desorbed and ionized using desorption/ionization induced by neutral clusters (DINeC) for further analysis by means of mass spectrometry (MS). Using oligopeptides in alkali halide solutions as a model system, DINeC was shown to yield clear and fragmentation free mass spectra of the biomolecules even from environments with a large excess of salt. The results were traced back to a phase separation between salt and biomolecules during sample preparation. The ratio between alkali metal complexes [M+A](+) and bare biomolecules [M+H](+) was controlled using different preparation schemes. DINeC was applied to the products of a tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin in the presence of sodium chloride; the results of a mass fingerprint analysis did not show a major difference for the spectra with and without salt in the original solution. The metal-ion/peptide interaction was further investigated by means of tandem-MS. PMID:26825286

  5. Analysis of safety outcomes for radial versus femoral access for percutaneous coronary intervention from a large clinical registry

    PubMed Central

    Dobies, David R; Barber, Kimberly R; Cohoon, Amanda L

    2016-01-01

    Objective Using a multisite, contemporary registry of 58 862 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures in a national healthcare system, the present study compared radial access with femoral access on safety and efficacy outcomes. Methods This is a real-world, large-scale, retrospective study using clinical data from a 137-hopsital System and reported to a multisite clinical registry. All patients undergoing a cardiac catheterisation procedure were included in this database. The primary end points were major bleeding and radiation exposure. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was used to compare access groups. Results Femoral access (n=55 729) accounted for 94.7% and radial access (n=3137) for 5.3%. There were fewer bleeding events in the radial group (n=28, 0.9%) than those in the femoral group (n=1234, 2.2%) in the unadjusted analysis. For patients receiving bivalirudin, bleeding occurred in 337 patients (1.6%), and there was no difference in rates between radial access (n=13, 1.1%) and femoral access (n=327, 1.7%) (OR=0.65, CI 0.40 to 1.22, p=0.19). The radial technique resulted in higher radiation exposure in each case, but particularly for procedures involving prior coronary artery bypass graft history and non-ST-elevated myocardial infarction patients. The mean fluoroscopy time among femoral access procedures was 15.68 min (SD=11.7) versus 19.86 min (SD=13.8) for radial access procedures (p<0.0001). Conclusions Radial access for PCI is associated with higher fluoroscopy times but not with less major bleeding when bivalirudin is used. Our analysis, combined with other study findings, suggest that the safest route for PCI may be the use of femoral access with bivalirudin. PMID:27547427

  6. Lossless compression of very large volume data with fast dynamic access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Rongkai; Tao, Tao; Gabriel, Michael; Belford, Geneva

    2002-09-01

    The volumetric data set is important in many scientific and biomedical fields. Since such sets may be extremely large, a compression method is critical to store and transmit them. To achieve a high compression rate, most of the existing volume compression methods are lossy, which is usually unacceptable in biomedical applications. We developed a new context-based non-linear prediction method to preprocess the volume data set in order to effectively lower the prediction entropy. The prediction error is further encoded using Huffman code. Unlike the conventional methods, the volume is divided into cubical blocks to take advantage of the data's spatial locality. Instead of building one Huffman tree for each block, we developed a novel binning algorithm that build a Huffman tree for each group (bin) of blocks. Combining all the effects above, we achieved an excellent compression rate compared to other lossless volume compression methods. In addition, an auxiliary data structure, Scalable Hyperspace File (SHSF) is used to index the huge volume so that we can obtain many other benefits including parallel construction, on-the-fly accessing of compressed data without global decompression, fast previewing, efficient background compressing, and scalability etc.

  7. Managing Large Scale Project Analysis Teams through a Web Accessible Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neil, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Large scale space programs analyze thousands of requirements while mitigating safety, performance, schedule, and cost risks. These efforts involve a variety of roles with interdependent use cases and goals. For example, study managers and facilitators identify ground-rules and assumptions for a collection of studies required for a program or project milestone. Task leaders derive product requirements from the ground rules and assumptions and describe activities to produce needed analytical products. Disciplined specialists produce the specified products and load results into a file management system. Organizational and project managers provide the personnel and funds to conduct the tasks. Each role has responsibilities to establish information linkages and provide status reports to management. Projects conduct design and analysis cycles to refine designs to meet the requirements and implement risk mitigation plans. At the program level, integrated design and analysis cycles studies are conducted to eliminate every 'to-be-determined' and develop plans to mitigate every risk. At the agency level, strategic studies analyze different approaches to exploration architectures and campaigns. This paper describes a web-accessible database developed by NASA to coordinate and manage tasks at three organizational levels. Other topics in this paper cover integration technologies and techniques for process modeling and enterprise architectures.

  8. Methods to isolate a large amount of generative cells, sperm cells and vegetative nuclei from tomato pollen for “omics” analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yunlong; Wei, Liqin; Wang, Tai

    2015-01-01

    The development of sperm cells (SCs) from microspores involves a set of finely regulated molecular and cellular events and the coordination of these events. The mechanisms underlying these events and their interconnections remain a major challenge. Systems analysis of genome-wide molecular networks and functional modules with high-throughput “omics” approaches is crucial for understanding the mechanisms; however, this study is hindered because of the difficulty in isolating a large amount of cells of different types, especially generative cells (GCs), from the pollen. Here, we optimized the conditions of tomato pollen germination and pollen tube growth to allow for long-term growth of pollen tubes in vitro with SCs generated in the tube. Using this culture system, we developed methods for isolating GCs, SCs and vegetative cell nuclei (VN) from just-germinated tomato pollen grains and growing pollen tubes and their purification by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The purity and viability of isolated GCs and SCs were confirmed by microscopy examination and fluorescein diacetate staining, respectively, and the integrity of VN was confirmed by propidium iodide staining. We could obtain about 1.5 million GCs and 2.0 million SCs each from 180 mg initiated pollen grains, and 10 million VN from 270 mg initiated pollen grains germinated in vitro in each experiment. These methods provide the necessary preconditions for systematic biology studies of SC development and differentiation in higher plants. PMID:26082789

  9. A Software Prototype For Accessing Large Climate Simulation Data Through Digital Globe Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, A.; Sorokine, A.

    2010-12-01

    The IPCC suite of global Earth system models produced terabytes of data for the CMIP3/AR4 archive and is expected to reach the petabyte scale by CMIP5/AR5. Dynamic downscaling of global models based on regional climate models can potentially lead to even larger data volumes. The model simulations for global or regional climate models like CCSM3 or WRF are typically run on supercomputers like the ORNL/DOE Jaguar and the results are stored on high performance storage systems. Access to these results from a user workstation is impeded by a number of factors such as enormous data size, limited bandwidth of standard office networks, data formats which are not fully supported by applications. So, a user-friendly interface for accessing and visualizing these results over standard Internet connection is required to facilitate collaborative work among geographically dispersed groups of scientists. To address this problem, we have developed a virtual globe based application which enables the scientists to query, visualize and analyze the results without the need of large data transfers to desktops and department-level servers. We have used open-source NASA WorldWind as a virtual globe platform and extended it with modules capable of visualizing model outputs stored in NetCDF format, while the data resides on the high-performance system. Based on the query placed by the scientist, our system initiates data processing routines on the high performance storage system to subset the data and reduce its size and then transfer it back to scientist's workstation through secure shell tunnel. The whole operation is kept totally transparent to the scientist and for the most part is controlled from a point-and-click GUI. The virtual globe also serves as a common platform for geospatial data, allowing smooth integration of the model simulation results with geographic data from other sources such as various web services or user-specific data in local files, if required. Also the system has

  10. Providing the Public with Online Access to Large Bibliographic Data Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firschein, Oscar; Summit, Roger K.

    DIALOG, an interactive, computer-based information retrieval language, consists of a series of computer programs designed to make use of direct access memory devices in order to provide the user with a rapid means of identifying records within a specific memory bank. Using the system, a library user can be provided access to sixteen distinct and…

  11. Defining Reading Proficiency for Accessible Large-Scale Assessments: Some Guiding Principles and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Accessible Reading Assessment Projects, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The National Accessible Reading Assessment Projects (NARAP) is a collaboration of two projects funded by the U.S. Department of Education to conduct research and development on accessible reading assessments for students with disabilities that affect reading. The goal of these projects is to produce research findings and assessment techniques that…

  12. Surgical Versus Percutaneous Femoral Access for Delivery of Large-Bore Cardiovascular Devices (from the PARTNER Trial).

    PubMed

    McCabe, James M; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Cohen, David J; Blackstone, Eugene H; Welt, Frederick G P; Davidson, Michael J; Kaneko, Tsuyoshi; Eng, Marvin H; Allen, Keith B; Xu, Ke; Lowry, Ashley M; Lei, Yang; Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Brown, David L; Mack, Michael J; Webb, John G; Smith, Craig R; Leon, Martin B; Eisenhauer, Andrew C

    2016-05-15

    It is unclear if surgical exposure confers a risk advantage compared with a percutaneous approach for patients undergoing endovascular procedures requiring large-bore femoral artery access. From the randomized controlled Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve trials A and B and the continued access registries, a total of 1,416 patients received transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement, of which 857 underwent surgical, and 559 underwent percutaneous access. Thirty-day rates of major vascular complications and quality of life scores were assessed. Propensity matching was used to adjust for unmeasured confounders. Overall, there were 116 major vascular complications (8.2%). Complication rates decreased dramatically during the study period. In unadjusted analysis, major vascular complications were significantly less common in the percutaneous access group (35 [6.3%] vs 81 [9.5%] p = 0.032). However, among 292 propensity-matched pairs, there was no difference in major vascular complications (22 [7.5%] vs 28 [9.6%], p = 0.37). Percutaneous access was associated with fewer total in-hospital vascular complications (46 [16%] vs 66 [23%], p = 0.036), shorter median procedural duration (97 interquartile range [IQR 68 to 166] vs 121 [IQR 78 to 194] minutes, p <0.0001), and median length of stay (4 [IQR 2 to 8] vs 6 [IQR 3 to 10] days, p <0.0001). There were no significant differences in quality of life scores at 30 days. Surgical access for large-bore femoral access does not appear to confer any advantages over percutaneous access and may be associated with more minor vascular complications. PMID:27036077

  13. Natural type-C olivine fabrics containing large amounts of water in a UHP belt and its implications for the recycling of water into the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Lee, J.; Ko, B.; Jung, S.; Park, M.; Cao, Y.; Song, S.

    2012-12-01

    Water is known to change the lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of olivine, which significantly affects seismic anisotropy in the Earth's upper mantle. Research into the LPO of olivine in the deep interior of the Earth has been limited due to inadequate specimens. We report both the water-induced LPOs of olivine and the presence of large quantities of water inside olivine, enstatite, and garnet in garnet peridotites from the North Qaidam ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) collision belt in NW China. We show that the [001] axis of olivine is aligned subparallel to the lineation and that the [100] axis is strongly aligned subnormal to the foliation. This alignment is a known feature of type-C LPO of olivine formed experimentally under water-rich conditions (≥700 ppm H/Si) at high pressure and temperature. Enstatite possessed an LPO with the [001] axis aligned parallel to the lineation and the [100] axis aligned normal to the foliation. FTIR analysis of this specimen revealed that olivine contained concentrations of water up to 1130 ± 50 ppm H/Si in optically clean areas, whereas olivine, enstatite, and garnet contained considerably more water, i.e., 2600 ± 100 ppm H/Si, 5000 ± 100 ppm H/Si, and 21000 ± 200 ppm H/Si, respectively, when exsolved inclusions were visible. Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy of these exsolved inclusions revealed that they were composed of hornblende and amphiboles. Straight dislocations were also commonly observed in olivine and are characteristic of olivine that had been experimentally deformed under hydrous conditions. These observations suggest that the C-type LPO of olivine in the North Qaidam UHP belt formed under water-rich conditions and a significant amount of water could have possibly recycled into the deep mantle during plate subduction.

  14. PSE: A tool for browsing a large amount of MEDLINE/PubMed abstracts with gene names and common words as the keywords

    PubMed Central

    Yoneya, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Background MEDLINE/PubMed (hereinafter called PubMed) is one of the most important literature databases for the biological and medical sciences, but it is impossible to read all related records due to the sheer size of the repository. We usually have to repeatedly enter keywords in a trial-and-error manner to extract useful records. Software which can reduce such a laborious task is therefore required. Results We developed a web-based software, the PubMed Sentence Extractor (PSE), which parses large number of PubMed abstracts, extracts and displays the co-occurrence sentences of gene names and other keywords, and some information from EntrezGene records. The result links to whole abstracts and other resources such as the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Men and Reference Sequence. While PSE executes at the sentence-level when evaluating the existence of keywords, the popular PubMed operates at the record-level. Therefore, the relationship between the two keywords, a gene name and a common word, is more accurately captured by PSE than PubMed. In addition, PSE shows the list of keywords and considers the synonyms and variations on gene names. Through these functions, PSE would reduce the task of searching through records for gene information. Conclusion We developed PSE in order to extract useful records efficiently from PubMed. This system has four advantages over a simple PubMed search; the reduction in the amount of collected literatures, the showing of keyword lists, the consideration for synonyms and variations on gene names, and the links to external databases. We believe PSE is helpful in collecting necessary literatures efficiently in order to find research targets. PSE is freely available under the GPL licence as additional files to this manuscript. PMID:16336692

  15. Oceans of Data: In what ways can learning research inform the development of electronic interfaces and tools for use by students accessing large scientific databases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumhansl, R. A.; Foster, J.; Peach, C. L.; Busey, A.; Baker, I.

    2012-12-01

    The practice of science and engineering is being revolutionized by the development of cyberinfrastructure for accessing near real-time and archived observatory data. Large cyberinfrastructure projects have the potential to transform the way science is taught in high school classrooms, making enormous quantities of scientific data available, giving students opportunities to analyze and draw conclusions from many kinds of complex data, and providing students with experiences using state-of-the-art resources and techniques for scientific investigations. However, online interfaces to scientific data are built by scientists for scientists, and their design can significantly impede broad use by novices. Knowledge relevant to the design of student interfaces to complex scientific databases is broadly dispersed among disciplines ranging from cognitive science to computer science and cartography and is not easily accessible to designers of educational interfaces. To inform efforts at bridging scientific cyberinfrastructure to the high school classroom, Education Development Center, Inc. and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography conducted an NSF-funded 2-year interdisciplinary review of literature and expert opinion pertinent to making interfaces to large scientific databases accessible to and usable by precollege learners and their teachers. Project findings are grounded in the fundamentals of Cognitive Load Theory, Visual Perception, Schemata formation and Universal Design for Learning. The Knowledge Status Report (KSR) presents cross-cutting and visualization-specific guidelines that highlight how interface design features can address/ ameliorate challenges novice high school students face as they navigate complex databases to find data, and construct and look for patterns in maps, graphs, animations and other data visualizations. The guidelines present ways to make scientific databases more broadly accessible by: 1) adjusting the cognitive load imposed by the user

  16. Accumulation of Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acid Containing Large Amounts of Unsaturated Monomers in Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07 Utilizing Saccharides and Its Inhibition by 2-Bromooctanoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Joo; Choi, Mun Hwan; Kim, Tae-Un; Yoon, Sung Chul

    2001-01-01

    A psychrotrophic bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07, which is able to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) containing large amounts of 3-hydroxy-cis-5-dodecenoate unit up to 35 mol% in the cell from unrelated substrates such as fructose, succinate, etc., was isolated from an activated sludge in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. When it was grown on heptanoic acid (C7) to hexadecanoic acid (C16) as the sole carbon source, the monomer compositional characteristics of the synthesized PHA were similar to those observed in other fluorescent pseudomonads belonging to rRNA homology group I. However, growth on stearic acid (C18) led to no PHA accumulation, but instead free stearic acid was stored in the cell. The existence of the linkage between fatty acid de novo synthesis and PHA synthesis was confirmed by using inhibitors such as acrylic acid and two other compounds, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid, which are known to inhibit β-oxidation enzymes in animal cells. Acrylic acid completely inhibited PHA synthesis at a concentration of 4 mM in 40 mM octanoate-grown cells, but no inhibition of PHA synthesis occurred in 70 mM fructose-grown cells in the presence of 1 to 5 mM acrylic acid. 2-Bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid were found to much inhibit PHA synthesis much more strongly in fructose-grown cells than in octanoate-grown cells over concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 mM. However, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid did not inhibit cell growth at all in the fructose media. Especially, with the cells grown on fructose, 2-bromooctanoic acid exhibited a steep rise in the percent PHA synthesis inhibition over a small range of concentrations below 100 μM, a finding indicative of a very specific inhibition, whereas 4-pentenoic acid showed a broad, featureless concentration dependence, suggesting a rather nonspecific inhibition. The apparent inhibition constant Ki (the concentration for 50% inhibition of PHA synthesis) for 2

  17. Accessing and Visualizing Satellite Data for Fisheries Managers in the Northeast Large Marine Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young Morse, R.; Mecray, E. L.; Pershing, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    As interest in the global change in temperatures and precipitation patterns grow, federal, state, and local agencies are turning to the delivery of 'actionable science and information' or 'information for decision-makers.' NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Information's Regional Climate Services program builds these bridges between the user of information and the producers of the information. With the Climate Data Records program, this study will present the extraction and use of the sea-surface temperature datasets specifically for access and use by fisheries managers in the north Atlantic. The work demonstrates the staged approach of accessing the records, converting their initial data formats into maps and charts, and the delivery of the data as a value-added information dashboard for use by managers. The questions to be reviewed include the ease of access, the delivery of open source software for visualizing the information, and a discussion on the roles of government and the private sector in the provision of climate information at different scales.

  18. Large-Scale 1:1 Computing Initiatives: An Open Access Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson W.; McLeod, Scott; Flora, Kevin; Sauers, Nick J.; Kannan, Sathiamoorthy; Sincar, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This article details the spread and scope of large-scale 1:1 computing initiatives around the world. What follows is a review of the existing literature around 1:1 programs followed by a description of the large-scale 1:1 database. Main findings include: 1) the XO and the Classmate PC dominate large-scale 1:1 initiatives; 2) if professional…

  19. Does distance decay modelling of supermarket accessibility predict fruit and vegetable intake by individuals in a large metropolitan area?

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Paul L; Dominguez, Fred.; Teklehaimanot, Senait.; Lee, Martin; Brown, Arleen; Goodchild, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity, a major risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, and other chronic diseases is influenced by a person’s local environmental setting. Accessibility to supermarkets has been shown to influence nutritional behaviors and obesity rates; however the specific local environmental conditions and behavioral mechanisms at work in this process remain unclear. Purpose To determine how individual fruit and vegetable consumption behavior was influenced by a distance decay based gravity model of neighborhood geographic accessibility to supermarkets, across neighborhoods in Los Angeles County, independent of other factors that are known to influence nutritional behaviors. Methods A distance decay based accessibility model (gravity model) was specified for a large sample (n=7,514) of urban residents. The associations between their fruit and vegetable consumption patterns and their local accessibility to supermarkets were explored, while controlling for covariates known to influence eating behaviors. Results Significant variation in geographic accessibility and nutritional behavior existed by age, gender, race and ethnicity, education, marital status, poverty status, neighborhood safety and knowledge of nutritional guidelines. Logistic regression showed an independent effect of geographic accessibility to supermarkets, even after the inclusion of known controlling factors. Conclusion A basic gravity model was an effective predictor of fruit and vegetable consumption in an urban population, setting the stage for inclusion of supply and demand parameters, and the ability to estimate local directions and magnitudes of the factors that contribute to the differential obesity rates found in United States urban areas. This knowledge will facilitate more targeted interventions that can help eliminate health disparities. PMID:23395954

  20. Factors associated with the amount of public home care received by elderly and intellectually disabled individuals in a large Norwegian municipality.

    PubMed

    Døhl, Øystein; Garåsen, Helge; Kalseth, Jorid; Magnussen, Jon

    2016-05-01

    This study reports an analysis of factors associated with home care use in a setting in which long-term care services are provided within a publicly financed welfare system. We considered two groups of home care recipients: elderly individuals and intellectually disabled individuals. Routinely collected data on users of public home care in the municipality of Trondheim in October 2012, including 2493 people aged 67 years or older and 270 intellectually disabled people, were used. Multivariate regression analysis was used to analyse the relationship between the time spent in direct contact with recipients by public healthcare personnel and perceived individual determinants of home care use (i.e. physical disability, cognitive impairment, diagnoses, age and gender, as well as socioeconomic characteristics). Physical disability and cognitive impairment are routinely registered for long-term care users through a standardised instrument that is used in all Norwegian municipalities. Factor analysis was used to aggregate the individual items into composite variables that were included as need variables. Both physical disability and cognitive impairment were strong predictors of the amount of received care for both elderly and intellectually disabled individuals. Furthermore, we found a negative interaction effect between physical disability and cognitive impairment for elderly home care users. For elderly individuals, we also found significant positive associations between weekly hours of home care and having comorbidity, living alone, living in a service flat and having a safety alarm. The reduction in the amount of care for elderly individuals living with a cohabitant was substantially greater for males than for females. For intellectually disabled individuals, receiving services involuntarily due to severe behavioural problems was a strong predictor of the amount of care received. Our analysis showed that routinely collected data capture important predictors of home

  1. Method for quantitative determination and separation of trace amounts of chemical elements in the presence of large quantities of other elements having the same atomic mass

    DOEpatents

    Miller, C.M.; Nogar, N.S.

    1982-09-02

    Photoionization via autoionizing atomic levels combined with conventional mass spectroscopy provides a technique for quantitative analysis of trace quantities of chemical elements in the presence of much larger amounts of other elements with substantially the same atomic mass. Ytterbium samples smaller than 10 ng have been detected using an ArF* excimer laser which provides the atomic ions for a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Elemental selectivity of greater than 5:1 with respect to lutetium impurity has been obtained. Autoionization via a single photon process permits greater photon utilization efficiency because of its greater absorption cross section than bound-free transitions, while maintaining sufficient spectroscopic structure to allow significant photoionization selectivity between different atomic species. Separation of atomic species from others of substantially the same atomic mass is also described.

  2. Remote access to very large image repositories, a high performance computing perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2005-01-01

    The main challenges of using the increasingly large repositories of remote imagery data can be summarized in one word: efficiency. In this paper, a number of concrete problems and the chosen solutions are described, based on the construction of a 5TB global Landsat 7 mosaic.

  3. Large Capacity of Conscious Access for Incidental Memories in Natural Scenes.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, Lisandro N; Rowe, Elise G; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2016-09-01

    When searching a crowd, people can detect a target face only by direct fixation and attention. Once the target is found, it is consciously experienced and remembered, but what is the perceptual fate of the fixated nontarget faces? Whereas introspection suggests that one may remember nontargets, previous studies have proposed that almost no memory should be retained. Using a gaze-contingent paradigm, we asked subjects to visually search for a target face within a crowded natural scene and then tested their memory for nontarget faces, as well as their confidence in those memories. Subjects remembered up to seven fixated, nontarget faces with more than 70% accuracy. Memory accuracy was correlated with trial-by-trial confidence ratings, which implies that the memory was consciously maintained and accessed. When the search scene was inverted, no more than three nontarget faces were remembered. These findings imply that incidental memory for faces, such as those recalled by eyewitnesses, is more reliable than is usually assumed. PMID:27507869

  4. Kaempferia parviflora, a plant used in traditional medicine to enhance sexual performance contains large amounts of low affinity PDE5 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Temkitthawon, Prapapan; Hinds, Thomas R.; Beavo, Joseph A.; Viyoch, Jarupa; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Pongamornkul, Wittaya; Sawasdee, Pattara; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study A number of medicinal plants are used in traditional medicine to treat erectile dysfunction. Since cyclic nucleotide PDEs inhibitors underlie several current treatments for this condition, we sought to show whether these plants might contain substantial amounts of PDE5 inhibitors. Materials and methods Forty one plant extracts and eight 7-methoxyflavones from Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker were screened for PDE5 and PDE6 inhibitory activities using the two-step radioactive assay. The PDE5 and PDE6 were prepared from mice lung and chicken retinas, respectively. All plant extracts were tested at 50 μg/ml whereas the pure compounds were tested at 10 μM. Results From forty one plant extracts tested, four showed the PDE5 inhibitory effect. The chemical constituents isolated from rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora were further investigated on inhibitory activity against PDE5 and PDE6. The results showed that 7-methoxyflavones from this plant showed inhibition toward both enzymes. The most potent PDE5 inhibitor was 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (IC50 = 10.64 ± 2.09 μM, selectivity on PDE5 over PDE6 = 3.71). Structure activity relationship showed that the methoxyl group at C-5 position of 7-methoxyflavones was necessary for PDE5 inhibition. Conclusions Kaempferia parviflora rhizome extract and its 7-methoxyflavone constituents had moderate inhibitory activity against PDE5. This finding provides an explanation for enhancing sexual performance in the traditional use of Kaempferia parviflora. Moreover, 5,7-dimethoxyflavones should make a useful lead compound to further develop clinically efficacious PDE5 inhibitors. PMID:21884777

  5. Using river discharge to access the quality of different precipitation datasets over large-scale basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Emanuel; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Florian Pappenberger, ,; Yamazaki, Dai

    2015-04-01

    River discharge is a natural integrator of meteorological variables. The integration is made over a spatial domain (catchment) which is geophysically appropriate, and over time. It takes into account the correlations and covariances between several meteorological variables in a meaningful way, integrating information from a multidimensional variable space. Furthermore, river discharge observations are available and generally reliable. Therefore, river discharge is an important variable to consider in when evaluating the water balance of large-scale basins. In this study we evaluate different precipitation corrections applied to the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis in terms of long-term means and variability of river discharge over several large-scale basins. We compare the original ERA-Interim dataset, the precipitation correction used in the production of the ERA-Interim/Land dataset (adjusted using GPCP) and the WFDEI dataset (adjusted using CRU). Global simulations with the ECMWF land surface model HTESSEL were performed with the different datasets and the simulated runoff routed using the river-floodplain model CaMa-Flood. Preliminary results highlight the deficiencies of ERA-Interim in several tropical basins (e.g. Congo) while the precipitation adjustments in ERA-Interim/Land and in WFDEI degrade the simulations in several northern hemisphere basins dominated by cold processes (e.g. Mackenzie).

  6. An objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Clements, Hayley S; Tambling, Craig J; Hayward, Matt W; Kerley, Graham I H

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah), 82±3% (leopard), 81±2% (lion), 97±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore species. PMID

  7. An Objective Approach to Determining the Weight Ranges of Prey Preferred by and Accessible to the Five Large African Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Hayley S.; Tambling, Craig J.; Hayward, Matt W.; Kerley, Graham I. H.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed “accessible prey”. Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14–135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1–45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32–632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15–1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10–289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah), 82±3% (leopard), 81±2% (lion), 97±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore

  8. Hindlimb heating increases vascular access of large molecules to murine tibial growth plates measured by in vivo multiphoton imaging

    PubMed Central

    Efaw, Morgan L.; Williams, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in understanding the molecular regulation of longitudinal growth have led to development of novel drug therapies for growth plate disorders. Despite progress, a major unmet challenge is delivering therapeutic agents to avascular-cartilage plates. Dense extracellular matrix and lack of penetrating blood vessels create a semipermeable “barrier,” which hinders molecular transport at the vascular-cartilage interface. To overcome this obstacle, we used a hindlimb heating model to manipulate bone circulation in 5-wk-old female mice (n = 22). Temperatures represented a physiological range of normal human knee joints. We used in vivo multiphoton microscopy to quantify temperature-enhanced delivery of large molecules into tibial growth plates. We tested the hypothesis that increasing hindlimb temperature from 22°C to 34°C increases vascular access of large systemic molecules, modeled using 10, 40, and 70 kDa dextrans that approximate sizes of physiological regulators. Vascular access was quantified by vessel diameter, velocity, and dextran leakage from subperichondrial plexus vessels and accumulation in growth plate cartilage. Growth plate entry of 10 kDa dextrans increased >150% at 34°C. Entry of 40 and 70 kDa dextrans increased <50%, suggesting a size-dependent temperature enhancement. Total dextran levels in the plexus increased at 34°C, but relative leakage out of vessels was not temperature dependent. Blood velocity and vessel diameter increased 118% and 31%, respectively, at 34°C. These results demonstrate that heat enhances vascular carrying capacity and bioavailability of large molecules around growth plates, suggesting that temperature could be a noninvasive strategy for modulating delivery of therapeutics to impaired growth plates of children. PMID:24371019

  9. An Efficient Format for Nearly Constant-Time Access to Arbitrary Time Intervals in Large Trace Files

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chan, Anthony; Gropp, William; Lusk, Ewing

    2008-01-01

    A powerful method to aid in understanding the performance of parallel applications uses log or trace files containing time-stamped events and states (pairs of events). These trace files can be very large, often hundreds or even thousands of megabytes. Because of the cost of accessing and displaying such files, other methods are often used that reduce the size of the tracefiles at the cost of sacrificing detail or other information. This paper describes a hierarchical trace file format that provides for display of an arbitrary time window in a time independent of the total size of the file andmore » roughly proportional to the number of events within the time window. This format eliminates the need to sacrifice data to achieve a smaller trace file size (since storage is inexpensive, it is necessary only to make efficient use of bandwidth to that storage). The format can be used to organize a trace file or to create a separate file of annotations that may be used with conventional trace files. We present an analysis of the time to access all of the events relevant to an interval of time and we describe experiments demonstrating the performance of this file format.« less

  10. A rapid and practical strategy for the determination of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium and gold in large amounts of ultrabasic rock by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry combined with ultrasound extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gai; Tian, Min

    2015-04-01

    This proposed method regulated the determination of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium and gold in platinum-group ores by nickel sulfide fire assay—inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) combined with ultrasound extraction for the first time. The quantitative limits were 0.013-0.023μg/g. The samples were fused to separate the platinum-group elements from matrix. The nickel sulfide button was then dissolved with hydrochloric acid and the insoluble platinum-group sulfide residue was dissolved with aqua regia by ultrasound bath and finally determined by ICP-OES. The proposed method has been applied into the determination of platinum-group element and gold in large amounts of ultrabasic rocks from the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe.

  11. Wheat gene bank accessions as a source of new alleles of the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm3: a large scale allele mining project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the last hundred years, the development of improved wheat cultivars has led to the replacement of landraces and traditional varieties by modern cultivars. This has resulted in a decline in the genetic diversity of agriculturally used wheat. However, the diversity lost in the elite material is somewhat preserved in crop gene banks. Therefore, the gene bank accessions provide the basis for genetic improvement of crops for specific traits and and represent rich sources of novel allelic variation. Results We have undertaken large scale molecular allele mining to isolate new alleles of the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm3 from wheat gene bank accessions. The search for new Pm3 alleles was carried out on a geographically diverse set of 733 wheat accessions originating from 20 countries. Pm3 specific molecular tools as well as classical pathogenicity tests were used to characterize the accessions. Two new functional Pm3 alleles were identified out of the eight newly cloned Pm3 sequences. These new resistance alleles were isolated from accessions from China and Nepal. Thus, the repertoire of functional Pm3 alleles now includes 17 genes, making it one of the largest allelic series of plant resistance genes. The combined information on resistant and susceptible Pm3 sequences will allow to study molecular function and specificity of functional Pm3 alleles. Conclusions This study demonstrates that molecular allele mining on geographically defined accessions is a useful strategy to rapidly characterize the diversity of gene bank accessions at a specific genetic locus of agronomical importance. The identified wheat accessions with new resistance specificities can be used for marker-assisted transfer of the Pm3 alleles to modern wheat lines. PMID:20470444

  12. Access Matters: Meeting the Nation's College Completion Goals Requires Large Increases in Need-Based Grant Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This document addresses the status of equality in access to higher education. Some of the motivating factors behind this presentation include: (1) College completion rates including rates of bachelor's degree completion are falling today, particularly among young Americans; (2) Reversing the current trend and increasing college completion has…

  13. Patterns of divergence of a large family of nodule cysteine-rich peptides in accessions of Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Nallu, Sumitha; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Zhou, Peng; Young, Nevin D; VandenBosch, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    The nodule cysteine-rich (NCR) groups of defensin-like (DEFL) genes are one of the largest gene families expressed in the nodules of some legume plants. They have only been observed in the inverted repeat loss clade (IRLC) of legumes, which includes the model legume Medicago truncatula. NCRs are reported to play an important role in plant–microbe interactions. To understand their diversity we analyzed their expression and sequence polymorphisms among four accessions of M. truncatula. A significant expression and nucleotide variation was observed among the genes. We then used 26 accessions to estimate the selection pressures shaping evolution among the accessions by calculating the nucleotide diversity at non-synonymous and synonymous sites in the coding region. The mature peptides of the orthologous NCRs had signatures of both purifying and diversifying selection pressures, unlike the seed DEFLs, which predominantly exhibited purifying selection. The expression, sequence variation and apparent diversifying selection in NCRs within the Medicago species indicates rapid and recent evolution, and suggests that this family of genes is actively evolving to adapt to different environments and is acquiring new functions. PMID:24635121

  14. Experiences of French Speaking Immigrants and Non-immigrants Accessing Health Care Services in a Large Canadian City

    PubMed Central

    Ngwakongnwi, Emmanuel; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Musto, Richard; Quan, Hude; King-Shier, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    French speakers residing in predominantly English-speaking communities have been linked to difficulties accessing health care. This study examined health care access experiences of immigrants and non-immigrants who self-identify as Francophone or French speakers in a mainly English speaking province of Canada. We used semi-structured interviews to gather opinions of recent users of physician and hospital services (N = 26). Language barriers and difficulties finding family doctors were experienced by both French speaking immigrants and non-immigrants alike. This was exacerbated by a general preference for health services in French and less interest in using language interpreters during a medical consultation. Some participants experienced emotional distress, were discontent with care received, often delayed seeking care due to language barriers. Recent immigrants identified lack of insurance coverage for drugs, transportation difficulties and limited knowledge of the healthcare system as major detractors to achieving health. This study provided the groundwork for future research on health issues of official language minorities in Canada. PMID:23202772

  15. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  16. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  17. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  18. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  19. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  20. An MRI-based classification scheme to predict passive access of 5 to 50-nm large nanoparticles to tumors.

    PubMed

    Karageorgis, Anastassia; Dufort, Sandrine; Sancey, Lucie; Henry, Maxime; Hirsjärvi, Samuli; Passirani, Catherine; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Gravier, Julien; Texier, Isabelle; Montigon, Olivier; Benmerad, Mériem; Siroux, Valérie; Barbier, Emmanuel L; Coll, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles are useful tools in oncology because of their capacity to passively accumulate in tumors in particular via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, the importance and reliability of this effect remains controversial and quite often unpredictable. In this preclinical study, we used optical imaging to detect the accumulation of three types of fluorescent nanoparticles in eight different subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor models, and dynamic contrast-enhanced and vessel size index Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to measure the functional parameters of these tumors. The results demonstrate that the permeability and blood volume fraction determined by MRI are useful parameters for predicting the capacity of a tumor to accumulate nanoparticles. Translated to a clinical situation, this strategy could help anticipate the EPR effect of a particular tumor and thus its accessibility to nanomedicines. PMID:26892874

  1. An MRI-based classification scheme to predict passive access of 5 to 50-nm large nanoparticles to tumors

    PubMed Central

    Karageorgis, Anastassia; Dufort, Sandrine; Sancey, Lucie; Henry, Maxime; Hirsjärvi, Samuli; Passirani, Catherine; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Gravier, Julien; Texier, Isabelle; Montigon, Olivier; Benmerad, Mériem; Siroux, Valérie; Barbier, Emmanuel L.; Coll, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles are useful tools in oncology because of their capacity to passively accumulate in tumors in particular via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, the importance and reliability of this effect remains controversial and quite often unpredictable. In this preclinical study, we used optical imaging to detect the accumulation of three types of fluorescent nanoparticles in eight different subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor models, and dynamic contrast-enhanced and vessel size index Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to measure the functional parameters of these tumors. The results demonstrate that the permeability and blood volume fraction determined by MRI are useful parameters for predicting the capacity of a tumor to accumulate nanoparticles. Translated to a clinical situation, this strategy could help anticipate the EPR effect of a particular tumor and thus its accessibility to nanomedicines. PMID:26892874

  2. Pd(0)-Catalyzed Direct C-H Functionalization of 2-H-4-Benzylidene Imidazolones: Friendly and Large-Scale Access to GFP and Kaede Protein Fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Muselli, Mickaël; Baudequin, Christine; Perrio, Cécile; Hoarau, Christophe; Bischoff, Laurent

    2016-04-11

    The first one-pot synthesis of N-substituted 2-H-4-benzylidene imidazolones and their subsequent palladium-catalyzed and copper-assisted direct C2-H arylation and alkenylation with aryl- and alkenylhalides are described. This innovative synthesis is step-economical, azide-free, high yielding, highly flexible in the introduction of a variety of electronically different groups, and can be operated on large-scale. Moreover, the method allows direct access to C2-arylated or alkenylated imidazolone-based green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Kaede protein fluorophores, including ortho-hydroxylated models. PMID:26960963

  3. Geographic origin is not supported by the genetic variability found in a large living collection of Jatropha curcas with accessions from three continents.

    PubMed

    Maghuly, Fatemeh; Jankowicz-Cieslak, Joanna; Pabinger, Stephan; Till, Bradley J; Laimer, Margit

    2015-04-01

    Increasing economic interest in Jatropha curcas requires a major research focus on the genetic background and geographic origin of this non-edible biofuel crop. To determine the worldwide genetic structure of this species, amplified fragment length polymorphisms, inter simple sequence repeats, and novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were employed for a large collection of 907 J. curcas accessions and related species (RS) from three continents, 15 countries and 53 regions. PCoA, phenogram, and cophenetic analyses separated RS from two J. curcas groups. Accessions from Mexico, Bolivia, Paraguay, Kenya, and Ethiopia with unknown origins were found in both groups. In general, there was a considerable overlap between individuals from different regions and countries. The Bayesian approach using STRUCTURE demonstrated two groups with a low genetic variation. Analysis of molecular varience revealed significant variation among individuals within populations. SNPs found by in silico analyses of Δ12 fatty acid desaturase indicated possible changes in gene expression and thus in fatty acid profiles. SNP variation was higher in the curcin gene compared to genes involved in oil production. Novel SNPs allowed separating toxic, non-toxic, and Mexican accessions. The present study confirms that human activities had a major influence on the genetic diversity of J. curcas, not only because of domestication, but also because of biased selection. PMID:25511658

  4. Geographic origin is not supported by the genetic variability found in a large living collection of Jatropha curcas with accessions from three continents

    PubMed Central

    Maghuly, Fatemeh; Jankowicz-Cieslak, Joanna; Pabinger, Stephan; Till, Bradley J; Laimer, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Increasing economic interest in Jatropha curcas requires a major research focus on the genetic background and geographic origin of this non-edible biofuel crop. To determine the worldwide genetic structure of this species, amplified fragment length polymorphisms, inter simple sequence repeats, and novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were employed for a large collection of 907 J. curcas accessions and related species (RS) from three continents, 15 countries and 53 regions. PCoA, phenogram, and cophenetic analyses separated RS from two J. curcas groups. Accessions from Mexico, Bolivia, Paraguay, Kenya, and Ethiopia with unknown origins were found in both groups. In general, there was a considerable overlap between individuals from different regions and countries. The Bayesian approach using structure demonstrated two groups with a low genetic variation. Analysis of molecular varience revealed significant variation among individuals within populations. SNPs found by in silico analyses of Δ12 fatty acid desaturase indicated possible changes in gene expression and thus in fatty acid profiles. SNP variation was higher in the curcin gene compared to genes involved in oil production. Novel SNPs allowed separating toxic, non-toxic, and Mexican accessions. The present study confirms that human activities had a major influence on the genetic diversity of J. curcas, not only because of domestication, but also because of biased selection. PMID:25511658

  5. The development of a virtual database to provide on-line access to a large archive of clinical data.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, L. E.; Huff, S. M.; Haug, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The archival database of the HELP Hospital Information System at LDS Hospital is too large to be stored on line. The archival data are important for clinical and research applications. Demountable disk packs have been used to store the archival database. This method of storage has four significant disadvantages. A virtual database was developed to overcome the limitations of this data-management scheme. This virtual database enables the transparent use of appropriate low-cost network-based storage technology to provide on-line availability of the entire archive of clinical data. The virtual database successfully resolves the problems associated with disk packs, and opens the door to enhanced use of the data for clinical and research applications. PMID:1482943

  6. Facile access to large-scale, self-assembled, nacre-inspired, high-performance materials with tunable nanoscale periodicities.

    PubMed

    Das, Paramita; Schipmann, Susanne; Malho, Jani-Markus; Zhu, Baolei; Klemradt, Uwe; Walther, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    Although advances have been reported to mimic the mechanically excellent structure of natural nacre, larger-scale applications are still limited due to time and energy-intensive preparation pathways. Herein, we demonstrate that simple high-shear homogenization of dispersions containing biobased high molecular weight sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (700 kg/mol, CMC) and natural sodium montmorillonite (MTM), serving as the soft energy-dissipating phase and reinforcing platelets, respectively, can be used to prepare large-area and thick films with well-aligned hard/soft nacre-mimetic mesostructure. During this process, core-shell nanoplatelets with intrinsic hard/soft structure form, which then self-assemble into a layered nanocomposite during water removal. The nanoscale periodicities of the alternating hard/soft layers can be precisely tuned by changing the ratio of CMC to MTM, which allows studying the evolution of mechanical properties as a function of the lamellar nanoscale periodicity and fractions of hard to soft material. Remarkable mechanical stiffness (25 GPa) and strength (320 MPa) can be obtained placing these materials among the top end of nacre-inspired materials reported so far. Mechanical homogenization also allows direct preparation of concentrated, yet homogeneous, gel-like dispersions of high nanoclay content, suited to doctor-blade large-area and thick films with essentially the same properties as films cast from dilute dispersions. In terms of functional properties, we report high-transparency, shape-persistent fire-blocking and the ability to surface-pattern via inkjet printing. Considering the simple, fully scalable, waterborne preparation pathway, and the use of nature-based components, we foresee applications as ecofriendly, bioinspired materials to promote sustainable engineering materials and novel types of functional barrier coatings and substrates. PMID:23534374

  7. Neighborhood deprivation, vehicle ownership, and potential spatial access to a variety of fruits and vegetables in a large rural area in Texas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    stores are no longer the only shopping opportunities for fruits or vegetables. The inclusion of data on availability of fresh or processed fruits or vegetables in the measurements provides robust meaning to the concept of potential access in this large rural area. PMID:20500853

  8. Surface-Treated versus Untreated Large-Bore Catheters as Vascular Access in Hemodialysis and Apheresis Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bambauer, Rolf; Schiel, Ralf; Bambauer, Carolin; Latza, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Background. Catheter-related infections, thrombosis, and stenosis are among the most frequent complications associated with catheters, which are inserted in vessels. Surface treatment processes of the outer surface, such as ion-beam-assisted deposition, can be used to mitigate such complications. Methods. This retrospective study (1992–2007) evaluated silver-coated (54 patients) and noncoated (105 patients) implanted large-bore catheters used for extracorporeal detoxification. The catheters were inserted into the internal jugular or subclavian veins. After removal, the catheters were cultured for bacterial colonization using standard microbiologic assays. They also were examined using scanning electron microscope. Results. The silver coated catheters showed a tendency towards longer in situ time. The microbiologic examinations of the catheter tips were in both catheter types high positive, but not significant. Conclusion. The silver-coated catheters showed no significantly reduction in infection rate by evaluation of all collected data in this retrospective study. There was no association between both catheters in significantly reducing savings in treatment costs and in reducing patient discomfort. Other new developed catheter materials such as the microdomain-structured inner and outer surface are considered more biocompatible because they mimic the structure of natural biological surface. PMID:22577548

  9. Rising Expectations: Access to Biomedical Information

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, D. A. B.; Humphreys, B. L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objective To provide an overview of the expansion in public access to electronic biomedical information over the past two decades, with an emphasis on developments to which the U.S. National Library of Medicine contributed. Methods Review of the increasingly broad spectrum of web-accessible genomic data, biomedical literature, consumer health information, clinical trials data, and images. Results The amount of publicly available electronic biomedical information has increased dramatically over the past twenty years. Rising expectations regarding access to biomedical information were stimulated by the spread of the Internet, the World Wide Web, advanced searching and linking techniques. These informatics advances simplified and improved access to electronic information and reduced costs, which enabled inter-organizational collaborations to build and maintain large international information resources and also aided outreach and education efforts The demonstrated benefits of free access to electronic biomedical information encouraged the development of public policies that further increase the amount of information available. Conclusions Continuing rapid growth of publicly accessible electronic biomedical information presents tremendous opportunities and challenges, including the need to ensure uninterrupted access during disasters or emergencies and to manage digital resources so they remain available for future generations. PMID:18587496

  10. 45 CFR 149.100 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.100 Amount of reimbursement. (a) For each early retiree enrolled in a certified plan in a plan year, the sponsor...

  11. 45 CFR 149.100 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.100 Amount of reimbursement. (a) For each early retiree enrolled in a certified plan in a plan year, the sponsor...

  12. 45 CFR 149.100 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.100 Amount of reimbursement. (a) For each early retiree enrolled in a certified plan in a plan year, the sponsor...

  13. 45 CFR 149.100 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.100 Amount of reimbursement. (a) For each early retiree enrolled in a certified plan in a plan year, the sponsor...

  14. Static contrast technique for creating transpedal arterial access in patients with tibioperoneal occlusions.

    PubMed

    Chang, John Chien-Hwa; Lin, Lau-Shen; Chiu, Chih-Hung

    2013-10-01

    Transpedal arterial access is a useful but challenging technique for patients with tibioperoneal occlusions. It is associated with a long learning curve, requires the administration of a large amount of contrast media, and exposes patients and interventionists to additional radiation. Here we present a new technique by which it is easier and faster to create a transpedal arterial access. PMID:23769939

  15. [Discussion on acupuncture treatment amount].

    PubMed

    Wu, Song; Liang, Fengxia; Wang, Hua; Li, Jia

    2015-05-01

    The amount of acupuncture treatment refers to the sum of acupuncture effects during the treatment. From the factors that constitutes the amount of acupuncture treatment, including the numbers of needling, the size of acupuncture instruments, the depth of acupuncture, the manipulation, the retained time of needle, etc., and combined with teaching and clinical experience, it is believed that the amount of acupuncture treatment is closely related with clinical efficacy, besides, moderate amount of acupuncture treatment is a key factor to improve acupuncture efficacy and guarantee the safety of acupuncture. The basic principles of regular treatment amount are arrival of qi and being moderate, indicating the retained time of needle, treatment frequency and course should be based on individual condition, time, location and disease. PMID:26255521

  16. Minimum Costs for Producing Hepatitis C Direct-Acting Antivirals for Use in Large-Scale Treatment Access Programs in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Andrew; Khoo, Saye; Fortunak, Joe; Simmons, Bryony; Ford, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Several combinations of 2 or 3 direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) can cure hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the majority of treatment-naive patients. DAAs for HCV infection have similar mechanisms of action and chemical structures to antiretrovirals for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Generic antiretrovirals are currently manufactured at very low prices, to treat 10 million people with HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Methods. Four HCV DAAs, currently either in phase 3 development or recent approval (daclatasvir, sofosbuvir, simeprevir, faldaprevir), and ribavirin were classified by chemical structure, molecular weight, total daily dose, and complexity of synthesis. The likely range of manufacturing costs per gram of DAA were then projected as formulated product cost, based upon treating a minimum of 1 million patients annually (to arrive at volume demand) combined with an analysis of the complexity of synthesis and a 40% margin for formulation. Projections were then compared with actual costs of antiretrovirals with similar structures. Results. Minimum manufacturing costs of antiretrovirals were US$0.2–$2.1 per gram. The complexity of chemical synthesis for HCV DAAs was ranked from lowest to highest: ribavirin, daclatasvir, sofosbuvir, faldaprevir, and simeprevir. Predicted manufacturing costs (US dollars) for 12-week courses of HCV DAAs were $21–$63 for ribavirin, $10–$30 for daclatasvir, $68–$136 for sofosbuvir, $100–$210 for faldaprevir, and $130–$270 for simeprevir. Conclusions. Within the next 15 years, large-scale manufacture of 2 or 3 drug combinations of HCV DAAs is feasible, with minimum target prices of $100–$250 per 12-week treatment course. These low prices could make widespread access to HCV treatment in low- and middle-income countries a realistic goal. PMID:24399087

  17. Facing the Challenges of Accessing, Managing, and Integrating Large Observational Datasets in Ecology: Enabling and Enriching the Use of NEON's Observational Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    As the construction of NEON and its transition to operations progresses, more and more data will become available to the scientific community, both from NEON directly and from the concomitant growth of existing data repositories. Many of these datasets include ecological observations of a diversity of taxa in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Although observational data have been collected and used throughout the history of organismal biology, the field has not yet fully developed a culture of data management, documentation, standardization, sharing and discoverability to facilitate the integration and synthesis of datasets. Moreover, the tools required to accomplish these goals, namely database design, implementation, and management, and automation and parallelization of analytical tasks through computational techniques, have not historically been included in biology curricula, at either the undergraduate or graduate levels. To ensure the success of data-generating projects like NEON in advancing organismal ecology and to increase transparency and reproducibility of scientific analyses, an acceleration of the cultural shift to open science practices, the development and adoption of data standards, such as the DarwinCore standard for taxonomic data, and increased training in computational approaches for biologists need to be realized. Here I highlight several initiatives that are intended to increase access to and discoverability of publicly available datasets and equip biologists and other scientists with the skills that are need to manage, integrate, and analyze data from multiple large-scale projects. The EcoData Retriever (ecodataretriever.org) is a tool that downloads publicly available datasets, re-formats the data into an efficient relational database structure, and then automatically imports the data tables onto a user's local drive into the database tool of the user's choice. The automation of these tasks results in nearly instantaneous execution

  18. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  19. User-Centered Indexing for Adaptive Information Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie

    1996-01-01

    We are focusing on information access tasks characterized by large volume of hypermedia connected technical documents, a need for rapid and effective access to familiar information, and long-term interaction with evolving information. The problem for technical users is to build and maintain a personalized task-oriented model of the information to quickly access relevant information. We propose a solution which provides user-centered adaptive information retrieval and navigation. This solution supports users in customizing information access over time. It is complementary to information discovery methods which provide access to new information, since it lets users customize future access to previously found information. It relies on a technique, called Adaptive Relevance Network, which creates and maintains a complex indexing structure to represent personal user's information access maps organized by concepts. This technique is integrated within the Adaptive HyperMan system, which helps NASA Space Shuttle flight controllers organize and access large amount of information. It allows users to select and mark any part of a document as interesting, and to index that part with user-defined concepts. Users can then do subsequent retrieval of marked portions of documents. This functionality allows users to define and access personal collections of information, which are dynamically computed. The system also supports collaborative review by letting users share group access maps. The adaptive relevance network provides long-term adaptation based both on usage and on explicit user input. The indexing structure is dynamic and evolves over time. Leading and generalization support flexible retrieval of information under similar concepts. The network is geared towards more recent information access, and automatically manages its size in order to maintain rapid access when scaling up to large hypermedia space. We present results of simulated learning experiments.

  20. Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia; De Oliver, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This case study researches the degree to which the location and services offered by a multicampus university, geographically situated consistent with the commercial principles of a large mass-market enterprise, facilitate access for educationally underserved groups. First, the necessity of democratizing educational access to an underprivileged…

  1. 45 CFR 149.100 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS... reimbursement in the amount of 80 percent of the costs for health benefits (net of negotiated price concessions for health benefits) for claims incurred during the plan year that are attributed to health...

  2. Hyperview-fast, economical access to large data sets: a system for the archiving and distribution of hyperspectral data sets and derived products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurie, Joan B.

    1996-12-01

    TRW, under a Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI) contract, is building the Lewis satellite. The principal sensor on Lewis is a hyperspectral imaging spectrometer. Part of the SSTI mission is to establish the commercial and educational utility of this data and the hyperspectral data already being acquired on airborne platforms. Essential requirements are rapid availability (after data acquisition) and easy accessibility to a catalog of images and imagery products. Each image is approximately 256 by 512 pixels with 384 bands of data acquired at each pixel. For some applications, some users will want the entire data sets; in other cases partial data sets (e.g. three band images) will be all that a user can handle or need for a given application. In order to make the most effective use of this new imagery and justify the cost of collecting it, we must find ways to make the information it contains more readily accessible to an ever broadening community of potential users. Tools are needed to store, access, and communicate the data more efficiently, to place it in context, and to derive both qualitative and quantitative information from it. A variety of information products which address the specific needs of particular user communities will be derived from the imagery. The data is unique in its ability to provide high spatial and spectral resolution simultaneously, and shows great promise in both military and civilian applications. A data management and analysis system has been built at TRW. This development has been prompted by the business opportunities, by the series of instruments built here and by the availability of data from other instruments. The products of the processing system have been shown to prospective customers in the U.S. and abroad. The system has been used to process data produced by TRW sensors and other instruments. This paper provides an overview of the TRW hyperspectral collection, data handling and exploitation capability.

  3. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  4. Remote Sensing Information Gateway: A free application and web service for fast, convenient, interoperable access to large repositories of atmospheric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plessel, T.; Szykman, J.; Freeman, M.

    2012-12-01

    EPA's Remote Sensing Information Gateway (RSIG) is a widely used free applet and web service for quickly and easily retrieving, visualizing and saving user-specified subsets of atmospheric data - by variable, geographic domain and time range. Petabytes of available data include thousands of variables from a set of NASA and NOAA satellites, aircraft, ground stations and EPA air-quality models. The RSIG applet is used by atmospheric researchers and uses the rsigserver web service to obtain data and images. The rsigserver web service is compliant with the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Coverage Service (OGC-WCS) standard to facilitate data discovery and interoperability. Since rsigserver is publicly accessible, it can be (and is) used by other applications. This presentation describes the architecture and technical implementation details of this successful system with an emphasis on achieving convenience, high-performance, data integrity and security.

  5. TRY 3.0 - a substantial upgrade of the global database of plant traits: more data, more species, largely open access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattge, Jens; Díaz, Sandra; Lavorel, Sandra; Prentice, Ian Colin; Leadley, Paul; Boenisch, Gerhard; Wirth, Christian; TRY Consortium, The

    2015-04-01

    Plant traits determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services, and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Plant traits thus are a key to understand and predict the adaptation of ecosystems to environmental changes. At the same time ground based measurements of plant trait data are dispersed over a wide range of databases, many of these not publicly available. To overcome this deficiency IGBP and DIVERSITAS have initiated the development of a joint database, called TRY, aiming at constructing a standard resource of ground based plant trait observations for the ecological community and for the development of global vegetation models. The new version of the global database of plant traits - TRY 3.0 - provides substantially improved information on plant traits: 5.6 million trait records for about 100.000 of the worlds 350.000 plant species. More than 50% of the trait records are open access. In combination with recent improvements in gap-filling of sparse trait matrices (e.g., Bayesian Hierarchical Probabilistic Matrix Factrization; see abstract 15696 by Farideh Fazayeli) the new version of TRY provides the opportunity to derive a filled matrix of plant trait estimates for an unprecedented number of traits and species. We expect that this data richness will facilitate qualitatively new analyses and applications of plant traits (e.g., abstract 15724 by Oliver Purschke).

  6. Genes galore: a summary of methods for accessing results from large-scale partial sequencing of anonymous Arabidopsis cDNA clones.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, T; de Bruijn, F J; Green, P; Keegstra, K; Kende, H; McIntosh, L; Ohlrogge, J; Raikhel, N; Somerville, S; Thomashow, M

    1994-01-01

    High-throughput automated partial sequencing of anonymous cDNA clones provides a method to survey the repertoire of expressed genes from an organism. Comparison of the coding capacity of these expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with the sequences in the public data bases results in assignment of putative function to a significant proportion of the ESTs. Thus, the more than 13,400 plant ESTs that are currently available provide a new resource that will facilitate progress in many areas of plant biology. These opportunities are illustrated by a description of the results obtained from analysis of 1500 Arabidopsis ESTs from a cDNA library prepared from equal portions of poly(A+) mRNA from etiolated seedlings, roots, leaves, and flowering inflorescences. More than 900 different sequences were represented, 32% of which showed significant nucleotide or deduced amino acid sequences similarity to previously characterized genes or proteins from a wide range of organisms. At least 165 of the clones had significant deduced amino acid sequence homology to proteins or gene products that have not been previously characterized from higher plants. A summary of methods for accessing the information and materials generated by the Arabidopsis cDNA sequencing project is provided. PMID:7846151

  7. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  8. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  9. The IRIS DMC: Perspectives on Real-Time Data Management and Open Access From a Large Seismological Archive: Challenges, Tools, and Quality Assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, R. B.

    2007-05-01

    The IRIS Data Management Center, located in Seattle, WA, is the largest openly accessible geophysical archive in the world, and has a unique perspective on data management and operational practices that gets the most out of your network. Networks scale broad domains in time and space, from finite needs to monitor bridges and dams to national and international networks like the GSN and the FDSN that establish a baseline for global monitoring and research, the requirements that go into creating a well-tuned DMC archive treat these the same, building a collaborative network of networks that generations of users rely on and adds value to the data. Funded by the National Science Foundation through the Division of Earth Sciences, IRIS is operated through member universities and in cooperation with the USGS, and the DMS facility is a bridge between a globally distributed collaboration of seismic networks and an equally distributed network of users that demand a high standard for data quality, completeness, and ease of access. I will describe the role that a perpetual archive has in the life cycle of data, and how hosting real-time data performs a dual role of being a hub for continuous data from approximately 59 real-time networks, and distributing these (along with other data from the 40-year library of available time-series data) to researchers, while simultaneously providing shared data back to networks in real- time that benefits monitoring activities. I will describe aspects of our quality-assurance framework that are both passively and actively performed on 1100 seismic stations, generating over 6,000 channels of regularly sampled data arriving daily, that data providers can use as aids in operating their network, and users can likewise use when requesting suitable data for research purposes. The goal of the DMC is to eliminate bottlenecks in data discovery and shortening the steps leading to analysis. This includes many challenges, including keeping metadata

  10. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  11. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  12. Consent and widespread access to personal health information for the delivery of care: a large scale telephone survey of consumers' attitudes using vignettes in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Whiddett, Dick; Hunter, Inga; McDonald, Barry; Norris, Tony; Waldon, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In light of recent health policy, to examine factors which influence the public's willingness to consent to share their health information in a national electronic health record (EHR). Design Data were collected in a national telephone survey in 2008. Respondents were presented with vignettes that described situations in which their health information was shared and asked if they would consent to such sharing. The subset, consisting of the 18 vignettes that covered proving care, was reanalysed in depth using new statistical methods in 2016. Setting Adult population of New Zealand accessible by telephone landline. Participants 4209 adults aged 18+ years in the full data set, 2438 of which are included in the selected subset. Main outcome measures For each of 18 vignettes, we measured the percentage of respondents who would consent for their information to be shared for 2 groups; for those who did not consider that their records contained sensitive information, and for those who did or refused to say. Results Rates of consent ranged from 89% (95% CI 87% to 92%) for sharing of information with hospital doctors and nurses to 51% (47% to 55%) for government agencies. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to identify factors which had significant impact on consent. The role of the recipient and the level of detail influenced respondents' willingness to consent (p<0.0001 for both factors). Of the individual characteristics, the biggest impact was that respondents whose records contain sensitive information (or who refused to answer) were less willing to consent (p<0.0001). Conclusions A proportion of the population are reluctant to share their health information beyond doctors, nurses and paramedics, particularly when records contain sensitive information. These findings may have adverse implications for healthcare strategies based on widespread sharing of information. Further research is needed to understand and overcome peoples' ambivalence towards

  13. Three essays on access pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydee, Ahmed Nasim

    In the first essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price in the telecommunications industry. Determining the optimal access price is an important issue in the economics of telecommunications. Setting a high access price discourages potential entrants; a low access price, on the other hand, amounts to confiscation of private property because the infrastructure already built by the incumbent is sunk. Furthermore, a low access price does not give the incumbent incentives to maintain the current network and to invest in new infrastructures. Much of the existing literature on access pricing suffers either from the limitations of a static framework or from the assumption that all costs are avoidable. The telecommunications industry is subject to high stranded costs and, therefore, to address this issue a dynamic model is imperative. This essay presents a dynamic model of one-way access pricing in which the compensation involved in deregulatory taking is formalized and then analyzed. The short run adjustment after deregulatory taking has occurred is carried out and discussed. The long run equilibrium is also analyzed. A time path for the Ramsey price is shown as the correct dynamic price of access. In the second essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price for an infrastructure that is characterized by congestion and lumpy investment. Much of the theoretical literature on access pricing of infrastructure prescribes that the access price be set at the marginal cost of the infrastructure. In proposing this rule of access pricing, the conventional analysis assumes that infrastructure investments are infinitely divisible so that it makes sense to talk about the marginal cost of investment. Often it is the case that investments in infrastructure are lumpy and can only be made in large chunks, and this renders the marginal cost concept meaningless. In this essay, we formalize a model of

  14. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  15. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan; Jersey Inst Ansari, New; Jersey Inst, New

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  16. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  17. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  18. 47 CFR 73.1944 - Reasonable access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable access. 73.1944 Section 73.1944... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1944 Reasonable access. (a) Section 312(a)(7) of the... or repeated failure to allow reasonable access to, or to permit purchase of, reasonable amounts...

  19. 47 CFR 73.1944 - Reasonable access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable access. 73.1944 Section 73.1944... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1944 Reasonable access. (a) Section 312(a)(7) of the... or repeated failure to allow reasonable access to, or to permit purchase of, reasonable amounts...

  20. First Nuclear DNA Amounts in more than 300 Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    ZONNEVELD, B. J. M.; LEITCH, I. J.; BENNETT, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Genome size (DNA C-value) data are key biodiversity characters of fundamental significance used in a wide variety of biological fields. Since 1976, Bennett and colleagues have made scattered published and unpublished genome size data more widely accessible by assembling them into user-friendly compilations. Initially these were published as hard copy lists, but since 1997 they have also been made available electronically (see the Plant DNA C-values database www.kew.org/cval/homepage.html). Nevertheless, at the Second Plant Genome Size Meeting in 2003, Bennett noted that as many as 1000 DNA C-value estimates were still unpublished and hence unavailable. Scientists were strongly encouraged to communicate such unpublished data. The present work combines the databasing experience of the Kew-based authors with the unpublished C-values produced by Zonneveld to make a large body of valuable genome size data available to the scientific community. • Methods C-values for angiosperm species, selected primarily for their horticultural interest, were estimated by flow cytometry using the fluorochrome propidium iodide. The data were compiled into a table whose form is similar to previously published lists of DNA amounts by Bennett and colleagues. • Key Results and Conclusions The present work contains C-values for 411 taxa including first values for 308 species not listed previously by Bennett and colleagues. Based on a recent estimate of the global published output of angiosperm DNA C-value data (i.e. 200 first C-value estimates per annum) the present work equals 1·5 years of average global published output; and constitutes over 12 % of the latest 5-year global target set by the Second Plant Genome Size Workshop (see www.kew.org/cval/workshopreport.html). Hopefully, the present example will encourage others to unveil further valuable data which otherwise may lie forever unpublished and unavailable for comparative analyses. PMID:15905300

  1. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.403 Insured amounts. (a) Prelaunching period. The amount insured...

  2. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be...

  3. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be...

  4. A tunable general purpose Q-band resonator for CW and pulse EPR/ENDOR experiments with large sample access and optical excitation.

    PubMed

    Reijerse, Edward; Lendzian, Friedhelm; Isaacson, Roger; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We describe a frequency tunable Q-band cavity (34 GHz) designed for CW and pulse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) as well as Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) and Electron Electron Double Resonance (ELDOR) experiments. The TE(011) cylindrical resonator is machined either from brass or from graphite (which is subsequently gold plated), to improve the penetration of the 100 kHz field modulation signal. The (self-supporting) ENDOR coil consists of four 0.8mm silver posts at 2.67 mm distance from the cavity center axis, penetrating through the plunger heads. It is very robust and immune to mechanical vibrations. The coil is electrically shielded to enable CW ENDOR experiments with high RF power (500 W). The top plunger of the cavity is movable and allows a frequency tuning of ±2 GHz. In our setup the standard operation frequency is 34.0 GHz. The microwaves are coupled into the resonator through an iris in the cylinder wall and matching is accomplished by a sliding short in the coupling waveguide. Optical excitation of the sample is enabled through slits in the cavity wall (transmission ∼60%). The resonator accepts 3mm o.d. sample tubes. This leads to a favorable sensitivity especially for pulse EPR experiments of low concentration biological samples. The probehead dimensions are compatible with that of Bruker flexline Q-band resonators and it fits perfectly into an Oxford CF935 Helium flow cryostat (4-300 K). It is demonstrated that, due to the relatively large active sample volume (20-30 μl), the described resonator has superior concentration sensitivity as compared to commercial pulse Q-band resonators. The quality factor (Q(L)) of the resonator can be varied between 2600 (critical coupling) and 1300 (over-coupling). The shortest achieved π/2-pulse durations are 20 ns using a 3 W microwave amplifier. ENDOR (RF) π-pulses of 20 μs ((1)H @ 51 MHz) were obtained for a 300 W amplifier and 7 μs using a 2500 W amplifier. Selected applications of the

  5. A tunable general purpose Q-band resonator for CW and pulse EPR/ENDOR experiments with large sample access and optical excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijerse, Edward; Lendzian, Friedhelm; Isaacson, Roger; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We describe a frequency tunable Q-band cavity (34 GHz) designed for CW and pulse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) as well as Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) and Electron Electron Double Resonance (ELDOR) experiments. The TE 011 cylindrical resonator is machined either from brass or from graphite (which is subsequently gold plated), to improve the penetration of the 100 kHz field modulation signal. The (self-supporting) ENDOR coil consists of four 0.8 mm silver posts at 2.67 mm distance from the cavity center axis, penetrating through the plunger heads. It is very robust and immune to mechanical vibrations. The coil is electrically shielded to enable CW ENDOR experiments with high RF power (500 W). The top plunger of the cavity is movable and allows a frequency tuning of ±2 GHz. In our setup the standard operation frequency is 34.0 GHz. The microwaves are coupled into the resonator through an iris in the cylinder wall and matching is accomplished by a sliding short in the coupling waveguide. Optical excitation of the sample is enabled through slits in the cavity wall (transmission ˜60%). The resonator accepts 3 mm o.d. sample tubes. This leads to a favorable sensitivity especially for pulse EPR experiments of low concentration biological samples. The probehead dimensions are compatible with that of Bruker flexline Q-band resonators and it fits perfectly into an Oxford CF935 Helium flow cryostat (4-300 K). It is demonstrated that, due to the relatively large active sample volume (20-30 μl), the described resonator has superior concentration sensitivity as compared to commercial pulse Q-band resonators. The quality factor ( Q L) of the resonator can be varied between 2600 (critical coupling) and 1300 (over-coupling). The shortest achieved π/2-pulse durations are 20 ns using a 3 W microwave amplifier. ENDOR (RF) π-pulses of 20 μs ( 1H @ 51 MHz) were obtained for a 300 W amplifier and 7 μs using a 2500 W amplifier. Selected applications of the

  6. The amount effect and marginal value.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Howard; Arfer, Kodi B; Safin, Vasiliy; Yen, Ming

    2015-07-01

    The amount effect of delay discounting (by which the value of larger reward amounts is discounted by delay at a lower rate than that of smaller amounts) strictly implies that value functions (value as a function of amount) are steeper at greater delays than they are at lesser delays. That is, the amount effect and the difference in value functions at different delays are actually a single empirical finding. Amount effects of delay discounting are typically found with choice experiments. Value functions for immediate rewards have been empirically obtained by direct judgment. (Value functions for delayed rewards have not been previously obtained.) The present experiment obtained value functions for both immediate and delayed rewards by direct judgment and found them to be steeper when the rewards were delayed--hence, finding an amount effect with delay discounting. PMID:26013159

  7. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-03-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  8. Interlibrary loan in primary access libraries: challenging the traditional view

    PubMed Central

    Dudden, Rosalind Farnam; Coldren, Sue; Condon, Joyce Elizabeth; Katsh, Sara; Reiter, Catherine Morton; Roth, Pamela Lynn

    2000-01-01

    state resource library and other DOCLINE libraries higher up in the ILL hierarchy and highlighting the contribution made by CCML primary access libraries (H2). CCML primary access libraries borrow and lend in amounts that are proportional to their collection size, rather than overtaxing libraries at higher levels in the ILL hierarchy with large numbers of requests (H3). Limitations: The main limitations of this study were the small sample size and the use of data collected for another purpose, the CCML ILL survey. Conclusions: The findings suggest that there is little evidence to support several commonly held beliefs regarding ILL system use by primary access libraries. In addition to validating the important contributions made by primary access libraries to the national ILL system, baseline data that can be used to benchmark current practice performance are provided. PMID:11055297

  9. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  10. Large displacement spherical joint

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Benavides, Gilbert L.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of spherical joints has a very large accessible full cone angle, a property which is beneficial for a wide range of applications. Despite the large cone angles, these joints move freely without singularities.

  11. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - ...

  12. Remote Data Access with IDL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A tool based on IDL (Interactive Data Language) and DAP (Data Access Protocol) has been developed for user-friendly remote data access. A difficulty for many NASA researchers using IDL is that often the data to analyze are located remotely and are too large to transfer for local analysis. Researchers have developed a protocol for accessing remote data, DAP, which is used for both SOHO and STEREO data sets. Server-side side analysis via IDL routine is available through DAP.

  13. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  14. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  15. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  16. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks.

    Scope of Contributions

    This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to:
    • Optical access network architectures and protocols
    • Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.)
    • Active optical networks
    • Multiple access control
    • Multiservices and QoS provisioning
    • Network survivability
    • Field trials and standards
    • Performance modeling and analysis

    Manuscript Submission

    To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating ``Optical Access Networks feature' in the ``Comments' field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line ``Optical Access Networks' Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

  17. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  18. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  19. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  20. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  1. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  2. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  3. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 32.8 Amounts... first pay day after the employer receives the order. However, if the first pay day is within 10...

  4. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 32.8 Amounts... first pay day after the employer receives the order. However, if the first pay day is within 10...

  5. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30,...

  6. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30,...

  7. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 32.8 Amounts... first pay day after the employer receives the order. However, if the first pay day is within 10...

  8. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  9. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  10. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  11. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  12. Sleep and Delinquency: Does the Amount of Sleep Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.; Simi, Pete; Evans, Mary K.; Anderson, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep, a key indicator of health, has been linked to a variety of indicators of well-being such that people who get an adequate amount generally experience greater well-being. Further, a lack of sleep has been linked to a wide range of negative developmental outcomes, yet sleep has been largely overlooked among researchers interested in adolescent…

  13. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  14. 78 FR 59702 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals: Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...This notice announces the annual adjustment in the amount in controversy (AIC) threshold amounts for Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearings and judicial review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2014. The calendar year 2014 AIC threshold amounts are......

  15. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-dialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-dialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency-dialysis access; Chronic kidney failure-dialysis access; Chronic renal failure-dialysis access

  16. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible... whose annual bioenergy production is: (i) Less than 65 million gallons, by dividing by 2.5; (ii)...

  17. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible... whose annual bioenergy production is: (i) Less than 65 million gallons, by dividing by 2.5; (ii)...

  18. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible... whose annual bioenergy production is: (i) Less than 65 million gallons, by dividing by 2.5; (ii)...

  19. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible... whose annual bioenergy production is: (i) Less than 65 million gallons, by dividing by 2.5; (ii)...

  20. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible... whose annual bioenergy production is: (i) Less than 65 million gallons, by dividing by 2.5; (ii)...

  1. Access control and confidentiality in radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumeir, Rita; Chafik, Adil

    2005-04-01

    A medical record contains a large amount of data about the patient such as height, weight and blood pressure. It also contains sensitive information such as fertility, abortion, psychiatric data, sexually transmitted diseases and diagnostic results. Access to this information must be carefully controlled. Information technology has greatly improved patient care. The recent extensive deployment of digital medical images made diagnostic images promptly available to healthcare decision makers, regardless of their geographic location. Medical images are digitally archived, transferred on telecommunication networks, and visualized on computer screens. However, with the widespread use of computing and communication technologies in healthcare, the issue of data security has become increasingly important. Most of the work until now has focused on the security of data communication to ensure its integrity, authentication, confidentiality and user accountability. The mechanisms that have been proposed to achieve the security of data communication are not specific to healthcare. Data integrity can be achieved with data signature. Data authentication can be achieved with certificate exchange. Data confidentiality can be achieved with encryption. User accountability can be achieved with audits. Although these mechanisms are essential to ensure data security during its transfer on the network, access control is needed in order to ensure data confidentiality and privacy within the information system application. In this paper, we present and discuss an access control mechanism that takes into account the notion of a care process. Radiology information is categorized and a model to enforce data privacy is proposed.

  2. New data access with HTTP/WebDAV in the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmsheuser, J.; Walker, R.; Serfon, C.; Garonne, V.; Blunier, S.; Lavorini, V.; Nilsson, P.

    2015-12-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in the years 2010-2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS experiment Grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centres to smaller university clusters. So far the storage technologies and access protocols to the clusters that host this tremendous amount of data vary from site to site. HTTP/WebDAV offers the possibility to use a unified industry standard to access the storage. We present the deployment and testing of HTTP/WebDAV for local and remote data access in the ATLAS experiment for the new data management system Rucio and the PanDA workload management system. Deployment and large scale tests have been performed using the Grid testing system HammerCloud and the ROOT HTTP plugin Davix.

  3. 76 FR 59138 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be...

  4. Working Concept of Accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Bastian J.; Rouphail, Nagui M.; Hughes, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    This research presents an analysis framework and associated performance measures for quantifying the accessibility of pedestrian crossings at modern roundabouts for pedestrians who are blind. The measures, developed under two ongoing national research projects, NCHRP Project 3-78A and a bioengineering research grant from the National Institutes of Health–National Eye Institute, attempt to isolate the components of the crossing task for a blind pedestrian into computable and replicable quantities that allow the comparison of accessibility across individuals or sites. The framework differentiates between crossing opportunities in the form of yields and crossable gaps and the utilization of these opportunities by the pedestrian. It further accounts for the amount of delay and risk involved in the crossing. The analysis framework and measures are demonstrated for two single-lane roundabouts in North Carolina evaluated under the aforementioned research projects. The application shows that the accessibility of a pedestrian crossing to a blind pedestrian is characterized by a combination of different measures and further depends on crossing geometry, traffic volume, driver behavior, and the travel skills and risk-taking behavior of the individual. With successful demonstration at roundabout crosswalks, the analysis framework is hypothesized to have broader application to unsignalized pedestrian crossings, including midblock locations. PMID:20664802

  5. The Table Access Protocol: Providing standard access to astronomical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandrekar-Heinis, D.; Michel, L.; Louys, M.; Bonnarel, F.

    2014-11-01

    In the upcoming era of large scale, geographically distributed, varied sources of astronomical data, a standard, simple and flexible way to access this data is necessary and useful for astronomers across the globe. Most of the modern surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are available in well organized tabular formats. The Table Access Protocol (TAP) supports a standard web interface to access this kind of tabular data. Predefined queries and results formats help different data providers to implement these services. TAP also helps various software tools to access data and perform cross-matches seamlessly across different data sources. It is then possible to access data in tools that consume TAP web services. This supports further detailed data analysis on a queried slice of data. This document describes TAP and its utility for astronomers and data scientists. It also provides information on the protocol for data providers and developers.

  6. Mobile App to Assess Universal Access Compliance.

    PubMed

    Fransolet, Colette

    2016-01-01

    In terms of local legislation, South Africa has a handful of regulations that indirectly require Universal Access, which is then in itself largely described as facilities for people with disabilities. The most predominant set of regulations is the South African National Building Regulations, with a specific code which is deemed to satisfy standard titled South African National Standard (SANS) 10400 Part S: Facilities for Persons with Disabilities. Revised in 2011, this building regulation offers some technical guidelines specific to built infrastructure, and largely for people with functional mobility limitations. The description of the term "functional mobility limitations" in the context of this paper refers to people who make use of mobility aids to assist with their functionality in an environment, for example people who use walking aids (sticks, canes or walkers) and people who use wheelchairs. Albeit lacking in specifics around the requirements for other areas of functional limitations, including people who are blind, people who are deaf, and people with cognitive limitations, the SANS 10400 Part S is, to date, the most effective regulatory requirement in the country to assist with making facilities more accessible. With only a few experts in South Africa working in the field, the ability to offer clients Universal Access Reviews in terms of basic compliance with the SANS 10400 Part S is limited by two major factors. Firstly, the costs associated with employing experts in the field to review infrastructure is mostly too exorbitant for clients to carry. Secondly, the amount of time taken to perform reviews onsite and then collate the information into a coherent report for the client is far too long. These aspects result in a gap between clients wanting to meet the requirements, and being able to have the work completed in a reasonable amount of time. To overcome the challenge of larger institutions and organizations wanting to have their facilities reviewed in

  7. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  8. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  9. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  10. 24 CFR 201.10 - Loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan amounts. 201.10 Section 201.10 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE...

  11. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... complete program application to CCC. For triticale, the grazing rate will be equal to the loan deficiency... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  12. 14 CFR 1300.13 - Guarantee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Guarantee amount. 1300.13 Section 1300.13 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Minimum Requirements and Application Procedures §...

  13. 14 CFR 1300.13 - Guarantee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Guarantee amount. 1300.13 Section 1300.13 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Minimum Requirements and Application Procedures §...

  14. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  15. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  16. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  17. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  18. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  19. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  20. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  1. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  2. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  3. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  4. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  5. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  6. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  7. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  8. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  9. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  10. Keyless Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental truth of building security is that one misplaced key constitutes a crack in the armor that protects a space from unwelcome intruders. Imagine the headaches for administrators and security officials at a large university, where thousands of keys that are distributed to students and staff never find their way back to school officials.…

  11. Performance Issues Related to Web Service Usage for Remote Data Access

    SciTech Connect

    Pais, V. F.; Stancalie, V.; Mihailescu, F. A.; Totolici, M. C.

    2008-04-07

    Web services are starting to be widely used in applications for remotely accessing data. This is of special interest for research based on small and medium scale fusion devices, since scientists participating remotely to experiments are accessing large amounts of data over the Internet. Recent tests were conducted to see how the new network traffic, generated by the use of web services, can be integrated in the existing infrastructure and what would be the impact over existing applications, especially those used in a remote participation scenario.

  12. Steganography-based access control to medical data hidden in electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Mai, Vu; Khalil, Ibrahim; Ibaida, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Steganographic techniques allow secret data to be embedded inside another host data such as an image or a text file without significant changes to the quality of the host data. In this research, we demonstrate how steganography can be used as the main mechanism to build an access control model that gives data owners complete control to their sensitive cardiac health information hidden in their own Electrocardiograms. Our access control model is able to protect the privacy of users, the confidentiality of medical data, reduce storage space and make it more efficient to upload and download large amount of data. PMID:24109934

  13. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M.; Zhang, Kun

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  14. Pharmaceutical Industry Viewpoint of Wordage Problems--Amount, Languages, and Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starker, L. N.

    1972-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry more emphasis will be required on tertiary sources which maintain multiple computer-based files. These files are now being made available for SDI purposes, while their usefulness for retrospective searches still needs to be evaluated. (7 references) (Author/NH)

  15. 29 CFR 2580.412-14 - Determining the amount of funds “handled” during the preceding reporting year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... controls exist so that the persons involved have free access to, or can obtain control of, the total amount... fiscal controls and practical realities of the situation are such that these persons cannot gain...

  16. 29 CFR 2580.412-14 - Determining the amount of funds “handled” during the preceding reporting year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... controls exist so that the persons involved have free access to, or can obtain control of, the total amount... fiscal controls and practical realities of the situation are such that these persons cannot gain...

  17. 29 CFR 2580.412-14 - Determining the amount of funds “handled” during the preceding reporting year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... controls exist so that the persons involved have free access to, or can obtain control of, the total amount... fiscal controls and practical realities of the situation are such that these persons cannot gain...

  18. Distributed Processing of Projections of Large Datasets: A Preliminary Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maddox, Brian G.

    2004-01-01

    Modern information needs have resulted in very large amounts of data being used in geographic information systems. Problems arise when trying to project these data in a reasonable amount of time and accuracy, however. Current single-threaded methods can suffer from two problems: fast projection with poor accuracy, or accurate projection with long processing time. A possible solution may be to combine accurate interpolation methods and distributed processing algorithms to quickly and accurately convert digital geospatial data between coordinate systems. Modern technology has made it possible to construct systems, such as Beowulf clusters, for a low cost and provide access to supercomputer-class technology. Combining these techniques may result in the ability to use large amounts of geographic data in time-critical situations.

  19. Differences in Access to and Preferences for Using Patient Portals and Other eHealth Technologies Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Age: A Database and Survey Study of Seniors in a Large Health Plan

    PubMed Central

    Hornbrook, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients are being encouraged to go online to obtain health information and interact with their health care systems. However, a 2014 survey found that less than 60% of American adults aged 65 and older use the Internet, with much lower usage among black and Latino seniors compared with non-Hispanic white seniors, and among older versus younger seniors. Objective Our aims were to (1) identify race/ethnic and age cohort disparities among seniors in use of the health plan’s patient portal, (2) determine whether race/ethnic and age cohort disparities exist in access to digital devices and preferences for using email- and Web-based modalities to interact with the health care system, (3) assess whether observed disparities in preferences and patient portal use are due simply to barriers to access and inability to use the Internet, and (4) learn whether older adults not currently using the health plan’s patient portal or website have a potential interest in doing so in the future and what kind of support might be best suited to help them. Methods We conducted two studies of seniors aged 65-79 years. First, we used administrative data about patient portal account status and utilization in 2013 for a large cohort of English-speaking non-Hispanic white (n=183,565), black (n=16,898), Latino (n=12,409), Filipino (n=11,896), and Chinese (n=6314) members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan. Second, we used data from a mailed survey conducted in 2013-2014 with a stratified random sample of this population (final sample: 849 non-Hispanic white, 567 black, 653 Latino, 219 Filipino, and 314 Chinese). These data were used to examine race/ethnic and age disparities in patient portal use and readiness and preferences for using digital communication for health-related purposes. Results Adults aged 70-74 and 75-79 were significantly less likely than 65-69 year olds to be registered to use the patient portal, and among those registered, to have used the

  20. 29 CFR 4219.14 - Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts. 4219.14 Section 4219.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND REDETERMINATION OF WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY Redetermination of Withdrawal...

  1. 24 CFR 576.45 - Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts. 576.45 Section 576.45 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING...

  2. 77 FR 59618 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2013. The calendar year 2013 AIC threshold amounts are $140 for ALJ hearings and $1,400 for judicial review. Effective Date...) threshold amounts for Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearing requests and judicial review at $100 and...

  3. Neutron autoradiography of trace amounts of gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.L.A.; Brugger, R.M. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports that application of gadolinium in neutron capture therapy is under evaluation. Crucial to development of this therapy is an imaging technique that would show the distribution and concentration of parts-per-million amounts of {sup 157}Gd in sliced samples. A technique that utilizes the principles of autoradiography and neutron radiography has been tried. The images taken with this method display the gadolinium distribution and its relative concentration in samples. Concentrations of {sup 157}Gd ranging from {approximately}20 to 500 ppm can be determined. The intrinsic spatial resolution of the system used in the Missouri University Research Reactor is 70 {mu}m.

  4. Accessible magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, L; Arakawa, M; Hale, J; Rothschild, P; Carlson, J; Hake, K; Kramer, D; Lu, W; Van Heteren, J

    1989-10-01

    The cost of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is driven by magnetic field strength. Misperceptions as to the impact of field strength on performance have led to systems that are more expensive than they need to be. Careful analysis of all the factors that affect diagnostic quality lead to the conclusion that field strength per se is not a strong determinant of system performance. Freed from the constraints imposed by high-field operation, it is possible to exploit a varied set of opportunities afforded by low-field operation. In addition to lower costs and easier siting, we can take advantage of shortened T1 times, higher contrast, reduced sensitivity to motion, and reduced radiofrequency power deposition. These conceptual advantages can be made to coalesce onto practical imaging systems. We describe a low-cost MRI system that utilizes a permanent magnet of open design. Careful optimization of receiving antennas and acquisition sequences permit performance levels consistent with those needed for an effective diagnostic unit. Ancillary advantages include easy access to the patient, reduced claustrophobia, quiet and comfortable operation, and absence of a missile effect. The system can be sited in 350 sq ft and consumes a modest amount of electricity. MRI equipment of this kind can widen the population base than can access this powerful and beneficial diagnostic modality. PMID:2640910

  5. A Cerebellar-model Associative Memory as a Generalized Random-access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1989-01-01

    A versatile neural-net model is explained in terms familiar to computer scientists and engineers. It is called the sparse distributed memory, and it is a random-access memory for very long words (for patterns with thousands of bits). Its potential utility is the result of several factors: (1) a large pattern representing an object or a scene or a moment can encode a large amount of information about what it represents; (2) this information can serve as an address to the memory, and it can also serve as data; (3) the memory is noise tolerant--the information need not be exact; (4) the memory can be made arbitrarily large and hence an arbitrary amount of information can be stored in it; and (5) the architecture is inherently parallel, allowing large memories to be fast. Such memories can become important components of future computers.

  6. Expanding global access to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; Jaffray, David A; Barton, Michael B; Bray, Freddie; Baumann, Michael; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Hanna, Timothy P; Knaul, Felicia M; Lievens, Yolande; Lui, Tracey Y M; Milosevic, Michael; O'Sullivan, Brian; Rodin, Danielle L; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Van Dyk, Jacob; Yap, Mei Ling; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2015-09-01

    Radiotherapy is a critical and inseparable component of comprehensive cancer treatment and care. For many of the most common cancers in low-income and middle-income countries, radiotherapy is essential for effective treatment. In high-income countries, radiotherapy is used in more than half of all cases of cancer to cure localised disease, palliate symptoms, and control disease in incurable cancers. Yet, in planning and building treatment capacity for cancer, radiotherapy is frequently the last resource to be considered. Consequently, worldwide access to radiotherapy is unacceptably low. We present a new body of evidence that quantifies the worldwide coverage of radiotherapy services by country. We show the shortfall in access to radiotherapy by country and globally for 2015-35 based on current and projected need, and show substantial health and economic benefits to investing in radiotherapy. The cost of scaling up radiotherapy in the nominal model in 2015-35 is US$26·6 billion in low-income countries, $62·6 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $94·8 billion in upper-middle-income countries, which amounts to $184·0 billion across all low-income and middle-income countries. In the efficiency model the costs were lower: $14·1 billion in low-income, $33·3 billion in lower-middle-income, and $49·4 billion in upper-middle-income countries-a total of $96·8 billion. Scale-up of radiotherapy capacity in 2015-35 from current levels could lead to saving of 26·9 million life-years in low-income and middle-income countries over the lifetime of the patients who received treatment. The economic benefits of investment in radiotherapy are very substantial. Using the nominal cost model could produce a net benefit of $278·1 billion in 2015-35 ($265·2 million in low-income countries, $38·5 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $239·3 billion in upper-middle-income countries). Investment in the efficiency model would produce in the same period an even

  7. Effect of level of autonomy on the amount of physical activity in young children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Emerging research has indicated that providing choice of exercise options increases the amount of physical activity children perform. However, these studies have not yet assessed this effect using physical activities children typically have access to in a naturalistic setting. PURPOSE...

  8. 45 CFR 150.321 - Determining the amount of penalty-aggravating circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining the amount of penalty-aggravating circumstances. 150.321 Section 150.321 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement With Respect to Issuers and...

  9. 45 CFR 158.607 - Factors HHS uses to determine the amount of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Factors HHS uses to determine the amount of penalty. 158.607 Section 158.607 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS ISSUER USE OF PREMIUM REVENUE: REPORTING AND REBATE REQUIREMENTS Federal Civil Penalties § 158.607 Factors HHS uses...

  10. 45 CFR 158.607 - Factors HHS uses to determine the amount of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Factors HHS uses to determine the amount of penalty. 158.607 Section 158.607 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS ISSUER USE OF PREMIUM REVENUE: REPORTING AND REBATE REQUIREMENTS...

  11. 45 CFR 150.317 - Factors CMS uses to determine the amount of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Factors CMS uses to determine the amount of penalty. 150.317 Section 150.317 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS...

  12. 45 CFR 150.317 - Factors CMS uses to determine the amount of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Factors CMS uses to determine the amount of penalty. 150.317 Section 150.317 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement With Respect to Issuers and...

  13. 48 CFR 970.5215-1 - Total available fee: Base fee amount and performance fee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the conclusion of each specified evaluation period, evaluate the Contractor's performance of all... available fee amount earned. At the Contracting Officer's discretion, evaluation of incentivized performance... Contractor performance shall be in accordance with the Performance Evaluation and Measurement...

  14. The effect of a large amount of Ag introduced into the Bi1.84Pb0.34Sr1.91Ca2.03Cu3.06O10+δ (110 K phase) high-Tc superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ki Young; Lee, Min Soo

    2006-12-01

    We synthesized a 50 wt% Ag-doped Bi-110 K phase high-Tc superconductor by a solid state reaction method. The nominal composition of the 110 K phase was Bi1.84Pb0.34Sr1.91Ca2.03Cu3.06O10+δ, which was prepared from powders of Bi2O3 (99.99%), PbO (99.99%), SrCO3 (99.99%), CaCO3 (99.99%) and CuO (99.99%). The synthesized Bi single-phase high-Tc superconductor was pulverized and mixed with Ag powder amounting to 50 wt%. Then the 50 wt% Ag-doped composition was sintered between 830 and 850 °C, and the superconducting properties, such as the structural characteristics, critical temperature (Tc), grain size and the mapping image of the surface were investigated. The critical temperature was about 99 K, independent of the sintering temperature in the range from 830 to 850 °C, and most superconducting grains were sintered in the layer near the surface, while Ag particles were aggregated and sintered as clusters and mostly distributed over an inside layer during the sintering process.

  15. [Amount and quality of food advertisement on Brazilian television].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Nascimento, Paula Carolina B D; Quaioti, Teresa Cristina Bolzan

    2002-06-01

    The main objective of the study was to analyze the amount and quality of food advertisement on Brazilian television in three different times of the day. The results showed that food products, when compared to other products, were the most frequently advertised, regardless of the time of the day in a given week analyzed. Television promotes food predominantly high in fat and/or sugar and salt. The large number of high fat and/or sugar and salt products advertised can contribute to changing food habits of children and teenagers, and increasing the incidence of obesity in the population. PMID:12131977

  16. Reinforcing efficacy of fat, as assessed by progressive ratio responding, depends upon availability not amount consumed

    PubMed Central

    Wojnicki, F.H.E.; Babbs, R.K.; Corwin, R.L.W.

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent limited access to an optional source of dietary fat can induce binge-type behavior in rats. However, the ability of such access to alter the reinforcing efficacy of fat has not been clearly demonstrated. In this study, performance under progressive ratio one (PR1) and three (PR3) schedules of shortening (fat) reinforcement was assessed in non-food deprived rats (n=15/group). One group of rats had intermittent access to a dietary fat option (INT, 1-hr shortening access in the home cage each Monday, Wednesday, and Friday), whereas the other group had daily access to the fat option (D, 1-hr shortening access daily). Chow and water were continuously available. After five weeks, the INT group consumed more shortening during the 1-hr access period than did the D group. Rats were then trained to lever press for a solid shortening reinforcer (0.1 gm). INT rats earned significantly more reinforcers than did D rats under PR1, but not under PR3. Subgroups of INT and D rats (n=7 each) were matched on the amount of shortening consumed in the home cage during week five of the protocol and the PR data were reanalyzed. The INT subgroup earned significantly more reinforcers than the D subgroup did under PR1, but not PR3. These results demonstrate that: 1) intermittent access to shortening in the home cage, but not the amount consumed during the access period (i.e. bingeing), increases the reinforcing efficacy of solid shortening; 2) the type of PR schedule is critical in delineating differences between the groups. PMID:20298708

  17. Community College Student Retention: Determining the Effects of a Comprehensive Support and Access Intervention Program Targeting Low-Income and Working Poor at a Large Urban Minority-Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltiel, Henry

    2011-01-01

    A quasi-experiment using quantitative methods was conducted to examine the effects on academic student outcomes when a cohort of employed low-SES community college commuter students (the treatment group, N=198) participated in a comprehensive support and access intervention program, compared with similar students (the matched comparison group,…

  18. The amount of heat resources and available heat of treated sewage

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, M.K.; Cho, C.G.; Pang, S.K.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to understand the amount of regional heat resources from treated sewage, and present the heat resources data available to develop a heat recovery system. In this study, the amount of treated sewage in disposal plants are investigated on a nationwide scale in seven large cities and nine provinces in Korea. As the result of this study, the amount of treated sewage was determined to be 3,223,572,000 ton/year on a nationwide scale, and the quantity of it amounted to 73.6% in large cities including Seoul. The location of sewage disposal plants and the amount of heat resources were visualized on the map using a GIS database of them on personal computer. The amount of available heat resources turned out to be enormous, a capacity equivalent to 45 Mcal/month in the case of Taejon city.

  19. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. ...

  20. Efficient Memory Access with NumPy Global Arrays using Local Memory Access

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, Jeffrey A.; Berghofer, Dan C.

    2013-08-03

    This paper discusses the work completed working with Global Arrays of data on distributed multi-computer systems and improving their performance. The tasks completed were done at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the Science Undergrad Laboratory Internship program in the summer of 2013 for the Data Intensive Computing Group in the Fundamental and Computational Sciences DIrectorate. This work was done on the Global Arrays Toolkit developed by this group. This toolkit is an interface for programmers to more easily create arrays of data on networks of computers. This is useful because scientific computation is often done on large amounts of data sometimes so large that individual computers cannot hold all of it. This data is held in array form and can best be processed on supercomputers which often consist of a network of individual computers doing their computation in parallel. One major challenge for this sort of programming is that operations on arrays on multiple computers is very complex and an interface is needed so that these arrays seem like they are on a single computer. This is what global arrays does. The work done here is to use more efficient operations on that data that requires less copying of data to be completed. This saves a lot of time because copying data on many different computers is time intensive. The way this challenge was solved is when data to be operated on with binary operations are on the same computer, they are not copied when they are accessed. When they are on separate computers, only one set is copied when accessed. This saves time because of less copying done although more data access operations were done.

  1. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Macaronesian Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    SUDA, JAN; KYNCL, TOMÁŠ; FREIOVÁ, RADKA

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear DNA contents for 104 Macaronesian angiosperms, with particular attention on Canary Islands endemics, were analysed using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Prime estimates for more than one‐sixth of the whole Canarian endemic flora (including representatives of 11 endemic genera) were obtained. The resulting 1C DNA values ranged from 0·19 to 7·21 pg for Descurainia bourgeauana and Argyranthemum frutescens, respectively (about 38‐fold difference). The majority of species, however, possessed (very) small genomes, with C‐values <1·6 pg. The tendency towards small nuclear DNA contents and genome sizes was confirmed by comparing average values for Macaronesian and non‐Macaronesian representatives of individual families, genera and major phylogenetic lineages. Our data support the hypothesis that the insular selection pressures in Macaronesia favour small C‐values and genome sizes. Both positive and negative correlations between infrageneric nuclear DNA amount variation and environmental conditions on Tenerife were also found in several genera. PMID:12824074

  2. Academic Access and New Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, Alan; Herman, Lee

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 30+ years, many colleges have made themselves more accessible for adult students. These innovations include flexible scheduling, online learning, professionally-oriented degrees, and credit for what students already know. However, there is more work to be done, particularly in the areas of financial aid for the very large number of…

  3. Proximity Displays for Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaniea, Kami

    2012-01-01

    Managing access to shared digital information, such as photographs and documents. is difficult for end users who are accumulating an increasingly large and diverse collection of data that they want to share with others. Current policy-management solutions require a user to proactively seek out and open a separate policy-management interface when…

  4. Optimum Tolerance Design Using Component-Amount and Mixture-Amount Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Ozler, Cenk; Sehirlioglu, Ali Kemal

    2013-08-01

    One type of tolerance design problem involves optimizing component and assembly tolerances to minimize the total cost (sum of manufacturing cost and quality loss). Previous literature recommended using traditional response surface (RS) designs and models to solve this type of tolerance design problem. In this article, component-amount (CA) and mixture-amount (MA) approaches are proposed as more appropriate for solving this type of tolerance design problem. The advantages of the CA and MA approaches over the RS approach are discussed. Reasons for choosing between the CA and MA approaches are also discussed. The CA and MA approaches (experimental design, response modeling, and optimization) are illustrated using real examples.

  5. Efficient Access Control in Multimedia Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachan, Amit; Emmanuel, Sabu

    Multimedia social networks (MMSNs) have provided a convenient way to share multimedia contents such as images, videos, blogs, etc. Contents shared by a person can be easily accessed by anybody else over the Internet. However, due to various privacy, security, and legal concerns people often want to selectively share the contents only with their friends, family, colleagues, etc. Access control mechanisms play an important role in this situation. With access control mechanisms one can decide the persons who can access a shared content and who cannot. But continuously growing content uploads and accesses, fine grained access control requirements (e.g. different access control parameters for different parts in a picture), and specific access control requirements for multimedia contents can make the time complexity of access control to be very large. So, it is important to study an efficient access control mechanism suitable for MMSNs. In this chapter we present an efficient bit-vector transform based access control mechanism for MMSNs. The proposed approach is also compatible with other requirements of MMSNs, such as access rights modification, content deletion, etc. Mathematical analysis and experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed approach.

  6. Discounting of sequences of delayed rewards of different amounts.

    PubMed

    Białaszek, Wojciech; Ostaszewski, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the magnitude effect is present in cases where delayed sequences of rewards are discounted. The magnitude effect refers to the inverse relationship between the amount of a reward and the steepness of temporal discounting. This study was conducted with a computer program to estimate the indifference points, which served as indicators of the present subjective value of delayed sequences of small and large rewards. In the indifference point the subjective value of a single, immediate reward was equal to the subjective value of the delayed sequence (or to the value of a single delayed reward). As a control condition, we added an experimental task involving choices between single immediate and single delayed rewards. The experiment showed that the sequences of large rewards are discounted less steeply than are the sequences of small rewards. This finding suggests that the magnitude effect is present within the delayed sequences of rewards. In addition, when outcomes are relatively large, the results suggest that a single reward is discounted less steeply than the sequence of a total nominal value equal to this single reward. However, for relatively small rewards, the difference is not statistically significant. The less steep discounting of sequences of large rewards may explain the reward-bundling effect, which refers to less steep discounting of longer sequences than of shorter ones: longer sequences usually have greater overall nominal value. The present study was conducted on hypothetical rewards, and the results should be validated using real rewards. PMID:22062547

  7. A Theory of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribot, Jesse C.; Peluso, Nancy Lee

    2003-01-01

    The term "access" is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as "the "ability" to derive benefits from things," broadening from property's classical definition as…

  8. [The concepts of health access].

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Raquel Maia; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita

    2012-03-01

    This article describes four dimensions of health access-availability, acceptability, ability to pay and information-correlating these dimensions to indicators and discussing the complexity of the concept of access. For a study of these four dimensions, searches were conducted using the PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and World Health Organization Library & Information Networks for Knowledge (WHOLIS) databases. Large-circulation media vehicles, such as The Economist, The Washington Post, and the BBC network were also searched. The concept of health access has become more complex with time. The first analyses, carried out in the 1970s, suggested a strong emphasis on geographical (availability) and financial (ability to pay) aspects. More recently, the literature has focused on less tangible aspects, such as cultural, educational, and socioeconomic issues, incorporating the element of acceptability into the notion of health access. The literature also shows that information provides the starting point for access to health, in association with health empowerment and literacy for health care decision-making. The study concludes that improvements in access to health and the guarantee of equity will not be achieved by initiatives focusing on health care systems alone, but rather will depend on intersectoral actions and social and economic policies aimed at eliminating income and education differences. PMID:22569702

  9. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material.

    PubMed

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-11-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  10. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material

    PubMed Central

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth.; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  11. 75 FR 58407 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2011. The 2011 AIC threshold amounts are $130 for ALJ hearings and $1,300 for judicial review. DATES: Effective Date: This... and judicial review at $100 and $1,000, respectively, for Medicare Part A and Part B appeals....

  12. REUSABLE PROPULSION ARCHITECTURE FOR SUSTAINABLE LOW-COST ACCESS TO SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, J. A.; Dankanich, J. W.; Frame, K. L.

    2005-01-01

    The primary obstacle to any space-based mission is, and has always been, the cost of access to space. Even with impressive efforts toward reusability, no system has come close to lowering the cost a significant amount. It is postulated here, that architectural innovation is necessary to make reusability feasible, not incremental subsystem changes. This paper shows two architectural approaches of reusability that merit further study investments. Both #inherently# have performance increases and cost advantages to make affordable access to space a near term reality. A rocket launched from a subsonic aircraft (specifically the Crossbow methodology) and a momentum exchange tether, reboosted by electrodynamics, offer possibilities of substantial reductions in the total transportation architecture mass - making access-to-space cost-effective. They also offer intangible benefits that reduce risk or offer large growth potential. The cost analysis indicates that approximately a 50% savings is obtained using today#s aerospace materials and practices.

  13. Landspotting: Social gaming to collect vast amounts of data for satellite validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; Purgathofer, P.; Kayali, F.; Fellner, M.; Wimmer, M.; Sturn, T.; Triebnig, G.; Krause, S.; Schindler, F.; Kollegger, M.; Perger, C.; Dürauer, M.; Haberl, W.; See, L.; McCallum, I.

    2012-04-01

    At present there is no single satellite-derived global land cover product that is accurate enough to provide reliable estimates of forest or cropland area to determine, e.g., how much additional land is available to grow biofuels or to tackle problems of food security. The Landspotting Project aims to improve the quality of this land cover information by vastly increasing the amount of in-situ validation data available for calibration and validation of satellite-derived land cover. The Geo-Wiki (Geo-Wiki.org) system currently allows users to compare three satellite derived land cover products and validate them using Google Earth. However, there is presently no incentive for anyone to provide this data so the amount of validation through Geo-Wiki has been limited. However, recent competitions have proven that incentive driven campaigns can rapidly create large amounts of input. The LandSpotting Project is taking a truly innovative approach through the development of the Landspotting game. The game engages users whilst simultaneously collecting a large amount of in-situ land cover information. The development of the game is informed by the current raft of successful social gaming that is available on the internet and as mobile applications, many of which are geo-spatial in nature. Games that are integrated within a social networking site such as Facebook illustrate the power to reach and continually engage a large number of individuals. The number of active Facebook users is estimated to be greater than 400 million, where 100 million are accessing Facebook from mobile devices. The Landspotting Game has similar game mechanics as the famous strategy game "Civilization" (i.e. build, harvest, research, war, diplomacy, etc.). When a player wishes to make a settlement, they must first classify the land cover over the area they wish to settle. As the game is played on the earth surface with Google Maps, we are able to record and store this land cover/land use classification

  14. Just the Right Amount of Reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Greg

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, is taking the next step towards economical low-Earth-orbit (LEO) operations with NASA's X-33 technology demonstrator, that uses composite tanks for liquid hydrogen (LH sub2) fuel storage and structural support, The X-33 is a 53% scale model of the VentureStar single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle(RLV) projected to orbit payloads at a rate, of $1,000 per pound beginning in 2004 In order to make VentureStar completely reusable and economical engineers are using composite materials throughout the spacecrafts structure. The first test of the design comes in 1999 on the X-33 technology demonstrator. Two of the primary structures that engineers will be evaluating are the carbon fiber/epoxy LH2 fuel tanks. The 29-ft long by 18-ft wide tanks, which fill two-thirds of the X-33's interior, serve a dual purpose carrying fuel and providing structural support to the walls of the spacecraft. Fiber placement makes it possible to build the fuel tanks, large, light and strong enough to satisfy X33's requirements. Lockheed Martin choose the fabrication technology to produce the eight sections of each tank because of fiber placement's ability to handle complex surfaces, speed and repeatability.

  15. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  16. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  17. Accessing and visualizing scientific spatiotemporal data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Daniel S.; Bergou, Attila; Berriman, G. Bruce; Block, Gary L.; Collier, Jim; Curkendall, David W.; Good, John; Husman, Laura; Jacob, Joseph C.; Laity, Anastasia; Li, P. Peggy; Miller, Craig; Prince, Tom; Siegel, Herb; Williams, Roy

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses work done by JPL's Parallel Applications Technologies Group in helping scientists access and visualize very large data sets through the use of multiple computing resources, such as parallel supercomputers, clusters, and grids.

  18. Access Techniques for Document Image Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Frank L.; Thoma, George R.

    1990-01-01

    Describes access and retrieval techniques implemented as part of a research and development program in electronic imaging applied to document storage and retrieval at the National Library of Medicine. Design considerations for large image databases are discussed. (six references) (EAM)

  19. 20 CFR 340.13 - Compromise of amounts recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.13 Compromise of amounts recoverable. The Board or its designee may compromise an amount recoverable, provided such amount does not exceed $100,000, excluding interest, or such... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compromise of amounts recoverable....

  20. 20 CFR 416.503 - Minimum monthly benefit amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... monthly benefit amount. If you receive an SSI benefit that does not include a State supplement the minimum monthly SSI benefit amount payable is $1. When an SSI benefit amount of less than $1 is payable, the benefit amount will be increased to $1. If you receive an SSI benefit that does include a State...

  1. 42 CFR 418.309 - Hospice cap amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospice cap amount. 418.309 Section 418.309 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Payment for Hospice Care § 418.309 Hospice cap amount. The hospice cap amount... until October 31 of the following year. (b) Each hospice's cap amount is calculated by the...

  2. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  3. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  4. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  5. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  6. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  7. LERU roadmap towards Open Access.

    PubMed

    Ayris, Paul; Björnshauge, Lars; Collier, Mel; Ferwerda, Eelco; Jacobs, Neil; Sinikara, Kaisa; Swan, Alma; de Bries, Saskia; van Wesenbeeck, Astrid

    2015-09-01

    Money which is not directly spent on research and education, even though it is largely taxpayers´ money. As Harvard University already denounced in 2012, many large journal publishers have rendered the situation "fiscally unsustainable and academically restrictive", with some journals costing as much as $40,000 per year (and publishers drawing profits of 35% or more). If one of the wealthiest universities in the world can no longer afford it, who can? It is easy to picture the struggle of European universities with tighter budgets. In addition to subscription costs, academic research funding is also largely affected by "Article Processing Charges" (APC), which come at an additional cost of €2000/article, on average, when making individual articles Gold Open Access. Some publishers are in this way even being paid twice for the same content ("double dipping"). In the era of Open Science, Open Access to publications is one of the cornerstones of the new research paradigm and business models must support this transition. It should be one of the principal objectives of Commissioner Carlos Moedas and the Dutch EU Presidency (January-June 2016) to ensure that this transition happens. Further developing the EU´s leadership in research and innovation largely depends on it. With this statement "Moving Forwards on Open Access", LERU calls upon all universities, research institutes, research funders and researchers to sign this statement and give a clear signal towards the European Commission and the Dutch EU Presidency. PMID:27036747

  8. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis . Updated July 23, 2014. Available at: kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/vascularaccess/index.aspx. Accessed: February 9, 2015. ...

  9. Distributed shared memory for roaming large volumes.

    PubMed

    Castanié, Laurent; Mion, Christophe; Cavin, Xavier; Lévy, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    We present a cluster-based volume rendering system for roaming very large volumes. This system allows to move a gigabyte-sized probe inside a total volume of several tens or hundreds of gigabytes in real-time. While the size of the probe is limited by the total amount of texture memory on the cluster, the size of the total data set has no theoretical limit. The cluster is used as a distributed graphics processing unit that both aggregates graphics power and graphics memory. A hardware-accelerated volume renderer runs in parallel on the cluster nodes and the final image compositing is implemented using a pipelined sort-last rendering algorithm. Meanwhile, volume bricking and volume paging allow efficient data caching. On each rendering node, a distributed hierarchical cache system implements a global software-based distributed shared memory on the cluster. In case of a cache miss, this system first checks page residency on the other cluster nodes instead of directly accessing local disks. Using two Gigabit Ethernet network interfaces per node, we accelerate data fetching by a factor of 4 compared to directly accessing local disks. The system also implements asynchronous disk access and texture loading, which makes it possible to overlap data loading, volume slicing and rendering for optimal volume roaming. PMID:17080865

  10. Maintenance of permanent hemodialysis vascular access patency.

    PubMed

    Berkoben, M; Schwab, S J

    1995-02-01

    The morbidity and mortality of maintenance hemodialysis patients are in large part determined by the ability of the nephrologist, dialysis staff, and vascular surgeon to establish and maintain adequate vascular access. Primary arteriovenous fistulae are the preferred form of vascular access because they are the more likely to provide long-term complication-free access. In 1994, however, the majority of patients entering hemodialysis programs have vascular anatomy unsuitable for primary arteriovenous fistula creation. Synthetic fistulae are currently the more common form of vascular access. Unfortunately, this form of vascular access is more prone to thrombosis and infection. Thrombosis is the most common cause of vascular access loss. Venous stenoses account for the majority of thromboses but can be prospectively identified by performing routine measurements of venous dialysis pressure or urea recirculation. Prospective identification of venous stenoses followed by either angioplasty or surgical revision will improve fistula patency and enhance the quality of life of the hemodialysis population. PMID:7598559

  11. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM... Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. (a)...

  12. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM... Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. (a)...

  13. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Mariko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via reactions catalyzed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase, GABA transaminase, and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development. PMID:26322056

  14. Effectiveness and Efficiency in Natural Language Processing for Large Amounts of Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruge, Gerda; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a system that was developed in Germany for natural language processing (NLP) to improve free text analysis for information retrieval. Techniques from empirical linguistics are discussed, system architecture is explained, and rules for dealing with conjunctions in dependency analysis for free text processing are proposed. (13 references)…

  15. Towards large amounts of Janus nanoparticles through a protection-deprotection route.

    PubMed

    Perro, Adeline; Reculusa, Stéphane; Pereira, Franck; Delville, Marie-Hélène; Mingotaud, Christophe; Duguet, Etienne; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Ravaine, Serge

    2005-11-28

    Janus silica nanoparticles, regioselectively functionalized by two different chemical groups, were synthesized through a multistep procedure based on the use of a polystyrene nodule as a protecting mask. PMID:16358056

  16. Proteomic detection of a large amount of SCGFα in the stroma of GISTs after imatinib therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors to develop in the digestive tract. These tumors are highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy and only the introduction of imatinib mesylate has improved the prognosis of patients. However, Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors are inappropriate for assessing tumor response, and the histological/pathological response to imatinib is variable, heterogeneous, and does not associate with clinical response. The effects of imatinib on responding GISTs are still being explored, and few studies correlate the clinical response with the histological response after pharmacological treatment. Recently, apoptosis and autophagy were suggested as possible alternative mechanisms of pharmacological response. Methods Here, we used a proteomic approach, combined with other analyses, to identify some molecular stromal components related to the response/behavior of resected, high-risk GISTs after neoadiuvant imatinib therapy. Results Our proteomic results indicate an elevated concentration of Stem Cell Growth Factor (SCGF), a hematopoietic growth factor having a role in the development of erythroid and myeloid progenitors, in imatinib-responsive tumor areas. SCGFα expression was detected by mass spectrometry, immunohistochemistry and/or western blot and attributed to acellular matrix of areas scored negative for KIT (CD117). RT-PCR results indicated that GIST samples did not express SCGF transcripts. The recently reported demonstration by Gundacker et al. [1] of the secretion of SCGF in mature pro-inflammatory dendritic cells would indicate a potential importance of SCGF in tissue inflammatory response. Accordingly, inflammatory infiltrates were detected in imatinib-affected areas and the CD68-positivity of the SCGF-positive and KIT-negative areas suggested previous infiltration of monocytes/macrophages into these regions. Thus, chronic inflammation subsequent to imatinib treatment may determine monocyte/macrophage recruitment in imatinib-damaged areas; these areas also feature prominent tumor-cell loss that is replaced by dense hyalinization and fibrosis. Conclusions Our studies highlight a possible role of SCGFα in imatinib-induced changes of GIST structure, consistent with a therapeutic response. PMID:21943129

  17. Fetal human keratinocytes produce large amounts of antimicrobial peptides: Involvement of histone-methylation processes

    PubMed Central

    Tschachler, Antonia; Mlitz, Veronika; Karner, Susanne; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid; Mildner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMP), an important part of the innate immune system, are crucial for defense against invading micro-organisms. Whereas AMP have been extensively studied in adult skin little is known about the impact of AMP in the developing human skin. We therefore compared the expression and regulation of AMP in fetal, neonatal and adult keratinocytes (KC) in vitro. The constitutive expression of human beta defensin-2 (HBD-2), HBD-3, S100 protein family members and cathelicidin was significantly higher in KC from fetal skin than in KC from postnatal skin. The capacity to further increase AMP-production was comparable between pre- and postnatal KC. Analysis of skin equivalents (SE) revealed a strong constitutive expression of S100 proteins in fetal but not in neonatal and adult SE. The elevated AMP-levels correlated with reduced H3K27me3 (tri-methyl-lysine 27 on histone H3) levels and increased expression of the histone demethylase JMJD3. Knock-down of JMJD3 in fetal KC significantly down-regulated the expression of HBD-3, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9 and cathelicidin. Our data indicate an important contribution of histone-modifications in the regulation of AMP-expression in the skin during ontogeny. The elevated AMP expression in prenatal skin might represent an important defense strategy of the unborn. PMID:24694903

  18. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  19. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  20. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  1. Open Access and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shawn; Schmidt, Christian; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Philip W

    2006-01-01

    Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature. PMID:16956402

  2. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  3. The limited access paradigm: description of one method.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J D; Hyytiä, P; Nurmi, M

    1992-01-01

    Restricting access to alcohol to a short period daily causes rats, in effect, to drink on command. They usually begin drinking alcohol immediately when it is first made available each day and consume a rather constant amount during each access period. The procedure thus has a variety of useful applications. The specific method reported here in detail provides continual access to food and water, but access to unflavored 10% ethanol solution only 1 h/d, all in the home cage, and produces mean alcohol intakes from 0.5-1.0 g/kg in the access hour. PMID:1418671

  4. Comparison between the Amount of Environmental Change and the Amount of Transcriptome Change

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Norichika; Kozaki, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hata, Tamako; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cells must coordinate adjustments in genome expression to accommodate changes in their environment. We hypothesized that the amount of transcriptome change is proportional to the amount of environmental change. To capture the effects of environmental changes on the transcriptome, we compared transcriptome diversities (defined as the Shannon entropy of frequency distribution) of silkworm fat-body tissues cultured with several concentrations of phenobarbital. Although there was no proportional relationship, we did identify a drug concentration “tipping point” between 0.25 and 1.0 mM. Cells cultured in media containing lower drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly high transcriptome diversities, while those cultured at higher drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly low transcriptome diversities. The plasticity of transcriptome diversity was corroborated by cultivations of fat bodies in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital and in 0.25 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium). Interestingly, the transcriptome diversities of cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium) were different from cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital). This hysteretic phenomenon of transcriptome diversities indicates multi-stability of the genome expression system. Cellular memories were recorded in genome expression networks as in DNA/histone modifications. PMID:26657512

  5. Comparison between the Amount of Environmental Change and the Amount of Transcriptome Change.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norichika; Kozaki, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hata, Tamako; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cells must coordinate adjustments in genome expression to accommodate changes in their environment. We hypothesized that the amount of transcriptome change is proportional to the amount of environmental change. To capture the effects of environmental changes on the transcriptome, we compared transcriptome diversities (defined as the Shannon entropy of frequency distribution) of silkworm fat-body tissues cultured with several concentrations of phenobarbital. Although there was no proportional relationship, we did identify a drug concentration "tipping point" between 0.25 and 1.0 mM. Cells cultured in media containing lower drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly high transcriptome diversities, while those cultured at higher drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly low transcriptome diversities. The plasticity of transcriptome diversity was corroborated by cultivations of fat bodies in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital and in 0.25 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium). Interestingly, the transcriptome diversities of cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium) were different from cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital). This hysteretic phenomenon of transcriptome diversities indicates multi-stability of the genome expression system. Cellular memories were recorded in genome expression networks as in DNA/histone modifications. PMID:26657512

  6. Are we filling the data void? An assessment of the amount and extent of plant collection records and census data available for tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale studies are needed to increase our understanding of how large-scale conservation threats, such as climate change and deforestation, are impacting diverse tropical ecosystems. These types of studies rely fundamentally on access to extensive and representative datasets (i.e., "big data"). In this study, I asses the availability of plant species occurrence records through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and the distribution of networked vegetation census plots in tropical South America. I analyze how the amount of available data has changed through time and the consequent changes in taxonomic, spatial, habitat, and climatic representativeness. I show that there are large and growing amounts of data available for tropical South America. Specifically, there are almost 2,000,000 unique geo-referenced collection records representing more than 50,000 species of plants in tropical South America and over 1,500 census plots. However, there is still a gaping "data void" such that many species and many habitats remain so poorly represented in either of the databases as to be functionally invisible for most studies. It is important that we support efforts to increase the availability of data, and the representativeness of these data, so that we can better predict and mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:25927831

  7. Are We Filling the Data Void? An Assessment of the Amount and Extent of Plant Collection Records and Census Data Available for Tropical South America

    PubMed Central

    Feeley, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale studies are needed to increase our understanding of how large-scale conservation threats, such as climate change and deforestation, are impacting diverse tropical ecosystems. These types of studies rely fundamentally on access to extensive and representative datasets (i.e., “big data”). In this study, I asses the availability of plant species occurrence records through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and the distribution of networked vegetation census plots in tropical South America. I analyze how the amount of available data has changed through time and the consequent changes in taxonomic, spatial, habitat, and climatic representativeness. I show that there are large and growing amounts of data available for tropical South America. Specifically, there are almost 2,000,000 unique geo-referenced collection records representing more than 50,000 species of plants in tropical South America and over 1,500 census plots. However, there is still a gaping “data void” such that many species and many habitats remain so poorly represented in either of the databases as to be functionally invisible for most studies. It is important that we support efforts to increase the availability of data, and the representativeness of these data, so that we can better predict and mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:25927831

  8. 28 CFR 16.41 - Requests for access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests for access to records. 16.41 Section 16.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR... pay a greater or lesser amount. (d) Verification of identity. When you make a request for access...

  9. Reducing haemodialysis access infection rates.

    PubMed

    Dorman, Amanda; Dainton, Marissa

    Infections are the second most common cause of vascular access loss in the long-term haemodialysis patient, and recent years have seen an increase in healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) associated with vascular access (Suhail, 2009). There have been a number of drivers including publication guidelines (Department of Health, 2006; 2007) and local protocols providing evidence-based recommendations that, when implemented, can reduce the risk of these infections. In England, the selection of bloodstream infections caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a significant clinical outcome has led to a vast amount of work in this area. Root cause analysis of individual infections (by the clinical teams when these occur) in many specialities identified areas where practice could be improved, including practice relating to vascular access within the renal setting. Manufacturers have also supported this work by focusing on developing products that are designed to reduce the likelihood of infections occurring. One product identified and used within the NHS is Chloraprep. PMID:21646994

  10. 13 CFR 108.2020 - Amount of Operational Assistance grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (c) Pro rata reductions. In the event that the total amount of funds available to SBA for purposes of... in the amounts described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, SBA will make pro rata...

  11. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  12. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  13. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  14. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  15. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  16. 32 CFR 229.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 229.16 Section 229.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where...

  17. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 1312.16 Section 1312.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person...

  18. 36 CFR 296.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 296.16 Section 296.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person...

  19. 32 CFR 229.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 229.16 Section 229.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where...

  20. 43 CFR 7.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 7.16 Section 7.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has...

  1. 77 FR 61423 - Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts AGENCY: Federal... amount for Small Project Grants to State and local governments and private nonprofit facilities for...), 42 U.S.C. 5121-5207, prescribes that FEMA must annually adjust the maximum grant amount made...

  2. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  3. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  4. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  5. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  6. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  7. 76 FR 63933 - Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... SECURITY Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: FEMA gives notice of an increase of the maximum amount for Small Project Grants.... 5121-5207, prescribes that FEMA must annually adjust the maximum grant amount made under section...

  8. 46 CFR 249.3 - Amounts of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATORS APPROVAL OF UNDERWRITERS FOR MARINE HULL INSURANCE § 249.3 Amounts of insurance. MARAD will inform... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amounts of insurance. 249.3 Section 249.3 Shipping... initial placement and at least annually thereafter, of the minimum amount of insurance required to...

  9. 5 CFR 870.904 - Amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of insurance. 870.904 Section 870.904 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Assignments of Life Insurance § 870.904 Amount of insurance. The amount of insurance is...

  10. 5 CFR 870.702 - Amount of Basic insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of Basic insurance. 870.702 Section 870.702 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Annuitants and Compensationers § 870.702 Amount of Basic insurance. (a) The amount...

  11. 5 CFR 870.202 - Basic insurance amount (BIA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic insurance amount (BIA). 870.202 Section 870.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.202 Basic insurance amount (BIA). (a)(1)...

  12. 5 CFR 870.205 - Amount of Optional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of Optional insurance. 870.205 Section 870.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.205 Amount of Optional insurance. (a) Option...

  13. 24 CFR 761.13 - Amount of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of funding. 761.13 Section... PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) DRUG ELIMINATION PROGRAMS Grant Funding § 761.13 Amount of funding. (a) PHDEP formula funding—(1) Funding share formula—(i) Per unit amount. Subject to the...

  14. 24 CFR 761.13 - Amount of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of funding. 761.13 Section... PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) DRUG ELIMINATION PROGRAMS Grant Funding § 761.13 Amount of funding. (a) PHDEP formula funding—(1) Funding share formula—(i) Per unit amount. Subject to the...

  15. 7 CFR 3565.457 - Determination of claim amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of claim amount. 3565.457 Section 3565....457 Determination of claim amount. In all liquidation cases, final settlement will be made with the...) The estimated loss payment shall be applied as of the date of such payment. The total amount of...

  16. 42 CFR 493.649 - Methodology for determining fee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methodology for determining fee amount. 493.649 Section 493.649 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methodology for determining fee amount. (a) General rule. The amount of the fee in each schedule...

  17. 24 CFR 92.60 - Allocation amounts for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section, or for any other reason, HUD may increase the allocation amount for one or more of the... requirements. Funds that become available but which are not used to increase the allocation amount for one or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation amounts for...

  18. 24 CFR 92.60 - Allocation amounts for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this section, or for any other reason, HUD may increase the allocation amount for one or more of the... requirements. Funds that become available but which are not used to increase the allocation amount for one or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation amounts for...

  19. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M. The amount of the worker's compensation or public disability benefit reduction does not change when..., the reduction amount does change if there is a change in the family members included in the DIB...

  20. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M. The amount of the worker's compensation or public disability benefit reduction does not change when..., the reduction amount does change if there is a change in the family members included in the DIB...

  1. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M... decreases, the change in the reduction amount is effective with the month of the decrease, no matter when... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Changes in reduction amount. 229.66...

  2. 20 CFR 416.412 - Amount of benefits; eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible couple. 416.412... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.412 Amount of benefits; eligible couple. The benefit under this part for an eligible couple (including couples where one or both members of the couple...

  3. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1312.16 Section 1312.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person...

  4. 41 CFR 105-56.019 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.019 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount referred for offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under...

  5. 41 CFR 105-56.029 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.029 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount of salary offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under this...

  6. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  7. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  8. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  9. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  10. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  11. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  12. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M. The amount of the worker's compensation or public disability benefit reduction does not change when..., the reduction amount does change if there is a change in the family members included in the DIB...

  13. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M. The amount of the worker's compensation or public disability benefit reduction does not change when..., the reduction amount does change if there is a change in the family members included in the DIB...

  14. 10 CFR 205.286 - Limitations on amount of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on amount of refunds. 205.286 Section 205.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Special Procedures for Distribution of Refunds § 205.286 Limitations on amount of refunds. (a) The aggregate amount of all...

  15. 10 CFR 205.286 - Limitations on amount of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitations on amount of refunds. 205.286 Section 205.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Special Procedures for Distribution of Refunds § 205.286 Limitations on amount of refunds. (a) The aggregate amount of all...

  16. 10 CFR 205.286 - Limitations on amount of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on amount of refunds. 205.286 Section 205.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Special Procedures for Distribution of Refunds § 205.286 Limitations on amount of refunds. (a) The aggregate amount of all...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6401-1 - Amounts treated as overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amounts treated as overpayments. 301.6401-1... General § 301.6401-1 Amounts treated as overpayments. (a) The term “overpayment” includes: (1) Any payment... limitation applicable thereto. (2) Any amount allowable for a taxable year as credits under sections...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6401-1 - Amounts treated as overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amounts treated as overpayments. 301.6401-1... General § 301.6401-1 Amounts treated as overpayments. (a) The term “overpayment” includes: (1) Any payment... limitation applicable thereto. (2) Any amount allowable for a taxable year as credits under sections...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6401-1 - Amounts treated as overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amounts treated as overpayments. 301.6401-1... General § 301.6401-1 Amounts treated as overpayments. (a) The term “overpayment” includes: (1) Any payment... limitation applicable thereto. (2) Any amount allowable for a taxable year as credits under sections...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6401-1 - Amounts treated as overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amounts treated as overpayments. 301.6401-1... General § 301.6401-1 Amounts treated as overpayments. (a) The term “overpayment” includes: (1) Any payment... limitation applicable thereto. (2) Any amount allowable for a taxable year as credits under sections...

  1. 26 CFR 301.6401-1 - Amounts treated as overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amounts treated as overpayments. 301.6401-1... General § 301.6401-1 Amounts treated as overpayments. (a) The term “overpayment” includes: (1) Any payment... limitation applicable thereto. (2) Any amount allowable for a taxable year as credits under sections...

  2. 12 CFR 1806.202 - Estimated award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estimated award amounts. 1806.202 Section 1806... BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.202 Estimated award amounts. (a) General. An Applicant shall calculate and submit to the Fund an estimated award amount as part of the Bank Enterprise...

  3. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  4. 20 CFR 416.410 - Amount of benefits; eligible individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible individual. 416.410 Section 416.410 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.410 Amount of benefits; eligible...

  5. 20 CFR 416.413 - Amount of benefits; qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of benefits; qualified individual. 416.413 Section 416.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.413 Amount of benefits;...

  6. 20 CFR 416.412 - Amount of benefits; eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible couple. 416.412 Section 416.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.412 Amount of benefits; eligible couple. The...

  7. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  8. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  9. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  10. 22 CFR 1104.15 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1104.15 Section 1104.15... SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.15 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has not committed any previous violation...

  11. 20 CFR 416.413 - Amount of benefits; qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of benefits; qualified individual. 416.413 Section 416.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.413 Amount of benefits;...

  12. 20 CFR 416.412 - Amount of benefits; eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible couple. 416.412 Section 416.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.412 Amount of benefits; eligible couple. The...

  13. 20 CFR 416.413 - Amount of benefits; qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount of benefits; qualified individual. 416.413 Section 416.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.413 Amount of benefits;...

  14. 20 CFR 416.412 - Amount of benefits; eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible couple. 416.412 Section 416.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.412 Amount of benefits; eligible couple. The...

  15. 20 CFR 416.412 - Amount of benefits; eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible couple. 416.412 Section 416.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.412 Amount of benefits; eligible couple. The...

  16. 20 CFR 416.410 - Amount of benefits; eligible individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible individual. 416.410 Section 416.410 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.410 Amount of benefits; eligible...

  17. 20 CFR 416.413 - Amount of benefits; qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of benefits; qualified individual. 416.413 Section 416.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.413 Amount of benefits;...

  18. 20 CFR 416.410 - Amount of benefits; eligible individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible individual. 416.410 Section 416.410 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.410 Amount of benefits; eligible...

  19. 20 CFR 416.410 - Amount of benefits; eligible individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible individual. 416.410 Section 416.410 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.410 Amount of benefits; eligible...

  20. Modeling the Effect of Reward Amount on Probability Discounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Morris, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The present study with college students examined the effect of amount on the discounting of probabilistic monetary rewards. A hyperboloid function accurately described the discounting of hypothetical rewards ranging in amount from $20 to $10,000,000. The degree of discounting increased continuously with amount of probabilistic reward. This effect…

  1. Green survivability in Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) broadband access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yejun; Guo, Lei; Gong, Bo; Ma, Rui; Gong, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Lincong; Yang, Jiangzi

    2012-03-01

    Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) broadband access network is a promising "last mile" access technology, because it integrates wireless and optical access technologies in terms of their respective merits, such as high capacity and stable transmission from optical access technology, and easy deployment and flexibility from wireless access technology. Since FiWi is expected to carry a large amount of traffic, numerous traffic flows may be interrupted by the failure of network components. Thus, survivability in FiWi is a key issue aiming at reliable and robust service. However, the redundant deployment of backup resource required for survivability usually causes huge energy consumption, which aggravates the global warming and accelerates the incoming of energy crisis. Thus, the energy-saving issue should be considered when it comes to survivability design. In this paper, we focus on the green survivability in FiWi, which is an innovative concept and remains untouched in the previous works to our best knowledge. We first review and discuss some challenging issues about survivability and energy-saving in FiWi, and then we propose some instructive solutions for its green survivability design. Therefore, our work in this paper will provide the technical references and research motivations for the energy-efficient and survivable FiWi development in the future.

  2. Ferroelectric random access memories.

    PubMed

    Ishiwara, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) is a nonvolatile memory, in which data are stored using hysteretic P-E (polarization vs. electric field) characteristics in a ferroelectric film. In this review, history and characteristics of FeRAMs are first introduced. It is described that there are two types of FeRAMs, capacitor-type and FET-type, and that only the capacitor-type FeRAM is now commercially available. In chapter 2, properties of ferroelectric films are discussed from a viewpoint of FeRAM application, in which particular attention is paid to those of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, SrBi2Ta2O9, and BiFeO3. Then, cell structures and operation principle of the capacitor-type FeRAMs are discussed in chapter 3. It is described that the stacked technology of ferroelectric capacitors and development of new materials with large remanent polarization are important for fabricating high-density memories. Finally, in chapter 4, the optimized gate structure in ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors is discussed and experimental results showing excellent data retention characteristics are presented. PMID:23421123

  3. JHelioviewer: Open-Source Software for Discovery and Image Access in the Petabyte Age (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, D.; Dimitoglou, G.; Langenberg, M.; Pagel, S.; Dau, A.; Nuhn, M.; Garcia Ortiz, J. P.; Dietert, H.; Schmidt, L.; Hughitt, V. K.; Ireland, J.; Fleck, B.

    2010-12-01

    The unprecedented torrent of data returned by the Solar Dynamics Observatory is both a blessing and a barrier: a blessing for making available data with significantly higher spatial and temporal resolution, but a barrier for scientists to access, browse and analyze them. With such staggering data volume, the data is bound to be accessible only from a few repositories and users will have to deal with data sets effectively immobile and practically difficult to download. From a scientist's perspective this poses three challenges: accessing, browsing and finding interesting data while avoiding the proverbial search for a needle in a haystack. To address these challenges, we have developed JHelioviewer, an open-source visualization software that lets users browse large data volumes both as still images and movies. We did so by deploying an efficient image encoding, storage, and dissemination solution using the JPEG 2000 standard. This solution enables users to access remote images at different resolution levels as a single data stream. Users can view, manipulate, pan, zoom, and overlay JPEG 2000 compressed data quickly, without severe network bandwidth penalties. Besides viewing data, the browser provides third-party metadata and event catalog integration to quickly locate data of interest, as well as an interface to the Virtual Solar Observatory to download science-quality data. As part of the Helioviewer Project, JHelioviewer offers intuitive ways to browse large amounts of heterogeneous data remotely and provides an extensible and customizable open-source platform for the scientific community.

  4. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM... § 419.41 Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program...

  5. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM... § 419.41 Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program...

  6. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM... § 419.41 Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program...

  7. Demystifying Open Access

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a 'fair share' scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  8. Demystifying Open Access

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a "fair share" scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  9. Access Interface Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fager, Susan; Beukelman, David R.; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Jakobs, Tom; Baker, John

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices to support their communication often have physical movement challenges that require alternative methods of access. Technology that supports access, particularly for those with the most severe movement deficits, have expanded substantially over the years. The purposes of this article are to review the state of the science of access technologies that interface with augmentative and alternative communication devices and to propose a future research and development agenda that will enhance access options for people with limited movement capability due to developmental and acquired conditions. PMID:22590797

  10. Hurricane Isabel, Amount of Atmospheric Water Vapor Observed By AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    These false-color images show the amount of atmospheric water vapor observed by AIRS two weeks prior to the passage of Hurricane Isabel, and then when it was a Category 5 storm. The region shown includes parts of South America and the West Indies. Puerto Rico is the large island below the upper left corner.

    Total water vapor represents the depth of a layer if all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to condense and fall to the surface. The color bar on the right sides of the plots give the thickness of this layer in millimeters (mm). The first image, from August 28, shows typical tropical water vapor amounts over the ocean: between roughly 25 and 50 mm, or 1 to 2 inches. The highest values of roughly 80 mm, seen as a red blob over South America, corresponds to intense thunderstorms. Thunderstorms pull in water vapor from surrounding regions and concentrate it, with much of it then falling as rain.

    Figure 1 shows total water during the passage of Hurricane Isabel on September 13. The storm is apparent: the ring of moderate values surrounding a very strong maximum of 100 mm. Total water of more than 80 mm is unusual, and these values correspond to the intense thunderstorms contained within Isabel. The thunderstorms--and the large values of total water--are fed by evaporation from the ocean in the hurricane's high winds. The water vapor near the center of the storm does not remain there long, since hurricane rain rates as high 50 mm (2 inches) per hour imply rapid cycling of the water we observe. Away from the storm the amount of total water vapor is rather low, associated with fair weather where air that ascended near the storm's eye returns to earth, having dropped its moisture as rain. Also seen in the second images are two small regions of about 70 mm of total water over south America. These are yet more thunderstorms, though likely much more benign than those in Isabel.

    The

  11. Data access service of China-VO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Jian; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Cui, Chen-Zhou

    2004-09-01

    With the development of technologies and the implementation of large quantity of astronomical observation projects, astronomy faces data avalanche and has entered an information era. A basic aim of the Virtual Observatory is to provide uniform access to highly distributed, complicated, huge astronomical datasets, and to realize federation of global astronomical data resources, so that astronomers can obtain required data efficiently and conveniently for their research. China Virtual Observatory (China-VO) project designs and implements astronomical data access services based on Grid technology, and provides uniform interface to Grid client application. In this paper, we introduce the data access service toolkit development using Globus Toolkit, the Grid services encapsulation of catalogs according to the latest astronomical data standards recommended by International Virtual Observatory Alliance, the implements of catalog Cone Search access service. Furthermore, we also introduce how to construct other Grid services using above data access services.

  12. Securing America's access to space

    SciTech Connect

    Rendine, M.; Wood, L.

    1990-05-23

    We review pertinent aspects of the history of the space launch capabilities of the United States and survey its present status and near-term outlook. Steps which must be taken, pitfalls which much be avoided, and a core set of National options for re-acquiring in the near term the capability to access the space environment with large payloads are discussed. We devote considerable attention to the prospect of creating an interim heavy-lift space launch vehicle of at least 100,000 pound payload-orbiting capacity to serve National needs during the next dozen years, suggesting that such a capability can be demonstrated within 5 years for less than $1 B. Such capability will apparently be essential for meeting the first-phase goals of the President's Space Exploration Initiative. Some other high-leverage aspects of securing American access to space are also noted briefly, emphasizing unconventional technological approaches of presently high promise.

  13. Open access publishing – a quiet revolution

    PubMed Central

    Pimm, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Radical changes are taking place in scientific publishing, driven by mandates from major research funders both in the UK and elsewhere. The publishing landscape is changing, and open access is increasingly being seen as a viable alternative to subscription-based business models. Although many issues are yet unresolved, even the large commercial publishers are developing stables of open access journals. To reach a wider audience, and to increase appeal to potential contributors deciding where to publish, the Bulletin has now become an open access journal with effect from this issue. PMID:25237480

  14. Access to cochlear implants: Time to reflect.

    PubMed

    Raine, Christopher; Atkinson, Helen; Strachan, David R; Martin, Jane M

    2016-04-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) intervention is expensive and accessed mainly by developed countries. The introduction of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening and funding via a public health service give children better access to CIs. However for adults large disparities exist between utilization and estimated prevalence. In the UK CI selection criteria are restrictive compared with many other countries. Improved audiological awareness and screening programmes for adults would improve access to hearing technologies that would improve health and quality of life. Hearing loss itself has significant medical and financial burdens on society and by investing in early intervention and using best technology this would mitigate some of the rising associated medical costs. PMID:27099110

  15. Accessing the Microform Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Stan

    1985-01-01

    Characterizes types of indexing programs used by Research Publications, Inc. and describes provision of access to four major projects: "The Official Washington Post Index" (provides access to newspaper and microfilm edition); "The Eighteenth Century"; "The Declassified Documents Reference System" (ongoing fiche project abstracted and indexed…

  16. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  17. Intellectual Access to Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-Liang; Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1999-01-01

    The increased availability of digital images is accompanied by a need for solutions to the problems inherent in indexing them for retrieval. Problems in image description and access are discussed, with a perspective on traditional and new solutions. Recent developments in intellectual access to images are surveyed and contrasted with…

  18. The Universal Access System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Neil G.

    This final report discusses the outcomes of a project that created a Universal Access System (UAS), a system that gives students with disabilities access to the same computers as their classmates. The project developed a new approach in which the needs of the individual with disabilities are handled separately from the computers and other devices…

  19. MedlinePlus: Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools Español You Are Here: Home → MedlinePlus Accessibility URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/accessibility.html ... or (301) 594-5983 and provide the address (URL) of the page on which you need assistance, ...

  20. Access and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Lemuel W.

    2004-01-01

    Community colleges are well positioned to provide underserved student populations with access to computer technology. This chapter explores the issues of access and technology from multiple perspectives in the community college, and explains how community colleges can develop a foundation for their technology plan.

  1. Improving School Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Few things are more important for school safety and security than controlling access to buildings and grounds. It is relatively easy to incorporate effective access control measures in new school designs but more difficult in existing schools, where most building and site features cannot be readily altered or reconfigured. The National…

  2. Disentangling the Effects of Precipitation Amount and Frequency on the Performance of 14 Grassland Species.

    PubMed

    Didiano, Teresa J; Johnson, Marc T J; Duval, Tim P

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is causing shifts in the amount and frequency of precipitation in many regions, which is expected to have implications for plant performance. Most research has examined the impacts of the amount of precipitation on plants rather than the effects of both the amount and frequency of precipitation. To understand how climate-driven changes in precipitation can affect grassland plants, we asked: (i) How does the amount and frequency of precipitation affect plant performance? (ii) Do plant functional groups vary in their response to variable precipitation? To answer these questions we grew 14 monocot and eudicot grassland species and conducted a factorial manipulation of the amount (70 vs 90mm/month) and frequency (every 3, 15, or 30 days) of precipitation under rainout shelters. Our results show that both the amount and frequency of precipitation impact plant performance, with larger effects on eudicots than monocots. Above- and below-ground biomass were affected by the amount of precipitation and/or the interaction between the amount and frequency of precipitation. Above-ground biomass increased by 21-30% when the amount of precipitation was increased. When event frequency was decreased from 3 to 15 or 30 days, below-ground biomass generally decreased by 18-34% in the 70 mm treatment, but increased by 33-40% in the 90 mm treatment. Changes in stomatal conductance were largely driven by changes in event frequency. Our results show that it is important to consider changes in both the amount and frequency of precipitation when predicting how plant communities will respond to variable precipitation. PMID:27622497

  3. CMS Workflow Execution Using Intelligent Job Scheduling and Data Access Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasham, Khawar; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Anjum, Ashiq; Evans, Dave; Gowdy, Stephen; Hernandez, José M.; Huedo, Eduardo; Hufnagel, Dirk; van Lingen, Frank; McClatchey, Richard; Metson, Simon

    2011-06-01

    Complex scientific workflows can process large amounts of data using thousands of tasks. The turnaround times of these workflows are often affected by various latencies such as the resource discovery, scheduling and data access latencies for the individual workflow processes or actors. Minimizing these latencies will improve the overall execution time of a workflow and thus lead to a more efficient and robust processing environment. In this paper, we propose a pilot job based infrastructure that has intelligent data reuse and job execution strategies to minimize the scheduling, queuing, execution and data access latencies. The results have shown that significant improvements in the overall turnaround time of a workflow can be achieved with this approach. The proposed approach has been evaluated, first using the CMS Tier0 data processing workflow, and then simulating the workflows to evaluate its effectiveness in a controlled environment.

  4. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  5. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  6. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  7. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  8. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum amount of cargo. 151.45-6 Section 151.45-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-6 Maximum amount of cargo. (a) Tanks carrying liquids or liquefied gases at...

  9. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum amount of cargo. 151.45-6 Section 151.45-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-6 Maximum amount of cargo. (a) Tanks carrying liquids or liquefied gases at...

  10. 31 CFR 50.71 - Determination of recoupment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 50.71 Section 50.71 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM... recoupment amounts for that Program Year. (b)(1) Within 90 days after certification of an act of terrorism... Terrorism Policy Surcharge previously established to determine whether any additional amount will...

  11. 31 CFR 50.71 - Determination of recoupment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 50.71 Section 50.71 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM... recoupment amounts for that Program Year. (b)(1) Within 90 days after certification of an act of terrorism... Terrorism Policy Surcharge previously established to determine whether any additional amount will...

  12. 42 CFR 51c.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will be... the grantee to finance its share of project costs from non-Federal sources; (B) The need in the...

  13. 42 CFR 56.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will be... the grantee to finance its share of project costs from non-Federal sources; (B) The need in the...

  14. 42 CFR 56.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will be... the grantee to finance its share of project costs from non-Federal sources; (B) The need in the...

  15. 42 CFR 51c.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will be... the grantee to finance its share of project costs from non-Federal sources; (B) The need in the...

  16. 43 CFR 3904.15 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that a change in amount is appropriate to cover the costs and obligations of complying with the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of bond. 3904.15 Section 3904.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

  17. 43 CFR 3904.15 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that a change in amount is appropriate to cover the costs and obligations of complying with the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of bond. 3904.15 Section 3904.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

  18. 43 CFR 3904.15 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that a change in amount is appropriate to cover the costs and obligations of complying with the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of bond. 3904.15 Section 3904.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

  19. 43 CFR 3904.15 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that a change in amount is appropriate to cover the costs and obligations of complying with the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of bond. 3904.15 Section 3904.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

  20. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. 625.6 Section 625.6 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all...

  1. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG...

  2. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG...

  3. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG...

  4. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  5. 29 CFR 531.38 - Amounts deducted for taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts deducted for taxes. 531.38 Section 531.38 Labor... Employees § 531.38 Amounts deducted for taxes. Taxes which are assessed against the employee and which are... unemployment insurance taxes, as well as other Federal, State, or local taxes, levies, and assessments....

  6. 50 CFR 296.8 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of award. 296.8 Section 296.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.8 Amount of award. (a)...

  7. 50 CFR 296.8 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of award. 296.8 Section 296.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.8 Amount of award. (a)...

  8. 26 CFR 1.21-2 - Limitations on amount creditable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Limitations on amount creditable. 1.21-2 Section 1.21-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-2 Limitations on amount creditable. (a) Annual...

  9. 26 CFR 1.21-2 - Limitations on amount creditable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Limitations on amount creditable. 1.21-2 Section 1.21-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-2 Limitations on amount creditable. (a) Annual...

  10. 26 CFR 1.21-2 - Limitations on amount creditable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitations on amount creditable. 1.21-2 Section 1.21-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-2 Limitations on amount creditable. (a) Annual...

  11. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  12. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  13. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  14. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  15. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  16. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  17. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  18. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average...

  19. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  20. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  1. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  2. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  3. 78 FR 14179 - Adjustments to Civil Monetary Penalty Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Monetary Penalty Amounts, Release No. 33-8530 (Feb. 4, 2005) [70 FR 7606 (Feb. 14, 2005)]. The DCIA... Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule implements the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation... a rule adjusting for inflation the maximum amount of civil monetary penalties under the...

  4. 20 CFR 404.260 - Special minimum primary insurance amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special minimum primary insurance amounts. 404.260 Section 404.260 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Special Minimum...

  5. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10. (c) When a debtor's pay is subject... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts withheld. 105-57.008 Section 105-57.008 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  6. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10. (c) When a debtor's pay is subject... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts withheld. 105-57.008 Section 105-57.008 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  7. 20 CFR 226.73 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Benefits Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 226.73 Changes in reduction amount. The reduction... in annuity rates, such as a cost-of-living increase. However, the reduction amount may change for the... entitled to an annuity with a tier I component of $500 on May 1, 1991. He was also receiving a...

  8. 20 CFR 226.73 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Benefits Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 226.73 Changes in reduction amount. The reduction... in annuity rates, such as a cost-of-living increase. However, the reduction amount may change for the... entitled to an annuity with a tier I component of $500 on May 1, 1991. He was also receiving a...

  9. 31 CFR 353.10 - Amounts which may be purchased.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of purchase was an exempt organization under the terms of 26 CFR 1.501(c)(3)-1. ...) Special limitation. $4,000 (face amount) multiplied by the highest number of employees participating in an... issued. (b) Series HH—(1) General annual limitation. $20,000 (face amount). (2) Special limitation....

  10. 31 CFR 353.10 - Amounts which may be purchased.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of purchase was an exempt organization under the terms of 26 CFR 1.501(c)(3)-1. ...) Special limitation. $4,000 (face amount) multiplied by the highest number of employees participating in an... issued. (b) Series HH—(1) General annual limitation. $20,000 (face amount). (2) Special limitation....

  11. 26 CFR 301.6334-3 - Determination of exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... deductions on account of age or blindness); and (ii) The aggregate amount of the deductions for personal... account of age or blindness); and (B) The aggregate amount of the deductions for personal exemptions... standard deduction (including additional standard deductions on account of age or blindness) for...

  12. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign...

  13. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  14. Learner Preferences and Achievement Under Differing Amounts of Learner Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Howard J.; Leader, Lars F.; Jones, Elizabeth E. K.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of program mode (i.e., a lean program version containing a basic amount of learner practice versus a full mode containing expanded practice) and learner preference (matched or unmatched) for amount of practice on the achievement, time-in-program, and attitudes of university undergraduate students. Students preferred the lean…

  15. 13 CFR 120.348 - Amount of guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of guarantee. 120.348 Section 120.348 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans International Trade Loans § 120.348 Amount of guarantee. SBA can guarantee up to...

  16. 14 CFR 383.2 - Amount of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amount of penalty. 383.2 Section 383.2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PENALTIES § 383.2 Amount of penalty. Civil penalties payable to the U.S. Government...

  17. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  18. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  19. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  20. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  1. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  2. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  3. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  4. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  5. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  6. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120 Section 347.120 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the...

  7. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120 Section 347.120 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the...

  8. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120 Section 347.120 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the...

  9. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120 Section 347.120 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the...

  10. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120 Section 347.120 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the...

  11. The Amount of English Use: Effects on L2 Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vo, Son Ca; Vo, Yen Thi Hoang; Vo, Quyen Thanh

    2014-01-01

    The amount of second language (L2) use has significant influence on native speakers' comprehension of L2 learners' speech. Nonetheless, few empirical studies examine how differences in the amount of language use affect the intelligibility and comprehensibility of nonnative speakers' reading and spontaneous speech. This study aims to…

  12. 26 CFR 1.1441-2 - Amounts subject to withholding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations and Tax-Free Covenant Bonds § 1.1441-2 Amounts subject to withholding. (a) In general. For... certain gambling winnings exempt from tax under section 871(j)); (5) Amounts paid as part of the...

  13. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... percent of the minimum net worth amount is not met by cash or cash equivalents. (3) Health care delivery... depreciated value of health care delivery assets (HCDAs) to satisfy the minimum net worth amount. (4) Other assets. A PSO may apply other assets not used in the delivery of health care provided that those...

  14. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amounts insured under interim binder. 308.303 Section 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The...

  15. 46 CFR 308.203 - Amount insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount insured under interim binder. 308.203 Section 308.203 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.203 Amount insured under interim binder....

  16. 42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bid amounts for each prescription drug plan (not including fallbacks) and for each MA-PD plan...(h) of the Act. (b) Calculation of weighted average. (1) The national average monthly bid amount is a....258(c)(1) of this chapter) and the denominator equal to the total number of Part D...

  17. 42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bid amounts for each prescription drug plan (not including fallbacks) and for each MA-PD plan...(h) of the Act. (b) Calculation of weighted average. (1) The national average monthly bid amount is a....258(c)(1) of this chapter) and the denominator equal to the total number of Part D...

  18. 14 CFR § 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum amount. § 1261.102 Section § 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to...

  19. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amount of feed. 89.1 Section 89.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS STATEMENT OF POLICY UNDER THE TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed....

  20. 45 CFR 305.31 - Amount of incentive payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of incentive payment. 305.31 Section 305.31... PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.31 Amount of incentive payment. (a) The incentive payment for a State for a fiscal year is equal to the incentive payment...

  1. 20 CFR 226.73 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Benefits Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 226.73 Changes in reduction amount. The reduction... in annuity rates, such as a cost-of-living increase. However, the reduction amount may change for the... entitled to an annuity with a tier I component of $500 on May 1, 1991. He was also receiving a...

  2. 20 CFR 226.73 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Benefits Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 226.73 Changes in reduction amount. The reduction... in annuity rates, such as a cost-of-living increase. However, the reduction amount may change for the... entitled to an annuity with a tier I component of $500 on May 1, 1991. He was also receiving a...

  3. 34 CFR 682.204 - Maximum loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... academic year in 34 CFR 668.3. (m) Any TEACH Grants that have been converted to Direct Unsubsidized Loans... amounts under paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. (e) Combined Federal Stafford, SLS and Federal... Loans and SLS Loans, but excluding the amount of capitalized interest, may not exceed the following:...

  4. 34 CFR 682.204 - Maximum loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... academic year in 34 CFR 668.3. (m) Any TEACH Grants that have been converted to Direct Unsubsidized Loans... amounts under paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. (e) Combined Federal Stafford, SLS and Federal... Loans and SLS Loans, but excluding the amount of capitalized interest, may not exceed the following:...

  5. 34 CFR 682.204 - Maximum loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... academic year in 34 CFR 668.3. (m) Any TEACH Grants that have been converted to Direct Unsubsidized Loans... amounts under paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. (e) Combined Federal Stafford, SLS and Federal... Loans and SLS Loans, but excluding the amount of capitalized interest, may not exceed the following:...

  6. 26 CFR 1.615-4 - Limitation of amount deductible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Limitation of amount deductible. 1.615-4 Section 1.615-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-4 Limitation of amount deductible. (a) Taxable years beginning before July 7,...

  7. 26 CFR 1.617-2 - Limitation on amount deductible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Limitation on amount deductible. 1.617-2 Section 1.617-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.617-2 Limitation on amount deductible. (a) Expenditures paid or incurred before January...

  8. 26 CFR 1.615-4 - Limitation of amount deductible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitation of amount deductible. 1.615-4 Section 1.615-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-4 Limitation of amount deductible. (a)...

  9. 26 CFR 1.617-2 - Limitation on amount deductible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitation on amount deductible. 1.617-2 Section 1.617-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.617-2 Limitation on amount deductible....

  10. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  11. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  12. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  13. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  14. 24 CFR 582.105 - Rental assistance amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Rental assistance amounts and... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE Assistance Provided § 582.105 Rental assistance amounts and payments. (a) Eligible activity. S+C grants may be used for providing...

  15. 24 CFR 582.105 - Rental assistance amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rental assistance amounts and... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE Assistance Provided § 582.105 Rental assistance amounts and payments. (a) Eligible activity. S+C grants may be used for providing...

  16. 24 CFR 582.105 - Rental assistance amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rental assistance amounts and... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE Assistance Provided § 582.105 Rental assistance amounts and payments. (a) Eligible activity. S+C grants may be used for providing...

  17. 24 CFR 582.105 - Rental assistance amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rental assistance amounts and... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE Assistance Provided § 582.105 Rental assistance amounts and payments. (a) Eligible activity. S+C grants may be used for providing...

  18. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  19. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  20. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  1. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that is... that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules for...

  2. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign...

  3. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign trust created by a...

  4. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  5. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign...

  6. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1441-2 - Amounts subject to withholding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amounts subject to withholding. 1.1441-2 Section 1.1441-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations and Tax-Free Covenant Bonds § 1.1441-2 Amounts...

  8. 27 CFR 19.700 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Bonds § 19.700 Amount... the level of production and receipts at the alcohol fuel plant increases so that the current bond no... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount of bond....

  9. 27 CFR 19.700 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Bonds § 19.700 Amount... the level of production and receipts at the alcohol fuel plant increases so that the current bond no... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of bond....

  10. 34 CFR 682.204 - Maximum loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... academic year in 34 CFR 668.3. (m) Any TEACH Grants that have been converted to Direct Unsubsidized Loans... amount the student may borrow for any academic year of study under the Stafford Loan Program in... undergraduate program, the total amount the student may borrow for any academic year of study under the...

  11. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a) For... arising from any risk. In the case of hull insurance, the amount insured may not exceed the reasonable value of the aircraft as determined by the FAA or its designated agent. (b) Policies issued...

  12. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a) For... arising from any risk. In the case of hull insurance, the amount insured may not exceed the reasonable value of the aircraft as determined by the FAA or its designated agent. (b) Policies issued...

  13. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  14. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  15. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  16. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may...

  17. 20 CFR 416.724 - Amounts of penalty deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amounts of penalty deductions. 416.724 Section 416.724 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Reports Required Penalty Deductions § 416.724 Amounts of penalty...

  18. 20 CFR 416.724 - Amounts of penalty deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amounts of penalty deductions. 416.724 Section 416.724 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Reports Required Penalty Deductions § 416.724 Amounts of penalty...

  19. 13 CFR 108.2020 - Amount of Operational Assistance grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amount of Operational Assistance grant. 108.2020 Section 108.2020 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Requirements and Procedures for Operational Assistance Grants to NMVC Companies and SSBICs § 108.2020 Amount...

  20. 13 CFR 108.2020 - Amount of Operational Assistance grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... making Operational Assistance grant awards to NMVC Companies and SSBICs is not sufficient to award grants... NMVC Company. NMVC Companies are eligible for an Operational Assistance grant award equal to the amount....2030. (b) Amount of grant to SSBIC. SSBICs are eligible for an Operational Assistance grant award...