Science.gov

Sample records for access module lsam

  1. Power System Trade Studies for the Lunar Surface Access Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa, L.

    2008-01-01

    A Lunar Lander Preparatory Study (LLPS) was undertaken for NASA's Lunar Lander Pre-Project in 2006 to explore a wide breadth of conceptual lunar lander designs. Civil servant teams from nearly every NASA center responded with dozens of innovative designs that addressed one or more specific lander technical challenges. Although none of the conceptual lander designs sought to solve every technical design issue, each added significantly to the technical database available to the Lunar Lander Project Office as it began operations in 2007. As part of the LLPS, a first order analysis was performed to identify candidate power systems for the ascent and descent stages of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). A power profile by mission phase was established based on LSAM subsystem power requirements. Using this power profile, battery and fuel cell systems were modeled to determine overall mass and volume. Fuel cell systems were chosen for both the descent and ascent stages due to their low mass. While fuel cells looked promising based on these initial results, several areas have been identified for further investigation in subsequent studies, including the identification and incorporation of peak power requirements into the analysis, refinement of the fuel cell models to improve fidelity and incorporate ongoing technology developments, and broadening the study to include solar power.

  2. Thermal Control System Development to Support the Crew Exploration Vehicle and Lunar Surface Access Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Westheimer, David

    2006-01-01

    All space vehicles or habitats require thermal management to maintain a safe and operational environment for both crew and hardware. Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) perform the functions of acquiring heat from both crew and hardware within a vehicle, transporting that heat throughout the vehicle, and finally rejecting that energy into space. Almost all of the energy used in a space vehicle eventually turns into heat, which must be rejected in order to maintain an energy balance and temperature control of the vehicle. For crewed vehicles, Active Thermal Control Systems are pumped fluid loops that are made up of components designed to perform these functions. NASA has recently evaluated all of the agency s technology development work and identified key areas that must be addressed to aid in the successful development of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and a Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The technologies that have been selected and are currently under development include: fluids that enable single loop ATCS architectures, a gravity insensitive vapor compression cycle heat pump, a sublimator with reduced sensitivity to feedwater contamination, an evaporative heat sink that can operate in multiple ambient pressure environments, a compact spray evaporator, and lightweight radiators that take advantage of carbon composites and advanced optical coatings.

  3. Code division multiple access signaling for modulated reflector technology

    DOEpatents

    Briles, Scott D [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-05-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing code division multiple access in modulated reflectance transmissions comprises the steps of generating a phase-modulated reflectance data bit stream; modifying the modulated reflectance data bit stream; providing the modified modulated reflectance data bit stream to a switch that connects an antenna to an infinite impedance in the event a "+1" is to be sent, or connects the antenna to ground in the event a "0" or a "-1" is to be sent.

  4. Recovery of Lunar Surface Access Module Residual and Reserve Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, William U.

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration calls for human exploration of the lunar surface in the 2020 timeframe. Sustained human exploration of the lunar surface will require supply, storage, and distribution of consumables for a variety of mission elements. These elements include propulsion systems for ascent and descent stages, life support for habitats and extra-vehicular activity, and reactants for power systems. NASA KSC has been tasked to develop technologies and strategies for consumables transfer for lunar exploration as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program. This paper will investigate details of operational concepts to scavenge residual propellants from the lunar descent propulsion system. Predictions on the mass of residuals and reserves are made. Estimates of heat transfer and boiloff rates are calculated and transient tank thermodynamic issues post-engine cutoff are modeled. Recovery and storage options including cryogenic liquid, vapor and water are discussed, and possible reuse of LSAM assets is presented.

  5. Genome accessibility is widely preserved and locally modulated during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Chris C-S; Morrissey, Christapher S; Udugama, Maheshi; Frank, Christopher L; Keller, Cheryl A; Baek, Songjoon; Giardine, Belinda; Crawford, Gregory E; Sung, Myong-Hee; Hardison, Ross C; Blobel, Gerd A

    2015-02-01

    Mitosis entails global alterations to chromosome structure and nuclear architecture, concomitant with transient silencing of transcription. How cells transmit transcriptional states through mitosis remains incompletely understood. While many nuclear factors dissociate from mitotic chromosomes, the observation that certain nuclear factors and chromatin features remain associated with individual loci during mitosis originated the hypothesis that such mitotically retained molecular signatures could provide transcriptional memory through mitosis. To understand the role of chromatin structure in mitotic memory, we performed the first genome-wide comparison of DNase I sensitivity of chromatin in mitosis and interphase, using a murine erythroblast model. Despite chromosome condensation during mitosis visible by microscopy, the landscape of chromatin accessibility at the macromolecular level is largely unaltered. However, mitotic chromatin accessibility is locally dynamic, with individual loci maintaining none, some, or all of their interphase accessibility. Mitotic reduction in accessibility occurs primarily within narrow, highly DNase hypersensitive sites that frequently coincide with transcription factor binding sites, whereas broader domains of moderate accessibility tend to be more stable. In mitosis, proximal promoters generally maintain their accessibility more strongly, whereas distal regulatory elements tend to lose accessibility. Large domains of DNA hypomethylation mark a subset of promoters that retain accessibility during mitosis and across many cell types in interphase. Erythroid transcription factor GATA1 exerts site-specific changes in interphase accessibility that are most pronounced at distal regulatory elements, but has little influence on mitotic accessibility. We conclude that features of open chromatin are remarkably stable through mitosis, but are modulated at the level of individual genes and regulatory elements.

  6. Integrated optics bus access module for intramachine communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karioja, Pentti; Tammela, Simo K. T.; Hannula, Tapio

    1991-12-01

    The feasibility of a passive bidirectional fiber optic bus and the packaging considerations of a bus access module have been studied. The bus uses 110/125 micrometers HCS fiber and passive integrated optic couplers for bus access. The access couplers are asymmetric and were fabricated using a Ag-Na ion exchange process. The asymmetry of the coupler was 5 dB, the launch loss to the bus was 6 dB and the tap-off loss to the node was 11 dB. With the integrated optics coupler it is possible to connect 6 nodes to the bidirectional bus. It is also possible to realize a simple, easy-to-use, and reliable bus access module for intramachine communication. The integrated optics coupler, a LED chip, and a PIN-diode chip and transceiver electronics are packaged in an electrical connector with a two-fiber optical cable pigtail. Active and passive components are butt coupled to the coupler. The 0.5 dB alignment tolerances for the fiber pigtails, the LED, and the PIN-diode chips are +/- 5 micrometers .

  7. Lunar Surface Access Module Pump-Fed Engine Turbopump Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Randall J.

    2007-01-01

    The need for a high specific impulse LOX/LH2 pump-fed lunar lander engine has been established by NASA for the new Exploration architecture. Preliminary studies indicate that a 4 engine cluster in the thrust range of 9,000-lbf each is a likely configuration for the main propulsion of the manned lunar lander vehicle. The main Lunar Surface Access Module engines will likely be responsible for mid-course correction burns, lunar orbit insertion burns, a deorbit burn, and the powered descent to the lunar surface. This multi-task engine philosophy imposes a wide throttling requirement on the engines in the range of 10:1. Marshall Space Flight Center has initiated an internal effort to mature the technologies needed for full scale development of such a LOX/LH2 pump-fed engine. In particular, a fuel turbopump is being designed and fabricated at MSFC to address the issues that a small high speed turbopump of this class will face. These issues include adequate throttling performance of the pump and turbine over a very wide operating range. The small scale of the hardware presents issues including performance scaling, and manufacturing issues like that will challenge the traditional methods we have used to fabricate and assemble larger scale turbopumps. The small high speed turbopump being developed at MSFC will operate at speeds greater than 100,000-rpm. These speeds create issues that include structural dynamics and high cycle fatigue as well as rotordynamic stability. The fuel turbopump development at MSFC will address these issues, and plans are in work for component level testing as well as operation in a test bed engine environment. The fuel turbopump design is nearing completion and described herein.

  8. Making Authentic Data Accessible: The Sensing the Environment Inquiry Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffis, Kathy; Thadani, Vandana; Wise, Joe

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of a middle school life sciences inquiry module, Sensing the Environment. This "data-enriched" inquiry module includes a series of activities exploring the nature of science, photosynthesis, transpiration, and natural selection, which culminates in students' querying authentic environmental data to support a scientific…

  9. Teenagers' Access to Higher Education. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 7. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, focuses on teenagers' access to higher education. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic, thinking, interpersonal, information utilization, and other skills…

  10. Access to Adult Learning Opportunities. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 6. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in an adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) course, focuses on access to adult learning opportunities. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic, thinking, interpersonal, information utilization, and other skills…

  11. Super-linear optical modulator technologies for optical broadband access network: development and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingel, Benjamin B.; Madabhushi, Rangaraj; Madamopoulos, Nicholas

    2005-10-01

    Linearized optical intensity modulator is recognized as one of the building blocks in any analog fiber-optics links systems such as subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) systems, ultra-dense CATV, Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) communications, and other platform access systems. For more than 30 years, the quest for highly linearized optical modulator with SFDR > 130 dB-Hz 2/3 represents a major, on-going technology goal. This invited paper has three-fold objective namely: (1) provide comprehensive overview of the numerous existing linearized optical intensity modulators, (2) introduce a classification of these linearized modulators, and (3) present recent development of new, super-linear (SFDR = 130-140 dB-Hz 2/3) modulator which the authors pioneered. Other features of this new modulator are simple setup, high tolerance and low-cost. Performance results are presented via numerical simulation, its potential applications and limitations are also discussed.

  12. Tunable directly modulated fiber ring laser using a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for WDM access networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zih-Rong; Liu, Cheng-Kuang; Jhang, Yu-Jhu; Keiser, Gerd

    2010-08-16

    We have proposed a stable, wideband, and tunable directly modulated fiber ring laser (TDMFRL) by using a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) and an optical tunable filter (OTF). For use in a bidirectional access network, the TDMFRL not only generates downstream data traffic but also serves as the wavelength-selecting injection light source for the Fabry-Pérot laser diode (FP-LD) located at the subscriber site. We experimentally demonstrated a bidirectional transmission at 1.25-Gb/s direct modulation over a 25-km single-mode fiber (SMF), thereby showing good performance in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) access network.

  13. Signal restoration in intensity-modulated optical OFDM access systems.

    PubMed

    Vanin, Evgeny

    2011-11-15

    It is well known that deliberate signal clipping in an intensity-modulated (IM) laser transmitter helps to overcome the optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system performance limitation that is related to the signal high peak-to-average power ratio. The amplitude of a clipped OFDM signal has to be optimized in order to minimize the optical power that is required to achieve a specified system performance. However, the signal clipping introduces nonlinear distortion (so-called clipping noise) and leads to a system performance penalty. In this Letter, the performance of the IM optical OFDM system with digital baseband clipping distortion in the transmitter and clipping noise compensation by means of signal restoration in the digital signal processing unit of the system receiver is analytically evaluated. It is demonstrated that the system bit-error ratio can be reduced by more than an order of magnitude, from 10(-3) to 3.5×10(-5), by applying only the first iteration of the signal restoration algorithm proposed in this Letter. The results of the analytical analysis are verified with brute-force numerical simulations based on direct error counting.

  14. Issues in Accessing Services. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 13. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, discusses how to access the formalized human service delivery systems in the United States, which often replace the networks of extended families and friends that immigrants relied on in…

  15. The ZeroAccess Auto-Clicking and Search-Hijacking Click Fraud Modules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-16

    payloads and instead began distributing Bitcoin miners and click fraud modules.3 From a technical perspective, the primary click fraud malware used in...this era operated in the indiscriminate “auto-clicking” fashion we describe in Section 5. Alongside the click fraud and Bitcoin payloads, ZeroAccess

  16. Filter Bank Multicarrier (FBMC) for long-reach intensity modulated optical access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saljoghei, Arsalan; Gutiérrez, Fernando A.; Perry, Philip; Barry, Liam P.

    2017-04-01

    Filter Bank Multi Carrier (FBMC) is a modulation scheme which has recently attracted significant interest in both wireless and optical communications. The interest in optical communications arises due to FBMC's capability to operate without a Cyclic Prefix (CP) and its high resilience to synchronisation errors. However, the operation of FBMC in optical access networks has not been extensively studied either in downstream or upstream. In this work we use experimental work to investigate the operation of FBMC in intensity modulated Passive Optical Networks (PONs) employing direct detection in conjunction with both direct and external modulation schemes. The data rates and propagation lengths employed here vary from 8.4 to 14.8 Gb/s and 0-75 km. The results suggest that by using FBMC it is possible to accomplish CP-Less transmission up to 75 km of SSMF in passive links using cost effective intensity modulation and detection schemes.

  17. Integration of variable-rate OWC with OFDM-PON for hybrid optical access based on adaptive envelope modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Zhong, Wen-De; Wu, Dehao

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate an integrated optical wireless communication (OWC) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system for hybrid wired and wireless optical access, based on an adaptive envelope modulation technique. Both the outdoor and indoor wireless communications are considered in the integrated system. The data for wired access is carried by a conventional OFDM signal, while the data for wireless access is carried by an M-ary pulse amplitude modulation (M-PAM) signal which is modulated onto the envelope of a phase-modulated OFDM signal. By adaptively modulating the wireless M-PAM signal onto the envelope of the wired phase-modulated constant envelope OFDM (CE-OFDM) signal, hybrid wired and wireless optical access can be seamlessly integrated and variable-rate optical wireless transmission can also be achieved. Analytical bit-error-rate (BER) expressions are derived for both the CE-OFDM signal with M-PAM overlay and the overlaid unipolar M-PAM signal, which are verified by Monte Carlo simulations. The BER performances of wired access, indoor OWC wireless access and outdoor OWC wireless access are evaluated. Moreover, variable-rate indoor and outdoor optical wireless access based on the adaptive envelope modulation technique is also discussed.

  18. Performance of Multiple Pulse Multiple Delay Modulated UWB Signals in a Multiple Access Indoor Wireless Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F

    2003-06-12

    In this paper, the performance of a two user UWB multiple access (UWB-MA) system based on multiple-pulse multiple-delay (MPMD) modulation scheme in an indoor wireless channel is evaluated by computer simulations. The indoor multipath propagation channel model used in this study is based on the modified statistical Saleh-Valenzuela model proposed by Foerester and Li from Intel. The simulation results indicate that the multipath performance of MPMD modulated signals in a multiple access system outperforms the nonmultipath case as the number of autocorrelation function (ACF) sampling points increases for each user. This is an unusual but important result, since MPMD receiver exploits multipath phenomenon in indoor wireless channels to increase the BER performance, hence the transmission rate in a UWB-MA system.

  19. Super-linear modulator with extended bandwidth capability for broadband access applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescod, Andru; Dingel, Benjamin B.; Madamopoulos, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-linear modulators are critical components for broadband access applications in analog fiber-optic communication links, such as Radio-over-Fiber (RoF), Radio-over-Free Space (RoFS) and ultra-dense (cable television) CATV. In our previous work, it was shown that an ultra-linear optical modulator - composed of a phase modulator and ring resonator in a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) configuration, exhibited SFDR values > 130 dB. In this paper, we introduce a new configuration based on a lumped electrode design, in which the phase modulator (PM) is on one arm of the MZ and the ring resonator (RR) is located on the other arm. We also carefully control and monitor the power split ratio of an RF input to both the PM and the RR, in addition to the RF phase bias between the RR and PM. We report its unique and superior features such as superior linearity (SFDR ~ 133 dB), modulation bandwidth extension (as much as 70%) over the ring resonator-assisted Mach Zehnder design and high link gain. Lastly, we discuss the merits of the design flexibility, practicality and ease of use of the new modulator.

  20. Accessibility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal laws, including Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, mandate that people with disabilities have access to the same information that someone without a disability would have. 508 standards cover electronic and information technology (EIT) products.

  1. Access to Awareness for Faces during Continuous Flash Suppression Is Not Modulated by Affective Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Rabovsky, Milena; Stein, Timo; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2016-01-01

    It is a controversially debated topic whether stimuli can be analyzed up to the semantic level when they are suppressed from visual awareness during continuous flash suppression (CFS). Here, we investigated whether affective knowledge, i.e., affective biographical information about faces, influences the time it takes for initially invisible faces with neutral expressions to overcome suppression and break into consciousness. To test this, we used negative, positive, and neutral famous faces as well as initially unfamiliar faces, which were associated with negative, positive or neutral biographical information. Affective knowledge influenced ratings of facial expressions, corroborating recent evidence and indicating the success of our affective learning paradigm. Furthermore, we replicated shorter suppression durations for upright than for inverted faces, demonstrating the suitability of our CFS paradigm. However, affective biographical information did not modulate suppression durations for newly learned faces, and even though suppression durations for famous faces were influenced by affective knowledge, these effects did not differ between upright and inverted faces, indicating that they might have been due to low-level visual differences. Thus, we did not obtain unequivocal evidence for genuine influences of affective biographical information on access to visual awareness for faces during CFS. PMID:27119743

  2. A metro-access integrated network with all-optical virtual private network function using DPSK/ASK modulation format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yue; Leng, Lufeng; Su, Yikai

    2008-11-01

    All-optical virtual private network (VPN), which offers dedicated optical channels to connect users within a VPN group, is considered a promising approach to efficient internetworking with low latency and enhanced security implemented in the physical layer. On the other hand, time-division multiplexed (TDM) / wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) network architecture based on a feeder-ring with access-tree topology, is considered a pragmatic migration scenario from current TDM-PONs to future WDM-PONs and a potential convergence scheme for access and metropolitan networks, due to its efficiently shared hardware and bandwidth resources. All-optical VPN internetworking in such a metro-access integrated structure is expected to cover a wider service area and therefore is highly desirable. In this paper, we present a TDM/WDM metro-access integrated network supporting all-optical VPN internetworking among ONUs in different sub- PONs based on orthogonal differential-phase-shift keying (DPSK) / amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulation format. In each ONU, no laser but a single Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is needed for the upstream and VPN signal generation, which is cost-effective. Experiments and simulations are performed to verify its feasibility as a potential solution to the future access service.

  3. Out of Your Sight, Out of My Mind: Knowledge About Another Person's Visual Access Modulates Spontaneous Visuospatial Perspective-Taking.

    PubMed

    Freundlieb, Martin; Sebanz, Natalie; Kovács, Ágnes M

    2017-03-06

    Accumulating evidence suggests that humans spontaneously adopt each other's visuospatial perspective (VSP), but many aspects about the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether knowledge about another's visual access systematically modulates spontaneous VSP-taking. In a spatial compatibility task, a participant and a confederate sat at a 90°angle to each other, with visual stimuli being aligned vertically for the participants and horizontally for the confederate. In this task, VSP-taking is reflected in a spatial compatibility effect in the participant, because stimulus-response compatibility occurs only if the participant takes the confederate's perspective. We manipulated the visual access of the confederate during the task by means of glasses with adjustable shutters that allowed or prevented the confederate from seeing the visual stimuli. The results of 2 experiments showed that people only adopted their task partner's VSP if that person had unhindered visual access to the stimuli. Provided that the confederate had visual access to the participant's stimuli, VSP-taking occurred regardless of whether the confederate performed the same visual task as the participant (Experiment 1) or a different, auditory task (Experiment 2). The results suggest that knowledge about another's visual access is pivotal for triggering spontaneous VSP-taking, whereas having the same task is not. We discuss the possibility that spontaneous VSP-taking can effectively facilitate spatial alignment processes in social interaction. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Multi-pulse multi-delay (MPMD) multiple access modulation for UWB

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak

    2007-03-20

    A new modulation scheme in UWB communications is introduced. This modulation technique utilizes multiple orthogonal transmitted-reference pulses for UWB channelization. The proposed UWB receiver samples the second order statistical function at both zero and non-zero lags and matches the samples to stored second order statistical functions, thus sampling and matching the shape of second order statistical functions rather than just the shape of the received pulses.

  5. Electro-optical time gating based on Mach-Zehnder modulator for multiple access interference elimination in optical code-division multiple access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yinfang; Wang, Rong; Fang, Tao; Pu, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Zhu, Huatao

    2014-05-01

    An electro-optical time gating technique, which is based on an electrical return-to-zero (RZ) pulse driven Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) for eliminating multiple access interference (MAI) in optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) networks is proposed. This technique is successfully simulated in an eight-user two-dimensional wavelength-hopping time-spreading system, as well as in a three-user temporal phase encoding system. Results show that in both systems the MAI noise is efficiently removed and the average received power penalty improved. Both achieve error-free transmissions at a bit rate of 2.5 Gb/s. In addition, we also individually discuss effects of parameters in two systems, such as the extinction ratio of the MZM, the duty cycle of the driven RZ pulse, and the time misalignment between the driven pulse and the decoded autocorrelation peak, on the output bit error rate performance. Our work shows that employing a common MZM as a thresholder provides another probability and an interesting cost-effective choice for a smart size, low energy, and less complex thresholding technique for integrated detection in OCDMA networks.

  6. Arteriovenous Access

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Jennifer M.; Dipchand, Christine; Oliver, Matthew; Moist, Louise; Yilmaz, Serdar; Lok, Charmaine; Leung, Kelvin; Clark, Edward; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Complications of vascular access lead to morbidity and may reduce quality of life. In this module, we review both infectious and noninfectious arteriovenous access complications including neuropathy, aneurysm, and high-output access. For the challenging patients who have developed many complications and are now nearing their last vascular access, we highlight some potentially novel approaches. PMID:28270919

  7. Microbiota modulate transcription in the intestinal epithelium without remodeling the accessible chromatin landscape

    PubMed Central

    Camp, J. Gray; Frank, Christopher L.; Lickwar, Colin R.; Guturu, Harendra; Rube, Tomas; Wenger, Aaron M.; Chen, Jenny; Bejerano, Gill; Crawford, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiota regulate intestinal physiology by modifying host gene expression along the length of the intestine, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain unresolved. Transcriptional specificity occurs through interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and cis-regulatory regions (CRRs) characterized by nucleosome-depleted accessible chromatin. We profiled transcriptome and accessible chromatin landscapes in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from mice reared in the presence or absence of microbiota. We show that regional differences in gene transcription along the intestinal tract were accompanied by major alterations in chromatin accessibility. Surprisingly, we discovered that microbiota modify host gene transcription in IECs without significantly impacting the accessible chromatin landscape. Instead, microbiota regulation of host gene transcription might be achieved by differential expression of specific TFs and enrichment of their binding sites in nucleosome-depleted CRRs near target genes. Our results suggest that the chromatin landscape in IECs is preprogrammed by the host in a region-specific manner to permit responses to microbiota through binding of open CRRs by specific TFs. PMID:24963153

  8. Environmental--Access to Safe Water Learning Module. Development Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This learning module has two main goals: (1) to increase students' knowledge and understanding of the often complex relationship between sustainable development and the social, economic, and environmental conditions in a country; and (2) to strengthen students' ability to perform statistical calculations, make and interpret maps, charts, and…

  9. Convergent optical wired and wireless long-reach access network using high spectral-efficient modulation.

    PubMed

    Chow, C W; Lin, Y H

    2012-04-09

    To provide broadband services in a single and low cost perform, the convergent optical wired and wireless access network is promising. Here, we propose and demonstrate a convergent optical wired and wireless long-reach access networks based on orthogonal wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). Both the baseband signal and the radio-over-fiber (ROF) signal are multiplexed and de-multiplexed in optical domain, hence it is simple and the operation speed is not limited by the electronic bottleneck caused by the digital signal processing (DSP). Error-free de-multiplexing and down-conversion can be achieved for all the signals after 60 km (long-reach) fiber transmission. The scalability of the system for higher bit-rate (60 GHz) is also simulated and discussed.

  10. Defective number module or impaired access? Numerical magnitude processing in first graders with mathematical difficulties.

    PubMed

    De Smedt, Bert; Gilmore, Camilla K

    2011-02-01

    This study examined numerical magnitude processing in first graders with severe and mild forms of mathematical difficulties, children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) and children with low achievement (LA) in mathematics, respectively. In total, 20 children with MLD, 21 children with LA, and 41 regular achievers completed a numerical magnitude comparison task and an approximate addition task, which were presented in a symbolic and a nonsymbolic (dot arrays) format. Children with MLD and LA were impaired on tasks that involved the access of numerical magnitude information from symbolic representations, with the LA children showing a less severe performance pattern than children with MLD. They showed no deficits in accessing magnitude from underlying nonsymbolic magnitude representations. Our findings indicate that this performance pattern occurs in children from first grade onward and generalizes beyond numerical magnitude comparison tasks. These findings shed light on the types of intervention that may help children who struggle with learning mathematics.

  11. Low-cost MCM-D fabrication and assembly from MIDAS: the multichip module interconnect designer's access service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, Jennifer; Hansford, Wes

    1997-06-01

    The MCM Designers' Access Service (MIDAS) allows designers to obtain prototype and small quantities of MCMs. To date the service has processed designs from industry, government and major universities. The service currently accesses processes at the following MCM-D foundries: nChip/Flextronics in San Jose, CA; Micromodule Systems in Cupertino, CA; and IBM Microelectronics in Hopewell Junction, NY. MIDAS provides a low cost service achieved through a multiproject environment where the customers share tooling and substrate manufacturing costs. The service offers design support, distributes foundry design kits, groups the projects onto regularly scheduled runs, places orders and supplies fully assembled modules. As well, MIDAS offers a limited selection of open tooled, second-level packages, bare tested die, and test sockets to aid with the design process. Often when investigating implementation of MCMs into a working system designers need a prototype. In many cases a foundry prefers to handle only high volume orders or imposes minimum purchase quantities. These may likely exceed the entire project budget. MIDAS functions as a technology enabler by supplying the designers with an interface `transparent' to the fabricator and common to multiple vendors. Foundries prefer to work with a single source who coordinates the details of multiple orders to spare valuable overhead. By completing front-end foundry tasks such as data preparation and mask fabrication and by grouping multiple users together on a run, MIDAS serves this purpose. Certain design conditions such as footprint size and I/O ring, layer stacking and number of layers exist to establish uniformity amongst the unrelated customers. This paper discusses the history of the service, the operating guidelines and presents an overview of how to access the service for MCM fabrication.

  12. Small Molecules Modulate Chromatin Accessibility to Promote NEUROG2-Mediated Fibroblast-to-Neuron Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek K; Yang, Jianjing; Liu, Meng-Lu; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2016-11-08

    Pro-neural transcription factors and small molecules can induce the reprogramming of fibroblasts into functional neurons; however, the immediate-early molecular events that catalyze this conversion have not been well defined. We previously demonstrated that neurogenin 2 (NEUROG2), forskolin (F), and dorsomorphin (D) can reprogram fibroblasts into functional neurons with high efficiency. Here, we used this model to define the genetic and epigenetic events that initiate an acquisition of neuronal identity. We demonstrate that NEUROG2 is a pioneer factor, FD enhances chromatin accessibility and H3K27 acetylation, and synergistic transcription activated by these factors is essential to successful reprogramming. CREB1 promotes neuron survival and acts with NEUROG2 to upregulate SOX4, which co-activates NEUROD1 and NEUROD4. In addition, SOX4 targets SWI/SNF subunits and SOX4 knockdown results in extensive loss of open chromatin and abolishes reprogramming. Applying these insights, adult human glioblastoma cell and skin fibroblast reprogramming can be improved using SOX4 or chromatin-modifying chemicals.

  13. Peak-to-average power ratio mitigation and adaptive bit assignment in single-carrier frequency division multiplexing access via hierarchical modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijia; Liu, Bo; Xin, Xiangjun; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-11-01

    A hierarchical modulation with multilevels is proposed for an optical single-carrier frequency division multiplexing access (SC-FDMA) system. It can mitigate the nonlinearity by reducing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the SC-FDM signal. According to different optical signal-to-noise ratio requirements, the adaptive bit allocation can be implemented on different levels during hierarchical modulation. In the experiment, the PAPR of the hierarchical-modulated SC-FDM signal outperforms the conventional SC-FDM signal by 0.7 dB. Signals with 4- and 6-bit hierarchical modulation are successfully demodulated by the optical network unit with power penalties less than 0.2 and 0.45 dB, respectively.

  14. Random depth access full-field heterodyne low-coherence interferometry utilizing acousto-optic modulation and a complementary metaloxide semiconductor camera.

    PubMed

    Egan, Patrick; Connelly, Michael J; Lakestani, Fereydoun; Whelan, Maurice P

    2006-04-01

    With analog scanning, time-domain low-coherence interferometry lacks precise depth information, and optical carrier generation demands a linear scanning speed. Full-field heterodyne low-coherence interferometry that uses a logarithmic complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera, acousto-optic modulation, and digital depth stepping is reported, with which random regions of interest, lateral and axial, can be accessed. Furthermore, nanometer profilometry is possible through heterodyne phase retrieval of the interference signal. The approach demonstrates inexpensive yet high-precision functional machine vision offering true digital random access in three dimensions.

  15. High precision three-dimensional iterative indoor localization algorithm using code division multiple access modulation based on visible light communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Weipeng; Wu, Yvxiang; Wen, Shangsheng; Yang, Chen; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Zhaoze; Chen, Yingcong

    2016-10-01

    To solve the problem of positioning accuracy affected by mutual interference among multiple reference points in the traditional visible light communication positioning system, an iterative algorithm of received signal strength (RSS) based on code division multiple access (CDMA) coding is proposed. Every light-emitting diode (LED) source broadcasts a unique CDMA modulation identification (ID) code, which is associated with geographic position. The mobile terminal receives a mixed light signal from each LED reference point. By using the orthogonality of the spreading codes, the corresponding ID position information and the intensity attenuation factor of each LED reference point source can be available. According to the ID information and signal attenuation intensity, the location area of each LED and the distance between the receiver end and each LED can be determined. The three-dimensional (3-D) position of the receiver can be obtained by using the iterative algorithm of RSS triangulation. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve a positioning accuracy of 5.25 cm in a two-dimensional (2-D) positioning system. And in the 3-D positioning system, the maximum positioning error is 10.27 cm, the minimum positioning error is 0.45 cm, the average positioning error is 3.97 cm, and the proportion of the positioning error exceeding 5 cm is <25%. With a very good positioning accuracy, this system is simple and does not require synchronization processing. What is more, it can be applied to both the 2-D and 3-D localization systems, which has a broad application prospect.

  16. Reconfigurable digital coherent receiver for metro-access networks supporting mixed modulation formats and bit-rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, Antonio; Gonzalez, Neil Guerrero; Arlunno, Valeria; Borkowski, Robert; Pham, Tien Thang; Rodes, Roberto; Zhang, Xu; Othman, Maisara Binti; Prince, Kamau; Yu, Xianbin; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Zibar, Darko; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2013-12-01

    A single, reconfigurable, digital coherent receiver is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for converged wireless and optical fiber transport. The capacity of reconstructing the full transmitted optical field allows for the demodulation of mixed modulation formats and bit-rates. We performed experimental validation of different modulation formats, including VCSEL based OOK, baseband QPSK, RoF OFDM and wireless IR-UWB over a 78 km deployed fiber link.

  17. Using single side-band modulation for colorless OFDM-WDM access network to alleviate Rayleigh backscattering effects.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2016-05-16

    In this investigation, we demonstrate a new colorless orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) system with Rayleigh backscattering (RB) noise mitigation. Here, only a single laser source at the central office (CO) is needed to produce the downstream signal and distributed continuous-wave (CW) carrier, which will then be modulated at the optical networking unit (ONU) to produce the upstream signal. Single side-band (SSB) modulation is used to wavelength-shift the distributed CW carrier, which will be launched into a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) based ONU for directly modulation of 5.15 Gbps OFDM upstream signal. To avoid the radio-frequency (RF) power fading and chromatic fiber dispersion, the four-band OFDM modulation is proposed to generate a 40 Gbps downstream when a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) with -0.7 chirp parameter is used. Hence, the RB circumvention can be centralized in the CO. Moreover, the signal performances of downstream and upstream are also studied and discussed in this measurement.

  18. School Climate: Applied to Integration and Access of Special Education Children in Full Learning Environments. A Ho'okoho Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Irena; Yoneshige, Dora

    The module is intended to help educators understand the components of school climate and its influence on the integration of students with handicaps. Three competencies are addressed: (1) to develop an understanding of the concept of school climate, identify its components and analyze its relationship to educational goals; (2) to develop an…

  19. Accessing the quantum palette: quantum-dot spectral conversion towards the BIPV application of thin-film micro-modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, S. D.; Kartopu, G.; Rugen-Hankey, S. L.; Clayton, A. J.; Barrioz, V.; Irvine, S. J. C.

    2015-10-01

    To demonstrate the potential for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) incorporation of thin-film photovoltaics, commercially available quantum dots (QDs) have been deposited, as part of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composite film, on a cadmium telluride (CdTe) micro-module. This resulted in an increase in photocurrent generation through the luminescent down-shifting (LDS) process. The optical properties of these films were characterized through UV-vis spectroscopy. The impact of the film on the micro-module was studied through current-voltage (I-V) and external quantum efficiency measurements. Further layers were added to the initial single-layer LDS film, however no additional improvement to the micro-module were observed. Additionally, a range of emission wavelengths have been explored. The majority of these films, when tested on a CdTe device, were shown to improve the photocurrent generation whilst also visually displaying the vivid colour palette provided by quantum confined materials. The future feasibility of using QD based LDS films for large scale BIPV-based power generation has also been discussed.

  20. How Modification of Accessible Lysines to Phenylalanine Modulates the Structural and Functional Properties of Horseradish Peroxidase: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Navapour, Leila; Mogharrab, Navid; Amininasab, Mehriar

    2014-01-01

    Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) is one of the most studied peroxidases and a great number of chemical modifications and genetic manipulations have been carried out on its surface accessible residues to improve its stability and catalytic efficiency necessary for biotechnological applications. Most of the stabilized derivatives of HRP reported to date have involved chemical or genetic modifications of three surface-exposed lysines (K174, K232 and K241). In this computational study, we altered these lysines to phenylalanine residues to model those chemical modifications or genetic manipulations in which these positively charged lysines are converted to aromatic hydrophobic residues. Simulation results implied that upon these substitutions, the protein structure becomes less flexible. Stability gains are likely to be achieved due to the increased number of stable hydrogen bonds, improved heme-protein interactions and more integrated proximal Ca2+ binding pocket. We also found a new persistent hydrogen bond between the protein moiety (F174) and the heme prosthetic group as well as two stitching hydrogen bonds between the connecting loops GH and F′F″ in mutated HRP. However, detailed analysis of functionally related structural properties and dynamical features suggests reduced reactivity of the enzyme toward its substrates. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that substitutions narrow the bottle neck entry of peroxide substrate access channel and reduce the surface accessibility of the distal histidine (H42) and heme prosthetic group to the peroxide and aromatic substrates, respectively. Results also demonstrated that the area and volume of the aromatic-substrate binding pocket are significantly decreased upon modifications. Moreover, the hydrophobic patch functioning as a binding site or trap for reducing aromatic substrates is shrunk in mutated enzyme. Together, the results of this simulation study could provide possible structural clues to explain those

  1. Design and Evaluation of a Virtual Quadrant Receiver for 4-ary Pulse Position Modulation/Optical Code Division Multiple Access (4-ary PPM/O-CDMA)

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2006-12-29

    M-ary pulse position modulation (M-ary PPM) is an alternative to on-off-keying (OOK) that transmits multiple bits as a single symbol occupying a frame of M slots. PPM does not require thresholding as in OOK signaling, instead performing a comparison test among all slots in a frame to make the slot decision. Combining PPM with optical code division multiple access (PPM/O-CDMA) adds the benefit of supporting multiple concurrent, asynchronous bursty PPM users. While the advantages of PPM/O-CDMA are well known, implementing a receiver that performs comparison test can be difficult. This paper describes the design of a novel array receiver for M-ary PPM/O-CDMA (M = 4) where the received signal is mapped onto an xy-plane whose quadrants define the PPM slot decision by means of an associated control law. The receiver does not require buffering or nonlinear operations. In this paper we describe a planar lightwave circuit (PLCs) implementation of the receiver. We give detailed numerical simulations that test the concept and investigate the effects of multi-access interference (MAI) and optical beat interference (OBI) on the slot decisions. These simulations provide guidelines for subsequent experimental measurements that will be described.

  2. SWI/SNF Protein Component BAF250a Regulates Cardiac Progenitor Cell Differentiation by Modulating Chromatin Accessibility during Second Heart Field Development*

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Ienglam; Gao, Xiaolin; Sham, Mai Har; Wang, Zhong

    2012-01-01

    ATP-dependent SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes alter the structure of chromatin at specific loci and facilitate tissue-specific gene regulation during development. Several SWI/SNF subunits are required for cardiogenesis. However, the function and mechanisms of SWI/SNF in mediating cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) differentiation during cardiogenesis are not well understood. Our studies of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex identified that BAF250a, a regulatory subunit of the SWI/SNF, plays a key role in CPC differentiation. BAF250a ablation in mouse second heart field (SHF) led to trabeculation defects in the right ventricle, ventricular septal defect, persistent truncus arteriosus, reduced myocardial proliferation, and embryonic lethality around E13. Using an embryonic stem cell culture system that models the formation and differentiation of SHF CPCs in vivo, we have shown that BAF250a ablation in CPCs specifically inhibits cardiomyocyte formation. Moreover, BAF250a selectively regulates the expression of key cardiac factors Mef2c, Nkx2.5, and Bmp10 in SHF CPCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNase I digestion assays indicate that BAF250a regulates gene expression by binding selectively to its target gene promoters and recruiting Brg1, the catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF, to modulate chromatin accessibility. Our results thus identify BAF250a-mediated chromatin remodeling as an essential epigenetic mechanism mediating CPC differentiation. PMID:22621927

  3. Structure of the Bacillus anthracis Sortase A Enzyme Bound to Its Sorting Signal: A FLEXIBLE AMINO-TERMINAL APPENDAGE MODULATES SUBSTRATE ACCESS.

    PubMed

    Chan, Albert H; Yi, Sung Wook; Terwilliger, Austen L; Maresso, Anthony W; Jung, Michael E; Clubb, Robert T

    2015-10-16

    The endospore forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis causes lethal anthrax disease in humans and animals. The ability of this pathogen to replicate within macrophages is dependent upon the display of bacterial surface proteins attached to the cell wall by the B. anthracis Sortase A ((Ba)SrtA) enzyme. Previously, we discovered that the class A (Ba)SrtA sortase contains a unique N-terminal appendage that wraps around the body of the protein to contact the active site of the enzyme. To gain insight into its function, we determined the NMR structure of (Ba)SrtA bound to a LPXTG sorting signal analog. The structure, combined with dynamics, kinetics, and whole cell protein display data suggest that the N terminus modulates substrate access to the enzyme. We propose that it may increase the efficiency of protein display by reducing the unproductive hydrolytic cleavage of enzyme-protein covalent intermediates that form during the cell wall anchoring reaction. Notably, a key active site loop (β7/β8 loop) undergoes a disordered to ordered transition upon binding the sorting signal, potentially facilitating recognition of lipid II.

  4. Synchronization by Daytime Restricted Food Access Modulates the Presence and Subcellular Distribution of β-Catenin and Its Phosphorylated Forms in the Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    De Ita-Pérez, Dalia Luz; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    β-catenin, the principal effector of the Wnt pathway, is also one of the cadherin cell adhesion molecules; therefore, it fulfills signaling and structural roles in most of the tissues and organs. It has been reported that β-catenin in the liver regulates metabolic responses such as gluconeogenesis and histological changes in response to obesity-promoting diets. The function and cellular location of β-catenin is finely modulated by coordinated sequences of phosphorylation–dephosphorylation events. In this article, we evaluated the levels and cellular localization of liver β-catenin variants, more specifically β-catenin phosphorylated in serine 33 (this phosphorylation provides recognizing sites for β-TrCP, which results in ubiquitination and posterior proteasomal degradation of β-catenin) and β-catenin phosphorylated in serine 675 (phosphorylation that enhances signaling and transcriptional activity of β-catenin through recruitment of different transcriptional coactivators). β-catenin phosphorylated in serine 33 in the nucleus shows day–night fluctuations in their expression level in the Ad Libitum group. In addition, we used a daytime restricted feeding (DRF) protocol to show that the above effects are sensitive to food access-dependent circadian synchronization. We found through western blot and immunohistochemical analyses that DRF protocol promoted (1) higher total β-catenins levels mainly associated with the plasma membrane, (2) reduced the presence of cytoplasmic β-catenin phosphorylated in serine 33, (3) an increase in nuclear β-catenin phosphorylated in serine 675, (4) differential co-localization of total β-catenins/β-catenin phosphorylated in serine 33 and total β-catenins/β-catenin phosphorylated in serine 675 at different temporal points along day and in fasting and refeeding conditions, and (5) differential liver zonation of β-catenin variants studied along hepatic acinus. In conclusion, the present data comprehensively

  5. Stealth transmission of temporal phase en/decoded polarization-modulated-code-shift-keying optical-code-division multiple-access signal over synchronous digital hierarchy network with asynchronous detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yinfang; Wang, Rong; Fang, Tao; Pu, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zhu, Huatao; Zheng, Jilin

    2014-06-01

    An innovative approach for security-enhanced optical stealth transmission in a synchronous digital hierarchy network is proposed and experimentally investigated. The security enhancement is achieved through a signal modulation format, so-called polarization-modulated-code-shift-keying, which is implemented with two superstructured fiber Bragg gratings-based optical-code-division multiple-access encoders and a polarization modulator. The proposed modulation format can provide a constant energy level for both bits 0's and 1's, which avoids secure vulnerability of single-stealth-user with on-off-keying modulation before coupling into the host channel and after the cascade of filters. Moreover, a self-made cost-effective gain-switched distributed feedback laser with relatively narrow spectrum is first employed as a stealth optical source, which greatly reduces the system cost and complexity. The stealth signal is recovered and detected asynchronously. The experimental results show high secure performance and robustness against eavesdropping, while keeping a bit error rate below forward error correction limit.

  6. Integrated Performance Testing Workshop, Modules 6 - 11

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    These modules cover performance testing of: Interior Detection Systems; Access Controls; Exterior Detection Systems; Video Assessment Systems; SNM / Contraband Detection Systems; Access Delay Elements

  7. Intermittent access to liquid sucrose differentially modulates energy intake and related central pathways in control or high-fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Soto, Marion; Chaumontet, Catherine; Even, Patrick C; Nadkarni, Nachiket; Piedcoq, Julien; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2015-03-01

    Intake of sodas has been shown to increase energy intake and to contribute to obesity in humans and in animal models, although the magnitude and importance of these effects are still debated. Moreover, intake of sugar sweetened beverages is often associated with high-fat food consumption in humans. We studied two different accesses to a sucrose-sweetened water (SSW, 12.3%, a concentration similar to that usually found in sugar sweetened beverages) in C57BL/6 mice fed a normal-fat (NF) or a high-fat (HF) diet in a scheduled access (7.5h). NF-fed and HF-fed mice received during 5weeks access to water, to SSW continuously for 7.5h (SSW), or to water plus SSW for 2h (randomly-chosen time slot for only 5 random days/week) (SSW-2h). Mouse preference for SSW was greater in HF-fed mice than NF-fed mice. Continuous SSW access induced weight gain whatever the diet and led to greater caloric intake than mice drinking water in NF-fed mice and in the first three weeks in HF-fed mice. In HF-fed mice, 2h-intermittent access to SSW induced a greater body weight gain than mice drinking water, and led to hyperphagia on the HF diet when SSW was accessible compared to days without SSW 2h-access (leading to greater overall caloric intake), possibly through inactivation of the anorexigenic neuropeptide POMC in the hypothalamus. This was not observed in NF-fed mice, but 2h-intermittent access to SSW stimulated the expression of dopamine, opioid and endocannabinoid receptors in the nucleus accumbens compared to water-access. In conclusion, in mice, a sucrose solution provided 2h-intermittently and a high-fat diet have combined effects on peripheral and central homeostatic systems involved in food intake regulation, a finding which has significant implications for human obesity.

  8. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  9. New Direction of NASA Exploration Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Lawson, B. Michael; Barta, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's activities in life support Research and Technology Development (R&TD) have changed in both focus and scope following implementation of recommendations from the Exploration System Architecture Study (ESAS). The limited resources available and the compressed schedule to conduct life support R&TD have required that future efforts address the needs of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) and Lunar Outpost (LO). Advanced Life Support (ALS) efforts related to long duration planetary bases have been deferred or canceled. This paper describes the scope of the new Exploration Life Support (ELS) project; how it differs from ALS, and how it supports critical needs for the CEV, LSAM and LO. In addition, this paper provides rationale for changes in the scope and focus of technical content within ongoing life support R&TD activities.

  10. Arteriovenous Access: Infection, Neuropathy, and Other Complications.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Jennifer M; Dipchand, Christine; Oliver, Matthew; Moist, Louise; Yilmaz, Serdar; Lok, Charmaine; Leung, Kelvin; Clark, Edward; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Complications of vascular access lead to morbidity and may reduce quality of life. In this module, we review both infectious and noninfectious arteriovenous access complications including neuropathy, aneurysm, and high-output access. For the challenging patients who have developed many complications and are now nearing their last vascular access, we highlight some potentially novel approaches.

  11. Intermolecular and regioselective access to polysubstituted benzo- and dihydrobenzo[c]azepine derivatives: modulating the reactivity of group 6 non-heteroatom-stabilized alkynyl carbene complexes.

    PubMed

    González, Jairo; Gómez, Aránzazu; Funes-Ardoiz, Ignacio; Santamaría, Javier; Sampedro, Diego

    2014-06-02

    We highlight the versatility of non-heteroatom-stabilized tungsten-carbene complexes 3 synthesized in situ, which have been used in a modular approach to access 2-benzazepinium isolable intermediates 5. By employing very mild conditions, benzazepinium derivatives 5 have been obtained in high yield from simple compounds, such as acetylides 2, Fischer-type alkoxycarbenes 1, and phenylimines 4. The process, involving a formal [4+3] heterocycloaddition, occurs in a totally regioselective manner, which differs from the approach previously observed in similar procedures for other carbene analogues. This work, which involves three components, reveals a control of the reactivity of non-heteroatom-stabilized carbene complexes 3 ([4+3] vs. [2+2]-heterocycloaddition reactions) depending on the acetylide substitution pattern. The influence of the substitution pattern in the behavior of the complexes has been computationally analyzed and rationalized. Finally, elaboration of the 2-benzazepinium intermediates allows access to 3H-benzo[c]azepines 6 and 3H-1,2-dihydrobenzo[c]azepines 7-9 with high control of the substitution of the nine positions of the heterocycle.

  12. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  13. Control over fuel cell performance through modulation of pore accessibility: investigation and modeling of carbon nanotubes effects on oxygen reduction at N-graphene-based nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazzazie, Dureid; Halhouli, Mohammad; Yurchenko, Olena; Urban, Gerald

    2016-11-01

    The lack of performance of graphene-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction (ORR) is a major concern for fuel cells which can be mastered using nanocomposites. This work is highlighted by the optimization of nitrogen(N)-doped graphene/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposite’s ORR performance examined by galvanostatic measurements in realistically approached glucose half-cells. Obtained results mark an essential step for the development of nanocarbon-based cathodes, as we specifically evaluate the electrode performance under real fuel cell conditions. The 2D simulations exclusively represent an important approach for understanding the catalytic efficiency of the nanocomposite with unique structure. The kinetics features extracted from simulations are consistent with the experimentally determined kinetics. The morphology analysis reveals a 3D porous structure. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of CNTs implements mesoscale channels for improved mass transport and leads to efficient 4-electron transfer and enhanced overall catalytic activity in pH-neutral media. The nanocomposite shows increased specific surface area of 142 m2 g-1, positively shifted ORR onset potential of 67 mV and higher open circuit potential of 268 mV versus Ag/AgCl compared to N-graphene (11 m2 g-1, -17, 220 mV). The findings are supported by 2D simulations giving qualitative evidence to the significant role of CNTs for achieving better accessibility of pores, i.e. enabling improved transfer of oxygen and OH-, and providing more reaction sites in the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite demonstrates better ORR performance than constituent components regarding potential application in miniaturized single-compartment glucose-based fuel cells.

  14. Carbon monoxide binding to the heme group at the dimeric interface modulates structure and copper accessibility in the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase from Haemophilus ducreyi: in silico and in vitro evidences.

    PubMed

    Chillemi, Giovanni; De Santis, Serena; Falconi, Mattia; Mancini, Giordano; Migliorati, Valentina; Battistoni, Andrea; Pacello, Francesca; Desideri, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Paola

    2012-01-01

    X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been jointly applied to the study of the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase from Haemophilus ducreyi (HdSOD) in interaction with the carbon monoxide molecule. The configurational flexibility of the Fe(II)-heme group, intercalated between the two subunits, has been sampled by MD simulations and included in the XANES data analysis without optimization in the structural parameter space. Our results provide an interpretation of the observed discrepancy in the Fe-heme distances as detected by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and the classical XANES analysis, in which the structural parameters are optimized in a unique structure. Moreover, binding of the CO molecule to the heme induces a long range effect on the Cu,Zn active site, as evidenced by both MD simulations and in vitro experiments. MD simulation of the CO bound system, in fact, highlighted a structural rearrangement of the protein-protein hydrogen bond network in the region of the Cu,Zn active site, correlated with an increase in water accessibility at short distance from the copper atom. In line, in vitro experiments evidenced an increase of copper accessibility to a chelating agent when the CO molecule binds to the heme group, as compared to a heme deprived HdSOD. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that the HdSOD is a heme-sensor protein, in which binding to small gaseous molecules modulates the enzyme superoxide activity as an adaptive response to the bacterial environment.

  15. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  16. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  17. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  18. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  19. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  20. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  1. Foundation for Heavy Lift - Early Developments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig; Pannell, Bill; Lacey, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) is NASA's primary vessel for safe, reliable delivery of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) and other resources into Earth orbit, as articulated in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares V launch concept is shown. The foundation for this heavy-lift companion to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is taking shape within NASA and with its government and industry partners. This paper will address accomplishments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle during 2006 and 2007 and offer a preview of future activities.

  2. Foundation for Heavy Lift: Early Developments in the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig

    2007-01-01

    The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) is NASA's primary vessel for safe, reliable delivery of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) and other resources into Earth orbit, as articulated in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration.' The Ares V launch concept is shown. The foundation for this heavy-lift companion to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is taking shape within NASA and with its government and industry partners. This paper will address accomplishments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle during 2006 and 2007 and offer a preview of future activities.

  3. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis ...

  4. Modulation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques, proposed for use on and/or applied to satellite channels, are reviewed. In a survey of recent works on digital modulation techniques, the performance of several schemes operating in various environments are compared. Topics covered include: (1) quadrature phase shift keying; (2) offset - QPSK and MSK; (3) combined modulation and coding; and (4) spectrally efficient modulation techniques.

  5. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  6. Memory availability and referential access

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Clinton L.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra L.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    Most theories of coreference specify linguistic factors that modulate antecedent accessibility in memory; however, whether non-linguistic factors also affect coreferential access is unknown. Here we examined the impact of a non-linguistic generation task (letter transposition) on the repeated-name penalty, a processing difficulty observed when coreferential repeated names refer to syntactically prominent (and thus more accessible) antecedents. In Experiment 1, generation improved online (event-related potentials) and offline (recognition memory) accessibility of names in word lists. In Experiment 2, we manipulated generation and syntactic prominence of antecedent names in sentences; both improved online and offline accessibility, but only syntactic prominence elicited a repeated-name penalty. Our results have three important implications: first, the form of a referential expression interacts with an antecedent’s status in the discourse model during coreference; second, availability in memory and referential accessibility are separable; and finally, theories of coreference must better integrate known properties of the human memory system. PMID:24443621

  7. Processing module operating methods, processing modules, and communications systems

    DOEpatents

    McCown, Steven Harvey; Derr, Kurt W.; Moore, Troy

    2014-09-09

    A processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a wireless communications device, requesting that the wireless communications device retrieve encrypted code from a web site and receiving the encrypted code from the wireless communications device. The wireless communications device is unable to decrypt the encrypted code. The method further includes using the processing module, decrypting the encrypted code, executing the decrypted code, and preventing the wireless communications device from accessing the decrypted code. Another processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a host device, executing an application within the processing module, allowing the application to exchange user interaction data communicated using a user interface of the host device with the host device, and allowing the application to use the host device as a communications device for exchanging information with a remote device distinct from the host device.

  8. Implementation of Flexible Access System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen-Hsiang; Peng, Jan-Wen; Shao, Shou-Kuo; Chen, Tzooming E.; Chen, Shih Chang; Lee, Meng-Shu; Yen, K.-Y.; Chen, Tsung-Mao; Wang, Ching Sheu; Tu, Yuan-Kuang

    1998-06-01

    In this paper we present the architecture, operation, and the implementation of a prototype system, flexible access system (FAS), developed by CHT T.L. for FITL applications. FAS adopts fiber to the curb (FTTC) topology and provides POTS, ISDN BRA, and T1 services. The system consists of three main parts, namely, fiber central office terminal (FCOT) at switch side, fiber nodes (FN) at customer side, and a monitor station. FCOT and FNs are connected through an STM-1 fiber distribution ring. The hardware structure and the operation principle for each module are described. FAS contains the mux-demux module, POTS, ISDN, and T1 central office/customer service modules, operation modules, and power module. In the design, each central office service module in FCOT simulates as a CPE to terminate signals from switch, and will separate the data and signaling and map them into DS1 format. Mux/demux module will add/drop these DS1, put the operation information in data communication channel (DCC), and convert them to STM-1 optical link. Each customer service module in FN simulates switch line cart to regenerate the signal for customers. The prototype system implementation confirms the benefits of introducing SDH add/drop technologies to FITL system to provide basic telecommunication services. The design experience reveals that the clock synchronization method and noise reduction technique can significantly influence the performance in such a system. The test results that demonstrate and verify the designed functionality and the service quality of the prototype system will be presented.

  9. Waveform Sampler CAMAC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Freytag, D.R.; Haller, G.M.; Kang, H.; Wang, J.

    1985-09-01

    A Waveform Sampler Module (WSM) for the measurement of signal shapes coming from the multi-hit drift chambers of the SLAC SLC detector is described. The module uses a high speed, high resolution analog storage device (AMU) developed in collaboration between SLAC and Stanford University. The AMU devices together with high speed TTL clocking circuitry are packaged in a hybrid which is also suitable for mounting on the detector. The module is in CAMAC format and provides eight signal channels, each recording signal amplitude versus time in 512 cells at a sampling rate of up to 360 MHz. Data are digitized by a 12-bit ADC with a 1 ..mu..s conversion time and stored in an on-board memory accessible through CAMAC.

  10. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  11. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  12. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... returned to your body. Usually the access is put in your arm but it can also go ... A surgeon will put the access in. There are 3 types of access. Fistula: The surgeon joins an artery and vein under the ...

  13. Space Station Laboratory Module Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Engineers from NASA's Glenn Research Center demonstrate the access to one of the experiment racks planned for the U.S. Destiny laboratory module on the International Space Station (ISS). This mockup has the full diameter, full corridor width, and half the length of the module. The mockup includes engineering mockups of the Fluids and Combustion Facility being developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. (The full module will be six racks long; the mockup is three racks long). Listening at center is former astronaut Brewster Shaw (center), now a program official with the Boeing Co., the ISS prime contractor. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  14. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. ...

  15. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... use requirements for Critical Access Hospitals related to Electronic Health Records (EHRs)? Critical Access Hospital (CAH) are eligible for Electronic Health Record (EHR) incentive payments and can receive ...

  16. Module Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    various testing methodologies for the evaluation and characterization of Transmit /Receive (T/R) modules for phased array radars. Discussed are techniques...for characterizing T/R modules in transmit and receive modes under ideal and emulated operation environments. Further, techniques for life testing...characteristics of T/R modules developed during the early and mid 1980’s. Data provided shows the performance in terms of gain and phase for both transmit

  17. Telescoping Space-Station Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    New telescoping-space-station design involves module within a module. After being carried to orbit within payload bay of Space Shuttle orbiter, outer module telescopically deployed to achieve nearly twice as much usable space-station volume per Space Shuttle launch. Closed-loop or "race-track" space-station configurations possible with this concept and provide additional benefits. One benefit involves making one of modules double-walled haven safe from debris, radiation, and like. Module accessible from either end, and readily available to all positions in space station. Concept also provides flexibility in methods in which Space Shuttle orbiter docked or berthed with space station and decrease chances of damage.

  18. A Theory of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribot, Jesse C.; Peluso, Nancy Lee

    2003-01-01

    The term "access" is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as "the "ability" to derive benefits from things," broadening from property's classical definition as…

  19. Design study of the accessible focal plane telescope for shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design and cost analysis of an accessible focal plane telescope for Spacelab is presented in blueprints, tables, and graphs. Topics covered include the telescope tube, the telescope mounting, the airlock plus Spacelab module aft plate, the instrument adapter, and the instrument package. The system allows access to the image plane with instrumentation that can be operated by a scientist in a shirt sleeve environment inside a Spacelab module.

  20. Mobile access control vestibule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePoy, Jennifer M.

    1998-12-01

    The mobile access control vestibule (MACV) is an adaptation of techniques developed for mobile military command centers. The overall configuration of modules acts as an entry control/screening facility or transportable command center. The system would provide the following capabilities: (1) A key element for force protection, rapid deployment units sent to areas having no prepositioned equipment or where there has been a degradation of that equipment as a result of natural disasters or civil unrest. (2) A rapidly deployable security control center to upgrade the security at nonmilitary sites (e.g., diplomatic or humanitarian organizations). (3) Personnel screening, package screening, badge/identification card production for authorized personnel, centralized monitoring of deployed perimeter sensors, and centralized communications for law enforcement personnel. (4) Self-contained screening and threat detection systems, including explosives detection using the system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the FAA. When coupled with transportable electric generators, the system is self-sufficient. The communication system for the MACV would be a combination of physically wired and wireless communication units that supports by ad hoc networking.

  1. Multiple Access Schemes for Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie; Hamkins, Jon; Stocklin, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    Two years ago, the NASA Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP) study was completed. The study, led by the authors of this paper, recommended codes, modulation schemes, and desired attributes of link protocols for all space communication links in NASA's future space architecture. Portions of the NASA CMLP team were reassembled to resolve one open issue: the use of multiple access (MA) communication from the lunar surface. The CMLP-MA team analyzed and simulated two candidate multiple access schemes that were identified in the original CMLP study: Code Division MA (CDMA) and Frequency Division MA (FDMA) based on a bandwidth-efficient Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) with a superimposed Pseudo-Noise (PN) ranging signal (CPM/PN). This paper summarizes the results of the analysis and simulation of the CMLP-MA study and describes the final recommendations.

  2. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  3. Bubble memory module for spacecraft application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, P. J.; Looney, K. T.; Nichols, C. D.

    1985-01-01

    Bubble domain technology offers an all-solid-state alternative for data storage in onboard data systems. A versatile modular bubble memory concept was developed. The key module is the bubble memory module which contains all of the storage devices and circuitry for accessing these devices. This report documents the bubble memory module design and preliminary hardware designs aimed at memory module functional demonstration with available commercial bubble devices. The system architecture provides simultaneous operation of bubble devices to attain high data rates. Banks of bubble devices are accessed by a given bubble controller to minimize controller parts. A power strobing technique is discussed which could minimize the average system power dissipation. A fast initialization method using EEPROM (electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory) devices promotes fast access. Noise and crosstalk problems and implementations to minimize these are discussed. Flight memory systems which incorporate the concepts and techniques of this work could now be developed for applications.

  4. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  5. Modulated Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Frederick C.

    1960-01-01

    The technique of modulation, or variable coefficients, is discussed and the analytical formulation is reviewed. Representative numerical results of the use of modulation are shown for the lifting and nonlifting cases. These results include the effects of modulation on peak acceleration, entry corridor, and heat absorption. Results are given for entry at satellite speed and escape speed. The indications are that coefficient modulation on a vehicle with good lifting capability offers the possibility of sizable loading reductions or, alternatively, wider corridors; thus, steep entries become practical from the loading standpoint. The amount of steepness depends on the acceptable heating penalty. The price of sizable fractions of the possible gains does not appear to be excessive.

  6. Thermoregulation of Shigella and Escherichia coli EIEC pathogenicity. A temperature-dependent structural transition of DNA modulates accessibility of virF promoter to transcriptional repressor H-NS.

    PubMed Central

    Falconi, M; Colonna, B; Prosseda, G; Micheli, G; Gualerzi, C O

    1998-01-01

    The expression of plasmid-borne virF of Shigella encoding a transcriptional regulator of the AraC family, is required to initiate a cascade of events resulting in activation of several operons encoding invasion functions. H-NS, one of the main nucleoid-associated proteins, controls the temperature-dependent expression of the virulence genes by repressing the in vivo transcription of virF only below a critical temperature (approximately 32 degrees C). This temperature-dependent transcriptional regulation has been reproduced in vitro and the targets of H-NS on the virF promoter were identified as two sites centred around -250 and -1 separated by an intrinsic DNA curvature. H-NS bound cooperatively to these two sites below 32 degrees C, but not at 37 degrees C. DNA supercoiling within the virF promoter region did not influence H-NS binding but was necessary for the H-NS-mediated transcriptional repression. Electrophoretic analysis between 4 and 60 degrees C showed that the virF promoter fragment, comprising the two H-NS sites, undergoes a specific and temperature-dependent conformational transition at approximately 32 degrees C. Our results suggest that this modification of the DNA target may modulate a cooperative interaction between H-NS molecules bound at two distant sites in the virF promoter region and thus represents the physical basis for the H-NS-dependent thermoregulation of virulence gene expression. PMID:9843508

  7. Primary vascular access.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, C P

    2006-05-01

    Primary vascular access is usually achievable by a distal autogenous arterio-venous fistula (AVF). This article describes the approach to vascular access planning, the usual surgical options and the factors affecting patency.

  8. Using a 1.2 GHz bandwidth reflective semiconductor optical amplifier with seeding light by 64-quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency division multiplexing modulation to achieve a 10-gbits/s upstream rate in long-reach passive optical network access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Wu, Yu-Fu

    2012-01-01

    We use a commercially available 1.2 GHz bandwidth reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)--based optical network unit (ONU) to achieve 10-gbits/s upstream traffic for an optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON). This is the first time the 64--quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) OFDM format has been applied to RSOA-ONU to achieve a 75 km fiber transmission length. In the proposed LR-PON, the upstream power penalty of 5.2 dB at the bit error rate of 3.8×10-3 is measured by using a 64-QAM OFDM modulation after the 75 km fiber transmission without dispersion compensation.

  9. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  10. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  11. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  12. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  13. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are working jointly to develop a helicopter transportable firefighting module that can shave precious minutes in combating shipboard or harbor fires. The program was undertaken in 1975, after a series of disastrous fires on oil tankers indicated a need for a lightweight, self-contained system that could be moved quickly to the scene of a fire. A prototype module was delivered to the Coast Guard last year and service testing is under way. The compact module weighs little more than a ton but it contains everything needed to fight a fire. The key component is a high output pump, which delivers up to 2,000 gallons of sea water a minute; the pump can be brought up to maximum output in only one minute after turning on the power source, a small Allison gas turbine engine. The module also contains hose, a foam nozzle and a spray nozzle, three sets of protective clothing for firefighters, and fuel for three hours operation. Designed to be assembled without special tools, the module can be set up for operation in less than 20 minutes.

  14. 75 FR 14467 - In the Matter of: Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing Same, Including Memory Modules; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION... random access memory semiconductors and products containing same, including memory modules, by reason...

  15. Central-Monitor Software Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron; Foster, Conrad

    2005-01-01

    One of the software modules of the emergency-vehicle traffic-light-preemption system of the two preceding articles performs numerous functions for the central monitoring subsystem. This module monitors the states of all units (vehicle transponders and intersection controllers): It provides real-time access to the phases of traffic and pedestrian lights, and maps the positions and states of all emergency vehicles. Most of this module is used for installation and configuration of units as they are added to the system. The module logs all activity in the system, thereby providing information that can be analyzed to minimize response times and optimize response strategies. The module can be used from any location within communication range of the system; with proper configuration, it can also be used via the Internet. It can be integrated into call-response centers, where it can be used for alerting emergency vehicles and managing their responses to specific incidents. A variety of utility subprograms provide access to any or all units for purposes of monitoring, testing, and modification. Included are "sniffer" utility subprograms that monitor incoming and outgoing data for accuracy and timeliness, and that quickly and autonomously shut off malfunctioning vehicle or intersection units.

  16. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  17. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  18. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2005-05-24

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  19. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-11-16

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  20. Thermionic modules

    DOEpatents

    King, Donald B.; Sadwick, Laurence P.; Wernsman, Bernard R.

    2002-06-18

    Modules of assembled microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures manufactured using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices and modules can be fabricated at modest costs.

  1. Optical coherent technologies in next generation access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwatsuki, Katsumi; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews optical coherent technologies in next generation access networks with the use of radio over fiber (RoF), which offer key enabling technologies of wired and wireless integrated and/or converged broadband access networks to accommodate rapidly widespread cloud computing services. We describe technical issues on conventional RoF based on subcarrier modulation (SCM) and their countermeasures. Two examples of RoF access networks with optical coherent technologies to solve the technical issues are introduced; a video distribution system with FM conversion and wired and wireless integrated wide-area access network with photonic up- and down-conversion.

  2. Administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A; Miller, Douglas R

    2014-03-18

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access that include: initiating, by an origin application messaging module on an origin compute node, one or more data transfers to a target compute node for the epoch; initiating, by the origin application messaging module after initiating the data transfers, a closing stage for the epoch, including rejecting any new data transfers after initiating the closing stage for the epoch; determining, by the origin application messaging module, whether the data transfers have completed; and closing, by the origin application messaging module, the epoch if the data transfers have completed.

  3. Administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A; Miller, Douglas R

    2012-10-23

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access that include: initiating, by an origin application messaging module on an origin compute node, one or more data transfers to a target compute node for the epoch; initiating, by the origin application messaging module after initiating the data transfers, a closing stage for the epoch, including rejecting any new data transfers after initiating the closing stage for the epoch; determining, by the origin application messaging module, whether the data transfers have completed; and closing, by the origin application messaging module, the epoch if the data transfers have completed.

  4. Administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Miller, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access that include: initiating, by an origin application messaging module on an origin compute node, one or more data transfers to a target compute node for the epoch; initiating, by the origin application messaging module after initiating the data transfers, a closing stage for the epoch, including rejecting any new data transfers after initiating the closing stage for the epoch; determining, by the origin application messaging module, whether the data transfers have completed; and closing, by the origin application messaging module, the epoch if the data transfers have completed.

  5. Channel Access in Erlang

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  6. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  7. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Firefly II pump module is NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's commercial offshoot of a NASA/US Coast Guard program involving development of a lightweight, helicopter-transportable firefighting module for a quick response in combating shipboard or harbor fires. Operable on land or water, the Amphib One is equipped with 3 water cannons. When all 3 are operating, unit pumps more than 3,000 gallons a minute. Newly developed model used by U.S. Coast Guard can pump 5,000 gallons per minute. It was designed for applications such as firefighting onboard ship fires, emergency dockside water pumping, dewatering ships in danger of sinking, flood control, and emergency water supply at remote locations.

  8. Thermoelectric module

    DOEpatents

    Kortier, William E.; Mueller, John J.; Eggers, Philip E.

    1980-07-08

    A thermoelectric module containing lead telluride as the thermoelectric mrial is encapsulated as tightly as possible in a stainless steel canister to provide minimum void volume in the canister. The lead telluride thermoelectric elements are pressure-contacted to a tungsten hot strap and metallurgically bonded at the cold junction to iron shoes with a barrier layer of tin telluride between the iron shoe and the p-type lead telluride element.

  9. Space Station Laboratory Module Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Engineers from NASA's Glenn Research Center demonstrate the access to one of the experiment racks planned for the U.S. Destiny laboratory module on the International Space Station (ISS). This mockup has the full diameter, full corridor width, and half the length of the module. The mockup includes engineering mockups of the Fluids and Combustion Facility being developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. (The full module will be six racks long; the mockup is three racks long). Listening at left (coat and patterned tie) is John-David Bartoe, ISS research manager at NASA's Johnson Space Center and a payload specialist on Spacelab 2 mission (1985). Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  10. AccessAbility @ Cleveland Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mates, Barbara T.

    2003-01-01

    Describes several programs that were developed by staff at the Cleveland (Ohio) Public Library to be accessible to users with disabilities. Highlights include a Braille reading program; sensory garden; poetry club; book club based on talking books; wheelchair athletics; touching museum artifacts; and a mobile library for users who could not visit…

  11. Linear modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study of frequency division multiplexing (FDM) systems was made for the purpose of determining the system performance that can be obtained with available state of the art components. System performance was evaluated on the basis of past experience, system analysis, and component evaluation. The system study was specifically directed to the area of FDM systems using subcarrier channel frequencies from 4 kHz to 200 kHz and channel information bandwidths of dc to 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 kHz. The evaluation also assumes that the demodulation will be from a tape recorder which produces frequency modulation of + or - 1% on the signal due to the tape recorder wow and flutter. For the modulation system it is assumed that the pilot and carrier channel frequencies are stable to within + or - .005% and that the FM on the channel carriers is negligible. The modulator system was evaluated for the temperature range of -20 degree to +85 degree while the demodulator system was evaluated for operation at room temperature.

  12. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  13. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan; Jersey Inst Ansari, New; Jersey Inst, New

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  14. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  15. Standards and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Tom

    1993-01-01

    Argues that easy claims about the relationship between language mastery and academic or economic access (made by both conservative commentators on education and mainstream writing teachers) are false and obscure real social and political boundaries, such as racism, sexism, elitism, and homophobia, that really do prevent access. (SR)

  16. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  17. The Equal Access Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catron, J. Gregory

    1987-01-01

    Reviews past history of access of religious activities in public schools in relation to the establishment clause of the First Amendment and sets forth the prerequisites in the Equal Access Act of 1984 for creating a well-defined forum for student-initiated free speech including religious groups in public high schools. (MD)

  18. Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia; De Oliver, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This case study researches the degree to which the location and services offered by a multicampus university, geographically situated consistent with the commercial principles of a large mass-market enterprise, facilitate access for educationally underserved groups. First, the necessity of democratizing educational access to an underprivileged…

  19. Granting Each Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Linda Lucas

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes federal legislation regarding equal access for students with disabilities and discusses environmental barriers to accessibility in the library media center. Solutions to these design problems are suggested in the following areas: material formats and space requirements; the physical setting, including furniture, floor coverings,…

  20. MedlinePlus: Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools Español You Are Here: Home → MedlinePlus Accessibility URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/accessibility.html ... or (301) 594-5983 and provide the address (URL) of the page on which you need assistance, ...

  1. Design for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, David R.; McCallum, Barry

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the facets of building design which affect the accessibility of libraries for the physically disabled and presents some basic guidelines for designing accessible libraries. Types of disabilities, questions relating to site design, and specific architectural and physical features of libraries (entranceways, lighting, stairways, and…

  2. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  3. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan [El Cerrito, CA; Graves, Simon [Berkeley, CA; Lenox, Carl J. S. [Oakland, CA; Culligan, Matthew [Berkeley, CA; Danning, Matt [Oakland, CA

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  4. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2013-08-27

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame, The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  5. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-03-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  6. On the spectral response of PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, J. Y.; Guo, S.; Walsh, T. M.; Hishikawa, Y.; Stangl, R. A.

    2014-09-01

    The spectral response of silicon wafer based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules is studied using simulation and experimental methods. Circuit simulations show that the module spectral response (SR) depends on (1) the SR of the cells, (2) the shunt resistance Rshunt of the cells, and (3) the bypass diodes of the module. For realistic Rshunt values, the module SR is significantly higher than the minimal SR of the individual cells (which would be the module SR in the case of infinite Rshunt). Round-robin tests using different experimental methods (partial illumination and full-area illumination) to determine the SR of a wafer-based module and a thin-film silicon module were conducted. Both SR methods are found to agree reasonably well. However, circuit simulations indicate that if only one cell, or a few cells, within the module have significantly different characteristics but not known, the results may differ considerably. The partial illumination method can access the SR of the individual cells within a module, but it possibly requires a long measurement time in order to measure the SR and Rshunt of each cell for confirming the SR of the whole module. In contrast, full-area illumination methods measure the module SR directly, but they cannot access the cell SRs if problematic cells exist. An uncertainty analysis of the full-area illumination method is conducted, which reveals that—if the calibrated reference cell is chosen properly—the calibration uncertainty of the reference cell itself is the main source of uncertainty.

  7. Photodynamic immune modulation (PIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, John R.; Hunt, David W. C.; Simkin, Guillermo O.; Ratkay, Leslie G.; Chan, Agnes H.; Lui, Harvey; Levy, Julia G.

    1999-09-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is accepted for treatment of superficial and lumen-occluding tumors in regions accessible to activating light and is now known to be effective in closure of choroidal neovasculature in Age Related Macular Degeneration. PDT utilizes light absorbing drugs (photosensitizers) that generate the localized formation of reactive oxygen species after light exposure. In a number of systems, PDT has immunomodulatory effects; Photodynamic Immune Modulation (PIM). Using low- intensity photodynamic regimens applied over a large body surface area, progression of mouse autoimmune disease could be inhibited. Further, this treatment strongly inhibited the immunologically- medicated contact hypersensitivity response to topically applied chemical haptens. Immune modulation appears to result from selective targeting of activated T lymphocytes and reduction in immunostimulation by antigen presenting cells. Psoriasis, an immune-mediated skin condition, exhibits heightened epidermal cell proliferation, epidermal layer thickening and plaque formation at different body sites. In a recent clinical trial, approximately one-third of patients with psoriasis and arthritis symptoms (psoriatic arthritis) displayed a significant clinical improvement in several psoriasis-related parameters after four weekly whole-body PIM treatments with verteporfin. The safety profile was favorable. The capacity of PIM to influence other human immune disorders including rheumatoid arthritis is under extensive evaluation.

  8. Integrating Software Modules For Robot Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volpe, Richard A.; Khosla, Pradeep; Stewart, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Reconfigurable, sensor-based control system uses state variables in systematic integration of reusable control modules. Designed for open-architecture hardware including many general-purpose microprocessors, each having own local memory plus access to global shared memory. Implemented in software as extension of Chimera II real-time operating system. Provides transparent computing mechanism for intertask communication between control modules and generic process-module architecture for multiprocessor realtime computation. Used to control robot arm. Proves useful in variety of other control and robotic applications.

  9. NASA Access Mechanism (NAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Judy

    1993-01-01

    A 1991 user survey indicated that NASA users want (1) access to diverse sources of information; (2) an intuitive approach to system use; (3) avoidance of system query languages; (4) access to peers and other informal sources of information; and (5) simplified and enhanced presentation of search results. Based on these requirements and the use of an intelligent gateway processor, the NASA Access Mechanism (NAM) is being developed to provide the users with the semblance of a one stop shopping environment for information management.

  10. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks

    Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology

    Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

    Background

    With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the

  11. Lunar Surface Access Module Descent Engine Turbopump Technology: Detailed Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alarez, Erika; Thornton, Randall J.; Forbes, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The need for a high specific impulse LOX/LH2 pump-fed lunar lander engine has been established by NASA for the new lunar exploration architecture. Studies indicate that a 4-engine cluster in the thrust range of 9,000-lbf each is a candidate configuration for the main propulsion of the manned lunar lander vehicle. The lander descent engine will be required to perform minor mid-course corrections, a Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) burn, a de-orbit burn, and the powered descent onto the lunar surface. In order to achieve the wide range of thrust required, the engines must be capable of throttling approximately 10:1. Working under internal research and development funding, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been conducting the development of a 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 lunar lander descent engine testbed. This paper highlights the detailed design and analysis efforts to develop the lander engine Fuel Turbopump (FTP) whose operating speeds range from 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm. The capability of the FTP to operate across this wide range of speeds imposes several structural and dynamic challenges, and the small size of the FTP creates scaling and manufacturing challenges that are also addressed in this paper.

  12. Lunar Surface Access Module Descent Engine Turbopump Technology: Detailed Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Erika; Forbes, John C.; Thornton, Randall J.

    2010-01-01

    The need for a high specific impulse LOX/LH2 pump-fed lunar lander engine has been established by NASA for the new lunar exploration architecture. Studies indicate that a 4-engine cluster in the thrust range of 9,000-lbf each is a candidate configuration for the main propulsion of the manned lunar lander vehicle. The lander descent engine will be required to perform multiple burns including the powered descent onto the lunar surface. In order to achieve the wide range of thrust required, the engines must be capable of throttling approximately 10:1. Working under internal research and development funding, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been conducting the development of a 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 lunar lander descent engine technology testbed. This paper highlights the detailed design and analysis efforts to develop the lander engine Fuel Turbopump (FTP) whose operating speeds range from 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm. The capability of the FTP to operate across this wide range of speeds imposes several structural and dynamic challenges, and the small size of the FTP creates scaling and manufacturing challenges that are also addressed in this paper.

  13. Generation-based memory synchronization in a multiprocessor system with weakly consistent memory accesses

    DOEpatents

    Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-09

    In a multiprocessor system, a central memory synchronization module coordinates memory synchronization requests responsive to memory access requests in flight, a generation counter, and a reclaim pointer. The central module communicates via point-to-point communication. The module includes a global OR reduce tree for each memory access requesting device, for detecting memory access requests in flight. An interface unit is implemented associated with each processor requesting synchronization. The interface unit includes multiple generation completion detectors. The generation count and reclaim pointer do not pass one another.

  14. HRP Data Accessibility 2009

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Clarence Sams spoke at the 2009 Human Research Program's Investigators Workshop on the current status of Data Accessibility. In this presentation he discusses the content of the Human Life Scie...

  15. Accessibility and assistive products

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Porrero, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Accessibility and assistive products and technologies are needed to ensure the rights of persons with disabilities and older persons. Many developments have been implemented in laws, standards, markets and from the consumers perspective, at international, European and national levels. The real issue is that not all the potential users benefit from the use of assistive products or accessible measures. Discussion Innovative methods are needed to allow all potential users to have real advantage of assistive technologies and accessible and design for all facilities. Best practices will be presented and existing gaps and recommendations will be discussed. Cost-benefits aspects will also be presented. Conclusion In order to get advantages from opportunities of globalization, hard work and responsibilities of all stakeholders are needed, so that assistive products and accessibility reach a whole range of situations and environments and contribute to ensure quality of life in a society for all.

  16. Access denied; invalid password.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-11-01

    Progress addressing access to oral health is difficult to evaluate because it is unclear what access means. Ozar's proposal that access should be defined by dentists as true dental need is criticized. It is proposed that four different types of treatment are currently identifiable in dentistry: 1) traditional oral health care, 2) oral care that has minimal or no health component, 3) episodic care, and 4) oral health outcomes not resulting from dentist interventions such as fluoridation. Each of these models has a different definition of care and of access. The profession is becoming segmented--including growing disparities among dentists in earning potential--to the point where a single model may no longer be able to cover all needs for oral health.

  17. EPA Accessibility Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is committed to making its websites and other electronic and information technology (EIT) accessible to the widest possible audience, including people with disabilities, in accordance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act.

  18. Equal Access to All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schettler, Joel

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the Section 508 amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that directs the use of technology. Describes guidelines for online training accessibility with which vendors hoping for government business must fully comply. (JOW)

  19. Access to Investigational Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... access to investigational drugs being developed by pharmaceutical companies? Are there specific criteria used to determine whether ... laboratory. If the results are promising, the drug company or sponsor must apply for FDA approval to ...

  20. Problems of Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servedio, William; McLeod, William

    1980-01-01

    Increased participation in recreational programing by persons with handicapping conditions is a right that calls for significant changes in accessibility of facilities. Both interior and exterior building modifications must be made. (CJ)

  1. First Accessible Boat Launch

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a story about how the Northwest Indiana urban waters partnership location supported the process to create and open the first handicap accessible canoe and kayak launch in the state of Indiana.

  2. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  3. Vascular Access in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh Keller, Marc S.

    2011-02-15

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the 'expert procedural pyramid' is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  4. Positive Affect Modulates Flexibility and Evaluative Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wouwe, Nelleke C.; Band, Guido P. H.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2011-01-01

    The ability to interact with a constantly changing environment requires a balance between maintaining the currently relevant working memory content and being sensitive to potentially relevant new information that should be given priority access to working memory. Mesocortical dopamine projections to frontal brain areas modulate working memory…

  5. Online Video Modules for Improvement in Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancellotti, Matthew; Thomas, Sunil; Kohli, Chiranjeev

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this teaching innovation was to incorporate a comprehensive set of short online video modules covering key topics from the undergraduate principles of marketing class, and to evaluate its effectiveness in improving student learning. A quasiexperimental design was used to compare students who had access to video modules with a…

  6. Performance analysis of the ultra-linear optical intensity modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madamopoulos, Nicholas; Dingel, Benjamin

    2006-10-01

    The linear optical intensity modulator is a key component in any broadband optical access-based analog fiber-optic link systems such as sub-carrier multiplexing (SCM) systems, ultra-dense CATV, Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) communications, and other platform access systems. Previously, we have proposed a super-linear optical modulator, having SFDR = 130 -140 dB-Hz 2/3, based on a unique combination of phase-modulator (PM) and a weak ring resonator (RR) modulator within a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). We presented some of its unique features. In this paper, we characterize further this ultra-linear optical intensity modulator, analyze its RF performance and provide method for parameter optimization. Other excellent features of this modulator design such as high manufacturing tolerance, effect of link insertion loss, adaptive characteristic and device simplicity are also discussed.

  7. Supported PV module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  8. Method and apparatus for globally-accessible automated testing

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Scott P.; Beugelsdijk, Tony J.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sharing integrated testing services with a plurality of autonomous remote clients is disclosed. In the disclosed method, in response to an access request message, a process controller transmits an access enabling message to the remote client. The access enabling message includes instructions performable by a remote client to generate test equipment commands. A process controller interprets and transforms these commands into automated test instrument suite commands, which are provided to laboratory modules to perform the indicated tests. Test data results are then obtained and transmitted to the remote client.

  9. Multi terabits/s optical access transport technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binh, Le Nguyen; Wang Tao, Thomas; Livshits, Daniil; Gubenko, Alexey; Karinou, Fotini; Liu Ning, Gordon; Shkolnik, Alexey

    2016-02-01

    Tremendous efforts have been developed for multi-Tbps over ultra-long distance and metro and access optical networks. With the exponential increase demand on data transmission, storage and serving, especially the 5G wireless access scenarios, the optical Internet networking has evolved to data-center based optical networks pressuring on novel and economical access transmission systems. This paper reports (1) Experimental platforms and transmission techniques employing band-limited optical components operating at 10G for 100G based at 28G baud. Advanced modulation formats such as PAM-4, DMT, duo-binary etc are reported and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed so as to achieve multi-Tbps optical transmission systems for access inter- and intra- data-centered-based networks; (2) Integrated multi-Tbps combining comb laser sources and micro-ring modulators meeting the required performance for access systems are reported. Ten-sub-carrier quantum dot com lasers are employed in association with wideband optical intensity modulators to demonstrate the feasibility of such sources and integrated micro-ring modulators acting as a combined function of demultiplexing/multiplexing and modulation, hence compactness and economy scale. Under the use of multi-level modulation and direct detection at 56 GBd an aggregate of higher than 2Tbps and even 3Tbps can be achieved by interleaved two comb lasers of 16 sub-carrier lines; (3) Finally the fundamental designs of ultra-compacts flexible filters and switching integrated components based on Si photonics for multi Tera-bps active interconnection are presented. Experimental results on multi-channels transmissions and performances of optical switching matrices and effects on that of data channels are proposed.

  10. Adaptive Power Control for Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Willie L., II; Israel, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the implementation of power control techniques for crosslinks communications during a rendezvous scenario of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). During the rendezvous, NASA requires that the CEV supports two communication links: space-to-ground and crosslink simultaneously. The crosslink will generate excess interference to the space-to-ground link as the distances between the two vehicles decreases, if the output power is fixed and optimized for the worst-case link analysis at the maximum distance range. As a result, power control is required to maintain the optimal power level for the crosslink without interfering with the space-to-ground link. A proof-of-concept will be described and implemented with Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Communications, Standard, and Technology Lab (CSTL).

  11. Trends in communicative access solutions for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Myrden, Andrew; Schudlo, Larissa; Weyand, Sabine; Zeyl, Timothy; Chau, Tom

    2014-08-01

    Access solutions may facilitate communication in children with limited functional speech and motor control. This study reviews current trends in access solution development for children with cerebral palsy, with particular emphasis on the access technology that harnesses a control signal from the user (eg, movement or physiological change) and the output device (eg, augmentative and alternative communication system) whose behavior is modulated by the user's control signal. Access technologies have advanced from simple mechanical switches to machine vision (eg, eye-gaze trackers), inertial sensing, and emerging physiological interfaces that require minimal physical effort. Similarly, output devices have evolved from bulky, dedicated hardware with limited configurability, to platform-agnostic, highly personalized mobile applications. Emerging case studies encourage the consideration of access technology for all nonverbal children with cerebral palsy with at least nascent contingency awareness. However, establishing robust evidence of the effectiveness of the aforementioned advances will require more expansive studies.

  12. ISDC Data Access Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D.; Borkowski, J.; Contessi, T.; Lock, T.; Rohlfs, R.; Walter, R.

    The ISDC Data Access Layer (DAL) is an ANSI C and \\fortran 90 compatible library under development in support of the ESA INTEGRAL mission data analysis software. DALs primary purpose is to isolate the analysis software from the specifics of the data formats while at the same time providing new data abstraction and access capabilities. DAL supports the creation and manipulation of hierarchical data sets which may span multiple files and, in theory, multiple computer systems. A number of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are supported by DAL that allow software to view and access data at different levels of complexity. DAL also allows data sets to reside on disk, in conventional memory or in shared memory in a way that is transparent to the user/application.

  13. Vascular access for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, R; Ringoir, S

    1994-04-01

    Indwelling central venous catheters were consecutively used as access for acute and chronic hemodialysis, emergency treatment of pulmonary fluid overload, intoxication and electrolyte disturbances, plasmapheresis, and semiacute continuous dialysis strategies, such as continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH). Modification in catheter structure also made it possible to use this access for long-term treatment (e.g., surgically insertable catheters [Hickman], soft large-bore catheters for blind insertion). We discuss the remaining open questions in this field: Which is the insertion site of preference (i.e., subclavian, femoral, or deep jugular)? Should we prefer stiff or soft catheters? Should soft catheters be positioned surgically or is blind insertion by nonsurgeons as adequate? Is it necessary to couple catheter insertion to adjuvant techniques, such as echographic guidance, to reduce complications? Is the currently used polymer structure of the catheters acceptable? Should catheter dialysis be used with single or double vascular access?

  14. Restaurant wheelchair accessibility.

    PubMed

    McClain, L; Beringer, D; Kuhnert, H; Priest, J; Wilkes, E; Wilkinson, S; Wyrick, L

    1993-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the compliance of restaurants to the wheelchair accessibility standards set forth in the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards. The standards that were operationalized in this study are also found in Title III of the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990. The data were collected at 120 sites in three midwestern states. For one who uses a wheelchair, parking the car is often an obstacle to eating out. Only 53% of the restaurants surveyed provide handicapped parking. Entering the building may also be a problem. Of the restaurants that required a ramp, only 66% provided them. Inside the restaurant, the key problems were accessible rest-rooms and the height of tables. The study provided comparisons between restaurants in rural and urban settings, as well as comparisons between conventional restaurants and fast food restaurants. No notable differences emerged for these comparisons.

  15. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  16. Wide deviation phase modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couch, R. H.; Hearn, C. P.; Wilson, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    Modulator produces phase-modulated waveform having high modulating linearity. Technique is inherently wideband with respect to carrier frequency and can operate over decade carrier frequency range without adjustments. Circuit performance is both mathematically predictable and highly reproducible.

  17. Simultaneous transmission of three services in a WDM-PON with wireless access for multicast data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Wu, Yanzhi; Hu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tao; Cao, Pan; Su, Yikai

    2010-12-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a WDM-PON architecture supporting point-to-point, broadcast, and multicast services based on hybrid modulation format. Wireless access for multicast data is provided using optical carrier suppression (OCS) technology.

  18. Central venous access.

    PubMed

    Ganeshan, Arul; Warakaulle, Dinuke R; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-01-01

    Central venous access plays an important role in the management of an ever-increasing population of patients ranging from those that are critically ill to patients with difficult clinical access. Interventional radiologists are key in delivering this service and should be familiar with the wide range of techniques and catheters now available to them. A comprehensive description of these catheters with regard to indications, technical aspects of catheterization, success rates, and associated early and late complications, as well as a review of various published guidelines on central venous catheter insertion are given in this article.

  19. Accessibility | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    60plus.smokefree.gov is committed to making its websites accessible to all individuals—disabled or not—who are seeking information. To provide this information, the Smokefree 60+ website has been designed to comply with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (as amended). Section 508 requires that all individuals with disabilities (whether they are federal government employees or members of the general public) have access to and use of information and data comparable to that provided to individuals without disabilities, unless an undue burden would be imposed.

  20. Disability access. Open season.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Brian

    2003-04-24

    A disability access audit carried out at a trust operating over 50 sites revealed that a 2.3m Pounds programme of work was needed. The audit took four months, with the team spending a day at each of the premises. The audit has been followed by a staff training programme in disability awareness. The trust's information systems now show if a patient did not attend an appointment because of difficulties with physical access. All letters to patients are produced in a minimum 12-point type.

  1. Access conditions affect binge-type shortening consumption in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wojnicki, F.H.E.; Johnson, D.S.; Corwin, R.L.W.

    2009-01-01

    When non-food-deprived rats are given intermittent access to certain substances, consumption of those substances is greater than when more frequent access is provided. The present study examined the effects of three different shortening access conditions on subsequent shortening intake in rats. Each of the three different shortening conditions lasted five weeks and was followed by a five-week period in which shortening access was limited by time (1 hr of availability) on either an Intermittent (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) or Daily schedule of access. In Part 1, limiting the quantity of shortening provided during the 1-hour period of availability attenuated subsequent 1-hr shortening intake in the Intermittent access group, but had no statistically significant effect in the Daily access group. In Part 2, unrestricted availability of shortening (24-hr/day-7days/week) attenuated subsequent 1-hr shortening intake in all groups. In Part 3, shortening non-availability for five weeks enhanced subsequent 1-hr shortening intake in all groups. It was also shown that rats under an Intermittent, but not a Daily, schedule of access consumed as much shortening during a 1 hr period of availability, as was consumed in 24-hr when shortening availability was unrestricted. These results demonstrate that while intermittent access is necessary and sufficient to stimulate binge-type eating in rats, the behavioral history can modulate binge size. PMID:18851983

  2. Empower: access to medicine - working towards early access.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jennifer Bryant; Turgoose, James; Hargrave, James

    2015-01-01

    Empower: Access to Medicine's contribution will document the founding of Empower: Access to Medicine and tactics used to create a lobbying campaign designed to facilitate the debate around barriers to medical innovation and patient access to medicines. The article will detail the evolution of the campaign's goals and the potential solutions to an expensive and slow system. Specifically the submission will look at the influence that Empower: Access to Medicine had on the Government's thinking and development of an early access scheme.

  3. Managing Information Resources for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Services Administration, Washington, DC. Clearinghouse on Computer Accommodation.

    This handbook presents guidance for federal managers and other personnel who are unfamiliar with the policy and practice of information accessibility to accommodate users with disabilities and to provide for their effective access to information resources. It addresses federal requirements for accessibility, adopting accessibility as a sound…

  4. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  5. CytoAccess, a relational laboratory information management system for a clinical cytogenetics laboratory.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Bixia; Li, Peining; Hemingway, Susan S; Qumsiyeh, Mazin

    2006-01-01

    We developed a CytoAccess laboratory management system based on the widely used Microsoft Access software to facilitate data processing, result reporting, and quality management for a full-service cytogenetics laboratory. The CytoAccess system consists of four functional modules. The data entry module is for logging in patient information. The result entry module is used to generate chromosome, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) reports. The administrative module enables periodic monitoring of quality control and quality improvement (QA/QI) parameters and produces billing forms. The maintenance module allows users to update clinical demographics, report templates, code tables, and to refresh data links. We have integrated into this system over 15,000 chromosome and FISH results from prenatal, postnatal, and cancer cases for the past six years. This system is cost-effective, user-friendly, flexible in updating, and potentially adaptable for data mining.

  6. Serving up Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    When low-income students returned to Chicago public schools this fall, many had better access to technology, thanks to a public-private partnership. Chicago families with children enrolled in the National School Lunch Program are eligible for subsidized computers and Internet connections through an agreement between the city and telecom giant…

  7. ACCESS Project: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, Heiko

    2015-04-01

    The ACCESS project addressed the development, testing, and demonstration of the proposed advanced technologies and the associated emission and fuel economy improvement at an engine dynamometer and on a full-scale vehicle. Improve fuel economy by 25% with minimum performance penalties Achieve SULEV level emissions with gasoline Demonstrate multi-mode combustion engine management system

  8. ACCENT ON ACCESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHATELAIN, LEON, JR.; AND OTHERS

    EMPHASIS IS GIVEN ON ACCESSIBILITY TO PUBLIC BUILDINGS BY THE HANDICAPPED. ATTENTION IS DIRECTED TO THIS SUBJECT INASMUCH AS ARCHITECTS GENERALLY HAVE OVERLOOKED THE PROBLEM. HENCE, PUBLIC BUILDINGS ARE NOT TRULY AVAILABLE TO THE TOTAL PUBLIC. IN RECENT YEARS, HOWEVER, LEGISLATION HAS BECOME INCREASINGLY MORE COMMON TO CORRECT THE SITUATION. THE…

  9. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  10. College Access Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  11. Unique Access to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  12. Improved Access to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra; Simkins, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes efforts by principal of the Willow Elementary School in the Charter Oak Unified School District (California) to provide students with technology-enhanced access to information and learning resources to improve reading and mathematics skills. Includes list of the Web addresses for the skills software used at the school. (PKP)

  13. Internet 2 Access Grid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

  14. Accessible Theatre Arts Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    Intended to help administrators and theatre teachers provide a theatre arts program accessible to disabled actors, technicians, and audiences, the guide focuses on ways to alleviate limitations in the theatre. The following topics are addressed (sample subtopics in parentheses): awareness (use of improvisations and simulations); acclimatization…

  15. Access to Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how modern library systems can protect collections while not impeding disabled persons' access to facilities. Describes the problem with swinging gates and offers some security alternatives, such as high-tech gateless security, video detection, and voice alarms, that do not impede disabled persons' movements. (RJM)

  16. CAS. Controlled Access Security

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Pomeroy, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Security Alarm System is a data acquisition and control system which collects data from intrusion sensors and displays the information in a real-time environment for operators. The Access Control System monitors and controls the movement of personnel with the use of card readers and biometrics hand readers.

  17. Accessing Electronic Theses: Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2000-01-01

    Describes various ways by which universities provide access to their electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs), discussing UMI (University Microfilms International), XML (eXtensible Markup Language), and other formats. Discusses key leaders--national and international--in the ETD effort. Outlines the two main methods for locating ETDs. Presents a…

  18. APS and Open Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    The movement toward Open Access continues to gain momentum. A brief review of APS efforts in this area will be presented by APS Editor in Chief, Gene Sprouse. Editors from Physical Review A, B, E, Focus, Letters, and X, Reviews of Modern Physics, and Physics will address your questions about publishing in this evolving environment.

  19. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  20. Computer Accessibility Technology Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This technology information packet includes information about the technical aspects of access to technology, legal obligations concerning technology and individuals with disabilities, and a list of resources for further information and assistance. A question and answer section addresses: barriers to educational technology for students with…

  1. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  2. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan [El Cerrito, CA; Graves, Simon [Berkeley, CA; Danning, Matt [Oakland, CA

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  3. Tactical visualization module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachejian, Kerry C.; Vujcic, Doug

    1999-07-01

    The Tactical Visualization Module (TVM) research effort will develop and demonstrate a portable, tactical information system to enhance the situational awareness of individual warfighters and small military units by providing real-time access to manned and unmanned aircraft, tactically mobile robots, and unattended sensors. TVM consists of a family of portable and hand-held devices being advanced into a next- generation, embedded capability. It enables warfighters to visualize the tactical situation by providing real-time video, imagery, maps, floor plans, and 'fly-through' video on demand. When combined with unattended ground sensors, such as Combat- Q, TVM permits warfighters to validate and verify tactical targets. The use of TVM results in faster target engagement times, increased survivability, and reduction of the potential for fratricide. TVM technology can support both mounted and dismounted tactical forces involved in land, sea, and air warfighting operations. As a PCMCIA card, TVM can be embedded in portable, hand-held, and wearable PCs. Thus, it leverages emerging tactical displays including flat-panel, head-mounted displays. The end result of the program will be the demonstration of the system with U.S. Army and USMC personnel in an operational environment. Raytheon Systems Company, the U.S. Army Soldier Systems Command -- Natick RDE Center (SSCOM- NRDEC) and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) are partners in developing and demonstrating the TVM technology.

  4. Final Design of the SLAC P2 Marx Klystron Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The SLAC P2 Marx has been under development for two years, and follows on the P1 Marx as an alternative to the baseline klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider. The P2 Marx utilizes a redundant architecture, air-insulation, a control system with abundant diagnostic access, and a novel nested droop correction scheme. This paper is an overview of the design of this modulator. There are several points of emphasis for the P2 Marx design. First, the modulator must be compatible with the ILC two-tunnel design. In this scheme, the modulator and klystron are located within a service tunnel with limited access and available footprint for a modulator. Access to the modulator is only practical from one side. Second, the modulator must have high availability. Robust components are not sufficient alone to achieve availability much higher than 99%. Therefore, redundant architectures are necessary. Third, the modulator must be relatively low cost. Because of the large number of stations in the ILC, the investment needed for the modulator components is significant. High-volume construction techniques which take advantage of an economy of scale must be utilized. Fourth, the modulator must be simple and efficient to maintain. If a modulator does become inoperable, the MTTR must be small. Fifth, even though the present application for the modulator is for the ILC, future accelerators can also take advantage of this development effort. The hardware, software, and concepts developed in this project should be designed such that further development time necessary for other applications is minimal.

  5. Module utilization committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

  6. Apparatus and method for interaction phenomena with world modules in data-flow-based simulation

    DOEpatents

    Xavier, Patrick G.; Gottlieb, Eric J.; McDonald, Michael J.; Oppel, III, Fred J.

    2006-08-01

    A method and apparatus accommodate interaction phenomenon in a data-flow-based simulation of a system of elements, by establishing meta-modules to simulate system elements and by establishing world modules associated with interaction phenomena. World modules are associated with proxy modules from a group of meta-modules associated with one of the interaction phenomenon. The world modules include a communication world, a sensor world, a mobility world, and a contact world. World modules can be further associated with other world modules if necessary. Interaction phenomenon are simulated in corresponding world modules by accessing member functions in the associated group of proxy modules. Proxy modules can be dynamically allocated at a desired point in the simulation to accommodate the addition of elements in the system of elements such as a system of robots, a system of communication terminals, or a system of vehicles, being simulated.

  7. ATLAS, an integrated structural analysis and design system. Volume 4: Random access file catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, F. P., Jr. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A complete catalog is presented for the random access files used by the ATLAS integrated structural analysis and design system. ATLAS consists of several technical computation modules which output data matrices to corresponding random access file. A description of the matrices written on these files is contained herein.

  8. Access to and Use of Eye Care Services in Rural Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Greta; Bynum, LaTonya; Balamurugan, Appathurai

    2010-01-01

    Context: Rural residents are more likely to be uninsured and have low income. Purpose: To determine if rural residents in Arkansas have decreased access to eye care services and use them less frequently than urban residents. Methods: Data from the 2006 Visual Impairment and Access to Eye Care Module from the Arkansas Behavioral Risk Factor…

  9. Internet access to ionosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, I. A.; Kitrosser, D. F.; Kecic, Z.; Reinisch, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    Connecting ionosondes to the Internet gives easy access to real-time information on ionospheric conditions. Some of the ionosonde sites provide just the ionogram displays, others give in addition the scaled ionospheric characteristics directly usable for frequency management and HF channel assessment. Some sounders also store days or months of station data, which makes it possible remotely to evaluate the time history of geophysical events. The Internet link is also a convenient means for remote system maintenance and control. The paper addresses various aspects of the Internet ionosonde scenario, including data base support, WWW publishing, user interface, security, and data format. A list of Internet accessible ionosonde stations is provided with a brief description.

  10. [Complex vascular access].

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, G; Cesano, G; Thea, A; Hamido, D; Pacitti, A; Segoloni, G P

    1998-03-01

    Availability of a proper vascular access is a basic condition for a proper extracorporeal replacement in end-stage chronic renal failure. However, biological factors, management and other problems, may variously condition their middle-long term survival. Therefore, personal experience of over 25 years has been critically reviewed in order to obtain useful information. In particular "hard" situations necessitating complex procedures have been examined but, if possible, preserving the peripherical vascular features.

  11. History of vascular access.

    PubMed

    Dudrick, Stanley J

    2006-01-01

    Milestones in the history of the development of vascular access and the subsequent advances in practical clinical applications of the knowledge, techniques, technology, and experience to the beneficial management of a variety of patients are described. The original achievements are presented and briefly discussed primarily, but not exclusively, in relationship to the successful development of parenteral nutrition (PN). Beginning with the discovery of the circulation of blood, landmark events, resulting from astute observations, experimentation, and ingenious technological advances, are summarized or outlined chronologically over the past 4 centuries, with emphasis on the many recent accomplishments of basic and clinical scientists during the past 6 decades. Brief descriptions of several seminal contributions to safe and effective IV access, management, and therapy acknowledge and recognize the historical highlights that have allowed a complex and potentially hazardous therapeutic modality to evolve into a commonly applied useful adjunct to our current inpatient and outpatient armamentarium. A comprehensive list of references documents the highlights of the development of vascular access for the student of history.

  12. Almond brush module cutter

    SciTech Connect

    Zohns, M.A.; Jenkins, B.M.; Mehlschau, J.J.; Morrison, D.

    1983-06-01

    This paper addresses the design, construction, and evaluation of an almond brush module cutter. The module cutter is one link in a system which processes tree prunings for fuel and fiber. This system includes a modified cotton module builder, a module mover, the cutter, and a tub grinder. An economic analysis of the cutter is presented along with the problems involved in cutting brush modules.

  13. Military Specification, Modules, Standard Electronic Memory Array, 128K Dynamic Random Access Module, Key Code JEJ

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    applicable. PSFC «= power supply filter capacitance. PSTA = power supply transient amplitude. Vic = input clamp diode voltage. Vih = input high...3.46 W (typical) 16 MIL-M-28787/432 6.3.1 Input pa ran eters. Signal Vic min (V) Vil max (V) Vih min (V) lil min (mA) lih max (mA...MEM ADRS B 1 -1.2 0.4 2.4 -1.2 0.04 0.2 75 17 MIL-M-28787/432 6.3.1 Input parameters - continued. Signal Vic min (V) Vil max (V) Vih

  14. Pressure Modulated Sonic Jet in Supersonic Crossflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossmann, Tobias

    2014-11-01

    Sonic transverse jets in supersonic crossflow are modulated using high-amplitude variations in jet stagnation pressure to enhance jet penetration and mixing. An injection/modulation apparatus combining a powered resonance tube and acoustic resonator is used to create low momentum ratio jets (J = 1 , 2) in a supersonic cross-stream (M = 3 . 5). The injector has the capability to modulate the jet supply pressure at sufficiently high frequency (> 15 kHz) and amplitude (up to 190 dB) to access relevant Strouhal numbers (St = 0 - 0 . 3) and amplitudes (up to 10% of the jet stagnation pressure) related to mixing enhancement. Planar laser Mie scattering in both side and end views allows for instantaneous imaging of the jet fluid to quantify jet trajectory, spread, and mixing behavior. For modulated J = 2 transverse jets, the recirculation zone directly downstream of the injection location is eliminated and significantly faster centerline signal decay rates are seen. For the J = 1 modulated jets, substantial increases in centerline penetration, jet spread, and centerline signal decay rate are shown. Additionally, PDF analysis of the instantaneous jet fluid signal values is performed to compare local mixing efficiencies between the modulated and un-modulated cases.

  15. After Access: Underrepresented Students' Postmatriculation Perceptions of College Access Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Darris R.; Pyne, Kimberly B.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the perceived impact of college-going capital gained during participation in a college access program. In three, semistructured interviews spanning the first-year college experience, 10 first-year college students who participated in a college access program articulate the value of access programming and also raise…

  16. STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    An FPGA module leverages the previous work from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) relating to NASA s Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) project. The STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module is written in the Verilog Register Transfer Level (RTL) language, and it encapsulates an unmodified GSFC core (which is written in VHDL). The module has the necessary inputs/outputs (I/Os) and parameters to integrate seamlessly with the SPARC I/O FPGA Interface module (also developed for the STRS operating environment, OE). Software running on the SPARC processor can access the configuration and status registers within the SpaceWire module. This allows software to control and monitor the SpaceWire functions, but it is also used to give software direct access to what is transmitted and received through the link. SpaceWire data characters can be sent/received through the software interface, as well as through the dedicated interface on the GSFC core. Similarly, SpaceWire time codes can be sent/received through the software interface or through a dedicated interface on the core. This innovation is designed for plug-and-play integration in the STRS OE. The SpaceWire module simplifies the interfaces to the GSFC core, and synchronizes all I/O to a single clock. An interrupt output (with optional masking) identifies time-sensitive events within the module. Test modes were added to allow internal loopback of the SpaceWire link and internal loopback of the client-side data interface.

  17. EPICS: Channel Access security design

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.; Hill, J.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer`s interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided.

  18. Plant Growth Module (PGM) conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Rasmussen, Daryl

    1987-01-01

    The Plant Growth Module for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), designed to answer basic science questions related to growing plants in closed systems, is described functionally with artist's conception drawings. Subsystems are also described, including enclosure and access; data acquisition and control; gas monitor and control; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; air delivery; nutrient monitor and control; microbial monitoring and control; plant support and nutrient delivery; illumination; and internal operations. The hardware development plan is outlined.

  19. Performance comparison of modulation techniques for underlay cognitive radio transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imtiyaz; Singh, Poonam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a quantitative comparison of two agile modulation techniques employed by cognitive radio transceivers operating in a dynamic spectrum access (DSA) network. One of the modulation techniques is single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA). The other modulation technique under study is a variant of multicarrier code division multiple access (MCCDMA). Although several studies comparing conventional OFDM and MC-CDMA has been conducted in literature to justify robust error performance of MC-CDMA, a quantitative performance evaluation of these schemes has not been performed when employed in a DSA network. In this paper we show that their performances can be significantly different from the conventional setup. Analytical expressions for the error probability of an SC-FDMA transceiver have been derived and compared with computer simulation results. The results show that the error robustness of SC-FDMA is relatively better then MC-CDMA in underlay communication.

  20. High-speed coherent silicon modulator module using photonic integrated circuits: from circuit design to packaged module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabé, S.; Olivier, S.; Myko, A.; Fournier, M.; Blampey, B.; Abraham, A.; Menezo, S.; Hauden, J.; Mottet, A.; Frigui, K.; Ngoho, S.; Frigui, B.; Bila, S.; Marris-Morini, D.; Pérez-Galacho, D.; Brindel, P.; Charlet, G.

    2016-05-01

    Silicon photonics technology is an enabler for the integration of complex circuits on a single chip, for various optical link applications such as routing, optical networks on chip, short range links and long haul transmitters. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) transmitters is one of the typical circuits that can be achieved using silicon photonics integrated circuits. The achievement of 25GBd QPSK transmitter modules requires several building blocks to be optimized: the pn junction used to build a BPSK (Binary Shift Phase Keying) modulator, the RF access and the optical interconnect at the package level. In this paper, we describe the various design steps of a BPSK module and the related tests that are needed at every stage of the fabrication process.

  1. Macroscopic characterisations of Web accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rui; Carriço, Luis

    2010-12-01

    The Web Science framework poses fundamental questions on the analysis of the Web, by focusing on how microscopic properties (e.g. at the level of a Web page or Web site) emerge into macroscopic properties and phenomena. One research topic on the analysis of the Web is Web accessibility evaluation, which centres on understanding how accessible a Web page is for people with disabilities. However, when framing Web accessibility evaluation on Web Science, we have found that existing research stays at the microscopic level. This article presents an experimental study on framing Web accessibility evaluation into Web Science's goals. This study resulted in novel accessibility properties of the Web not found at microscopic levels, as well as of Web accessibility evaluation processes themselves. We observed at large scale some of the empirical knowledge on how accessibility is perceived by designers and developers, such as the disparity of interpretations of accessibility evaluation tools warnings. We also found a direct relation between accessibility quality and Web page complexity. We provide a set of guidelines for designing Web pages, education on Web accessibility, as well as on the computational limits of large-scale Web accessibility evaluations.

  2. Support arrangement for core modules of nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Bollinger, Lawrence R.

    1987-01-01

    A support arrangement is provided for the core modules of a nuclear reactor which provides support access through the control drive mechanisms of the reactor. This arrangement provides axial support of individual reactor core modules from the pressure vessel head in a manner which permits attachment and detachment of the modules from the head to be accomplished through the control drive mechanisms after their leadscrews have been removed. The arrangement includes a module support nut which is suspended from the pressure vessel head and screw threaded to the shroud housing for the module. A spline lock prevents loosening of the screw connection. An installation tool assembly, including a cell lifting and preloading tool and a torquing tool, fits through the control drive mechanism and provides lifting of the shroud housing while disconnecting the spline lock, as well as application of torque to the module support nut.

  3. Support arrangements for core modules of nuclear reactors. [PWR

    DOEpatents

    Bollinger, L.R.

    1983-11-03

    A support arrangement is provided for the core modules of a nuclear reactor which provides support access through the control drive mechanisms of the reactor. This arrangement provides axial support of individual reactor core modules from the pressure vessel head in a manner which permits attachment and detachment of the modules from the head to be accomplished through the control drive mechanisms after their leadscrews have been removed. The arrangement includes a module support nut which is suspended from the pressure vessel head and screw threaded to the shroud housing for the module. A spline lock prevents loosening of the screw connection. An installation tool assembly, including a cell lifting and preloading tool and a torquing tool, fits through the control drive mechanism and provides lifting of the shroud housing while disconnecting the spline lock, as well as application of torque to the module support nut.

  4. Jejunal access loop cholangiogram and intervention using image guided access.

    PubMed

    Amitha Vikrama, K S; Keshava, S N; Surendrababu, N R S; Moses, V; Joseph, P; Vyas, F; Sitaram, V

    2010-02-01

    Jejunal access loop is fashioned in patients who undergo Roux en Y hepaticojejunostomy and biliary intervention is anticipated on follow up. Post-operative study of the biliary tree through the access loop is usually done under fluoroscopic guidance. We present a series of 20 access loop cholangiograms performed in our institution between August 2004 and November 2008. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the procedure and to highlight the role of CT guidance in procuring access. Access loop was accessed using CT (n = 13), ultrasound (n = 3) or fluoroscopic guidance (n = 4). Fluoroscopy was used for performing cholangiograms and interventions. Twelve studies had balloon plasty of the stricture at anastomotic site or high up in the hepatic ducts. Seven studies showed normal cholangiogram. Plasty was unsuccessful in one study. Technical success in accessing the jejunal access loop was 100%; in cannulation of anastomotic site and balloon plasty it was 95%. One case required two attempts. Procedure-related complications were not seen. All patients who underwent balloon plasty of the stricture were doing well for variable lengths of time. Access loop cholangiogram and interventions are safe and effective. CT guidance in locating/procuring the access loop is a good technique.

  5. Reconfigurable Processing Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somervill, Kevin; Hodson, Robert; Jones, Robert; Williams, John

    2005-01-01

    To accommodate a wide spectrum of applications and technologies, NASA s Exploration System's Missions Directorate has called for reconfigurable and modular technologies to support future missions to the moon and Mars. In response, Langley Research Center is leading a program entitled Reconfigurable Scaleable Computing (RSC) that is centered on the development of FPGA-based computing resources in a stackable form factor. This paper details the architecture and implementation of the Reconfigurable Processing Module (RPM), which is the key element of the RSC system. The RPM is an FPGA-based, space-qualified printed circuit assembly leveraging terrestrial/commercial design standards into the space applications domain. The form factor is similar to, and backwards compatible with, the PCI-104 standard utilizing only the PCI interface. The size is expanded to accommodate the required functionality while still better than 30% smaller than a 3U CompactPCI(TradeMark)card and without the overhead of the backplane. The architecture is built around two FPGA devices, one hosting PCI and memory interfaces, and another hosting mission application resources; both of which are connected with a high-speed data bus. The PCI interface FPGA provides access via the PCI bus to onboard SDRAM, flash PROM, and the application resources; both configuration management as well as runtime interaction. The reconfigurable FPGA, referred to as the Application FPGA - or simply "the application" - is a radiation-tolerant Xilinx Virtex-4 FX60 hosting custom application specific logic or soft microprocessor IP. The RPM implements various SEE mitigation techniques including TMR, EDAC, and configuration scrubbing of the reconfigurable FPGA. Prototype hardware and formal modeling techniques are used to explore the performability trade space. These models provide a novel way to calculate quality-of-service performance measures while simultaneously considering fault-related behavior due to SEE soft errors.

  6. Web modules on professionalism and ethics.

    PubMed

    Hendee, William; Bosma, Jennifer L; Bresolin, Linda B; Berlin, Leonard; Bryan, R Nick; Gunderman, Richard B

    2012-03-01

    Health care disciplines have always held resolutely to a commitment to professionalism and high ethical standards. With the present emphasis on public accountability, professionalism and ethics are receiving enhanced attention in health care education and practice. A challenge for radiologists, radiation oncologists, and medical physicists is to define the scope and depth of knowledge about professionalism and ethics that are necessary for the practice of the disciplines. A further challenge is to develop accessible educational materials that encompass this required knowledge. About 2 years ago, the ABR Foundation decided to address these challenges through the development of an ethics and professionalism curriculum and production of a series of Web-based educational modules that follow the curriculum. Six organizations agreed initially to contribute financially to construction of the curriculum and modules and were later joined by a seventh. The curriculum was developed by the ABR Foundation and included in a request for proposals that was widely distributed. Teams of authors for each of 10 modules were selected from respondents to the request for proposals. As the modules were developed, they were reviewed in 3 successive stages, including peer review by members of the ACR Committee on Professionalism and the RSNA-ACR Task Force on an Ethics Curriculum. After revisions were prepared in response to the reviews, the modules were translated into a format compatible with the e-learning platform on which they are mounted. The modules are now available to all who wish to study them.

  7. Wideband Linear Phase Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Mueller, Robert O.

    1994-01-01

    Phase modulator for transmission in X band provides large phase deviation that remains nearly linear with voltage over relatively wide range. Operates with low loss over wide frequency band and with stable characteristics over wide temperature range. Phase modulator contains two varactor-diode phase shifters coupled via circulators. Separate drive circuit applies modulating voltages to varactor diodes. Modulation voltages vary in accordance with input to drive circuit.

  8. Modulating lignin in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  9. Temporal Aperture Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The two types of modulation techniques useful to X-ray imaging are reviewed. The use of optimum coded temporal aperature modulation is shown, in certain cases, to offer an advantage over a spatial aperture modulator. Example applications of a diffuse anisotropic X-ray background experiment and a wide field of view hard X-ray imager are discussed.

  10. Curriculum Development: Cultural Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John C.

    1978-01-01

    Language and cultural modules are multimedia in nature and non-sequential. Modules should be used in association with the themes and vocabulary found in the main course textbook. Reference is made to the "A-LM German Language Programs" and modules produced by Ontario German teachers in 1976 in West Germany. (SW)

  11. Rescue Manual. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The fifth of 10 modules contains information on hazardous materials. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany substantive material in this module. In addition, the module contains a Department of Transportation guide chart on…

  12. Integrating Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Provides an overview of the complete National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  13. Design and Performance of Overlap FFT Filter-Bank for Dynamic Spectrum Access Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Motohiro; Umehira, Masahiro

    An OFDMA-based (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access-based) channel access scheme for dynamic spectrum access has the drawbacks of large PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) and large ACI (Adjacent Channel Interference). To solve these problems, a flexible channel access scheme using an overlap FFT filter-bank was proposed based on single carrier modulation for dynamic spectrum access. In order to apply the overlap FFT filter-bank for dynamic spectrum access, it is necessary to clarify the performance of the overlap FFT filter-bank according to the design parameters since its frequency characteristics are critical for dynamic spectrum access applications. This paper analyzes the overlap FFT filter-bank and evaluates its performance such as frequency characteristics and ACI performance according to the design parameters.

  14. Access in crisis.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    Recent advances in HIV drug access and affordability have collided with a health care delivery system unequipped to handle the flow equitably and inexpensively. The AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) concludes that $169 million more in Federal spending is needed in 1997 to maintain an essential core of HIV/AIDS treatments, and presidential and congressional funding proposals are falling far short. ADAP funding also differs from state to state, but it is often inadequate and many programs cannot supply drugs. Several program aspects to be considered to ensure a strong ADAP are discussed and include the need to assure there is enough state funding, the need for programs to achieve better pricing for drugs, a formalized decision process on who decides what drugs ADAP covers, standardized eligibility criteria, and community members and advocates ensuring that ADAP information is adequately distributed to those who can use it.

  15. Vascular access today

    PubMed Central

    Pantelias, Konstantinos; Grapsa, Eirini

    2012-01-01

    The number of patients with chronic kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy has increased worldwide. The most common replacement therapy is hemodialysis (HD). Vascular access (VA) has a key role for successful treatment. Despite the advances that have taken place in the field of the HD procedure, few things have changed with regards to VA in recent years. Arteriovenous fistula (AVF), polytetrafluoroethylene graft and the cuffed double lumen silicone catheter are the most common used for VA. In the long term, a number of complications may present and more than one VA is needed during the HD life. The most common complications for all of VA types are thrombosis, bleeding and infection, the most common cause of morbidity in these patients. It has been estimated that VA dysfunction is responsible for 20% of all hospitalizations. The annual cost of placing and looking after dialysis VA in the United States exceeds 1 billion dollars per year. A good functional access is also vital in order to deliver adequate HD therapy. It seems that the native AVF that Brescia and Cimino described in 1966 still remains the first choice for VA. The native forearm AVFs have the longest survival and require the fewest interventions. For this reason, the forearm AVF is the first choice, followed by the upper-arm AVF, the arteriovenous graft and the cuffed central venous catheter is the final choice. In conclusion, VA remains the most important issue for patients on HD and despite the technical improvements, a number of problems and complications have to be resolved. PMID:24175244

  16. Chemists, Access, Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    2000-06-01

    New JCE Internet Feature at JCE Online Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists is a new JCE Internet feature on JCE Online. Edited by Barbara Burke, this feature provides biographical information on leading chemists, especially women and minority chemists, fostering the attitude that the practitioners of chemistry are as human as those who endeavor to learn about it. Currently, the column features biographical "snapshots" of 30 chemists. Each snapshot includes keywords and bibliography and several contain links to additional online information about the chemist. More biographical snapshots will appear in future installments. In addition, a database listing over 140 women and minority chemists is being compiled and will be made available online with the snapshots in the near future. The database includes the years of birth and death, gender and ethnicity, major and minor discipline, keywords to facilitate searching, and references to additional biographical information. We welcome your input into what we think is a very worthwhile resource. If you would like to provide additional biographical snapshots, see additional chemists added to the database, or know of additional references for those that are already in the database, please contact JCE Online or the feature editor. Your feedback is welcome and appreciated. You can find Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists starting from the JCE Online home page-- click the Features item under JCE Internet and then the Chemist Bios item. Access JCE Online without Name and Password We have recently been swamped by libraries requesting IP-number access to JCE Online. With the great benefit IP-number authentication gives to librarians (no user names and passwords to administer) and to their patrons (no need to remember and enter valid names and passwords) this is not surprising. If you would like access to JCE Online without the need to remember and enter a user name and password, you should tell your librarian about our

  17. Full complex modulation with two one-parameter SLMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.; Florence, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Although the action of a spatial light modulator (SLM) is usually restricted to certain locations on the operating curve of the complex plane, NASA is planning to use architectures that allow two continuously variable SLMs to function jointly so as to access the full interior of a closed curve in the complex plane. This paper describes three fundamental methods for attaining full complex modulation. The mathematics for two of these methods is presented, and signal decomposition in their terms is outlined.

  18. Public Access and Open Access: Is There a Difference? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Robin Meckley, Contributing Writer, and Tracie Frederick, Guest Writer Open access and public access—are they different concepts or are they the same? What do they mean for the researchers at NCI at Frederick? “Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the Internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder,” according to an open access website maintained by Peter Suber, director, Harvard Open Access Project.

  19. Spatial Light Amplifier Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, Sverre T.; Olsson, N. Anders

    1992-01-01

    Spatial light amplifier modulators (SLAM's) are conceptual devices that effect two-dimensional spatial modulation in optical computing and communication systems. Unlike current spatial light modulators, these provide gain. Optical processors incorporating SLAM's designed to operate in reflection or transmission mode. Each element of planar SLAM array is optical amplifier - surface-emitting diode laser. Array addressed electrically with ac modulating signals superimposed on dc bias currents supplied to lasers. SLAM device provides both desired modulation and enough optical gain to enable splitting of output signal into many optical fibers without excessive loss of power.

  20. Small modulation ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ducharme, Stephen P. (Inventor); El Hajj, Hassanayn M. (Inventor); Johs, Blaine D. (Inventor); Woollam, John A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    In an ellipsometer, a phase-modulated, polarized light beam is applied to a sample, electrical signals are obtained representing the orthogonal planes of polarization of the light after it has interacted with the sample and the constants of the sample are calculated from the two resulting electrical signals. The phase modulation is sufficiently small so that the calibration errors are negligible. For this purpose, the phase modulator phase modulates the light within a range of no more than ten degrees modulations peak to peak. The two electrical signals are expanded by Fourier analysis and the coefficients thereof utilized to calculate psi and delta.

  1. Regulation of the nucleosome unwrapping rate controls DNA accessibility

    PubMed Central

    North, Justin A.; Shimko, John C.; Javaid, Sarah; Mooney, Alex M.; Shoffner, Matthew A.; Rose, Sean D.; Bundschuh, Ralf; Fishel, Richard; Ottesen, Jennifer J.; Poirier, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are repetitively wrapped into nucleosomes that then regulate access of transcription and DNA repair complexes to DNA. The mechanisms that regulate extrinsic protein interactions within nucleosomes are unresolved. We demonstrate that modulation of the nucleosome unwrapping rate regulates protein binding within nucleosomes. Histone H3 acetyl-lysine 56 [H3(K56ac)] and DNA sequence within the nucleosome entry-exit region additively influence nucleosomal DNA accessibility by increasing the unwrapping rate without impacting rewrapping. These combined epigenetic and genetic factors influence transcription factor (TF) occupancy within the nucleosome by at least one order of magnitude and enhance nucleosome disassembly by the DNA mismatch repair complex, hMSH2–hMSH6. Our results combined with the observation that ∼30% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TF-binding sites reside in the nucleosome entry–exit region suggest that modulation of nucleosome unwrapping is a mechanism for regulating transcription and DNA repair. PMID:22965129

  2. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.32 Access. (a) No access on, across or through lands or waters... access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  3. Remote Data Access with IDL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A tool based on IDL (Interactive Data Language) and DAP (Data Access Protocol) has been developed for user-friendly remote data access. A difficulty for many NASA researchers using IDL is that often the data to analyze are located remotely and are too large to transfer for local analysis. Researchers have developed a protocol for accessing remote data, DAP, which is used for both SOHO and STEREO data sets. Server-side side analysis via IDL routine is available through DAP.

  4. Random access actuation of nanowire grid metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cencillo-Abad, Pablo; Ou, Jun-Yu; Plum, Eric; Valente, João; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2016-12-01

    While metamaterials offer engineered static optical properties, future artificial media with dynamic random-access control over shape and position of meta-molecules will provide arbitrary control of light propagation. The simplest example of such a reconfigurable metamaterial is a nanowire grid metasurface with subwavelength wire spacing. Recently we demonstrated computationally that such a metadevice with individually controlled wire positions could be used as dynamic diffraction grating, beam steering module and tunable focusing element. Here we report on the nanomembrane realization of such a nanowire grid metasurface constructed from individually addressable plasmonic chevron nanowires with a 230 nm × 100 nm cross-section, which consist of gold and silicon nitride. The active structure of the metadevice consists of 15 nanowires each 18 μm long and is fabricated by a combination of electron beam lithography and ion beam milling. It is packaged as a microchip device where the nanowires can be individually actuated by control currents via differential thermal expansion.

  5. Parallel Optical Random Access Memory (PORAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alphonse, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the need to minimize component count, power and size, and to maximize packing density require a parallel optical random access memory to be designed in a two-level hierarchy: a modular level and an interconnect level. Three module designs are proposed, in the order of research and development requirements. The first uses state-of-the-art components, including individually addressed laser diode arrays, acousto-optic (AO) deflectors and magneto-optic (MO) storage medium, aimed at moderate size, moderate power, and high packing density. The next design level uses an electron-trapping (ET) medium to reduce optical power requirements. The third design uses a beam-steering grating surface emitter (GSE) array to reduce size further and minimize the number of components.

  6. Parallel Optical Random Access Memory (PORAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alphonse, G. A.

    1989-06-01

    It is shown that the need to minimize component count, power and size, and to maximize packing density require a parallel optical random access memory to be designed in a two-level hierarchy: a modular level and an interconnect level. Three module designs are proposed, in the order of research and development requirements. The first uses state-of-the-art components, including individually addressed laser diode arrays, acousto-optic (AO) deflectors and magneto-optic (MO) storage medium, aimed at moderate size, moderate power, and high packing density. The next design level uses an electron-trapping (ET) medium to reduce optical power requirements. The third design uses a beam-steering grating surface emitter (GSE) array to reduce size further and minimize the number of components.

  7. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    DOEpatents

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  8. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  9. Performance metrics for advanced access.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Diwakar; Potthoff, Sandra; Blowers, Donald; Corlett, John

    2006-01-01

    Advanced access is an outpatient scheduling technique that aims to provide sameday appointment access. It is designed to reduce the time patients must wait for a scheduled appointment and to improve continuity of care by matching daily appointment supply and demand. Factors that make it difficult to sustain initial success in achieving supply-demand balance include different practice styles of doctors, differences in panel compositions and patient preferences, and time-varying demand patterns. This article proposes several performance measures that can help clinic directors monitor and evaluate their advanced access implementation. We also discuss strategies for sustaining advanced access in the long run.

  10. Consciousness, accessibility, and the mesh between psychology and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Block, Ned

    2007-12-01

    How can we disentangle the neural basis of phenomenal consciousness from the neural machinery of the cognitive access that underlies reports of phenomenal consciousness? We see the problem in stark form if we ask how we can tell whether representations inside a Fodorian module are phenomenally conscious. The methodology would seem straightforward: Find the neural natural kinds that are the basis of phenomenal consciousness in clear cases--when subjects are completely confident and we have no reason to doubt their authority--and look to see whether those neural natural kinds exist within Fodorian modules. But a puzzle arises: Do we include the machinery underlying reportability within the neural natural kinds of the clear cases? If the answer is "Yes," then there can be no phenomenally conscious representations in Fodorian modules. But how can we know if the answer is "Yes"? The suggested methodology requires an answer to the question it was supposed to answer! This target article argues for an abstract solution to the problem and exhibits a source of empirical data that is relevant, data that show that in a certain sense phenomenal consciousness overflows cognitive accessibility. I argue that we can find a neural realizer of this overflow if we assume that the neural basis of phenomenal consciousness does not include the neural basis of cognitive accessibility and that this assumption is justified (other things being equal) by the explanations it allows.

  11. Access to Public Educational Facilities under the Equal Access Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig; Goldblatt, Steven M.

    1988-01-01

    Discussion centers on the legal bases by which school administrators permit access to public educational facilities by religiously and politically oriented student organizations. It concludes that access should be granted to students whose purposes do not disrupt teaching and learning. (JAM)

  12. Access to space study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comprehensive NASA in-house study to identify and assess alternate approaches to access to space through the year 2030, and to select and recommend a preferred cause of action. The goals of the study were to identify the best vehicles and transportation architectures to make major reductions in the cost of space transportation (at least 50%), while at the same time increasing safety for flight crews by at least an order of magnitude. In addition, vehicle reliability was to exceed 0.98 percent, and, as important, the robustness, pad time, turnaround time, and other aspects of operability were to be vastly improved. This study examined three major optional architectures: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable vehicles using conventional technologies and transition from current vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition from current vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch-needs, mission model utilized for for the study was based upon today's projection of civil, defense, and commercial mission payload requirements.

  13. Nonvolatile random access memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A nonvolatile magnetic random access memory can be achieved by an array of magnet-Hall effect (M-H) elements. The storage function is realized with a rectangular thin-film ferromagnetic material having an in-plane, uniaxial anisotropy and inplane bipolar remanent magnetization states. The thin-film magnetic element is magnetized by a local applied field, whose direction is used to form either a 0 or 1 state. The element remains in the 0 or 1 state until a switching field is applied to change its state. The stored information is detcted by a Hall-effect sensor which senses the fringing field from the magnetic storage element. The circuit design for addressing each cell includes transistor switches for providing a current of selected polarity to store a binary digit through a separate conductor overlying the magnetic element of the cell. To read out a stored binary digit, transistor switches are employed to provide a current through a row of Hall-effect sensors connected in series and enabling a differential voltage amplifier connected to all Hall-effect sensors of a column in series. To avoid read-out voltage errors due to shunt currents through resistive loads of the Hall-effect sensors of other cells in the same column, at least one transistor switch is provided between every pair of adjacent cells in every row which are not turned on except in the row of the selected cell.

  14. Remote direct memory access

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  15. Making Astronomy Accessible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, Noreen A.

    2011-05-01

    A new semester begins, and your students enter the classroom for the first time. You notice a student sitting in a wheelchair or walking with assistance from a cane. Maybe you see a student with a guide dog or carrying a Braille computer. Another student gestures "hello” but then continues hand motions, and you realize the person is actually signing. You wonder why another student is using an electronic device to speak. Think this can't happen in your class? According to the U.S. Census, one out of every five Americans has a disability. And some disabilities, such as autism, dyslexia and arthritis, are considered "invisible” disabilities. This means you have a high probability that one of your students will have a disability. As an astronomy instructor, you have the opportunity to reach a wide variety of learners by using creative teaching strategies. I will share some suggestions on how to make astronomy and your part of the universe more accessible for everyone.

  16. EXOMARS Descent Module GNC Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portigliotti, S.; Capuano, M.; Montagna, M.; Martella, P.; Venditto, P.

    2007-08-01

    The ExoMars mission is the first ESA led robotic mission of the Aurora Programme and combines technology development with investigations of major scientific interest. Italy is by far the major contributor to the mission through the strong support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI). ExoMars will search for traces of past and present life, characterize the Mars geochemistry and water distribution, improve the knowledge of the Mars environment and geophysics, and identify possible surface hazards to future human exploration missions. ExoMars will also validate the technology for safe Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) of a large size Descent Module (DM) carrying a Rover with medium range surface mobility and the access to subsurface. The ExoMars project is presently undergoing its Phase B1 with Thales Alenia Space-Italia as Industrial Prime Contractor. Additionally, as Descent Module responsible, a dedicated simulation tool is under development in Thales Alenia Space-Italia, Turin site, for the end-to-end design and validation / verification of the DM Entry Descent and Landing.

  17. Broadband access network reference models: a different prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, Mohamed S.

    1996-11-01

    The current view of the fiber-based broadband access network is that it could basically be modeled into two target networks represented by the following architectures, the fiber to the curb, building, home (FTTC/B/H) -- also termed switched digital video (SDV) -- architecture, and the hybrid fiber coax (HFC) architecture. Both architectures support on-demand digital services. One way to distinguish between these two architectures is based on the digital modulation scheme. The SDV/FTTC architecture utilizes baseband digital modulation both in the fiber distribution and the point-to- point drop. Whereas, the HFC architecture is pass-band and utilizes digitally modulated (as well as analog modulated) subcarriers both on the fiber and the coax for distribution to customers. From a network modeling point of view, the distinction between these two architectures is fuzzy. A hybrid between the above two architectures represents other architectural advantages especially bandwidth utilization in the upstream direction. This paper describes this hybrid architecture and provides an evaluation of the different access network configuration scenarios based on an expanded version of the DAVIC reference models.

  18. Multistage WDM access architecture employing cascaded AWGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nahal, F. I.; Mears, R. J.

    2009-03-01

    Here we propose passive/active arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) with enhanced performance for system applications mainly in novel access architectures employing cascaded AWG technology. Two technologies were considered to achieve space wavelength switching in these networks. Firstly, a passive AWG with semiconductor optical amplifiers array, and secondly, an active AWG. Active AWG is an AWG with an array of phase modulators on its arrayed-waveguides section, where a programmable linear phase-profile or a phase hologram is applied across the arrayed-waveguide section. This results in a wavelength shift at the output section of the AWG. These architectures can address up to 6912 customers employing only 24 wavelengths, coarsely separated by 1.6 nm. Simulation results obtained here demonstrate that cascaded AWGs access architectures have a great potential in future local area networks. Furthermore, they indicate for the first time that active AWGs architectures are more efficient in routing signals to the destination optical network units than passive AWG architectures.

  19. Flammability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Lewis, K. J.; Arnett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    A series of Class B burning-brand tests were performed on experimental modules using high-temperature, back-surface materials to develop the technology base required to construct fire-ratable modules. Results indicate the existence of synergistic relationships between hydrocarbon encapsulation materials and the experimental module configurations that provide increased fire resistance. These configurations use Kapton, fiberglass, neoprene rubber, stainless-steel foil or aluminum foil as the back surface. Successful test results occur when the structural integrity of the module back surface is maintained. Test failures of these modules always occur for one of three reasons: the outermost back cover melts, rips, or is too porous. In each case flammable molten encapsulant, its gaseous byproducts, or both, penetrates the back surface of the module and bursts into flame. Future efforts to complete the technology base will concentrate on the spread-of-flame test, focusing on the more promising configurations identified in the initial series of tests.

  20. Flammability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Lewis, K. J.; Arnett, J. C.

    A series of Class B burning-brand tests were performed on experimental modules using high-temperature, back-surface materials to develop the technology base required to construct fire-ratable modules. Results indicate the existence of synergistic relationships between hydrocarbon encapsulation materials and the experimental module configurations that provide increased fire resistance. These configurations use Kapton, fiberglass, neoprene rubber, stainless-steel foil or aluminum foil as the back surface. Successful test results occur when the structural integrity of the module back surface is maintained. Test failures of these modules always occur for one of three reasons: the outermost back cover melts, rips, or is too porous. In each case flammable molten encapsulant, its gaseous byproducts, or both, penetrates the back surface of the module and bursts into flame. Future efforts to complete the technology base will concentrate on the spread-of-flame test, focusing on the more promising configurations identified in the initial series of tests.

  1. Internet Access to Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Jackson, Chris; Price, Harold; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project at NASA's Goddard Space flight Center (GSFC), is demonstrating the use of standard Internet protocols for spacecraft communication systems. This year, demonstrations of Internet access to a flying spacecraft have been performed with the UoSAT-12 spacecraft owned and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL). Previously, demonstrations were performed using a ground satellite simulator and NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). These activities are part of NASA's Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) Technology Program, The work is focused on defining the communication architecture for future NASA missions to support both NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" concept and to enable new types of collaborative science. The use of standard Internet communication technology for spacecraft simplifies design, supports initial integration and test across an IP based network, and enables direct communication between scientists and instruments as well as between different spacecraft, The most recent demonstrations consisted of uploading an Internet Protocol (IP) software stack to the UoSAT- 12 spacecraft, simple modifications to the SSTL ground station, and a series of tests to measure performance of various Internet applications. The spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 3 months. The tests included basic network connectivity (PING), automated clock synchronization (NTP), and reliable file transfers (FTP). Future tests are planned to include additional protocols such as Mobile IP, e-mail, and virtual private networks (VPN) to enable automated, operational spacecraft communication networks. The work performed and results of the initial phase of tests are summarized in this paper. This work is funded and directed by NASA/GSFC with technical leadership by CSC in arrangement with SSTL, and Vytek Wireless.

  2. ERIC Data Access System (EDAS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Pal V.

    The ERIC Data Access System (EDAS) is an information retrieval system developed at Eastern Illinois University to access the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database and make it available to Eastern faculty and students in a convenient and timely fashion. This paper describes briefly why and how Eastern developed and implemented…

  3. Minority Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

  4. Accessible Multimedia for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaparyniuk, Nicholas; Code, Jillianne

    With the Internet taking a dominant role in corporate training, education, retail, and customer based product exploration, authors of Web-based information need to ensure that the media they deliver is accessible to the widest possible audience. Whether users have a visual, auditory, physical, or developmental disability, accessible multimedia can…

  5. Automatically Producing Accessible Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Iorio, Angelo; Feliziani, Antonio Angelo; Mirri, Silvia; Salomoni, Paola; Vitali, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    The "Anywhere, Anytime, Anyway" slogan is frequently associated to e-learning with the aim to emphasize the wide access offered by on-line education. Otherwise, learning materials are currently created to be used with a specific technology or configuration, leaving out from the virtual classroom students who have limited access capabilities and,…

  6. Editorial: Next Generation Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, Marco; Cincotti, Gabriella; Pizzinat, Anna; Vetter, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade we have seen an increasing number of operators deploying Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) solutions in access networks, in order to provide home users with a much needed network access upgrade, to support higher peak rates, higher sustained rates and a better and more uniform broadband coverage of the territory.

  7. "Accessions": Researching, Designing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This brief viewpoint piece depicts educational (dis)engagements apparent in researching and (re)designing higher education in and through "Accessions". "Accessions", a collaborative research-design project, probed at how cultures, climates and conditions of higher education may be reproducing or reshaping social inequalities…

  8. Equity of access: adaptive technology.

    PubMed

    Grodzinsky, F S

    2000-04-01

    In this age of information technology, it is morally imperative that equal access to information via computer systems be afforded to people with disabilities. This paper addresses the problems that computer technology poses for students with disabilities and discusses what is needed to ensure equity of access, particularly in a university environment.

  9. Electronic Information: Options for Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesch, Oliver

    1994-01-01

    Discusses three electronic information formats: CD-ROM, tape loads, and online hosts; reviews some of the hardware platforms used for accessing information in these formats; and discusses some of the issues involved in interconnecting computer systems to increase access to electronic collections. (Author)

  10. Accessibility on the Hudson River

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how Beverly and Martin Ryfa, working with an architect who specializes in accessible design, were able to build a house that is handicap accessible for their 9-year-old daughter, Danielle, who suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage when she was three days old. The article describes the features of their house that make…

  11. Accessibility in E-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Simon

    2009-01-01

    E-assessment offers many opportunities to broaden the range of tools at the assessor's disposal and thereby improve the overall accessibility of the assessment experience. In 2006, TechDis commissioned a report, produced by Edexcel, on the state of guidance on accessibility at the various stages of the assessment process--question design,…

  12. Hybrid haemodialysis vascular access salvage.

    PubMed

    Potisek, Maja; Ključevšek, Tomaž; Leskovar, Boštjan

    2017-03-01

    A well-functioning vascular access is essential for successful haemodialysis in patients with end-stage kidney failure. Sometimes, when we have exploited all conventional ways of vascular access salvage, we have to find a unique solution to preserve it.

  13. Guidelines for Outsourcing Remote Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassler, Ardoth; Neuman, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing remote access to campus computer networks and the Internet, focusing on improved service, cost-sharing, partnerships with vendors, supported protocols, bandwidth, scope of access, implementation, support, network security, and pricing. Includes a checklist for a request for proposals on…

  14. Bibliographic Access and Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Betsy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents a brief summary of the functions of the Bibliographic Access & Control System (BACS) implemented at the Washington University School of Medicine Library, and outlines the design, development, and uses of the system. Bibliographic control of books and serials and user access to the system are also discussed. (Author/JL)

  15. THERMOELECTRIC POWER MODULES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    During this reporting period the four thermo electric power modules which were put on life test completed 2000 hours of unattended operation. A hot...junction temperature of 800 C was main tained. During this time period satisfactory performance of the modules was observed and the test is continuing...Two additional modules were started on a cycled life test , one hour on and one and one half hours off for an eight hour period, and continuous

  16. Telemetry remote modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    A fully operational engineering telemetry remote module is reported that forms the basis for a decentralized telemetry system which employs small low powered modules capable of distributing the multiplexer input gates around a spacecraft. The module operates mainly as a harness reducer, allowing data to be transmitted back to a central control core for inclusion in the telemetry bit stream. Each unit is capable of accepting 32 data points in various combinations.

  17. Cavity enhanced terahertz modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Born, N.; Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, M.

    2014-03-10

    We present a versatile concept for all optical terahertz (THz) amplitude modulators based on a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor cavity design. Employing the high reflectivity of two parallel meta-surfaces allows for trapping selected THz photons within the cavity and thus only a weak optical modulation of the semiconductor absorbance is required to significantly damp the field within the cavity. The optical switching yields to modulation depths of more than 90% with insertion efficiencies of 80%.

  18. Adaptive Modulation and Coding for LTE Wireless Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi, S. S.; Tiong, T. C.

    2015-04-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the new upgrade path for carrier with both GSM/UMTS networks and CDMA2000 networks. The LTE is targeting to become the first global mobile phone standard regardless of the different LTE frequencies and bands use in other countries barrier. Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) is used to increase the network capacity or downlink data rates. Various modulation types are discussed such as Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Spatial multiplexing techniques for 4×4 MIMO antenna configuration is studied. With channel station information feedback from the mobile receiver to the base station transmitter, adaptive modulation and coding can be applied to adapt to the mobile wireless channels condition to increase spectral efficiencies without increasing bit error rate in noisy channels. In High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) in Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), AMC can be used to choose modulation types and forward error correction (FEC) coding rate.

  19. Bubble memory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohning, O. D.; Becker, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Design, fabrication and test of partially populated prototype recorder using 100 kilobit serial chips is described. Electrical interface, operating modes, and mechanical design of several module configurations are discussed. Fabrication and test of the module demonstrated the practicality of multiplexing resulting in lower power, weight, and volume. This effort resulted in the completion of a module consisting of a fully engineered printed circuit storage board populated with 5 of 8 possible cells and a wire wrapped electronics board. Interface of the module is 16 bits parallel at a maximum of 1.33 megabits per second data rate on either of two interface buses.

  20. Bubble memory module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohning, O. D.; Becker, F. J.

    1980-12-01

    Design, fabrication and test of partially populated prototype recorder using 100 kilobit serial chips is described. Electrical interface, operating modes, and mechanical design of several module configurations are discussed. Fabrication and test of the module demonstrated the practicality of multiplexing resulting in lower power, weight, and volume. This effort resulted in the completion of a module consisting of a fully engineered printed circuit storage board populated with 5 of 8 possible cells and a wire wrapped electronics board. Interface of the module is 16 bits parallel at a maximum of 1.33 megabits per second data rate on either of two interface buses.

  1. Advanced module development overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smokler, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    Crystalline silicon solar power modules are examined for reliability and cost effectiveness. A goal of 12% solar energy conversion efficiency is considered feasible at a cost of 12/kWh, and a decision is made to limit consideration to float zone silicon wafer and dendritic web silicone modules. A preliminary module packaging configuration of glass/ethylene vinyl acetate/plastic film is selected. Anticipated module efficiency levels are 12.6% at 25 C and 11.5% at NOCT (Nominal Operating Cell Temperature).

  2. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  3. 75 FR 44283 - In the Matter of Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing Same, Including Memory Modules; Notice of a Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination... within the United States after importation of certain dynamic random access memory semiconductors...

  4. Development Strategies for Online Volunteer Training Modules: A Team Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robideau, Kari; Vogel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Volunteers are central to the delivery of 4-H programs, and providing quality, relevant training is key to volunteer success. Online, asynchronous modules are an enhancement to a training delivery menu for adult volunteers, providing consistent, accessible options traditionally delivered primarily face to face. This article describes how Minnesota…

  5. An NCME Instructional Module on Polytomous Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall David

    2014-01-01

    A polytomous item is one for which the responses are scored according to three or more categories. Given the increasing use of polytomous items in assessment practices, item response theory (IRT) models specialized for polytomous items are becoming increasingly common. The purpose of this ITEMS module is to provide an accessible overview of…

  6. Developing an On-Line Interactive Health Psychology Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upton, Dominic; Cooper, Carol

    2006-01-01

    On-line teaching material in health psychology was developed which ensured a range of students could access appropriate material for their course and level of study. This material has been developed around the concept of smaller "content chunks" which can be combined into whole units of learning (topics), and ultimately, a module. On the…

  7. Development of an AC Module System: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Suparna Kadam; Miles Russell

    2012-06-15

    The GreenRay Inc. program focused on simplifying solar electricity and making it affordable and accessible to the mainstream population. This was accomplished by integrating a solar module, micro-inverter, mounting and monitoring into a reliable, 'plug and play' AC system for residential rooftops, offering the following advantages: (1) Reduced Cost: Reduction in installation labor with fewer components, faster mounting, faster wiring. (2) Maximized Energy Production: Each AC Module operates at its maximum, reducing overall losses from shading, mismatch, or module downtime. (3) Increased Safety. Electrical and fire safety experts agree that AC Modules have significant benefits, with no energized wiring or live connections during installation, maintenance or emergency conditions. (4) Simplified PV for a Broader Group of Installers. Dramatic simplification of design and installation of a solar power system, enabling faster and more efficient delivery of the product into the market through well-established, mainstream channels. This makes solar more accessible to the public. (5) Broadened the Rooftop Market: AC Modules enable solar for many homes that have shading, split roofs, or obstructions. In addition, due to the smaller building block size of 200W vs. 1000W, homeowners with budget limitations can start small and add to their systems over time. Through this DOE program GreenRay developed the all-in-one AC Module system with an integrated PV Module and microinverter, custom residential mounting and performance monitoring. Development efforts took the product from its initial concept, through prototypes, to a commercial product sold and deployed in the residential market. This pilot deployment has demonstrated the technical effectiveness of the AC Module system in meeting the needs and solving the problems of the residential market. While more expensive than the traditional central inverter systems at the pilot scale, the economics of AC Modules become more and more

  8. Photonic ultrawideband impulse radio generation and modulation over a fiber link using a phase modulator and a delay interferometer.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jing; Sun, Junqiang

    2012-08-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple and flexible photonic scheme for generation and modulation of ultrawideband (UWB) using a phase modulator and a fiber delay interferometer (DI)-based multichannel frequency discrimination. By introducing a Gaussian signal to the phase modulator, the UWB polarity-switchable doublet pulses can be achieved by combining the pair of UWB monocycle pulses with inverted polarities at the DI outputs under proper time delay. Furthermore, the pulse shape modulation, pulse position modulation, and on-off keying can be performed by coding the electrical data patterns and adjusting the time delay between the two monocycle pulses. Only a laser source introduced in the architecture guarantees the excellent dispersion tolerance over 75 km optical fiber link for UWB pulse sequence, which has potential application in future high-speed UWB impulse radio over optical fiber access networks.

  9. An NCME Instructional Module on Data Mining Methods for Classification and Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    Data mining methods for classification and regression are becoming increasingly popular in various scientific fields. However, these methods have not been explored much in educational measurement. This module first provides a review, which should be accessible to a wide audience in education measurement, of some of these methods. The module then…

  10. Car-Buying. Computer Module for Use in a Mathematics Laboratory Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Irwin; And Others

    This is one of a series of computer modules designed for use by secondary students who have access to a computer. The module, designed to help students understand all facets of car-buying, includes a statement of objectives, a time schedule, a list of materials, suggested evaluation procedures, an outline for each section, and several computer…

  11. Success factors for open access.

    PubMed

    Till, James E

    2003-01-01

    Open access to the peer-reviewed primary research literature would greatly facilitate knowledge transfer between the creators and the users of the results of research and scholarship. Criteria are needed to assess the impact of recent initiatives, such as the Budapest Open Access Initiative. For example, how many open-access research journals exist within a given field, and what is the reputation of each one? And, how many openly-accessible institutional e-print archives have been created and how many are actually are being used by researchers and scholars? A simple approach to an assessment of the open-access portion of the medical literature is described, and some preliminary results are summarized. These preliminary results point to the need for incentives to foster the implementation of initiatives such as the Budapest Open Access Initiative. An example of an incentive model is proposed, where an agency or foundation that provides peer-reviewed grants-in-aid to researchers establishes an e-print archive. Only current grantees of the agency would be eligible to post reports about the results of research projects or programs that have been supported by the agency. Some advantages and implications of this particular model are outlined. It is suggested that incentive models of this kind are needed to increase the likelihood that open access to the primary medical research literature will soon reach a "tipping point" and move quickly toward wide acceptance.

  12. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  13. Lunar Module Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Apollo lunar module communications. It describes several changes in terminology from the Apollo era to more recent terms. It reviews: (1) Lunar Module Antennas and Functions (2). Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (3) No Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (4) Lunar Surface Communications Links (5) Signal-Processing Assembly (6) Instrumentation System (7) Some Communications Problems Encountered

  14. Modules in Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, K. Ann; And Others

    Designed for use with accompanying videotapes as single presentations or as a series for professionals or laypeople, or as supplementary modules in academic courses in psychology, marriage and family, health occupations, etc., these four learning modules focus on common phases of dying and grief as part of the normal cycle of living. The modules…

  15. Water electrolysis module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.

    1971-01-01

    Module utilizes static water-feed electrolysis system and air-cooled fins to remove heat generated by cell inefficiencies. Module generates 0.15 pounds of oxygen and 0.0188 pounds of hydrogen at current density of 100 amps per square foot. Generator operates in aircraft, spacecraft, or submarine cabins.

  16. Logs Perl Module

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, R. K.

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  17. Human Development Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This set of 61 student learning modules deals with various topics pertaining to human development. The modules, which are designed for use in performance-based vocational education programs, each contain the following components: an introduction for the student, a performance objective, a variety of learning activities, content information, a…

  18. Rescue Manual. Module 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The seventh of 10 modules contains information on extrication from vehicles. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany substantive material in this module. In addition, suggested tools and equipment for extrication procedures are…

  19. Module Safety Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2012-02-01

    Description of how to make PV modules so that they are less likely to turn into safety hazards. Making modules inherently safer with minimum additional cost is the preferred approach for PV. Safety starts with module design to ensure redundancy within the electrical circuitry to minimize open circuits and proper mounting instructions to prevent installation related ground faults. Module manufacturers must control the raw materials and processes to ensure that that every module is built like those qualified through the safety tests. This is the reason behind the QA task force effort to develop a 'Guideline for PV Module Manufacturing QA'. Periodic accelerated stress testing of production products is critical to validate the safety of the product. Combining safer PV modules with better systems designs is the ultimate goal. This should be especially true for PV arrays on buildings. Use of lower voltage dc circuits - AC modules, DC-DC converters. Use of arc detectors and interrupters to detect arcs and open the circuits to extinguish the arcs.

  20. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  1. Applied Algebra Curriculum Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Marshall.

    This collection of 11 applied algebra curriculum modules can be used independently as supplemental modules for an existing algebra curriculum. They represent diverse curriculum styles that should stimulate the teacher's creativity to adapt them to other algebra concepts. The selected topics have been determined to be those most needed by students…

  2. Cosmetology. Computerized Learning Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnerty, Kathy, Ed.

    Intended to help reading-limited students meet course objectives, these 11 modules are based on instructional materials in cosmetology that have a higher readability equivalent. Modules cover bacteriology, chemical waving, scalp and hair massage, chemistry, hair shaping, hairstyling, chemical hair relaxing, hair coloring, skin and scalp,…

  3. Solar energy modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  4. Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  5. Modelling of Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Slot IP Internet Protocol LAN Local Area Network MAC Medium Access Control MACAW Medium Access Protocol for Wireless LANs MANET Mobile Ad-hoc...Unforced state – It waits after entering the state until it is invoked by another process or an interrupt. It is in dark grey on this report, and red ... green in OPNET. A MAC process model is built for general initialisations of the MAC module, and to invoke the selected MAC protocol process model

  6. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Granting access. 2606.203 Section 2606... Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing access to records, when such access has been granted by OGE or the other agency concerned are:...

  7. 10 CFR 1017.21 - Limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited access. 1017.21 Section 1017.21 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.21 Limited access. (a) A person who is not eligible for routine access to specific UCNI under § 1017.20 may request limited access...

  8. 10 CFR 1017.19 - Access limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access limitations. 1017.19 Section 1017.19 Energy... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.19 Access limitations. A person may only have access to UCNI if he or she has been granted routine access by an Authorized Individual...

  9. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting access. 2606.203 Section 2606... Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing access to records, when such access has been granted by OGE or the other agency concerned are:...

  10. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Granting access. 2606.203 Section 2606... Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing access to records, when such access has been granted by OGE or the other agency concerned are:...

  11. 32 CFR 154.49 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Granting access. 154.49 Section 154.49 National... SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.49 Granting access. (a) Access to classified information shall be granted to persons whose official duties require such access and who have...

  12. 32 CFR 154.49 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Granting access. 154.49 Section 154.49 National... SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.49 Granting access. (a) Access to classified information shall be granted to persons whose official duties require such access and who have...

  13. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Granting access. 2606.203 Section 2606... Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing access to records, when such access has been granted by OGE or the other agency concerned are:...

  14. 32 CFR 154.49 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Granting access. 154.49 Section 154.49 National... SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.49 Granting access. (a) Access to classified information shall be granted to persons whose official duties require such access and who have...

  15. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Granting access. 2606.203 Section 2606... Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing access to records, when such access has been granted by OGE or the other agency concerned are:...

  16. 32 CFR 154.49 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Granting access. 154.49 Section 154.49 National... SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.49 Granting access. (a) Access to classified information shall be granted to persons whose official duties require such access and who have...

  17. Ultrasound guidance for vascular access.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Paul-André C; Kendall, John L

    2004-08-01

    The evidence that supports the general application of US guidance for venous access in the ED has reached a critical mass. The increasing familiarity of emergency physicians with US and the recent focus on patient safety and clinical outcomes has intensified attention on the capacity for US to improve patient care in the ED. US guidance can increase the safety and efficiency of venous access procedures and offers improved outcomes. The potential for these improvements is compelling, especially among certain types of ED patients such as those with difficult or complicated access. Varying levels of evidence support the use of US guidance over the traditional landmark approach for venous access in adult and pediatric populations and for central and peripheral veins. Many different techniques may be applied, depending on the clinical situation and equipment available.

  18. Accessible Electronic and Information Technology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Policy establishes EPA's responsibilities and procedures for making its Electronic and Information Technology (EIT) products accessible to all people, including people with disabilities, in accordance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act.

  19. UK to support open access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The UK government has "widely accepted" the recommendations of a major report into open-access publishing that was released in June by a 15-strong working group led by the British sociologist Janet Finch.

  20. Web Access to RSIG Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Remote Sensing Information Gateway, a tool that allows scientists, researchers and decision makers to access a variety of multi-terabyte, environmental datasets and to subset the data and obtain only needed variables, greatly improving the download time.

  1. Astronauts Access Web from Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams and Flight Engineers Soichi Noguchi and T.J. Creamer share their thoughts about Internet access from space and post a r...

  2. VPAT - Voluntary Product Accessibility Template

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intended to assist federal contracting officials and other buyers in making preliminary assessments regarding the availability of commercial “Electronic and Information Technology” (EIT) products and services with features that support accessibility.

  3. Computer access security code system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.

  4. Neurological complications of vascular access.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Neurological problems are common in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Over 60% of patients will suffer from symptoms of underlying polyneuropathy due to uraemia or diabetes. Others will have subclinical disease demonstrable by nerve conduction studies. Nerve injury following haemodialysis access surgery is underreported. However, sensory nerve lesions are probably common after most vascular access procedures but are rarely debilitating. Nerve compression syndromes such as carpal tunnel and ulnar compression syndromes are common, especially in patients who have been on dialysis for some years and at least some of these are related to or exacerbated by the access. Recognition is essential as they are eminently treatable by decompression surgery. Tourniquet use appears to be safe for carpal tunnel or ulnar nerve decompression surgery. Ischaemic monomelic neuropathy (IMN) is rare but follows a period of ischaemia during or as a result of access surgery, most commonly to construct a brachial arteriovenous fistula or graft. It is characterised by intense pain, out of proportion to any ischaemia, involves all of the upper limb nerves and may progress to involve the motor nerves eventually resulting in a useless clawed hand. It requires prompt treatment of any residual ischaemia after access creation, if necessary by access ligation, as in the established syndrome, like the even rarer complication of reflex sympathetic dystrophy, it is very difficult to offer any useful treatment other than symptomatic relief and physiotherapy.

  5. [The concepts of health access].

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Raquel Maia; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita

    2012-03-01

    This article describes four dimensions of health access-availability, acceptability, ability to pay and information-correlating these dimensions to indicators and discussing the complexity of the concept of access. For a study of these four dimensions, searches were conducted using the PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and World Health Organization Library & Information Networks for Knowledge (WHOLIS) databases. Large-circulation media vehicles, such as The Economist, The Washington Post, and the BBC network were also searched. The concept of health access has become more complex with time. The first analyses, carried out in the 1970s, suggested a strong emphasis on geographical (availability) and financial (ability to pay) aspects. More recently, the literature has focused on less tangible aspects, such as cultural, educational, and socioeconomic issues, incorporating the element of acceptability into the notion of health access. The literature also shows that information provides the starting point for access to health, in association with health empowerment and literacy for health care decision-making. The study concludes that improvements in access to health and the guarantee of equity will not be achieved by initiatives focusing on health care systems alone, but rather will depend on intersectoral actions and social and economic policies aimed at eliminating income and education differences.

  6. Vascular access in oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Gallieni, Maurizio; Pittiruti, Mauro; Biffi, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Adequate vascular access is of paramount importance in oncology patients. It is important in the initial phase of surgical treatment or chemotherapy, as well as in the chronic management of advanced cancer and in the palliative care setting. We present an overview of the available vascular access devices and of the most relevant issues regarding insertion and management of vascular access. Particular emphasis is given to the use of ultrasound guidance as the preferred technique of insertion, which has dramatically decreased insertion-related complications. Vascular access management has considerably improved after the publication of effective guidelines for the appropriate nursing of the vascular device, which has reduced the risk of late complications, such as catheter-related bloodstream infection. However, many areas of clinical practice are still lacking an evidence-based background, such as the choice of the most appropriate vascular access device in each clinical situation, as well as prevention and treatment of thrombosis. We suggest an approach to the choice of the most appropriate vascular access device for the oncology patient, based on the literature available to date.

  7. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  8. Optical modulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, J.

    1972-01-01

    The fabrication, test, and delivery of an optical modulator system which will operate with a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser indicating at either 1.06 or 0.53 micrometers is discussed. The delivered hardware operates at data rates up to 400 Mbps and includes a 0.53 micrometer electrooptic modulator, a 1.06 micrometer electrooptic modulator with power supply and signal processing electronics with power supply. The modulators contain solid state drivers which accept digital signals with MECL logic levels, temperature controllers to maintain a stable thermal environment for the modulator crystals, and automatic electronic compensation to maximize the extinction ratio. The modulators use two lithium tantalate crystals cascaded in a double pass configuration. The signal processing electronics include encoding electronics which are capable of digitizing analog signals between the limit of + or - 0.75 volts at a maximum rate of 80 megasamples per second with 5 bit resolution. The digital samples are serialized and made available as a 400 Mbps serial NRZ data source for the modulators. A pseudorandom (PN) generator is also included in the signal processing electronics. This data source generates PN sequences with lengths between 31 bits and 32,767 bits in a serial NRZ format at rates up to 400 Mbps.

  9. Autonomous cotton module forming system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton producers often have difficulty finding adequate labor during harvest. Module builder operators are often inexperienced and may build poorly shaped modules. Equipment manufacturers have recently introduced harvesters with on-board module building capabilities to reduce labor requirements; h...

  10. Amplitude Modulator Chassis

    SciTech Connect

    Erbert, G

    2009-09-01

    The Amplitude Modulator Chassis (AMC) is the final component in the MOR system and connects directly to the PAM input through a 100-meter fiber. The 48 AMCs temporally shape the 48 outputs of the MOR using an arbitrary waveform generator coupled to an amplitude modulator. The amplitude modulation element is a two stage, Lithium Niobate waveguide device, where the intensity of the light passing through the device is a function of the electrical drive applied. The first stage of the modulator is connected to a programmable high performance Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG) consisting of 140 impulse generators space 250 ps apart. An arbitrary waveform is generated by independently varying the amplitude of each impulse generator and then summing the impulses together. In addition to the AWG a short pulse generator is also connected to the first stage of the modulator to provide a sub 100-ps pulse used for timing experiments. The second stage of the modulator is connect to a square pulse generator used to further attenuate any pre or post pulse light passing through the first stage of the modulator. The fast rise and fall time of the square pulse generator is also used to produce fast rise and fall times of the AWG by clipping the AWG pulse. For maximum extinction, a pulse bias voltage is applied to each stage of the modulator. A pulse voltage is applied as opposed to a DC voltage to prevent charge buildup on the modulator. Each bias voltage is adjustable to provide a minimum of 50-dB extinction. The AMC is controlled through ICCS to generate the desired temporal pulse shape. This process involves a closed-loop control algorithm, which compares the desired temporal waveform to the produced optical pulse, and iterates the programming of the AWG until the two waveforms agree within an allowable tolerance.

  11. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  12. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, James M.

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a "flyback" DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  13. DOT Transmit Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Gin, Jonathan W.; Sahasrabudhe, Adit; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2013-01-01

    The Deep Space Optical Terminal (DOT) transmit module demonstrates the DOT downlink signaling in a flight electronics assembly that can be qualified for deep space. The assembly has the capability to generate an electronic pulse-position modulation (PPM) waveform suitable for driving a laser assembly to produce the optical downlink signal. The downlink data enters the assembly through a serializer/ deserializer (SERDES) interface, and is encoded using a serially concatenated PPM (SCPPM) forward error correction code. The encoded data is modulated using PPM with an inter-symbol guard time to aid in receiver synchronization. Monitor and control of the assembly is via a low-voltage differential signal (LVDS) interface

  14. Optimized solar module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santala, T.; Sabol, R.; Carbajal, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The minimum cost per unit of power output from flat plate solar modules can most likely be achieved through efficient packaging of higher efficiency solar cells. This paper outlines a module optimization method which is broadly applicable, and illustrates the potential results achievable from a specific high efficiency tandem junction (TJ) cell. A mathematical model is used to assess the impact of various factors influencing the encapsulated cell and packing efficiency. The optimization of the packing efficiency is demonstrated. The effect of encapsulated cell and packing efficiency on the module add-on cost is shown in a nomograph form.

  15. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  16. Water heater control module

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  17. Sonication standard laboratory module

    DOEpatents

    Beugelsdijk, Tony; Hollen, Robert M.; Erkkila, Tracy H.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.; Roybal, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Michael Leon

    1999-01-01

    A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

  18. The ANTARES optical module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ANTARES Collaboration; Amram, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F. E.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Azoulay, R.; Bailey, D.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Benhammou, Y.; Bernard, F.; Berthier, R.; Bertin, V.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bland, R. W.; Blondeau, F.; de Botton, N.; Boulesteix, J.; Brooks, C. B.; Brunner, J.; Cafagna, F.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Cartwright, S. L.; Cassol, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ciacio, F.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Cooper, S.; Coyle, P.; Croquette, J.; Cuneo, S.; Danilov, M.; van Dantzig, R.; De Marzo, C.; DeVita, R.; Deck, P.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dispau, G.; Drougou, J. F.; Druillole, F.; Engelen, J.; Feinstein, F.; Festy, D.; Fopma, J.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Goret, P.; Gosset, L.; Gournay, J.-F.; Heijboer, A.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herrouin, G.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; de Jong, M.; Karolak, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laubier, L.; Laugier, J.-P.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le Van Suu, A.; Lemoine, L.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Massol, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazeau, B.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J. E.; Michel, J. L.; Migneco, E.; Millot, C.; Mols, P.; Montanet, F.; Montaruli, T.; Morel, J. P.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Nooren, G. J.; Oberski, J.; Olivetto, C.; Oppelt-Pohl, A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Papaleo, R.; Payre, P.; Perrin, P.; Petruccetti, M.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Poinsignon, J.; Potheau, R.; Queinec, Y.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Rethore, F.; Riccobene, G.; Ricol, J.-S.; Ripani, M.; Roca-Blay, V.; Rolin, J. F.; Rostovstev, A.; Russo, G. V.; Sacquin, Y.; Salusti, E.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schuster, W.; Soirat, J.-P.; Souvorova, O.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stubert, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tao, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Thompson, L. F.; Tilav, S.; Triay, R.; Valente, V.; Varlamov, I.; Vaudaine, G.; Vernin, P.; de Witt Huberts, P.; de Wolf, E.; Zakharov, V.; Zavatarelli, S.; de D. Zornoza, J.; Zún~iga, J.

    2002-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1km2 and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R&D studies and is reviewed here in detail.

  19. Biomass accessibility analysis using electron tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Hinkle, Jacob D.; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Gruchalla, Kenny; ...

    2015-12-25

    Substrate accessibility to catalysts has been a dominant theme in theories of biomass deconstruction. Furthermore, current methods of quantifying accessibility do not elucidate mechanisms for increased accessibility due to changes in microstructure following pretreatment.

  20. HIGHER FREQUENCY ULTRASONIC LIGHT MODULATORS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    LIGHT ), (*MODULATORS, (*ULTRASONIC RADIATION, MODULATORS), OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS, BANDWIDTH, TRANSDUCERS, HIGH FREQUENCY, VERY HIGH FREQUENCY, ATTENUATION, DATA PROCESSING, OPTICAL EQUIPMENT, ANALOG COMPUTERS, THEORY.

  1. Module bay with directed flow

    DOEpatents

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  2. The 'SAFARI' Technique Using Retrograde Access Via Peroneal Artery Access

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Kun Da; Tan, Seck Guan; Tay, Kiang Hiong

    2012-08-15

    The 'SAFARI' technique or subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention is a method for recanalisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) when subintimal angioplasty fails. Retrograde access is usually obtained via the popliteal, distal anterior tibial artery (ATA)/dorsalis pedis (DP), or distal posterior tibial artery (PTA). Distal access via the peroneal artery has not been described and has a risk of continued bleeding, leading to compartment syndrome due to its deep location. We describe our experience in two patients with retrograde access via the peroneal artery and the use of balloon-assisted hemostasis for these retrograde punctures. This approach may potentially give more options for endovascular interventions in lower limb CTOs.

  3. TRANSIMS environmental module

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.D.; Thayer, G.R.; Brown, M.J.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of the environmental module is to translate traveler behavior into consequent air quality, energy consumption, watershed nitrate deposition, and carbon dioxide emissions. The TRANSIMS environmental module is composed of a system of environmental modules which can describe both the average conditions and the fluctuations about the averages. It uses a prognostic meteorological model, HOTMAC, to describe the atmospheric conditions. The environmental module will use modal emissions models to define the emissions. Transport and dispersion of conservative pollutants will be described with a Monte-Carlo Kernel model (RAPTAD). Air chemistry will be described by an airshed model with the current choice being the CIT model developed at the California Institute of Technology and the Carnegie Mellon Institute of Technology.

  4. Silicon optical modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Mashanovich, G.; Gardes, F. Y.; Thomson, D. J.

    2010-08-01

    Optical technology is poised to revolutionize short-reach interconnects. The leading candidate technology is silicon photonics, and the workhorse of such an interconnect is the optical modulator. Modulators have been improved dramatically in recent years, with a notable increase in bandwidth from the megahertz to the multigigahertz regime in just over half a decade. However, the demands of optical interconnects are significant, and many questions remain unanswered as to whether silicon can meet the required performance metrics. Minimizing metrics such as the device footprint and energy requirement per bit, while also maximizing bandwidth and modulation depth, is non-trivial. All of this must be achieved within an acceptable thermal tolerance and optical spectral width using CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. This Review discusses the techniques that have been (and will continue to be) used to implement silicon optical modulators, as well as providing an outlook for these devices and the candidate solutions of the future.

  5. Autonomous Module Builder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional cotton harvesting requires many seasonal laborers. To reduce labor requirements, equipment manufacturers have recently introduced harvesters with on-board module building capabilities; however, this feature is only available on pickers and these machines are expensive. Conventional mo...

  6. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  7. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  8. Module encapsulation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P.

    1986-01-01

    The identification and development techniques for low-cost module encapsulation materials were reviewed. Test results were displayed for a variety of materials. The improved prospects for modeling encapsulation systems for life prediction were reported.

  9. Novel secure and bandwidth efficient optical code division multiplexed system for future access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Simranjit

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a spectrally coded optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system using a hybrid modulation scheme has been investigated. The idea is to propose an effective approach for simultaneous improvement of the system capacity and security. Data formats, NRZ (non-return to zero), DQPSK (differential quadrature phase shift keying), and PoISk (polarisation shift keying) are used to get the orthogonal modulated signal. It is observed that the proposed hybrid modulation provides efficient utilisation of bandwidth, increases the data capacity and enhances the data confidentiality over existing OCDMA systems. Further, the proposed system performance is compared with the current state-of-the-art OCDMA schemes.

  10. Seamless generation and provisioning of broadcasting and independent services in WDMPON access networks.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Shum, Perry Ping

    2009-06-08

    A novel broadcasting scheme for WDM-PON based fiber access networks is proposed in this paper and downstream system experiments has been demonstrated. The broadcasting data is generated via subcarrier modulation technique. By using a delayed interferometer, the un-modulated continuous-wave carrier is separated and acts as the seeder for FP-LD injection locking and direct modulation, which is compatible with current WDM-PON infrastructures. In experiments, 2.5 Gb/s broadcasting data and 2.5 Gb/s point-to-point data are successfully integrated and transmitted in a typical WDM-PON structure with good performance.

  11. Investigating Quantum Modulation States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    INVESTIGATING QUANTUM MODULATION STATES MARCH 2016 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED STINFO COPY AIR...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) OCT 2012 – SEP 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INVESTIGATING QUANTUM MODULATION STATES 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This effort was primarily concerned with quantum aspects of optical communications. Two quantum communications technologies were

  12. Firefighting module development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The firefighting module is a lightweight, compact, self contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency water pumping applications. Units were fabricated and tested. A production type unit is undergoing an inservice evaluation and demonstration program at the port of St Louis. The primary purpose is to promote enhanced harbor fire protection at inland and coastal ports. The module and its development are described.

  13. Extended Range Support Module

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-07

    missions requiring enhanced navigational support to allow Attorney Docket No. 300077 3 of 12 navigation of the vehicles in the open ocean. It is...capable of accommodating the undersea vehicle therein. A navigation module is positioned on the outer hull and capable of being joined to the...undersea vehicle. Controllable fins are provided on the outer hull and joined to allow control by the navigation module. A buoyancy control system is

  14. Columbus pressurized module verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messidoro, Piero; Comandatore, Emanuele

    1986-01-01

    The baseline verification approach of the COLUMBUS Pressurized Module was defined during the A and B1 project phases. Peculiarities of the verification program are the testing requirements derived from the permanent manned presence in space. The model philosophy and the test program have been developed in line with the overall verification concept. Such critical areas as meteoroid protections, heat pipe radiators and module seals are identified and tested. Verification problem areas are identified and recommendations for the next development are proposed.

  15. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  16. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrig, L.

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  17. Binaural modulation detection interference.

    PubMed

    Sheft, S; Yost, W A

    1997-09-01

    The ability to detect amplitude modulation (AM) of a tonal probe can be disrupted by the presence of modulated masking tones. Two experiments examined whether a disparity in the interaural parameters of the probe and masker can reduce the amount of interference. In the first experiment, the effects of interaural time and intensity differences were studied in separate sets of conditions. With low-frequency carriers, the detection of 10-Hz probe modulation in the presence of 10-Hz masker modulation was not significantly affected by interaural time differences. With higher-frequency carriers, dichotic stimuli were generated through combinations of diotic, dichotic, or monotic probe and masker presentations in which the probe and masker did not share a common interaural intensity difference. In these conditions, the amount of interference was affected by the interaural configuration. However, monotic level differences between the probe and masker may have contributed to the effect of interaural configuration. In the second experiment, the probe and masker were presented through separate speakers in an enclosed listening environment. Spatial separation between the sources for the probe and masker led to a small reduction in the amount of interference. When the masker modulation rate was varied with the probe AM rate fixed at 10 Hz, the extent of tuning in the modulation domain in the sound-field conditions was similar to that obtained with diotic stimulus presentation over headphones.

  18. Considerations of digital phase modulation for narrowband satellite mobile communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grythe, Knut

    1990-01-01

    The Inmarsat-M system for mobile satellite communication is specified as a frequency division multiple access (FDMA) system, applying Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) for transmitting 8 kbit/sec in 10 kHz user channel bandwidth. We consider Digital Phase Modulation (DPM) as an alternative modulation format for INMARSAT-M. DPM is similar to Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) except that DPM has a finite memory in the premodular filter with a continuous varying modulation index. It is shown that DPM with 64 states in the VA obtains a lower bit error rate (BER). Results for a 5 kHz system, with the same 8 kbit/sec transmitted bitstream, is also presented.

  19. Three essays on access pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydee, Ahmed Nasim

    In the first essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price in the telecommunications industry. Determining the optimal access price is an important issue in the economics of telecommunications. Setting a high access price discourages potential entrants; a low access price, on the other hand, amounts to confiscation of private property because the infrastructure already built by the incumbent is sunk. Furthermore, a low access price does not give the incumbent incentives to maintain the current network and to invest in new infrastructures. Much of the existing literature on access pricing suffers either from the limitations of a static framework or from the assumption that all costs are avoidable. The telecommunications industry is subject to high stranded costs and, therefore, to address this issue a dynamic model is imperative. This essay presents a dynamic model of one-way access pricing in which the compensation involved in deregulatory taking is formalized and then analyzed. The short run adjustment after deregulatory taking has occurred is carried out and discussed. The long run equilibrium is also analyzed. A time path for the Ramsey price is shown as the correct dynamic price of access. In the second essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price for an infrastructure that is characterized by congestion and lumpy investment. Much of the theoretical literature on access pricing of infrastructure prescribes that the access price be set at the marginal cost of the infrastructure. In proposing this rule of access pricing, the conventional analysis assumes that infrastructure investments are infinitely divisible so that it makes sense to talk about the marginal cost of investment. Often it is the case that investments in infrastructure are lumpy and can only be made in large chunks, and this renders the marginal cost concept meaningless. In this essay, we formalize a model of

  20. [Drug access in poor countries].

    PubMed

    Sebbag, Robert

    2007-11-01

    As a responsible player in the global pharmaceutical industry, Sanofi-Aventis recognizes its special responsibility to provide poor countries with access to drugs and vaccines. This is a key component of the Group's approach to sustainable development. As such, the Access to Medicines department draws on Sanofi-Aventis' expertise in order to address major public health issues, starting with the treatment of malaria, tuberculosis, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis and epilepsy, as well as access to vaccines. The department has four main activities: research and development of new drugs; improvement of existing treatments; information, communication and education of patients and healthcare professionals; and development of a differential pricing and distribution policy adapted to patients' income, with a "no profit-no loss" equilibrium.

  1. Accessible solitons of fractional dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj; Zhang, Yiqi

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons. -- Highlights: •Analytic solutions of a fractional Schrödinger equation are obtained. •The solutions are produced by means of self-similar method applied to the fractional Schrödinger equation with parabolic potential. •The fractional accessible solitons form crescent, asymmetric single-layer and multilayer necklace profiles. •The model applies to the propagation of optical pulses in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media.

  2. [Medical journals and open access].

    PubMed

    Sember, Marijan

    2008-01-01

    The open access (OA) or the idea of a free access to scholarly literature published in electronic form has been already well established in the field of medicine. Medline has already been free for a decade, PubMed Central has been growing steadily. The global crisis of the scientific publishing, becoming increasingly dominated by multinational companies and constant increase of journal prices have moved to action not only individuals and institutions but governments and research charities too. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the main open access initiatives and resources in biomedicine (PubMed, PubMed Central, BioMed Central, PLoS). The OA pros and cons are briefly discussed emphasizing the benefits of OA to medical research and practice.

  3. Improved hemodialysis access in children.

    PubMed

    Applebaum, H; Shashikumar, V L; Somers, L A; Baluarte, H J; Gruskin, A B; Grossman, M; McGarvey, M J; Weintraub, W H

    1980-12-01

    Vascular access for chronic hemodialysis in children is difficult because of problems that include obtaining vessels of sufficient size, the limited life-span of external shunts, and the multiple painful punctures associated with internal fistulae. Twenty-five expanded polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) grafts of 6-mm diameter were inserted for dialysis access over a 2-yr period in 23 children. Grafts were placed either in the upper arm or thigh. Each patient was successfully dialyzed from 60 to 370 times. Longterm patency of the PTFE grafts was 88%, with a complication rate of 36%, mostly minor. The same ease of insertion and high flow characteristics were noted in a series of 22 bovine carotid heterograft (BCH) fistulae inserted in the two years immediately preceeding this study. However, the patency rate was only 36% and the complication rate was 69%, mostly major. We consider the PTFE graft fistula to be the preferred method for long-term hemodialysis access in children.

  4. "Smart" Sensor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahajan, Ajay

    2007-01-01

    An assembly that contains a sensor, sensor-signal-conditioning circuitry, a sensor-readout analog-to-digital converter (ADC), data-storage circuitry, and a microprocessor that runs special-purpose software and communicates with one or more external computer(s) has been developed as a prototype of "smart" sensor modules for monitoring the integrity and functionality (the "health") of engineering systems. Although these modules are now being designed specifically for use on rocket-engine test stands, it is anticipated that they could also readily be designed to be incorporated into health-monitoring subsystems of such diverse engineering systems as spacecraft, aircraft, land vehicles, bridges, buildings, power plants, oilrigs, and defense installations. The figure is a simplified block diagram of the "smart" sensor module. The analog sensor readout signal is processed by the ADC, the digital output of which is fed to the microprocessor. By means of a standard RS-232 cable, the microprocessor is connected to a local personal computer (PC), from which software is downloaded into a randomaccess memory in the microprocessor. The local PC is also used to debug the software. Once the software is running, the local PC is disconnected and the module is controlled by, and all output data from the module are collected by, a remote PC via an Ethernet bus. Several smart sensor modules like this one could be connected to the same Ethernet bus and controlled by the single remote PC. The software running in the microprocessor includes driver programs for operation of the sensor, programs that implement self-assessment algorithms, programs that implement protocols for communication with the external computer( s), and programs that implement evolutionary methodologies to enable the module to improve its performance over time. The design of the module and of the health-monitoring system of which it is a part reflects the understanding that the main purpose of a health

  5. Venous Access Devices: Clinical Rounds

    PubMed Central

    Matey, Laurl; Camp-Sorrell, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Nursing management of venous access devices (VADs) requires knowledge of current evidence, as well as knowledge of when evidence is limited. Do you know which practices we do based on evidence and those that we do based on institutional history or preference? This article will present complex VAD infection and occlusion complications and some of the controversies associated with them. Important strategies for identifying these complications, troubleshooting, and evaluating the evidence related to lack of blood return, malposition, infection, access and maintenance protocols, and scope of practice issues are presented. PMID:28083553

  6. Patient access to medical records.

    PubMed

    Mair, J L

    1996-01-01

    The issue of, and access to, medical records has been a contentious matter for some years in Australia. The recent High Court decision of Breen v Williams has clarified the law nationwide. The High Court confirmed that the ownership of medical records is vested in the creator of the records. The High Court further held that a patient has no right at law to access his or her medical records in the absence of any statute granting such a right, or other legal process.

  7. Community Access to Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, P. B.; Tilmes, C. A.; Parris, F. E.; Martin, A. T.; Soika, V.; Bichali, L.; Higgins, P. H.

    2006-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the computer application that provides community access to atmosphere measurements derived from backscatter ultraviolet sources. It is funded by NASA's Advance Collaborative Connections for Earth-Sun System Science (ACCESS), and is devoted to Measurements of Atmospheric Chemistry in the Ultraviolet (MACUV). The purpose is to provide "one-stop shopping" for data and information of interest to the Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) community. It is built from the well-used, highly successful Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) website and is being evolved into a broader focus for the BUV community. This application supports NASA's evolutionary step toward science measurement processing and analysis systems and enables the BUV community to easily access information and expertise from multiple sources over a nearly 30 year history of space based remote sensing of the atmosphere. It facilitates finding and comparing data, algorithms, and scientific results from different parts of the BUV science community as well as from different instruments and missions. It provides the means to manage and access the products of the Ozone Community Oriented Measurement-based Processing System (ComPS). The MACUV application contains components that store and manage data, manage user access to that data, provide multi-dimensional views of the data and other information, serve data based on user criteria, and facilitate on-line collaboration. The web site hosts Algorithm Theoretical Basis documents for each data product, quality assessment of those products, published papers, instrument descriptions, access to mission information, reports and assessments of events and issues, problem reporting and tracking, a moderated forum, and a user collaboration area. Visitors to the MACUV web site fall into several categories: the general public; students, educators and researchers outside the BUV community; members of the BUV community who validate the

  8. Universal enveloping crossed module of Leibniz crossed modules and representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casado, Rafael F.; García-Martínez, Xabier; Ladra, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The universal enveloping algebra functor UL: Lb → Alg, defined by Loday and Pirashvili [1], is extended to crossed modules. Then we construct an isomorphism between the category of representations of a Leibniz crossed module and the category of left modules over its universal enveloping crossed module of algebras. Note that the procedure followed in the proof for the Lie case cannot be adapted, since the actor in the category of Leibniz crossed modules does not always exist.

  9. Optical modulation goes external

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loni, A.

    1995-02-01

    Digital or analog modulation of continuous-wave laser sources forms the basis of encoding and transmitting of information through optical fiber link systems. In digital systems, data are formatted in a simple periodic two-bit configuration, represented by high or low light intensities, whereas in analog systems data are represented by selective portions of a time-varying electronic waveform applied to the optical carrier. High speed optical communications and the distribution of cable television (CATV) signals are just two examples of digital and analog systems, respectively, that involve the transmission of data, voice and video over fiber networks. The basic layout of a fiber-optic link system is presented. The optical source wavelength is determined by the characteristics of the optical fiber. If the optical sources used is a semiconductor laser diode, information can be imprinted on the optical output by directly modulating the laser drive current with a radio frequency (RF) signal. In digital systems, the low (off) state generally corresponds to a position just below the lasing threshold on the characteristic intensity-current curve of the diode. This position is preferred to the zero current locus because the turn-on delays are then minimized. Analog systems require a bias current in addition to the threshold current in order to push the modulation into the linear region of the power-current curve. The main disadvantages associated with the direct modulation approach are discussed. The main disadvantage of the solid-state approach is its inability to modulate directly the laser at the data rates nominally entailed in optical communications. This inability causes further limitations associated with the inherently long excited state lifetime of the lasing species. External modulation overcomes this drawback by modulating the optical output from the laser rather than the material properties of the laser itself, and consequently, is set to play an increasingly

  10. Application-Specific Fault Tolerance via Data Access Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Nawab; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2011-08-30

    Recent trends in semiconductor technology and supercomputer design predict an increasing probability of faults during an application's execution. Designing an application that is resilient to system failures requires careful evaluation of the impact of various approaches on preserving key application state. In this paper, we present our experiences in an ongoing effort to make a large computational chemistry application fault tolerant. We construct the data access signatures of key application modules to evaluate alternative fault tolerance approaches. We present the instrumentation methodology, characterization of the application modules, and evaluation of fault tolerance techniques using the information collected. The application signatures developed capture application characteristics not traditionally revealed by performance tools. We believe these can be used in the design and evaluation of runtimes beyond fault tolerance.

  11. Coded access optical sensor (CAOS) imager and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riza, Nabeel A.

    2016-04-01

    Starting in 2001, we proposed and extensively demonstrated (using a DMD: Digital Micromirror Device) an agile pixel Spatial Light Modulator (SLM)-based optical imager based on single pixel photo-detection (also called a single pixel camera) that is suited for operations with both coherent and incoherent light across broad spectral bands. This imager design operates with the agile pixels programmed in a limited SNR operations starring time-multiplexed mode where acquisition of image irradiance (i.e., intensity) data is done one agile pixel at a time across the SLM plane where the incident image radiation is present. Motivated by modern day advances in RF wireless, optical wired communications and electronic signal processing technologies and using our prior-art SLM-based optical imager design, described using a surprisingly simple approach is a new imager design called Coded Access Optical Sensor (CAOS) that has the ability to alleviate some of the key prior imager fundamental limitations. The agile pixel in the CAOS imager can operate in different time-frequency coding modes like Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). Data from a first CAOS camera demonstration is described along with novel designs of CAOS-based optical instruments for various applications.

  12. Educational Access in Ghana. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, K.; Djangmah, J.; Oduro, A.; Seidu, A.; Hunt, F.

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in Ghana. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. It is based on findings from the Country Analytic Report on Access to Basic Education in Ghana (Akyeampong et al, 2007) [ED508809] which can be…

  13. 48 CFR 252.239-7002 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access. 252.239-7002... Clauses 252.239-7002 Access. As prescribed in 239.7411(a), use the following clause: Access (DEC 1991) (a) Subject to military security regulations, the Government shall permit the Contractor access at...

  14. 43 CFR 36.12 - Temporary access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary access. 36.12 Section 36.12... ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.12 Temporary access. (a) For the... the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska. (2) Temporary access means limited, short-term (i.e., up to...

  15. Educational Access in India. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in India. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. The quantitative data is supported by a review of research which explains the patterns of access and exclusion. It is based on findings from the…

  16. 28 CFR 17.44 - Access eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access eligibility. 17.44 Section 17.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Access to Classified Information § 17.44 Access eligibility. (a) Determinations...

  17. 10 CFR 1017.20 - Routine access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Routine access. 1017.20 Section 1017.20 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.20 Routine access. (a) Authorized... access to the UCNI, subject to limitations in paragraph (b) of this section, and who may...

  18. 46 CFR 153.330 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access. 153.330 Section 153.330 Shipping COAST GUARD..., LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Pumprooms § 153.330 Access. (a) The access door to a cargo pump-room must open on the weatheredeck. (b) The access way to a...

  19. Standardized Definitions for Hemodialysis Vascular Access

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Timmy; Mokrzycki, Michele; Moist, Louise; Maya, Ivan; Vazquez, Miguel; Lok, Charmaine

    2014-01-01

    Vascular access dysfunction is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among end-stage renal disease patients 1,2. Vascular access dysfunction exists in all 3 types of available accesses: arteriovenous fistulas, arteriovenous grafts, and tunneled catheters. In order to improve clinical research and outcomes in hemodialysis access dysfunction, the development of a multidisciplinary network of collaborative investigators with various areas of expertise, and common standards for terminology and classification in all vascular access types is required. The North American Vascular Access Consortium (NAVAC) is a newly formed multidisciplinary and multicenter network of experts in the area of hemodialysis vascular access, who include nephrologists and interventional nephrologists from the United States and Canada with: (1) a primary clinical and research focus in hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction, (2) national and internationally recognized experts in vascular access, and (3) a history of productivity measured by peer-reviewed publications and funding among members of this consortium. The consortium’s mission is to improve the quality and efficiency in vascular access research, and impact the research in the area of hemodialysis vascular access by conducting observational studies and randomized controlled trials. The purpose of the consortium’s initial manuscript is to provide working and standard vascular access definitions relating to (1) epidemiology, (2) vascular access function, (3) vascular access patency, and (4) complications in vascular accesses relating to each of the vascular access types. PMID:21906166

  20. 77 FR 37553 - Access Authorization Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 11 and 25 RIN 3150-AJ00 Access Authorization Fees AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... access authorization fees charged to licensees for work performed under the Material Access Authorization... Authorization.'' The NRC amended its access authorization fees charged to licensees for work performed under...

  1. Intensity modulated proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grassberger, C

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed “pencil beams” of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak—the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range—combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) with dose modulation along the beam axis as well as lateral, in-field, dose modulation. The clinical practice of IMPT further improves the healthy tissue vs target dose differential in comparison with X-rays and thus allows increased target dose with dose reduction elsewhere. In addition, heavy-charged-particle beams allow for the modulation of biological effects, which is of active interest in combination with dose “painting” within a target. The clinical utilization of IMPT is actively pursued but technical, physical and clinical questions remain. Technical questions pertain to control processes for manipulating pencil beams from the creation of the proton beam to delivery within the patient within the accuracy requirement. Physical questions pertain to the interplay between the proton penetration and variations between planned and actual patient anatomical representation and the intrinsic uncertainty in tissue stopping powers (the measure of energy loss per unit distance). Clinical questions remain concerning the impact and management of the technical and physical questions within the context of the daily treatment delivery, the clinical benefit of IMPT and the biological response differential compared with X-rays against which clinical benefit will be judged. It is expected that IMPT will replace other modes of proton field delivery. Proton radiotherapy, since its first practice 50 years ago, always required the

  2. Random access actuation of nanowire grid metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Cencillo-Abad, Pablo; Ou, Jun-Yu; Plum, Eric; Valente, João; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2016-12-02

    While metamaterials offer engineered static optical properties, future artificial media with dynamic random-access control over shape and position of meta-molecules will provide arbitrary control of light propagation. The simplest example of such a reconfigurable metamaterial is a nanowire grid metasurface with subwavelength wire spacing. Recently we demonstrated computationally that such a metadevice with individually controlled wire positions could be used as dynamic diffraction grating, beam steering module and tunable focusing element. Here we report on the nanomembrane realization of such a nanowire grid metasurface constructed from individually addressable plasmonic chevron nanowires with a 230 nm × 100 nm cross-section, which consist of gold and silicon nitride. The active structure of the metadevice consists of 15 nanowires each 18 μm long and is fabricated by a combination of electron beam lithography and ion beam milling. It is packaged as a microchip device where the nanowires can be individually actuated by control currents via differential thermal expansion.

  3. Superconducting optical modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunt, Patricia S.; Ference, Thomas G.; Puzey, Kenneth A.; Tanner, David B.; Tache, Nacira; Varhue, Walter J.

    2000-12-01

    An optical modulator based on the physical properties of high temperature superconductors has been fabricated and tested. The modulator was constructed form a film of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBCO) grown on undoped silicon with a buffer layer of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia. Standard lithographic procedures were used to pattern the superconducting film into a micro bridge. Optical modulation was achieved by passing IR light through the composite structure normal to the micro bridge and switching the superconducting film in the bridge region between the superconducting and non-superconducting states. In the superconducting state, IR light reflects from the superconducting film surface. When a critical current is passed through the micro bridge, it causes the film in this region to switch to the non-superconducting state allowing IR light to pass through it. Superconducting materials have the potential to switch between these two states at speeds up to 1 picosecond using electrical current. Presently, fiber optic transmission capacity is limited by the rate at which optical data can be modulated. The superconducting modulator, when combined with other components, may have the potential to increase the transmission capacity of fiber optic lines.

  4. Bunch identification module

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    This module provides bunch identification and timing signals for the PEP Interaction areas. Timing information is referenced to the PEP master oscillator, and adjusted in phase as a function of region. Identification signals are generated in a manner that allows observers in all interaction regions to agree on an unambiguous bunch identity. The module provides bunch identification signals via NIM level logic, upon CAMAC command, and through LED indicators. A front panel ''region select'' switch allows the same module to be used in all regions. The module has two modes of operation: a bunch identification mode and a calibration mode. In the identification mode, signals indicate which of the three bunches of electrons and positrons are interacting, and timing information about beam crossing is provided. The calibration mode is provided to assist experimenters making time of flight measurements. In the calibration mode, three distinct gating signals are referenced to a selected bunch, allowing three timing systems to be calibrated against a common standard. Physically, the bunch identifier is constructed as a single width CAMAC module. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Registered access: a 'Triple-A' approach.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Stephanie O M; Kirby, Emily; Shabani, Mahsa; Thorogood, Adrian; Kato, Kazuto; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2016-12-01

    We propose a standard model for a novel data access tier - registered access - to facilitate access to data that cannot be published in open access archives owing to ethical and legal risk. Based on an analysis of applicable research ethics and other legal and administrative frameworks, we discuss the general characteristics of this Registered Access Model, which would comprise a three-stage approval process: Authentication, Attestation and Authorization. We are piloting registered access with the Demonstration Projects of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health for which it may provide a suitable mechanism for access to certain data types and to different types of data users.

  6. Access, Intellectual Freedom and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Richard L.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews attitudes toward censorship in the United States throughout its history in relation to the nation and its institutions. The library is recognized as an institution in which censorship has no place, due to its creed of information access and intellectual freedom for all. (MBR)

  7. Remotely Accessible Management System (RAMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Rex

    Oakland Schools, an Intermediate School District for Administration, operates a Remotely Accessible Management System (RAMS). RAMS is composed of over 100 computer programs, each of which performs procedures on the files of the 28 local school districts comprising the constituency of Oakland Schools. This regional service agency covers 900 square…

  8. Minorities Access to Research Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    The Minorities Access to Research Careers (MARC) program at Hunter College, New York is designed to provide an in-depth 2-year research training experience for minority students in order to prepare them for graduate school and eventual research careers in alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health fields. The target groups include Blacks, Hispanics,…

  9. Accessibility: Maximum Mobility and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyser, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to design school and university labs to comply with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) standards, focusing on counter height for students in wheelchairs; appropriate knee space and sink height in sink areas; ADA-compliant fume hoods; accessible laboratory doors and entryways; and safety concerns (e.g., emergency eyewash stations…

  10. Digital Imagery, Preservation and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesk, Michael; Lynn, M. Stuart

    1990-01-01

    These two reports published by the Commission on Preservation and Access (CPA) include a comparison of digital and microfilm imagery, as well as discussions of chemical deacidification; ASCII (nonimage) files; and storage, conversion, and transmission considerations. A structured glossary of terms relating to media conversion and digital computer…

  11. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  12. Ballistic representation for kinematic access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.

  13. The Simple Spectral Access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolensky, Markus; Tody, Doug

    2004-09-01

    The goal of the Simple Spectral Access (SSA) specification is to define a uniform interface to spectral data including spectral energy distributions (SEDs), 1D spectra, and time series data. In contrast to 2D images, spectra are stored in a wide variety of formats and there is no widely used standard in astronomy for representing spectral data, hence part of the challenge of specifying SSA was defining a general spectrophotometric data model as well as definitions of standard serializations in a variety of data formats including XML and FITS. Access is provided to both atlas (pre-computed) data and to virtual data which is computed on demand. The term simple in Simple Spectrum Access refers to the design goal of simplicity in both implementing spectral data services and in retrieving spectroscopic data from distributed data collections. SSA is a product of the data access layer (DAL) working group of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). The requirements were derived from a survey among spectral data providers and data consumers and were further refined in a broad discussion in meetings and electronic forums as well as by prototyping efforts within the European Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) and the US National Virtual Observatory (NVO).

  14. LANSCE personnel access control system

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  15. Arts Accessibility for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Eugene

    The booklet provides information and resources for cultural organizations and institutions interested in making the arts accessible to deaf citizens. Preliminary information includes a discussion of deafness in America and the deaf in the history of the arts and notes that the era of silent films was the golden age of cinema. Listed are 36…

  16. Access inequalities addressed by audit.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian

    2005-08-01

    The Disability Discrimination Act (1995) protects disabled people from discrimination in access to services, facilities and goods as well as in education and employment. All hospitals have an inherent duty to enable access to services but this will now be enshrined in law. As the health sector has most contact with disability, it may be expected that most hospitals would already be in a good position to comply with the Act, especially one treating many patients with disability. However we identified many problems in a rehabilitation hospital setting by means of a simple access audit in March 2004. Recommendations were set out and by March 2005 considerable improvements had been made costing Pound 100,000. Although many necessary changes will be expensive, not all problems identified require costly correction. Many simply involve a change in staff attitudes and practices. We recommend that all hospitals start to identify the changes needed under the Act by means of a simple access audit that can be carried out by hospital staff with no specialist equipment.

  17. The Inevitability of Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Open access (OA) is an alternative business model for the publication of scholarly journals. It makes articles freely available to readers on the Internet and covers the costs associated with publication through means other than subscriptions. This article argues that Gold OA, where all of the articles of a journal are available at the time of…

  18. Proximity Displays for Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaniea, Kami

    2012-01-01

    Managing access to shared digital information, such as photographs and documents. is difficult for end users who are accumulating an increasingly large and diverse collection of data that they want to share with others. Current policy-management solutions require a user to proactively seek out and open a separate policy-management interface when…

  19. NREL module energy rating methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.; Kroposki, B.

    1995-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a tool for: evaluating one module in different climates; comparing different modules; provide a Q&D method for estimating periodic energy production; provide an achievable module rating; provide an incentive for manufacturers to optimize modules to non-STC conditions; and to have a consensus-based, NREL-sponsored activity. The approach taken was to simulate module energy for five reference days of various weather conditions. A performance model was developed.

  20. Community Access to Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. J.; Batluck, G. R.; Durbin, P. B.; Gerard, R.; Larko, D. E.; Martin, A.; Tilmes, C. A.

    2007-05-01

    This poster provides an overview of the computer system that provides community access to atmosphere measurements derived from backscatter ultraviolet sources. It is funded by NASA's Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth-Sun System Science (ACCESS), and is devoted to Measurements of Atmospheric Composition in the Ultraviolet. The purpose is to provide "one-stop shopping" for data and information of interested to the Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) community. It is built from the well-used, highly successful Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) web site, and is being evolved into a broader focus for the BUV community. This effort supports NASA's evolutionary step toward science measurement processing and analysis systems, and enables the BUV community to easily access information and expertise from multiple sources over a nearly 30 year history of space-based remote sensing of the atmosphere. It facilitates finding algorithms and scientific results from different parts of the BUV science community as well as from different instruments and missions. It provides the means to access the products of the Ozone Community Oriented Measurement-based Processing System (ComPS). The system contains components that store and manage data, manage user access to that data, provide multi-dimensional views of the data and other information, serve data based on user criteria, and facilitate on-line collaboration. The web site hosts Algorithm Theoretical Basis documents, quality assessment of data products, published papers, instrument descriptions, access to mission information, reports and assessments of events and issues, problem reporting and tracking, a moderated forum, and a user collaboration area. Visitors to the web site fall into several categories: the general public; students, educators, and researchers outside the BUV community; members of the BUV community who validate the measurements; members of the community who develop algorithms and software. Access to

  1. Optimizing Frequency-Modulated CW EDMR in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lihuang; van Schooten, Kipp; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) is a powerful method of probing dopant and defect spin states in semiconductor devices. Moreover, at the single dopant level, these spin states are heavily investigated as potential qubit systems, though facile electronic access to single dopants is exceedingly difficult. We therefore characterize detection sensitivities of frequency-modulated CW-EDMR of phosphorus donors in silicon Si:P using a home-built 2.5 GHz system (~80 mT) at 5 K. An arbitrary waveform generator controls the frequency modulation, allowing us to optimize the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of both the dangling bond and phosphorus donor signals against multiple experimental parameters, such as modulation amplitude and modulation frequency. The optimal range of frequency modulation parameters is constrained by the relaxation time of the phosphorous electron at 5 K, resulting in the same sensitivity limit as field modulated CW-EDMR, but offers some technical advantages; e.g. reducing the relative contribution of magnetic field induced currents and eliminating the need for field modulation coils. We further characterize the EDMR SNR in Si:P as a function of optical excitation energy by using a narrow line laser, tunable across donor exciton and band gap states.

  2. Arteriovenous Vascular Access Selection and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Jennifer M; Oliver, Matthew; Clark, Edward; Dipchand, Christine; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Lok, Charmaine; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M; Moist, Louise

    2016-01-01

    When making decisions regarding vascular access creation, the clinician and vascular access team must evaluate each patient individually with consideration of life expectancy, timelines for dialysis start, risks and benefits of access creation, referral wait times, as well as the risk for access complications. The role of the multidisciplinary team in facilitating access choice is reviewed, as well as the clinical evaluation of the patient.

  3. Arteriovenous Vascular Access Selection and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Jennifer M.; Oliver, Matthew; Clark, Edward; Dipchand, Christine; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Lok, Charmaine; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M.; Moist, Louise

    2016-01-01

    When making decisions regarding vascular access creation, the clinician and vascular access team must evaluate each patient individually with consideration of life expectancy, timelines for dialysis start, risks and benefits of access creation, referral wait times, as well as the risk for access complications. The role of the multidisciplinary team in facilitating access choice is reviewed, as well as the clinical evaluation of the patient. PMID:28270917

  4. DOD Common Access Card Information Brief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    12 July, 2001 DoD Common Access Card Information Brief Smart Card Project Managers Group REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188...statistics of DoD’s Common Access Card. 15. SUBJECT TERMS IATAC COLLECTION; smart card ; common access card; issuance; infrastructure 16. SECURITY...and statistics of DoD’s Common Access Card. 14. SUBJECT TERMS IATAC Collection, smart card , common access card, issuance infrastructure, 15. NUMBER OF

  5. Selective access and editing in a database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A. (Inventor); Gawdiak, Yuri O. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for providing selective access to different portions of a database by different subgroups of database users. Where N users are involved, up to 2.sup.N-1 distinguishable access subgroups in a group space can be formed, where no two access subgroups have the same members. Two or more members of a given access subgroup can edit, substantially simultaneously, a document accessible to each member.

  6. Access to emergency number services.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Judith E; Strauss, Karen Peltz

    2008-01-01

    Access to emergency services is mandated by Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Department of Justice oversees the accessibility of public safety answering points (PSAPs), popularly called 9-1-1 centers. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has at least two roles in emergency number access: (1) as regulator of the ADA's Title IV on telecommunications access, and (2) as regulator of communications companies with regard to support of and interconnection with PSAPs. The rules of both agencies contributed significantly to the improvement during the 1990s of access to 9-1-1 for people who are deaf, hard of hearing, or speech disabled. However, as new technologies for text wireless communications and relay services have moved quickly to Internet protocol (IP)-based technologies over the past 5-8 years, the use of traditional wireline telephones and text telephones among deaf, hard of hearing, and speech-disabled people has declined. PSAPs cannot be contacted via the newer forms of telecommunications, such as e-mail, instant messaging, and IP-based forms of relay services, including video relay services. The gap between the technology supported by policy and the technologies currently being used by deaf and hard of hearing people has become a serious problem that is difficult to solve because of the separate jurisdictions of the two agencies, the need for coordination within the FCC, technological challenges, and funding issues. In this article, the key policy and technology challenges will be analyzed and recommendations made for short-and long-term solutions to this dilemma.

  7. Automated Computer Access Request System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Automated Computer Access Request (AutoCAR) system is a Web-based account provisioning application that replaces the time-consuming paper-based computer-access request process at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Auto- CAR combines rules-based and role-based functionality in one application to provide a centralized system that is easily and widely accessible. The system features a work-flow engine that facilitates request routing, a user registration directory containing contact information and user metadata, an access request submission and tracking process, and a system administrator account management component. This provides full, end-to-end disposition approval chain accountability from the moment a request is submitted. By blending both rules-based and rolebased functionality, AutoCAR has the flexibility to route requests based on a user s nationality, JSC affiliation status, and other export-control requirements, while ensuring a user s request is addressed by either a primary or backup approver. All user accounts that are tracked in AutoCAR are recorded and mapped to the native operating system schema on the target platform where user accounts reside. This allows for future extensibility for supporting creation, deletion, and account management directly on the target platforms by way of AutoCAR. The system s directory-based lookup and day-today change analysis of directory information determines personnel moves, deletions, and additions, and automatically notifies a user via e-mail to revalidate his/her account access as a result of such changes. AutoCAR is a Microsoft classic active server page (ASP) application hosted on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).

  8. Autonomous radar pulse modulation classification using modulation components analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Qiu, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Jun; Tang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    An autonomous method for recognizing radar pulse modulations based on modulation components analysis is introduced in this paper. Unlike the conventional automatic modulation classification methods which extract modulation features based on a list of known patterns, this proposed method classifies modulations by the existence of basic modulation components including continuous frequency modulations, discrete frequency codes and discrete phase codes in an autonomous way. A feasible way to realize this method is using the features of abrupt changes in the instantaneous frequency rate curve which derived by the short-term general representation of phase derivative. This method is suitable not only for the basic radar modulations but also for complicated and hybrid modulations. The theoretical result and two experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Deep frequency modulation interferometry.

    PubMed

    Gerberding, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Laser interferometry with pm/Hz precision and multi-fringe dynamic range at low frequencies is a core technology to measure the motion of various objects (test masses) in space and ground based experiments for gravitational wave detection and geodesy. Even though available interferometer schemes are well understood, their construction remains complex, often involving, for example, the need to build quasi-monolithic optical benches with dozens of components. In recent years techniques have been investigated that aim to reduce this complexity by combining phase modulation techniques with sophisticated digital readout algorithms. This article presents a new scheme that uses strong laser frequency modulations in combination with the deep phase modulation readout algorithm to construct simpler and easily scalable interferometers.

  10. Power module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  11. GREET Pretreatment Module

    SciTech Connect

    Adom, Felix K.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from cellulosic biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. Process simulations of dilute acid and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment processes and subsequent hydrolysis were developed in Aspen Plus for four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar). This processing yields sugars that can be subsequently converted to biofuels or biochemical. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in a new Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREETTM) pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  12. Adaptive modulations of martensites.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, S; Rössler, U K; Heczko, O; Wuttig, M; Buschbeck, J; Schultz, L; Fähler, S

    2010-04-09

    Modulated phases occur in numerous functional materials like giant ferroelectrics and magnetic shape-memory alloys. To understand the origin of these phases, we employ and generalize the concept of adaptive martensite. As a starting point, we investigate the coexistence of austenite, adaptive 14M phase, and tetragonal martensite in Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape-memory alloy epitaxial films. We show that the modulated martensite can be constructed from nanotwinned variants of the tetragonal martensite phase. By combining the concept of adaptive martensite with branching of twin variants, we can explain key features of modulated phases from a microscopic view. This includes metastability, the sequence of 6M-10M-14M-NM intermartensitic transitions, and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  13. Modulated infrared radiant source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. F.; Edwards, S. F.; Vann, D. S.; Mccormick, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A modulated, infrared radiant energy source was developed to calibrate an airborne nadir-viewing pressure modulated radiometer to be used to detect from Earth orbit trace gases in the troposphere. The technique used an 8 cm long, 0.005 cm diameter platinum-iridium wire as an isothermal, thin line radiant energy source maintained at 1200 K. A + or - 20 K signal, oscillating at controllable frequencies from dc to 20 Hz, was superimposed on it. This periodic variation of the line source energy was used to verify the pressure modulated radiometer's capability to distinguish between the signal variations caused by the Earth's background surface and the signal from the atmospheric gases of interest.

  14. Microchannel spatial light modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warde, C.

    1981-01-01

    The Microchannel Spatial Light Modulator (MSLM), a versatile, highly sensitive, and optically addressed device being developed for real time optical information processing is discussed. The MSLM operates by converting an input optical image into a charge distribution at the surface of an electro-optic crystal. The charge distribution generates an electric field which modulates the refractive index of the crystal and thereby the phase or intensity of an image readout beam. Prototype devices employing 250 micron thick crystals exhibited a spatial resolution of 5 cycles/mm at 50% contrast, an exposure sensitivity of 2.2 nJ/cu cm and framing rates of 40 Hz with full modulation depth. The image processing operations that have been achieved using the internal processing mode of the MSLM include contrast reversal, contrast enhancement, edge enhancement, image addition and subtraction, analog and digital intensity thresholding, and binary level logic operations such as AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, and NOR.

  15. Printed Module Interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Stockert, Talysa R.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Pach, Gregory F.; Mauger, Scott A.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.

    2015-06-14

    Monolithic interconnects in photovoltaic modules connect adjacent cells in series, and are typically formed sequentially involving multiple deposition and scribing steps. Interconnect widths of 500 um every 10 mm result in 5% dead area, which does not contribute to power generation in an interconnected solar panel. This work expands on previous work that introduced an alternative interconnection method capable of producing interconnect widths less than 100 um. The interconnect is added to the module in a single step after deposition of the photovoltaic stack, eliminating the need for scribe alignment. This alternative method can be used for all types of thin film photovoltaic modules. Voltage addition with copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells using a 2-scribe printed interconnect approach is demonstrated. Additionally, interconnect widths of 250 um are shown.

  16. Solar site test module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissel, R. R.; Scott, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    A solar site test module using the Rockwell AIM 65microcomputer is described. The module is designed to work at any site where an IBM site data acquisition system (SDAS) is installed and is intended primarily as a troubleshooting tool. It collects sensor information (temperatures, flow rates, etc.) and displays or prints it immediately in calibrated engineering units. It will read one sensor on demand, periodically read up to 10sensors or periodically read all sensors. Performance calculations can also be included with sensor data. Unattended operation is possible to, e.g., monitor a group of sensors once per hour. Work is underway to add a data acquisition system to the test module so that it can be used at sites which have no SDAS.

  17. Thin film module development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jester, T.

    1985-01-01

    The design of ARCO Solar, Inc.'s Genesis G100 photovoltaic module was driven by several criteria, including environmental stability (both electrical and mechanical), consumer aesthetics, low materials costs, and manufacturing ease. The module circuitry is designed as a 12 volt battery charger, using monolithic patterning techniques on a glass superstrate. This patterning and interconnect method proves amenable to high volume, low cost production throughput, and the use of glass serves the dual role of handling ease and availability. The mechanical design of the module centers on environmental stability. Packaging of the glass superstrate circuit must provide good resistance to thermal and humidity exposure along with hi-pot insulation and hailstone impact resistance. The options considered are given. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is chosen as the pottant material for its excellent weatherability.

  18. Generation, modulation and reception of orthogonally polarized signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The radiating electromagnetic field of a dipole antenna is considered. By allowing the dipole to rotate about its midpoint, one can construct an entire set of signal polarizations wherein distinct members of the set are mutually orthogonal. It is shown how these signals can be modulated and demodulated to convey information. These ideas are then generalized, and both balanced, as well as unbalanced quadrapole modulations are defined. Methods of receiver synchronization to such signals are described, as well as their potential application to multiple access and anti-jam communications.

  19. 2eVME VME64x slave module design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wei; Li, Cong; Chen, Xinglin; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-one cards access VME64x IPC in the wafer stage control system. So many dedicated boards share one bus lead to increased latency data transmission on the bus. This article uses a low-cost bus upgrade logic module to improve the data transmission capacity of the bus. This module use the 2eVME protocol which VME64x protocol support. The logical interface designed introduced in detail in this paper. Also a simulation experiment is conducted. The simulation results are consistent with the theory. Transferring large amounts of data, the speed of the bus protocol can reach 2 times the ordinary VME protocol speed.

  20. Evaluation of the pilot phase of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Male Health Module.

    PubMed

    Tsey, Komla; Chigeza, Philemon; Holden, Carol A; Bulman, Jack; Gruis, Hilton; Wenitong, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article evaluates the pilot phase of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Male Health Module. Although men experience higher levels of illness and die younger than women, educational programs to support health workers utilise a gender-based approach to increase participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males in health care are rare and lack appropriate content. Recognising this gap in service provision, and under the guidance of a Reference Group comprising community leaders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait male health, a comprehensive and culturally appropriate Male Health Module has been developed to enhance the capacity of health workers to improve access to services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males. Methods used were: in-depth interviews with Module developers, pilot workshops for trainers and health workers, questionnaires and focus group discussions with workshop participants, and participant observations. As well as enhancing capacity to facilitate access to health services for men, the Module was deemed relevant because of its potential to promote health worker empowerment and wellbeing. Findings revealed that improving access to services for men required male and female health workers working in partnership. Despite overall enthusiasm for the Module, the findings also revealed deep fear that it would end up 'collecting dust on shelves'. Strategies to improve the Module quality and accessibility are highlighted.

  1. Electro-Optic Modulator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An electro - optic modulator is used to modulate coherent light beams by the application of an electric potential. It combines a Fabry-Perot etalon and...a diffraction grating in a single unit. An etalon is constructed with an electro - optic material between reflecting surfaces. A voltage applied...between alternate, spaced-apart electrodes of a metal grid attached to one reflecting surface induces a diffraction grating in the electro optic material. Light entering the etalon is diffracted, reflected and efficiently coupled out.

  2. Lunar Module Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This concept is a cutaway illustration of the Lunar Module (LM) with detailed callouts. The LM was a two part spacecraft. Its lower or descent stage had the landing gear, engines, and fuel needed for the landing. When the LM blasted off the Moon, the descent stage served as the launching pad for its companion ascent stage, which was also home for the two astronauts on the surface of the Moon. The LM was full of gear with which to communicate, navigate, and rendezvous. It also had its own propulsion system, and an engine to lift it off the Moon and send it on a course toward the orbiting Command Module.

  3. Lunar Module Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This illustration is the Lunar Module (LM) configuration. The LM was a two part spacecraft. Its lower or descent stage had the landing gear, engines, and fuel needed for the landing. When the LM blasted off the Moon, the descent stage served as the launching pad for its companion ascent stage, which was also home for the two astronauts on the surface of the Moon. The LM was full of gear with which to communicate, navigate, and rendezvous. It also had its own propulsion system, and an engine to lift it off the Moon and send it on a course toward the orbiting Command Module.

  4. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  5. Air modulation apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenahan, D. T.; Corsmeier, R. J.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An air modulation apparatus, such as for use in modulating cooling air to the turbine section of a gas turbine engine is described. The apparatus includes valve means disposed around an annular conduit, such as a nozzle, in the engine cooling air circuit. The valve means, when in a closed position, blocks a portion of the conduit, and thus reduces the amount and increases the velocity of cooling air flowing through the nozzle. The apparatus also includes actuation means, which can operate in response to predetermined engine conditions, for enabling opening and closing of the valve means.

  6. The laboratory module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Of the five modules comprising the Orbiting Quarantine Facility, the Laboratory Module must provide not only an extensive research capability to permit execution of the protocol, but also the flexibility to accommodate second-order testing if nonterrestrial life is discovered in the sample. The biocontainment barriers that protect the sample and the researchers from cross contamination are described. Specifically, the laboratory layout, laboratory equipment, the environmental control and life support system, and containment assurance procedures are discussed. The metal manipulation arm proposed for use within the biocontainment cabinets is described. Sample receipt and processing procedures are outlined.

  7. The laboratory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Of the five modules comprising the Orbiting Quarantine Facility, the Laboratory Module must provide not only an extensive research capability to permit execution of the protocol, but also the flexibility to accommodate second-order testing if nonterrestrial life is discovered in the sample. The biocontainment barriers that protect the sample and the researchers from cross contamination are described. Specifically, the laboratory layout, laboratory equipment, the environmental control and life support system, and containment assurance procedures are discussed. The metal manipulation arm proposed for use within the biocontainment cabinets is described. Sample receipt and processing procedures are outlined.

  8. Stirling Module Development Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    The solar parabolic dish Stirling engine electrically generating module consists of a solar collector coupled to a Stirling engine powered electrical generator. The module is designed to convert solar power to electrical power in parallel with numerous identical units coupled to an electrical utility power grid. The power conversion assembly generates up to 25 kilowatts at 480 volts potential/3 phase/alternating current. Piston rings and seals with gas leakage have not occurred, however, operator failures resulted in two burnt out receivers, while material fatigue resulted in a broken piston rod between the piston rod seal and cap seal.

  9. Differentiating spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, D.

    1985-04-01

    A differentiating spatial light modulator device in which a photoreceptor and an electro-optic crystal are isolated by a dielectric mirror is discussed. The electro-optic crystal is configured to have low or zero longitudinal response, yet is sensitive to transverse electric fields. The fringe field generated by the photoreceptor (photodiode) modulates the crystal birefringence. Readout via a polarizing beamsplitter gives an output light related to the spatial gradient of the input light. In a liquid crystal embodiment of the invention, reversal of the applied voltage gives a driven off state which speeds the erasure. Storage is possible in the smectic liquid crystal phase.

  10. Avionic standard module development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Stanley C.; Cormier, Edmond P.; Piszkin, Thomas A.

    Avionics standard modules with redundancy offer substantial economic benefits compared to special-purpose processor units for the orbital transfer vehicle and advanced launch vehicle programs. A fiber optic, serial vehicle bus provides high throughput with modest hardware. A bistage, split tapered, star optical coupler uses a token-pass/token-demand protocol. It is reported that a standard module implementation of the above is a feasible, cost-effective approach to avionics design using standard buses and standard packaging. The VHSIC integrated package readily accommodates higher-speed VLSI chips as they become available.

  11. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  12. On-line upgrade of program modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldrop, Raymond S.; Volz, Richard A.; Smith, Gary W.; Holzbacher-Valero, A. A.; Goldsack, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a taxonomy of problems that must be solved in order to achieve on-line upgradability of long-lived programs, and presents a solution to the fundamental problems in the taxonomy. The solutions are based upon AdaPT, a set of language extensions designed to aid in the distribution of a single Ada program. AdaPT introduces three major units, the public, the partition, and the node. Publics are primarily used to share type information. Partitions are the basic units of distribution while nodes are used to control the configuration of the program. Nodes and partitions can be created dynamically via the allocator. A node-level routine controls the replacement process. The controlling node creates a new instance of the routine being replaced; the run-time system must ensure that the new instance is the updated one. Once access to the new version has been established, all further calls to the module are redirected to the new version and the caller is informed of the change so that it may make subsequent calls directly. When a module is being upgraded, there is a transition period during which both the old and new versions are present. We require that clients of a potentially replaceable module 'check in' with the controlling node. The controlling node keeps track of the number of clients that have been redirected to the replacement. When all have been redirected, the old version can be deallocated.

  13. Mechanisms that improve referential access*

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    Two mechanisms, suppression and enhancement, are proposed to improve referential access. Enhancement improves the accessibility of previously mentioned concepts by increasing or boosting their activation; suppression improves concepts’ accessibility by decreasing or dampening the activation of other concepts. Presumably, these mechanisms are triggered by the informational content of anaphors. Six experiments investigated this proposal by manipulating whether an anaphoric reference was made with a very explicit, repeated name anaphor or a less explicit pronoun. Subjects read sentences that introduced two participants in their first clauses, for example, “Ann predicted that Pam would lose the track race,” and the sentences referred to one of the two participants in their second clauses, “but Pam/she came in first very easily.” While subjects read each sentence, the activation level of the two participants was measured by a probe verification task. The first two experiments demonstrated that explicit, repeated name anaphors immediately trigger the enhancement of their own antecedents and immediately trigger the suppression of other (nonantecedent) participants. The third experiment demonstrated that less explicit, pronoun anaphors also trigger the suppression of other nonantecedents, but they do so less quickly—even when, as in the fourth experiment, the semantic information to identify their antecedents occurs prior to the pronouns (e.g., “Ann predicted that Pam would lose the track race. But after winning the race, she …”). The fifth experiment demonstrated that more explicit pronouns – pronouns that match the gender of only one participant—trigger suppression more powerfully. A final experiment demonstrated that it is not only rementioned participants who improve their referential access by triggering the suppression of other participants; newly introduced participants do so too (e.g., “Ann predicted that Pam would lose the track race, but

  14. Age-Related Differences in Lexical Access Relate to Speech Recognition in Noise

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Rebecca; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary size has been suggested as a useful measure of “verbal abilities” that correlates with speech recognition scores. Knowing more words is linked to better speech recognition. How vocabulary knowledge translates to general speech recognition mechanisms, how these mechanisms relate to offline speech recognition scores, and how they may be modulated by acoustical distortion or age, is less clear. Age-related differences in linguistic measures may predict age-related differences in speech recognition in noise performance. We hypothesized that speech recognition performance can be predicted by the efficiency of lexical access, which refers to the speed with which a given word can be searched and accessed relative to the size of the mental lexicon. We tested speech recognition in a clinical German sentence-in-noise test at two signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), in 22 younger (18–35 years) and 22 older (60–78 years) listeners with normal hearing. We also assessed receptive vocabulary, lexical access time, verbal working memory, and hearing thresholds as measures of individual differences. Age group, SNR level, vocabulary size, and lexical access time were significant predictors of individual speech recognition scores, but working memory and hearing threshold were not. Interestingly, longer accessing times were correlated with better speech recognition scores. Hierarchical regression models for each subset of age group and SNR showed very similar patterns: the combination of vocabulary size and lexical access time contributed most to speech recognition performance; only for the younger group at the better SNR (yielding about 85% correct speech recognition) did vocabulary size alone predict performance. Our data suggest that successful speech recognition in noise is mainly modulated by the efficiency of lexical access. This suggests that older adults’ poorer performance in the speech recognition task may have arisen from reduced efficiency in lexical access

  15. Age-Related Differences in Lexical Access Relate to Speech Recognition in Noise.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Rebecca; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary size has been suggested as a useful measure of "verbal abilities" that correlates with speech recognition scores. Knowing more words is linked to better speech recognition. How vocabulary knowledge translates to general speech recognition mechanisms, how these mechanisms relate to offline speech recognition scores, and how they may be modulated by acoustical distortion or age, is less clear. Age-related differences in linguistic measures may predict age-related differences in speech recognition in noise performance. We hypothesized that speech recognition performance can be predicted by the efficiency of lexical access, which refers to the speed with which a given word can be searched and accessed relative to the size of the mental lexicon. We tested speech recognition in a clinical German sentence-in-noise test at two signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), in 22 younger (18-35 years) and 22 older (60-78 years) listeners with normal hearing. We also assessed receptive vocabulary, lexical access time, verbal working memory, and hearing thresholds as measures of individual differences. Age group, SNR level, vocabulary size, and lexical access time were significant predictors of individual speech recognition scores, but working memory and hearing threshold were not. Interestingly, longer accessing times were correlated with better speech recognition scores. Hierarchical regression models for each subset of age group and SNR showed very similar patterns: the combination of vocabulary size and lexical access time contributed most to speech recognition performance; only for the younger group at the better SNR (yielding about 85% correct speech recognition) did vocabulary size alone predict performance. Our data suggest that successful speech recognition in noise is mainly modulated by the efficiency of lexical access. This suggests that older adults' poorer performance in the speech recognition task may have arisen from reduced efficiency in lexical access; with an

  16. Rescue Manual. Module 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The eighth of 10 modules contains 6 chapters: (1) trench rescue; (2) shoring and tunneling techniques; (3) farm accident rescue; (4) wilderness search and rescue; (5) aircraft rescue; and (6) helicopter information. Key points, an…

  17. Evolutionary and Developmental Modules

    PubMed Central

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; d’Avella, Andrea; Zelik, Karl E.; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The identification of biological modules at the systems level often follows top-down decomposition of a task goal, or bottom-up decomposition of multidimensional data arrays into basic elements or patterns representing shared features. These approaches traditionally have been applied to mature, fully developed systems. Here we review some results from two other perspectives on modularity, namely the developmental and evolutionary perspective. There is growing evidence that modular units of development were highly preserved and recombined during evolution. We first consider a few examples of modules well identifiable from morphology. Next we consider the more difficult issue of identifying functional developmental modules. We dwell especially on modular control of locomotion to argue that the building blocks used to construct different locomotor behaviors are similar across several animal species, presumably related to ancestral neural networks of command. A recurrent theme from comparative studies is that the developmental addition of new premotor modules underlies the postnatal acquisition and refinement of several different motor behaviors in vertebrates. PMID:23730285

  18. Rescue Manual. Module 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The third of 10 modules contains 4 chapters: (1) forcible entry; (2) structure search and rescue; (3) rescue operations involving electricity; and (4) cutting torches. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany substantive…

  19. Rescue Manual. Module 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The first of 10 modules contains 9 chapters: (1) introduction; (2) occupational stresses in rescue operations; (3) size-up; (4) critique; (5) reports and recordkeeping; (6) tools and equipment for rescue operations; (7) planning for…

  20. Rescue Manual. Module 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The sixth of 10 modules contains 4 chapters: (1) industrial rescue; (2) rescue from a confined space; (3) extrication from heavy equipment; and (4) rescue operations involving elevators. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany…

  1. Rescue Manual. Module 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The fourth of 10 modules contains 8 chapters: (1) construction and characteristics of rescue rope; (2) knots, bends, and hitches; (3) critical angles; (4) raising systems; (5) rigging; (6) using the brake-bar rack for rope rescue; (7) rope…

  2. Rescue Manual. Module 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The 10th of 10 modules contains a 16-page glossary of rescue terms and 3 appendices: (1) 4 computer programs and 32 other technical assistance materials available for hazardous materials; (2) hazardous materials resources--60 phone numbers,…

  3. Rescue Manual. Module 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The second of 10 modules contains 5 chapters: (1) patient care and handling techniques; (2) rescue carries and drags; (3) emergency vehicle operations; (4) self-contained breathing apparatus; and (5) protective clothing. Key points, an…

  4. Rescue Manual. Module 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The ninth of 10 modules contains 7 chapters: (1) ice characteristics; (2) river characteristics and tactics for rescue; (3) water rescue techniques; (4) water rescue/recovery operations; (5) dive operations; (6) water rescue equipment; and…

  5. Drupal Contributed Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, Samuel B.; French, Shelane

    2014-10-01

    These Drupal Modules extend the functionality of Drupal by including specific styles for dates and tabs, publishing options for scheduled and immediate publication of content modes, field visibility in content forms, keyword block filters (taxonomy based), adding content nodes to a specified queue for display in views, and status display of workflow settings.

  6. An Integrated Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Marie R.; Seiferth, Berniece B.

    This integrated teaching module provides elementary and junior high school teachers with a "hands-on" approach to studying the Anasazi Indian. Emphasis is on creative exploration that focuses on integrating art, music, poetry, writing, geography, dance, history, anthropology, sociology, and archaeology. Replicas of artifacts,…

  7. Paratransit: An Instructional Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalici, Anthony

    A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…

  8. SPACE: Intermediate Level Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    These modules were developed to assist teachers at the intermediate level to move away from extensive skill practice and toward more meaningful interdisciplinary learning. This packet, to be used by teachers in the summer Extended Learning Program, provides detailed thematic lesson plans matched to the Indiana Curriculum Proficiency Guide. The…

  9. Modulation Characterization Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    34energy-detection" class of rules. The focus of this paper is on the detection of Quadrature digital modulations, such as QPSK, Offset-QPSK ( OQPSK ... OQPSK retains only the even harmonics at baseband and the odd harmonics around 2/c. The optimal delay A and the resulting maximum SNRout are also

  10. Linear Phase Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Circuit suppresses AM component while providing matched input impedance. Phase modulation uses reflective properties of series resonant tank to reflect all of signal except for small amount in unloaded Q of coils and varactor diode. Circuit used in payload integrator of Space Shuttle S-band communications and tracking equipment, has applications in other communications and tracking equipment.

  11. Coplanar interconnection module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steward, R. D.; Windsor, H. F.

    1970-01-01

    Module for interconnecting a semiconductor array to external leads or components incorporates a metal external heat sink for cooling the array. Heat sink, extending down from the molded block that supports the array, is immersed in a liquid nitrogen bath which is designed to maintain the desired array temperature.

  12. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  13. Crew Module Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redifer, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation presents an overview of the Crew Module development for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The presentation describes the integration activity from the initial delivery of the primary structure through the installation of vehicle subsystems, then to flight test. A brief overview of flight test results is given.

  14. Transparent solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonides, G. J.; Dillard, P. A.; Fritz, W. M.; Lott, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Modified solar cell module uses high transmission glass and adhesives, and heat dissipation to boost power per unit area by 25% (9.84% efficiency based on cell area at 60 C and 100 mW/sq cm flux). Design is suited for automatic production and is potentially more cost effective.

  15. Scaling: An Items Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Ye; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    "Scaling" is the process of constructing a score scale that associates numbers or other ordered indicators with the performance of examinees. Scaling typically is conducted to aid users in interpreting test results. This module describes different types of raw scores and scale scores, illustrates how to incorporate various sources of…

  16. COMIT English Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Paul

    This COMIT English module used most of the interrelated devices of sound, sonic pen, keyboard, slide, and terminal display in a lesson which, depending on the student's interest and ability, might last from four to ten hours and formed an integral part of a second year course in critical analysis. Four contexts were included in the subject of…

  17. Multiple trellis coded modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique for designing trellis codes to minimize bit error performance for a fading channel. The invention provides a criteria which may be used in the design of such codes which is significantly different from that used for average white Gaussian noise channels. The method of multiple trellis coded modulation of the present invention comprises the steps of: (a) coding b bits of input data into s intermediate outputs; (b) grouping said s intermediate outputs into k groups of s.sub.i intermediate outputs each where the summation of all s.sub.i,s is equal to s and k is equal to at least 2; (c) mapping each of said k groups of intermediate outputs into one of a plurality of symbols in accordance with a plurality of modulation schemes, one for each group such that the first group is mapped in accordance with a first modulation scheme and the second group is mapped in accordance with a second modulation scheme; and (d) outputting each of said symbols to provide k output symbols for each b bits of input data.

  18. Formed photovoltaic module busbars

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Douglas; Daroczi, Shan; Phu, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    A cell connection piece for a photovoltaic module is disclosed herein. The cell connection piece includes an interconnect bus, a plurality of bus tabs unitarily formed with the interconnect bus, and a terminal bus coupled with the interconnect bus. The plurality of bus tabs extend from the interconnect bus. The terminal bus includes a non-linear portion.

  19. Bubble Memory Module.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    104 7-13 Four switch drive hybrid ........................................................................ 104 7-14...operation. Address Ready. - This signal is an output signal to the user which acknowledges that the module is busy. Input address is latched in the...expandable in 6.55 M bit increments. Detector noise is minimized by locating sense circuits, cell select switches , and memory cells on the same board

  20. Glycan-Based Cell Targeting To Modulate Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Johannssen, Timo; Lepenies, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Glycosylation is an integral post-translational modification present in more than half of all eukaryotic proteins. It affects key protein functions, including folding, stability, and immunogenicity. Glycoengineering approaches, such as the use of bacterial N-glycosylation systems, or expression systems, including yeasts, insect cells, and mammalian cells, have enabled access to defined and homogenous glycoproteins. Given that glycan structures on proteins can be recognized by host lectin receptors, they may facilitate cell-specific targeting and immune modulation. Myeloid C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) expressed by antigen-presenting cells are attractive targets to shape immune responses. Multivalent glycan display on nanoparticles, liposomes, or dendrimers has successfully enabled CLR targeting. In this review, we discuss novel strategies to access defined glycan structures and highlight CLR targeting approaches for immune modulation.

  1. Securing America's access to space

    SciTech Connect

    Rendine, M.; Wood, L.

    1990-05-23

    We review pertinent aspects of the history of the space launch capabilities of the United States and survey its present status and near-term outlook. Steps which must be taken, pitfalls which much be avoided, and a core set of National options for re-acquiring in the near term the capability to access the space environment with large payloads are discussed. We devote considerable attention to the prospect of creating an interim heavy-lift space launch vehicle of at least 100,000 pound payload-orbiting capacity to serve National needs during the next dozen years, suggesting that such a capability can be demonstrated within 5 years for less than $1 B. Such capability will apparently be essential for meeting the first-phase goals of the President's Space Exploration Initiative. Some other high-leverage aspects of securing American access to space are also noted briefly, emphasizing unconventional technological approaches of presently high promise.

  2. Accessing SDO Data : The Poster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourcle, Joseph; Addison, K.; Bogart, R.; Chamberlin, P.; Freeland, S.; Hughitt, V. K.; Ireland, J.; Maddox, M.; Mueller, D.; Somani, A.; Sommers, J.; Thompson, B.; solar physics data community, The

    2011-05-01

    As the data from SDO are useful for a variety of purposes, including solar physics, helioseismology, atmospheric science, space weather forecasting, education and public outreach, a wide variety of tools have been development to cater to the different needs of the various groups. Systems have been developed for pipeline processing, searching, browsing, subsetting, or simply just moving around large volumes of data. We present a quick overview of the different systems that can be used to access SDO data including (J)Helioviewer, the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA), the Data Record Management System (DRMS), and various websites. We cover web-based applications, application programming interfaces (APIs), and IDL command line tools. This poster serves as a supplement to the oral presentation as a place to distribute information about the various interfaces and to collect feedback about any unmet needs for data access.

  3. Accessing the VO with Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, R.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Graham, M.; Tody, D.; Young, W.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce two products for accessing the VO from Python: PyVO and VOClient. PyVO is built on the widely-used Astropy package and is well suited for integrating automated access to astronomical data into highly customizable scripts and applications for data analysis in Python. VOClient is built on a collection of C-libraries and is well suited for integrating with multi-language analysis packages. It also provides a framework for integrating legacy software into the Python environment. In this demo, we will run through several examples demonstrate basic data discovery and retrieval of data. This includes finding archives containing data of interest (VO registry), retrieving datasets (SIA, SSA), and exploring (Cone Search, SLAP). VOClient features some extended capabilities including the ability to communicate to other desktop applications from a script using the SAMP protocol.

  4. Accessing opportunistic resources with Bosco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzel, D.; Sfiligoi, I.; Bockelman, B.; Frey, J.; Wuerthwein, F.; Fraser, D.; Swanson, D.

    2014-06-01

    Bosco is a software project developed by the Open Science Grid to help scientists better utilize their on-campus computing resources. Instead of submitting jobs through a dedicated gatekeeper, as most remote submission mechanisms use, it uses the built-in SSH protocol to gain access to the cluster. By using a common access method, SSH, we are able to simplify the interaction with the cluster, making the submission process more user friendly. Additionally, it does not add any extra software to be installed on the cluster making Bosco an attractive option for the cluster administrator. In this paper, we will describe Bosco, the personal supercomputing assistant, and how Bosco is used by researchers across the U.S. to manage their computing workflows. In addition, we will also talk about how researchers are using it, including an unique use of Bosco to submit CMS reconstruction jobs to an opportunistic XSEDE resource.

  5. An Optically Accessible Pyrolysis Microreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraban, Joshua H.; David, Donald E.; Ellison, Barney; Daily, John W.

    2016-06-01

    We report an optically accessible pyrolysis micro-reactor suitable for in situ laser spectroscopic measurements. A radiative heating design allows for completely unobstructed views of the micro-reactor along two axes. The maximum temperature demonstrated here is only 1300 K (as opposed to 1700 K for the usual SiC micro-reactor) because of the melting point of fused silica, but alternative transparent materials will allow for higher temperatures. Laser induced fluorescence measurements on nitric oxide are presented as a proof of principle for spectroscopic characterization of pyrolysis conditions. (This work has been published in J. H. Baraban, D. E. David, G. B. Ellison, and J. W. Daily. An Optically Accessible Pyrolysis Micro-Reactor. Review of Scientific Instruments, 87(1):014101, 2016.)

  6. Discovering modulators of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Babur, Özgün; Demir, Emek; Gönen, Mithat; Sander, Chris; Dogrusoz, Ugur

    2010-01-01

    Proteins that modulate the activity of transcription factors, often called modulators, play a critical role in creating tissue- and context-specific gene expression responses to the signals cells receive. GEM (Gene Expression Modulation) is a probabilistic framework that predicts modulators, their affected targets and mode of action by combining gene expression profiles, protein–protein interactions and transcription factor–target relationships. Using GEM, we correctly predicted a significant number of androgen receptor modulators and observed that most modulators can both act as co-activators and co-repressors for different target genes. PMID:20466809

  7. Method of monolithic module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Morgan, William P.; Worobey, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Methods for "monolithic module assembly" which translate many of the advantages of monolithic module construction of thin-film PV modules to wafered c-Si PV modules. Methods employ using back-contact solar cells positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The methods of the invention allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  8. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  9. Regulating access via economic principles

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, P.J.; Zona, J.D.

    1999-09-01

    The right policy to balance the benefits of allowing the distco to fully utilize the efficiency advantage of vertical integration against the risks of anticompetitive conduct, is neither to split up the distco not to compel that it share all its facilities. This article shows that the general policy of compelling access to essential facilities, accompanied by effective monitoring and imputation rules, will strike the right balance: maximizing the benefits of competition, while preventing anticompetitive conduct.

  10. Clean access platform for orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, H.; Harris, J.

    1990-01-01

    The design of the Clean Access Platform at the Kennedy Space Center, beginning with the design requirements and tracing the effort throughout development and manufacturing is described. Also examined are: (1) A system description; (2) Testing requirements and conclusions; (3) Safety and reliability features; (4) Major problems experienced during the project; and (5) Lessons learned, including features necessary for the effective design of mechanisms used in clean systems.

  11. Computer-Access-Code Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Authorized users respond to changing challenges with changing passwords. Scheme for controlling access to computers defeats eavesdroppers and "hackers". Based on password system of challenge and password or sign, challenge, and countersign correlated with random alphanumeric codes in matrices of two or more dimensions. Codes stored on floppy disk or plug-in card and changed frequently. For even higher security, matrices of four or more dimensions used, just as cubes compounded into hypercubes in concurrent processing.

  12. [Personalized medicine: equity and access].

    PubMed

    Joly, Yann; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2014-11-01

    Personalized medicine has seen a recent increase in popularity amongst medical researchers and policymakers. Nevertheless, there are persistent legal, ethical, and social questions that need to be explored, particularly related to the criticism that personalized medicine constitutes an elitist model of healthcare. Investigating this critique the current manuscript argues that personalized medicine has the potential to become a positive force for equitable access to better healthcare at a national and international level.

  13. Access to hepatitis C medicines

    PubMed Central

    Coppens, Delphi GM; Prasad, Tara L; Rook, Laurien A; Iyer, Jayasree K

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hepatitis C is a global epidemic. Worldwide, 185 million people are estimated to be infected, most of whom live in low- and middle-income countries. Recent advances in the development of antiviral drugs have produced therapies that are more effective, safer and better tolerated than existing treatments for the disease. These therapies present an opportunity to curb the epidemic, provided that they are affordable, that generic production of these medicines is scaled up and that awareness and screening programmes are strengthened. Pharmaceutical companies have a central role to play. We examined the marketed products, pipelines and access to medicine strategies of 20 of the world’s largest pharmaceutical companies. Six of these companies are developing medicines for hepatitis C: AbbVie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Co. and Roche. These companies employ a range of approaches to supporting hepatitis C treatment, including pricing strategies, voluntary licensing, capacity building and drug donations. We give an overview of the engagement of these companies in addressing access to hepatitis C products. We suggest actions companies can take to play a greater role in curbing this epidemic: (i) prioritizing affordability assessments; (ii) developing access strategies early in the product lifecycle; and (iii) licensing to manufacturers of generic medicines. PMID:26549908

  14. Access to hepatitis C medicines.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Danny J; Coppens, Delphi Gm; Prasad, Tara L; Rook, Laurien A; Iyer, Jayasree K

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis C is a global epidemic. Worldwide, 185 million people are estimated to be infected, most of whom live in low- and middle-income countries. Recent advances in the development of antiviral drugs have produced therapies that are more effective, safer and better tolerated than existing treatments for the disease. These therapies present an opportunity to curb the epidemic, provided that they are affordable, that generic production of these medicines is scaled up and that awareness and screening programmes are strengthened. Pharmaceutical companies have a central role to play. We examined the marketed products, pipelines and access to medicine strategies of 20 of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies. Six of these companies are developing medicines for hepatitis C: AbbVie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Co. and Roche. These companies employ a range of approaches to supporting hepatitis C treatment, including pricing strategies, voluntary licensing, capacity building and drug donations. We give an overview of the engagement of these companies in addressing access to hepatitis C products. We suggest actions companies can take to play a greater role in curbing this epidemic: (i) prioritizing affordability assessments; (ii) developing access strategies early in the product lifecycle; and (iii) licensing to manufacturers of generic medicines.

  15. [Vascular access guidelines for hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Hernández, J A; González Parra, E; Julián Gutiérrez, J M; Segarra Medrano, A; Almirante, B; Martínez, M T; Arrieta, J; Fernández Rivera, C; Galera, A; Gallego Beuter, J; Górriz, J L; Herrero, J A; López Menchero, R; Ochando, A; Pérez Bañasco, V; Polo, J R; Pueyo, J; Ruiz, Camps I; Segura Iglesias, R

    2005-01-01

    Quality of vascular access (VA) has a remarkable influence in hemodialysis patients outcomes. Dysfunction of VA represents a capital cause of morbi-mortality of these patients as well an increase in economical. Spanish Society of Neprhology, aware of the problem, has decided to carry out a revision of the issue with the aim of providing help in comprehensión and treatment related with VA problems, and achieving an homogenization of practices in three mayor aspects: to increase arteriovenous fistula utilization as first vascular access, to increment vascular access monitoring practice and rationalise central catheters use. We present a consensus document elaborated by a multidisciplinar group composed by nephrologists, vascular surgeons, interventional radiologysts, infectious diseases specialists and nephrological nurses. Along six chapters that cover patient education, creation of VA, care, monitoring, complications and central catheters, we present the state of the art and propose guidelines for the best practice, according different evidence based degrees, with the intention to provide help at the professionals in order to make aproppiate decissions. Several quality standars are also included.

  16. UK organisation of access care.

    PubMed

    Wilmink, Teun; Powers, Sarah; Baharani, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    National UK audits show that 73% of patients start renal replacement therapy (RRT) with haemodialysis (HD). However, 59% of those start HD on non-permanent access in the form of a tunnelled line (TL) or a non-tunnelled line (NTL), 40% on an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and 1% on an arteriovenous graft (AVG). After 3 months, the number of patients dialysing on AVF was only 41%. Late referrals, within 90 days of starting dialysis to the renal service, occur in one-fifth of all incident HD patients. Referral to a surgeon was an important determinant of mode of access at first dialysis. However, referral to a surgeon occurred in 67% of patients who were known to the nephrologist for over a year and in 46% of patients who were known to nephrology less than a year but more than 90 days. Best practice tariffs of the National Health Service (NHS) payment by results program have set a target of 75% of prevalent HD occurring via an AVF or AVG in 2011/2012, rising to 85% in 2013/2014. We suggest that this target is best achieved by increasing timely referral to a surgeon for creation of access before HD is needed.

  17. LERU roadmap towards Open Access.

    PubMed

    Ayris, Paul; Björnshauge, Lars; Collier, Mel; Ferwerda, Eelco; Jacobs, Neil; Sinikara, Kaisa; Swan, Alma; de Bries, Saskia; van Wesenbeeck, Astrid

    2015-09-01

    Money which is not directly spent on research and education, even though it is largely taxpayers´ money. As Harvard University already denounced in 2012, many large journal publishers have rendered the situation "fiscally unsustainable and academically restrictive", with some journals costing as much as $40,000 per year (and publishers drawing profits of 35% or more). If one of the wealthiest universities in the world can no longer afford it, who can? It is easy to picture the struggle of European universities with tighter budgets. In addition to subscription costs, academic research funding is also largely affected by "Article Processing Charges" (APC), which come at an additional cost of €2000/article, on average, when making individual articles Gold Open Access. Some publishers are in this way even being paid twice for the same content ("double dipping"). In the era of Open Science, Open Access to publications is one of the cornerstones of the new research paradigm and business models must support this transition. It should be one of the principal objectives of Commissioner Carlos Moedas and the Dutch EU Presidency (January-June 2016) to ensure that this transition happens. Further developing the EU´s leadership in research and innovation largely depends on it. With this statement "Moving Forwards on Open Access", LERU calls upon all universities, research institutes, research funders and researchers to sign this statement and give a clear signal towards the European Commission and the Dutch EU Presidency.

  18. Predatory Open Access in Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Manca, Andrea; Martinez, Gianluca; Cugusi, Lucia; Dragone, Daniele; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Deriu, Franca

    2017-01-20

    Increasingly scholars and researchers are being solicited by predatory open access journals seeking manuscript submissions and abusing the author-pays model by charging authors with publishing fees without any or proper peer review. Such questionable editorial practices are threatening the reputation and credibility of scholarly publishing. To date, no investigation has been conducted on this phenomenon in the field of rehabilitation. This study attempts to identify specific predatory journals operating in this field to quantify the phenomenon and its geographic distribution. Beall's List has been used to this end which, although not perfect, is a comprehensive and up-to-date report of predatory publishers. Of the 1113 publishers on the list, 59 journals were identified, for a total of 5610 published articles. The median number of articles published by each journal was 21, and the median amount of article processing charges was $499. Only 1 out of 59 journals was included in the Directory of Open Access Journals, whereas 7 (12%) were indexed by PubMed. Most of the publishers were based in India (36%) followed by the United States (25%) and Pakistan (5%), and 25% were without a verifiable address. The data indicate that the threat of predatory publishing in rehabilitation is real. Physiatrists, physiotherapists, researchers, and academics operating in this field are advised to use the tools available to recognize predatory practices before considering publishing in open access journals.

  19. Hybrid WDM/OCDMA for next generation access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Wada, Naoya; Miyazaki, T.; Cincotti, G.; Kitayama, Ken-ichi

    2007-11-01

    Hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/optical code division multiple access (WDM/OCDMA) passive optical network (PON), where asynchronous OCDMA traffic transmits over WDM network, can be one potential candidate for gigabit-symmetric fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) services. In a cost-effective WDM/OCDMA network, a large scale multi-port encoder/decoder can be employed in the central office, and a low cost encoder/decoder will be used in optical network unit (ONU). The WDM/OCDMA system could be one promising solution to the symmetric high capacity access network with high spectral efficiency, cost effective, good flexibility and enhanced security. Asynchronous WDM/OCDMA systems have been experimentally demonstrated using superstructured fiber Bragg gratings (SSFBG) and muti-port OCDMA en/decoders. The total throughput has reached above Tera-bit/s with spectral efficiency of about 0.41. The key enabling techniques include ultra-long SSFBG, multi-port E/D with high power contrast ratio, optical thresholding, differential phase shift keying modulation with balanced detection, forward error correction, and etc. Using multi-level modulation formats to carry multi-bit information with single pulse, the total capacity and spectral efficiency could be further enhanced.

  20. The Mission Accessibility of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Abell, Paul A.; Adamo, Daniel R.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Johnson, Lindley N.; Yeomans, Donald K.; Chodas, Paul W.; Chamberlin, Alan B.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Taylor, Patrick; Friedensen, Victoria P.

    2015-01-01

    Astrodynamical Earth departure dates; mission v; mission duration; stay time; etc. Physical I NEO size(?); rotation rate; dust satellites environment; chemistry; etc. Architectural Launch vehicle(s); crew vehicle(s); habitat module(s); budget; etc. Operational Operations experience; abort options profiles; etc. Astrodynamical Accessibility is the starting point for understanding the options and opportunities available to us. Here we shall focus on. Astrodynamical Accessibility.2 Earth departure date between 2015-01-01 and 2040-12-31 Earth departure C3 60 km2s2. Total mission v 12 kms. The total v includes (1) the Earth departure maneuver from a 400 km altitude circular parking orbit, (2) the maneuver to match the NEAs velocity at arrival, (3) the maneuver to depart the NEA and, (4) if necessary, a maneuver to control the atmospheric re-entry speed during Earth return. Total round trip mission duration 450 days. Stay time at the NEA 8 days Earth atmospheric entry speed 12 kms at an altitude of 125 km. A near-Earth asteroid (NEA) that offers at least one trajectory solution meeting those criteria is classified as NHATS-compliant.

  1. NASA's UAS NAS Access Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    The vision of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project is "A global transportation system which allows routine access for all classes of UAS." The goal of the UAS Integration in the NAS Project is to "contribute capabilities that reduce technical barriers related to the safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS." This goal will be accomplished through a two-phased approach based on development of system-level integration of key concepts, technologies and/or procedures, and demonstrations of integrated capabilities in an operationally relevant environment. Phase 1 will take place the first two years of the Project and Phase 2 will take place the following three years. The Phase 1 and 2 technical objectives are: Phase 1: Developing a gap analysis between current state of the art and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) UAS Concept of Operations . Validating the key technical areas identified by this Project . Conducting initial modeling, simulation, and flight testing activities . Completing Sub-project Phase 1 deliverables (spectrum requirements, comparative analysis of certification methodologies, etc.) and continue Phase 2 preparation (infrastructure, tools, etc.) Phase 2: Providing regulators with a methodology for developing airworthiness requirements for UAS, and data to support development of certifications standards and regulatory guidance . Providing systems-level, integrated testing of concepts and/or capabilities that address barriers to routine access to the NAS. Through simulation and flight testing, address issues including separation assurance, communications requirements, and human systems integration in operationally relevant environments. The UAS in the NAS Project will demonstrate solutions in specific technology areas, which will address operational/safety issues related to UAS access to the NAS. Since the resource allocation for

  2. Multiwavelength Astronomy Modules for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christie; Brazas, J.; Lane, S.; York, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    funded by NASA EPOESS awards. The modules can be accessed at http://ecuip.lib.uchicago.edu/multiwavelength-astronomy.

  3. Analysis of interference of QPSK and QDPSK modulation signals by mathematical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dairuo; Xu, Kai

    2017-03-01

    In today's society, with the rapid development and extensive application of the information technology of the network central station and the integrated information system technology, information plays an important role in the military communication, mastering the information right to the competition Important role, how to protect one's own security, smooth access to and transmission of information, and to maximize the elimination of interference has become an important issue at home and abroad. QPSK modulation and its improved QPSK modulation as the mainstream signal modulation, the most widely used. In this paper, the principle of QPSK and QDPSK modulation and demodulation are introduced in this paper. Then, how to interfere with QPSK modulation signal is analyzed, and the interference of QPSK modulation signal is simulated by Matlab scripting program, which can be used in the next step. And to study the next step of anti-jamming measures provided the basis and preparatory work.

  4. Cost-effective bidirectional digitized radio-over-fiber systems employing sigma delta modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Woon; Jung, HyunDo; Park, Jung Ho

    2016-11-01

    We propose a cost effective digitized radio-over-fiber (D-RoF) system employing a sigma delta modulation (SDM) and a bidirectional transmission technique using phase modulated downlink and intensity modulated uplink. SDM is transparent to different radio access technologies and modulation formats, and more suitable for a downlink of wireless system because a digital to analog converter (DAC) can be avoided at the base station (BS). Also, Central station and BS share the same light source by using a phase modulation for the downlink and an intensity modulation for the uplink transmission. Avoiding DACs and light sources have advantages in terms of cost reduction, power consumption, and compatibility with conventional wireless network structure. We have designed a cost effective bidirectional D-RoF system using a low pass SDM and measured the downlink and uplink transmission performance in terms of error vector magnitude, signal spectra, and constellations, which are based on the 10MHz LTE 64-QAM standard.

  5. Multiplex single cell profiling of chromatin accessibility by combinatorial cellular indexing.

    PubMed

    Cusanovich, Darren A; Daza, Riza; Adey, Andrew; Pliner, Hannah A; Christiansen, Lena; Gunderson, Kevin L; Steemers, Frank J; Trapnell, Cole; Shendure, Jay

    2015-05-22

    Technical advances have enabled the collection of genome and transcriptome data sets with single-cell resolution. However, single-cell characterization of the epigenome has remained challenging. Furthermore, because cells must be physically separated before biochemical processing, conventional single-cell preparatory methods scale linearly. We applied combinatorial cellular indexing to measure chromatin accessibility in thousands of single cells per assay, circumventing the need for compartmentalization of individual cells. We report chromatin accessibility profiles from more than 15,000 single cells and use these data to cluster cells on the basis of chromatin accessibility landscapes. We identify modules of coordinately regulated chromatin accessibility at the level of single cells both between and within cell types, with a scalable method that may accelerate progress toward a human cell atlas.

  6. Multiplex Single Cell Profiling of Chromatin Accessibility by Combinatorial Cellular Indexing

    PubMed Central

    Cusanovich, Darren A.; Daza, Riza; Adey, Andrew; Pliner, Hannah; Christiansen, Lena; Gunderson, Kevin L.; Steemers, Frank J.; Trapnell, Cole

    2016-01-01

    Technical advances have enabled the collection of genome and transcriptome datasets with single-cell resolution. However, single-cell characterization of the epigenome has remained challenging. Furthermore, because cells must be physically separated prior to biochemical processing, conventional single-cell preparatory methods scale linearly. We applied combinatorial cellular indexing to measure chromatin accessibility in thousands of single cells per assay, circumventing the need for compartmentalization of individual cells. We report chromatin accessibility profiles from over 15,000 single cells and use these data to cluster cells on the basis of chromatin accessibility landscapes. We identify modules of coordinately regulated chromatin accessibility at the level of single cells both between and within cell types, with a scalable method that may accelerate progress towards a human cell atlas. PMID:25953818

  7. Web-based Learning Modules using Research Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Hamper, R.; Morris, F.

    2011-01-01

    Three web-based learning modules for introductory undergraduate astronomy courses are available at Indiana University Bloomington. The NovaSearch module allows students to view images of the core of the Andromeda Galaxy to discover novae and monitor their light curves. The Proper Pair module allows students to examine proper motion and parallax data from Hipparcos to determine if pairs of stars close together on the sky are true binary star systems. A third module, Astronomy in Color, allows students to produce color images using multi-wavelength data. The pedagogical goals of these curriculum materials are to teach that science is a process of discovery, not just a body of knowledge, to increase positive attitudes towards science by engaging students in discovery, and to motivate students towards pursuing STEM careers by giving students an opportunity to develop skills such as critical thinking, teamwork, and task focus that are important in any career path. The learning modules may be accessed at www.astro.indiana.edu/catyp/rbseu The development of these curriculum modules has been funded by the national Science Foundation through grant DUE-0618441.

  8. 36 CFR 9.3 - Access permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.3 Access permits. (a) All special use or other permits dealing with... permits in accordance with these regulations, unless access to a mining claim is by pack animal or...

  9. 36 CFR 9.3 - Access permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.3 Access permits. (a) All special use or other permits dealing with... permits in accordance with these regulations, unless access to a mining claim is by pack animal or...

  10. Arteriovenous Access Failure, Stenosis, and Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Jennifer M; Dipchand, Christine; Oliver, Matthew; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine; Clark, Edward; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Vascular access-related complications can lead to patient morbidity and reduced patient quality of life. Some of the common arteriovenous access complications include failure to mature, stenosis formation, and thrombosis.

  11. 77 FR 66025 - Program Access Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... basis in response to program access complaints. The Commission also affirms its expanded discovery... No. 07-29, we (i) affirm the expanded discovery procedures for program access complaints adopted...

  12. Modulated Elliptical Slot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abou-Khousa, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    A novel modulated slot design has been proposed and tested. The proposed slot is aimed to replace the inefficient small dipoles used in conventional MST-based imaging systems. The developed slot is very attractive as MST array element due to its small size and high efficiency/modulation depth. In fact, the developed slot has been successfully used to implement the first prototype of a microwave camera operating at 24 GHZ. It is also being used in the design of the second generation of the camera. Finally, the designed elliptical slot can be used as an electronically controlled waveguide iris for many other purposes (for instance in constructing waveguide reflective phase shifters and multiplexers/switches).

  13. VERDE Analytic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-15

    The Verde Analytic Modules permit the user to ingest openly available data feeds about phenomenology (storm tracks, wind, precipitation, earthquake, wildfires, and similar natural and manmade power grid disruptions and forecast power outages, restoration times, customers outaged, and key facilities that will lose power. Damage areas are predicted using historic damage criteria of the affected area. The modules use a cellular automata approach to estimating the distribution circuits assigned to geo-located substations. Population estimates served within the service areas are located within 1 km grid cells and converted to customer counts by conversion through demographic estimation of households and commercial firms within the population cells. Restoration times are estimated by agent-based simulation of restoration crews working according to utility published prioritization calibrated by historic performance.

  14. Silicon Optical Modulator Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIM, Soon; Sun, Min Jie; Png, Ching

    2015-04-01

    We developed a way of predicting and analyzing high speed optical modulator. Our research adopted a bottom-up approach to consider high-speed optical links using an eye diagram. Our method leverages on modular “mapping” of electrical characteristics to optical characteristics, while attaining the required accuracy necessary for device footprint approaching sub-micron scales where electrical data distribution varies drastically. We calculate for the bias dependent phase shift (2pi/mm) and loss (dB/mm) for the optical modulator based on the real and imaginary part of complex effective indices. Subsequently, combine effectively both the electrical and optical profiles to construct the optical eye diagram which is the essential gist of signal integrity of such devices.

  15. Module isolation devices

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Cooke, John Albert; Buzinski, Michael David

    2010-04-27

    A gas flow isolation device includes a gas flow isolation valve movable from an opened condition to a closed condition. The module isolation valve in one embodiment includes a rupture disk in flow communication with a flow of gas when the module isolation valve is in an opened condition. The rupture disk ruptures when a predetermined pressure differential occurs across it causing the isolation valve to close. In one embodiment the valve is mechanically linked to the rupture disk to maintain the valve in an opened condition when the rupture disk is intact, and which permits the valve to move into a closed condition when the rupture disk ruptures. In another embodiment a crushable member maintains the valve in an open condition, and the flow of gas passed the valve upon rupturing of the rupture disk compresses the crushable member to close the isolation valve.

  16. Modulation instability: The beginning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noskov, Roman; Belov, Pavel; Kivshar, Yuri

    2012-11-01

    The study of metal nanoparticles plays a central role in the emerging novel technologies employing optics beyond the diffraction limit. Combining strong surface plasmon resonances, high intrinsic nonlinearities and deeply subwavelength scales, arrays of metal nanoparticles offer a unique playground to develop novel concepts for light manipulation at the nanoscale. Here we suggest a novel principle to control localized optical energy in chains of nonlinear subwavelength metal nanoparticles based on the fundamental nonlinear phenomenon of modulation instability. In particular, we demonstrate that modulation instability can lead to the formation of long-lived standing and moving nonlinear localized modes of several distinct types such as bright and dark solitons, oscillons, and domain walls. We analyze the properties of these nonlinear localized modes and reveal different scenarios of their dynamics including transformation of one type of mode to another. We believe this work paves a way towards the development of nonlinear nanophotonics circuitry.

  17. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  18. Axially Modulated Plasma Waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Layer, B. D.; York, A. G.; Varma, S.; Chen, Y.-H.; Milchberg, H. M.

    2009-01-22

    We demonstrate two techniques for making periodically modulated plasma waveguides-one with sharp, stable voids as short as 50 {mu}m with a period as small as 200 {mu}m, and another which modulates the waveguide diameter with a corrugation period as short as 35 {mu}m[1]. These features persist as the plasma expands for the full lifetime of the waveguide (>6 ns). The waveguides were made using the hydrodynamic shock method in a cluster jet using hydrogen, nitrogen, and argon. We demonstrate guided propagation at intensities up to 2x10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}, limited by our laser energy currently available. This technique is useful for quasi-phase matching to allow efficient coupling of laser energy to acceleration of relativistic electrons or generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation at selected frequencies.

  19. Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    De Bosscher, Karolien

    2010-05-31

    The ancient two-faced Roman god Janus is often used as a metaphor to describe the characteristics of the Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1), which exhibits both a beneficial side, that serves to halt inflammation, and a detrimental side responsible for undesirable effects. However, recent developments suggest that the Glucocorticoid Receptor has many more faces with the potential to express a range of different functionalities, depending on factors that include the tissue type, ligand type, receptor variants, cofactor surroundings and target gene promoters. This behavior of the receptor has made the development of safer ligands, that trigger the expression program of only a desirable subset of genes, a real challenge. Thus more knowledge-based fundamental research is needed to ensure the design and development of selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators capable of reaching the clinic. Recent advances in the characterization of novel selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators, specifically in the context of anti-inflammatory strategies, will be described in this review.

  20. Acupuncture and immune modulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Kwang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2010-10-28

    Acupuncture is probably the most popular alternative therapy practiced in the United States, Europe and many Asian countries. It has been applied clinically for more than 5 thousand years according to the ancient oriental medical theory. A great deal of acupuncture research has been achieved, with particular efforts toward understanding the pain control effects. In addition to the analgesic effect of acupuncture, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture treatment can control autonomic nerve system functions such as blood pressure regulation, sphincter Oddi relaxation, and immune modulation. Although only a limited number of controlled studies have assessed the efficacy of acupuncture, increasing clinical evidences support that EA treatment is effective for various immunological diseases including allergic disorders, infections, autoimmune diseases and immunodifficiency-syndromes. This review will address the mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various immune responses and the relationship between acupuncture mediated immune regulation and neurological involvement.

  1. Stable local oscillator module.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-11-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) multi-chip module (MCM). It is a follow-on report to SAND2006-6414, Stable Local Oscillator Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. This report describes the development of an MCM-based version of the complete StaLO, fabricated on an alumina thick film hybrid substrate.

  2. Lightweight Trauma Module - LTM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Current patient movement items (PMI) supporting the military's Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) mission as well as the Crew Health Care System for space (CHeCS) have significant limitations: size, weight, battery duration, and dated clinical technology. The LTM is a small, 20 lb., system integrating diagnostic and therapeutic clinical capabilities along with onboard data management, communication services and automated care algorithms to meet new Aeromedical Evacuation requirements. The Lightweight Trauma Module is an Impact Instrumentation, Inc. project with strong Industry, DoD, NASA, and Academia partnerships aimed at developing the next generation of smart and rugged critical care tools for hazardous environments ranging from the battlefield to space exploration. The LTM is a combination ventilator/critical care monitor/therapeutic system with integrated automatic control systems. Additional capabilities are provided with small external modules.

  3. All-digital QPSK modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, R. W.; Julian, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit consisting to only four components (2 IC chips and 2 time delay devices) modulates RF signal with 2 asynchronous digital data signals. Digital modulator is virtually free of amplitude modulation, is not subject to temperature effects from other components, dissipates less power, and is far simpler than its analog predecessors.

  4. Thermal modulation for gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasselbrink, Ernest F. (Inventor); Libardoni, Mark (Inventor); Stewart, Kristine (Inventor); Waite, J. Hunter (Inventor); Block, Bruce P. (Inventor); Sacks, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A thermal modulator device for gas chromatography and associated methods. The thermal modulator device includes a recirculating fluid cooling member, an electrically conductive capillary in direct thermal contact with the cooling member, and a power supply electrically coupled to the capillary and operable for controlled resistive heating of the capillary. The capillary can include more than one separate thermally modulated sections.

  5. Headstart German Program. Module 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the eighth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 2 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. This module deals with a single situation, visiting a German family in their home. The exercises are intended to…

  6. NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  7. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains, 40,661 entries that give increased access to he hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  8. NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains 40,738 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  9. Modulation instability: The beginning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. E.; Ostrovsky, L. A.

    2009-03-01

    We discuss the early history of an important field of “sturm and drang” in modern theory of nonlinear waves. It is demonstrated how scientific demand resulted in independent and almost simultaneous publications by many different authors on modulation instability, a phenomenon resulting in a variety of nonlinear processes such as envelope solitons, envelope shocks, freak waves, etc. Examples from water wave hydrodynamics, electrodynamics, nonlinear optics, and convection theory are given.

  10. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  11. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, Ian J.; Wendt, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

  12. Modulated imaging polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaCasse, Charles Fredrick, IV

    In this work, image processing algorithms are presented for an advanced sensor classification known collectively as imaging modulated polariemtry. The image processing algorithms presented are novel in that they use frequency domain based approaches, in comparison to the data domain based approaches that all previous algorithms have employed. Under the conditions on the data and imaging device derived in this work, the frequency domain based demodulation algorithms will optimally reduced reconstruction artifacts in a least squared sense. This work provides a framework for objectively comparing polarimeters that modulate in different domains (i.e. time vs. space), referred to as the spectral density response function. The spectral density response function is created as an analog to the modulation transfer function (or the more general transfer function for temporal devices) employed in the design of conventional imaging devices. The framework considers the total bandwidth of the object to be measured, and then can consider estimation artifacts that arise in both time and space due to the measurement modality that has been chosen. Using the framework for objectively comparing different modulated polarimeters (known as the spectral density response function), a method of developing a Wiener filter for multi-signal demodulation is developed, referred to as the polarimetric Wiener filter. This filter is then shown to be optimal for one extensive test case. This document provides one extensive example of implementing the algorithms and spectral density response calculations on a real system, known as the MSPI polariemter. The MSPI polarimeter has been published extensively elsewhere, so only a basic system description here is used as necessary to describe how the methods presented here can be implemented on this system.

  13. The Bioperl toolkit: Perl modules for the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Stajich, Jason E; Block, David; Boulez, Kris; Brenner, Steven E; Chervitz, Stephen A; Dagdigian, Chris; Fuellen, Georg; Gilbert, James G R; Korf, Ian; Lapp, Hilmar; Lehväslaiho, Heikki; Matsalla, Chad; Mungall, Chris J; Osborne, Brian I; Pocock, Matthew R; Schattner, Peter; Senger, Martin; Stein, Lincoln D; Stupka, Elia; Wilkinson, Mark D; Birney, Ewan

    2002-10-01

    The Bioperl project is an international open-source collaboration of biologists, bioinformaticians, and computer scientists that has evolved over the past 7 yr into the most comprehensive library of Perl modules available for managing and manipulating life-science information. Bioperl provides an easy-to-use, stable, and consistent programming interface for bioinformatics application programmers. The Bioperl modules have been successfully and repeatedly used to reduce otherwise complex tasks to only a few lines of code. The Bioperl object model has been proven to be flexible enough to support enterprise-level applications such as EnsEMBL, while maintaining an easy learning curve for novice Perl programmers. Bioperl is capable of executing analyses and processing results from programs such as BLAST, ClustalW, or the EMBOSS suite. Interoperation with modules written in Python and Java is supported through the evolving BioCORBA bridge. Bioperl provides access to data stores such as GenBank and SwissProt via a flexible series of sequence input/output modules, and to the emerging common sequence data storage format of the Open Bioinformatics Database Access project. This study describes the overall architecture of the toolkit, the problem domains that it addresses, and gives specific examples of how the toolkit can be used to solve common life-sciences problems. We conclude with a discussion of how the open-source nature of the project has contributed to the development effort.

  14. Privileged access to awareness for faces and objects of expertise.

    PubMed

    Stein, Timo; Reeder, Reshanne R; Peelen, Marius V

    2016-06-01

    Access to visual awareness for human faces is strongly influenced by spatial orientation: Under continuous flash suppression (CFS), upright faces break into awareness more quickly than inverted faces. This effect of inversion for faces is larger than for a wide range of other animate and inanimate objects. Here we asked whether this apparently specific sensitivity to upright faces reflects face-specific detection mechanisms or whether it reflects perceptual expertise more generally. We tested car experts who varied in their degree of car and face expertise and measured the time upright and inverted faces, cars, and chairs needed to overcome CFS and break into awareness. Results showed that greater car expertise was correlated with larger car inversion effects under CFS. A similar relation between better discrimination performance and larger CFS inversion effects was found for faces. CFS inversion effects are thus modulated by perceptual expertise for both faces and cars. These results demonstrate that inversion effects in conscious access are not unique to faces but similarly exist for other objects of expertise. More generally, we interpret these findings as suggesting that access to awareness and exemplar-level discrimination rely on partially shared perceptual mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Space product development experiment module utilizing the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Christine; Lundquist, Charles; Wessling, Francis; Smith, James; Naumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Furnace facilities for materials processing on the International Space Station (ISS) will include the Space Product Development Experiment Module (SPDEM) which includes a transparent Furnace module and an opaque Furnace Module. The SPDEM is scheduled currently for UF-3 aboard the Materials Science Research Rack(MSRR). Various commercial interests can be satisfied sequentially by scheduled employment of the SPDEM. The CMDS will be the facility manager through whom arrangements can be made for SPDEM access. The ISS should provide long growth periods which are needed to grow large single crystals in microgravity. A typical area of commercial interest is acousto-optic filters (AOTF) based on mercurous halide research which would continue on the ISS, research begun on the STS-77 mission. Another area of commercial interest planned for implementation on ISS is liquid metal sintering of composites to further improve techniques for making better quality materials.

  16. Shrink-film microfluidic education modules: Complete devices within minutes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Diep; McLane, Jolie; Lew, Valerie; Pegan, Jonathan; Khine, Michelle

    2011-06-01

    As advances in microfluidics continue to make contributions to diagnostics and life sciences, broader awareness of this expanding field becomes necessary. By leveraging low-cost microfabrication techniques that require no capital equipment or infrastructure, simple, accessible, and effective educational modules can be made available for a broad range of educational needs from middle school demonstrations to college laboratory classes. These modules demonstrate key microfluidic concepts such as diffusion and separation as well as "laboratory on-chip" applications including chemical reactions and biological assays. These modules are intended to provide an interdisciplinary hands-on experience, including chip design, fabrication of functional devices, and experiments at the microscale. Consequently, students will be able to conceptualize physics at small scales, gain experience in computer-aided design and microfabrication, and perform experiments-all in the context of addressing real-world challenges by making their own lab-on-chip devices.

  17. Design, fabrication and characterization of miniaturized high resolution camera modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, M.; Goetz, M.; Mueller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2014-05-01

    Camera systems become more and more important in everyday life. Some of those systems place special requirements concerning the environmental conditions they are exposed to especially in harsh environment. High temperature and humidity difficult to access areas require individual packaging and joining technologies for the setup of a camera module. Environmental conditions have an influence on optical design and tolerance calculation. In case of high temperatures the different thermal expansion coefficients of the used materials lead to stress in joints, lenses and their fittings. This, in turn, can lead to a loss of adjustment of the mechanical and optical components that have a direct influence on the optical performance of the camera module. The recent work shows the development of miniaturized high resolution camera modules designed for use in harsh environment applications.

  18. PINA v2.0: mining interactome modules.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Mark J; Pinese, Mark; Kassahn, Karin S; Waddell, Nic; Pearson, John V; Grimmond, Sean M; Biankin, Andrew V; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Wu, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    The Protein Interaction Network Analysis (PINA) platform is a comprehensive web resource, which includes a database of unified protein-protein interaction data integrated from six manually curated public databases, and a set of built-in tools for network construction, filtering, analysis and visualization. The second version of PINA enhances its utility for studies of protein interactions at a network level, by including multiple collections of interaction modules identified by different clustering approaches from the whole network of protein interactions ('interactome') for six model organisms. All identified modules are fully annotated by enriched Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways, Pfam domains and the chemical and genetic perturbations collection from MSigDB. Moreover, a new tool is provided for module enrichment analysis in addition to simple query function. The interactome data are also available on the web site for further bioinformatics analysis. PINA is freely accessible at http://cbg.garvan.unsw.edu.au/pina/.

  19. NOAA Enterprise Archive Access Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rank, R. H.; McCormick, S.; Cremidis, C.

    2010-12-01

    A challenge for any consumer of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) environmental data archives is that the disparate nature of these archives makes it difficult for consumers to access data in a unified manner. If it were possible for consumers to have seamless access to these archives, they would be able to better utilize the data and thus maximize the return on investment for NOAA’s archival program. When unified data access is coupled with sophisticated data querying and discovery techniques, it will be possible to provide consumers with access to richer data sets and services that extend the use of key NOAA data. Theoretically, there are two ways that unified archive access may be achieved. The first approach is to develop a single archive or archiving standard that would replace the current NOAA archives. However, the development of such an archive would pose significant technical and administrative challenges. The second approach is to develop a middleware application that would provide seamless access to all existing archives, in effect allowing each archive to exist “as is” but providing a translation service for the consumer. This approach is deemed more feasible from an administrative and technical standpoint; however, it still presents unique technical challenges due to the disparate architectures that exist across NOAA archives. NOAA has begun developing the NEAAT. The purpose of NEAAT is to provide a middleware and a simple standardized API between NOAA archives and data consumers. It is important to note that NEAAT serves two main purposes: 1) To provide a single application programming interface (API) that enables designated consumers to write their own custom applications capable of searching and acquiring data seamlessly from multiple NOAA archives. 2) To allow archive managers to expose their data to consumers in conjunction with other NOAA resources without modifying their archiving systems or way of presenting data

  20. Improved bunch spreader modules

    SciTech Connect

    Ieiri, Takao

    1989-07-20

    In order to raise the threshold beam current of instabilities in the fixed target run, it is required to increase the longitudinal emittance, and hence the bunch length. The bunch spreader used a noise generator through a sharp-cut ban pass filter (BPF) instead of a coherent signal. In that filter, the pass band frequency was near twice the synchrotron frequency 2f/sub s/. The bandwidth of the filter was fixed between 350Hz and 600Hz, though twice the synchrotron frequency changed from 500Hz to 300Hz after transition in Main Ring. The noise through the filter is applied to an RF amplitude modulator. In the Tevatron, where the synchrotron frequency f/sub s/ varies from 120Hz to 40Hz during acceleration, the noise is applied to a phase shifter at the frequency of f/sub s/. So, we need a tunable filter which tracks 2f/sub s/ in the Main Ring and f/sub s/ in the Tevatron. This note describes details of improved bunch spreader modules using a tunable filter used in both the Main Ring and the Tevatron. A brief description about this module along with a beam test done in the Main Ring is shown. 3 refs., 6 figs.